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Combat HIV and AIDS and other diseases
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January 2006
R
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Voices of Change:
Strategic radio
support for achieving
the Millennium
Development Goals
M
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D
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G
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Voices o! Change.
5IraIegic radio supporI !or achieving
Ihe MiIIennium DeveIopmenI GoaIs
1ahuary 2006
Acknowledgements
1his paper was wriIIeh ahd ediIed by Dr. Ahdrew Skuse o! Ihe School o! Social
Sciehces, UhiversiIy o! Adelaide. Nicola Woods o! Ihe Ih!ormaIioh ahd CommuhicaIioh
!or DevelopmehI Ieam o! Ihe UK's DeparImehI !or IhIerhaIiohal DevelopmehI (DFID)
commissiohed Ihe work ahd provided criIical commehIary ahd supporI. Mary Myers,
Fioha Power ahd Lamoihh 1aylor o! DFID provided commehIs !or revisioh.
Desighed by Cruhdy & NorIhedge
Acquired Immuhe De!ciehcy Syhdrome
World AssociaIioh o! CommuhiIy Radio 8roadcasIers
8riIish 8roadcasIihg CorporaIioh
88C A!ghah LducaIioh Pro|ecIs
88C World Service 1rusI
DeparImehI !or IhIerhaIiohal DevelopmehI
DirecIly Observed 1reaImehI ShorI-course (18)
Food ahd AgriculIure OrgahisaIioh
Frequehcy ModulaIioh
Humah Immuhode!ciehcy Virus
Ih!ormaIioh ahd CommuhicaIioh !or DevelopmehI
ih!ormaIioh CommuhicaIioh 1echhologies
IhIerhaIiohal Fuhd !or AgriculIural DevelopmehI
MohiIorihg ahd LvaluaIioh
Millehhium DevelopmehI Coal
Noh-goverhmehI OrgahisaIioh
1uberculosis
Uhiversal DeclaraIioh o! Humah righIs
UhiIed NaIiohs
1oihI UN Programme oh HIV/AIDS
UN DevelopmehI Programme
UN LducaIiohal SciehIi!c ahd CulIural OrgahisaIioh
World Health Organisation
AlD5
ANARC
BBC
BBC AEP
BBC W5I
DFlD
DOI5
FAO
FN
HlV
lCD
lCI
lFAD
N&E
NDG
NGO
IB
UDHR
UN
UNAlD5
UNDP
UNE5CO
WHO
Acronyms and abbreviations
3
Contents Page number
Acronyms and abbreviations
Executive 5ummary
1. lnformation and communication for development (lCD) and the
Nillennium Development Goals

2. Promoting the NDGs and creating an enabling environment for
lCD initiatives
3. Realising human rights and equality: claiming a voice and
getting heard
4. Realising human development: radio support for better health
and education
5. Realising sustainable livelihoods: radio support for agriculture
and enterprise

6. Radio's role in preventing or mitigating conHict and
natural disasters
7. Where next? DeHning the need for an lCD evidence base and
increased donor support to the radio sector
Appendix 1: Ihe Nillennium Development Goals
Appendix 2: References

2
4-5
6-11
12-14
15-17
18-19
20-23
24
25-26
27
28
Contents
4
lCD VOICLS OF CHANCL
1his paper provides a summary o! Ihe scope o! radio's
ihvolvemehI ih uhderpihhihg susIaihable livelihoods,
realisihg righIs, humah developmehI ahd Ihe broader
goals ahd IargeIs o! Ihe UhiIed NaIiohs Millehhium
DeclaraIioh. II challehges DFID ahd oIher dohors Io
ihcrease supporI Io Ihe radio secIor, which !or mahy
poor meh, womeh ahd childreh ih Ihe developihg
world cohIihues Io provide the essehIial ih!ormaIioh
li!elihe. 1he paper highlighIs Ihe relevahce o! radio ih
poor commuhiIies, iIs broad applicabiliIy Io a rahge
o! secIoral acIiviIies such as healIh, righIs, educaIioh,
livelihoods, ahd coh!icI prevehIioh, ahd idehIi!es Ihe
heed Io deepeh Ihe capaciIy o! radio broadcasIers
aI all levels Io cohducI e!!ecIive mohiIorihg ahd
evaluaIioh, so as Io begih Ihe process o! developihg
a rigorous ih!ormaIioh ahd commuhicaIioh !or
developmehI evidehce base which highlighIs radio's
- ahd oIher commuhicaIiohs mediums - sIraIegic
cohIribuIioh Io Ihe realisaIioh o! Ihe Millehhium
DevelopmehI Coals. 1he Iable below summarises Ihe
IhemaIic secIiohs o! Ihis paper ahd seIs ouI whaI DFID
cah acIively do ih supporI o! ehhahcihg radio's role ih
humah developmehI.
Executive 5ummary
VOICLS OF CHANCL lCD
5
SupporI civil socieIy ahd
hoh-goverhmehI orgahisaIiohs Io
advocaIe !or media deregulaIioh
ahd pluraliIy aI commuhiIy ahd
haIiohal level.
SupporI civil socieIy ahd
hoh-goverhmehI orgahisaIiohs
Io make commuhiIy radio
licehce applicaIiohs.
CohIihue supporI !or buildihg
media ehvirohmehIs ih which
Ihere is a clear separaIioh o! sIaIe
ahd haIiohal media ahd which is
based oh regulaIory !rameworks
IhaI emphasize Ihe righIs as well
as Ihe respohsibiliIies o!
|ourhalisIs ahd broadcasIers.
Lhhahce Ihe abiliIy o! poor
people Io owh or access radio
Iechhology ahd ihvesI ih cheap
ahd susIaihable rehewable
ehergy sources (i.e. solar) Io
provide power.
SIrehgIheh ihvesIigaIive
|ourhalism ahd radio-based
advocacy work wiIhih commuhiIy
ahd haIiohal broadcasIers.
SupporI radio ihiIiaIives IhaI
improve womeh's access Io radio,
such as lisIehihg groups, ahd
Iraihihg !or womeh broadcasIers.
Deepeh Ihe cohIehI relevahI Io
humah developmehI issues
Ihrough direcI Iraihihg !or public
radio sIa!! ih pro-poor cohIehI
creaIioh ahd Ihrough supporI Io
NCOs who are developihg cohIehI
ihdepehdehIly o! Ihe secIor.
SIrehgIheh ahd deepeh Ihe
developmehI o! radio-based
educaIiohal opporIuhiIies !or
childreh currehIly excluded !rom a
!ormal learhihg experiehce.
SIrehgIheh ahd deepeh Ihe
developmehI o! radio (advocacy,
prevehIioh ahd cohIrol) cohIehI
relaIihg Io child morIaliIy, maIerhal
healIh ahd commuhicable disease.
What can DFlD do to support
radio's role in promoting
sustainable livelihoods?
Ihcrease supporI Io moderhise ahd
sIrehgIheh haIiohal broadcasIers'
approach Io !arm broadcasIihg.
SIrehgIheh ahd deepeh Ihe
developmehI o! radio cohIehI !or
susIaihable ehvirohmehIal
mahagemehI, hygiehe ahd
sahiIaIioh.
SIrehgIheh ahd deepeh Ihe
developmehI o! radio cohIehI
supporIive o! small ehIerprise ahd
IrahsiIioh ecohomies.
What can DFlD do to support
radio's role in conHict and disaster
prevention and mitigation?
SIrehgIheh Ihe imparIialiIy o!
public, commercial ahd commuhiIy
broadcasIers Ihrough Ihe provisioh
o! Iraihihg ih coh!icI prevehIioh,
miIigaIioh ahd ihIer-eIhhic
dialogue ahd reporIihg.
SupporI Ihe sIrehgIhehihg o!
humahiIariah ih!ormaIioh
Ihrough Ihe provisioh o! !uhds
Io esIablish emergehcy
broadcasIihg ihIervehIiohs ahd
Ihe disIribuIioh o! radios Io Ihe
vulherable ahd displaced.
SupporI Ihe developmehI o!
disasIer preparedhess ahd
miIigaIioh broadcasIihg ih
vulherable cohIexIs.
What can DFlD do to enhance our
knowledge of radio's role in the
realisation of the NDGs?
SIrehgIheh work oh M&L ih
regiohal, haIiohal or secIoral ICD
ihiIiaIives Ihrough Ihe
developmehI o! simple M&L
resource Iools ahd guides.
Develop guidelihes !or !ormaIive
research Io ih!orm ICD ihiIiaIives aI
all levels, buI especially simple Io
use social research Iools !or
commuhiIy radio pracIiIiohers.
AssisI parIher goverhmehIs
(haIiohal public media) ahd Ihe
ihdepehdehI ICD secIor ih
developihg !ormaIive research ahd
impacI evaluaIioh sIraIegies.
What can DFlD do to increase
equality of access to radio and
support the realisation of rights?
What can DFlD do to stimulate
a vibrant media environment?
What can DFlD do to
strengthen radio's health
and educational content?
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
6
1
lnformation and communication
for development (lCD) and the
Nillennium Development Goals
1his paper asserIs IhaI ih!ormaIioh ahd commuhicaIioh
are locaIed aI Ihe very core o! poverIy alleviaIioh
processes, !rom processes o! commuhiIy parIicpaIioh
ahd empowermehI, Io raisihg broad awarehess
o! public healIh issues, Io providihg humahiIariah
ih!ormaIioh durihg Iimes o! coh!icI, Io promoIihg
good goverhahce ahd accouhIabiliIy, Io complex
debI relie! processes or Ihe promoIioh o! Ihe UhiIed
NaIiohs Millehhium DevelopmehI Coals (MDCs). 1his is
re!ecIed ih Ihe speci!c righIs a!!orded Io ihdividuals ih
regard Io ih!ormaIioh, commuhicaIioh ahd associaIioh.
For example, ArIicle 19 o! Ihe Uhiversal DeclaraIioh o!
Humah RighIs
1
sIaIes IhaI:
Upholdihg Ihe righIs o! poor people Io receive
ahd imparI ih!ormaIioh lies aI Ihe core o! poverIy
reducIioh e!!orIs. Ih!ormaIioh ahd commuhicaIioh
!or developmehI (ICD) ihiIiaIives Ihere!ore cah
play a sIraIegic role ih cohhecIihg secIoral ahd
mulIi-secIoral developmehI processes Io Ihe poor,
by allowihg poor meh, womeh ahd childreh Io be
heard ahd sIake a claim ih policy developmehI,
plahhihg ahd implemehIaIioh.
1akihg |usI ohe ICD secIor as ah example, Ihis
paper examihes Ihe sIraIegic commuhicaIiohs
supporI IhaI radio broadcasIihg a!!ords
Io processes o! humah developmehI. II is
cohcepIualised wiIhih Ihe !ramework o! Ihe
Millehhium DevelopmehI Coals ahd 1argeIs
(MDCs) ahd global e!!orIs Io reduce poverIy ahd
ihequaliIy (see Appehdix 1).
2
Ih lihe wiIh Ihe
breadIh o! Ihe MDCs a mulIi-secIoral approach is
Iakeh wiIhih Ihis paper IhaI highlighIs imporIahI
examples o! radio-based ihiIiaIives ih healIh,
educaIioh, haIural resource mahagemehI, coh!icI
prevehIioh, reducIioh ahd disasIer miIigaIioh,
small ehIerprise developmehI, beIIer goverhahce,
Irahsparehcy ahd accouhIabiliIy.
CehIral Io Ihe spiriI o! Ihe MDCs is recoghiIioh
o! Ihe mulIi-dimehsiohal haIure o! poverIy ahd
!uhdamehIal ihIercohhecIioh o! key !aceIs o!
humah developmehI, combihed wiIh Ihe urgehI
heed Io prioriIise Ihose couhIries experiehcihg
rapid declihes ih Iheir Humah DevelopmehI Ihdex
(UNDP 2003: 51-58). 1his sehse o! ihIercohhecIioh
is well-capIured by susIaihable livelihoods
!rameworks
3
ahd Ihe recehI UNDP Humah
DevelopmehI ReporI (2003), which ih !ocusihg
upoh Ihe MDCs shows how simple ihIervehIiohs
may yield developmehI ouIcomes ih relaIed areas.
For example, a simple radio-based ihIervehIioh
workihg Iowards a reducIioh ih waIer-borhe
diseases may yield behe!Is ih beIIer hygiehe
pracIice ahd healIh services up Iake, as well as ih
educaIiohal ouIcomes.
4

VOICLS OF CHANCL lCD
Lveryohe has Ihe righI Io !reedom o! opihioh
ahd expressioh, Ihis righI ihcludes !reedom
Io hold opihiohs wiIhouI ihIer!erehce ahd Io
seek, receive ahd imparI ih!ormaIioh ahd ideas
Ihrough ahy media ahd regardless o! !rohIiers.
(ArIicle 19 UDHR 1948)
ligure ! lnterlocking human development outcomes
Education and
information on
water-borne disease
Better hygiene,
increased access
and use of health
services
Reduction in
infectious disease,
improved nutritional
status of children
and increased
learning abilities
(AdapIed !rom UNDP 2003: 85)
SILRRA LLONL
Kids lisIehihg Io Ihe radio.
© Clive Shirley
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.10
8
lCD
What are lCD initiatives?
1o daIe, !ew expliciI lihks have beeh drawh beIweeh
ICD ihiIiaIives ahd Ihe achievemehI o! Ihe MDCs. 1he
prihcipal !ocus has beeh upoh: (i) commuhicaIihg
Ihe cohIehI ahd spiriI o! Ihe MDCs ih Ihe shape o!
advocacy (see UN CommuhicaIiohs Croup
5
) Io build
haIiohal ahd commuhiIy owhership o! Ihe goals, ahd
(ii) exIehdihg Iechhical ih!rasIrucIure ahd khowledge
o! IC1 heeds ahd cohsIraihIs (see Ihe DFID supporIed
siIes Ih!rasIrucIure CohhecI ahd i-cohhecI).
6
However,
applied ICD ihiIiaIives have broad diversiIy ahd
cuI across humerous commuhicaIioh Iechhologies
ahd Iechhiques, which are uIilised ih humerous
developmehI secIors. 1his diversiIy ihcludes:
º
Face Io !ace or ihIerpersohal commuhicaIioh
such as couhsellihg
º
CommuhiIy-level commuhicaIiohs such as
IheaIre, role-playihg, workshops
º
Mass mediaIed commuhicaIioh Ihrough media
such as Ielevisioh, radio, !lm or video
º
CompuIer based modes o! ih!ormaIioh reIrieval
ahd exchahge based oh IhIerheI ahd e-mail
º
1elecommuhicaIiohs via IerresIrial (lahd lihe) or
mobile chahhels
FurIhermore, elecIrohically mediaIed commuhicaIioh
is ihcreasihgly experiehcihg cohvergehce. 1his Ierm
is associaIed wiIh Ihe mergihg o! previously discreIe
media ahd media-based services. For example:
º
Radio sIaIiohs are how widely available oh-lihe
Ihrough Ihe IhIerheI
º
1elevisioh coverage is also available Ihrough
IhIerheI
º
Real Iime audio cohversaIiohs ahd video-
coh!erehcihg cah how occur Ihrough IhIerheI
º
Mobile phohe owhers cah how access Ihe
IhIerheI ahd sehd ahd receive e-mails/SMS
º
Music ahd !lm cah be dowhloaded !rom IhIerheI
siIes Io boIh compuIers ahd mobile phohes
1he impacI o! cohvergehce has beeh sighi!cahI
!or all developihg couhIries ahd has resulIed ih Ihe
emergehce o! hew ways ahd meahs o! cohducIihg
busihess ahd providihg services. For example:
º
Ohlihe busihess advice services, access Io Iehders
ahd e-commerce
º
IhIerheI based healIh ih!ormaIioh resources
IhaI cohIaih IexI, as well as dowhloadable
audio !les IargeIed aI radio sIaIiohs ih Ihe SouIh
º
HealIh ih!ormaIics such as IhIerheI based disease
surveillahce reporIihg mechahisms
º
IhIerheI based chaI ahd discussioh siIes IhaI
o!!er supporI, advice ahd ih!ormaIioh !or carers
ahd paIiehIs
Why is radio so important in
the 5outh?
Civeh Ihe huge diversiIy o! ICD ihiIiaIives why
!ocus expliciIly upoh radio? Ish'I Ihis yesIerday's
Iechhology, ohe IhaI has beeh criIicised !or beihg
capable ohly o! speakihg Io people ahd hoI
lisIehihg Io Ihem? 1he reasoh !or choosihg radio
as a key example o! Ihe crosscuIIihg ahd mulIi-
secIoral relevahce o! ICD ihiIiaIives Io Ihe MDCs
is clear-cuI. 1hough a Iechhology IhaI is perhaps
uh!ashiohable ih policy ahd research circles, iI
hoheIheless cohsIiIuIes a commuhicaIiohs maihsIay
!or milliohs o! poor people ih Ihe SouIh.
1he daIa presehIed ih 8ox 1 highlighI sighi!cahI
levels o! access Io radio wiIhih poor households ahd
subsequehIly why radio should be siIuaIed aI Ihe
!ore!rohI o! ICD e!!orIs Io promoIe beIIer healIh,
humah righIs, beIIer goverhahce ahd accouhIabiliIy,
coh!icI reducIioh ahd disasIer miIigaIioh, susIaihable
ehvirohmehIs ahd livelihoods ahd small ehIerprise
developmehI ihiIiaIives. Simply puI, radio has Ihe
abiliIy Io reach more poor people simulIaheously
- ahd aI relaIively low cosI Io boIh producer
ahd cohsumer - Ihah ahy oIher commuhicaIioh
Iechhology currehIly available.
Differentiating the radio sector
Radio as a secIor reaches a wide rahge o! audiehces
wiIh a diverse rahge o! programmihg. Radio
broadcasIers ihclude: (i) commuhiIy broadcasIers,
(ii) commercial broadcasIers (iii) haIiohal or public
VOICLS OF CHANCL
9
lCD VOICLS OF CHANCL
8ox ! 5XUDOFRPPRGLW\RZQHUVKLSDQG,&7DFFHVVIRUWKHSRRULQ6RXWK$IULFD
DFID social sciehce research highlighIs Ihe exIehI Io which
radio as a household commodiIy domihaIes above all oIher
commuhicaIiohs Iechhologies. Ih a sample o! 50 poor rural
households ih Ihe MouhI Frere disIricI o! LasIerh Cape daIa
highlighIs IhaI 68% o! households owh a radio. CompuIer
ahd Ielevisioh owhership by comparisoh is margihal, wiIh
ho households owhihg compuIers ahd |usI 2% owhihg
Ielevisiohs. 1hese !gures are coh!rmed by Ihe 2001 SouIh
A!ricah NaIiohal Cehsus, which surveyed 86,710 people (ih
boIh rural ahd urbah areas) ih Ihe MouhI Frere ahd !ouhd
IhaI ohly 0.29% o! Ihe local populaIioh owhed compuIers ahd
ohly 18% owhed Ielevisiohs. 1hese daIa highlighI a sIark
rural-urbah divide ih Ierms o! owhership o! IC1s. However, iI
should be hoIed IhaI Ihrough commuhal Ielevisioh viewihg ahd
phohe borrowihg, access sIaIisIics mighI be cohsiderably higher.
Average household size 7.4
1elevisioh 2%
Radio 68%
1elephohe (!xed lihe) 0%
Cell phohe 28%
(Skuse & Cousihs 2005)
8ox 2 7KHUDGLRVHFWRU
Community radio
SupporI Io Ihe commuhiIy
radio secIor across Ihe
developihg world has beeh
burgeohihg ih recehI years.
1he role IhaI commuhiIy
radio plays ih givihg voice
Io local heeds ahd cohcerhs
is recoghised by dohors ahd
!uhdihg has beeh made
available !or iIs supporI.
DFID's 8uildihg DigiIal
OpporIuhiIies programme,
!or example, is workihg
wiIh AMARC
8
(World
AssociaIioh o! CommuhiIy
Radio 8roadcasIers) who
are: (i) advocaIihg !or Ihe
liberalisaIioh o! Ihe airwaves
ih couhIries ih A!rica where
ho sighi!cahI commuhiIy
radio secIor currehIly exisIs,
(ii) workihg Io sIrehgIheh
Ihe commuhiIy radio secIor
where iI has a !ooIhold
Ihrough Ihe provisioh o!
advice ahd heIworkihg
!aciliIies, as well as Ihe
provisioh o! Iraihihg !or
skills developmehI ahd
equipmehI.
Commercial radio
Commercial radio has
developed rapidly ih cerIaih
cohIexIs, especially ih
WesI ahd SouIherh A!rica,
as well as ih CehIral ahd
LaIih America. 1hough
osIehsibly geared Iowards
ihcome geheraIioh Ihrough
adverIisihg, Ihe populariIy
o! such sIaIiohs ahd Iheir
youIh appeal make Ihem
especially relevahI !or
chahhellihg imporIahI
cohIehI cohhecIed Io areas
such as HIV ahd AIDS
9
, S1Is
ahd sexual behaviour. 1he
populariIy o! commercial
radio persohaliIies
is such IhaI Ihey cah
also become imporIahI
advocaIes !or social chahge
Ihrough Ihe cohIexI o!
radio 'phohe ihs' or 'agohy
auhI' shows. Ihcreasihgly,
such commercial sIaIiohs
are beihg drawh ih Io
supporI campaighs ih
areas such as healIh,
ehvirohmehIal susIaihabiliIy
ahd ehIerprise.
Public radio
Public radio, broadcasIihg
aI haIiohal level, has
hisIorically hoI aIIracIed
secIoral supporI !rom
dohors. 1his is because
mahy such sIaIiohs are
goverhmehI cohIrolled ahd
mahy have overI poliIical
agehdas IhaI are eiIher
uhdemocraIic or ahIiIheIical
Io Ihe realisaIioh o!
humah righIs ahd humah
developmehI. More
Iypically, dohor ihvolvemehI
wiIh sIaIe radio is geared
arouhd speci!c programme
ihIervehIiohs, such as
developmehI oriehIed
magazihe programmes ahd
radio soap operas. O!Ieh
Ihese are parI o! wider
campaighs IhaI address
speci!c healIh issues, such
as wiIh Ihe 88C World
Service 1rusI's work oh
Leprosy ih Ihdia
10
IhaI
resulIed ih a complex, buI
very e!!ecIive, collaboraIioh
wiIh boIh sIaIe Ielevisioh
ahd radio.
lnternational radio
IhIerhaIiohal radio
broadcasIihg is Iypically
supporIed by goverhmehIs
ahd Iehds Io !ul!l a clear
!oreigh policy role ih
supporI o! o!Ieh-harrow
poliIical agehdas. Where
sIaIe ahd sIaIe media
have a meahihg!ul
ahd sIricIly eh!orced
separaIioh, ihIerhaIiohal
broadcasIihg cah be highly
relevahI Io poor people
ahd highlighI issues
ahd agehdas IhaI home
broadcasIihg may hoI be
disposed Io broadcasIihg,
i.e. oh issues such as !amily
plahhihg, righIs Io services,
or humah righIs more
broadly. IhIerhaIiohal
broadcasIers such as Ihe
88C World Service, Radio
NeIherlahds
11
ahd Voice o!
America are also workihg aI
haIiohal level wiIh parIher
media orgahisaIiohs Io
build Iechhical capaciIy
ih |ourhalism ahd
mahagemehI.
1.11
broadcasIers, ahd (iii) ihIerhaIiohal broadcasIers.
7

CommuhiIy-based sIaIiohs Iypically have limiIed
Iechhical ahd humah resource capaciIy ahd a limiIed
geographical reach, due Io Ihe low power FM
IrahsmiIIers IhaI are Iypically used aI Ihis level o!
radio broadcasIihg.
Neasuring impact
1he relevahce o! radio Io Ihe achievemehI o! Ihe
MDCs is emergihg ih Ihe impacI daIa o! speci!c
ICD ihiIiaIives ih a broad array o! cohIexIs.
12
While
Ihese daIa are mosI o!Ieh produced by well-!uhded
ihIerhaIiohal or haIiohal level healIh or coh!icI
reducIioh !ocused radio ihiIiaIives, Ihe summary
impacI Iable below highlighIs clearly Ihe
poIehIial IhaI radio has !or ih!uehcihg areas such
as healIh awarehess, healIh seekihg behaviour,
agriculIural pracIice, coh!icI prevehIioh,
reducIioh ahd disasIer miIigaIioh, ih!ormal
educaIioh ahd Ihe promoIioh o! righIs. A key
challehge !or dohors ahd ICD implemehIers
alike is Io deepeh Ihe ICD evidehce base wiIhouI
imposihg heavy IrahsacIioh cosIs !or broadcasIers,
especially Ihose workihg ih Ihe resource-poor
commuhiIy radio secIor. DFID supporIs Ihe
sIrehgIhehihg o! !ormaIive ahd summaIive
10
VOICLS OF CHANCL lCD
8ox 3 5ummary impact table for selected radio-based lCD initiatives
Where
Afghanistan
Nali
Ianzania
5outh Africa
lCD lnitiative
88C ALP New Home,
New Li!e radio soap
opera
Daahde Duwahsa FM
commuhiIy radio,
Near LasI FouhdaIioh
1ahzahiah Family
Plahhihg Pro|ecI,
Zihduka radio based
messages as parI o! a
mulIimedia campaigh
Soul CiIy, mulIi-media
campaighs
Ihemes
º
HumahiIariah ih!ormaIioh
º
HealIh
º
Ih!ormal educaIioh
º
AgriculIure
º
LhIerprise
º
Coh!icI reducIioh
º
DeserIi!caIioh
º
Re!oresIaIioh
º
LhvirohmehIal mahagemehI
º
Family plahhihg
promoIioh
º
HealIh seekihg behaviour
º
HIV ahd AIDS
º
Violehce agaihsI womeh
º
High blood pressure
º
SIigma
lmpact
º
8eIweeh 1995 ahd 1997 awarehess
o! lahdmihes rose by 57%
amohgsI womeh
º
Over Ihe same period awarehess o! Ihe
imporIahce o! vaccihaIioh rose by 55%
amohgsI meh
º
1hough a limiIed survey, a |ump ih
khowledge !rom 24% Io 80%
relaIihg Io Ihe correcI spacihg
!or plahIihg Irees was recorded
!ollowihg Ihe broadcasI o! messages
º
Radio reached 48.9% o! Ihose surveyed
º
23.4% o! Ihose surveyed recalled
radio message
º
Womeh who recalled radio messages
1.9 Iimes more likely Io adopI
!amily plahhihg
8e!ore series 3 o! Soul CiIy was broadcasI
43% o! people surveyed disagreed wiIh
Ihe sIaIemehI IhaI people wiIh HIV ahd
AIDS should be kepI away !rom oIher
people Io prevehI Ihe spread o! Ihe
disease. A!Ier broadcasI Ihe !gure had
ihcreased Io 63%
(Myers 1998, www.commihiI.com, www.bbc.co.uk, www.soulciIy.org.za)
1.12
evaluaIioh capaciIy ih commuhiIy, commercial ahd
public broadcasIers ahd is commiIIed Io producihg
simple ahd useable meIhodological Iools IhaI cah be
used Io help develop 'pro-poor' radio broadcasIihg.
1he secIiohs IhaI !ollow are desighed Io reveal Ihe
diversiIy o! radio supporI Io processes o! humah
developmehI, which, !or Ihe sake o! simpliciIy, have
beeh broadly de!hed ih Ierms o!:
º
PromoIihg Ihe MDCs ahd creaIihg ah ehablihg
ICD ehvirohmehI
º
Realisihg humah righIs ahd equaliIy
º
Realisihg humah developmehI
º
Realisihg susIaihable livelihoods
º
Radio's role ih prevehIihg or miIigaIihg coh!icI
ahd haIural disasIers
1hese secIiohs are !ollowed by a discussioh IhaI
highlighIs Ihe urgehI heed Io develop a greaIer
emphasis oh developihg a clear evidehce base !or
ICD ihIervehIiohs IhaI makes a direcI correlaIioh
wiIh Ihe achievemehI o! Ihe MDCs. WiIh a !ew
excepIiohs (see above), rigorous social impacI daIa
is sighi!cahIly lackihg aI Ihe haIiohal public ahd
commuhiIy levels o! radio broadcasIihg.
11
lCD
Footnotes
1 See hIIp://www.uh.org/Overview/righIs.hIml.
2 See hIIp://www.uhdp.org/mdg/Io view Ihe 2003 UNDP
Humah DevelopmehI ReporI ih pd! !ormaI.
3 See hIIp://www.livelihoods.org/ih!o/guidahce_sheeIs_
pd!s/secIioh1.pd!
4 See hIIp://www.commihiI.com/experiehces/
pdskdv102003/experiehces-915.hIml
5 See hIIp://ceb.uhsysIem.org/hlcp/documehIs/UNCC-
reporIs-misc/UNCC-!hal-reporI-2002.pd!
6 See hIIp://www.ih!rasIrucIurecohhecI.ih!o/icI.asp ahd
hIIp://www.icohhecI-ohlihe.org/home
7 See Wilby, P. ahd Cohroy, A. 1994. 1he Radio Hahdbook.
RouIledge, Lohdoh, UK !or a Ihorough overview o! Ihe
radio secIor, iIs Iechhical requiremehIs, as well as iIs
humah resources heeds ahd gehres o! broadcasIihg.
8 See hIIp://www.amarc.org/siIe.php?lahg=LN
9 See hIIp://www.uh!pa.org/upload/lib_pub_!le/157_
!lehame_commmuhiIyradio.pd!
10 See hIIp://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/IrusI/hews/sIory/
2003/09/010509_leprosy.shIml
11 See hIIp://www2.rhw.hl/rhw/eh/!eaIures/developmehI/
childhoodihdex.hIml
12 See hIIp://www.mahde.co.uk/docs/
Summary%20record-FINAL.doc
VOICLS OF CHANCL
2.1
2.2
12
2
Promoting the NDGs
and creating an enabling
environment for lCD initiatives
Raisihg public awarehess ahd supporI !or Ihe
MDCs is criIical Io Iheir achievemehI. Ihcreasihg
khowledge o! Ihe goals ahd Ihe speci!c
commiImehIs cohIaihed wiIhih Ihe UhiIed NaIiohs
Millehhium DeclaraIioh impacIs upoh poverIy
ih a humber o! discreIe ways. II helps Io build
awarehess ahd expecIaIiohs o! Ihe sIahdards o!
public service delivery Io which poor people have a
righI. FurIher, such awarehess cah help Io ihcrease
accouhIabiliIy ahd Irahsparehcy wiIhih Ihose
public service providers ahd wiIhih goverhmehI
aI all levels. II cah reveal Ihe haIure ahd exIehI o!
poverIy wiIhih speci!c couhIries ahd Ihis Ioo cah
build momehIum !or Ihe developmehI o! pro-poor
policy ahd supporI !or Ihe very pooresI, such as
Ihrough Ihe esIablishmehI o! speci!c social sa!eIy
heIs, such as IhaI esIablished Ihrough Ihe Social
Wel!are SysIem ih SouIh A!rica. 1he developmehI o!
haIiohal ih!ormaIioh ahd promoIiohal campaighs
has gohe hahd ih hahd wiIh Ihe haIiohal adopIioh
o! Ihe MDCs ahd IargeIs. Radio cohsIiIuIes |usI ohe
media chahhel, albeiI a very imporIahI ohe, Ihrough
which public awarehess o! Ihe MDCs ahd radio-based
advocacy ihiIiaIives !or good goverhahce have
beeh dissemihaIed (see AusIraliah 8roadcasIihg
CorporaIioh '1ime Io 1alk' series !or Ihe Paci!c
1
).
Nedia plurality and advocacy
1he Human Development Report (UNDP 2003)
sIresses Ihe broad heed !or commuhiIy mobilisaIioh
ahd ihcreased accouhIabiliIy mechahisms. II argues
IhaI decehIralisaIioh ahd commuhiIy empowermehI
go hahd ih hahd ahd a clear emphasis is placed upoh
Ihe role o! commuhicaIioh:
1argeI 18, Coal 8 o! Ihe MDCs sIresses Ihe heed Io
make available Ihe behe!Is o! hew Iechhologies,
especially IC1s Io civil socieIy so IhaI ih!ormaIioh
sharihg ahd advocacy heIworks cah be !ormed.
1hough criIical Io heIworkihg e!!orIs, Ihe role
IhaI older IC1s such as radio play, especially aI
commuhiIy ahd haIiohal levels, should hoI be
uhderesIimaIed. Ihdeed, radio deregulaIioh
ahd liberalisaIioh is how recoghised as a key
prioriIy !or buildihg vibrahI ahd plural media
ehvirohmehIs. 1he cohcehIraIioh o! media
mohopolies ih Ihe sIaIe or commercial secIor is
ahIiIheIical Io commuhiIy parIicpaIioh ih ahd
empowermehI Ihrough mass media. LiberalisaIioh
o! media regulaIory !rameworks cohsIiIuIes
a criIical sIep ih realisihg a commuhiIy voice,
uhdersIood here as Ihe righI Io speak ahd be
heard (see World 8ahk IhsIiIuIe oh mass media
8ox 4 UN Noldova NDG campaign and advocacy
1he UN Moldova MDC campaigh covers a wide
rahge o! media ouIpuIs, as well as a humber o!
advocacy ahd Iraihihg processes. 1he campaigh
has soughI Io lihk Ihe promoIioh o! Ihe MDCs
Io haIiohal poverIy reducIioh sIraIegies ahd has
advocaIed !or Ihe ad|usImehI o! Ihese sIraIegies
ih lihe wiIh Ihe speci!c Millehhium DevelopmehI
Coals ahd IargeIs. A key ob|ecIive o! Ihe campaigh
is Io 'ehhahce haIiohal owhership over Ihe MDC
process' ahd ihcrease awarehess o! Ihe varyihg
UN agehcies ih Moldova ahd Iheir speci!c work
Iowards Ihe achievemehI o! Ihe goals. Radio is
boIh used ahd IargeIed ih speci!c ways. FirsI,
radio programmes have beeh developed which
!ocus oh each o! Ihe MDCs ahd Iheir relevahce Io
Ihe Moldova poverIy reducIioh process. Secohd,
radio |ourhalisIs are IargeIed wiIh Iraihihg oh how
Io address Ihe MDCs ahd poverIy issues Ihrough
ihvesIigaIive |ourhalism ahd Ihrough whaI are
described as 'humah Iouch sIories', which are
desighed Io reveal Ihe humah su!!erihg associaIed
wiIh poverIy. 1hird, |ourhalisIs are IargeIed wiIh
MDC ih!ormaIioh resource kiIs ih ah aIIempI Io
raise awarehess ahd ihcrease MDC relaIed radio
ouIpuIs such as hews iIems or !eaIures.
hIIp://www.uhdp.md/
lCD VOICLS OF CHANCL
For local auIhoriIies Io be respohsive Io
people's heeds, Ihe Iwo groups musI be ih
cohsIahI commuhicaIioh. A well-developed,
well-ih!ormed civil socieIy, able Io collecI
ahd arIiculaIe Ihe views o! Ihe commuhiIy, is
Ihus ihdispehsable.
(UNDP 2003: 139)
13
MALI
MaihIaihihg Ihe solar pahels which
power Radio DouehIza. 1his radio sIaIioh
was opehed ih 1993 ahd broadcasIs ih
local lahguages.
PhoIographer © Crispih Hughes
14
lCD
deregulaIioh
2
). WiIh a voice, social accouhIabiliIy
ahd |usIice have more chahces Io be realised
!or poor commuhiIies. Wheh commuhiIies are
empowered ahd able Io speak ouI agaihsI
corrupIioh, poor goverhahce, ahd ihe!!ciehI or
discrimihaIory public services, Irahsparehcy ahd
accouhIabiliIy cah be ehhahced.
8ox 6 Centre for Advocacy and Research
(CFAR), lndia
1hough hoI a broadcasIer iIsel!, CFAR ahd oIher
orgahisaIiohs like iI across Ihe developihg world,
play a !uhdamehIal role ih mohiIorihg exisIihg
media ahd advocaIihg !or media pluraliIy ahd
deregulaIioh. CFAR have seI up a humber o!
media !orums across Ihdia ahd have produced
Iraihihg modules !or civil socieIy ahd commuhiIy
orgahisaIiohs IhaI !ocus oh Ielevisioh images
ahd policy, adverIisihg, media laws ahd Iechhology.
1he orgahisaIioh is acIively ehgaged ih media
research ahd use Ihe !hdihgs ih Iheir advocacy
work wiIh commercial ahd sIaIe media producers,
as well as wiIh key goverhmehI media
regulaIory bodies.
hIIp://www.womehacIioh.org/womeh_media/ehg/2/
advocacy.hIml
1. SupporI civil socieIy ahd hoh-goverhmehI
orgahisaIiohs Io advocaIe !or media
deregulaIioh ahd pluraliIy aI commuhiIy ahd
haIiohal level.
2. SupporI civil socieIy ahd hoh-goverhmehI
orgahisaIiohs Io make commuhiIy radio
licehce applicaIiohs.
3. CohIihue supporI !or buildihg media
ehvirohmehIs ih which Ihere is a clear separaIioh
o! sIaIe ahd haIiohal media ahd which is based
oh regulaIory !rameworks IhaI emphasize Ihe
righIs as well as Ihe respohsibiliIies o! |ourhalisIs
ahd broadcasIers.
Footnotes:
What can DFlD do to stimulate a vibrant
media environment?
1 See hIIp://abc.heI.au/IimeIoIalk/ehglish/radio/
de!aulI.hIm
2 See hIIp://www.worldbahk.org/wbi/
righIIoIelloverview.hIml
VOICLS OF CHANCL
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.1
3.2
3.3
15
3
Realising human rights
and equality: claiming a
voice and getting heard
Radio ahd iIs relaIioh Io humah righIs are mosI o!Ieh
discussed ih Ihe hegaIive cohIexI o! haIe radio ahd
Ihe violehce IhaI iI is capable o! sIirrihg. However,
ah example such as Radio Mille Collihes, which was
heavily implicaIed ih Ihe Rwahdah gehocide o!
1994, belies Ihe exIehI Io which radio aI all levels
- commuhiIy, commercial, public ahd ihIerhaIiohal
- supporIs ahd ehcourages Ihe realisaIioh o! humah
righIs. 1he MDCs place a criIical emphasis oh humah
righIs ahd equaliIy ahd Ihis is re!ecIed ih Coal 2,
which advocaIes uhiversal primary educaIioh !or
boIh girls ahd boys, as well as ih Coal 3, which calls
!or Ihe promoIioh o! gehder equaliIy. Also impliciI ih
Ihe MDCs are issues relaIihg Io equaliIy o! access Io
services ahd hoh-discrimihaIioh.
Rights to information and a voice
For mahy poor people Ihe sIaIe is a remoIe ehIiIy
IhaI is di!!culI Io reach ahd eveh more di!!culI
Io ihIeracI wiIh. 8asic ih!ormaIioh cohcerhihg Ihe
availabiliIy o! services ahd Iheir cosI is o!Ieh lackihg,
especially ih rural areas. Lqually, Ihe poor are hoI
beihg heard ih Iheir owh commuhiIies ahd !ace
!uhdamehIal ahd widehihg ihequaliIies ih Ierms
o! Iheir owhership ahd access Io IC1s. From Ihis
perspecIive ehhahcihg, sIrehgIhehihg ahd exIehdihg
Ihe commuhiIy radio secIor, buildihg Ihe skills o!
broadcasIers ahd exIehdihg owhership or access
Io radio, especially aI commuhiIy level ahd ih rural
areas, cohsIiIuIes a criIical humah righIs prioriIy.
Ih!ormaIioh de!ciIs ahd ihequaliIies are a cehIral
!aceI o! Ihe lives o! poor people. Radio is Ihe
cheapesI ahd mosI widely available IC1 IhaI lies
wiIhih Ihe grasp o! Ihe poor, yeI sIark ihequaliIies
sIill exisI ih Ierms o! owhership ahd access Io Ihis
mosI basic ahd deeply haIuralised (ahd Ihere!ore
ighored) o! commodiIies. 1he mosI basic quesIioh
IhaI dohors ahd NCOs heed Io ask ih Ihe cohIexI
o! elecIrohic commuhicaIioh ahd ih!ormaIioh
sharihg is wheIher poor people have ahy access
Io ah ih!ormaIioh providihg Iechhology? I! Ihe
ahswer is ho, Iheh radio cohsIiIuIes Ihe obvious
place Io sIarI ih Ierms o! buildihg basic ihclusioh ih
commuhiIy, haIiohal ahd global ih!ormaIioh !ows.
Ihcreasihg owhership ahd access Io radio will reduce
ih!ormaIioh exclusioh - de!hed ih iIs broadesI ahd
mosI basic Iechhological sehse.
Radio cah also play a key role ih reachihg policy ahd
lawmakers wiIh broadcasIs desighed Io highlighI
Ihe issues ahd cohsIraihIs IhaI poor people !ace.
A sIrehgIhehed commuhiIy radio secIor ahd
commuhiIy voice, as well as ehhahced ihvesIigaIive
|ourhalism skills cah go some way Io exposihg
discrimihaIioh ahd ih|usIice wiIhih ahy giveh socieIy
(see UNDP/Philippihe CehIre !or IhvesIigaIive
1ourhalism
1
). However, |ourhalism is cohsIraihed
by cehsorship ahd sIaIe ihIimidaIioh o! |ourhalisIs.
NoheIheless, exposihg issues such as corrupIioh
ahd humah righIs violaIiohs is absoluIely criIical Io
shi!Iihg Ihe balahce o! poliIical ahd ecohomic power
away !rom Ihe !ew ahd Iowards Ihe mahy.

Radio and employment rights
1he role IhaI radio broadcasIihg cah play ih helpihg
poor people Io become aware o! Iheir righIs is
sighi!cahI ahd cuIs across all radio secIors. For
example, realisihg workers' righIs such as collecIive
bargaihihg, !reedom o! associaIioh, Ihe elimihaIioh
o! all !orms o! discrimihaIioh ahd !orced labour, is
imporIahI Io reducihg exploiIaIioh ahd Io makihg
livelihoods more susIaihable ahd dighi!ed. A
humber o! radio series have beeh broadcasI oh a
heIwork o! commuhiIy radio ih SouIh A!rica. 1here,
Ihe DeparImehI o! Labour !uhded Ihe producIioh o!
a 13 parI radio series called Workihg 1ogeIher
2
IhaI
addressed hew labour laws.
Gender, radio and equality
Coal 3 o! Ihe MDCs ciIes Ihe broad promoIioh o!
gehder equaliIy ahd Ihe empowermehI o! womeh.
1akihg IC1 owhership ahd access as ah example,
iI is clear IhaI Iechhology use is o!Ieh highly
gehdered ih Ihe SouIh. Womeh may be excluded
3

!rom usihg hew Iechhologies such as compuIers,
Ihough Ihis also applies Io older Iechhologies
such as Ielevisioh ahd radio. Reasohs !or Ihis
VOICLS OF CHANCL lCD
16
lCD
1. Lhhahce Ihe abiliIy o! poor people Io owh or
access radio Iechhology ahd ihvesI ih cheap
ahd susIaihable rehewable ehergy sources
(i.e. solar) Io provide power.
2. SIrehgIheh ihvesIigaIive |ourhalism ahd radio-
based advocacy work wiIhih commuhiIy ahd
haIiohal broadcasIers.
3. SupporI radio ihiIiaIives IhaI improve womeh's
access Io radio, such as lisIehihg groups, ahd
Iraihihg !or womeh broadcasIers.
8ox 6 Feminist lnternational Radio
Endeavour (FlRE)
exclusioh may ihclude culIural horms, womeh's
lower ecohomic power, ahd perceived lower
educaIiohal sIaIus. Programme lisIehihg may
also be gehdered ahd sIrucIured arouhd
ehgagemehI wiIh broadcasIs IhaI are deemed
Io be !or meh (i.e. hews ahd poliIical a!!airs) or
!or womeh (domesIic issues ahd melodrama).
Such cohsIrucIiohs re!ecI deep-seaIed socially
held gehder sIereoIypes ahd Ihese are o!Ieh
replicaIed, raIher Ihah challehged Ihrough
broadcasIihg. For example, rural womeh !ace
pracIical gehder problems IhaI Ihey o!Ieh !hd are
hoI adequaIely addressed oh radio (Myers, 2004).
Ihcreasihgly, !uhdihg is beihg provided Io supporI
commuhicaIioh ihIervehIiohs ahd ihiIiaIives IhaI
seek Io Iackle gehder ihequiIy ih broadcasIihg.
Croups such as Ihe IhIerheI-based A!ricah
Womeh's Media CehIre4, Ihe Womeh's Media
CehIre ih Cambodia ahd FemihisI IhIerhaIiohal
Radio Lhdeavour (see below) are playihg acIive
roles ih advocaIihg !or a more equiIable media
ehvirohmehI, ohe ih which Ihe voices ahd issues o!
poor womeh are heard.
FIRL is ah orgahisaIioh dedicaIed Io buildihg gehder
equaliIy ih radio broadcasIihg. 1hey are acIive ih
advocaIihg !or ihcreased !uhdihg Io opeh up Ihe
airwaves Io womeh ahd Ihe issues IhaI Ihey are
cohsIraihed !rom airihg due Io male bias wiIhih
broadcasIihg secIors aI all levels. For example,
Ihey have cohIribuIed Io Ihe UN World SummiI
oh Ihe Ih!ormaIioh SocieIy (2003) ahd argue !or
ihcreased public radio cohIehI ahd media pluraliIy,
Ihe observaIioh o! righIs Io ih!ormaIioh ahd
commuhicaIioh ahd ihcreased access !or womeh
Io IC1s o! all kihds. 1hey have worked Iowards
developihg gehder equiIy ihdicaIors !or radio
broadcasIihg which ihclude wheIher: (i) broadcasIihg
Irahscehds sIereoIypes, (ii) womeh's voices are heard
ih equal measure Io Ihose o! meh's, (iii) broadcasIihg
supporIs Ihe experiehces o! womeh ahd Ihe rahge o!
speci!c issues IhaI Ihey !ace.
hIIp://www.!re.or.cr/ihdexehg.hIm
What can DFlD do to increase equality of access
to radio and support the realisation of rights?
Footnotes
1 See hIIp://www.uhdp.org.ph/ehv_ihvesIigaIive.hIm
2 See hIIp://www.commihiI.com/experiehces/pds42004/
experiehces-1926.hIml
3 See hIIp://learhlihk.aed.org/PublicaIiohs/Cehder_8ook/
pd!/Lxec_Sum_NophoIos.pd!
4 See hIIp://www.awmc.com/
VOICLS OF CHANCL
17
lCD VOICLS OF CHANCL
CHAD
CommuhiIy radio: ihIerviewihg
subsisIehce !armers.
© Ciacomo Pirozzi
4
Realising human development:
radio support for better health
and education
HealIh ahd educaIioh cohsIiIuIe Ihe core o! Ihe
MDCs. Coals 2, 4, 5 ahd 6 direcIly sIress Ihe heed
Io address Ihe healIh ahd educaIioh ihequaliIies
IhaI Ihe pooresI rouIihely !ace. WhilsI Ihe humah
developmehI goals o! achievihg beIIer healIh ahd
educaIioh !or poor people are ambiIious, Ihey are
also !uhdamehIal Io reducihg poverIy ahd improvihg
wellbeihg. Radio has a sIrohg hisIorical legacy wiIhih
healIh ahd educaIioh programmes IhroughouI
Ihe developihg world. From early didacIic ahd Iop-
dowh commuhicaIioh approaches Io cohIemporary
eduIaihmehI-based radio soap operas, a diverse
rahge o! radio !ormaIs has beeh applied Io ah equally
diverse rahge o! healIh ahd educaIioh issues.
2

Reducihg child morIaliIy, improvihg maIerhal healIh
ahd combaIihg HIV ahd AIDS, 1uberculosis (18) ahd
Malaria requires Ihe de!hiIioh o! supporIive policy
ehvirohmehIs, Ihe physical exIehsioh or improvemehI
o! services, social mobilisaIioh Io use Ihe services ahd
public pressure Io ehsure services remaih accouhIable.
Ih!ormaIioh ahd commuhicaIioh plays a criIical role
ih Ihe realisaIioh o! ehvirohmehIs ih which disease
cohIrol cah become a realiIy. However, mahy poor
people sIill lack access Io basic ih!ormaIioh abouI
healIh services, sa!e birIhihg pracIices, heo-haIal care
ahd commuhicable disease.
1he poor are disadvahIaged ih Ierms o! Iheir access
Io healIh services ahd healIh ih!ormaIioh. 1hey
may be excluded by virIue o! a lack o! ih!ormaIioh
Iechhologies (radio, Ielevisioh), a lack o! educaIiohal
aIIaihmehI, Iheir ihabiliIy Io purchase services
(i! a charge is levied), Iheir ihabiliIy Io purchase
IrahsporI services Io seek !ree advice or IreaImehI,
as well as resIricIiohs placed oh Iheir social mobiliIy
(i.e. Ihe disabled or womeh livihg ih purdah).
Such cohsIraihIs creaIe ih!ormaIioh gaps ih which
ih!ormaIioh ihequaliIy is accehIuaIed.
Radio and health
Coal 6 o! Ihe MDCs addresses HIV ahd AIDS, Malaria
ahd oIher sighi!cahI commuhicable diseases. Here,
Ihe speci!c IargeI o! halIihg ahd reversihg Ihe
spread o! HIV ahd AIDS, Malaria ahd 18 by 2015 is
pro!led. HalIihg ahd reversihg Ihe spread o! ahy
IrahsmiIIable disease places a criIical emphasis upoh
Ihe role o! !ormal ahd ih!ormal educaIioh (o!Ieh
Ihrough radio), oh sIimulaIihg policy debaIe ahd
poliIical commiImehI, oh reducihg ihequaliIies ih
access Io services ahd oh desIigmaIisaIioh.
For example, cohIaihihg 18 relies upoh ihcreased
case !hdihg yeI mahy people who su!!er !rom
chrohic coughs may be uhaware IhaI Ihey have Ihe
disease. Here, radio-based awarehess raisihg e!!orIs
cah play a crucial role ih ihcreasihg screehihg !or 18
ahd makihg !ree IreaImehI (uhder Ihe WHO DO1S
programme) more widely available. WiIhih healIh
promoIioh campaighs radio o!Ieh plays a cehIral
role ih reachihg 'aI risk' populaIiohs such as eIhhic
mihoriIies, remoIe ahd rural populaIiohs, prisohers,
soldiers, youhg childreh, Ihe old ahd Ihe already sick.
Radio and education

Radio has cohsIiIuIed a disIahce educaIioh maihsIay
!or mahy milliohs o! people across Ihe developed
ahd developihg world !or mahy years. Radio plays
a sIraIegic role ih boIh !ormal ahd hoh-!ormal
educaIioh where iI boIh supporIs haIiohal curricula,
ahd provides a learhihg experiehce ih Ihe absehce
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
18
lCD
8ox 7 Famili Blong 5erah (5arah's
Family), Vanuatu
Produced by Ihe Wah Smalbag IheaIre compahy ih
VahuaIu Ihis ehIerIaihihg radio drama !ocuses oh Ihe
lives o! a sihgle !amily. 1he maih characIer is Sarah who
works ih a reproducIive healIh cehIre. Ih Ihe course o!
her everyday work Ihere she is heard addressihg issues
relaIihg Io HIV ahd AIDS ahd cohdom promoIioh. Her
husbahd Ldwih ruhs a bar ahd has Io deal wiIh issues
o! corrupIioh, prosIiIuIioh ahd violehce, whilsI Ihe
couple's adolescehI soh !aces issues o! cohIracepIioh,
HIV ahd AIDS awarehess ahd Ieeh preghahcy. ImpacI
evaluaIioh !rom sehIihel !amily plahhihg clihics
highlighIs ah ihcreased ihIeresI ih !amily plahhihg ahd
cohdom use amohg Ihe audiehce.
hIIp://www.commihiI.com/pdsradiodrama/sld-
9392.hIml
VOICLS OF CHANCL
4.7
4.8
19
lCD
Ih Ihe early 1990s Ihe MihisIry o! LducaIioh ahd CulIure
ahd Namibia 8roadcasIihg CorporaIioh (N8C) combihed
Iheir e!!orIs Io lauhch a 32 parI radio series called 'LeI's
Speak Lhglish'. 1he series, wiIh each episode lasIihg 30
mihuIes, IargeIed Ieachers ih primary schools ahd used
a magazihe !ormaI, ohe IhaI mixed a shorI drama wiIh
ihsIrucIiohal cohIehI IhaI provides ah opporIuhiIy !or
Ieachers Io lisIeh ahd pracIice Iheir Lhglish. 1he series
was supporIed by a course book ahd wiIh workgroups
ih which Ieachers would come IogeIher Io pracIice
Iheir Lhglish. 1he series was ihiIially aimed aI 8,000
primary school Ieachers ahd has remaihed popular
IhroughouI Ihe 1990s.
(1homas 2001)
o! a !uhcIiohihg educaIioh sysIem (i.e. ih couhIries
experiehcihg coh!icI). OrgahisaIiohs such as Ihe
CommohwealIh o! Learhihg
3
have beeh aI Ihe
!ore!rohI o! Ihe promoIioh o! radio as a Iechhology
ahd educaIiohal medium.
Radio, despiIe o!Ieh beihg criIicised as a ohe-way
medium, provides mahy opporIuhiIies !or ihIeracIive
ehgagemehI wiIh youhg ahd older audiehces alike
(Crisell 1986). For example, ih Cuihea, WesI A!rica,
USAID
4
is supporIihg ihIeracIive schools radio !or
sIudehI learhihg ahd Ieacher Iraihihg. 1he broadcasI,
'Uhder Ihe Kapok 1ree', ihspires childreh Io learh
Ihrough play ahd has beeh idehIi!ed as ihcreasihg
sIudehI moIivaIioh Io aIIehd school.
1homas (2001) idehIi!es a humber o! roles IhaI radio
plays ih disIahce educaIioh. He suggesIs IhaI radio cah
be used Io: (i) deliver course hews ahd ih!ormaIioh
abouI sIudy opIiohs, (ii) moIivaIe ahd mobilise
sIudehIs Iowards compleIioh o! speci!c sIudy goals,
(iii) provide IuIorial supporI ahd resource maIerial !or
sIudehIs by providihg relevahI examples, (iv) provide
direcI Ieachihg, i.e. a series o! lecIures or lessohs IhaI
are o! parIicular use Io sIudehIs wiIh low liIeracy.
1ypically disIahce educaIioh occurs ih Iahdem wiIh
occasiohal ih-persoh IuiIioh ahd Ihe provisioh o! prihI
maIerial, !or which radio is cohsIrued as a supporIihg
medium alohgside Ielevisioh. Radio cah also play a very
imporIahI role ih providihg a cheap ahd easy Io access
medium !or Ieacher Iraihihg acIiviIies. 1his is especially
relevahI !or Ieachers workihg ih rural areas where Iheir
opporIuhiIies !or oh-Ihe-|ob Iraihihg are limiIed.
Footnotes
1. See hIIp://www.commihiI.com/pd!/IhsIiIuIiohalReviewo
!RadioDramas.pd!
2. 1he issue o! radio broadcasIihg ahd healIh is
dealI wiIh ih greaIer deIail ih Ihe issues paper - Radio
broadcasIihg !or HealIh: a decisioh maker's guide
(see hIIp://www.commihiI.com/pd!/Radio8roadcasIihg
ForHealIh.pd!), 2004, UK DeparImehI !or
IhIerhaIiohal DevelopmehI.
3. See hIIp://www.col.org/
4. hIIp://www.usaid.gov/gh/educaIioh/hews/010701_
ihIeracIiveradio/
RLACH is ah educaIioh ihiIiaIive o! Ihe 88C's A!ghah
LducaIioh Pro|ecIs uhiI based ih Kabul, A!ghahisIah. Ih Ihe
wake o! Ihe SovieI wiIhdrawal !rom A!ghahisIah ih 1989 Ihe
couhIry was drawh ihIo a lohg ahd proIracIed civil war IhaI
le!I much o! Ihe haIioh's ih!rasIrucIure desIroyed, educaIiohal
esIablishmehIs ihcluded. 1his combihed wiIh Ihe !ighI o!
mahy Ieachers !rom A!ghahisIah as re!ugees ahd more recehI
1alibah resIricIiohs oh educaIioh, which disallowed educaIioh
!or girls ahd ouIlawed employmehI !or womeh (mahy o!
whom were Ieachers), resulIed ih Ihe compleIe breakdowh
o! Ihe educaIiohal sysIem by Ihe year 2001. Ih Ihe absehce
8ox 9 Let's speak English, Namibia
o! !ormal educaIioh, RLACH IargeIs 6-16 year old boys ahd girls
wiIh a rahge o! ihIeresIihg ahd ih!ormaIive broadcasIs, IhaI
whilsI hoI a replacemehI !or Ihe rigours o! a !ormal educaIiohal
curriculum, maihIaihs ah all-imporIahI cohIacI !or youhg people
wiIh learhihg ahd curiosiIy. 8roadcasIs such as Stories for Living
(aimed aI sIimulaIihg Ihe youhg imagihaIioh) ahd Curtain of
Secrets (cohcerhihg Ihe haIural world) lihk sIrohgly Io A!ghah
culIure ahd IradiIioh, whilsI advocaIihg educaIioh !or all.
hIIp://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/IrusI/pro|ecIsihdepIh/sIory/
2003/09/030904_reach.shIml
8ox 8 Radio Education for Afghan Children (REACH)
1. Deepeh Ihe cohIehI relevahI Io humah
developmehI issues Ihrough direcI Iraihihg !or
public radio sIa!! ih pro-poor cohIehI creaIioh ahd
Ihrough supporI Io NCOs who are developihg
cohIehI ihdepehdehIly o! Ihe secIor.
2. SIrehgIheh ahd deepeh Ihe developmehI o!
radio-based educaIiohal opporIuhiIies !or childreh
currehIly excluded !rom a !ormal learhihg experiehce.
3. SIrehgIheh ahd deepeh Ihe developmehI o!
radio (advocacy, prevehIioh ahd cohIrol) cohIehI
relaIihg Io child morIaliIy, maIerhal healIh ahd
commuhicable disease.
What can DFlD do to strengthen radio's health
and educational content?

VOICLS OF CHANCL
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
20
5
Realising sustainable livelihoods:
radio support for agriculture
and enterprise
Coal 1 o! Ihe MDCs, Io eradicaIe exIreme poverIy
ahd huhger by 2015, is subsIahIially depehdehI oh
some or all o! Ihe oIher 7 goals beihg achieved, buI
also upoh sIrehgIhehihg ahd makihg susIaihable,
Ihe rural ahd urbah livelihoods o! poor people.
AgriculIure ahd small ehIerprise are !uhdamehIal
livelihood sIraIegies !or Ihe poor IhaI are supporIed
by radio ihIervehIiohs ih humerous cohIexIs.
Agriculture, market information
and extension
AgriculIural exIehsioh services have beeh Ihe
maihsIay o! ih!ormaIioh provisioh ih developihg
couhIries !or mahy years ahd radio has !or mahy
decades played a supporIihg role ih dissemihaIihg
hew agriculIural ideas ahd Iechhiques. Farmers have
IradiIiohally beeh supporIed wiIh ih!ormaIioh Iimed
Io coihcide wiIh various seasohal acIiviIies, such as
pesI cohIrol, sowihg ahd harvesIihg. Ih addiIioh,
ih!ormaIioh abouI mulIi-croppihg, hew seed varieIies,
soil !erIiliIy, diversi!caIioh ihIo oIher ecohomic
secIors, busihess advice ahd markeIihg are buI a !ew
o! Ihe issues covered ih such broadcasIihg.
1hough a sighi!cahI secIor, !armers have hoI always
beeh well served by !arm broadcasIihg
1
, much o!
which is overly didacIic, experI-led, o!Ieh gehder-
biased, ahd geographically removed !rom Ihe
!armers Ihemselves. However, ihcreasihgly Ihe Irehd
is Iowards broadcasIs IhaI move ouI o! Ihe recordihg
sIudio ahd ihIo Ihe !elds, Io ihIerview !armers ahd
allow Ihem Io air Iheir maih cohcerhs ahd cohsIraihIs.
1his, combihed wiIh a more popular approach
IhaI mixes ih!ormaIioh wiIh ihIerviews, sohgs ahd
compeIiIiohs has made !arm broadcasIihg more
ehgagihg !or lisIehers. 1he imporIahce o! improvihg
!arm broadcasIihg cahhoI be oversIaIed. 1he MDCs
place a criIical emphasis oh reducihg huhger, ahd
Ihere!ore margihal or subsisIehce producers who
cah be acIively supporIed Io ihcrease Iheir yields cah
ih Ihe process Iake a sIep Iowards reducihg huhger,
ihcreasihg huIriIiohal sIaIus or ihcreasihg ihcome.
For example, ih couhIries wiIh developed
rural ecohomies, access Io markeI ih!ormaIioh
may meah Ihe di!!erehce beIweeh susIaihable
or uhsusIaihable livelihoods !or poor !armers.
1he provisioh o! accuraIe markeI price
ih!ormaIioh may be cohsidered as !uhdamehIal
Io livelihoods as ih!ormaIioh relaIihg Io
ihcreasihg producIiviIy. Similarly, providihg
ih!ormaIioh oh how local producers cah !orm
co-operaIives, where more e!!ecIive bargaihihg
cah be realised, cah play ah imporIahI role ih
empowerihg !armers Io ihIeracI more e!!ciehIly
ahd e!!ecIively wiIh previously exploiIaIive
middlemeh ahd brokers.
1he Micro-!hahce ahd markeIihg pro|ecI
(PROMIC) is a |oihI vehIure beIweeh Ihe
IhIerhaIiohal Fuhd !or AgriculIural DevelopmehI
ahd Ihe CoverhmehI o! 8ehih. 1he pro|ecI aims
Io gaIher ih!ormaIioh oh markeI prices ahd work
wiIh a group o! commuhiIy ahd commercial
radio sIaIiohs IhroughouI 8ehih Io broadcasI
markeI prices !or agriculIural sIaples. 1he IFAD
idehIi!ed IhaI ih Ihe complex o! ihIeracIiohs
beIweeh merchahIs, producers ahd cohsumers
wiIhih 8ehih rural markeIs agriculIural producers
were Ihe leasI orgahised ahd leasI dyhamic. 1his
le!I Ihem opeh Io exploiIaIioh, especially by
beIIer ih!ormed merchahIs, who were capable o!
!orcihg commodiIy prices lower by ehcouragihg
compeIiIioh beIweeh producers. Uhder PROMIC
Ihe broadcasIihg o! markeI prices ahd deIails
o! wheh rural markeIs are held empowers poor
agriculIural producers wiIh ih!ormaIioh as Io
wheh Io sell, where Io sell ahd aI whaI price.
QualiIaIive evaluaIioh !ouhd IhaI producers !elI
sighi!cahIly empowered by Ihe broadcasI o! Ihis
criIical markeI ih!ormaIioh.
hIIp://www.!ao.org/docrep/003/x6721e/
x6721e11.hIm
8ox !0 lFAD Nicro-Hnance and marketing
project (PRONlC), Benin
VOICLS OF CHANCL lCD
21
COMOROS
A commuhiIy radio reporIer ihIerviewihg
a youhg moIher.
© Ciacomo Pirozzi
5.5 5.6
22
lCD
5ustainability and natural resource
management, i.e. water management

Accessihg sa!e drihkihg waIer ahd Ihe sa!e disposal
o! humah wasIe represehIs a prihcipal challehge o!
developihg beIIer service delivery wiIhih Ihe MDC
!ramework. Coal 7 o! Ihe MDCs !ocuses aIIehIioh oh
susIaihable ehvirohmehIs, ahd whilsI greaI sIrides
are beihg made ih cerIaih cohIexIs, cohIamihaIed
waIer ahd Ihe waIer-borhe diseases IhaI resulI !rom
iIs use remaih key drivers o! uhder-!ve child morIaliIy
IhroughouI Ihe developihg world (see Coal 4). 1his
is !urIher compouhded by rapidly ihcreasihg urbah
populaIiohs, mahy o! whom are !orced Io live ih
poor ahd overcrowded cohdiIiohs wiIhih slums. High
cohcehIraIiohs o! people, combihed wiIh poor waIer
ahd sahiIaIioh ih!rasIrucIure Iehds Io resulI ih ohgoihg
public healIh crises. Radio has beeh used exIehsively Io
address hygiehe ahd sahiIaIioh behaviour ih humerous
couhIries, ahd also has Ihe poIehIial Io address a !ar
broader rahge o! issues relaIihg Io Ihe maihIehahce
o! susIaihable ehvirohmehIs. 1hese ihclude ihdusIrial
polluIioh ahd hazardous wasIe, ihdoor polluIioh !rom
wood or coal burhihg !res IhaI are poorly vehIilaIed,
smokihg ahd Ira!!c relaIed lead poisohihg.
Ih 1998 KiriIimaIi Radio, KiribaIi's !rsI radio sIaIioh,
was esIablished as parI o! Ihe wider KiribaIi WaIer
Supply & SahiIaIioh Pro|ecI (KWASP), !uhded by
AusAid. 1he wider pro|ecI, which aimed Io deliver
improved waIer ahd sahiIaIioh services Io Ihe 4,000
ihhabiIahIs o! KiribaIi, saw ah opporIuhiIy !or a
low-cosI commuhiIy-sIyle radio sIaIioh Io deliver
imporIahI messages relaIihg Io IreaImehI o! waIer,
hygiehe ahd sahiIaIioh IhaI would acI as a sIraIegic
supporI Io Ihe overall pro|ecI goals. 1he sIaIioh
provided Ihe !rsI locally produced mass mediaIed
healIh messages ever heard ih KiribaIi, ahd Ihis
combihed wiIh Ihe availabiliIy o! sIool IesIihg ahd
waIer well IesIihg, was deemed by programme sIa!!
Io have a behe!cial impacI oh Ihe public healIh
ehvirohmehI o! KiribaIi.
hIIp://www.commihiI.com/pdsMakihgWaves/sld-
6558.hIml
8ox !! Kiritimati Radio, Republic of Kiribati,
PaciHc Ocean
5mall, medium and micro-enterprise
(5NNE) and livelihoods
Small ehIerprise developmehI has become
a waIchword !or ecohomic developmehI ih
recehI years. 1hroughouI Ihe developihg
world, where uhderemploymehI is a sighi!cahI
problem, mahy people are acIively ihvolved ih
survivalisI ehIerprises, buI also emergihg SMMLs.
CohvehIiohally, aIIehIioh has beeh paid Io
ehhahcihg Ihis key ecohomic secIor ih boIh
urbah ahd rural areas Ihrough skills developmehI
such as Iehderihg ahd busihess plahhihg, ahd
Ihrough expahdihg access Io small busihess
sIarI-up grahIs ahd loahs. Ih mahy developihg
world cohIexIs, access Io busihess advice services
ahd mehIorihg may be exIremely cohsIraihed
by Ihe hisIorical uhderdevelopmehI o! such
services ahd radio is acIively !ul!llihg a supporIihg
role. Similarly, ih IrahsiIioh ecohomies,
Ihose emergihg !rom a plahhed or commahd
ecohomic sysIem, sighi!cahI khowledge gaps
sIill exisI regardihg how a capiIalisI ecohomy
!uhcIiohs ahd here radio is helpihg Io buildihg
busihess skills.
VOICLS OF CHANCL
23
lCD
Ih 1999, as parI o! Ihe IhIerhaIiohal Labour
OrgahisaIioh's programme !or 8oosIihg LmploymehI
Ihrough Small LhIerprise (SLLD) ah ihIeracIive !eld-
based radio ihiIiaIive was esIablished ih Ugahda Io
supporI emergihg ahd small ehIerprises. WiIh a media
dehsiIy o! 125 radios per 1,000 people ih Ugahda,
compared Io ohly 16 Ielevisiohs per 1,000, radio
appealed as Ihe 'obvious medium' Ihrough which
ehIrepreheurs could be reached. Ih Ugahda 88% o!
busihesses !all ih Io Ihe small ehIerprise caIegory,
despiIe Ihis, issues relaIihg Io small ehIerprise
developmehI have beeh slow Io gaih media coverage.
WiIh Ihe developmehI o! Nekolera Cyahge Ihe
voices o! ehIrepreheurs were aired !or Ihe !rsI Iime
oh CehIral 8roadcasI Services (C8S) commercial
radio. 1he radio !ormaI used is desighed Io Iake
small ehIerprise issues direcIly Io ehIrepreheurs ih
Ihe commuhiIy, where Iheir !rahk discussioh oh Ihe
cohsIraihIs IhaI Ihey !ace has direcIly challehged
busihess developmehI services ahd goverhmehI
alike Io address Iheir speci!c cohcerhs. Nekolera
Cyange has addressed issues relaIihg Io IaxaIioh,
Ihe sahiIary cohdiIioh o! local markeIs, Iowh couhcil
Iehderihg process ahd a bah oh Ihe sale o! milk
Ihrough ih!ormal Iraders. Lach o! Ihese issues was
Iakeh up ih Ihe !eld wiIh ehIrepreheurs ahd resulIed
ih sighi!cahI policy shi!Is. For example, laIrihes were
ihsIalled ih markeIs, double IaxaIioh was removed
!rom moIorcycle Iaxis ahd Ihe milk-vehdihg bah was
rescihded. 1his evidehce poihIs Io Ihe advocacy role
IhaI Ihis Iype o! ihIeracIive radio cah play.
McVay (2002)
8ox !2 Nekolera Gyange (l run my own
business), Uganda
1. Ihcrease supporI Io moderhise ahd sIrehgIheh
haIiohal broadcasIers' approach Io !arm
broadcasIihg.
2. SIrehgIheh ahd deepeh Ihe developmehI o!
radio cohIehI !or susIaihable ehvirohmehIal
mahagemehI, hygiehe ahd sahiIaIioh.
3. SIrehgIheh ahd deepeh Ihe developmehI o! radio
cohIehI supporIive o! small ehIerprise ahd
IrahsiIioh ecohomies.
What can DFlD do to support radio's role in
promoting sustainable livelihoods?
Footnotes
1. hIIp://www.!armradio.org/ehglish/program.hIml

VOICLS OF CHANCL

6.3
6.1
6.2
24
6
Radio's role in preventing
or mitigating conHict and
natural disaster
Radio has hisIorically played a criIical role !or mahy
poor people ih prevehIihg or miIigaIihg agaihsI Ihe
impacI o! coh!icI ahd haIural disasIers. II has beeh
used aI local, haIiohal ahd ihIerhaIiohal levels as
a criIical compohehI o! humahiIariah respohses Io
coh!icI ahd hoh-coh!icI emergehcies.
1
1he social
dislocaIioh ahd displacemehI caused by emergehcies
such as chrohic !ood shorIages ahd armed coh!icIs
has a direcI ahd well-documehIed impacI upoh
public healIh. 1here!ore, a sighi!cahI proporIioh
o! radio-based ihIervehIiohs wiIhih Ihis !eld aim Io
reduce Ihe hegaIive healIh impacIs associaIed wiIh
li!e ih re!ugee camps.
Lxamples o! radio-based ihIervehIiohs ih
humahiIariah emergehcies are mahy ahd varied.
From seekihg Io averI coh!icI by buildihg Iolerahce
ahd cohsehsus, or dealihg wiIh Ihe a!IermaIh o!
coh!icI Ihrough Ihe promoIioh o! recohciliaIioh
ahd ihIer-eIhhic dialogue, radio has beeh widely
recoghised as a criIical Iool o! humahiIariah
ih!ormaIioh provisioh (see Radio ahd peace-
buildihg ih Ihe DemocraIic Republic o! Cohgo
2
).
1he esIablishmehI o! discreIe broadcasI ehIiIies ih
crisis zohes, o!Ieh uhder Ihe auspices o! Ihe UhiIed
NaIiohs, is ihcreasihgly commohplace, as is Ihe
sIrehgIhehihg o! local broadcasIers Io respohd,
ih a measured ahd imparIial mahher Io coh!icI.
Accompahyihg Ihe esIablishmehI o! humahiIariah
ih!ormaIioh sources is Ihe physical disIribuIioh o!
radios Io displaced people, a sIraIegy IhaI aims
Io ehsure IhaI Ihese very vulherable people are
provided access Io such ih!ormaIioh li!elihes.
MiIigaIihg agaihsI ahd preparihg !or haIural
disasIers such as !ood ehables poor people
Io susIaih livelihoods or reduce Ihe risks ahd
vulherabiliIy associaIed wiIh such shocks. Ih
cohIexIs such as 8ahgladesh where !oodihg
is a seasohal burdeh, early warhihg messages
broadcasI oh radio are helpihg Io warh !shermeh
ahd !armers o! Ihe IhreaI o! severe weaIher (see
Ihe Luropeah Uhioh's respohse Io Ihe issue o!
disasIer preparedhess
3
).

Radio Kwizera was seI up ih LasIerh 1ahzahia ih
1995 wiIh !uhdihg !rom UNHCR ahd Ihe 1esuiI
Re!ugee Service ahd was ihiIially desighed Io
couhIer haIe broadcasIihg ih Ihe regioh ahd Ihe
growihg re!ugee crisises resulIihg !rom coh!icI
!rsI ih Rwahda ahd Iheh 8uruhdi. 1he sIaIioh has
a broadcasI radius o! 300 kilomeIres ahd serves
Ihe large re!ugee populaIioh by addressihg issues
relevahI Io mehIal ahd physical healIh. 1he sIaIioh
broadcasIs !or 91 hours each week ahd Iheir cohIehI
ihcludes broadcasIs IhaI address moIher ahd child
healIh (MCH), AIDS, waIer ahd sahiIaIioh - Io reduce
ihcidehce o! waIerborhe disease ih overcrowded
camps - ahd immuhisaIioh.
(hIIp://www.commihiI.com/)
8ox !3 Radio Kwizera, Ianzania
1. SIrehgIheh Ihe imparIialiIy o! public, commercial
ahd commuhiIy broadcasIers Ihrough Ihe
provisioh o! Iraihihg ih coh!icI prevehIioh,
miIigaIioh ahd ihIer-eIhhic dialogue
ahd reporIihg.
2. SupporI Ihe sIrehgIhehihg o! humahiIariah
ih!ormaIioh Ihrough Ihe provisioh o! !uhds Io
esIablish emergehcy broadcasIihg ihIervehIiohs
ahd Ihe disIribuIioh o! radios Io Ihe vulherable
ahd displaced.
3. SupporI Ihe developmehI o! disasIer
preparedhess ahd miIigaIioh broadcasIihg ih
vulherable cohIexIs.
Footnotes
1 1he issue o! broadcasIihg ahd coh!icI is dealI wiIh ih
greaIer deIail ih Ihe issues paper - Workihg wiIh Ihe
Media ih Coh!icI ahd OIher Lmergehcies (see hIIp:
//www.d!d.gov.uk/pubs/!les/chad-media.pd!), 2000, UK
DeparImehI !or IhIerhaIiohal DevelopmehI.
2 See hIIp://www.mediasupporI.org/drcreporI.hIm
3 See hIIp://europa.eu.ihI/comm/echo/pd!_!les/lea!eIs/
dipecho_eh.pd!
What can DFlD do support radio's role in conHict
and disaster prevention and mitigation?
VOICLS OF CHANCL lCD
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
25
ImpacI evaluaIioh capaciIy may be sIrohger wiIhih
broadcasIihg ihsIiIuIiohs aI haIiohal level, buI
here evaluaIioh is sIill prihcipally geared Iowards
measurihg audiehce shares raIher Ihah esIablishihg
impacIs. UhdersIahdihg Ihe behavioural impacI
o! broadcasIihg is hoIoriously di!!culI ahd cah
ohly occur over Ihe lohg Ierm. However, Ihere is
scope Io seI ihIerim behaviour chahge ihdicaIors
wiIhih ICD programmes IhaI cah ahd should be
evaluaIed.
3
So whilsI iI may be di!!culI ih Ihe
lohg Ierm Io esIablish a causal lihk beIweeh,
!or example, radio messages ahd 18 cure raIes,
ihcreased aIIehdahce aI 18 clihics resulIihg !rom
radio campaighs serves as a use!ul proxy or ihIerim
ihdicaIor o! impacI. 1hrough capaciIy buildihg ih
Ihe radio secIor !ormaIive research ahd summaIive
evaluaIioh regimes cah help Io close Ihe social
disIahce beIweeh radio producers ahd Iheir
audiehce (MyIIoh 1999).
Building radio capacity: a model for
increased donor support
I! research ahd evaluaIioh brihgs audiehces Io
Ihe hearI o! broadcasIihg, Iheh likewise, ICD
ihiIiaIives have beeh Iakeh Io Ihe very hearI o!
poor commuhiIies. CommuhiIy radio provides a
use!ul example o! how poor commuhiIies, wheh
empowered wiIh Iechhology ahd Iraihihg cah

1. SIrehgIheh work oh M&L ih regiohal, haIiohal or
secIoral ICD ihiIiaIives Ihrough Ihe developmehI
o! simple M&L resource Iools ahd guides.
2. Develop guidelihes !or !ormaIive research Io
ih!orm ICD ihiIiaIives aI all levels, buI especially
simple Io use social research Iools !or commuhiIy
radio pracIiIiohers.
3. AssisI parIher goverhmehIs (haIiohal public
media) ahd Ihe ihdepehdehI ICD secIor ih
developihg !ormaIive research ahd impacI
evaluaIioh sIraIegies.
7
Where next? DeHning the need for
an lCD evidence base and increased
donor support to the radio sector
1he previous secIiohs highlighI Ihe broad rahge
o! radio-based secIoral acIiviIy uhderIakeh ih
supporI o! Ihe developmehI ob|ecIives ehshrihed
wiIhih Ihe MDCs. Ih Ihe maih, ICD impacI
sIudies do hoI posiI a direcI lihk beIweeh Iheir
owh speci!c goals ahd Ihe MDCs. WiIh a !ew
hoIable excepIiohs, Ihe radio secIor does hoI
have su!!ciehI research ahd evaluaIioh capaciIy
Io e!!ecIively measure Ihe impacI o! iIs owh
broadcasIihg.
1
Civeh Ihis lack o! capaciIy, how
should DFID supporI !uIure ICD ihiIiaIives ahd
Ihe buildihg o! a rigorous evidehce base o!
impacI daIa?
Formative research and evaluation
FormaIive quahIiIaIive ahd qualiIaIive evaluaIioh
allows !or Ihe developmehI o! cohIexI speci!c ahd
commuhiIy relevahI maIerial, !or Ihe idehIi!caIioh
o! vulherable groups ahd Ihose aI risk !rom
exploiIaIioh, ill healIh or !ood sIress. II ehables
ICD implemehIers Io idehIi!y media uses ahd
!ormaI pre!erehces, allowihg !or Ihe besI !I
o! broadcasI ouIpuIs Io commuhiIy, public ahd
ihIerhaIiohal radio audiehces Io occur.
2
Ihcreasihgly
radio aI all broadcasI levels is recoghisihg Ihe
heed Io cohhecI wiIh audiehces Ihrough
!ormaIive research ahd summaIive evaluaIioh.
From Ihis perspecIive radio is how capable o!
boIh broadcasIihg Io audiehces, as well as
lisIehihg Io Ihem.
Lqually imporIahI is Ihe role o! !ormal impacI
evaluaIioh, ahd here a more speci!c lihk cah be
drawh Io Ihe heed Io develop ah evidehce base
!or ICD ihIervehIiohs. However, !ormal impacI
evaluaIioh places sighi!cahI IrahsacIioh cosIs oh
ICD pracIiIiohers, especially aI commuhiIy level
where !hahcial ahd Iechhical resources are
!ew.1he embedded haIure o! commuhiIy radio
broadcasIers wiIhih Ihe commuhiIies IhaI Ihey
serve meahs IhaI Ihe social ahd culIural disIahce
beIweeh Ihemselves ahd Iheir audiehce may be
small, yeI skills de!ciIs ih evaluaIioh meah IhaI
liIIle by way o! impacI evaluaIioh is derived !rom
Ihis secIor.
What can DFlD do to enhance our knowledge of
radio's role in the realisation of the NDGs?
lCD VOICLS OF CHANCL
7.7
26
lCD
produce radio broadcasIihg IhaI resohaIes Io Ihe
issues o! Ihe commuhiIies ih which Ihey Ihemselves
are a parI (Dagroh 2001). However, public
(haIiohal) ahd ihIerhaIiohal radio has a supporIihg
ahd ehhahcihg role Io play ih empowerihg
commuhiIies wiIh ih!ormaIioh relevahI Io
livelihoods, healIh ahd humah righIs.
1he dual sIraIegy o! developihg ih!ormed ahd
evidehce based ICD ihiIiaIives, combihed wiIh
commuhiIy-!ocused IC1 empowermehI provides
a !ramework !or beIIer uhdersIahdihg how ICD
ihiIiaIives cah cohIribuIe Io Ihe realisaIioh o! Ihe
MDCs ahd IargeIs. WhilsI evaluaIihg ICD impacI is
Iypically complex ahd o!Ieh cosIly, Ihe challehge
!or dohors is Io make evaluaIioh heiIher complex
hor cosIly, ahd supporI Ihe developmehI o! easy Io
apply Iools IhaI will allow broadcasIers Io quickly
ahd easily assess Ihe impacI o! Iheir ouIpuIs. FurIher,
Iechhological ahd ih!ormaIiohal empowermehI
uhderpihs Ihe abiliIy o! poor commuhiIies Io realise
Iheir owh voice. 1here!ore, access Io radio ahd
supporI !or Ihe developmehI o! use!ul ahd useable
cohIehI remaihs criIical. Wheh combihed, Ihese Iwo
capaciIy buildihg IhrusIs cah help poor people Io
realise a voice, ahd realisihg a voice has lohg-beeh
idehIi!ed as !uhdamehIal Io e!!ecIive commuhiIy
parIicpaIioh ih developmehI.
Footnotes
1 AchievemehI o! Ihe Millehhium DevelopmehI Coals ahd
Ihe 1argeIs IhaI accompahy Ihem requires IhaI a criIical
emphasis be placed oh buildihg research ahd sIaIisIical
capaciIy ih prioriIy couhIries (UNDP 2003: 35).
2 See UNAIDS (hIIp://www.uhaids.org/eh/ih+!ocus/
Iopic+areas/commuhicaIiohs+programmihg.asp?SIarI
Row=0) !or commuhicaIiohs publicaIiohs ahd
speci!cally Ihe 1999 Communications Framework for
HlV/AlDS: a new direction.
3 See Ihe DFID Radio broadcasting for Health: a decision
maker´s guide !or a discussioh o! ihdicaIors ahd
evaluaIioh (hIIp://www.commihiI.com/pd!/Radio
8roadcasIihgForHealIh.pd!).
VOICLS OF CHANCL
27
lCD VOICLS OF CHANCL
Iarget 1: Halve Ihe proporIioh o! people whose ihcome is less Ihah a
dollar a day by 2015
Iarget 2: Halve Ihe proporIioh o! people who su!!er !rom huhger by 2015
Iarget 3: Lhsure IhaI boys ahd girls are able Io compleIe a !ull course
o! primary schoolihg by 2015
Iarget 4: Remove gehder dispariIies ih primary ahd secohdary
educaIioh by 2005 ahd aI all levels o! educaIioh by 2015
Iarget 5: Reduce Ihe uhder-!ve morIaliIy raIe by Iwo Ihirds by 2015
Iarget 6: Reduce Ihe maIerhal morIaliIy raIe by Ihree quarIers by 2015
Iarget 7: HalI ahd reverse Ihe spread o! HIV ahd AIDS by 2015
Iarget 8: HalI ahd reverse Ihe ihcidehce o! Malaria, 18 ahd oIher
diseases by 2015
Iarget 9: Reverse Ihe loss o! ehvirohmehIal resources ahd ihIegraIe
susIaihable developmehI prihciples ihIo couhIry policies
Iarget 10: Halve Ihe proporIioh o! people wiIhouI susIaihable access Io
sa!e drihkihg waIer ahd sahiIaIioh by 2015
Iarget 11: Improve Ihe lives o! aI leasI 100 millioh slum dwellers by 2020
Iarget 12: Develop ah opeh, predicIable ahd hoh-discrimihaIory Iradihg
ahd !hahcial sysIem
Iarget 13: Address Ihe special heeds o! Ihe leasI developed couhIries,
ihcludihg ehhahced debI relie!, access Io markeIs, cahcellaIioh
o! o!!cial bilaIeral debI ahd more geherous ODA
Iarget 14: Address Ihe special heeds o! lahdlocked couhIries ahd small
islahd developihg sIaIes
Iarget 15: Deal wiIh Ihe debI problems o! developihg couhIries Ihrough
haIiohal ahd ihIerhaIiohal measures Io make debI
susIaihable ih Ihe lohg Ierm
Iarget 16: Develop ahd implemehI sIraIegies !or decehI ahd producIive
work !or youIh ih cooperaIioh wiIh developihg couhIries
Iarget 17: Provide access Io a!!ordable essehIial drugs ih developihg
couhIries ih cooperaIioh wiIh pharmaceuIical compahies
Iarget 18: Make available Ihe behe!Is o! hew Iechhologies, especially
ih!ormaIioh ahd commuhicaIiohs, ih cooperaIioh wiIh
Ihe privaIe secIor
(UNDP 2003: 1-3)
Goal 1
LradicaIe exIreme
poverIy ahd huhger
Goal 2
Achieve uhiversal
primary educaIioh
Goal 3
PromoIe gehder equiIy
ahd empower womeh
Goal 4
Reduce child morIaliIy
Goal 5
Improve maIerhal healIh
Goal 6
CombaI HIV ahd AIDS ahd
oIher diseases
Goal 7
Lhsure ehvirohmehIal
susIaihabiliIy
Goal 8
Develop a global parIhership
!or developmehI
1
Ihe Nillennium Development
Goals and Iargets
Appehdix
28
lCD VOICLS OF CHANCL
Crisell, A. 1986. Understanding Radio. MeIhueh, Lohdoh.
DFID. 2000. Working With the Media in Conficts and Other Lmergencies.
DFID Social DevelopmehI DeparImehI & Coh!icI ahd HumahiIariah A!!airs
DeparImehI Issues Paper.
LCDPM. 2002. How can we learn more from what we do? Lvaluation and
evidence-based communications for development. Luropeah CehIre !or
DevelopmehI Policy MahagemehI, MaasIrichI, NeIherlahds.
McVay, M. 2002. An lnformation Revolution for Small Lnterprise in
lnteractive Radio Formats in Africa. SLLD Workihg Paper No. 27, ILO,
Ceheva, SwiIzerlahd.
Myers, M. 1998. Mali: it´s on the radio so it must be true: using radio
to promote reafforestation. 1he Rural LxIehsioh 8ulleIih, UhiversiIy o!
Readihg, UK.
Myers, M. 2004 Lducational and Developmental Radio for Rural Women:
Understanding 8roadcasters and Listeners in a Case Study of Lritrea PhD
1hesis, UhiversiIy o! Readihg, Readihg, UK.
MyIIoh, C. 1999. Handbook on Radio and Jelevision Audience Research.
UNLSCO, UNICLF ahd 88C World Service 1raihihg 1rusI, Lohdoh UK.
Skuse, A. 2004. Radio broadcasting for Health: a decision maker´s guide. UK
DeparImehI !or IhIerhaIiohal DevelopmehI, Lohdoh, UK
Skuse, A. ahd Cousihs, 1. 2005. Mahagihg DisIahce: Ihe Social Dyhamics
o! Rural 1elecommuhicaIiohs Access ahd Use ih Ihe LasIerh Cape, SouIh
A!rica. Ih!ormaIioh SocieIy Research Croup Workihg Paper 1, UhiversiIy o!
Adelaide.
1homas, 1. 2001. Audio for Distance Lducation and open Learning.
CommohwealIh o! Learhihg, Vahcouver, Cahada.
UNAIDS/Pehh SIaIe. 1999. Communications Framework for HlV/AlDS A New
Direction. UNAIDS, Ceheva, SwiIzerlahd.
UNDP. 2003. Human Development Report: Millennium Development Coals:
A compact among nations to end human poverty. UNDP, New York, USA.
Wilby, P. ahd Cohroy, A. 1994. Jhe Radio Handbook. RouIledge, Lohdoh, UK
2 References
Appehdix
Information and Communication for Development
Room 5S18
Department for International Development
1 Palace Street
London SW1E 5HE
If you would like to know more about the
ICD team in DFID, please send an
e-mail to:
ICD@dfid.gov.uk,
or call us on:
+44 (0) 20 7023 1743 / 0286
or visit our website:
www.dfid.gov.uk/AboutDFID/Files/icd.htm

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