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SENSORS AND TRANSDUCERS
Sensor and Transducer
A transducer is defined as a device that receives energy from one system and transmits it to another, often in a different form. A sensor is a device that responds to a physical stimulus (as heat, light, sound, pressure, magnetism, or a particular motion) and transmits a resulting impulse (a signal relating to the quantity being measured). For example, certain sensors convert temperature into a change in resistance.
L and C).edu. •Typical example are strain gauges (for resistance change in response to pressure). # azwan@uthm. •Typical example of active transducers are piezo electric sensors (for generation of charge corresponding to pressure) and photo voltaic cells (for generation of voltage in response to illumination). •self generating devices.my . which operate under energy conversion principle and generate an equivalent output signal (for example from pressure to charge or temperature to electrical potential). which makes it necessary to use an external electrical source with them •depend upon the change in an electrical parameter (R.Active and Passive Transducers Active transducer •generates an electrical signal directly in response to the physical parameter and does not require an external power source for its operation. and thermistors (for resistance change corresponding to temperature variations). Passive transducer •operate under energy controlling principles.
edu. # azwan@uthm.Electrical Transducer An electrical transducer is a sensing device by which the physical. mechanical or optical quantity to be measured is transformed directly by a suitable mechanism into an electrical voltage/current proportional to the input measurand.my .
The electrical signals may be current.edu.my . # azwan@uthm. voltage. or frequency. This electrical quantity is measured by the standard method used for electrical measurement. which acts as a secondary transducer and give an output that is electrical in nature. This displacement actuates an electric transducer. their production is based on R. L and C effects. For this purpose a detector or sensing element is used.Use of Electrical Transducers Electrical transducers are used mostly to measure non-electrical quantities. which converts the physical quantity into a displacement.
my . This. in a way. The response of the sensing element must be closely related to the physical phenomenon.edu. and the transduction element.Transducer Components A transducer which converts a non-electrical quantity into an analog electrical signal may be considered as consisting of two parts. The transduction element transforms the output of a sensing element to an electrical output. The sensing or detector element is that part of a transducer which responds to a physical phenomenon or to a change in a physical phenomenon. # azwan@uthm. acts as a secondary transducer. the sensing element.
The different electrical phenomena employed in the transduction elements of transducers are as follows.Transducer Category Transducers may be further classified into different categories depending upon the principle employed by their transduction elements to convert physical phenomena into output electrical signals.edu. •Resistive •Inductive •Capacitive •Electro magnetic •Piezo-electric Photo-emissive Photo-resistive Potentiometric Thermo-electric Frequency generating # email@example.com .
force and pressure. This can be used for the measurement of displacement.my .edu. The change in the value of the resistance with a change in the length of the conductor can be used to measure displacement. # azwan@uthm. This property can be used for the measurement of temperature. The resistivity of materials changes with changes in temperature. Strain gauges work on the principle that the resistance of a conductor or semiconductor changes when strained.Resistive Transducers Resistive transducers are those in which the resistance changes due to a change in some physical phenomenon.
# firstname.lastname@example.org .edu.Resistive Potentiometer A resistive potentiometer (pot) consists of a resistance element provided with a sliding contact. The motion of the sliding contact may be translatory or rotational. called a wiper.
The other resistance transducer is the strain gauge. position. displacement or other mechanical variation is applied to a variable resistor. It is very commonly used for stress and displacement measurement in instrumentation. # azwan@uthm. in which a change of pressure. Resistance pressure transducers are of two main types. First. the electromechanical resistance transducer.edu.Resistance Pressure Transducer Measurement in the resistive type of transducer is based on the fact that a change in pressure results in a resistance change in the sensing elements. stress.my . where the stress acts directly on the resistance.
edu.my .Resistance Pressure Transducer # azwan@uthm.
edu. # azwan@uthm. or the distance it has moved.my .Resistive Position Transducer A common requirement in industrial measurement and control work is to be able to sense the position of an object. One type of displacement transducer uses a resistive element with a sliding contact or wiper linked to the object being monitored or measured. Thus the resistance between the slider and one end of the resistance element depends on the position of the object.
my .Resistive Position Transducer # email@example.com.
to serve as an index of pressure. it is a common practice to measure strain instead of stress.edu. Also. It is well known that stress (force/unit area) and strain (elongation or compression/unit length) in a member or portion of any object underpressure is directly related to the modulus of elasticity. a property called the piezo-resistive effect. Such transducers are popularly known as strain gauges. Since strain can be measured more easily by using variable resistance transducers. resistance strain gauges are also known as piezo resistive gauges.Strain Gauges The strain gauge is an example of a passive transducer that uses the variation in electrical resistance in wires to sense the strain produced by a force on the wires. there is a change in the value of the resistivity of the conductor when subjected to strain. If a metal conductor is stretched or compressed.my . its resistance changes on account of the fact that both the length and diameter of the conductor changes. # azwan@uthm. Therefore.
edu.my . The combined effect is an increase in resistance.Strain Gauges A tensile stress tends to elongate the wire and thereby increase its length and decrease its cross-sectional area. as seen from the following equation # azwan@uthm.
# firstname.lastname@example.org. The resistance thermometer is an instrument used to measure electrical resistance in terms of temperature. This property is utilised for the measurement of temperature.Resistance Thermometer The resistance of a conductor changes when its temperature is changed. it uses the change in the electrical resistance of the conductor to determine the temperature. i. The main part of a resistance thermometer is its sensing element.my .e. The sensing element may be any material that exhibits a relatively large resistance change with change in temperature.
Resistance Thermometer # email@example.com .edu.
my .Thermistor Thermistor (THERMally sensitive resISTOR) are non-metallic resistors (semiconductor material).. i. made by sintering mixtures of metallic oxides such as manganese. copper and uranium. # azwan@uthm. resistance decreases as temperature rises.edu.e. Thermistors have a Negative Temperature Coefficient (NTC). cobalt. nickel.
edu.my .Thermistor # azwan@uthm.
edu. firstname.lastname@example.org # .Capacitive Pressure Transducer A linear change in capacitance with changes in the physical position of the moving element may be used to provide an electrical indication of the element's position. The capacitance is given by where • K = the dielectric constant • A = the total area of the capacitor surfaces • d = distance between two capacitive surfaces • C = the resultant capacitance.
Capacitive Pressure Transducer # email@example.com .edu.
my . The initial position to be used as a reference point is when the shaft is at midstroke like in figure (a). The equivalent circuit of the system is shown in figure (b) • Derive the formula for Vout in terms of the value of resistors in the circuit • What will the value of Vout be if the shaft has reached point A? resistive position transducer Vout R1 R2 Vout conducti ng strip 10k 5k 10k 20k 12V A R3 Vin R4 B 10k5k shaft A (a) 3 cm (b) # firstname.lastname@example.org.Quiz A resistive position transducer with a resistance of 20 k and a shaft stroke of 10 cm with a bridge circuit is used to display the height of a staircase by moving it to the right as shown in the figure.
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