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IGCSE tests for Cations and Anions!

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Aluminium (Al3+)

Effect of aqueous sodium hydroxide White ppt., soluble in excess giving a colourless solution EFFECT OF AQ AMMONIA: White ppt., insoluble in excess Effect of aqueous sodium hydroxide: Ammonia produced on warming Effect of aqueous sodium hydroxide: White ppt., insoluble in excess EFFECT OF AQ AMMONIA: No ppt. or very slight white ppt.

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Ammonium (NH4+) Calcium (Ca2+)

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4. 5. 6.

Carbonate (CO32-) Chloride (Cl-) (in solution) Copper (Cu2+)

Add dilute acid Effervescence, carbon dioxide produced Acidify with dilute nitric acid, then add aqueous silver nitrate White ppt. Effect of aqueous sodium hydroxide: Light blue ppt., insoluble in excess EFFECT OF AQ AMMONIA: Light blue ppt., soluble in excess, giving a dark blue solution

7. 8.

Iodide (I-) (in solution) Iron(II) (Fe2+)

Acidify with dilute nitric acid, then add aqueous silver nitrate Yellow ppt. Effect of aqueous sodium hydroxide: Green ppt., insoluble in excess EFFECT OF AQ AMMONIA: Green ppt., insoluble in excess

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Iron(III) (Fe3+) Red

Effect of aqueous sodium hydroxide: Red-brown ppt., insoluble in excess EFFECT OF AQ AMMONIA: Red-brown ppt., insoluble in excess

10. 11. 12.

Nitrate (NO3-) (in solution) Sulfate (SO42-) Zinc (Zn2+)

Add aqueous sodium hydroxide, then aluminium foil; warm carefully Ammonia produced Acidify, then add aqueous barium nitrate White ppt. Effect of aqueous sodium hydroxide: White ppt., soluble in excess, giving a colourless solution EFFECT OF AQ AMMONIA: White ppt., soluble in excess, giving a colourless solution