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It is quite has generally recognized that psychology remained in the semi-mythological. apparently real. and his works have gained wide popularity. of psychological spooks. wild-eyed the center of a cult. and the imagination. has been one of the most persistent. constituting our author. but rarely with any attempt to understand its true nature. though very indefinite.TRANSLATOR S PREFACE. Whereas people have been accustomed something found only to speak of the imagination as an entity sui generis. Prometheus-like. now analyzed by M. indeed &quot. as a lofty in long-haired. semi- scholastic period longer than tific formulization. &quot.&quot. The present translation of one well of his more recent available in English classic works is an attempt to render what has been received as a exposition of a subject that is often dis cussed. and has clearly shown that imagination is a function of mind common to all . the most attempts at scien For a long time it has been per se.spook science&quot.geniuses. Ribot in such a masterly manner. Ribot has been for many years known in America. The name of Th. has brought it down from the heavens.

. which the author modestly styles an essay. he does not claim any originality. I wish here to express my in friends who encouraged me obligation to those the congenial task of translation. aware. that the indulgent reader account the good intent as offsetting in part.VI THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. the numerous shortcomings of this version. that when the end of the book is reached but little remains of the great imagination-ghost. at least. preferably This idea is so clearly enun ciated in the present monograph. lucid un That the present rendering falls far below the French of the original. the translator is well trusts. save the one great mystery derlying all facts of mind. he will take into however. certainly as early as Aristotle. A. in some degree. indeed. N. festation is not the same. that the greatest artist his vision and will in in social institutions. H. he who permanent form. We is find the view clearly actually embodies expressed elsewhere. That Ribot is this view is not to his discredit not entirely original with M. B. and that it is shown in as in commercial leaders and highly developed form men as in the most bizarre of romantic practical inventors The only difference is that the mani idealists.

The subject does not. on pathological facts and laboratory experiments. and even though the study of the creative imagination has hitherto remained al is most inaccessible to experimentation strictly so- called. and most recent on psy chology devote to it scarcely a page or two. at all deserve this few brief. study of the creative or constructive imagination. The visual. scarce indifferent or contemptuous attitude. few articles. make up the sum of the past twenty-five years work on the subject. most complete.AUTHOR S PREFACE Contemporary psychology has studied the purely reproductive imagination with great eagerness and The works on the different image-groups success. do not even mention it. are known to auditory. tactile. It would be easy to show that the best. motor and form a collection of everyone. there are yet other objective processes that permit of our approaching it with some likelihood of success. and of continuing the work of former . on the other hand. has been almost entirely neg lected. treatises A monographs. however. Its impor tance unquestionable. often. a indeed. inquiries solidly based on subjective and objective observation.

mili tary. industrial. but only to seek the under lying conditions of the creative imagination. scarcely get beyond other manifestations have been occasionally mentioned never investigated. For I manifold forms. and commercial inventions. as the primitive and typical form out of which the indicated on.yiii THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. whatever cannot but maintain that. is a faculty that in the course of ages has undergone a reduction or The constructive imagination at least. to psychologists. present work is offered to the reader as an It is not our intention first attempt only. show ing that it has its beginning and principal source in the natural tendency of images to fied (or. some profound changes. and in the sciences is only a special and possibly not the principal one. to show in mechanical. in re and political institutions. at is present. the psychology of the imagination con cerned almost wholly with tion its part in esthetic crea the sciences. later So. but with methods better adapted the requirements of contemporary thought. ligious. social. or essay here to undertake a complete monograph that would The require a thick volume. the . Yet invention in that . and then following in its development under they may be. the human all mind has expended and made permanent as much imagination as in other fields. and its in We the fine arts case. We hope that in practical life. more simply. its in the become objecti motor elements in it herent in the image). for reasons mythic activity has been taken in this work as the central point of our topic.

1900. In the first or analytical part. will be no mest to the most complex forms. but to imagin ative beings. to the principal types of imagination that observation shows us. we shall try to re solve the constructive imagination into its constitu tive factors. Finally. in a pure state. hindrance. . the third longer devoted to the imagination. careless of the possible and the impossible. May. IX number of is the others have arisen. of the knowledge of natural laws and their uniformity. of ratiocina tion. The second ation in its or genetic part will follow the imagin development as a whole from the dim or concrete part. The cre entirely unconfined.AUTHOR greater ative S PREFACE. unadulterated power there shown freed from all by the opposing influence of imitation. and study each of them singly.


Do all representations contain motor elements? Unusual effects produced by images: vesication.ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS. Identity of development. preparatory work. equivalent to will. the tions. Dissociation in series. Proof: subjective. ANALYSIS OP THE IMAGINATION. stigmata. PAGE Translator s Preface v vii Author s Preface INTRODUCTION. THE MOTOR NATURE OF THE CONSTRUCTIVE IMAGINATION. on the intellectual side. Association: its role reduced external or objective. CHAPTER I. their meaning for our sub The imagination is. incomplete and schematic to a single question. formation of new combina The principal intellectual factor is thinking by xi . ject. Transition from the reproductive to the creative imagina tion. teleologic char acter. their conditions. analogy between the imagination and abulias abortive forms of the 3 FIRST PAET. images. Dissociation in complete. THE INTELLECTUAL FACTOR. Dissociation. personal character of both. Its principal causes: internal or subjective.

ORGANIC CONDITIONS OF THE IMAGINATION. viz. personification. the 50 CHAPTER THE IV. Constellation &quot. themselves reducible to special Reasons for the prejudice in favor of a crea instinct 31 CHAPTER Various views of the III. Proofs: Association of ideas on an emotional basis. THE UNCONSCIOUS FACTOR.XJi THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. Associations in unconscious form. Association by contrast. impersonality. and always arises from a need. The great importance of this element.-Physiological con- . tive to two great classes. The motor element in tendencies. Disagreements concerning two hypoth The &quot. but an index. THE EMOTIONAL FACTOR. transformation 15 CHAPTER II. The work of the imagination reduced needs. Flechsig s theory. Its mechanism on this &quot. new combinations under ordinary and extraordinary forms. subject. suddenness. Its essential char acteristics. creation. the initial state of alcoholic intoxication and somnambulism on waking. Obscurity of 3 question. There is no creative instinct. All forms of the creative imagination imply affective elements.inspired state. Anatomical conditions: various hypotheses. sia. eses. Proofs : All affective conditions may influence the imagination. &quot. to two. analogy. inven tion has not a source. Why Its : it is PAGB an almost inexhaustible source of Its processes reducible mechanism. Its relations to unconscious Resemblances to hypermneactivity. is not a cause.inspired state&quot.&quot. but sources. Mediate or the ultimate nature of unconsciousness: latent association: recent experiments and discussions result of a summation of predominant tendencies.

which is the principle of unity in motion: the ideal is a con The principal struction in images. there any analogy between physical and psychic crea A philosophical hypothesis on the subject. Impossibility of an exact answer 65 CHAPTEE V. and shows itself through play: its numerous varieties. The degree of imagination in Does creative synthesis exist in them? Affirmation and denials. Is inexplicable. tion? Limitation of the question. forms of the unifying principles: unstable.ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS. CHAPTEE I. extreme or semi-morbid. Importance of the unifying principle. in whom the motor system predominates the r6les of movements in animals. merely outlined. Distinction or a fixed emotion. Difficulties of the subject. organic or middle. Attempts at experimentation. ditions: are they cause. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE IMAGINATION. effect. Comparison with young children. The special form of animal imagination is motor. IMAGINATION IN ANIMALS. Why the animal imagination must be above all motor: lack of intellectual develop ment. : infantile insanity 93 . between the synthetic principle and the ideal. Obsession of the in ventor and the sick: insufficiency of a purely psycho logical criterion 79 SECOND PAET. THE PRINCIPLE OF UNITY. It is a fixed idea Their equivalence. or accompaniment? Chief factor: change in cerebral and local circulation. The oddities of in Xlll PAGE ventors brought under two heads: the explicable and They are helpers of inspiration.

THE HIGHER FORMS OF INVENTION. Popular imagination and legends: the legend is to the myth what illusion is to hallucination. Division of its development into four principal periods. acme. The moment of creation two operations animating everything. Psycholog- . decline. The role of imagination. qualifying everything. IMAGINATION IN THE CHILD. Is a psychology of great inventors possible? and physiological theories of genius. suffer a partial transformation : Literature is a fallen and rationalized mythology. Transition from passive to creative imagination: per ception and illusion. How myths are formed. Creation in play: tempts at invention. The non-explanatory myths role The of analogy &quot. period of imitation. The golden age of the imagination. Eomantis intention lacking in peoples without imagination. Precocity: chronological order the development of the creative power. : and of association through The evolution of myths: ascension. Survivals.Xiv THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. MAN AND THE CREATION creative OF MYTHS. Unconscious processes that the imagination fusion.constellation. employs in order to create legends: idealization 118 CHAPTEE IV. Fanciful invention at 103 CHAPTEE PRIMITIVE III. Pathological General charac ters of great inventors. Animating everything: analysis of the elements constituting this moment: the r6le of belief. Myths: hypotheses as to the origin: the myth is the psychophysical objectification of man in the phenomena that he perceives.&quot. The explanatory myths undergo a rad ical transformation: the work of depersonification of the myth. PAGE CHAPTEE II.

Its exter Inferiority of the affective element. The need of a concrete study. Necessity or fatalism of voca The representative character of great creators. well determined and of associations of objective relations. critical period. any law? It passes through two stages separated by a critical phase. His torical verification . Two cases: decay or period of definite constitution. transformation through logical form. not an agent of. THE PLASTIC IMAGINATION.ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS. Its in space. Why the creator com mences by imitating. The varieties of the crea analogous to the varieties of char acter 179 CHAPTEE I. the other ex creation. creation 140 CHAPTEE V. . THE PRINCIPAL TYPES OF IMAGINATION. in its evolution. tive imagination. tion. LAW OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE Is the IMAGINATION. ical XV PAGE reasons for this order. principal manifestations: in the arts dealing . abridged. PRELIMINARY. their resemblances and differences. It makes use of clear images. Subsidiary law of increasing complexity. Chance is an occasion for. Discussion as to the origin of this character is it in Mechanism of the individual or in the environment? Two principal processes complete. Period of autonomy. 167 THIED PAET. nal character. The role of chance in invention: it supposes the meeting of two factors one internal. ternal. subject to creative imagination. Their three phases. through devia tion.

xv i

into with form; in poetry (transformation of sonorous in me visual images); in myths with clear outline;

chanical invention.
tion ita elements

The dry and rational imagina




makes use of vague images linked according to the Emotional ab least rigorous modes of association. Its characteristic of inward stractions; their nature.




principal manifestations: the chimerical spirit;




myths and

fine arts (the gious conceptions, literature and the symbolists), the class of the marvelous and fantastic. Varieties of the diffluent imagination: first, numer

imagination; its nature; two principal forms, cosmogonic and scientific conceptions; second, musical imagination, the type of the affective imagination. Its characteristics; it does not develop save after an

interval of time.

Natural transposition of events in

Antagonism between true musical imag ination and plastic imagination. Inquiry and facts on the subject. Two great types of imagination 195






special characteristics.

Thinking sym

The mystic changes concrete images into symbolic images. Their obscurity; whence it arises. Extraordinary abuse of



analogy. Mystic labor on letters, numbers, etc. Nature and extent of the belief accompanying this form of imagination: it is unconditional and


The mystic conception of the world a general symbolism. Mystic imagination in religion and in







It is


The need distinguishable into genera and species. for monographs that have not yet appeared. The








negative The conjectural phase; proof of its r6le of method. importance. Abortive and dethroned hypotheses. The imagination in the processes of verification. The






metaphysician s imagination arises from the same need as the scientist s. Metaphysics is a rationalized myth.

Three moments.

Imaginative and rationalist. 236





industrious, the unstable, the eccentric. people of lively imagination are changeable.


Superstitious beliefs. Origin of this form of ination its mental mechanism and its elements.

imag The

higher form

mechanical imagination.


has ex

pended at least as much imagination there as in esthetic creation. Why the contrary view prevails. Resemblances between these two forms of imagina

Identity of development.

Detail observation

four phases.

General characters.

This form, at




maturity, invention occurs

inspiration; periods of preparation, and of decline. Special characters:





depends strictly on physical condi tions. A phase of pure imagination mechanical romances. Examples. Identical nature of the imag ination of the mechanic and that of the artist 256



internal creators








of mo-



ment of invention.

The importance of the intuitive

Hypotheses in regard to its psychologic Its development: the creation of increasingly more simple processes of substitution. Characters in common with the forms of creation already studied.
Characters peculiar to it the combining imagina tion of the tactician; it is a form of war. Creative intoxication. Exclusive use of schematic representa

Eemarks on the various types of images. The creators of great financial systems. Brief re marks on the military imagination




Successive appearances of ideal conceptions. Creators in ethics and in the social realm. Chimerical forms.




Fourrier, type of the invention the collective


Imaginative regression



The foundations of the creative imagination.

Why man

able to create:


two principal conditions. which resolves itself into

needs, tendencies, tion has a motor



Every imaginative crea The spontaneous revival of

images. The creative imagination reduced to three forms: outlined, Their peculiar fixed, objectified.

oi o

The imaginative type.


view of the imaginative life in all its stages.-Eeduction to a psychologic law. Four stages characterized: 1, by the quantity of images; 2, by their quantity
itensity; 3, by quantity, intensity and duration; by the complete and permanent systematization e imaginary life. Summary 320



A. B.

The various forms of inspiration



the nature of the unconscious factor.




static unconscious, dynamic unconscious. Theories as to the nature of the unconscious. Objec

tions, criticisms



Cosmic and human imagination

346 350




musical imagination

The imaginative type and association of ideas





has been often repeated that one of the prin

contemporary psychology is the has fact that firmly established the place ard importance of movements; that it has especially through observation and experiment shown the rep
cipal conquests of

resentation of a


to be a

movement be
Yet those

gun, a movement in the nascent


who have most

strenuously insisted on this propo sition have hardly gone beyond the realm of the

passive imagination; they have clung to facts of

pure reproduction.





extend their

formula, and to show that it explains, in large measure at least, the origin of the creative imagina

Let us follow step by step the passage from repro duction pure and simple to the creative stage, show ing therein the persistence and preponderance of the

motor element
First of

in proportion as



from mere

repetition to invention.



representations include motor

hiccoughs. So far as visual and tactile great majority there is no possible doubt as images are concerned motor elements that enter the of to the importance into their composition. and the olfactory apparatus thus ob Smell and taste. I say. Setting aside the fact that the vague im bound up with chemical changes within pressions the tissues are scarcely factors in representation. etc. ing -in and digestion are not lack motor elements. Without emphasizing the matter we may. it is of cases. The eye for its is very poorly en a higher dowed with movements . tionate to group of internal sensations that might cause dis cussion. we note a kind of com pensation. . then. in some persons. rise to a very high animals. we find that the sensations resulting from changes in respiration. circulation. Yes.4 elements? THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. and repre perceptions. take into account its intimate secondary in human rank indeed among psychology.. so rich in capacity for motor combinations. vomiting. without our examining Certain for the holds statement good this tion in detail. micturition. many tains with them a complexity of movements propor its importance. The mere fact that. and one that at times There yet remains the approaches that of sight. office as sense-organ but if we connection with the vocal organs. are the remnants of past the ques that. can be caused by perceptions of sight or of hearing proves that representations of this character have a tendency to become translated into acts. because every perception to movements presupposes sentations some extent.

more rare.to imagination. 5 that the it it. to lose its purely it. Certain people can increase or inhibit the beating of their hearts at will. be noted that what has just been said does not take us beyond the reproductive imagination beyond memory. i. from repetition to crea it is necessary to consider other. possessed this power. reproduction to production.INTRODUCTION. known for a long time. but the creative imagination requires something sential new this is its peculiar and es mark. surrounded with some mystery.. however. These facts. E. character. say that this thesis rests on a weighty mass of facts motor element of the image tends to cause . All these revived images are repetitions.inner&quot. and more extraordinary facts. by means of an intense and persistent representation. let us recall the persistent story of . It should. The renowned physi ologist. Still more remarkable are the cases of vesication pro duced in hypnotized subjects by means of sugges tion. or of pains that may appear in different parts of the body solely through the effect of the imagination. F. In order to grasp the transition from tion.&quot. found only among some favored beings. Many instances have been reported of tingling tributed in a &quot. Weber. Finally. For our purpose we need to recall only a few of them. to objectify it to externalize to project outside of our selves. &quot. e. and at the power of the vague manner have been studied in our own day with much more system and exactness. and has described the mechanism of the phenomenon.

who. the miracles of places . in his book L Astronomic Magie.paralysis movement. arrested is A movement of that vivid representation of a the beginning of the stoppage arrest of the &quot. have been quite century down to our numerous and present some interesting varieties some having only the mark of the crucifix. Such are the cases of by ideas&quot.psychic viction that he cannot The patient s inward con move a limb renders him powerless for any movement. first described by Reynolds. it may even end in complete movement. These and similar facts suggest a few remarks.faith cure. sults of the us add the profound changes of the organism. from the thirteenth own day. e. re suggestive therapeutics of contempo raries. enumerates fifty cases. the stigmatized individuals. Though one may et la A. by Charcot and his school under the name paralysis. though it be limited to the or ganism. Maury. First. i.&quot. inhibitory power. It is proper to add that the image acts not alto Sometimes it has an gether in a positive manner. . and he recovers his motor power only when the morbid representation has disappeared.. that we have here creation in the strict sense of the word.6 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. religions in all times and in all and this brief list will suffice to recall certain creative activities of the human imagination that we have a tendency to forget. the wonderful all effects of the &quot. and of later &quot. others 1 Let of the scourging. 1 What appears is ntw. or of the crown of thorns.&quot.

an indispensable concerned in such a is aversion. to prove that they have a representation as the starting point. even though we may not be strictly able ordinarily to is produce them at absolutely untenable when we will. ) . we do not very obscure. This What is psychic condition. is merely to substitute an explanation is needed. there are required additional elements in the producing mechanism.INTRODUCTION. and to show that the representa What more then is tion by itself is not enough. is At bottom invoke &quot. To needed? Let us note It is first of all that these occur rences are rare. need to penetrate into the inmost part of this mys It is enough for us to make sure of the tery. rapid and slow beating of the heart. there are two In the first are concerned the motor etc. to those having an ardent faith. this position consider cases of vesication. elements included in the image. the remains of pre- . not within the power of every to acquire stigmata or to become cured of a body This happens only paralysis pronounced incurable. and other alleged miraculous phenomena : these are without precedent in the life of the individual. facts. Second. stigmata. in order that these unusual states may occur. case is not a single state. a strong desire that it shall come to pass.the this mechanism power of the a word where imagination&quot. maintain that from our own experience we have a knowledge of formication. Fortunately. but a double one: an image followed by a particular emotional sire. conditions: state (de In other words.

. and from the creator. one operating cause. is here images binations. tendencies that sum up the individual s energy. as we shall see later on. grouping. plus affective states. vious perceptions in the second. But it must not be forgotten that our present aim is simply to find a transition stage 1 between repro duction and production to show the common . of the two forms of imagination the purely repre sentative faculty and the faculty of creating by means of the intermediation of images. which we shall have conclude : To to study later and which will lead us to the ultimate source of the creative imagination. because the creative activity here has as is its only material the organism. beyond images. and to show at the same time the work of 1 origin separation. of severance between the two. And why so? First. and the creative imagination. in the ordinary sense. because these facts extremely complex. coordination. of another factor. It is the latter fact that explains their power. too. while in imaginative creation we have several co-operating with com there is are extremely simple. arrangement.g THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. . not separated Then. This group of facts shows us the existence. There are still others. in stinctive or emotional in form. I fear that the distance between the facts here given and the creative imagination proper will seem to the reader very great indeed. there are concerned the foregoing. a single representation more or less complex.

the creative imagination does not rise completely armed. individual has to become his master of his muscles and by their agency extend sway over other things. It goes through a period of trial. slow. which here correspond to muscular move ments. at the start (for reasons indicated later on). . : clearer. instinctive movements. I. Its raw materials are images. control The is progressive. birth. separates in order to form It reigns by right of conquest. is Imagination. Reflexes. II 9 Since the chief aim of this study is to prove that the basis of invention must be sought in motor mani festations. It al ways is. it attains its complex forms only through a process of growth. voluntary activity : I unhesita the intellectual order. an imitation. and take the subject precise. I shall not hesitate to dwell I on it. Let us justify this compari son by some proof. up again under another. in the equivalent of will in the realm of movements. in put Which one among the ting the following question various modes of mind-activity offers the closest more analogy to the creative imagination? tingly answer. The will has it an inheritance: since it no movements of its own as must coordinate and associate. and more psychological form. and movements expressive of emotion constitute the primary material of voluntary move ments. Growth of voluntary crossed and checked. by right of In like manner. Likeness of development in the two instances. not new associations.INTRODUCTION.

there is a pre of the inner over the outer. word. wanting something. which is is my my fellow creatures. On the other hand. For the creative imagination is the regulator. for we might repeat exactly. In both We instances there is now a simple end attained by im- . we have our true cause. is from within out wards toward an ing. being thus the opposite of the understanding. 3. Back of both. objectification. word then. what we have just said of the This is imagination. has it opposite characteristics receives is objective. For the ponderance the outside world is the understanding. from outside. whatever may be our opinion concerning the ultimate nature of causation and of will. unnecessary. i.10 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. the completely subjective character The imagination is anthropocentric its movement instances. the inner world The world of my imagination posed to the the world of world of all my world as op~ understanding. as regards the will.. or a cook making up a new dish. We are always inventing for an end whether in the case of a Napoleon imagining a plan of cam paign. 2. But this first comparison does not go to the . Both imagination and will have a teleological and act only with a view toward an end. there is a preponderance of the outer over the inner. as such. impersonal. The understand e. of both First. be it worthless or important. bottom of the matter there are yet deeper analogies. regulator. personal. character. which. subjective. the intellect in the restricted sense. . limits itself to are always proof.

bodied in any esthetic or practical invention. dreamers are the abulics of the creative imagination. which we shall attempt to make clear later. plete form.INTRODUCTION. with dreamers pure and simple.spontaneity. since it is the special . II mediate means. to assert itself in a work that shall exist not only for the creator but for everybody.&quot. of asserting itself in The creative imagination also. the imagination re mains a vaguely sketched inner affair it is not em . ert. The characteristic of novelty should by itself suffice. now a complex and distant goal pre supposing subordinate ends which are means in rela tion to the final end. to this analogy as regards their nature. or the resolution remains in incapable of realization. in its com practice. but with wavering characters and sufferers from abulia de liberation never ends. and a vis a fronte. On the contrary. an attracting movement. It is unnecessary to add that the similarity estab between the will and the imagination is only partial and has as its aim only to bring to light the role of the motor elements. Revery is the equivalent of weak desires. 4. and it would be foolish to delay in order to enumerate the differences. has a tendency to become objectified. complete form will culminates in an act. Surely no one will lished here confuse two aspects of our psychic life that are so distinct. In both cases there is a vis a tcrgo designated by the vague term &quot. secondary likenesses between the Added there are other. abortive forms of the creative imagination and the In its normal and impotent forms of the will.

great or small. viz. is organic.I2 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. for voli and indispensable mark of invention.. . in mental life. requires a unifying principle there is then also a synthetic factor. indeed. After these preliminary remarks we must go on to the analysis of the creative imagination. it may be decomposed into its ments. and the unconscious factor. in order to understand its nature in so far as that is acces It is. certain Being com elementary logical operations.). which we shall study under these three head ings. a ter sible with our existing means. time as the although it is no longer a novelty. if we assume a pri formation tiary mary layer (sensations and simple emotions). and a secondary (images and their associations. constituent ele posite. etc. and tion The extraction of a tooth only accessory: as much effort the second requires of the patient is first. which it will be neces synthesis. But the analysis should be completed is not enough . : sary to determine. the intellectual factor. the affective or that emotional factor. by a All imaginative creation.



is the &quot. It is a spontaneous operation and of a more radical nature than the other. dissociation. only on isolated states of consciousness. it &quot. Considered under in so far as it its intellectual aspect. the imagination presupposes two funda mental operations the one. who well understood its of the older psy importance for the subject with which because we are now concerned. and constitu Dissociation chologists.abstraction&quot. Perception is a synthetic process. strictly socalled.CHAPTER I THE INTELLECTUAL FACTOR. Nevertheless. seems to me It is more comprehensive. acts dissociation acts. on series of states of con which it sorts out. positive tive. but dissociation (or abstraction) already present in embryo in . further. the other. association. Abstraction. that is. negative and prepara tory.dissociation&quot. the term preferable. sciousness. designates a genus of which the other is a species. breaks up. borrows its elements from the under standing. dissolves. and through this preparatory work makes suitable for entering into new is combinations.

nature dependent on that of previous per it is inevitable that the work of dissocia tion should go on in it. perception.j6 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. order. is a delusion of consciousness that. uninterested spectator same manner the qualities that interest one are : a sportsman.&quot. But this is far too mild a statement. a simplification of sensory data. have remained clean-cut in our we have memory. we may roughly study dif ferentiate images into three categories complete^ and schematic-^-and them in The group prises first. for additional reasons. my inkstand. how disappears when one confronts aphorism. etc. the sound of a church bell or of a neighboring clock.Apperception (Tr. the well-known &quot.) . ac Everyone perceives after and the impression of the cording to his constitution moment. Observation and experiment show us that in the majority of cases the process grows won In order to follow the progressive de derfully. in the strict word ? They cannot be and the con . 1 The image being and its ceptions.*. Cf. velopment of incomplete. this dissolution. In this class are also included the images of things that perceived but a few times. but which. the A painter. of images here termed complete objects com daily repeatedly presented in experience my wife s face. and an do not see a given horse in unnoticed by another. a dealer. just an individual fashion. trary belief ever. because the latter is a complex state. J sense of the Are these images complete. it with the ist alles.

ties I? all The mental image can contain the quali of an object in even less degree than the per ception. makes elsewhere. painter Fromentin. which I believe preferable. one is placed in the presence of the original object. of things. the image is the result of selection. partly real. The was proud &quot. it is not at all doubtful that the results hold good for others. the following confession &quot. after a lapse of some time. another form. song. however. especially those of hearing (voice. harmony). but recent investigations have shown that among men generally the so-called complete and exact images undergo change and warping. so that comparison between the real Let us object and its image becomes possible.gt. 1897. One its place. In proportion as the exact form becomes altered. vary ing with every case. note that in this group the image always corresponds 1 1 See especially J.My memory has never the ad faithful. the more is it changed in becoming the prop erty of my memory and the more valuable is it for the work that I intend for it. in La deformation et les transfor mations des images ber.&quot. takes Note that the person speaking thus is a painter endowed with an unusual visual mem ory. Revue PMosophique.an that he found after recollection&quot. The weaker it grows. Philippe. May and Novem Although these investigations had in view only visual representations. reality. who or three years two&amp. sees the truth of this statement when. . partly imaginary. he had barely noticed on a journey.THE INTELLECTUAL FACTOR. certainty although very exact of things : missible as documentary evidence.

the greatest degree of impoverishment. comes from two distinct sources first. not the same with the other two groups. having looked into a poultryto call up a picture of a hen. become blunted by their collision just as Images do bodies by friction. from perceptions insuffi ciently or ill-fixed. ii. well described by Taine. from impressions of which. 2. I. deprived little by little of its own characteristics. then. riences a difficulty his different memories rise up. . etc. The group according to the testimony of consciousness itself. end has been by becoming confused. expe wishes yard. of a This is cigarette. The image. 2 This group leads us to that of schematic images. it is to certain individual objects. says he. having gone through an avenue of poplars wants to picture a poplar or. The experiment becomes a cause of effacement the images canceling one another decline to a state of imperceptible tendencies which their likeness and unlikeness prevent from predominating. when too often repeated. of incomplete images. of a pin.!g THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. who. It has become that transitional form between image and pure concept that we now term or one that at &quot. or those entirely without mark the indefinite image of a rosebush. The latter case A man. of suppression and addition. . Vol. is nothing more than a shadow. . like objects and again. of dissocia* On Intelligence.generic image/ least resembles the latter. Bk. Chap. the image. is subject to an unending process of change.

or rather since. then.&quot. it is not at all like a photographic plate with which one may reproduce copies indefinitely. Dissociation. especially losses. is But subject to gains and losses. Images are not solitary form part of a chain. kinds o imagination form. Being dependent on the undergoes change state of the brain. and reduces them to ruins. nella storia filosofia (Eome. which consists in the pass- La *In his recent history of the theories of the imagination.THE INTELLECTUAL tion FACTOR. but that is a purely theoretic position. each of the foregoing three classes has its use for the inventor. Thus we have We isolated have. for the mechanic and the artist for the scientist in their schematic form. seemingly. IQ it and corrosion. by reason of their manifold radiate in all relations they all may directions. seen only a part of the work of dissociation and. This means that is not a dead thing. they of a woof or net. works also upon them up. in actual life. They serve as material for different in their concrete . . as psychic atoms. cuts &quot. and for others. Perceptio prceterita Integra recurrit cujus prcesens continet partem. through the senses. breaks them. the smallest far part. taking it all in all. 1754] : &quot. mangles them. The ideal law of the recurrence of images is that known since Hamilton s time under the name of series. considered images as facts.law of 1 redintegration. the image it like all living substance. 1898) Ambrosi shows that this law is found already formulated in the Psychologia Empirica of Christian Wolff [d. psicologia dell immaginazione.

each member of a series the whole of that series. terial in the and there are many Then. to the whole. various remain unnoticed because they are imma concerns of life. ciation of series. monument. We dissociation.essential&quot. . to exclude that of no from consciousness. a or subjective causes. and this which survives dissociation depends on subjective causes. most often. a land scape. Helm- holtz has details shown that in the act of seeing. and drop the minor details. If this law existed to us. very strange that.2O THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. But there that frees us it is we should be is an opposite power It is dissociation. each element tending ing from a part to reproduce the complete state. which are the ten is It is dency already mentioned to ignore what value. also has not laws of its own. while psychologists have for so long a time studied the laws of association. depends on various conditions that revive the essential part &quot. which would be outside of our province. only partial. there are the internal it will suffice to indicate in passing two general conditions determining the asso The It revived image of a face. emotional reasons governing the attention orientate it exclusively in one directionthese will be studied in the course other like instances. utilitarian reasons. invention would be forever forbidden . is. no one has investigated whether the inverse process. the principal ones of at first practical. an occurrence. can not here attempt such a task. we could not emerge from repetition condemned to monotony. alone. First. too.

The mentions. tual reasons. Many truths (for example. When two or qualities or events are given as constantly as sociated in experience we do not dissociate them. there are logical or intellec we understand by this term the law of mental inertia or the law of least resistance by means of which the mind tends toward the simpli fication and lightening of its labor. p. This might be called a law of association by concomitant varia tions. 21 Lastly. total impression. who had never seen whom Sully refused to credit the existence of solid water. . there are external or objective causes which are variations in experience. The uniformity of nature s laws is the great oppo nent of dissociation. Secondly. James adds further transparency. 502.THE INTELLECTUAL of this work. I. James. Human Mind. we difficult to dis tinguish cold from moisture and liquidity from On his part. let us note that total 1 Sully. would be unanalyzable. 365 . the elements of which had never been given us sep A If arately in experience. if FACTOR. I. all cold objects were moist. more the existence of the antipodes) are established with difficulty. if all liquids were transparent and should find it all non- liquids opaque. knit associations. p. because it is necessary to break up closely oriental king ice. Psychology. and all moist objects cold. that what has been associated sometimes with one thing and sometimes with another tends to become dissociated from both. 1 In order to thoroughly comprehend the absolute necessity for dissociation.

As a result of these various causes. which are but their imitations. g. pact whole and cannot enter into The other is small. They omit no detail. natural causes of association. faultless musical rendering. shattered. say that there are they cannot In we may is two kinds of e. routine. produces old rocks. The acquisition forms a com new combinations. etc. select short.22 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. is per se a hindrance redintegration can who easily remember of people amples are given if they want but book. broken up. the are on a dead level. give lectually the impor even* occurrence. images are taken to pieces. memory bined in plastic and capable of becoming com new ways. those rare cases. This is a process analogous to that which. mem ory: one completely systematized. and We have enumerated the spontaneous. Minds of this kind are inapt at invention. to creation. omitting the voluntary artificial causes. habits. it is composed of This kind of less coherent groups. in geologic time. new strata through the wearing away of . intel that ignorant people. poetry or prose learned by heart. a of or pages Ex twenty thirty unable to pick it out a particular passage they are down the at beginning and continue they must begin ease of retention Excessive to the required place. in which all the parts useless the and useful tant and the accessory. but made all the readier as materials for the inventor. more or is not systematized. Besides these thus becomes a serious inconvenience. we know invariable same the story of limited..

Consequently. is faulty. 190. association being active also in It seems indicative psychic states other than ideas. in turn. emotional. consult Titchener. Out Psychology (New York. it would be difficult has been confirmed by to eliminate the phrase. should be eliminated. 1896). this subject can not be treated in one single effort. psychologists are not at all agreed as regards the determination of the principal laws or forms of association. p. but as subject.THE INTELLECTUAL FACTOR. hensive enough. Our that very brief question ciation give rise to new combinations and All other under what influences do they arise? forms of association. it must be studied. its it it one of the big questions of psy does not especially concern our is easier than limiting our reducible to a very clear and What are the forms of asso will be discussed in strict proportion to use here. rather states of mere juxtaposition. . II 23 Association is chology. unconscious.as 1 It is not compre sociation of ideas&quot. long usage. Nothing task is : selves. I adopt the Without taking sides most generally accepted classification. the one most suitable for our subject the one that reduces everything to the two funda1 lines of For a good criticism of the term. in its relations to our three factors intellectual. as it being connected. On the other hand. in the debate. those that are only repetitions. whereas associated modify one another by the very fact of their But. It is generally admitted that the expression &quot.

they can later be recalled A reciprocally. In mental laws of contiguity and recent years various attempts have been made to reduce these two laws to one. reproduces the order and connection of things. and which due to excessive zeal for unity. Wundt calls internal. which Wundt It it calls external. which seems to is perhaps me very useless. although . because it has well shown that each of the two fundamental laws has a characteristic mechan ism. Putting aside the ground of this dis cussion. we must nevertheless recognize that this discussion is not without interest for the study of the creative imagin ation. contiguity to re semblance. an elementary law? Without entering into the long and frequently confused discussions to which this subject has given rise. state a A is recognized as more or less like a previously experienced. which speaking. Is association by resemblance. reduces itself to habits contracted by our nervous system. others. is simple and homogeneous. (b) That of the work of assimilation. Association by contiguity (or continuity). a A is given in perception or association-by-contiguity. some reducing re semblance to contiguity.24 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. resemblance. we may sum up their re sults as follows: In so-called association by re Many doubt semblance it is necessary to distinguish three state mo ments (a) That of the presentation. strictly it. and forms the starting point. (c) As a conse quence of the coexistence of and a in consciousss.

and that consists of an act of active assimilation. is A evident that the crucial it moment &quot. . I. cit. 1896). The essential. James. by partial and often accidental resemblance. fundamental element of the creative imagination in the intellectual sphere is the capacity of thinking by analogy that is. may not possibly have existed together. causality. of substance and object. as the work will sufficiently show.. p. 590. Psychologie.. is a genus of Let us examine in some detail the mechanism of *For the discussions on the reduction to a unity. (Eng. op. pp. clt. .). 25 and a have pre the two original occurrences viously never existed together. On the comparison of the two laws. Sully. 152 iff. of distance.it is the second. I. op. Lehrbuch der Psychologic (Stuttgart.THE INTELLECTUAL FACTOR. Outlines of Psychology. After this rather long but necessary preface. Consequently of the it is the principal source of the material sequel of this creative imagination. and the associative machinery some second object which calls up. we come to the intellectual factor rightly so termed. 490. a detailed bibliography will be found in Jodl. or of contrast between an and content. Association by resemblance presupposes a joint it is an active labor of association and dissociation form. of accident. By analogy we mean an . ed. and sometimes. is Thus James maintains that mind perceives after the fact. which we have been little by little approaching. in It deed. 331 ff Hoffding. imperfect kind of resemblance: like which analogue is a species. of container a relation that the just as it may per ceive the relations of superiority.&quot. 213 ff.

characteristically naive working of the primitive explaining the unknown in terms of the known. It rests on a variable element. Fart II. Here. there occurs Note here a in intellect &amp. It symbolically one of the constitutive attributes compared. Chap. 1 Lastly. If the number of the elements common to both in analogy will grow in the same propor But the agreement represented above is not infrequent among minds unused to a somewhat se creases. vere discipline.26 this THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. mode of thought in order that we may under stand how analogy is. below. the likeness between cetacians are great. (Tr. the tion.!.) . numerous agreements are possible. solely Analogy may be based on the number of Let a b c d e f and r s t u d v be two beings or objects. 1 A Analogy may have for its basis the quality or compound attributes. from the reality to the appearance. is evident that the analogy between the two is very weak. 2. 3. child sees in the moon and stars a mother surrounded by her daughters. d.lt.mussel. The abori gines of Australia called a book &quot. by its very nature. and slight. provided one take no account either of their solidity or their frailty.-. each letter representing attributes. which oscillates from the essential to the accidental.&quot. merely because it opens and shuts like the valves of a shell fish. value of the To fishes the layman. to the scientist. since there is only one common element. again. an almost inexhaustible instrument 1. of creation. in minds without power. iii.

reducible to two principal types or processes. common between g h a i f and letter /. and acts of will analogous to ours. ently. always It goes out from ourselves toward other things. but transitory. an unstable process. and finally an and analogy becomes established between x y J z q for no other reason than that of their com abode mon rare. 27 a semi-unconscious operation that we may call a transfer through the omission of the middle term. however. inextricable. identical with It consists in attributing life to everything. analogy with g h a i f. After these remarks on the mechanism of think in equal measure ab ing by analogy. passions. In the realm of the affective states. It is rad itself. Analogies are so numerous. appar ploys in its creative work. in sup life posing in everything that shows signs of and even in inanimate objects desires.THE INTELLECTUAL FACTOR. and transformation or metamorphosis. which are personification. that we may despair of finding any regularity whatever in creative work. Through it its pliability. gives rise to the most unforeseen and novel groupings. let us glance at the processes it em The problem is. which is produces surd comparisons and very original inventions. ical. Personification is the earlier process. so arbitrary. undulating and multiform. transfers of this sort are not at all Analogy. acting like ourselves . There is analogy between abode and g h a i f through the common x y f 2 Q through the letter a. Despite this it seems. so various. almost unlimited.

of our lives. but it incomprehensible to an must be admitted. and one that personification is always is This perennial fount whence have gushed the greater number of myths.2g THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. permanent process under many forms. have passed through this inevitable stage of universal animism. but from one object to another. mental bases semblances (a This operation rests on two funda depending at one time on vague re cloud becomes a mountain. and a large process of the number of word. since there are facts without num in ber that show its existence. savage works of ethnologists. But this stage. Works on abound in observations that leave for doubt on this point. all esthetic productions. To sum up in a things that have been invented ex analogia hominis. no possible room endows every child The thing with tion as life. at the of all us. an enormous mass of superstitions. civilized which among disposition people lasts period. view of definite ends. or a . in travelers of lands. proceeding not from the thinking subject towards objects. remains in the primitive man only a brief a permanent active. We do not need to They fill the cite they are too well known. during our earliest child-psychology childhood. of books them commencement mythology. of Besides. Transformation or metamorphosis is a general. from one thing to an other. It consists of a transfer through partial resemblance. This state of mind is adult civilized man. is he and he does so the more in propor more imaginative.

is At one end of the made between valueless or At the other end. is sorrow. for. and scientific moment mechanical. in mercial. be believed on that account that it remains restricted to the realm of art or of the de creates velopment of language. com invention. allegories. 2Q the sound of the wind a plaintive cry. doubtless. the so on). sign. artifice.THE INTELLECTUAL FACTOR. symbols. Hence it is not at all surprising that the imagination is often a substitute forerunner of. or again. and as Goethe expressed it. the degrees. Between the creative imagination and ra &quot. later. reason. that analogy. as an imperfect said above. for example. and becomes the mark. approaches cognition.). trary. industrial. the cypress. and we shall.&quot. on a resemblance with a predominating emotional element: per A ception provokes a feeling. is comparison to exaggerated likenesses. not to perceive. mountain a fantastic animal . etc. Let us note. in practical life. meet it We every give a large number of examples in support of this statement. and erroneous or arbi vent. briefly. it should not. strictly so called . but the function of the imagination is to in All know that this process metaphors. or plastic form thereof (the lion represents courage. in mechan ical and scientific invention. if form of resemblance as was we as sume among nesses and the objects compared a totality of like differences in varying proportions all necessarily allows scale. All cat. this.a tional investigation there is a community of nature . analogy it restricted exact resemblance. however.

great difference of opinion.thinkers&quot.vis 1 ionaries&quot.). like both presuppose the ability of seizing upon of the the On the other hand. who do intellectual attainment through with the persons of great nothing. a difference outset the exact process establishes from between &quot. (Tr. be ranked whose efforts the progress of the world is made. of the &quot. predominance nesses.thinkers. individual an undercurrent of feeling that the narrowly &quot.3Q THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. process. an open question J It is yet. that &quot. Even in this intenselyage practical there is tical&quot. certainly. the author seeks to make imagination rank of the two bents of (see Introduction).) . whether we can draw any clear distinction between the two The author is careful to base kinds of mind here discussed. and imaginative dreamers (&quot.imaginative&quot. As regards the relative value or mind there has ever been. can not.prac is not the final ideal. results or accomplishments the crucial test of true on the other hand.predominance&quot. and probably forever will be. and will probably long remain. or of the &quot.&quot.a dreamer lives forever.rational&quot. and the innermost con viction of many is the same as that of the poet who declares but a thinker dies in a day.&quot. So-called &quot. his distinction on the &quot.

but is. He does not need at all to investigate whether emotions and which is an passions give rise to mental phantoms but why and how they arise. The tion. The point of view of the psychologist is altogether different. on the contrary. that it penetrates the entire field of invention with no re striction whatever. although we may not be able at this moment to exhaust the topic. strictly justified . that this is not a gratuitous as fluence of the emotional life sertion. tion is it is the ferment without which no crea Let us study it in its principal forms. possible. the emotional factor yields in importance to no other. who most often have criticised or condemned it as an endless cause of mistakes.CHAPTER II THE EMOTIONAL FACTOR. indisputable fact For. It is necessary to show at the outset that the in is unlimited. influence of emotional states on the is working of the imagination a matter of current observa But it has been studied chiefly by moralists.

for all invention presupposes a want. turn the dejection of repulse and the joy of success. not in emo simple. facts. over. a solitary challenge anyone to produce of invention wrought out in example I dbstracto. of anger. an unsatisfied impulse. finally the satisfaction of being freed from a heavy burden. who hold that &quot. Here . it is concomitant. a craving. a tendency. it accompanies all the phases or turns of creation. creation. and that we are right following two propositions by : in maintaining the All forms of the creative imagination imply elements of feeling. The creator may. etc. haphazard. often More even a state of gestation full of discomfort.. that is.&quot. of hope. of spite. the role of the tional life is added to imagination in its This is an its mechanical and intellectual form.22 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. of two distinct cases. in its most general form. tative psychologists. and free from any factors of feeling. the role of is emotional element double. first. The emotional element is the primal. This statement has been challenged by authori i. let us take up the special case of esthetic and of forms approaching thereto. Let us consider invention. error of fact resulting from the confusion. orig inal factor. under its form of pleasure or of pain. Human Now. nature does not allow such a miracle. esthetic aspect.emotion is imperfect the case of non-esthetic creation. in esthetic creation. diverse forms of exaltation feel in go through the most and depression may . or from In the analysis.

two currents of feeling the one. constituting emotion as material for art. . that the poet. as But. even the sculptor and the painter characters. in his short and substantial monograph on the imagination. and the musi cian often. in this second instance. then attached to various aspects of creation. affective states become material for the creative ac tivity. the other. Here. 33 we find the original emotional element as at motor. The existence of an emotion-content belonging to esthetic production changes in no way the psychologic mechanism of invention generally. I find opponents. again. 2. drawing out creative activity and develop then. indeed.THE EMOTIONAL again first FACTOR. 1889. experience the thoughts and feeling of their become identified with them. in addition. p. the dramatist. or exciting and depressing. Graz. Its absence in other forms of imagination does not at all prevent the necessary existence of affective elements everywhere and always. There are. All emotional dispositions whatever may in fluence the creative imagination. 48. almost a rule. Adopting the twofold division of emotions as sthenic and asthenic. he attributes to the first the exclusive privilege of influencing creative activity but though the author limits his study exclusively to the esthetic . the novelist. ing along with it. notably OelzeltNewin. 1 1 Ueber Phantasievorstellungen. a well-known fact. It is an accompaniment. The difference between the two cases that we have distinguished consists in this and nothing more than this.

over the storm. that all forms of emotion. musicians. then. when the Sorrow rightly belongs in the category of depres sing emotions. facts The untenable. which substituted for the beloved object. consists indignatio versum? As for love. as act without exception. inventions of all to esthetic creation. it has as great influence on Do we not know invention as any other emotion. milder intellectualized forms. and so forth. deny Yet is it not the mother of phan of altogether irra toms. tional and chimerical religious practices? in its exalted. is the type of asthenic fear that No one will manifestations. the disenchanted lover finds himself face to face with the bare reality. is his thesis. premeditated these dispositions of the mind fertile in artifices. that melancholy and even profound sorrow has fur nished poets. Are not vengeance. and yet. everyone knows that its work is of creating an imaginary being. it is easy to demonstrate leaven for imagination. jealousy. which are various modifications of primitive fury. even understood thus. is rather an Anger. which seems to contradict my agent of destruction. is it necessary to recall the say ing facit It is not necessary to demonstrate the fecundity of joy.34 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. enmity. imagination. which is thesis. and it contradict completely. passing from the acute to the chronic state: envy. but let us pass and we find in its place always of short duration. of numberless superstitions. violent form. kinds? To keep even stratagems. passion has vanished. and sculptors with . painters.

of feeling its expansion. santly bubble.disinterested&quot. as Groos has so truly remarked.THE EMOTIONAL FACTOR. i. and every creator has a consciousness of his superiority over non-creators.Der hinted at in literature.). Cf. it 1 must be recognized. Goethe s Sanger&quot. 1896. their 35 art frankly most beautiful inspirations? Is there not an and deliberately pessimistic? And this is influence not at all limited to esthetic creation. (Tr. enfeebled power. that the artist does not create out of the simple pleasure of creating. but in order that he may behold 2 Production is the a mastery over other minds. that complex emotion termed &quot. view is found widely advocated or &quot.. Although we have been surfeited with the repeated statement that the characteristic mark of esthetic creation is &quot. Dare we hold that hypochondria and insanity fol lowing upon the delirium of persecution are devoid Their morbid character is. fers However petty his invention. The subject has been very well treated by this author.&quot. it con upon him a superiority over those who have invented nothing.being disinterested. . 294-301. a creator. pp. Lastly. leads us directly to the motor elements that are the fundamental conditions of invention. on the of imagination? the well whence strange inventions inces contrary. The &quot.self-feel reduces itself finally to the pleasure of which ing.&quot. all. or and our power asserting to the pitiable feeling of our shackled. Jena. e. Above in this personal feeling. l Die Spiele der Thiere. there is the satisfaction of being a casual factor.

at life. the completely systematized forms hardened into routine and habit. but.imagination&quot. &quot. ing&quot. that of &quot.&quot. natural extension of and the accom is the pleasure conquest. g. this brings us to the association of ii We of have said above that the ideal and theoretic is law of the recurrence of images redintegration.. of emotional vention. and sheltered from fluences. among esthetics. it outside of these cases. to note how it can give rise to new com binations.self-feeling.&quot. and ideas. and may be stated thus In every past event the interesting parts alone revive.total as e. we that condition on Thus. here means what affects us in some way under . cept. &quot. remains an abstract con To real this law of ideal value. it unduly to to its full sense.36 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.Interest interest&quot. not curs. or with more intensity than the others. this with neither additions nor omissions. recalling all the incidents a long voyage in chronological order. But formula expresses what ought to be.law of or the affective law. of memory. It what all actually oc supposes It suits man reduced to a state of pure disturbing in intelligence. : revival of images. It not one that may not stimulate in remains to see this emotional factor work. panying pleasure extend &quot. there is and practical opposed the law that actually obtains in the It is rightly styled the &quot. without limiting of the forms the there many is.

the Whatever the truth may be emotional factor brings about several processes. Schopenhauer.THE EMOTIONAL FACTOR. but be cause they have a 1 common emotional note. not because they have been pre viously given together. This differs and from associa tion by contiguity. in this matter. and William James calls before them. with a nat depending on momen They exist because of the fact tary dispositions. tion we indeed. that representations that have been accompanied by the same emotional state tend later to become associated : the emotional resemblance reunites links disparate images. doubtless is less exact than the intel laws of contiguity and resemblance. and from association by resemblance in the intellectual sense. distinguish these three things If. Let us note that the importance of this fact has been pointed out not by the associationists (a fact especially worth remem bering) but by less systematic writers. 1 it the &quot. new combinations by There are the ordinary. emotional foundation. Never theless. of interest&quot. it seems to penetrate all the more in later lectual reasoning.ordinary or mixed association.&quot. not because we perceive the agreement of resemblance between them. causes the practical law brings us near to causes. laws. . 571 ff. I. in the problem of associa facts. Shadworth Hodgson. The states of consciousness be come combined. The &quot. Joy. Psychology.law that school. which is a repetition of expe rience. ural. strangers to Coleridge. 37 a pleasing or painful form. simple cases.

or latent. but.colored exceptional emotional base. i. We been offered in regard to the origin of this phe nomenon. and unlimited field for novel combinations. but having emotional stamp. There are unusual and remarkable cases with an Of such is &quot. number of tion. erotic. fatigue. a matter of &quot. said.^g sorrow. when must have been the rule. the number We that this of images having a common emotional factor being very great. very frequent in dreams This form of association of mind in which the state and reveries. the result of supposed anastamoses between the cerebral centers for visual and auditory sensations. ennui. if not for all it is . easily see haphazard. the result of nervous irradiation. joyous. must cause entirely offers an almost unexpected grouping to arise. the result of association.affective&quot. Embryologically. etc. physiologically.&quot. melancholy. is etc. pride. of the emotional factor. admiration. may become a center of attraction that or events having otherwise no ra groups images the same tional relations between them. THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. hatred. as Flournoy imagina (for in- has observed. ter This lat hypothesis seems to account for the greater instances. it would seem to be the result of an incomplete separation between the sense of sight and that of hearing. anatomically. Two sensations absolutely unlike .. love. e. psychologically.. it is this state from a distant period of humanity. and the survival. several that know hypotheses have hearing. in a imagination enjoys complete freedom and works active influence.

that they are preparing the esthetics of the It must be here admitted that there exists future). Poe. scarcely ever found outside the esthetic or practical life. I wish to speak of the forms of invention that permit only pushed to the extreme (Hoffman. barely per which is a subejct for supposition. refined. ceptible cases.col smell. taste. and this emotional factor becomes a bond of association. the origin of belonging to very few people: certain artists and some eccentric or unbalanced minds. who believe. or pains. an abnormal and tastes. subtle. moreover. for guessing rather than for clear com It is. these modes of association are susceptible to analysis. fantastic conceptions. Wiertz. that is. Baudelaire. which many cultivate and refine as though it were a precious rarity. and seem clear. Although we meet them only as exceptional cases. extraordinary thoughts. etc. the color blue 39 and the sound i) may resemble one another through the equal retentive quality that they possess in the organism of some favored indi viduals. stance. Observe that this much more unusual hypothesis ex cases of &quot.). of a strangeness or surprising. a sort of imagination prehension. an altogether special manner of feeling. plains also the ored&quot. almost self-evident. rightly or wrongly. known of no other men (the symbolists and decadents that flourish at the present time in various countries of Europe and America. dependent on temperament at first. association between given colors and pain. smells. There . Goya. if we compare them with other.THE EMOTIONAL FACTOR.

vague. superficial. consists of contiguity all of us have in memory as : sociated couples. the one. know that this form of only by and for us. In association by contrast we may distinguish two layers. Association by contrast is. which result from repetition and habit. It is association is not primary and irreducible. in truth. indicates deep Let emotional rather than an intellectual origin. on an essentially subjective and fleeting conception. . such as large-small. but not to a toothache. most often. contraries exist . the true source of their invention. to to assert this pertinently. an its subjective character. the other. These two views do not seem to We me irreconcilable. that the novelty. contrast ex ists only where a terms is possible. deep.4 lies THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. it seems evident the creative act. a wedding There is may be compared to a burial (the union and separa tion of a couple). rich-poor. etc. the strangeness of combinations. it would be necessary their physical establish the direct relations between and psychical constitution and that of their work. to note even the particular states at the moment of To me at least. is resemblance. indeterminate. from its very nature. that of contrariety. It rests. which it is almost impossible to delimit scientifically for. common measure between two As Wundt remarks. high- low. right-left. arbitrary. brought down by some to contiguity. by most others to resemblance. Doubtless. us merely add that these abnormal manifestations through of the creative imagination belong to the province of pathology rather than to that of psychology..

there are conscious elements op posed to one another. contrast between sounds.. Psychologic. that evokes and relates the con Whether this explanation be right or not. full of unforeseen possibilities. But. p. .colored&quot. the special property of the emo tional life is moving among contraries. let us remark that association by contrast could not be left out. the effects of contrasts pleasure and pain. I lends itself easily to novel relations. trans. are much stronger than in the realm of sensation. &quot. and below. resemblance. 161.THE EMOTIONAL FACTOR. it is alto gether determined by the great opposition between Thus. it becomes dimmed in the precise forms of practical. because its mechanism. but felt scious elements. Otherwise. instances of as in the previously sound. in creation of the free fancy. This form of association predominates in esthetic and mythic creation. contrast 41 between two colors. 219 . and scientific invention. an unconscious not clearly and logically element. as 1 Hoffding observes. perceived. at least in that there may not be a common basis to which we may given tion relate them. in Hitherto we have considered the emotional factor under a single aspect only the purely emotional that which is manifested in consciousness under an 1 Hoffding. Eng. that is to say. mechanical. p. In associa by contrast. but not between a sound and a color. do not at all claim that it is entirely dependent upon the emotional factor.

reality. but there is moment can ative no special psychic manifestation that instinct. an &quot. compared to a mere figure of speech. perceptible in others. may : be the &quot. feelings. this indicates that the &quot.42 agreeable THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.&quot.are say pushed certain If I like animals toward the accomplishment of acts. which. This motor element is what current speech and often even psychological treatises designate under the terms &quot. are needs. For animal I do not hesitate to maintain that the creative taken in this is instinct. could it be? Every particular end hunger. what that creators are guided by instinct and &quot. strict meaning. mistake not. common to all men. e.en instinct.inventive in we express in another form when we stinct.&quot. that are deeper and emotions include elements i.cre instinct has its own What. beaver. tendencies. ant. an abstraction. desires. could produce in turn an opera.&quot. motor. as a There regarded tity&quot. brilliant in the great inventors. thirst..&quot. consist of a group of is terminate end that movements adapted for a de always the same. the specific instincts of the bee. instinct&quot. indeed.creative feeble in exists in all men to some extent some. or disagreeable or mixed form. in a given individual at a given result in a creative act. what by ma- would be a creative instinct in general which. a . &quot. hypothesis. impulsive or inhibitory which we may neglect the less since it is in move ments that we seek the origin of the creative imagin ation. But thoughts. sex.creative instinct. Now. appetites.

there is required. is seek for the primary cause of all in evident that the motor element alone If the needs are strong. remembering. In short. or. will produce nothing. of motor activi blind forces that. a metaphysical theory. instincts. in order that a creative act occur. the Suppose man gence. again. is. indis pensable without the first. that it arouse a com. remains entirely destitute. nothing begins without the second. festations. appetites. sources. A want so common as hunger or thirst suggests to one some ingenious method of satisfying it another . else. be cause there is nothing to solicit it. is the intel it. I hold that it is in needs that we must it is ventions. lectual factor insufficient. lacking a sufficient cerebral organ. 43 chine. that associating. and nothing All creative activity is then impossible. a system of finance. they may determine a production.THE EMOTIONAL FACTOR. It is a a plan of military campaign. he is reduced to organic mani then no more than a bundle of that is. energetic. first. . may spoil Many want to make discoveries but discover nothing. The cooperation of both these factors : is . ties. reasoning. dissociating. Suppose. and so forth ? has not a Inventive but source. man wants. if insufficient. nothing results. a need then. genius pure fancy. Let us consider from our present viewpoint the human duality. homo duplex reduced to a state of pure : intelli capable of perceiving.

who produce nothing great travelers. they bring forth childish or chimerical So that we may answer the question productions. living remain crushed under the load encyclopedias. what man has brought to pass in the domain of art. on the one hand. chilly memoirs. prodigies of reading. that objectify and realize itself in an appropriate form. is one imaginative ? We the question. it bination of images. people who easily move and but are limited. have seen and heard much. Without contenting ourselves with these theoret remarks. asked above: The non-imaginative person is such from lack of materials or through the absence of re sourcefulness. theless. and who draw from their colorless anecdotes. . there are act. who and of their erudition. All the work of the creative imagination may be classed under two ical great heads esthetic inventions and practical in ventions. let us rapidly show that it is thus that these things actually happen. men experiences only a few : who were tary events or mili partakers in great political behind leave who only a few dry movements.44 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. Why let us put the opposite question. On the other hand. and on the other hand. being nearer than the others to the imagin ative type. shall try later (in the Conclusion) to answer In passing. Their intellectual pov lacking images and ideas. and lastly. never erty condemns them to unproductiveness. Why is one not in in the imaginative? One may possess exhaustible treasure of facts and images and yet mind an for example.

has reason for being. has a need of acting upon it he tries to conciliate them. There are narrow sense that pertains to food. face to face with the higher powers of nature. etc. first the class of non-esthetic cre Very different in nature.THE EMOTIONAL FACTOR. its and unjustifiable. service is by magic all not at and operations. they arise from the necessity of maintaining the coherence of the social aggregate and of defending it against inimical The work of the imagination whence have groups.practical&quot. at first and foreign to practical This is an erroneous supposition. the mystery of which he does not penetrate. Let us consider ations. Every one of these special needs has stimu lated inventions adapted to a special end. defense. even to turn them to his . but in order to act upon the outside world and to draw profit therefrom. His curiosity theoretic. tions in the social Inven and political order answer to the conditions of collective existence. they are born of a vital need. because his reason . arisen the myths. Man. housing. in the the inventions &quot. religious conceptions. 45 Though this division it may appear strange. of one of the conditions of first all man s existence. all else. he does not aim to know for rites the sake of knowing. as we shall see hereafter. To the numerous questions that necessity puts to him his is imagination alone responds. clothing. and the first attempts at a scientific explanation disinterested may seem life. all the products of this group coincide at one point: they are of practical utility.

is not a question of existence but of better exist The same holds true of social and political ence. through transformation and complication. useless as regards the preservation of the individual. nonetheless. by an urgent need . Lastly. dis interested. speculative. for it is that a well-known elementary psychological law upon primitive wants are grafted acquired wants fully as imperative. According to the generally accepted theory which is too well known for me to stop to explain it.46 shifting THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. which is shown first in the form of play. invention again Here. and his scientific results then. in taste for pure research some men at least. Then. music. Let us now consider the class of esthetic creations. creation. knowledge nil. the fundamental activity toward . metamorphosed. art has its beginning in a superfluous. adapted there remains of it. and poetry at . dancing. Most of our mechanical. inventions which arise from the increasing complex and the new requirements of the aggregates ity forming great tive curiosity states. industrial and it commercial inventions are not stimulated by the immediate necessity of living. in the course of and on account of growing civilization all these creations reach a second is moment when their origin hidden. bounding activity. play be comes primitive art. it is certain that primi has partially lost its utilitarian char acter in order to become. from urgent needs. the nineteenth century Indeed. the theoretical. But all this in no way affects our thesis. The primitive need is modified.

man and in the higher animals plays are a prepa ration. let us accept false Aside from the true or for the present.. partial explanations. the inutility of play far from Groos. New York. works on the subject. There no instinct of play in general. 1898. 1 has maintained with much power the opposite view.THE EMOTIONAL FACTOR. which is the exercise In of the natural tendencies of human activities. and Die Spiele der Menschen. 1901). If we admit this explanation. need it is it as in the preced say that in place of a vital a need of luxury acting. it mechanism remains the same here ing cases. Appletons. this is obtained through play. based on the ex penditure of superfluous activity and the opposite who reduces play to a relaxa a are but is. Although the theory of the absolute inutility of art has met some strong criticism. 1896. recuperation of strength a In has use. a prelude to the active functions of is life. the work of the esthetic Groos. is Nevertheless. Play positive man there exist a great number of instincts that theory of Lazarus. must his he have education of capacities. the 47 same time. According to him the theory of Schiller and Spencer. but it acts only we shall only because is in man. closely united in an apparently indis soluble unity. in his two excellent proven biologically. 1899 (Eng. and ing. Die Spiele der Thiere. which does not lack potency. tion that An incomplete be are not yet developed at birth. trans. but there are special instincts that are manifested under the forms of play. 1 . the of character psychological inutility.

outside mechanics. character of which definite it still instinct. direction the Again. then. pre in the strict sense of the word. But these and similar characteristics may be lack Finally. so to speak. of stinct. . We on know the witticism of so Madame du awkward. would be reduced to a biological for making and there would be no reason we may view of it. so of Defiant Vaucanson. to a particular. the ease with ing. is reducible. polarized he is the slave : . and which cocity. invention remains established that any or indirectly. is a fan Whence. tastic notion. comes this persistent and in some idea that creation is an instinc respects seductive Because a happy invention has char tive result? it to instinctive ac acteristics that evidently relate First. directly that to allow man a special and determinate need. not for in There are great creators who have been neither precocious nor confined in a narrow field. They vention. Whichever itself imagination necessity a separate category adopt. who was insignificant &quot. orientation in a single of inventor is.&quot. of mathematics own his outside particular sphere. are necessary for instinct. should say that this man had manufactured him which invention often it resemble (not always) manifests itself makes the work of a pre-established mechanism. tivity which we shall later give numerous ex resembles the innateness of in amples. the specific should be stimulation to creative activity.48 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. often inapt at music. everything .One when he ventured self. of mechanics.

THE EMOTIONAL FACTOR. geometry or painting. acting within its ture. may become the beginning of a creative act. Every invention arises from a par ticular need of human nature. meet people visibly borne along toward love or good cheer. we have nothing in answer. that such is their character. . etc. the secret of In ordinary life we which we do not possess. riches or good works. 49 and who have given birth to their inventions pain Between the mechanism of in fully. tical. At bottom the two questions are iden is and current psychology not in a position to solve them. toward ambition. now it should be asked why the creative directs itself imagination rather than in another preferably in one line toward poetry or physics. ful own If sphere and for its own special end. use or hurtful. strategy or music.so built. stinct and that of imaginative creation there are frequently great analogies but not identity of na Every tendency of our organization. laboriously. we say that they are &quot.&quot. trade or mechanics. It is a result of the individual organization.

the human mind discovered all considers itself incapable of having that. Creation has arisen. one indicates pearance. always regarded as external and su to man. navigation.ay or an ural spirits. like all that is near the roots of creation. medicine. inspiration is literally ascribed among the Greeks to Apollo and the in like Muses. manner under various polythe Later.inspiration. the gods become supernat In one w. This concept has its and if it is permissible to apply a very general formula to a particular case we may say that it has developed according to the law of the three states assumed by the positivists.&quot. etc. In and semi-mythological ap spite of its mysterious a positive fact. this term I designate principally. we do . not exclu what ordinary speech calls &quot. In the beginnings of all inventions perior other it is agriculture. and istic religions. to the gods In the beginning. legis there is a belief in revelation. saints. angels. fine arts commerce. lation. the term that is ill-understood in a deep sense. history.CHAPTER III THE UNCONSCIOUS FACTOR i By sively.

however. &quot. and considered pect. we may it . scientific) explanation. it. &quot. semi-unconscious state which we must now study.poetic frenzy. we try to sound this unknown. will. forth.&quot. e. inspiration has two essential marks suddenness and impersonality.&quot. try to call but not always with encourage success. among attempt to fight against their evil fate and to create despite nature.&quot. inspiration presents a in its negative as very definite character. through the force of tradition.possession by a spirit/ one.&quot.the spirit whispers as it lists.being overcome. attempting a positive a (i. &quot. Inventors. Here we have come out of the super natural without.THE UNCONSCIOUS FACTOR. great and small. &quot.enthusiasm. Psychology sees in it a special mani festation of the mind. without believing in them. does not depend on the individual As in the it case of sleep or digestion.having the devil inside etc. never cease to complain over the periods of unproductiveness which maintain The wiser they undergo in spite of themselves. mere survivals. semi-conscious. &quot. Lastly. . such as &quot. But side by side with these formal survivals there remains a mysterious ground which is translated by vague expressions and metaphors. in the third stage.&quot. a particular. not 51 know how. Later on these higher beings become empty for mulas. there remain only the poets to invoke their aid. At It first sight. in a total ignorance of the pro cesses. Considered in its positive aspect.. them for watch the the others moment.

and when I was not Claude Bernard has thinking of the subject. Beethoven would strike haphazard the keys of a piano or would Chopin. &quot. &quot. a sudden resolve after endless deliberation seem able to come to a head. miraculous.creation &quot.In a life I have had some happy thoughts. which did not Again.&quot. the course of my little electric &quot.With says George Sand.2 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. complete. &quot. ness. says Du Bois Reymond. It has its analogues among other well-known a passion that is for psychic states. ing. there may be absence of effort and of appearance of preparation. heart at the same time that is the mo^seizing your ment of genius&quot. better. It reveals a power superior to the con scious individual. gotten. inspiration bursts forth in deep sleep sleeper. which. One might pile up like facts in abundance. strange to him although acting through him: a state which inventors have many . indeed. was spon taneous.You shock striking you in the head.&quot. and lest we may suppose suddenness to be especially characteristic of we see it in all forms of invention. Some and awakens the this artists feel times. an reveals itself through act. he It wrought without foresee come would sudden. (Buffon). sublime. a after long period of incubation. into conscious (a) It makes a sudden eruption a latent. one but frequently long.&quot.&quot. listen to the songs of birds. or. for example. (b) Impersonality is a deeper character than the preceding. voiced the same thought more than once.and I have often noted that they would to come me involuntarily. presupposing labor.

Still others of a more all analytic turn have noted the concentration of capacities on a single teristics it point. striving against ancient pythoness at the time of giving her oracle. and But whatever charac their faculties tom takes on. Some sub just like the painfully. Let tion. a &quot.I FACTOR. for others it is a gradual diminution of consciousness which 1 Several of them will be found in Appendix A at the end of this work. and some have the virtue of good observa 1 But that would lead us too far afield. We do not lack them. which one of the enigmas of psychology. Indeed. &quot. submit themselves entirely with pleasure or else sustain it passively. they reduce themselves to these two principal prop ositions: for some the unconscious is a purely physiological activity.&quot. In order to to make sure of its nature it would then make sure first of the nature of the is be necessary unconscious. we must admit. especially in religious inspiration.cerebration . remaining impersonal at bot and unable to appear in a fully conscious indi vidual. us only remark that this unconscious impulse acts variously according to the individual. that inspiration is derived from the unconscious activity of the mind. 53 counted for nothing in to The best means of recognizing it would be write down some observations taken from the inspired individuals themselves. unless we wish to give it a supernatural origin.THE UNCONSCIOUS expressed in the words. I put aside all the discussions on the subject as tiresome and useless for our present aim. . it mit to it Others. that.

as we know. and especially under the form known as &quot. We find. as a fact and let us limit ourselves to clearing it up.unconscious&quot.54 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION..the gift of tongues&quot. in religious epidemics. are alike only with respect to the great mass of separable materials. con sists of an extraordinary flood of memories totally new com lacking that essential mark of creation It binations. some obser vations (among others one by Regis of an illiterate newspaper vender composing pieces of poetry of his own). at the mania. On this subject see . Appendix B. But hypermnesia. the excited period of &quot. bound to me these are Both consciousness. indicating that a heightened memory some times accompanies a certain tendency toward in vention. i. even appears that in the two instances rather an antagonism since heightened ory comes near to the ideal law of total redintegra there is mem tion. beginning of general paralysis. it is true. full to the prin of difficulties 1 and present almost insurmountable objections. a hindrance to invention.&quot.circular insanity. pure and simple. or exaltation of memory. it. exists without being cipal e. Let us take the &quot. in of what has been said about it. is. spite Hypermnesia. teaches us nothing in regard to the nature of inspiration or of invention in general. It is produced in hypnotism. but where the principle of which They unity 1 is wanting there can be no creation. relating inspiration to mental states that have been judged worthy of explaining i.

tion names. The &quot. outline. The abundance bounding fancy of which novel have given such good descriptions. alcoholic liquors. It is a wellknown fact that many inventors have sought it in wine. temporary inspiration. artificial. Theophile Gautier. Inspiration has often been likened to the state of excitement preceding intoxication. an but analogous to the creations produced in It is dreams which are found very incoherent when we awake. strict sense. etc. of DeQuincy. compared to the action of the intellectual poisons above mentioned.THE UNCONSCIOUS FACTOR. its They do not take us may true nature. Baudelaire and others have made known to all an enormous expansion of the imagi nation launched into a giddy course without limits of time and space. One of the essential conditions of creation.artificial paradise&quot. 55 2. especially hashish. unnecessary to men of ideas. Moreau de Tours. strengthening of the vital and emotional tone. toxic It is subtances like has opium. these are facts representing only a stim ulated. the rapidity of their flow. hish. ether. not even an inspiration in the rather a beginning. novel ideas. an embryo. Strictly. into&amp. at the most they teach us concerning some of their physiological conditions. the eccentric spurts and caprices. make evident to the least observing that under the influence of intoxication the imagination works to a much that brief state of ists is Yet how pale that greater extent than ordinarily. a principal element ganizes and unifies is the directing principle that or lacking. Under the influence .gt.

them The just the opposite of ordinary life. who speaks or writes 1 It would thus be the in a word. modified form of a state that is the culmination of subconscious activity and a state of double person ality. 3. a in bulism waking though a strange personality were speaking to the author. consciousness monopolized by the intensity of its images is closed to the influences of the outside world. of alcoholic drinks and of poisonous intoxicants at tention and will always fall into exhaustion. Further. Alfieri. or else receives only to make them enter the web of its dream. Chabaneix. Paris.it the latter state. and called upon to serve in all conditions. Le sulconscient sur les artistes. p. does the work. To number and begin with. individual is like an inspired awakened dreamer he lives in his dream. the unconscious or subconscious activity 1 which is Dr. in somnambulism it is the stranger himself who talks or holds the pen. Psychologically. this means that there is in a double inversion of the normal state.) is indispensable. et les tcrivains. With greater reason it &quot. preciseness The cite etc. (Of this we might seemingly authentic examples: him Shelly. 1897. somnam only the lowest degree of In inspiration it is as state. has been sought to ex with certain forms plain inspiration by comparison is said that been has it and of somnambulism.56 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. 87. internal life annihilates the external. As this last explanatory expression is is won derfully abused. les savants.&quot. .

while This much allowed.THE UNCONSCIOUS FACTOR. seems to be accepted that genius. or. 1 . we are thrown into increasing difficulties. plays the impersonal character. (1900). that in clear con sciousness the step. facts in profusion could be given in support of this obscure elaboration which enters consciousness only when all is done. work may be followed up it step by while in unconsciousness but unknown to us. Inspiration resembles a cipher dispatch which the unconscious activity transmits to the conscious process.Des Indes a la plan&te Mars&quot. we may say that everything goes on realm of the unconscious just as in consciousness. in which translates deep levels it. or at least richness. if first part. is an example of the subliminal creative imagination. Must we admit that the of the unconscious there are formed only fragmentary combinations and that they reach complete systematization only in clear con sciousness. evident that all this is purely hypothetical. But what is the nature of this work ? Is it purely physiological ? Is it psychologi Theoreti cal? We come to two opposing theses. in inven 1 tion depends on the subliminal imagination. The exist ence of an unconscious working is beyond doubt. studied with so much ability by M. and of the work it is capable of doing by itself. not on The recent case. in is the creative labor identical It both cases ? It is difficult to decide. rather. passes to the first 57 preserving its plane. in the cally. only without a message to me. we would go further. It is proceeds likewise. &quot. Flournoy in his book.

the other. spontaneous. strictly so called. sufficiently it. a crisis. s &quot. and the &quot. we invention. chapter . iv.Last Supper. signifies &quot. it. note that inspiration but an effect more exactly. and is only a special of perfected state. scious imagination. true. artificial.Mona Finally. It marks either the end of an unconscious elaboration have been very short or very long. it work.Inspiration&quot. up.58 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. uncon case of it.&quot. indeed. positive The nature of this can conclude nothing as to the ultimate nature On the other hand. on the other hand. Leonardo da Vinci Lisa. The one feigned. or which may else the beginning of a conscious elaboration which very long (this is will be very short or seen es by chance). Conscious imagination is a kind To sum degree.&quot. such as Newton s law of attrac tion. which superficial is in nature and soon exhausted. a critical stage. it never delivers a finished pecially in cases of creation suggested On the one hand. a mo a cause is not We ment. the history of inventions this. many have felt themselves 1 We shall return to this point in another part of this work. one may pass beyond many creations long in preparation seem without a crisis. it is an index. all the more as we are inclined to over value should. proves Furthermore. inspiration in is the result of an under in hand process existing men. we may in a of inspiration. is the other. manner fix the value of the phenomenon in some to a very great work being unknown. never has an absolute begin ning. See Part II.

ii What has been said up to this point does not ex haust the study of the unconscious factor as a source of new combinations. B. he had met a Prussian officer who con versed with him on the subject. His general formula is this : A recalls C. when visit ing the lake. individuality of the sub ject. name &quot.THE UNCONSCIOUS FACTOR. This mode of association seemed universally accepted when. in part at least) must be sought in the temperament. its who was the first to determine nature and to give a personal example that has become classic. lat- . to return for the last time to association The final reason for association (outside of contiguity. although there is between them neither contiguity nor resemblance. tions in latent is uncon These momentary disposi form can excite novel relations in two ways through mediate association and through a special mode of grouping which has recently re ceived the i. Mediate association has been well known since the time of Hamilton. Its role can be studied under a simpler and more limited form. in a passing it influence. For this purpose we need of ideas. but because a middle term. often even in the moment. really 59 inspired 1 without producing anything of value. hardly perceptible because scious or subconscious. character. which does not enter consciousness. that is. serves as a transition between A and C. Loch Lomond recalled to him the Prussian system of education because.constellation.&quot.

1 For my own part. now by contiguity. who admit mediate association. The New Arbeiten. conclude for the affirmative. and has been attacked by Miinsterberg to experimenta others. Scripture. vi. On the other hand. Another series of 961 experi ments gives 72 cases. One series of 557 experiments gave him eight apparently mediate asso ciations. I and II). In the experiments by Scripture are found some of ir Thus Howe (American Journal of Psychology. with experiments in support of his . like the others. it THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.60 terly.. there moreover. which seemed to him doubtful. some of which. considers the existence tion as proven. is of scious. excellent observers. he reduced them to a single one. People have had recourse in slight agree results has only given tion. conditions intermediate the all has been able to note between almost clear consciousness and the uncon mediate associa In order to pronounce as an il lusion a fact that is met with so often in daily ex and one that has been studied by so many required more than ex conditions of which perimental investigations (the are often artificial and unnatural). after examination. Aschaffenburg admits them to the extent of four per cent. 239 ff. chapter conclusion. xiii. perience. has published some investigations in the negative.). which ment. for which he offers an explanation other than mediate association. who and who has made a special study of the subject. Psychology. The example given by Hamilton belongs to the first type. the associationtime is longer than for average associations (Psychologische Consult especially Scripture. This form of association is produced. now by resemblance. I count myself among those contemporaries and they are the greater number.

or of a group of : images. It is clear that by its very nature mediate asso ciation can give rise to novel combinations. a scene of an opera. 2.&quot. other. be relations. more be several intermediate terms. where we see only the two end links of the chain. hundred.constellation. which remain below the threshold of consciousness. The word the starting point of a host can call up a &quot. through the vague memory of a flash of strontium light. Why is one called up rather than an and at such a moment rather than at an other? There are some associations based on con tiguity and on resemblance which one may foresee. but how about the rest? Here it is an idea A. proves that there latent thanks to the elimination of the middle term. may not sometimes It is Nothing. call possible that A through the medium of b and c. In his determination of the regulating causes of association of ideas. should up D It seems even impossible not to admit this in the hypothesis of the subconscious. is in some cases the result of a sum of predominant tendencies. a red light recalled. all it is the center of a network.. Con tiguity itself.Rome&quot. comes the source of unforeseen over. This may be enunci ated thus The recall of an image. Ziehen designates one of these under the name of &quot. 6l g.THE UNCONSCIOUS FACTOR. can radiate in direc- . which has been adopted by some writers. without being able to allow a break of continuity between them. An idea may become of associations. which is usually only repetition. the second type e.

in until a cer spite of certain architectural likenesses. I. Consequently ing influence vic and have changed But an hour later conditions a on rests This rests with C. Human Mind. and inhibitory an arrest and C is not. 1898. and in are simultaneous checked by other images. pp. Hotel de to Ville. to the active condi which may pass from the latent or this process may be reinforced tion. . He then recalled that broke upon him with much two hours before he had observed a lady wearing a beautiful brooch in the form of a gondola. 343. or it may be that D exerts cannot C prevail. 164. F. 4th edi Also. Sully rightly remarks that words of a for eign language when we return from the country where it is spoken than when we have lived a long time in our own. Sully. 174. etc. had never suggested Doges Palace at Venice. Why is does it call up now B. E. . *Ziehen. him the idea of the near his house. phenomenon tory physiological through diffusing 1 excitations. Leltfaden der physiologischen Psychologic. D. on C. later FT It is because every image comparable to a force. There is in a state of tension B tendencies. tain day when this idea clearness. simultaneous of receiving sibility the existence of several currents the brain and the pos themselves basis : plainer this phenome non of reinforcement. in consequence of which an Wahle reports that the Gothic association A few examples will make prevails.62 tions THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. because the tendency toward recol it is much easier to recall the lection is reinforced by the recent experience of the tion. C.

one direc tion or another. and often depends on imperceptible causes. or more ventor promises is richer in resources. now or later when the final reso lution cannot be predicted. wind. Accord?&quot. spoken.Does the unconscious factor differ in nature from the two others (intellectual and emotional) The answer depends on the hypothesis that one holds as to the nature of the unconscious itself. words heard. formation and development of studying and Everywhere always man has had for myths. I anticipate a possible question: &quot. excites associations that one cannot always possi in the foresee. In my opinion we would find the finest examples &quot. land. the material scarcely anything save natural phenomena the sky.&quot. apt to give what every in the novel and unexpected. numerous orientations an analogous case to that which occurs realm of the will when there are present reasons for arid against. No process To sum up: The initial element. storms. the grandly imposing to the Every myth is the work of a laughably human group which has worked according to the tendencies of its special genius under the influence of various stages of in tellectual culture. In conclusion. external or in ternal. of in regarded as a creative element.constellation. etc. acting and not acting. latent dispositions that 63 read.THE UNCONSCIOUS FACTOR. On each of these themes he builds stories. stars. and a whole array of work in the same direction. . seasons. thousands of explanatory which vary from childish. death. water. because of the ble. of freer turn. life.

it ing to one view would be especially physiological.64 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. . Conse factor would be a special quently. to another. the dif consequently different. the unconscious form of the other two rather than a distinct element in invention. processes the preparatory and which enters consciousness ready made. according ference can exist only in the processes: unconscious or emotional elaboration is reducible to intellectual work of which is slighted.

Today the problem presents itself no longer in themselves down this simple way. is very i express concerning the organic may regard as little.CHAPTER IV THE ORGANIC CONDITIONS OF THE IMAGINATION Whatever opinion we may hold concerning the nature of the unconscious. functional rather than at r As properly anatomical.center&quot. Is there a &quot. of extreme strained and closely to bounded bind localization men every psychic manifestation to a strictly determined point of the brain. of the imagination? Such is the form of the ques In that period tion asked for the last twenty years. the synergic action of several centers . since that form of activity is related more than any other to the physiological conditions of the mental suitable for is life. toward scattered present we incline localization. or even as probable. the anatomical conditions. First. What we positive.seat&quot. the present time is it an exposition of the hypotheses that to permissible bases of the imagination. and as w e often understand by &quot.

Indeed.Are there cer of the brain having an exclusive or pre tain : portions in the working of the creative ponderating part in this form the question is Even imagination?&quot. James Watt. ( I ) that the ele no pretense of being definitive. grouped according our question becomes equivalent to &quot. Most often great inventors possess qualities besides imagination indispensable for success (Napoleon.). ments constituting imagination be determined in a makes rigorous manner. How draw a dividing imagina tion only its rightful share? In addition. the imagination is not hardly acceptable. in avoiding the difficulty. a primary and relatively simple function like that have of visual. mechan An in a attempt has been made to put the question precise and limited form by studying the brains of men distinguished in different lines. We complex. (2) that each of these constitutive elements may be strictly related to its anatomic conditions. But this method.66 differently THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. answers our more question indirectly only. auditory and other sensations. then. to the individual case. but the foregoing analysis seen that it is a state of tertiary formation and very There is required. A method flourishing very greatly about the mid dle of the nineteenth century consisted of line so as to assign to the carefully a large number of brains weighing and drawing vari ous conclusions as to intellectual superiority or in- . etc. It is evident that we are far from possessing the secret of such a ism. the ana tomical determination is beset with difficulties.

on the development in the imagination. occupying about a third of the cortical surface. On this last point contemporary anatomists have given them selves up to eager researches. attribute the greatest importance to Nowadays we morphology of the brain. try to translate into their conditions of mental own language the complex life. of nerves there exist on the one and centers. and. Since we must choose from among these various anatomical views let us accept that of Flechsig. . it is same way. to its histological struc ture.associational system&quot. on the other hand. For him hand sensitive regions (sen sory-motor). the determination not only of centers but of connec tions and associations between centers. We logical know method order of time.centers&quot. one of the most renowned and one having also the advantage of putting di rectly the problem of the organic conditions of the that Flechsig relies on the embryothat is. association-centers. the marked development of certain regions. or &quot. since it only another element of the problem.ORGANIC CONDITIONS. But this method of weights has given rise to so many surprises and difficulties in the way of explanation on that it we the see in has been quite necessary to give it up. although the cerebral architecture is not conceived by all in the proper for psychology to note that all with their &quot. feriority 67 from a comparison of the weights. oc cupying the remaining part. We find this point numerous documents in the special works published during the period mentioned.

So far as the sensory centers are concerned. which Flechsig asks in these words &quot. This much admitted.&quot. pains. comes &quot. Among mammals they &quot. hearing (first temporal). are isolated. the unity of the fested . sight of the part Whence (occipital lobe). sig supposes three regions ter In what concerns the associational centers. the smallest of anatomy more important than those of the lower scale : (the Island of Reil). (parieto-occipito-temporal) .68 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.That develop as we go up the which makes the psychic man may be said to be the centers of association that he pos In the new-born child the sensitive centers sesses. and. FlechThe great posterior cen : much another. and a middle center. or rather that is. and that this part appetites. etc. self cannot be mani a plurality of consciousness. movements. de order: Organic velopment occurs in the following smell (base of cerebral cortex).knowledge of the body precedes develops first that of the outside world. sensations (middle frontal the of and brain lobes). on first chemical factors? We may hold the is opinion with all possible force. according to our on special irritabil present notions. in the absence of connections be tween them.&quot. let us return to our special question. smaller..On there is : what does genius ity? rest? Is it based on a special structure in the brain. wants. brain the the of definite a in it results that body part to proper consciousness of its impulses. anterior or frontal . Genius always united to . Comparative the associational that centers are proves all sensation.

but we must allow. according our author. All the convolutions and fissures were so developed. hypothetical views. twenty before years Flechsig. Let us now go on to the physiology. Bach. we can at present give only fragmentary. 1 Fleehsig. &quot. By way of summary we must bear in mind that. probably development of this part of the brain is striking. In brains great scientists like Gauss the centers of the posterior region of the brain and those of the frontal region are strongly developed. It frontal part may has been long admitted that the serve as a measure of intellectual capacity . The scientific genius thus shows proportions of brain-structure other than the There would then be. Already. 1896.principally a center located under the protuberance at the top of the head.ORGANIC CONDITIONS. a preponderance of the frontal and the former obtain especially among parietal regions artistic genius.&quot. said he.&quot. to a particular organization of All parts of this organ do not have the brain. 69 the a special structure. Riidinger had noted the ex traordinary development of the parietal convolutions . even when depend ing on the best of sources. GeMrn und Seele. 1 to artists the latter among scientists. in eminent men after a study of eighteen brains. incomplete. as regards anatomical conditions. which is very much developed in all men of genius whose In have been studied down to our day. that there are other regions. contrariwise. same value. . also in and the enormous Beethoven. that the parieto-occipital region had an alto gether peculiar character.

concomitance consider it an accomplished fact. brilliant. Hypergemia seems rather the rule. roving eyes. if these already exist. pale.&quot. chilly skin. is First. &quot. Such are the moments of inspiration or simply those of warmth from which arise in the form of sudden impulses. the position to the physiologic conditions. We merely ably all the three conditions are met with. overheated head.Weak. such is the classic. or. II whether the physi might have rightly asked the working of with ological states existing along the creative imagination are the cause. effect. The most instructive instances are those indicated by very clear manifestations and profound modifica tions of the bodily condition.^o THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. work The general fact of most importance consists of Increase of in changes in the blood circulation. sunken. frequently quoted description of the physiological state during . and we may as an organic manifestation parallel to to excite that of the mind. and initial be productive of psychic activity may changes in the organism. but we also know that slight anaemia increases cortical excitability. the employment of arti and maintain the effervescence of the imagination assigns a causal or antecedent Lastly. contracted pulse. sometimes a temporarily anaemic state. or Prob the accompaniment of this activity. tellectual activity means an increase of work in the cortical cells. ficial means Again. dependent on a congested. may augment and prolong them.

in the case of Lagrange. . their . 71 of their There are numerous inventors who. ringers whittling the table or the arms of a chair (as in the case of Napoleon when he was elaborating a plan of campaign). creative labor. it has been proposed to study inventors by an objective increases. mechanically repeated and always the same in the same man e. and. this nervous tension. who made use of cold douches to relieve it. emotional. indeed. digestive apparatus. is not useless for preserving the under In a word. which is but a special case under the rule. re without special end. increase of the formula covering the the cerebral circulation majority of observations on this subject. and it is admitted that this method of ex penditure is standing in all its clearness. produces cerebral congestion . teach us anything on this point ? Numerous and well-known physiological researches. in Beethoven.. Does experimentation. most of all. have noted these changes ir regular pulse. But that tells us nothing par ticularly about the imagination. that the brain- volume and the volume of the peripheral organs diminishes. Latterly. move ment of the feet. their several respiratory. show that all intellectual. especially those of Mosso. g. This elevation of the vital tone. hands. method through the examination of circulatory. work. It is a safety-valve for the excessive flow of nervous impulse. etc. translates itself also into motor form through movements analogous to flexes. etc.ORGANIC CONDITIONS. congestion of the head. own accord. strictly so called.

. ever experiment. Despite may anecdotal character these evidences do not seem to be unworthy of some regard. so that the result would be ipso facto vitiated. Besides. and more often probably also on experiences in life the memory of which has been lost. After having collected for my own to information a large number of these strange peculiarities. has an processes. the modes of their general and special sensibility. Schiller. their intellectual of forms association. fertile.psychological of none. kept rotten apples in his work desk. etc. brief creative impulse would not the experiment itself be a disturbing cause. Would it be possible ? Let us admit that all by some happy chance the experimenter. can have the subject under his hand at the exact moment of inspiration of the sudden. memory and But up to this time no conclusion has been drawn from these individual descriptions that would allow any generalization. or at least unconvincing? There still remains a mass of facts deserving summary notice the oddities of inventors. it seems to : me that they are reducible two categories (i) Those inexplicable freaks dependent on the individual constitution. It is impossible to enter here upon an enumeration that would be endless. for example. using his means of investigation. of the word. in the strict sense I know ? moment&quot. Were we to collect only those that authentic their we be regarded as could make a thick volume. been made at the &quot.72 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.

ORGANIC CONDITIONS. his pupils crowded about him and attending to his wants in respectful silence. Very numerous are those who think &quot. For variety s sake. crowds. are easy to ex physiological means consciously or unconsciously chosen to aid creative work.) Some require motor excitation. let us note those talk. Guido Reni would paint only when dressed in magnificent style. for twenty-one years 1 scarcely left his observatory Leib- la it possible that this would explain the fact of Aristotle lecturing to his pupils while walking about. contemplation.horizontally&quot.) &quot. lying stretched out and often flattened under their blankets (Mil ton. the opposite side are those requiring retire ment. Bossuet would work in a cold room with his head wrapped in furs. thus giving the name peripatetic to his school and system? (Tr. For others there must be external pomp and a personal part in the scene (Machiavelli. The most frequent method consists of artificially increasing the flow of blood to the brain. Descartes. who must have the noise festivities. of the streets. Leibniz. Buffon). in order to invent. (2) plain. Rossini. that is. . Schiller). Rousseau would think bare-headed in full sunshine. they work only when walking. They are more numerous. who . others would immerse their feet in ice-cold water (Gretry. like Lamennais. In this class we find especial ly scientists On and thinkers Tycho-Brahe. they are auxiliary helpers of the imagination. 1 or else prepare for work by physical exercise (Mozart). 73 The others. even shadowy dark ness. etc. silence.




could remain for three days almost motion

less in

an armchair. But most methods are too

or too strong

not to become quickly noxious. Every one knows what they are abuse of wine, alcoholic liquors, nar
tobacco, coffee, etc., prolonged periods of wakefulness, less for increasing the time for work than to cause a state of hyperesthesia and a morbid



Summing up

The organic

bases of the creative

there are any specially its own, re imagination, main to be determined. For in all that has been said

we have been concerned only with some conditions assimilation of the general working of the mind The of eccentricities inventors as well as invention. studied carefully and in a detailed manner would



perhaps, be most instructive material, be would allow us to penetrate into their in

most individuality. Thus, the physiology of the imagination quickly becomes pathology. I shall not dwell on this, having purposely eliminated the mor
bid side of our subject. It will, however, be neces sary to return thereto, touching upon it in another part of this essay.

There remains a problem, so obscure and enig
matic that
I scarcely venture to approach it, in the that most languages the spontaneous ex analogy of a common thought establish between pression

physiologic and psychic creation.



only a super-



likeness, a hasty


judgment, a metaphor, or does on some positive basis? Generally, the vari

ous manifestations of mental activity have as their precursor an unconscious form from which they arise. The sensitiveness belonging to living sub

known by
etc., is



tropism, reactions following it; organic memory is the basis and the obliterated form of conscious memory. Reflexes introduce voluntary activity; appetitions

like a sketch of sensation

heliotropism, chemoand of the


hidden tendencies are the forerunners of effective
Instinct, on several sides, psychology. unconscious and specific trial of reason.




power of the human mind

also analogous

antecedents, a physiological equivalent?

One metaphysician, Froschammer, who has ele vated the creative imagination to the rank of prim
ary world-principle, asserts this positively. there is an objective or cosmic imagination
in nature,

For him working

producing the innumerable varieties of and animal forms; transformed into sub vegetable jective imagination it becomes in the human brain
the source of a

new form

of creation.




principle causes the living

forms to appear

sort of objective

a kind of living


and the subjective images, However ingenious and

attractive this philosophical theory may be, it is evidently of no positive value for psychology. Let us stick to experience. Physiology teaches


Die Phantasie als Grundprincip der Weltprocesses, Mttnchen, For other details on the subject, see Appendix C.



that generation is a "prolonged nutrition," a sur in the lower forms of plus, as we see so plainly






creative imagination likewise presupposes a super abundance of psychic life that might otherwise spend

Generation in the physical natural order is a spontaneous, tendency, although it may be stimulated, successfully or otherwise, by
itself in

another way.




can say as


of the other.
to pro



of resemblances

would be easy


all this is insufficient

for the establish

ment of a thorough identity between the two cases and the solution of the question.
It is possible to limit

to put





language. opment of the generative function and that of the imagination? Even in this form the question scarce
ly permits any but vague answers. connection we may allege

Is there a connection

between the devel

In favor of a

influence of puberty on the imagination of both sexes, expressing itself in day 1 dreams, in aspirations toward an unattainable ideal,


The well-known


passage from Chateaubriand (cited by Paulhan, Rev. March, 1898, p. 237) is a typical description of the situation: "The warmth of my (adolescent) imagination, my


already charming everywhere, though invisible; I conversed with her as with a real being; she would change according to my frenzy. Pygmalion was less enamored of his statue."
idea followed

and solitude, caused me, instead of casting myself on something without, to fall back upon myself. Wanting a real object, I evoked through the power of my desires, a phantom, which thenceforth never left me; I made a woman, composed of all the women that I had seen. That




in the genius for invention that love bestows upon Let us recall also the mental the least favored.

the psychoses designated by the name With adolescence coincides the first hebephrenia. of the fancy which, having emerged from flowering

swaddling-clothes of childhood,


not yet sophis

It is



thesis of the present

not a matter of indifference for the general work to note that this devel


opment of the imagination depends wholly on the effervescence of the emotional life. That fluence of the feelings on the imagination" and of imagination on the feelings" of which the moralists and the older psychologists speak so often



a vague formula for expressing this fact

that re

the motor element included in the images inforced.

(2) Per contra, the weakening of the generative power and of the constructive imagination coincide in old age, which is, in a word, a decay of nutrition,
a progressive atrophy. influence of castration.

It is

proper not to omit the

According to the theory of Brown-Sequard, produces an abatement of the nutritive functions through the suppression of an
internal stimulus; and, although its relations to the

imagination have not been especially studied, not rash to admit that it is an arresting cause.



However, the foregoing merely establishes, be tween the functions compared, a concomitance in
the general course of their evolution and in their




insufficient for a conclusion.




There would be needed clear, authentic and suf numerous observations proving that indi

viduals bereft of imagination of the creative type have acquired it suddenly through the sole fact of
their sexual influences, and, inversely, that brilliant


imaginations have faded under the contrary condi find some of these evidences in Cabanis, 1


Moreau de Tours and various
seem to be


in favor of the affirmative,

; they would but some seem

not sure enough, others not explicit enough. Despite my investigations on this point, and inquiry of competent persons, I do not venture to draw a
definite conclusion. will perhaps tigator.
Cabanis, Rapports du Physique et du Moral, Edition Peisse, pp. 248-249, an anecdote that he relates after Buffon. Analo
gous, but less clear, facts


question open; it tempt another more fortunate inves

I leave the



be found in Moreau de


Psychologic morbide.







would be very imperfectly known were we limited
to the foregoing analytical study.



ation whatever, great or small, shows an organic character; it implies a unifying, synthetic principle. Every one of the three factors intellectual, emo

works not as an isolated fact account; they have no worth save their union, and no signification save through their common This principle of through bearing. all which invention demands and requires, is unity,






one time intellectual

in nature,



as a fixed

idea; at another time emotional,


as a fixed


or passion. These terms fixed idea, fixed emotion are somewhat absolute and require re strictions and reservations, which will be made in




between the two


not at


Every supported and main tained by a need, a tendency, a desire; i. e., by an affective element. For it is idle fancy to believe in the persistence of an idea which, by hypothesis,

fixed idea


intellectual state, cold

would be a purely

and dry.

of unity in this form naturally pre principle in the prac kinds of creation certain in dominates




the end imagination wherein




for things, where in images are direct substitutes under pen conditions strict to vention is subjected scientific in the and check; of visible palpable

and metaphysical imagination, which works with laws of rational logic. concepts and is subject to the realize itself in an should Every fixed emotion and idea or image that gives it body systematizes it,
without which

remains diffuse; and



can take on this permanent form which makes The simple emotions a unified principle of them. the complex or de sorrow, etc.), love, joy, (fear,






equally monopolize consciousness in their
fixed idea,




thus see that these two terms

fixed emotion

are almost equivalent, for they both imply inseparable elements, and serve only to indicate the preponderance of one or the other element.

This principle of unity, center of attraction and
support of


working of the creative imagina


a subjective principle tending to be



the ideal.

In the complete

sense of the

word not restrained merely to esthetic or made synonymous with perfection as in

the ideal

a construction in images that

should become a



liken imaginative

creation to physiological generation, the ideal





awaiting fertilization in order to begin velopment.




could, to be




a distinction

between the synthetic principle and the ideal concep tion which is a higher form of it. The fixation of

an end and the discovery of appropriate means are the necessary and sufficient conditions for all inven tion. creation, whatever it be, that looks only


to present success, can satisfy itself with a unify ing principle that renders it viable and organized,



can look higher than the merely necessary




the principle of unity in motion in

historic evolution; like all development,


vances or recedes according to the times. Nothing is less justified than the conception of a fixed arche







Ideas), illuminating the inventor, who reproduces it as best he can. "The ideal is a nonentity; it arises

the inventor

and through him;





Psychologically, it is a construction in images be 1 longing to the merely sketched or outlined type.

from a double activity, negative and posi or dissociation and association, the first cause tive, and origin of which is found in a will that it shall
It results

be so;



the motor tendency of images in the
form of imagination and

For the

distinction between this

the two others

reader to the Conclusion of this work, where the subject will be treated in
(fixed, objectified), I refer the


for ex ample. oxygen and hydrogen. In this separa let us note tion. says Wundt. In no scientific or artistic production.g2 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. The nature of the components disappears in order to give birth to a novel phenomenon that has its own and par The construction of the ideal is ticular features. exist in each separate L immaginazione nella Scienza. discord does not. like 1 In other words. already studied. in perception. Rome. . Stuart Mill. suppresses. according ment. indeed. does the whole appear as made up of its parts. 1900. I believe. to the phenomena of contrast and of their analogues. it is a case of mental a mosaic. not a mere grouping of past experiences in its total individual characteristics. produces a particular state of con sciousness. The inventor to his tempera cuts out. juxtaposition or rapid succes sion of two different colors. sifts. character. Still it exactness of this expression. nascent state engendering the ideal.We production that know nothing of the complex psychic may simply be the sum of component elements and in which they would remain with their own characters. has been ques tioned. lllff. is The due. one important par ticular. gustatory impressions differ ent in quality. antipathies taste. pp. answers to positive facts. olfactory. in water. chemistry. sympathies and in short.&quot. Harmony or tactile. which we no more see the composing lines than we see the components. . among ity it has its own . which to J. his interest. similar to a combination. with no modification. two different sounds. &quot. prejudices.

It is not a transcendental idea that unites .. separate. etc. If objection is offered that an ideal common to a large mass of men is a fact of common experience (e. but only in the relations and sequence of have heretofore. says Titchener.). but always unalter able. very fre quently represented the states of consciousness as fixed elements that approach one another.fringes&quot. They have a common ideal because. social and political concepts. William James has insisted on &quot. Consciousness. this point in his theory of of states of Outside of the given instances we could find many others among the various manifes It is not. 83 sounds sound. at all tations of the mental life. . and even more so religious. in cer tain matters. g. cohere. they have the same way of feeling and thinking. We in the discussion of association of ideas. the answer is easy: There are families of minds. idealists and realists in the fine arts. chimerical to assume in psychology an equivalent of chemical combination. More . of their varying rela tions. in addition to the component elements. than any one consciousness. . it is a tertium quid. moral.PRINCIPLE OF UNITY. the result of their reciprocal influences. It is not so at all. Too often we forget this resultant. like atoms. In a complex state there is. resembles a fresco in which the tran sition between colors is made through all kinds of intermediate stages of light and shade. come together anew. The idea of a pen or of an inkwell is not a stable thing clearly pictured like the pen or inkwell itself. else. then. At bottom the ideal is an individual concept.

it is. the organic or middle. Such was the imaginative its mould and into that could not. they spontaneously characteristic of their psychology distinguishes This remake it. ideal aspirations the collective in scholastic terminology. them from mere . picture. (i) The unstable form has rectly its starting point di and immediately in the reproductive imagi- 1 This unifying.84 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. unchanged. but result occurs because common engaged. financial or political institution while believing that they are merely considering critics. creative principle is so active in certain minds that. We know how the passage from the internal to the external life has given rise among inventors to deceptions and construction complaints. this them. enter become a Let us reality. It is only the internal vision actual. for best me that seems to method a adapted lowing these ill-explained questions I shall single out only the principal forms. organizing. monument. and the ex treme or semi-morbid unity. scientific or philosophic theory. The ideal conception is the first moment not yet battling with the con creative act. placed face to face with any work what ever novel. now examine the various forms of this 1 coagulating principle in advancing from the lowest to the highest. from their becomes dis a uniof the sersale post rem. the of ditions has not yet been projected that mind individual of an which is externally with a form and body. it. from the unity vaguely anticipated to Fol the absolute and tyrannical masterful unity. which I have reduced to three the unstable.

in attempts. the half-coherent dreams that seem to the dreamer to contain a creative germ. which itself is the essential mark of attention.PRINCIPLE OF UNITY. the inventions of the child fol lowing all the fluctuations of chance. Ultimately it re duces and presupposes nothing thanks to the process of &quot. judgments. tendencies and voluntary efforts. which. of its caprice. nation without creation. itself to attention tion. it stitches together the bits The ends only in beginnings. for the time being. the delirious construc tions of the insane. because. In consequence of the extreme frailty of the synthetic principle the creative imagination does not succeed in accomplishing its task and remains in a condition intermediate between simple association of ideas and creation proper. unity-principle is a momentary disposition. associations.&quot.&quot. the a concentration of poet Grillparzer used to say. It 85 its assembles elements somewhat by chance and of our life. vac and changing without cessation according to the external impressions or modifications of our vital conditions and of our humor. should represent the all the forces and capacities upon a single point &quot. The reinforcement of mind comes from the fact that its powers. (2) The organic or middle form may be given as the type of the unifying power. grouping about the leading idea the images. it a center of attraction.Inspiration. &quot.is makes world rather than enclose the state of the several it.localiza more. By way of ex illating ample let us recall the state of the day-dreamer building castles in the air. instead of spreading themselves .

tenac ious attention. imagination. and. What is the as regards esthetics only poet here maintains the to all organic forms of creation plicable is ap that by an immanent logic. artificial. intermittent resumptions. with out effort. maintained with effort in a word. tit. laborious. resembling works of Nature. are contained within the bounds of a single object. In order to leave no doubt as to the identity of attention and imaginative synthesis. 49. on the other hand.86 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. appears and long. Next let us note that psychologists always adduce the same examples when they wish to illustrate on the one hand. and in order to those ruled to show that it is ple. touch one another. the develop1 Oelzelt-Newin. then ceasing entirely. we offer the following is normally the true unifying princi remarks : Attention at times spontaneous. recip rocally help and reinforce each 1 other. pre carious and intermittent. the processes of the persistent. imperson Then ality approaches that of the forces of Nature. simply dependent on the interest that a thing excites in us lasting as long as it holds us in subjection. an imitation of the other. The analogy between the two cases seems to me incontestable. the mis erable turns of which so many inventors have de scribed. . natural.. p. Again. the the detailed working personal moment. op. over the whole world. The same is true of the The moment of inspiration is ruled its by a perfect and spontaneous unity.&quot. painful. and. it is voluntary. like them.

tive On the contrary. the unifying principle changes to a condition of obsession. is Through as a radiation in every direction. Helmholtz and others. (absolute monoideism) the fixed idea defies all riv Many inventors have alry and rules despotically.&quot.&quot.PRINCIPLE OF UNITY. in attention (rela monoideism) a single image retains first place for a long time and tends to have the same import Finally.Genius is only long patience. The fixed idea. suffered does not permit anything to dislodge it save for the moment and with much pain. The normal sociation there state of our mind is a plurality of states of consciousness (polyideism). notwithstanding relaxations and its incessant disappearances into the unconscious with return to consciousness. in a condition of obsession ance again. (3) is The extreme form. . once settled. for it persists in the uncon scious life where it has thrust its deep roots. painfully this tyranny and have vainly struggled to break it. everits active idea. the like saying of Newton. becomes in its highest degree plainly pathological. it. &quot. In this totality of coexisting images no one long occu is driven away by others. because in the one case as in the other the funda thinking of and mental condition is the existence of a fixed. 87 mental labor without which creative work does not come to pass: &quot. Even then it is dis placed only apparently. which from its nature semi-morbid. which pies first place. it are displaced in turn by still others emerging from the penumbra.always expressions of d Alembert.

are the more numerous. It : Are there characters peculiar &quot. who most generally destroys in place of creating? The nature of contemporary their alienists. the affec is tive state is in general the sion always rests 1 in a retention of impressions. each one? physiologically fixed idea often normally longed for. according as the idea or the affective Then they have been led to state predominates. 1898 1878.gg THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.&quot. Stmeiologie des obsessions et des idees SSglas.gis. . ask: Which of these it one? For some seems that these two elements is the primitive For others. Pitres et Ke&quot. although it can act as a stimulus for creation. fixed ideas has greatly occupied For other reasons and in own way into they. knows -fixes. in all cases and it does not break the unity of the accepted. of the inventor and the obsession of the insane. It does not impose itself fatally on conscious ness 1 . the individual knows the value thereof. is no longer nor Consequently. primary fact. too. and emotional.The to has been said is self. a natural question arises: Wherein is there a difference between the obsession mal. the obses on a basis of morbid emotion and But whatever opinion we may hold on this point. and it the idea. the difficulty of establishing a dividing line between the two forms of obsession above mentioned re mains the same. 1895. have been led to divide the intellectual obsession two classes. Nevroses et idees fixes. sought. Lemons cliniques sur les maladies mentales. Baymond et Janet. At this stage the unifying principle.

The must be sought elsewhere. For that we must go out of the internal world and proceed We must judge the fixed idea not in objectively. difference the mental mechanism criterion is. is &quot. itself but by its effects. The special pathological fixed idea auto matic. at bottom. because from the numerous. discordant. In spite of this parallel the distinguishing criterion between the two is very vague.that with We certain workers who it.possessed.&quot. the same. scientific. and adapts his conduct to its For example.PRINCIPLE OF UNITY. moral.&quot. In real pure psychology is unable to discover a positive between obsession leading to creative work and the other forms. case of psychic disintegration. scientific. imposing itself upon it even to the extent of causing suffering. in order to stick to this change of front we to a strictly psychological . social. and not masters direct ing ure it. because in both cases ity. sane to the delirious idea the transitions are very are obliged to recognize &quot. ligious field? If objection be made may. re It is of value according to its fruits. What does it produce in the practical. The individual becomes only a a kind of is a person &quot.parasitic. are rather taken up with the elaboration of their work. and whose sub mission to his situation is wrought with pain. requirements. esthetic. 89 where it leads him. Obsession doubling of consciousness.&quot. whose self has been confis cated for the sake of the fixed idea. irresistible. or mechanical conception succeeds in haunting the mind. quitting and resuming it at their pleas an artistic. Christopher Columbus.

mechanism of the mind. state that it is certain that as soon as it passes beyond a middle point. the fixed idea profoundly troubles the tive persons this is not rare. which it is difficult to determine. point of view.go THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. . In imagina which partly explains why shall its the pathological theory of genius (of which we speak later) has been able to rally so many to support and to allege so many facts in its favor.



but it still remains to inter pret them. will thus be exhibited in the inex haustible variety of its manifestations which the abstract and simplifying process of analysis does not permit us to suspect. So this part continues the subject in another shape. I I shall not dwell at length on the imagination of animals. Even eliminating mere anecdotes and doubtful observations. attempt to follow the imagination in its ascend ing development from the lowest to the most com plex forms.CHAPTER I IMAGINATION IN ANIMALS Up to this point the imagination has been treated This process alone would give us but a very imperfect idea of its essentially con crete and lively nature were we to stop here. thence It to the highest modes of invention. shall to primitive man. I analytically only. As soon as we begin to conjecture we . from the animal to the human infant. there is no lack of verified and authentic material. not only because the question is much in volved but also because it is hardly liable to a posi tive solution.

These two stages do not go beyond memory pure and simple. It is met with very far down scale. without suggestion derived from without. because baying of a hound stops all the dangers he has undergone are represented in his mind. Spontaneous revival. This is a higher form of up in ants. by he Romanes Taking in Mental Evolution in Animals.. which may be called a passive In order synthesis. etc. wasps.* tion&quot. At night. dant proof of 2. &quot. 3. e. The capacity of associating absent images. and a Chapter X. the distant the fox in his course. to establish its existence. Romanes reminds us in that dreams have been proven 1 dogs. This is a low form of memory. horses. the sight of an orange reminds one of its taste. bees. The other two constitute the higher imagination. frequent fact explains the mistrustful sagacity of wild ani mals. The treated. . which memory.94 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. It is the lower and primitive form of the creative imagination. reproductive imagination. 1. difficult it know how is to divest ourselves of all anthropomorphism. Provoked revival of images. question has been formulated. resting on asso ciation in the animal by contiguity. even if not his with much system broadest sense. through an internal working of the mind..imagina in : its recognizes four stages For example. An object present calls an absent object. and the author furnishes abun it. i.

says he. pursued by phantoms. and not without For creation. when one asks. and. 1 good memory. espe seem to be subject to delusions and lastly. offering a plausible reason. Certain animals. Is in the animal kingdom? Romanes very clearly replies. so frequent in animal psychology. of birds. highest stage consists of intentionally reuniting images in order to make novel combina This may be called an active tions from them. that certain animals. 4. abstraction is very weak.IMAGINATION IN ANIMALS. can hardly be a vivid recollection of the images without explained of previous life. this and is sometimes found the true creative imagination. All especially the latter. Is this character exclusively human. cit.. these facts. and there is that in some produced a condition resembling nostalgia. there must first be capacity for abstraction. but Op. fulfill all the necessary 1 conditions for creative imagination subtle senses. We in here come to one of those moments. tional states. . The synthesis. One of the conditions for creative imagination critical is thus wanting in the higher animals. or in a wasting away resulting from the absence of accustomed persons and things. says Oelzelt-Newin. and appropriate emo This assertion is perhaps true. without speech. or is it found embryo in lower forms? Thus it has been pos sible to support a theory opposing that of Romanes. expressing itself in a violent desire to return to former haunts. Appendix. large 95 number cially in anger. no.

certain animals modify them. It is equivalent the thing is possible. beavers. and the construction of their maintains. to remark that abstraction or dissociation has stages. If. may we not group under anticipated changes and adaptations to new condi which these animals succeed in applying to Observa the typical plans of their construction? tions and even systematic experiments (like those this head. Forel. there yet remains the logic .&quot.).instinctive. is it very certain that all the condi tions since for creative we have just shown that The author. consequently unconscious? At least. how refuse them inven This contradicts in no way the It is sufficient very just reservation of Romanes. the common ants. tions of Huber. the logic of concepts forbidden it. It is not unreasonable to attribute to them an representation of their architecture. Judging from this. white ants. who abstraction? his imagination are present here. it does not establish it as a fact. reduced to the alternative of the impossibility of building or the modification of their habits. that &quot. wasps. et al. tion altogether? that the simplest are accessible to the animal intelli gence. Shall we say that it is &quot. against Wallace and others. Besides. etc.) show that. to saying that purely dialectic. there is lack of voluntarily limits study to birds nests.&quot.the nest-building requires representations. We mysterious synthesis of might with equal reason bring the instances of other building animals (bees.96 it is THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. is in the absence of words.

an apprenticeship.&quot. the extent that they can dissociate. it attribute a creative elsewhere.Play&quot. A.expenditure of super activity. s this subject. tion. a preliminary exercise for the active functions of life and for the 1 The last posi development of our natural gifts. the second for adults. restoring of strength. mending. I.&quot.IMAGINATION IN ANIMALS. vol. Open Court Publishing Chicago). &quot. we attribute only if a mediocre importance to a manifestation that might very well be the proper It is form of animal fancy. &quot. 1902. 1902. does not rule out the other two.) . the The late Professor Arthur Allin devoted much time to See his brief article entitled investigation of play. Carr will be found in the Investigations of the Department of Psychology and Education of the University of Colorado. we may with any truthfulness power to animals. which is sufficient for slight innova In a word. Number 2. due to Groos. 2 97 of images. pp. chapter I.. psychology dates only from the nineteenth century.. In our opinion. through the its Although play may be as old as mankind. the reader is Evolution of General Ideas (English Co. a recuperation.a it is &quot. animals can invent according to tions. vol. (Tr. in the University of Colorado Studies. we must seek Generally speaking. I. itself purely motor. We have already seen that there are three theories concerning fluous its nature &quot. but it comprehends both in a more general explanation. 58-73.&quot. *A rather extended study of the subject by H. and expresses various kinds of play. *For a more detailed study of referred to the author trans. sec tion I. it holds the first valid for the young.

optics. etc. often giving the animal a certain knowledge of the properties of the This is the introduction to an external world. and mechanics for the (2) Movements or changes of a very general place executed of their own accord fact as is proven by the incessant movements of butterflies. (5) Archi tectural art. (4) Mimic battles. dogs. bits of glass). etc. aforementioned book of Groos is a rich mine of evidence to which I would refer the reader. feather. (3) Mimicry of hunting. flies. Let us leave this doctrinal question in order to call attention to the variety and richness of form In this respect the of play in the animal world. singing-birds which counterfeit the voices of a large number of . e. appear to play in the water rather than to seek prey the mad running of horses. Groos believes he has found in certain animals. and even fishes. revealing itself especially in the build ing of nests: certain birds ornament them with shining objects (stones.. by a kind of anticipation of the esthetic (6) Dollfeeling. experimental physics.: of classes (i) Those play. play is universal in mankind. brood of animals. whether civilized or savage. so familiar in monkeys (grimaces) . a ball. in free space. consisting of trials at hazard without immediate end. playing with a living or dead prey: the dog and cat following moving objects. myself to summing up viz.. I limit He dis his classification. its equivalent Imitation (7) through pleasure.gg THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. which often . tinguishes nine that are at bottom experimental. teasing and fighting without anger. i. birds.

Wallaschek.&quot. It will doubtless be said that this form of imagi nation belongs to a very shallow. emission of noises. value which has been denied Lloyd Morgan. perhaps even the image itself is hardly conscious. 99 (8) Curiosity. (9) Love-plays. another. so that all is limited to a spon taneous production and a collection of motor phe nomena. It is necessary that imagi- . what is going on in the street.which differ from the others in that they are not mere exercises. At one time the movements are combined simultaneously (exhibition of beau again (and most often) successively (amorous parades. : they are not a repetition of daily life. fights. from in animals meets one play a wall or window.IMAGINATION IN ANIMALS. acts necessary for self-preservation. there is creation. Here. and Groos. the purely motor character. dancing. Let us recapitulate in thought the immense quantity of motor expressions included in these nine categories and let us note that they have the fol in They are grouped lowing characters in common combinations that are often new and unforeseen. and serve as a center for imagination acts in their grouping. its invention. . beasts. poor psychology. Darwin s time. but have in view a real object. It cannot be otherwise. Tylor. flight. sounds or songs) but. which is the only mental the dog watching. it of a small number of images that become consists translated into actions. under one form or tiful colors). They have been well-known since he attributing to them an esthetic by Wallace. &quot.

By way compare the higher animals with this comparison is not based on a of corroboration of the foregoing. lack of images. Wernicke) outlined in the lower mammalia and attain only a mediocre development in the higher forms. and especially fewness rience. let us young children: few far-fetched analogies. tend to be immediately changed into movements.100 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. in chil dren as in animals. of possible combinations of images. We know that the nervous elements in the brain serving as connections between sensory regions whether one conceive of them as centers (Flechsig). In consequence of this predominance of the motor system. a very poor supply of images. of reflex. a very weak capacity for abstraction. but in a thorough resemblance in nature. and imitative movements. impulsive. has a brain but slightly differentiated. His intellectual development is much inferior to that instinctive. the simple and imperfect images. especially as regards connections. Man. during the first years of his life. breaking into bits the data of expe making them raw material for the future construction. and the its special characteristic mark. or as bundles of comare hardly misural fibers (Meynert. Even most of their inventions in . This last point is proven alike from the data of animal psychology and of comparative anatomy. native production be found reduced to its simplest motor form must be expression in animals. It cannot have any others for the following reasons: the work incapacity for that necessarily precedes abstraction or dissociation.

The insane baby bites. but disturbance of the automatic and instinctive func tions of the child is so often associated with mus cular disturbances that at this age the mental dis orders correspond to the motor ganglionic centers situated below those parts that later assume the labor of analysis and of imagination. is The found in the convulsions that are not &quot. The disturb ances are in the primary centers of organization and according to the symptoms lack those analytic or constructive qualities. hallucinations) but by reason of its feeble intellectual development the . * Insanity of Children.a stage of this madness. in Dictionary of Psy chological Medicine.IMAGINATION IN ANIMALS. IOI play are greatly inferior to those enumerated above under nine distinct heads. in favor of the prevalence of the motor of imagination type in the child is the furnished by principal part taken by movements A serious argument in infantile insanity first : a remark made by many alienists. and these symptoms are the external measure of the degree of its madness. they say. that we find in adult insanity.&quot. kicks. merely a muscular delirium. those ideal forms. 1 Hack Tuke. 1 Has not chorea itself been called a muscular in sanity ? Doubtless. If we descend to the lowest stage of human life to the baby we see that insanity consists almost entirely of the activity of a muscular group acting on external objects. The physical ailment. . there likewise exists in the child a sensorial madness (illusions.

it is Nevertheless. I do not believe that if out foundation. we merely a mental form with take into account the fore it going rather as a point in favor It is a singular invention. it would be necessary to seek greatest simplicity where is reduced to the in the animal world.102 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. of the motor theory of of creation is form instance in which the original facts. If we wanted it to discover it it. delirium a disorder of movements rather its than of images insane imagination is above all a motor insanity. causes . . I consider shown bare. To hold that the creative imagination belonging move to animals consists of new combinations of ments is certainly an hypothesis.

with an unformed diffluent brain. by very slow on account of causes both organic and psychological. life composed largely of water. in what form. under what condi tions does the creative imagination is make its appear impossible which. We could not dwell long on the organic causes without falling into tiresome repetitions. Reflex not complete in him. have We given above Flechsig observation on this point. the sensory centers itself is are undifferentiated. its evolution is eruption. moreover. the associational systems re main isolated for a long time after birth. and the corticomotor system only hinted at.CHAPTER II THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION CHILD At what ance? It IN THE age. creative imagination develops to answer this question. not pure reproduction by sudden Nevertheless. For the little by little out of an evolutionary process. has no justification. The psychological causes reduce themselves to the necessity for a consolidation of the primary and s . The new born infant is a spinal being.

To be the creative imagination cannot take form. grades. the children environment. we accept this scheme as approximately correct. simple motor adaptations) (2) and (3) in which the author establishes two . agreeing too much or Furthermore. studied live and grow up in a civilized The tion result is that the development of their imagina rarely unhampered and complete for as soon is . instincts of mem (a) appearance of special senses. ory. we must become like a child. pleasures and pains. In order to enter into the child-mind. we might epochs in the affective distinguish. defensive. the study of the child-imagination is not without difficulties. precise. If emotions). primarily (b) complex memory. In truth it gives its full . Whatever the propitious age may be. complicated movements. too little with the facts. as does Baldwin. without which secondary operations of the mind. rudimentary will. with much false interpretation possible. objective. the rationaliz ing education of parents and teachers is eager to master and control it. tive or final ideal (conscious thought.!04 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. the moment of imagination must be assigned to the third period (the second stage of the objective epoch) which fulfills all the sufficient and necessary conditions for its origina tion and for its rise above pure reproduction. constitutive will. as their fancy passes the middle level. we are limited to an interpretation of in terms of the adult. (4) subjec offensive activities. four mental development of the child ( I ) : (rudimentary sensory processes. and imitation. as it it is.

according as the latter If is timid. they are very fre I know a person who is always afraid of quent. which treats it as a harbinger of insanity. such as the predominance of visual or acoustic or tactile-motor images making for mechanical invention. we must make a distinction between the imaginative and non-imaginative. be long were are we made up partly of memories. 10$ of measure and reveals itself in the fulness growth it is only among primitive peoples. we may distinguish four we now principal stages. a rigorous chronological order. retired. the attempt to follow the development of child-imagination. without assigning them. of character. different orientations of the imagina tion depending on intellectual causes. Finally. healthy. checked in its flight by an antagonistic power. sickly. that is. With us children are not equally well-suited for this study. partly of new groupings. When we have thus chosen suitable subjects. etc. being at the same time repetition and construction. or de pendent on emotional causes. and the latter should be elimi nated. The first stage consists of the passage from Its history would to include all the hybrid forms that passive to creative imagination. exuberant. I. and for this reason urgently asks that in his coffin his shirt be not tight at the neck : this odd prepossession of the mind belongs neither .IMAGINATION IN THE CHILD. Even in the adult. being smothered. joyous. observation shows from the start sufficiently dis tinct varieties. otherwise.

memory nor first flights to imagination. limiting ourselves to perception and illu The necessary presence of the image in these sion. remnants of former experiences. There seems to be a radical difference between perception. .perceiving. a part only of the object represented.sensation&quot. So that perception requires an apprenticeship we must feel. adds to the sensations present appropriate images. elements are required To put one. The sensory datum fact is. to rise it is generally admitted that in order above sensation to perception. the other. two forms has been so often proven by contem two forms of the psychic life porary psychology that a few words to recall this to mind will be sufficient.IO6 to THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. there must be a synthesis of images. coming from with in. in order to finally perceive well. is only a fraction of the total and in the operation we call &quot. does not go beyond reproductive is imagination. . two coming from without. The decisive step taken in illusion. Nevertheless. and imagination. it is more desirable to follow the of the imagination s development. perfectly perceive. . then im . more simply. which seizes reality. This particular case illustrates in a the very clear form the nature of mind attempting to exercise its imaginative powers. it the physiological stimulus acting on the nerves and the sensory centers. that apprehending an object is directly.&quot. however. Without enumerating other facts of this kind. This. which becomes translated in the consciousness through the vague state that goes by name &quot.

but with interchange of the two terms. : Illusion has as broad a field as perception. known to us. As the state of the child that mind at that period resembles which in myths. level of the child s imagination. the chief element is the sensory. a distant noise seems the music of an orchestra. creations. IQJ know that illusion has as a basis and support a modification of the external senses which are meta of the We morphosed. and it is produced by the same mechanism. that con sist of constructions made up of memories. we have just the opposite condition what one takes : as perceived is merely imagined -the imagination assumes the principal role. in the form of animism or the attributing of This turn of the mind is life to everything. mind must undergo poor long or short in dura according to the rich or in inventions. In perception. of the mixed cases. His attitude to- . 2.IMAGINATION IN THE CHILD. already though mentioned only s incidentally. in illusion. and there is the representative element is secondary. amplified by an immediate construction mind a branch of a tree becomes a serpent. in facts man demonstrat ing that this primitive tendency to attribute life and even personality to everything is a necessary phase that the tion. in the strict sense. since no perception but may undergo this erron eous transformation. we shall return to it Works on psychology abound creates primitive in the next chapter. The creative imagination asserts its itself with peculiar characteristics only in the second stage. without being. Illusion is the type of the transitional forms.

They re pened to slip. thus : on in his fourth year. I choose them on account of their extrava 1 gance. Two will suf on an uncontroverted point. he exclaimed. being found in all countries without exception. to stones and manufactured articles. hap an angle. thus: formed saw resem the instantly Lj human to the and said: blance form. when tracing a letter L. so that the horizontal limb He One of Sully* s correspondents talking together had the habit of attributing intelligence says: not only to all living creatures but even &amp. Studies of Childhood. in certain minds. . because it is universal. among all races of men. wards his dolls is the common example of this state. can dare anything. Chapter ii. It is needless to pile up facts fice.I . I used sometimes to pick up a pebble or to have a change.: ! &quot.gt. F l.One little fellow. sedentary &quot. .&quot. when he made an F turn the wrong way and then put the correct form to the left.The Age of Imag ination. which shows that at this particular moment animism. addressing it Another little boy well Dear old boy W. conceived a special fondness for the letter W. When I walked out with a basket for putting flowers in. &quot. Most of the observations given in the present chap ter have been borrowed from this author. . I used to feel how dull it must be for the pebbles in the causeway to lie still and only see what was round about.I08 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. entitled &quot.Oh. and also the best example. he s sitting down/* Similarly. aged one year eight months. thus. two and carry them out One will find a large number of examples in Sully s work.

and since creative imagination at its beginning. paper into another self. The mechanism is like that which produces reality. c. because he perceives only the phantom he has created that is. the images. we The first element is a fixed idea. illusion. or group of images. which assures the supremacy of the image. the presents shall a. from gestion. with this sole difference that the suggestion does not come from without.. This has as is its This an important basis a reality that it includes. detail to note. his mental makes all the of development poverty legs easier this contraction of the field of his conscious ness. all the more as it meet it again in primitive man. adherence of the mind founded on purely subjective conditions. this creative power investing the image with all its attributes of real existence is derived from a fundamental fact the state of belief. i. because this however tiny. ICX) Let us stop a moment in order to try to determine the nature of this strange mental state. that takes possession of consciousness to the exclusion of everything else : it is the analogue of the state of suggestion in the hypnotized subject. or rather. b. the material exciting them. gives objectivity to the imag and incorporates it with the external creation inary world. It does not come within my province to . haunt his brain. not . an image. it is auto-sug another. Lastly. e. but with a stable character excluding cor The child transforms a bit of wood or rection.IMAGINATION IN THE CHILD. but from the child itself The stick that the child holds between his The becomes for him an imaginary steed.

) . faith and it succeeds therein only because of the not completely the nature of the image to appear accompanying the image. struggle on the one hand against the prejudices of common-sense for which imagination is synonymous with sham and vain appearance and opposed to the real as non-being to being. Spinoza already asserts &quot. to remarking that but for necessarily limit myself treat incidentally such a large question. is This psychological truth. against a doctrine of the logicians who maintain that the idea is at first merely conceived with no affirmation of existence or non-existence (apprehensio simplex). is altogether unaccept The psycho viewpoint giving the true nature of the image has prevailed little by little. Representation and belief are it separated. This position. the origin. nature of the imagination is The peculiarity of the totally incomprehensible.HO THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.that representations considered by themable in psychology. It has had to at first as a real object. (Tr. has made itself observation. on the other hand. whose faculty-method or faith belief has this toward it omission. a concrete science. logical 1 studies Apropos of this subject compare especially the recent by William James. imagination is the production of a reality of human this psychic state. legitimate in logic. Varieties of Eeligious Experience. clined recently I 1 become the object of numerous studies. which is an abstract science. Neglected in by the older physiology. though proven through with acceptable only great difficulty.

the less one the would believe the it. Taine. but for which fact the more vivid the image. through the 1 effect of other states of consciousness Spinoza. by us. 49. but on the conceive it. Elements of the Philosophy of the Human Mind. . Ch. it is deprived of its a full objectivity. appear and complete reality. by studying the nature of the image and its primitive character contrary of hallucination. it is which we Existence is not a quality added to it founded on habit and is irresistible. Part II.&quot. Scholium. has two moments. enumerates very many facts whence he con treats the cludes that imagination is always accompanied by an act of belief. selves contain Ill no errors. which is definitive. it is objective. Finally. . Part III. there is no psychologist the image. On Intelligence. Dugald Stewart. but just commands happens strong representation persuasion like sensation itself. Hume : jective dispositions assigns belief to our sub Belief does not depend on the nature of the idea. Section VII ff. I think. Hume. when who does not regard as proven that it enters consciousness. Taine treats the subject methodically. II. ing as During the first. Vol.IMAGINATION IN THE CHILD.&quot. Human Under standing. More explicitly.denies that it is possible to perceive [represent] without affirming. reduced to a completely internal event. Dugald Stewart psychologist He question purely as a following the experimental method. Ethics. 1 At present. during the second. manner in The difference between fiction and belief consists of a feeling added to the latter but not to the former. and he &quot. Ill. I.

religion. impulse. Besides the intellectual element which is its content. After 1 this. This life. 139 ff. then inhibition. not only delib erate volition. fear. . ) giving the image its intensity. as soon as these affective and active dispositions disappear in life s its the. and ful 1 this has justly given rise to the truth saying that the test of belief is action. prejudices. and assur ing it success in the struggle against other states of consciousness. an attitude of the mind.will. which oppose and finally annihilate its objective There is an affirmation. character. sectarian feeling. an empty and dead representa tion. James. love. but. as James says. etc. explains politics. owes its creative and vivifying power to general dispositions of our constitution.&quot. being only a mode of existence. passions. leaving in its place a formless content. Payot. &quot.112 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. and so 2 forth). faith falls with them. * De la croyance. Faith. its material the thing affirmed or denied there are tendencies and other affective factors (desire. fear. There are active faculties that we sometimes under designate by the name standing by the term. It lasts as long as mind waits and consents. 10. belief can withstand the logical assaults of the rationalizing intelligence power is found everywhere. but all the factors of belief (hope. experience. then negation. in the moral in and elsewhere. The Will to Believe and Other Essays. how in love. is it necessary to remark that belief p.

On the other hand. For the adult the contrary indeed. is literally must. nevertheless. nor belief without imagination. remark that this applies only partially to the ignorant and even less We to the savage. atrophied. in is true in many cases. perfectly identified with a horse? Was that showed its doll a series of engravings to It choose seems that we must rather admit an intermittence. completely deceived? the skeptical attitude of those who laugh at it dis pleases the child. wherein the image should be affirmed as a reality. the first of the two moments (the affirming) that the image undergoes in consciousness is all in all for him. we return by another route to the on the motor nature of thesis supported in the first part of this essay. who is like a devout believer faith is being broken down. atrophy of the other. is only virtual. moment. the second (the rectifying) is nothing: there is hypertrophy of one. however. unreserved. that creative activity depends images. entire. 113 depends peculiarly on the motor elements of our organization and not on the intellectual? As there is no imagination without belief. Is the stick that he bestrides Sully s child. ask is ourselves if the child s belief in his absolute. from. an alteration be tween affirmation and negation. Insofar as concerns the special case of the child. On the one hand. phantoms complete.IMAGINATION IN THE CHILD. the first consequence of experience and habit. We might. doubt must indeed arise in him from time to whose .

.spirit of mastery. It is no longer a simple combination of images. child soon the but lates defence. To the period of imitation succeed more serious attempts he acts with a his &quot. 3. in order to construct by means of images (ideally). reasons for which we shall give later (see chapter iv. for without belief this. passes beyond this lower stage. The in with the one just chronological order.. opposes This second work proceeds the other drives little by little. attack. merchant. but then.&quot. rectification could or never it occur one away. He and constructs houses. gives himself infra). to us. but in passing it grows in from animals to chil complexity and becomes intel- lectualized. he is possessed by idea which he tends to is realize. third stage is that of play. simu new associations forms in movements. The he is personal character of creation really interested only in shown in that a work that emanates . boats. sailor. child. imagination retreats. He begins by imi tating: this is The human a physiological necessity. up to large plans acts. for creating: this is its principal function. flight. etc. coincides As a form of creation it is already preceding. under this form. THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. like the animal.U4 time. known dren. gives cer tain vague notions concerning the nature of things such it is . robber. which. coachman. but he imitates most in his own person making himself in turn soldier. expends itself to it. Play serves two ends for experimenting: as an introduction to knowledge.

&quot.&quot. requires a more refined culture. Perez. useless to persist. in many a book. 1 trampled at - under tempt read it laughing at myself. experiencing all the emotions appropriate to the respect they *B. cool. he remarked shortly that at all entertaining/ it The author adds and I : &quot. four years of age.this At each new Out isn t act the child would remain admiration would always have to be waited of patience.I believed foot.. wholly imaginative (i.I at a childish construction. this experience and it others like is have taught me that their creative said. . his for. Les trois premieres annees de I enfant. planted little branches on both banks. &quot. put a bridge across. being At a purely internal. which tion. cast in three or We know the taste of imagina surfeited: in this for stories to and legends. who listen greedily to rhapsodies for hours at a time. and launched boats. tive children e. but this time I had already had learned from experience that the is free initiative of children make force always superior to the imitations we pretend to for them. aged three and a half years. In addition. my awkward &quot. much weaker than has been the fourth stage appears romantic inven 4. Perez scratched in the sand a trench resembling a river. 115 from himself and of which he cause. p. Perez relates that he wanted to give a lesson to his nephew. 323. whose inventions seemed to him very poor. It begins at about images) creation. which they until have repeated them resemble semi-civilized people.IMAGINATION IN THE CHILD. feels himself the B. and had water flow through it.

It may even be the sign of an inborn vocation and indicate in what direction the creative activity will be orientated. he will have Sometimes the to get some powder to heal it. This is incidents of the tale. tion. too-too train started on again. her mother. Thus the first attempts are made with reminiscences. [got] a bad poor Then the romance begins He was on a high horse he fell on a rock. works. 145.Look at that has dot he ole man. op. the prelude to crea state. (Tr. &quot. and when was overjoyed that too-too . like a fish in the water. A child of three often longed to live in the sky. the child was well again. invented a fairy story the hole was a beautiful hall inhabited by brilliant : mysterious personages. jerking. Compayre&quot. and a half saw a lame man and exclaimed &quot. child of three : A leg. having found a hollow rock. aged five years nine months. pp. invention is less realistic. mamma. The groaning continued. which them to create in their own turn. etc. It 1 is not as common as well endowed. p. puffing. This form of imagination the others. Of this we find numerous examples in the special going along a road.&quot. : . belongs to those whom nature has It forecasts a development of mind above the average. 1 L evolution intellec- (Some time ago the writer was riding on a train.Too-too A little girl of about three called to finally the sick. until it finally came to a full stop.1 16 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. almost groaning.&quot. cit. or like a star Another.. and imitated rather than created. etc. tuelle et morale de I enfant.) ) sick. semi-active will permit an apprentice period. for some reason or other.. 59-61. began to slow up. struck his poor leg. when the engine. a semi-passive. Sully.

then by analogy to an organ that he sees on the street adorned with a monkey. then to his toys representing animals. at first to his nurse. Darwin. 1 Sully. a child applies the word &quot. the other secondary it contains a germ of thought and ventures a fanciful explanation of the world which can not yet be con ceived according to abstract notions and laws. one principal it creates plays. then to a sewing machine that she uses. &quot. Thus. p. seeing the American a &quot. It works in two directions.baby dollar dew on the grass. a small . said. To conclude: At this period the imagination is the master-faculty and the highest form of intel lectual development. processes that appear and intermingle in an unforeseen manner.door.The grass is crying. 164. A child called the cork of a bottle called little &quot. and extends language. an abundant source of often picturesque metaphors. coin was by a another. Let us briefly recall the creative role of in 117 the language.&quot. rational thought. The extension of the meaning of words has been studied by Taine. invents romances.&quot.. and others.IMAGINATION IN THE CHILD. They have shown that its psychological mechanism de pends sometimes on the perception of resemblance. op. .&quot. 1 We have elsewhere given where we perceive the funda mental difference between thought by imagery and more similar cases. through the intervening imagination of a factor already studied thinking by analogy. tit. again on association by contiguity.mambro&quot. Preyer.

deed.CHAPTER III PRIMITIVE MAN AND THE CREATION OF MYTHS to a We come now unique period in the history its of the development of the imagination golden confined in savagery age. it He does not go as beyond child it is this stage. permanent and lasting throughout 1 life. in it ? more favorable conditions for knowing is is. find Where. still astonished that psychologists. Man. but is no longer an enigma in animals. and we are In primitive man. that a purely imaginative the imagination marks the summit of intellectual development. who nor a transitory phase as in the civilized rapidly advances to the age of reason. being. obstinately attached to esthetics. his prior to civilization. poets. novelists. a fixed state. have neglected such an im portant form of activity. one so rich in information rightly concerning the creative imagination. it reaches its full bloom in the creation of myths. many contemporary The mental would be primitive.&quot. or just starting toward civilization. From artists this standpoint. It is there revealed to us in its entire spon1 Primitive man has been defined as * he for whom sensuous data and images surpass in importance rational concepts. and state of the human .

comprehends every thing law.CREATION OF MYTHS. becomes translated its form the creation of myths. an anony rule mous. he does not hesitate to less embody the most sense The imaginings flitting through his brain. the advantage of being the incarna of tion pure imagination. for him. as unworthy of an hour s attention. religion. they offer an almost inexhaustible content. taneity: it 119 has free rein. it is sovereign. poetry. is sufficient in every way. and often des pised myths as aberrations of the human mind. world is not. left to and unadulterated rational itself by the intrusion and tyranny of into one elements. which. science. history. they per Myths have mit psychologists to study them objectively. philosophy. misunderstood. and nothing limits or hinders him. it is not imprisoned in any conventional form. Thanks to the labors of the nineteenth century. however. it can create without imitation or tradition. disfigured. As primitive man has knowledge neither of nature nor of its laws. unconscious work. which. . we must also take account of the (comparative) simplicity of the social environment. and. even for psychology. individual is not enough for such a determination. it is no longer necessary in our time to show their interest and importance. While past ages forgot. This working of the pure imagination. a totality of phenomena subject to laws. moreover. as long as lasts. has not as yet drawn all the benefit possible from them.

Hercules are three per sonifications of the sun. This another source of confusion. 1897). We the other.shining. V around (night) and Yama (death) express at first and have become two attributes distinct the same conception. two designated by more than twenty names in the Vedas.nomina numina. Phaethon. Let us also add metaphors taken plays upon words. is (a) Polyprincipal linguistic causes Thus the sun several words for one thing. deities. concepts from a single origin the worship of the dead. literally. ethno-psychological.I2O THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. this doctrine maintain that in Let us mention the euhemeristic theory of Herbert Spen taken up recently by Grant Allen (The Evolution of the Idea of God. is This the effect of nomy. whose pion is Max of a disease of language &quot. holds that myths are the result words become transformation things. etc. or anthro 1 pological. genealogical. . (b) Homonomy.&quot. wrong construction. who brings down all religious and mythic cer. In short. a single word is &quot. we must briefly summarize the hypotheses at find two prin present offered for their origin. or cipal linguistic . The opponents of J etc. spring. its every word tends to become an entity having and its legends. the ones one. But before commencing the psychological study of the genesis and formation of myths considered as an objective emanation of the creative imagina tion.&quot. for several things. a fountain. Apollo. The first. refers to the sun. principal though not sole cham Miiller. The same adjective. etymological.

Mito e Scienza. best adapted for psychology. 51. &quot. Max Miiller nothing this.&quot. It regards the myth not as an accident of primitive life. 1 himself has recently recognized The anthropological theory. a vehicle. . 121 words represent scarcely Whatever may be the worth of this re assertion. much more general than the foregoing.CREATION OF MYTHS. cherished and conse crated through tradition. habits. a mode of activity proper to man during a certain period of his development. Moreover. often immoral. without the it. The expression was strange but intentionally For so. the purely philological explanation mains without value for psychology: it is neither it does not solve the question. 1 inseparable. language and thought are de Myfhologie.When I tried to briefly characterize mythology In its inner nature. The word is only an occasion. Nouvelles Etudes Vignoli.&quot. working of the mind exciting would change. the formation of myths. five per cent. p. but as a natural function. the mythic crea tions seem absurd. I called it a disease of language rather than a dis ease of thought. Later. the myth is psychological objectification of man in all the 2 It is a humaniphenomena that he can perceive. 27.the to me zation of nature according to processes peculiar to the imagination. me. it true nor false merely avoids it. and respect for According to the definition that seems antiquity. &quot. because they are survivals of a distant epoch. p. penetrates further to psycho it leads us to the first advances of logical origins the human mind. meant to arouse attention and to provoke opposition.

etc. compared to the fecundity of nature. does not agree on one point material for myths is furnished by the observation of natural phenomena. of the and origin destiny of man. moon and stars. in which respect they need a little psychol The periodic returns of the dawn. on monkeys. have their we may suppose. This is the objective factor. and Religion. provided we accept the a partial explanation. : and other animals supposedly the most intelligent. 1 shows that it is the human imagination that takes the principal part and that it is on the whole perhaps not so rich as we are pleased to say that it is even very poor. 1 now study the psychology of this creative it reducing to these two questions : How Marillier. Have they inspired myths ? Just the opposite surprising races have &quot. can not deny that most works on mythology have a very decided We tendency to give the greater importance to the first factor. The creation of myths has its explanation in the nature of human imagination this is the subjective factor. death. elephants.122 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. including the great events of as only In any event. of the ideas that the various Let us activity. both schools important for us that the first human life : birth.the monotony made final causes of phenomena. Lang s Preface to the French translation of Andrew Myth. Ritual. whence it results that the numberless myths are reduced to a very small number of types. It Are these two views irreconcilable? seem so to me. sickness. ogy. the effect also. .&quot. winds and storms. the sun.

CREATION OF MYTHS. it is contemporary. a. ticularly belong to long-past ages. and for the sake of facilitating analysis. plunge into virgin countries. two and The moment of creation presupposes two to inseparable operations which. and other objects (seemingly) incapable of movement. be regarded as that of creation proper. describe separately. Of this inborn and irresistible tendency there are so many facts in proof that an enumera tion is needless : it is the rule. The evidence gath ered by ethnologists. rocks. may theoretically. principal moments that of romantic invention. are 123 myths formed ? ? What line does their evolution follow The psychology work that causes of the origin of the myth. that is attributing life and action to everything. representing everything to one s self as living and acting even mountains. the winds and clouds. and travelers fill This state of mind does not par large volumes. become . The first consists of attributing life to all however. it On must be regarded as conceded that to says Tylor. the lower races of humanity the sun and stars. and eyes it if we would with our own is not at all necessary to the whole. it It is still in see existence. of the its rise. we have things. Animating everything. for there are frequent reversions even in civilized lands. the trees and rivers. the second of assigning qualities to all things. mythologists.

certainly rude and primi tive. 1897. Folk-lore of Northern *On this point consult a work very W. like a man. Crooke s book. attributes to these imaginary beings various qualities. in the roaring of the waterfall. and these no life. even to the bending twig wet with dew for him has language.124 T&E CREATIVE IMAGINATION. as The second operation of the mind. but coherent and serious. they depend on a vast philosophy of nature. weak or powerful. The forest is alive in *&quot. All of the nature to whom he owes his soul speaks to him through the noise of the wind. Primitive man lives and moves among the ceaseless phantoms 2 of his own imagination. periods of anger . makes grounds based cannot be regarded as less than a poetic fancy or an ill-understood metaphor. has caprices. Indian traversing the Montafia never feels himself Legions of beings accompany him. its depths. ful function in creation filling their special or rather what the human eye can reach is only the instrument or the matter of which some gigantic the visible things. being.The alone. kind or cruel. it avoids the thicket . rich in information. The insect like the bird everything. remain unbroken even among the tribes that 1 are in contact with old civilizations. we have said. Popular Religion and India. They are good or bad. but all impor tant to man. inseparable. like animated creatures living that men and beasts. useful or One hurtful. from the first. no form of sickness escapes. remains stupefied before the swarming of these numberless genii act of beliefs whom no natural phenomenon. hidden behind such ideas are on which The use. distinct personality.

The Indian knows all that. cut after our pattern. In the genesis of myths. There was one for germinating grain. he knows those dread genii by name. no detail. but had its own presiding genius. into closed bogs. imagination the religion of the Romans peopled the universe with an innumerable quantity of genii. Monnier. is real&quot. that is. and this is of and acting. feeling factor previously studied is a matter first of all thinking by analogy. Des Andes au Para. for blighted grain. No object. no act. of People poor and dry do not reach the second period. drink his blood by attaching their lips to the wounds made by briers. the second moment that of fanciful invention. Thus. . drags him into infected swamps. for under the tread of the huntsman. it re gards as alike. Whence arises the discord between the imagined world and the world of reality. Lastly. where miserable goblins exhaust all their witchcraft upon him. p. it attributes to an internal linking of images. for sprouting grain. : they have a history and adventures they become the stuff for a romance. concludes an objective resemblance. But the logic of images. or again presses him more closely. (Tylor). what seem alike. the psychological tive 125 moment is very simple.CREATION OF MYTHS.Analogies that for us are only fancies were for the man of past ages b. mechanism of the crea It depends on a single It important conceiving beings analogous to ourselves. very different from that of reason. for grain in flower. then qualifying them and determining them according to the attributes of our own nature. 300. &quot. the validity of an objec tive connection between things. cast in our mould. Entities take form.

. the very few themes upon which has labored. ever. etc. hallucinations. Myths allow us to do this. There was a myriad of misty. formless entities. its Besides analogy. they are the work of imaginative minds par excellence (we shall study them later) who. confronted with any event what insane attacks sources. construct a romance. ing to their geographical distribution or ethnic char If we proceed otherwise. their content e. THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. importance. the 1 human imagination I. This is animism arrested at its first stage.&quot. the arousing of an image-group is the result that is know of a tendency prevailing at a given instant over several that are possible. abstraction has killed imagination. this imaginative creation has as principal source the associational form already described under it the name &quot. its lock. such as celestial See Part Chapter IV.. in certain cases. Ordinarily they have been studied in their historical development accord acter. they are derived from several Whatever their origin.126 the door. This operation has al ready been expounded theoretically with individual 1 But in order to gauge its examples in support. They came perhaps from dreams. we must see it act in large masses. because of their nature. if we consider only i. We based on the fact that. its hinges. must.constellation. Who created those legends and tales of adventure constituting the subject-matter of mythology? Probably inspired individuals. priests or prophets.

of man. of water ! multiple causes. the manner of living totally savage. which have orientated the imagi nation now in one direction. These variations are due to of fire. explain the multiplicity of the imaginative concep tions of the world. Let us mention the principal ones whether the imagination istics : Racial character is clear or mobile. or those of creation. floods. and decline. the physical environment external nature cannot be reflected in the brain of a Hindoo in the same way as in that of a Scandinavian. climax. The variable combinations of these different factors.CREATION OF MYTHS.&quot. To begin with. poor or exuberant. that assemblage unexpected causes grouped and under the term &quot. or on a level of civilization. ii The form attention by of imagination now occupying our reason of its non-individual. terrestrial disturbances. attains a long develop ment that we may follow of ascent. anony in its successive phases mous. collective character. the we are sur origin of the universe. with the predominance of one or the other. now in another. in contrast to the unity and simplicity of scientific conceptions. etc. 1 27 phenomena. is it necessarily inherent in the human mind ? Are there races or groups of men totally devoid of myths? which is a slightly different question from that . diversity in the solar myths. of considerable and lastly. What prised at the wonderful richness of variety.chance.

all the water been swallowed by a gigantic frog or toad having which was compelled. Among the These are little children s imagin Hindoos the same myth takes the dragon watching waters. mythic creation appears early. organized by birds. .128 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. it is probable that there the beginning. We can infer this from the signs of puerility of certain legends. Later. to earth was regurgitate ings. and various peoples regard powerful animals as gods in disguise (such are certain Mexi can divinities). when man had scarcely left thoughts?&quot. &quot. grasshoppers. battle. Cosmogonies. 23-24.. is wounded by Indra after a heroic and restores them to the earth. agree with Vignoli that we already find in the higher animals embry onic forms of animism. by queer stratagems. More advanced pp. the Australian aborigines. spiders. The natives of Oceania believe that the world was created and .Are usually asked. furnish a good example of the development of myths it is possible to mark out stages and rounds according to the degree of culture and intelligence. all trace of animal worship *0p. of which he has taken the form of an alluring epic celestial over the possession. religious there tribes totally devoid of that there are such were in Although it is very doubtful now. the brute level at least if we 1 In any event. Savages who could not know themselves tives the Iroquois. Lang remarks. tit. the na of the Andaman Islands believed that the at first sterile and dry. it.

but also the seven forms of flame. or rather us to causes discern. 8 Nouveaux Essais. special work. In the Aryan race. land-tillers. op.CREATION OF MYTHS. of herders. myth. the ten fingers of the sacrificing priest. storm external nature has never found a mode of thought so graceful and flexible for : reflecting itself thereby in all the inexhaustible However changeable variety of her appearances. cit. no language is more true and &quot.is more supple: it permits a glimpse of. fire. the cit. the Vedic epoch. has anthropomorphic.&quot. subtle and refined. sailors. of social evolution shown how the successive stages in express themselves in the successive stages of myth ology myths of cannibals. 3 It nature may be. . but an expression. of hunters. Aryan and Indo-Iranian passes little In the course of this slow evolution the work of the from infancy. 162. disappears. the here not Vedas) a disguise. Lang. the imagination is equally so. I. 2 Max Miiller Speaking of pure savagery. and the character of the 1 I2Q myth is purely a Kuhn.. all the accidents of sky. (in says Taine. the forms of mist. the wood that lights x it.. despite its by little sacerdotal ritualism. 320. admits at least two periods panprior to the Vedic period. op 12.The of mythic efflorescence. Agni. 2 Max Miiller. and passim. change of seasons. imagination becomes more and more complex. the move ments of the air.&quot. p. animates everything not only fire in general. p. excellence is considered as the period par &quot.

The most skilled linguists often declare themselves unable to change the pliant tongue of the imagina 2 tive age into our algebraic idioms. Lan guage has. 234. To this triumphant period there succeeds among i.. itself. ra tional language of our time for the image-making names. preserved numerous vestiges of it in current expressions. that have been able to rise above the age of (pure) See Lang. Immediately. to maintain that at this of Hesiod. the sea is treacherous. with four very different translations by Max Miiller. Thought by imagery cannot remain itself and take on a rational dress. all the mythical material vanishes. The partisans of the linguistic theory have been able prayer altar. and even the railing surrounding the one example among many others. I. e. at the same time The mental state that marks the zenith of the is free development of the imagination.&quot. &quot. transformed an or act. abstract. This is moment every word is a is a name designating a word because every myth. Thus. Endymion&quot.It sleeping is night. p. 2 . Wilson.1^0 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. substituting the analytic. Benfrey. however. Ritual and Religion. by the imagination quality has translated a page Miiller Max into substance. wind is mad. Myth. the earth is thirsty. a passage from the Rig-Veda. the races that have made progress in evolution. the etc.Selene kisses the becomes the dry formula. the mythic signification of which has been lost the sun rises. &quot. at present met with only in mystics and in some poets. and Langlois.

The non-explicative myths. irreconcilable. The myths are of the first class. it is hard to believe that he is is not curious he holds his life at that price. answering the various needs of act.CREATION OF MYTHS. the period of waning.. two great categories: arising The explicative myths. afterwards to knowing more Is much the numerous. from utility. Tylor says yes. of In order to understand it and perceive the how and why of it. Let us follow them in the accomplishment of their destinies. are not. from the necessity of knowing. These undergo a b. perhaps. Taking it generally. The question primitive man by nature curious? has been variously answered. in order . is While our subordination himself dependent on every as regards nature is limited by the 1 knowledge of her laws. in the presence of the universe just as we or when confronted with an Is it unknown animal useful or hurtful? He has all the more need feels for a conception of the world since he thing. let us first note that myths are decline.. compare the (Tr. of regression. He are fruit. 1 The affirmative and negative answers Spencer. if we take account of the differences in races.) position held by Plato. resulting from a need of luxury. . reducible to a. from a pure desire to create these : undergo only a partial transformation. radical transformation. he on On curiosity as the beginning of knowledge. a. thus. no. 13! imagination.

). For him. limited to a small circle. because the poverty of his experience. but absence of intelligence or interest for what he does not consider immediately useful for his needs. account of his animism in a position similar to ours before an assembly of persons whom we have to It is approach or avoid. conciliate or yield to. etc. because of the extreme weakness of his logic and especially of his conception of causality. 1903. the myth is a response to a host of theo retical and practical needs. The author justly criticises the current description of this general subject consult the interesting though article by Professor John The some Dewey. 1 On what general Interpre tation of the Savage Mind.1^2 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. and which for which remain unbroken periences to contradict in the absence of other ex and shatter them. he solves it as best he can. May. which most often reduces itself to a post hoc.&quot. . not lack of curiosity. a watch. in the Psychological Review. There has been alleged the indifference of primitive man to the complicated engines of civilization (a steamboat. engenders a multitude of erroneous associations. Whence we have the thorough subjectivity of his 1 In short. primitive interpretation of the world. secondly. His conception of the world is a product of the imagination. explanation which great reasons can yet unborn. The problem is imperatively set. This shows. because no other is possible for him. ergo propter hoc. the imagina tive explanation takes is the place of the rational not arise first. that is necessary that he be practically curious indispensable for his preservation.

logical rigor. A few remarks will suffice. without ever succeeding therein completely. what science makes provisionally. and in terms of images. It results from a work of de personification of the myth. This transformation occurs thanks to two prin cipal supports: methodical and prolonged observa of phenomena. loses little by little its position and preponderance in the inter pretation of the world. and contends that there is general misunderstanding of the true nature of the savage and of his activities. which little by little loses its subjective. proportioned to the requirements of the man of the earliest. 133 man makes without exception or reserve. or slightly-cultured ages. critical Then comes the period of transformation: a slow. and by means of concepts namely. anthropomorphic character in order to become all the more objective. (Tr. opposed to the caprices of animism (example: the work of the ancient tion astronomers of the Orient) reflection . in well- endowed It does not concern the subject in hand to trace here the fortunes of the old battle whereby the imagination. savages in negative terms. hypotheses. an epitome of a practical philosophy. assailed by a rival power. progressive substi tution of a rational conception of the world for the imaginative conception.CREATION OF MYTHS. the growing power of at least and of races. which suggests the objective notion of stability and law. with reserves. Thus.) . the explicative myths are as we see.

is the Grundprincip. certain Greek physicians). concepts remained alive to in physics.H 2 O. in the mystic speculations of the pearance. begin with. for with him. naturalists like Aristotle. &quot. in Science. our day. phers. Love and Hate.spirit that is in water as well the water-spirit &quot. Stallo has been able to propose to write &quot. positive spirit that the world is full of daemons. chemistry. not merely for the substance that we call chemically &quot. employment of theory leaving is not merely a playful mannerism. calculates eclipses. stands thing is derived from water.) . as is seen of Empedocles. an observing. Even to Thales. At the beginning of the nineteenth 1 It is now well accepted that Thales cannot be regarded as propounding a materialistic theory when he declares that every water&quot. but for the &quot. the of his out Ideas. Pythagoreans. we know how imaginary century. even remains of primitive animism. biology. 1 In Plato.&quot. but a real myth survival. down bitter the sixteenth we know the struggle that the against occult in two following centuries witnessed Even qualities and loose methods. is Nevertheless. begun by the philoso more firmly established in the first attempts science of pure (the Alexandrian mathematicians.gt. the To myth but is transformed into disap philosophic speculation.134 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. in the cosmology ruled by without total two human-like antitheses. This work of elimination. (Tr.On a treatise Myth at this time of the hypotheses admitted as such Without speaking and remain in on account of the sciences their usefulness. 7&amp. there yet many latent signs of primitive anthro pomorphism.

to make concrete and representable. whether we will or no. the may b. from myths wherein there figure at . They are much less numerous than the others. takes on a produce no other concerns the last term of imagination it human character. symbol ical it formula : if we attempt to embody it.CREATION OF MYTHS. But notion. there those having no claim to be in this class. Historically. Such are the epic or heroic stories. since they do not answer multiple neces sities of life.properties of that we now regard this latter as merely modes of energy. an expression of permanence underneath the various manifestations of nature. then. 135 in several &quot. esthetic activity destined later to become superficial Here. romances popular tales. although they have perhaps been originally sug gested by some phenomenon of animate or inani mate nature. we see that so far as this slow regression. it resolves itself into the feeling of muscular effort. are In addition to the explanatory myths. (which are found as early as ancient Egypt) : it is the first appearance of that form of literature. If this statement appear doubtful or disrespectful. the mythic activity suffers only a metamorphosis the essence is not Literature is changed. we should note the following. century people believed matter&quot. that is. To examples. not yet completely annulled. is for science only an abstract. mythology transformed and adapted to the variable conditions of civilization. although have had to recede incessantly before a more is solid and better armed rival.

only divine personages. unconscious. but in pure form.136 first THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. Scandinavians. esthetics. the imaginative work that has character at first created the whom man bows gods and superior beings before because he has unconsciously pro duced them. niques. until it becomes the romantic novel. as the popular imagination. its unmodified as in literary creation. whose master man and whom he treats as he likes. Little by little the divine is rubbed out. live in the same world. when In passing from natural phe creating legends. anonymous. tions of the social earliest the creative activity of the ture is time remains at bottom unchanged. becomes more and more humanized as it becomes conscious. The gods have become pup feels himself. there arise the epics of the Hindoos. the construe- individual. Litera a decadent and rationalized mythology. and finally the realistic story. ideas. reproduc life. Throughout the manifold tech documentary collections. on a level. in which the gods and heroes are confounded. as a non- collective. Greeks. Psychologically. the myth approaches the ordinary conditions of human life. nomena to historic events and persons. but it cannot cease being a projection of the feelings. in Does the mythic exist activity of ancient times still among civilized peoples. work? . etc.. and nature of man into the fictitious beings their creator upon whom the belief of and of his hearers confers an illusory and pets fleeting existence. Yes.

a human psychological genesis of legends being thus established in general. then. The psychological mechanism is the same in both : cases.There . in the other.It process is a fusion or combination. . in one case. according to the facts. datum of sense. a fact of history.&quot. the historical personage or event enters into the mould of a pre-existing myth. what. the historic metal. material is in the used.CREATION OF MYTHS. a ence. are the unconscious processes that the imagination may distinguish employs for creating them? The We two principal ones. is necessary that the mythic form be fashioned before one may pour into it. Illu sion may vary in all shades between exact percep tion and hallucination. legend can run all the way from exact history to pure myth. Imagination had created a solar mythology long before it could be incarnated by the Greeks in Hercules and his exploits. legend is also produced by an addition of images changing The only differ the historic personage or event. The the fact. 137 tive imagination takes a slightly different position which we may characterize thus legend is to myth what illusion is to hallucination. &quot. and legend are partial imaginations. The difference between illusion and hallucination is sometimes Illusion hallucination imperceptible . Sensory illusion sometimes true of legend is produced by an addition of images changing perception. a natural phenomenon event. and myth are total imaginations. in a more or less fluid state. the same is and myth. first The myth precedes &quot.

and other abnormalities. of love. he him. which can act conjointly with the other. and the objective element reduced to almost nothing. 59-60. the romantic tale. cruelty. is trans assumes an absolutely aureole legendary.. the Cid of the Middle Age tra ditions to the character of history. . that again. but with numerous deformations. at another time.&quot. historically a Roland. is more complex. 47-48. cast historic is sup into oblivion: the ideal is center of attraction about which becomes a formed the legend. tit. Even much nearer to us. the Charlemagne. of loyalty. perhaps even an Arthur.138 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. Popular imagination incarnates in a real man its ideal of heroism. op. or of cowardice. 39. Compare the Alexander. of piety. through It The in which a dominating characteristic of the personage is chosen and everything else pressed. formed. this process of simplification 1 extreme which the law of mental inertia or Max Miiller. mythic creation a process addition to presupposes labor of abstraction. The second process is idealization. one time the man is completely hidden by the myth been and This becomes is only transfigures exactly what occurs in the simpler phe nomenon of sensory illusion: now the real (the perception) is swamped by the images. wickedness. but the greater part of the great deeds that the poetry of the Middle Ages attributes to them had was accomplished long before by mythological 1 At heroes whose very names had been forgotten. the objective element remains master.

seems so to us.&quot.. is suf It has been said that the ficient for everything. e. i. although it is often an effort toward wisdom. that it represents a state intermediate between that of a man of our time. Henry IV of good fellowship.a imagination To conclude: resists everything. prosaic and well-to-do. toward the comprehension of things. of least effort : 139 is sufficient to explain always per Lucretia Borgia remains the type of debauch The pro ery. with Tylor. &quot. and that of a furious madman. or of a man in the delirium of fever. tests of historians and the documentary evidence sists that they produce avail nothing: the work of the have just passed over a period of mental evolution wherein the creative imagina tion reigns exclusively. . explains everything.CREATION OF MYTHS. It imagination is temporary derangement. etc. We It would be more correct to say.

we may ask in limine whether their psychology is men being by means of simple formulae.CHAPTER IV THE HIGHER FORMS OF INVENTION pass from primitive to civilized man. great exceptions.spontaneous variations. to belong to it as peculiarly its own. accepting it dc facto historically and psycho logically. Besides. or whether even monographs teach us no more concerning their nature than general explicable theories that are never applicable to all cases. we find who exhibit them on a we may dismiss the treat already noted. from observation and experiment. from collective to individual creation. anomalies. then. as with the average man. Fortunately.&quot. our task is limited to the attempt to sepa rate characters that seem. or as the current expression has it. &quot. there enter into its composition fac tors other than the creative imagination. Taking genius. . ment of the oft-discussed. as synonymous with great in ventor. although the latter is not the least among them. the charac ters of We now which it remains for us to study as them in great inventors large scale. never-solved problem of As we have the psychological nature of genius.

and men above the aver age without a neurotic blemish or. far from eagerly accepting this view. the one Hinted at in antiquity (Aristotle. Neuropathy was for him the exaggeration of vital properties and consequently the most favorable con dition for the hatching of works of genius. immediate cause of which the higher faculties of genius are effects. the intellectual superiority. teeming manifestly false evidence. in a book or with doubtful Lombroso. Seneca. There are several possible hypotheses. 14! Putting aside vague dissertations and dithyrambics in favor of theories with a scientific tendency as to the nature of genius.). since there are found very mediocre neuropaths. is it in there effect between genius and mere coexistence. . or. suggested in the oft-expressed comparison between inspiration and insanity. its and partial statements (Lelut) complete expression in the famous formula of Moreau de Tours. as we know through timid. attempts to give it more precision by substituting for neurosis in general a specific neurosis larvated epilepsy. through the excessive labor and excitation volves. we meet first attributing to it a pathological origin. Later. but .Genius is a neurosis.&quot. or.HIGHER FORMS OF INVENTION. causes neuropathic disturbances. reserved. Alienists. it has reached. the two states no relation of cause and neurosis. have set themselves to and to maintain that Lombroso has com promised everything in wanting to make the term too precise. finding his predecessor s theory too vague. &quot. etc. combat it they say: either the neuropathic state is the direct.

as that &quot. recognize that in most men of genius are found so many peculiarities.142 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. Helmholtz. insanity.athleticism is a cardiopathy&quot. because many athletes are affected For him. the other physiological effects. he establishes the following with heart disease. however. Every one of these hypotheses can allege facts in its favor. Follow ing this definition. hierarchy of men of genius: At the highest of the ladder are those in are equally powerful. and divers nervous troubles. and who have made possible the enunci ation of another theory. physical eccentricities and disorders of retains all kinds that the pathologic theory much probability. On the third step are geniuses of judgment without energetic will . We must.the essential ele ments of genius are judgment and will. whom judgment of action rung and will men who make world-history (Alexander. On the second level are found the geniuses of judgment. resulting from organic conditions that pro duce according to circumstances genius. have not yet been successfully brought under the foregoing formula. Recently.genius is a neurosis&quot. There remain for consideration the sane geniuses who. has main tained that it is just as reasonable to say that &quot. with no hyperdevelopment of will these are masters of matter (Pasteur. Cromwell. Rontgen).&quot. despite many efforts and subtleties. Nordau. are both the one psychic. reject ing the theory of his master Lombroso. &quot. Napoleon) these are masters of men.

with the emotional geniuses 143 What then shall we do ? the poets and artists Theirs is not genius in the strict sense.&quot. derive some benefit from this arbitrary division. is entirely left out. Shakespeare. can.emotional geniuses&quot. they do form a Creative work requires of them a nervous excitability and a predominance of affective states that rapidly become morbid. never made . solely because they are far above the average. however. on the other hand. society. examining whether it is even since there is no common measure be possible. without classification. opinion is not right in putting on the same level the great creators. whoever they be. This point should deserve a special study hitherto. common noza. Pasteur.because it new and exercises no influence on Without discussing the value of this phenomena. It would perhaps be necessary to recognize distinctions between the various forms of They require very different organic and psychic conditions in order that some may profit by morbid dispositions that are far from useful to invention. &quot. and Spi and whether.HIGHER FORMS OF INVENTION. Although it is impossible to admit that &quot. In this way they have provided the pathological theory with most of its facts. tween Alexander. others. thinkers and philosophers. this remark is abso creates nothing In the definition above cited the lutely necessary: creative faculty par excellence imagination nec essary to We all inventors. create nothing new and have no influence on special group.

moment the flash as is is the . scientific imagination such is the usual order of appearance. which is reducible to natural bent becomes manifest as soon as cir it cumstances allow is The story tion. chance. chronological order. mental influence. mechanical invention. aversion to a career imposed from without which they shun and adoption of an opposite one. Chapter II. exhortations and advice. will there remain many natural and irresistible vocations? We 1 have seen above that the passage from re productive to constructive imagination takes place toward the end of the third year. in most great inventors. We shall met I. The innateness. 1 See above. plastic arts. In music.144 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. environ deduct those attracted through imitation. False vocations abound. . As examples of precocity gies. Music. thencefor by ward the upward progress is continuous. But the creative faculty. Precocity. reduce to three the characters ordinarily No one of them is without exception. with the exception of a few child-prodi we hardly find personal creation before the age of twelve or thirteen. devel some authors. from its nature and content. the attraction of immediate gain. the sign of the true voca same in all cases: at one occurs but this is not as frequent If we supposed. ops in a very clear. poetry. According to this initial period should be followed a depression about the fifth year.

thirteen. 145 may er. Schubert.HIGHER FORMS OF INVENTION. Rubens and Jordaens being also In poetry we find no work having any individual character before sixteen. which green or dry woods used in the s Some of these and the following figurea are borrowed from cit. thirteen. precocious. 70 ff. then took it apart and together correctly. at sixteen. Men delssohn. . op. eight. at least as imitation. In mechanical arts children have early a remark able capacity for understanding and imitating. on the average about the fourteenth year: Giotto. Wagner.the correct experiments length and caliber of chil dren elder-wood toy cannon giving the longest range. and developing 2 are fewer by far. be cited : Mozart. At nine. Beethoven. vocation and creative aptitude many others. Raphael.&quot. eleven. Besides this. In the plastic arts. Poncelet bought a watch that was out of order in order to study put it it. four. twelve. is age. Cherubini. Oelzelt-Newin. perhaps the only very early in developing. twelve.man of genius. Van Dyck. Michaelangelo. Handel. in shown perceptibly later. are ten. also. Bernini. eight. Arago tells that at the same age Fresnel was called by his comrades a &quot. because he had determined by &quot. Greuze. five. Chatterton died at that example of so young a poet Schiller and Byron also leaving any reputation. fifteen. at the age of three .. pp. eight. Those late Web twelve. Albrecht Diirer. Haydn. we know that the began talent for versification. Guerchin. at ten. etc.

For the plastic arts a longer apprenticeship is necessary for the education of the senses and movements. Auguste Comte. On the other hand. (Tr. and apt at repro ducing them. as dissolution follows evolution in inverse order. Poetry and first attempts at novelwriting presuppose some experience of the passions of human life and a certain reflection of which the 1 Compare the well-known theory of Dr. however. Gauss.) . can nevertheless sing. and the creative in this direction finds 1 power when acting material for its very early use. To acquire manual dex terity one must become skilled in observing form. but from psychological conditions necessary for the development of each form of imagination. the average invention is later. These chronological variations result not from there are a goodly have given proof of it before : chance. The form invention of abstract imagination requisite for in the sciences has no great personal value before the twentieth year that age number.&quot. who Pascal. Almost all are mathematicians. Leibniz. combinations of lines and colors. manufacture of bows have most strength and last of mechanical ing power. aphasic patients lacking the most common words. and scarcely comes earlier than that of scientific discovery. We know prior to speech: that the acquisition of musical sounds is many children can repeat a scale correctly before they are able to talk. Newton. In general. etc.146 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. Hughlings-Jackson. Sound-images are thus organized before all others.

and it is The most so. creation he must indeed borrow it from another. no need. requires the education of the senses and movements and. stinct. . which is acquired only with time. We must explain this creator begins by imitating: this is paradox. that need of the is. which is a matter of slow Mathematicians are the most precocious growth. the processes indispensable for has at realizing As long as the creator has not itself. is. is incapable. scientific imagination practical necessities. consciousness of himself. found the suitable form into which to cast his his ideas shelter. At this period of its development the imagination is in large part imitation. must suffer the necessity of a provisional This explains reaching full how it is that later the inventor. as in the case of the experimental sciences. calculation. unconsciously somebody It is necessarily &quot. child 147 Invention in the mechanic arts. . original mind subject to few exceptions.&quot. rigorous adaptation to Lastly.the creative in Nature gives only one thing. lacks technique.HIGHER FORMS OF INVENTION. ra tional combination of means. further. first it Aside from the its fact that the imagination at disposal only a very limited material. is development of the capacity for abstraction. producing in a deterThis internal factor alone is insuf termined line. consciously or s disciple. as in the plastic arts. such a well-known fact that it is needless to give The proof of it. of an extended knowledge of facts. ficient. at first. because their material is the most simple they have nothing without a high .

own peculiar manner .&quot. In the Beethoven. back. orientated in a definite direction. but particular tendencies. We have seen that there is no creative instinct in general. It number of testimonials this point we have a and avowals. but because he must do it. they remain bound their to their like it. Ordinarily. wrote. II second character consists of the necessity.Art On alone has kept me seemed to me that I could not leave the all world before producing that I felt within me. they have mark to change if Michaelangelo or. the Great inventors feel that they fatality of creation. and burns what he at first adorned. Chapter ii). even when they have a certain versatility. has often been likened to This characteristic of instinct. This very widespread view has been ex amined before (Part I. instinct. often breaks with his models. they feel that they are A charged with a mission. if they attempt they try to be unfaithful as respects their vocation. It is which in most respects resemble contrary to experience and logic to admit that the creative genius follows any path whatever at his choice^ a proposition that Weis- . they fall much below irresistible themselves. impulsion which makes the genius create not because he wants to. inventors are apt in only one line.148 in order to THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. large darkest days of his life thought of suicide. haunted by the &quot. have a task to accomplish. complete mastery of his methods.

and from them alone. what is a subject of discussion is the origin. below the average level. although it is proper to recognize that it is not always easy in practice. not the nature of this individuality. that there are names that cause us to hesitate. as far as the others are concerned. Yet genius remains. to support.representative. mann. Even those exceptional men who have given proof of multiple apti tudes. etc. tinction The dis between these two orders of creators the has been made too often great and the ordinary to need repetition. which we class somewhat at hazard. a matter of education and circumstances.&quot. or must . He is &quot. which. in A his third characteristic is viduality of the great creator.HIGHER FORMS OF INVENTION. Hypertrophy of a special aptitude often makes genius fall. such as Vinci. There is no other opinion as to this. in his 149 horror of inheritance of acquired char acters (which are a kind of innateness) is not afraid That is true only of the man of talent. ex cessive development in one direction. he has done this or that: that is his mark. Michaelangelo. as Scho penhauer used to say. The Darwinian theory as to the all-powerful action of environment has led to the question whether the representative character of great inventors comes from themselves. always have a predominating tendency opinion.. monstrum per excessum. Goethe. the clearly defined indi He is the man of work. in common sums them up.

to circumstances. et al. Carlyle (Hero-worship). can not. Louis XIV and Voltaire are respectively the French king and writer par excellence. et al.).&quot. For Schopenhauer. &quot. is seen in the race and external conditions. or to the environment. should we look for his representative character within him or without? Both these alternatives Is the inventive have authoritative supporters. Spencer. We discussion. however. For him.The the important factor . For others (Taine. a demigod. is not a problem for psychology to solve. yond the bounds of our social subject. Allen. Goethe held that a whole family line is summarized some day in a single one of its mem bers. &quot.I^O THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. nor by environment. Grant. Nietzsche. and a whole people in one or several men. for ation. not rather be sought in the unconscious influence of the race and epoch of which they are at a given This debate goes be instant only brighter sparks. to heredi tary transmission. To decide whether changes are due mostly to the accumulated influences of some individuals and their initiative. the great man is an autonomous product. totally avoid this it touches the very springs of cre genius the highest degree of per a or the result of sonality synthesis of masses? himself or of others? the expression of an indi vidual activity or of a collective activity ? In short. He can be explained neither by heredity.Uebermcnsch. a being without a peer.

Why? into ferment by the the deep Because. I lean toward the view of individualism pure and It seems to me very difficult to admit that simple. C. see Tolstoi s Physiology of War. the invariable sentence on everything novel &quot. As showing the later trend of thought on this general theme. this flowering modifies their level. periods put working of the masses Because.). is only the result of his environ Since this influence acts on many others. for the latter it is on top. etc.&quot. For an elaborate and interesting discussion of this subject. The Economic Interpretation of History.) . Without presuming to solve this vexed question. masses and raises For the former the ferment is deep down.false&quot. say some. !$! alleged great men.HIGHER FORMS OF INVENTION. the Renaissance. says Tolstoi. the Roman Republic. others. it is very necessary that. &quot. they give their names to events. say the profoundly the social make and this blossoming possible. The great historic epochs are rich in great men (the Greek republics of the fourth century B.are only the labels 1 of history. see the excellent summary by Professor Seligman. in great men.&quot. there should be in addition a personal factor. or &quot. Besides.&quot.bad. intellectual condition of the the great creator ment. (Tr. in oppo sition may know it to the exclusively environmental theory we bring the well-known fact that most inno first arouse opposition. French Revolu tion. then it is adopted with the it vators and inventors at We is statement that 1 had been known for a long time. its Each party explains the same facts according to own principle and in its own peculiar way.

pp. 1898.. and not at all sufficient as an answer. which and impossible depends on the social surrounding. a Darwinian term explaining nothing. Jastrow... In the hypothesis of collective invention. recognizing itself in them. seeing its confused thought take form and body: but most often the contrary happens. the creator sums up and clearly translates the is aspirations of his milieu. without losing ter individual charac intel lectual If. but convenient we may enunciate the following law: William James. Social and Ethical Interpreta 218 tions. he opposition to it because he goes beyond it. Eev.152 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. we can hardly solve through peremp tory reasoning. in How many they came before innovators have been disappointed because their time! But this distinction is does not reach to the bottom of the question.spontaneous vari ation&quot. p. Eoyce. 1898. etc. Baldwin. which. and let us try to examine objectively its the relation between creation and environment in order that we may is see to what extent its the creative imagination. We first. it seems that the mass of people should applaud inventors. Psych. ff. ibid. The Will to Believe and other Essays. 1 . J. The misoneism of crowds seems to me one of the strongest arguments in favor of can doubtless distinguish two cases in the the individual character of invention. with the American psychologists. 1 we term the disposition for innovating a &quot. March. May. in the second. 307. on account of complexity. Let us leave this problem.

The lower races show a much smaller degree of differentiation than the higher. consequently homogeneous. &quot.unless. seems impossible to agree with 2 Joly that neither primitive nor barbarian peoples produce superior minds. individual variations and richer in superior But these variations are rarely produced out political. side of a very restricted field religious. Psychologic des grands . and would not our great creators beings better endowed than we. for equal populations. Thus comparison between whites and blacks. very small ? The 2 civilized environment. as Jastrow says. there is an enormous disproportion as to the number of innovators. : is much more com all it contains the rudi it Consequently. as he says. 153 The tendency toward spontaneous variation (in vention) is ahvays in inverse ratio to the simplicity of the environment.HIGHER FORMS OF INVENTION. in them. between primitive and civilized peoples. shows that.by So this name we mean congeners. The barbarian environment plex and heterogeneous ments of civilized life. is favors more men. Joly. military.&quot.&quot. Greatness altogether a seem. physical and psychic maturity is more precocious. it &quot. The savage environment is in its nature very simple. and as the period just before the adult age is the plastic period per se} this diminishes the chances of a departure from the common type. requiring division of hommes. to idea. those is their But simply surpass there a criterion other is that than that? relative I see none.

and it has been possible to write a book talk so much of the free flight of imagination. conse the imagina under which the conditions quently Let us sup tion is active change with the times. social the for all vocations. warm is competition be tween individuals and peoples it a natural antidote favors useful variations. 1 In Osborn. How many creators have been necessary for their inventions wrecked because the conditions were lacking? Roger Bacon foresaw several of our great discoveries. Cardan. chemistry. What he accomplish? At the most. and create a few more complex melodies. spirit always something of that tendency toward stagna tion that is the rule in lower social orders. growing com labor and consequently a constantly is an open door plexity of heterogeneous elements. 1 We on which they are every moment dependent.154 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. civilization means pose. the differential calculus. it is more favorable to tradition than to innovation. Doubtless. that we forget the not to mention others sociological conditions on the forerunners of Darwin. From the Greeks to Darwin. Weismann justly says. extend the gamut of three or four tones to seven. Van Helmont. Moreover. but he would be as unable to compose symphonies as Archimedes would have been to invent an electric dynamo. that in the Samoan could Islands there were born a child having the singular and extraordinary genius of Mozart. of the all-compre hensive power of the creator. But retains the inevitable necessity of a for that natural inertia. evolution. .

superficial. but for imitation. not from within. whether we con sider vegetables. superficial : lower races. Here. and to survives it talent. e. minds of the second order are dragged into the current showing that a goodly part of their power is in the aptness.. rare in the This tendency toward variation As fundamental. or scientific research. The need of innovating is only a special case. is fundamental or it corresponds to genius. or the physical and mental man. and survives through processes analogous As to natural selection. so-called. Let us return to invention. corresponds prospers chiefly through the help of circumstances and environment. as we have collaboration the highest expression of seen. the orientation comes from without. or music. we may say that there is a universal tendency in all living matter toward variation. not for invention. is the mythic activity. or industry. always remains in it a little of that anonymous which. According as the spirit of the time inclines rather to poetry or paint ing. By way of summary. strictly .HIGHER FORMS OF INVENTION. 155 no invention is personal in the strict there sense. II The determination of the characters belonging to the inventive genius has necessitated some seem ingly irrelevant remarks on the action of the en vironment. animals. i. frequent in the higher. this respect. by its own power. or military art. and whatever be the causes.

it is none the less such for the individual. that holds that there how false is the theory always a sudden stroke of inspiration. in his ignorance. is always required a natural chance.&quot. merely essential unduly limited when ors only. however. Invention is thus cessory. followed by a period of rapid or slow have already seen is We execution. and the form of its ment. an invention is &quot. Even if this is not He a creation as regards the species. Every normal person creates little or much. invent what has been already done a thousand times. and in them the mechanism this At of invention is easier to study. man forming new does a create? Because he of is combinations ideas. a sometimes. we attribute it to great invent moment.156 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. and there is But there going over it again. observation reveals . The natural disposition should be accepted as a For inventing there fact. as has been tant said. However naive this answer may be. we are con cerned only with these. is the determination of the conditions necessary and sufficient for pro ducing novel combinations: this has been done in the for first part of this book. that idea. Why of capable other. there is no The only thing possible.is a new and impor that is the Novelty only mark: and psychological importance utility are ac social marks. may. It is wrong to say. happy aptitude. no occasion is another aspect in creative logical work to be considered its psycho develop mechanism. On the contrary.

temperament. and at the time of defi The period by calculation he was so overcome with emotion that he had to assign The mathe to another the task of completing it.abridged&quot.complete&quot. an understanding the word not in its transcendental &quot. but merely as the ideal in is at the beginning : in the &quot. while he was near a bridge in Dublin. 157 many processes that apparently differ less in the content of invention than according to individual I distinguish two general processes In all creation.In . or VEEIFICATION. the two processes. that moment I had the result of fifteen years labor.HIGHER FORMS OF INVENTION. great or small. IDEA 1st phase 2nd phase 3d phase (commence- INVENTION. synonymous with end or goal or more simply. of which the rest are variations. There are also other differences tables will which the following make more clear : First Process (complete). For Newton seventeen lasted years. spends nitely establishing his discovery &quot.ideal&quot. sense. there is a directing idea. completely fin ished. Darwin gathers material during his voyages. it idea excites attention and takes a fixed char of brooding begins. of the given problem. is not the same in In the one I term &quot.&quot. matician Hamilton tells us that his method of quaternians burst upon him one day. The locus of the idea. it is the middle. or ment Special incubation of more or less duration DISCOVERY (end) APPLICATION The acter. a problem to solve.

Second Process (abridged). then through the chance reading of Malthus book. when the creator 2 With it. only an instant.158 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. hits upon and formulates artistic his theory. the work is vir exclaims his &quot. but essen tually or really ended. creation similar The second phase is the moment of discovery. tial In literary and 1 examples are frequent. a long time observing plants and animals. 1st phase General prepara tion (unconscious) .Eureka!&quot.

) Paulhan (&quot.&quot. because they must pass from the perceived idea to complete realization. 1898. equal to zeroit there is nothing of because there exists a natural or acquired tendency toward equilibrium. scious . but it is essential the moment of imaginative synthesis. The two processes above described seem to corre1 Quoted by Arreat. they include species and varieties that a patient and minute study of the processes peculiar to various inventors would reveal to us. &quot.HIGHER FORMS OF INVENTION. 2 . (Paris. so that for these the second creative process is shortened in appearance only. December. 590 ff. These are genera. brain. because the main labor is already done. The second phase cases: is it almost the same in both it only an instant. and there remains only the finishing touch or the verification. It is long for others. Eev. (2) transformation. but merely a sketch. Philos.) distinguishes three kinds of development in inven tion: (1) Spontaneous or reasoned the directing idea per sists to the end. We must bear in mind that this work makes no claim of being a 2 monograph on invention. Such seem to me the two principal forms of the mechanism of creation. is Lastly. 159 in others it seems negligible.. Everything runs naturally.I had the habit of need to scratch 1 racking my and now is I scarcely my forehead. Alcan. says Schumann. p. M6moire et Imagination. which comprises several contradictory evolutions succeeding and replacing one another &quot. Tor a long time.&quot. pp. the third phase is very short for some. and be cause the preparatory work is faulty. 118.De 1 invention. F.

a rapid glance. discursive imagination proceeds from starts details to the vaguely-perceived unity. Shakespeare s Hamlet could have been created only through an intuitive process. essentially synthetic form. According it to Goethe. an anecdote. in the sciences. deviation. Kepler fur nishes a good example of this combining imaginain consequence which is of impressions and feelings. a detail. The intuitive. suggests a literary or artistic creation. and we may com pare it to the embryological process that causes a living being to arise from the fertilized ovum. (3) a composite of the two preceding forms. The generative idea resembles are of wide range cepts which. As a type of this creative form there has often been given a letter wherein Mozart explains his mode of conception. The mind proceeds those con to details. because they condense a generalization rich in con sequences. and becomes completed little by little. etc. is found children principally in the purely imaginative types. from whole the and savages. It from a fragment that serves as a matrix.!6o THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. Recently (and that is why I do not reprint it here) has been suspected of being apocryphal. analogous to an immanent logic. but the organic form does not appear in a trice. and the com bining or reflective imagination. distinction be spend on the whole to the oft-made or tween the intuitive spontaneous. a scene. development is organic. An adventure. The combining. . In science. The subject is at first comprehended as a whole. I regret this it was worthy of being authentic.

a profile.) . it would be neces sary to look for it in the strange conceptions of ancient cosmogonies: they believed that from an earthly slime arose parts of bodies and separate organs which through a mysterious attraction and happy chance ended by sticking together. It is 1 an accepted view that of these two modes. all. until the day when. is superior to the other. even false. having discovered the elliptical orbit of Mars. But as soon as the work requires time and development the discursive process becomes absolutely necessary: with many inventors one easily perceives the change from one form to the other.The crisis over. First of both these forms of creation are intuitive process can suffice for an necessary. all life his ized system. and form ing living bodies. an ornamental stroke. was spontaneous.lower. a story.creation : *Cf. But George Sand adds &quot. invention of short duration: a rhyme. not any &quot.HIGHER FORMS OF INVENTION.&quot. On There examination. etc. coming complete and sudden. the abridged or intuitive process. miraculous. IOI It is known that he devoted a part of his trying strange hypotheses. then commenced the most heartrending labor at which I have ever been pres&quot.&quot. a little mechanical contrivance. tion. the well-known doctrine of Empedocles. is a difference. I confess to having held this prejudice. have seen that in the case We of Chopin.higher&quot. The a motif. (Tr. and &quot. one. former work took shape and became an organ Did we want to make use once more of an embryological comparison. I find it doubtful.

that it would be easy to group under these two headings names of the first rank. . To sum up : Pure . Toulouse.&quot. primarily con scious. he draws out of it the characters and all the story.The of interruptions and gaps difficulty has been to get through strength of will what is really to be : gotten only by a spontaneous act of nature. then. for days ent. &quot. Goethe. and she pictures him to us agonized. from induction to induc tion. If we note. after the bits of lost inspiration. Actions slow. excelling in Logically - develo ping in making conception. running his Faust. and consequently accessory. not in the is nature of creation. likewise.&quot. always starting out with a general idea that dominates the work. intuition and pure combination are exceptional ordinarily. full &quot. Zola.&quot. most out of one Work primarily uncon- Patience the preponderating role. the whole alpiece. in a letter to Humboldt regarding which occupied him for sixty years. Work Actions quick. minds. in addition. we shall conclude that the difference is altogether in the mechanism. scious.imagines a novel. and that this difference is reducible to natural dispo sitions. it is a mixed process in which one of the two elements prevails and permits its qualification. which we may contrast as follows : Ready-witted minds. and weeks. according to his biographer. excelling elaboration.1 62 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.

to monuments to inventors in there would be fewer statues to children. preliminary drawings. The importance of the last factor has been much fortune. a picture. etc. a building. chance depends on (i) entirely internal. says Jevons. the other narrow. a it is a matter of industry. We know is that one of the best conditions for inventing abundance of material. of figures. of melodies. depends on the number of notions and chance thoughts coming to the inventor s mind.. In its broad meaning. no matter maintain that the nature of whether chine. knowledge which augment the chances of original It association of ideas.&quot. plan of campaign. . commerce. etc. an opera. &quot. The inventor s brain must be full of forms. and especially In this wise expressed himself one of the sage thinkers of the eighteenth century. a ma poem.&quot. animals. has even been possible to memory implies the in a of special direction. Chance may be taken in two senses one general.But it is according to the nature of his work. of commercial combinations.HIGHER FORMS OF INVENTION. To be fertile in hypotheses that is the first requirement for finding something new. The reve capacity creating lations of inventors or of their biographers leave no doubt as to the necessity of a large number of sketches.Genius for discovery.Were 163 we to raise the arts and sciences. III &quot. trials. a &quot. of mechanical agents. accumulated experience. Turgot. men than exaggerated. purely psychic circumstances.

Chance. external (the fortuitous occur impossible to determine all that invention owes to chance in this sense. the manufacture of weapons. along other lines ^ Nothing is more it it. we must think we were seeking. of utensils. 6-7. in the narrow sense. the other. Then. what we call chance. more as it free the more he was unaware of them. it but depends the non- on individuality from is it arises anticipated synthesis of ideas. vergence of two factors rence). is a partial. . theory was broadened discovery and explain it. So much for chance within: whatever may have been said of finally is indisputable. Souriau. tion. industrial. The abundance of memory-ideas. is a fortunate (2) occurrence stimulating invention but to attribute to : new it the greater part. Thtorie de invention. find are exactly those very rare that the ideas we to order In find. pp. was quite necessary to bow before the accom to include the plished fact. It it is not even a necessary condi has been remarked that a relative ignorance sometimes useful for invention: it favors assur ance. especially scientific and have been made had the inventors been arrested by the ruling and presum The inventor was all the ably invincible dogmas. is the meeting and con one internal (individual Here. not a sufficient condi tion for creation. In primitive humanity its influence must have been enormous the use of : fire. that could not There are inventions. true. the I *P. is we know. It is genius).164 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. erroneous view.

The same fortuitous event passes by millions of men without exciting anything. extremely important. many owed and poets.&quot.&quot. Who does not know of Newton s apple. thanks to the phos phorous odor of air traversed by electric sparks. of Foucault. for example. internal factor is less so. : 165 casting of metals all that came about through acci dents as simple as. of Fraunhofer. of Kirchoff. the invention of the telescope it would require that &quot. novelists. The gard discoveries of Grimaldi and of Fresnel in re to interferences. also. a tree falling across a stream suggesting the first idea of a bridge. those of Faraday. escap it is ing the unreflecting.a is known we owe it to children superhuman genius who were . fortuitous factor. and artists have the best part of their inspirations: literature the arts abound in fictitious characters whose real originals are known. for the external. Schonbein discovered ozone. Galvani s frog? Huyghens declared that. of Arago.HIGHER FORMS OF INVENTION. dramatists. How many of Pisa s inhabitants had seen the lamp of their cathe- . So much role It is is clear. In historic times and to keep merely to the modern period the collection of authentic facts would fill a large volume. were it not for an unfore seen combination of circumstances.fortune. its That of the Yet not at all apparent to the ordinary mind. Galileo s lamp. and of hundreds of others owed something to It is said that &quot. To chance. the sight of a crab suggested to Watt the idea of an ingenious machine. playing with pieces of glass in an optician s shop.

that isolates and fixates the acci worthy of first dent. possess the spirit of observation. . dral before Galileo! He does not necessarily find who wants to those to find. if it is a matter of scientific or practical seizes inventions. wide attention. if con cerns esthetic productions. then. gives life. creation. not an agent of. although it is often misunderstood. organizes.l66 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. we ought to end by remark ing that chance is an occasion for. the penetration that tions upon it rela and finds unforeseen resemblances. The happy chance comes only one must awake In order to profit thereby. it. the imagination that con structs. Without repeating an evident truism.

great or small. the imagination acts without assignable determinatoin. in the course of larity ? that is it is. if this term appear too ambitious. As the direct cause of invention. Leaving aside the moment of origin. does it present. considered in its individual and seem to follow specific development. any law.CHAPTER V LAW OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE IMAGINATION Is imagination. evolution. or. does the inventive power. subject to so often called &quot. in this sense it is what is known as &quot. we have attempted is to make . may enunciate thus: The creative imagination in its complete We development passes through two periods separated .&quot. which clear. a vague term.a faculty. law it results irreducible to any from the often fortuitous convergence Its appearance of various factors previously studied. any perceptible regu Observation separates out an empirical law extracts directly an abridged formula that .spon taneity&quot. some law? The capricious question thus it asked is too simple. and we must make more precise. its only a condensation of facts.

without any rational element. adolescence. easiest to observe. In normal man. after that. This formula. romantic inven and fantastic mythic conceptions of the world sum it up first. imagination is dependent on the influence of the passions. place. it begins at about the age of three. according to the accepted principle that phylo genesis and ontogenesis follow the same general line. . and the proportion begins very as it late. First Period. a period of definitive con phase : stitution presenting several aspects. in most. tion. should be justified For this purpose we can borrow and and explained by the latter. and For a long time it remains especially sexual love. (b) the development of the species. sometimes a longer. it: it We are already acquainted with the imaginative age. which is tinct sources: (a) individual the safest. youth: sometimes a shorter period. and embraces in is fancy. Nevertheless. or historical develop ment.l68 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. grows asserts itself. facts from two dis development. the latter wins a Reflection including under the term the working of the intelligence slowly. critical by a a period of autonomy or efflor escence. little by little. gains an influence over the imaginative activity and tends to reduce it. This growing antagonism is repre sented in the following figure. Play. clearest. a critical moment. being only a summary of experi ence.

always much briefer than the other two. metamorphic stage.LAW OF DEVELOPMENT. . This critical moment can be Its characterized only by its causes and results. between mental instability and stability. Second Period. dotted line represents the rational developits RX N R ment that begins later. advances much more slowly. As for the results. in the psychologic order. present like The two intellectual forms two rivals. The curve IM this first period. causes are. in the physiological sphere. This is a critical period of inde terminate length. the forma tion of an organism and a fully developed brain . the resultant of this obscure. is 169 that of the imagination during It rises at first very slowly. the antagonism between the pure subjectivity of the imagination and the ob jectivity of ratiocinative processes. they appear only in the third period. and reaches at X the level of the imaginative curve. in any case. The position MX on are the ordinate marks the beginning of the second period. but progressively. in other words. then at a height that attains a rapid ascent and keeps marks The greatest attainment in this earliest form.

It keeps up but becomes transformed. and always fol lows the same trend. but this change is not reducible to a single formula. and simplest. where the imagination curve descends rapidly toward the line of abcissas MN without ever reaching it. presents several varieties. the burial of the dreams of youth. for the cre ative imagination disappears completely in it no man . MN. it (2) adapts itself to the conditions of rational thought. This is the case with truly imaginative beings. those whose vocation appeared Invention loses never changed direction. its early and childish .170 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. transformation into creative logical form. of definitive constitu tion with rational transformation. in whom inventive power long remains young and fresh. Such are the precocious in first ventors. only truly imaginative minds are exceptions. only becomes accessory. not an end. This period of preservation. as (1) is indi cated in the figure. This is the most general case. The creative imgination falls. Third Period. First. It is definite: in some way or another and in some degree the imagination has be come rationalized. The power manifested in the stage remains true to itself. the imagination. but becomes a mixed form the fact is indicated in the diagram by the union of the two lines. This is a regression. and XO. etc. it is no longer pure imagination. the rational. One falls little by little into the prose of practical such is the downfall of love which is treated life as a phantom.

painting. politics. the drama. more accumulated might here ask whether the contrary case is also met with. who have left a great chanical the metamorphosis or deviation know what numbers of men We name in science. me or industrial invention started out with mediocre efforts in music. in this third period. there are no other changes. dating from man. e. his fortieth year. where the imagination. written in his teens. with his Wallenstein. cannot style it otherwise is rare but not without examples. or the vague sketches of his inventions as a the adolescent James Watt with is Another case of creative power. becomes atten uated by slow atrophy without undergoing serious change of form.. Compare Schiller s Robbers. 171 or juvenile character in becoming virile. Ordinarily the creative imagination. been said above concerning the chronological devel opment of the imagination would be tiresome repe tition. more knowledge. and fiction. and especially The imaginative poetry. But in order to arrive to full consciousness of itself it needed more time. i. it imitated while trying to invent. experience. when it has passed its adult stage. The need of creating followed from the first the line of least resistance. impulse did not discover its true direction at the out What has set. where it found certain materials ready to hand. first We would return to the inclinations of the This regressive metamorphosis for I period. Nevertheless.LAW OF DEVELOPMENT. I am able to cite the case of a well-known scholar who began with a .

the imagination. it follows a progressive line from the simple to the complex. devoted his life to biologic studies. Let us note that it is not a question here of the characteristic ingenuousness of some in ventors. it is not. that of increasing complexity. which have arts. ly to literature. entirely monopolized him. al most childish form. is hardly reconcilable except with esthetic cre Let us add the mystic imagination. hardly modified by a minimum of rationality. an anomaly. especially plastic art.172 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. than in its reveries of a Contemporary mystics have invented of the world that take us back to the adaptations of Thi:. though strong. which has caused them to be called &quot. in a word. a .prolonged child mythology early times.grownbut of the candor and inherent sim imagination itself. produces curiosities rather than lasting works. subsidiary law. taste for art. scarcely passes be yond the first stage. hood of the imagination.&quot. which is. which are without control. in some for there are very many forms Finally in turn. scientific turn. law of the imagination but of the rational development exerting an influence on strictly speaking. Indeed. went over rapid . It could furnish examples. plicity of the This exceptional form ation. became totally disgusted with scientific re came back to literature and finally to the search. less in its religious conceptions. At this third period in the development of the imagination appears a second. up children. in which he gained a very deserved reputation then. always retains its youthful.

In the practical. the creative imagina in primitive man toinal habits tion it is is subject.LAW OF DEVELOPMENT. in the species. not of one that imagines. it 1 73 by a counter-action. But from the time that the mind distinguishes clearly between the possible and the impossible. between the fancied and the real which is a capacity wanting as soon as man has formed raand has undergone experience the im press of which is ineffaceable. and is under the rules of logical thought. opment of the imagination follows the same Historically considered. which draws it along in its train. scientific and social worlds the higher up we go the more we have to know in order to create. and in default of this condition we civilizations has merely repeat when we think ii we are inventing. which imposes upon it its form and developmental law. it would be mere reiteration in a vaguer form We . it has lost the assurance of its infancy. Aside from the exceptions given above and even they are partial exceptions only creative power de pends on the ability to understand. will not repeat progress as in the individual. It is needless to show that theoretical and practical intelligence develops as an increasing complex. to new conditions. It is a law of the mind that knows. In liter ature and in the arts comparison between the sim plicity of primitive creations and the complexity of advanced become commonplace. no longer absolute mistress of itself. the devel line of it. nolens volens. technical.

better known form the his tory of intellectual development in Europe since the fall of the Roman Empire. is sufficient for our purposes. and imposing monuments heroes. we have just said. chivalric romances . A few brief notes to be will Vico whose name deserves first mentioned here because he was the good that we can of the for the from imagination study myths get divided the course of humanity into three successive ages: divine or theocratic. THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. efflorescence of Gothic art. with all its . On the other hand. Let us now consider this question under a more definite.174 of what suffice. are those first two stages that have everywhere and always been the harbingers and preparers of civilization. hu to see the or historic. if not the triumphant period of the imagination? It has produced myths. the institution of chivalry. indeed. ceaselessly repeated epidemics of accessories superstition. heroic poetry. courts of of love. after which the cycle begins over Although this too hypothetic conception is forgotten. re ligions. etc. the beginning modern music. the quan tity of imagination applied during this epoch to . epics and martial narratives. What. It shows very distinctly our three periods. heroic or fabulous. it man now again. Many erected in honor of gods and nations whose evolution has been in complete have not gone beyond this stage. No one will question the preponderance of the imagination during the middle Ages: intensity of religious feeling. legends. more limited.

have given the imagination a new field of activity. On the one hand the come development of science. with its two curves. small. by stimulating industrial and commercial inventions. practical. a transition period. on the other hand the great maritime dis coveries. commercial invention culture. under the influence of two principal factors one scientific. posi tive science is almost nil. have imposed upon it other forms of creation that have often been neglected or misunderstood and that study in the Third Part. Finally. Our figure. and a transformation analogous to that which we have sance is No more will a critical noted in the individual. 175 is industrial. the other economic. it will be admitted without dissent that social imagination has during the modern period be partly decayed. one imaginative. opposed to imagination. thus ap plies just as well to historical development as to invidual development during this first period.LAW OF DEVELOPMENT. when there rises. is made up partly of antique traditions. partly rationalized. Their scientific buried in very Latin jargon. a rival power. we shall . part ly of fancies what the ten centuries added to . anyone question that the Renais moment. There have arisen points of attraction that have drawn it into other paths. the other rational.




who do The so in different ways. rapid or slow.PRELIMINARY After having studied the creative imagination in constitutive elements and in its development we its purpose. their modes of action bear the stamp of their individual one there is a personal factor that. and the determination of these varieties lated to will. The reader need not fear wearisome repe our subject expression is is is sufficiently complex to permit like all a third treatment without reiteration. Men being variously constituted. what ultimate nature. The There &quot. is Indeed. puts its mark on the will and makes it energetic or weak. should be reducible to types that are varieties of imagination. in this last part.&quot. stable ity . the diversities in creation. ever numerous. an abbreviation and an abstraction.creative imagination. men how who imagine. describing its principal forms. tition. This will be neither analytic nor genetic but concrete. general terms. but only no &quot. analogous to that of character as re when we have settled upon the physiological and psychological conditions of volun tary activity we have only done a work in general psychology.&quot. and reality is in them. in each its ever .imagination in general.

&quot.imagination. or unstable. know it completely without a study of its varieties. consequently. The materials. fol How are we to determine these varieties ? Many will be inclined to think that the in advance. the raw materials. method is indicated Have not visual. lines. continuous or intermittent. and at another time creative activity. and even numbers. according as one or another of image-groups pre ponderates. colors. are not a negligible element. keeps up the er roneous notion that in the creative imagination images. no doubt. auditory. but by themselves they cannot reveal to us the and varieties that have their origin in an anterior and superior tendency of mind.180 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. We shall species see in the sequel that the very nature of constructive imagination may express itself indifferently in sounds. Is not the types? way clear motor and mixed and is it not well enough to go this solution in this direction? However natural may It appear. We without a special psychology. toward which the lowing chapters are an attempt. it is illusory and can lead to naught. psychologists distinguished. The same cannot is true of the creative imagination. which at one time means mere reproduction of images. are the essential part. rests on the equivocal use of the word &quot. and which. words. The method that should allege to settle the various according to the nature of images would no more go to the bottom of the matter than would a classification of archi tecture according to orientations of creative activity the materials employed (as .

A true classification should be in touch this with facts. termination. in several points. as regards the varieties of the creative imagination. and one soars too high. mystic) from invention more or scientific. feeling. what are they? may. the task of a rational and systematic de be possible. no one of the proposed classifications has been universally Nevertheless. more skilled or more fortunate. commercial. iron. we follow? The matter even more perplexing than the study of character. as was said above. We From another point of view we may distinguish invention of free range (esthetic. since the determination must is made according what method to the individuality of the archi shall tect. indeed. l8l wood. Leaving. less restricted (mechanical. political. despite their differences. But these two divisions are too general. leading to nothing. This method be aside. large manifestations of human nature. do In our subject I find nothing like ing. rock. military. we shall try merely to distinguish and describe the principal forms. etc. to the essential domi nating attributes but. then. distinguish two great classes the intuitive and the combining. social). brick. thinking.) with no regard for differences of style. this and I seek in vain for a point of support. religious. because these have coincide they the advantage of resting on a common basis the accepted. Although various authors have treated the latter subject (we have attempted it elsewhere). if it to others. Classi fications are made according .PRELIMINARY. such as .

l82 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. We tent shall study at first creative imagination two general forms of the the plastic and the diffluent their and later. very marked development in both directions at the same time is uncommon the author assigns reasons . experience gives them to us. may be in &quot. Wundt. &quot. taking general concepts and laws to trace their consequences. first element is. may be inductive inclining toward the col lection of facts in order to draw generalizations from them or deductive.&quot. for this. e.. A operates multiple sense-perception. the psychologist. What fol lows is thus neither a classification nor even a com plete enumeration.principal which he reduces to four: forms It of talent. in a little-noticed composition of the &quot. If the intuitive imagination is joined to the in ductive spirit we have the talent for observation of the naturalist. understanding (Verstand). is imagination.then on combinations of images. con passage of his Physio has undertaken to determine the logical Psychology. the man of affairs.&quot. If the intuitive imagination is combined with the deductive spirit we have the analytical talent of the . determined by and subject. special forms. The tuitive. emphasizing those that have been neglected or misinterpreted. The second element It is i.that conferring on representations a clearness of it or combining. the pedagogue.&quot.

systematic naturalist. Physiologische Psychologie. of the geometrician.PRELIMINARY. The combining imagination joined to the induc tive spirit constitutes ly it so-called. &quot. 1 Wundt. 183 In Lin naeus and Cuvier the intuitive element predomi nates. . Vol. pp.the talent for invention strict technique of science . deduction predominates 1 in the former. in Gauss. imagination in the latter. the analytical element. II.&quot. 490-95. artist and the the the poet power of compos gives in industry. in the ing their works. plus the deductive spirit gives the speculative talent of the mathema tician The combining imagination and philosopher. 4th German edition.

now full of reality. there predominate associations with objective relations. more explicitly those forms whose ma has for its terials are clear images (whatever be their nature). determinable with precision. giving the impression of reality. and in modes of rough association of images. the image occupies an intermediate position and can run from one pole to another. is in the images. often of only a single word accom panied by vague outlines and a latent. The the plastic mark. quan tity. the imagination that Between perception a very complex synthesis of and conception qualities.plastic imagination&quot. requiring modifications which the it is reader himself can make. or relation. now . approaching perception. too. attributes and relations which is only the consciousness of a quality. materializes.CHAPTER I THE PLASTIC IMAGINATION understand that which By &quot. in which. between concrete and abstract. In somewhat terms. therefore. I special characters clearness and precision of form. potential knowledge.

touch. 185 almost as poor and pale as a concept. in practical In a word. because they arise from sensation well determined tic movement. or is most free from it. is inferiority of the af appears only intermittently and is blotted out before sensory impression. The clear ness of form of these three groups proceeds from their origin. if there is at the same time intense vision adequate to reality. Thus rather superficial.PLASTIC IMAGINATION. the three invention. lastly. it fact gives its creations an air of The second fective element characteristic . Among these naturally objective elements the plastic imagination chooses the most that objective. greatly devoid of that internal mark that comes from feeling. This entirely form of the creative imagination. Plas imagination depends most on spatial conditions. reality which and life. its First general characters are easy of determina and foremost. But if it chance that both sensory and affective elements are equal in power. and profound . The repre sentation here styled plastic descends towards its point of origin . then of motor images. aims it is especially at sensation. which depends least upon that factor. it is an external imagination. groups of images present to a great extent the character of externality and objectivity. in space sight. arising to from sensation rather than from feeling and needing become objective. We is shall see that its opposite. it makes use of visual images. diffluent imagination. Thus tion. of tactile images. coming especially from sensation.

the perusal of ten pages of Sartor Sesartus or of the French Revolution teaches more in regard to the nature of this imagination than all the commentaries. Taine says of Carlyle: &quot. the great folio begets the oc becomes the parent of the small vol ume. must touch forms. &quot. creating under the very eyes of tyrants the circulation of liberty. a flood of seething passion reaches the boiling-point in his brain.&quot. tavo. desires and feel ings. he must paint. The de scending process materializes abstractions. many on For a point of view in criticism that has seemed correct to this matter. Thus Michelet: as 2 &quot. makes them flesh and bone . He cannot reason. tired ish though with their very long course.) 2 . violent shock. It is needless to describe this form of imagination. (Tr. in him every thought is an explosion.The great streams of the Netherlands. the Middle expression. Michelet. then there arise extraordi nary imaginative personages. of images runs over the banks and rushes with all its mud and all its splendor. of booklets. and the torrent every idea. per from weariness in the unfeeling ocean. Despite the vigor of this sketch. which overflows. excellent pen-pictures of which have 1 been given by the critics let us merely note that its psychology reduces itself to an alternately ascending j and descending movement between the two limiting points of perception and idea. gives body to We see that he is possessed and haunted by glittering or saddening visions.Pathetic Fallacy&quot.He cannot stick to simple at every step he drops into figures. invisible spirits flying in the night. emotion. in his Modern Painters. of ephemeral pamphlets.&quot. Carlyle.&quot. compare the well-known chapter on the &quot. The ascending proc ess assigns to inanimate objects life. like Shakespeare.which Elsewhere. by Ruskin.l86 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. gives them body.

ii In order to more fully understand the plastic im agination. torn from the bowels of Christianity.&quot. a form. of details. dying with there out achieving anything. head. For the painter. in anguish of heart. 1 usual. usually remains vague and varni. 115. 62 ff. 2 *Arr6at (Psychologie du peintre. blue. positive elements of perception and movement. this. grown up in prayer and revery. etc. For the majority of men the concrete image of a face.PLASTIC IMAGINATION. is the arts dealing with form. let us take up its principal manifestations.&quot. arm.) gives a large number of examples of Ibid. tree. &quot. etc. where its The sculptor. are scarcely more than words. exact remembrance of faces at the end of twenty years. p.. 187 Ages become &quot.a poor child. archi evident. the plastic arts fleeting.. black. born amidst tears. ). white. as in the case of Ga- and limiting ourselves merely to the demand an observant imagina tion. sym bols expressing a rough synthesis. images have a very high precision mouth. painter. such a sure and tenacious external vision (portraits executed from memory. First. and what he sees beneath the words or in real objects are analyzed facts. pp. on the other hand. a color. it the material in which their creations are wrapped Even leaving out the striking acts requiring up. . In this dazzle of images is a momentary return to primitive animism. i. must have visual and tactile-motor images.red. animal. is necessity tect.

2. Of it we find in Victor Hugo a As all know. depends on cerebral Practical of contour and relief conditions. becoming blind. the development of definite sensory- and on psy the acquisition and organiza chological conditions tion of appropriate images. guided shown It is by contemporary psychology. have nevertheless The been able to fashion busts of close resemblance to the original. role of tactile-motor images is not insignifi There has often been cited the instance of sculptors who. touch. like all manual labor requiring associated and combined acts. entirely equivalent to the visual memory of the portrait painters mentioned above. Another form of plastic imagination uses words as means for evoking vivid and clear impres sions of sight. carve. knowledge of design and modeling i. e. &quot. though resulting from nat ural or acquired disposition. have well that they always paint scenes or movements. movement .We learn to paint and their connections..he never dictates or in writ- rhymes from memory and composes only . Some facts have ogy. a broader range and throw light upon his psychol Thus we are told that &quot. motor regions and wrote a contemporary painter. it is the poetic or fin ished type. cant. we need only open his works at hazard to find a stream of glittering images. But what is their nature? His recent biographers. embroidery. &quot. This is memory of touch and of the muscular sense. sawing. unnecessary to give proofs. In short.&quot. literary form.l88 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.&quot. filing and turning.as we do sewing.

the flute goes up to alto like a frail capital on a col : A umn. After visual representations come those of move ment the steeple pierces the horizon. to be spoken aloud. In literature this altogether foreign 1 mode of cre- For further details on this point. Benouvier. and like them without form or figure. the thorn an enraged plant. . who knows and understands him so well.Victor added that Hugo if never spoke his verses but wrote them out and would often propriate illustrate them on the margin.&quot. chaps. the mountain rends the cloud.&quot. book It is is we need most of all made to be read. in the book devoted to the poet.The ruffles of sound that the fifer cuts out . A &quot.on account of his aptitude for representing to himself the details of a figure. Victor Hugo could have become a mathematician of the highest order. asserts that &quot. Victor Hugo. the mountain raises himself and looks about.the cold caverns open their mouths : drowsily. order and position in space. II. into visual and motor images &quot. for he believes that writing has its 189 own features. unconsciously. This thoroughly plastic imagination re mains identical with itself while reducing everything spontaneously. as in he needed to fixate the image 1 order to find the ap word. beyond any present sensation. to spatial terms.&quot. and he wants to see the words. ing. and so on indefinitely. more curious fact is the transposition of sonor ous sensations or images of sound. &quot. says : I also believe that in the sentence an ocular rhythm. the wind lashes the rock into tears with is the waterfall. IV.PLASTIC IMAGINATION. Theophile Gautier. 2nd part. III. not &quot. consult Mabilleau.

him words have in themselves and outside For the meaning they express. faultless form &quot. For the usefulness of the one and the &quot. no matter what may be that he have more intelli is not it necessary man. regard as perfectly absurd the mania that people have of hoisting them (the poets) up onto an ideal I pedestal.uselessness&quot. content. they charm the un derstanding that looks at them and takes them from the finger to the for future use. in a more artificial manner but one suit able for our subject. is taken literally. little pile where they are put aside whether sincere no longer any differ If this statement.190 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. . just like precious stones not yet cut and mounted in bracelets. their own beauty and value. according to the degree of precision or fluidity. necklaces and rings.a gence than a laborer and have knowledge of a state other than his own. of the other is a characteristic foreign to invention itself. In the teeming mass of myths and religious conceptions that the nineteenth century has gathered with so much care we could establish various classi fications level . 3. be tween the imagination of poets and the imagination active in the mechanical arts. without which he does badly. I see ence. nothing is less ideal than a poet. most complete expression their congeners. intellectual and. Theophile Gautier claims that said of him. according to race. or not.&quot. whose the formula. found its ative activity has among creed the Parnassiens and is summed up in and impassiveness. save as regards the materials employed. is a work poet.

have covered their temples with numberless sculptures. 1 As bearing out the position of the author. the imperceptible in the whole. poetry. most of the myths belonging to Greece when. we may. tales are mixed and are of the plastic The former imagination. It has been held that the plastic character of these religious concep tions is an effect of esthetic development: statues. resembling a definite historical relation form. change into one another. on emerging from the earilest period. Among ities in the peoples no who have incarnated their divin in no human or animal form. bas-reliefs. definite the attributes of the and even painting. Without denying this influence we must nevertheless understand that it is only auxiliary. relatively logical. others are vague. multi contradictory. yet its mythology has . are consistent. find the Germans and is But the mythology of the former clear. incoherent. To those who would challenge this opinion let us recall that the Hindoos have had gigantic poems. if we eliminate oriental in fluences.PLASTIC IMAGINATION. types are the work Such are. and yet their fluid mythology statue. have made gods and their history. their characters . we the Celts. they attained their definite constitution. indeed. well is 1 that of the latter fleeting kept within large lines. we may also call attention to the fact that while the Hebrew race has had very slight development in the plastic arts. 19! Neglecting intermediate forms. divide them into two groups. and inconsistent the despair of scholars. is the opposite of the Greek. some are clear in out line.

not in its primary nature.realism&quot. called realistic is not identical with the form is more comprehensive. tic The most complete manifestation is of the plas imagination is met with in mechanical invention consequence of the need of very exact representations of qualities and rela But this is a specialized form. 4. Moreover. it de and what allied thereto. its mechanical. certain that myths of the plastic kind are the fruits of an innate quality of mind. of a mode of feeling and of translating. as its im tions. portance has been too often misunderstood. both of the whole and It it of the details. On summed up the whole. in serves a separate study. then. is a species.) . and that it differs from other forms (scientific. and. infra. the latter expression being reserved by custom for creation. THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. clearness in complex- always taken a very definite form.) only in its materials and in end. etc. even when dealing with the vaguest and most abstract subjects. ) in Such are the ination : principal traits of this type of imag clearness of outline. I purposely digress in order to dwell on this point: that the esthetic imagination has no essential character belonging exclusively to esthetic it.192 It is. at a given mo ment in its history. of a form of imagination and ultimately of a special cerebral structure. ( See Chapter V. the plastic imagination could be in the expression. it is a genus of which &quot. in short. (Tr. the preponderating characters of a race.

&quot. for their association. In it is a logical and combining imagina tion that takes pleasure in what has been termed other words.does good example of it. not usually have His internal vision has a German and Anglo-Saxin mind it is an and distant view rather than a sensitive resurrection or an immediate contact with. original and those disposed to enjoy and understand him it tends to approach the source e.. Psychologic du peuple fransais. the abstract view of life. Its psychological constitution is reducible to two elements: slightly concrete images. and pos fancy of the . We reason more than we imagine. It 193 its ity.PLASTIC IMAGINATION. the things themselves. schemas ap proaching general ideas. are exceptional with us. we may say that it is Without depreciating it rather a condition of imagi native poverty. says he. in the creator clearness of perception. Inclined to de duce and construct. more the products of 1 Fouillee. rela tions predominantly rational. The Chateaubriands. our intellect excels less in rep resenting to itself real things than in discovering relations between possible or necessary things. p. Zolas.The Frenchman. . Flauberts. always preserves the mark of i. a very strong imagination. Would it be improper to consider as a variety of the genus a mode of representation that could be expressed as clearness in simplicity f It is the dry and rational imagination. 1 Hugos. neither the hallucinative intensity nor the exuberant &quot. We hold with Fouillee that the average Frenchman furnishes &quot. 185. intellectual session of.&quot.

arise It is making them and grouping them in unforeseen combinations. Both make use of analogous modes of association. dependent more on the nature of things than on the personal impression of the subject. because it is sensory. as species to genus? It would be idle to enter upon a discussion of the subject here without attempting a classification. tion that gives brilliancy to images. Opposition exists only on one point the former is made up of vivid images that approach : perception . violent shock of emo feelings. is it not paradoxical to relate to plastic imagination.194 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. reason than of imagination it Consequently. the other. the logic of the intellect than of the logic of the It lacks the sudden. let us merely note the likenesses and differences. because it is rational. a form of invention and construction that is of more the work proper. plastic Rational imagination imagination desiccated and simplified. . Both are above all objective the first. the latter is made up of internal images is bordering upon concepts.

two things for our consideration images and of their associations. nor the semi-schematic representations of the ra tional imagination. taking the place of the whole. cise.CHAPTER II THE DIFFLUENT IMAGINATION The It diffluent is imagination is another general form. but those midway in that as cending and descending scale extending from per This determination. concrete. and we can make it more pre Analysis. discovers a certain class of ill-understood images. indistinct but one that consists completely opposed to the foregoing. of vaguely-outlined. how ception to conception. the nature of the (i) It employs neither the clear-cut. and which are the proper material for the diffluent imagination. images that are evoked and joined according It to the least rigorous modes of association. and chosen from . then. which I call emotional ab ever. presents. insufficient. indeed. reality-penetrated images of the plastic imagination. is stractions. These images are re duced to certain qualities or attributes of things.

presses us at the given instant . suggesting. They have a very marked subjective character..matter. resistance. Some aspect of a thing. and abbreviation. plification come Thus. Some depend on the intellectual factor. the relations linking these images. extension. an attribute is spontaneously. the origin of is affective. the others for various reasons. whispering. among which We shall comprehend their na ture better through the following comparison: Intellectual or rational abstraction results from the choice of a fundamental. they do not depend so much (2) As on the order and connections of things as on the changing dispositions of the mind. : for the forms of association.impressionist&quot. they permit a glance. act less through a direct influence than by from and evoking. images of have an &quot. to represent. The mark. character. what we Emotional abstraction. essen tial or not. e. on the other hand. a quality. a passing glimpse we may justly call them crepuscular or twilight ideas. They are tracts abstractions in the strict sense ex They simplifications of the sensory data. solely because it is in direct relation to the disposition of our sensibility. or at least principal. through sim call &quot.&quot. the most usual are based on . i. results from the permanent or temporary predominance of an emotional state. which becomes the substitute for all the rest that is omitted.196 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. or impenetrability. arbitrarily selected because it im in the final analysis. with no other preoccupation because it somehow this class pleases or displeases us. comes into relief.

the opposite of the plastic imagination. lacking a stable center of attraction. but they act by dif fusion and inclusion. often from a simple and fugitive impression. Others depend on the affective factor and are ruled by the disposition of the moment: association by contrast. which permits neither vague images nor approximate constructions. Chapter II. very well-known manifestations of the tion diffluent it imagina does not those obliterated forms in which . trait for trait. ii By its very nature it is de jure. 197 fur chance. Its creations have not the organic character of the other. which have been previously studied. schemes of reasoning). especially those alike in emotional basis. on distant and vacillating analogies ther down. excluded from certain territories therein it if if not de facto. even on assonance and alliteration. and of the world.DIFFLUENT IMAGINATION. Even scientific with these exceptions there is still left for it a very wide range. This true of the practical sphere.) (First Part. it ventures is produces only abortions. It has a Thus general character of inwardness because it arises less from sensation than from feeling. where the imagination may be used only to create a theory or invent processes of dis covery (experiments. the diffluent imagination is. Let us rapidly pass over some very frequent.

which they substitute for the real. comes substantial and manence. from the vague forms the diffluent imagination be . This is seen in (2) The romantic turn of mind. Here we come away (3) The fantastic mind. create or others themselves concerns whatever they an imagined world. and that very rarely. reach complete development and cannot give the full measure of its power. person. spontaneously. At bottom mantic spirit asserts itself this fantastic through its per form is the ro tending toward objectification. who are fertile methods of enriching themselves or their country by means of agricultural. confronted by any event whatever or an unknown cloth. it is wrecked. industrial or com mercial enterprises. those who. mining. in spite of themselves. it ventures into a world other than its own. . invol out of untarily. one re quiring the rigorous conditions of the practical imagination. the makers of the Utopias of in 1 See Appendix E. known to everyone. but states. make up. To this class belong those inventors. to become realized.198 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. aspires to become external. and when invention. (1) Revery and related the purest specimen of the kind. or succeeds only through chance. The which was at first only a thoroughly in ternal construction and recognized as such. This is it perhaps remains embryonic. a story I shall later whole give examples of it according 1 In to the written testimony of several people.

it translates itself. linguistics. after spending on it thrice that sum. at two different moments.* the has recently been Aryans at least.000 francs to him. vine yard. . society. Depending on maintained that.DIFFLUENT IMAGINATION.000 francs. says one of his He buys a property. And so on.. 1 Usener. because all the townspeople dump their rubbish there. a new divinity. (4) The list increases with myths and religious conceptions finds itself . In addition. experienced a perceptible emotion. in biographers. same income. order to start a dairy there with the best cows in the world. Gotternamen.&quot. high-grade vegetable gardens.000 francs. &quot. which should bring about 2. finance. in the presence of a phenomenon. &quot. etc. by two different words.during the human race.Every i. He has the commune of Sevres deed over to him a walnut tree. he translated it by a name. the imagination in its its diffuse form here on own ground. religious names must have been applied not to classes of beings or events but to individual beings or events. gives rise to a new name &quot. the manifestation of what was imagined the divine imagination created at first (Augenblicksgotter ) part in the emotion felt. Before 2 Let us cite merely the case of Balzac who. 1896. religious emotion e. from which he expects to receive a net income of 3. until at the end of four years he sees himself obliged to sell his domain for 3. early periods of the As a consequence. worth annually 2. among . But it the religious imagination self.000 fr. with Malaga plants. politics.was always odd. is never identical with though produced by the same phenomenon. the it only momentary gods Every time that primitive man. It is 199 a form of imagi 2 nation unnaturally oriented toward the practical.&quot.

Indra becoming becoming Varuna.2OO THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. movements of the changes of seasons. Mylitta. no language is more of. aroused has which criticisms. different. Semitic religions might furnish examples There has been established the identity of Istar. The myth here is not a disguise. authentic evidence tain peoples. Astarte.such &quot.&quot.We cannot imagine. that we cannot succeed in delimiting them. Later. divinities would If this be condensed into more consistent gods. or love). one. hymns not only are the clouds now ser now cows and (desire later fortresses (the retreats of dark Asuras). worshipping the comet or the fig-tree. everyone of the fig-trees that their eyes saw. Baalath. be sound if this state were met with it would be the ideal type of imaginative instability in the re ligious order. fluid myths. men must have worshiped each one of the comets they beheld crossing the sky. and still others. many hypothesis. of the Hindoos that we perceive best this religion to divine beings. with advancing capacity for gen eralization. but an expression. Derketo. these &quot. The of this.&quot. It permits a glimpse supple. true and more it or rather. Every god can change himself into another. &quot. . clouds.instantaneous&quot. and so on. In kaleidoscopic process applied the vedic pents. or even opposite. But it is in the early Aschera. but we see Agni and (fire) Kama Taine. at shows that cer given stages of their history. Tanit. says a great clearness. have created such vague. Nearer to us. causes us to discern the forms of air.

able. than this inter pretation.&quot. Thus. always the greatest and most powerful. It Everyone of them one of them is a only a is in turn the supreme deity. they are changeable like the things themselves. this imagination corresponds to has no fixed gods. p. It is more in harmony with to the psychol ogy of these naive state extreme assume simply an of &quot. fundamentally. no distinct personality. In this fashion they swarm moment and teem. . there is a complete antithesis between the imagination that has created the clear-cut and Greeks and that whence have issued those fluctuating divinities that allow definite polytheism of the ^Nouveaux Essais de critique. 2OI all the happenings of sky. note that. 320. apperceptive Every moment of nature and every moment may furnish one of 1 them. god Let us. explicable by the minds logic of feeling. according to the of the moment. everyone is of nature.DIFFLUENT IMAGINATION. fire. of attributes passes suddenly from one to the other. they blend one into another. regardless of contradiction.&quot.impressionism. indeed. the to whom he addresses himself and while he is is praying. to include its neighbor apperception or be included by it. However change able nature it. In this versatility some writers believe they have dis The assignment covered a vague pantheistic conception. storm: external nature has never met a mind so impressionable and pliant in which to mirror of its itself in all the inexhaust ible variety appearances. may be. Nothing is more questionable. for the worshiper.

but merely of a consideration of it as a porary example that is created the art of the psychological fact likely to instruct us in regard to the nature of the diffluent imagination. 1 beauty. let us note that the Hellenic imagination realized its gods through anthropomorphism they are majesty. with the head of the elephant.. To that end. arms. a question of criticism. times. g.2O2 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. It is : the school of the subject &quot. Ganesa.&quot. Finally.who wants to know only mental states. wis The Hindoo its through limitless symbolism: several divinities legs. several intelligence. heads. the ideal forms of human dom. reputed the wisest of animals.&quot.human qualities raised to their highest (Tr. This form of art despises the clear and exact representation of the outer world it replaces it by a sort of music that aspires to express the changing and fleeting inwardness of the human soul. &quot. it makes use of a *Or. power. attributes etc. of praise. as e. the presentation of the future doctrine of universal illusion another more refined Maya.symbolists. power.. animal forms. etc. complete and systematically It is not here &quot. and Let us limit ourselves to a single contem places. as it has been expressed. of form of the diffluent imagination. the god of wisdom. power.&quot. literature (5) It would be easy to show by the history of and the fine arts that the vague forms have been preferred according to peoples. imagination proceeds have several to symbolize or better still. or even of appre ciation.) .

contentfrequently. words forAnother method is the or words that have fallen into disuse. it should give us emotions rather than representations. associating them in such a way that they lose their precise meaning. This process of fails. sometimes is the sign par excellence.&quot. the traveler. partially. Something happens. one knows not where or when. its intellectual function and undergo a new adaptation. natural or floats in a 203 artificial lack of precision: everything dream. it belongs to no country. . As. accord the ing to symbolists. associations and thoughts codnensed in them through long habit. &quot. the knight.They banish commonplaces through lack of precision. it is necessary that it The word lose. somewhat of their customary meaning. sometimes succeeds. often with out mark in time and space. all the and unstable characters of the vague pure. rose is not described by A the particular sensations that it causes.written in the mysterious The writers do not name they leave it depths. but by the general condition that it excites. the city. &quot. less even He. is of no period in time: it is the forest. In short.DIFFLUENT IMAGINATION. or rather. and leave to things only the power of moving. She. It. employment of new words Ordinary words retain. in spite of everything. the wood.&quot. and appear vague and these are the words &quot. : for us to infer. less affective state. A principal process consists of employing usual words and changing their ordinary acceptation.suggestion&quot. men as well as things.

In this form of the diffluent imagi factor emotional exercises supreme May the type of imagination. pressing to treat All this. colors. mere sources of emotion.&quot.to to appear as cause things forms. and emotion lating suggesting through sound alone words have to act not as signs but as sounds: they tures. words.204 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. outlines.&quot. in ges change of tone: it finds and classic complete expression in music. Ordinarily.musical notes in the service of an impassioned psychology. be con sidered as identical with the idealistic imagination? tions of . concerns only imagination ex itself in words. The transfer to want the role of sound to symbolists to make of them the instrument for trans words. still more radical method is the attempt words an exclusively emotional valuation. indeed. The how ever. interjections. them in its own way. the chief manifesta which we have just enumerated. gotten during four or five centuries escape this con dition they are coins without fixed value. cries. by effacing &quot. The pre-Raphaelites have attempted. To sum up nation the authority. to paint emotions. difference. is in the vesture that the esthetic ideal assumes. feeling. but we know that the itself to symbolic school has applied the plastic arts. in a word. a to give to the logic of events imposed thought expresses its itself in upon them. which Lastly. : are &quot. Unconsciously or as the result of reflection some symbolists have come to this extreme trial. semblances.

so as to approach as nearly as possible to a purely internal state. a survival of the mythic when the imagination is given free play without control or check whereas. we should frequently be embar rassed to classify them. it believes itself adapted for practical work and acts in that direc : claim to the term tion. Ariosto epoch.) is romances of chivalry. are two kinds seemingly belonging to the diffluent imagination which. subtilized. doubtless. it has no on the contrary. Nights. mixed or com posite forms. because there are among them. for example. as in the case of characters. In idealistic art. however. it must be recognized that were we make a complete review of all the forms of esthetic creation. By the nature of for it its favorite images. to In addition. art and especially literary creation . but the latter covers a much broader field it is the genus of which the other is fluent : a species. etc. class (fairy-tales. Here. it would be erroneous to regard the fantastic imagination as idealistic. effort) is minimized. refined. sublimated. and permits the same answer. in the course of . the Thou sand One poem.DIFFLUENT IMAGINATION. color. do not permit it to completely include them. centuries. 2O$ This question is similar to that asked in the pre ceding chapter. (a) The and s &quot. touch. Thus. the material element fur nished in perception (form. preference relations. vague associations by its and uncertain presents all the characteristics of dif imagination.wonder&quot.

a genius bizarre to the point of *The same statement holds good as regards the &quot. to the living. the horrible. vague as well as to the plastic imagination.satanic literature. s &quot. reigns.&quot. as rationalized THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. They are such by virtue of their vision. and despising the Often. Goya paintings of robbers and thieves being garroted. a decadent and This form of invention idealizing the external world. class belongs.) conditions. environment of pure fancy.206 becomes. It is thus proper to remark that this class shrouded mystery: men and move easily glides into the deeply sad.wonder&quot. 1 : On the other hand. Poe. already said. Wiertz. in an impossible: it is a liberated realism. without consists neither of taking into account natural laws. intensified to hallucination. (b) The fantastic class develops Its chiefs under the same et al. (Hoffmann. The &quot. are classed by critics as realists. we have mythology. then. and other analogous subjects that have often attracted painters. according to the temperament of the creator. where only caprice characters the appear clear. acters the precision in details. nightmare-producing. in the environment is strange. nor reproducing it with the minuteness of realism. in an things unreal atmosphere. well-fashioned. but remaking the universe to suit oneself. . more or less to one or to the other. the rigorous logic of char and events they rationalize the improbable. terri fying. where one feels rather than per ceives.Tempta tions of Saint Anthony&quot.

which are perhaps the master But all this belongs to another division of our subject. since it we can to a relation with unity. unlimited in two directions starting from any term always reduce : in the series. etc. the pathology in There yet remains for us varieties that I connect tion. NUMERICAL IMAGINATION Under this head I designate the imagination that in infinity of time takes pleasure in the unlimited and space under the form of number. ever we may go on ever decreasingly. number.DIFFLUENT IMAGINATION.gt. rigorously determined. Every num precise. study two important with the diffluent imagina to&amp. The working of movement increasingly or the mind gives it rise to a possible infinity that is limitless: thus traces a route for the The of the imagination. expressly eliminated from this essay of the creative imagination. or rather the series of numbers. it owes But the series of numbers is to nothing fancy. one that I have pieces of this class. an object than a . who paints only suicides or the heads of guillotined criminals. 2O? extravagance. It seems at first that number ber is these two terms imagination and must be mutually exclusive. is less vehicle. of Religious conceptions could also furnish a fine lot examples: Dante s Inferno. the twenty-eight hells of Buddhism.

000. each ocean years. two work of The calculating this apalling number. The Egyptians. relates that Chaldean cos Oannes.200 years came a period of 432.You.000 years. O Greeks.000. the deluge renewed the face of the earth. and in science. merely one of 365 days of divine leave to the reader. (i) Numerical imagination has nowhere been more exuberant than among the peoples of the Orient.328.If . you are only have done better than children!&quot. equivalent to 1. equivalent to ten (or the age of the world be tween life Each Kalpa : I 4.000 years. They have played with number with mag nificent audacity and prodigality. : 2. sixteen miles in each dimension. and in the face of the brief and limited chronology of the Greeks (another kind of imagination) were wont to exclaim.000. devoted mogony to the education of mankind. This form of imagination principal ways in mogonies.000. the to serve as basis : their numerical fancies Kalpa is the Koti.000 there were a lofty rock. were liberal with millions of years.000. then 259. and at the end of these 691.000. produced in two religious conceptions and cos is .000.000 years taken up with the reigns of mythical personages.000. if he is so inclined. &quot. They have invented enormous units millions. the destructions). ascending.2O8 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.000. divide time into two one Djanas periods. and one touched it once in a hun- being itself &quot. the Fish-god. also. the other descending each is of fabulous duration.000 oceans of years. But the Hindoos and content for all that.

&quot. The hypotheses of physics and in atoms and molecules are not to chemistry regard less reckless than the speculations of the &quot. glow become chilled. This makes one dizzy.DIFFLUENT IMAGINATION. like suns.he not take on these delirious forms . (2) Numerical imagination in the sciences does &quot.000 persons). it has the advan tage of resting on an objective basis: it is the substitute of an unrepresentable reality. deprived of the atmospheric vapors that protect it. will perish of cold. 000. colorless. : at first with the feeble light of a nebular mass.000 parasols. 680. dry. it would be reduced to the size of a wango-stone before a fourth of one of these Kalpas had rolled In the sacred books of Buddhism. imagination in its numerical forms is triumphant.000 Kalpas. The Lalitavistara is full ing monotony of nomenclatures and enumerations of fatigu Buddha is seated on a rock shaded : by 100. surrounded by minor gods forming an assemblage of 68.&quot. which people often accuse of stifling imagi vaster than esthetics.000.. Scientific culture. and then become condensed. burn nation. 2(X) dred years with a bit of the finest Benares linen. covered with spots.100.Physicists Hindoo imagination. as they ordinarily are.000 Kotis (i. have determined the vol- . by. e. Geology follows the devel opment of our earth through upheavals and cata clysms : it foresees a distant future when our globe. and this surpasses all the rest had experienced many vicissitudes during 10. on the contrary opens to it a field much Astronomy delights in infini tudes of time and space it sees worlds arise. poor.

Dubois. e. p. would not yet have reached the end. protoplasmic elements.000 events distinctly. to note 10. we find that a cube. within the length of a second. imagines the changes that would result therefrom in our outlook on nature: &quot.000.000 years: the being who commenced the task at the time that our solar separate in system could have been no more than a formless 1 nebula. Leyons de pliysiologie g&nfrale et compare. Thus Von Baer. and many other scientific theses that I omit. which speaks off-hand of periods of a hundred thousand years. would contain a number of molecules at least i. J it might be i . the theory its Biology. as now. a millimeter each way (scarcely the volume of a silkworm s ume egg). More than one scientist has even made use of this form of imagination for the pleasure of developing a purely fanciful notion. and referring to the numbers that they give. of a molecule. . with of evolution.000 lowed by twenty-one zeros. instead of barely 10. suppos ing that in we might perceive the portions of duration another way. hypotheses on hereditary transmission by means of infinitesimal subdivisions. offer fine material for the ical numer imagination. it would take more than 250. gemmules. One scientist has cal culated that if one had to count them and could thought a million per second. unity fol equal to the cube of 10. if our life were then destined to hold the same number of impressions. its plastids.Sup pose we were able. 286.000..&quot.000 times R.2IO THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.

and the possibility of filling either with a myriad of dimly- perceived events. But now reverse the hypothesis and suppose a being to get only one i. and personally If born in know nothing of the change of seasons. the motions of animals will be as invisible as are to us the movements of bullets and cannonthe sun will scour through the sky like a 1 meteor. The era. These events not being susceptible of clear representation as to their nature and quantity. ^on Baer. etc. Winters and summers will be to him like quarters of an hour. Mushrooms and the swifter-growing plants will shoot into being so rapidly as to appear instantaneous creations. we now believe in The motions sun would stand free still in the sky. I. we get in a given and consequently to live 1. we should believe in summer as the heats of the Carboniferous of organic beings would be so slow to our senses as to be inferred.000 times as long. and so on.oooth part of the sensations that time. numbers. these: Absence of limitation in time and space. in James.DIFFLUENT IMAGINATION. 211 We should live less than a month. The psychologic conditions of this variety of the creative imagination are. the moon be almost from change. the imagination makes its constructions with substi tutes that are. in this case. winter. escaping even a schematic representation. balls. not seen. whence the possibility of an endless movement in all directions. Psychology. annual shrubs will rise and fall from the earth like restlessly boiling water springs. as short.&quot. then. 639. leaving a fiery trail behind him. .

wants. of the born musician. IV MUSICAL IMAGINATION Musical imagination deserves a separate mono the task requires. . in pene trating into their most varied combinations. . purpose only one thing. aspi rations. and that the characteristic of the composer of genius. he succeeds. it is and emotions of all kinds. to show that it has its own individual mark that it is the type of affective imagination. Chapter IX. The musician him. &quot.212 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. through exercise. I 2 have elsewhere attempted to prove that. a many men at least. dispositions. of timbre. namely. an affective memory. feelings. Part I. I hold that there exists also a form of the creative imagination that is purely emotional the contents of which are wholly made up of states of mind.He sees in the world what concerns carries in his head a coherent system of tone-images. there exists. memory of emotions strictly so called. in which every element has its place and value he perceives delicate differences of sound. and the knowledge of harmonious relations is for him what design and the knowledge of color are for the Psychology of the Emotions. in that is. it cannot be undertaken here. and not merely of the intellectual conditions that caused and accompanied them. a profound knowledge of musical capacity. logical history I As and technique. con trary to the general opinion of psychologists. in addition to psycho graph.

lt. There are people who accuse music of being ambiguous. relates his present perceptions and which he causes to enter into the marvelous constructions of his as it 1 fancy. painter: intervals 213 and harmony. standards to which he qualities are. . his Lieder: Mendelssohn wrote to an author who composed verses for Music is more definite than speech. p. unintelligible. 118. We must surely recognize that emotional language does not possess the precision of intellectual language. I do not think that words suffice for that end. rhythm and tonewere. for anyone to be able to match words to it.&quot. if we compare them to the true music that fills the soul with a thousand things better than words. People have spoken to a tiresome extent of the vagueness of musical expression some have been pleased to hold that every one may interpret it in his own way. but in music it is the same as in any other idiom: there are those who do . ambiguous. I would not compose music. These sound-elements and their combinations are the words of a special language that is very clear for some. and were I persuaded to the contrary. rather than too indefinite.at. impenetrable for others. those and consequently always give and those who understand well wrong renderings and in this last category there are grades as varying half understand who as the aptitude for perceiving the delicate and subtle shades of speech. who allege that. *Arre&quot. words are always understood: for me it is just the other way. What the music that I like expresses to me seems to me too definite. words seem to me vague.DIFFLUENT IMAGINATION. and to want to explain it by means of words is to make the meaning obscure. (&amp. not understand at all . . 3 Memoire et Imagination.

Many centuries passed between the early ages when man s The native voice and the simple instruments imitating it trans lated simple emotions. descriptive.214 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. even opposing. materials necessary for this form of imagi construction are gathered slowly. shall be able to We associate various melodies. Hence forth melody will be able to develop and give rise to the richest combinations. sing time. in part at least. has been long in seeking independent manner of the different voices consti tuting harmony. being made up. and allowed complex and dif ficult constructions in sound. assign concerted voices. contrary to sensorial imagination. music arts The development of slow and belated as compared to the other has perhaps been due. fugitive its methods of and of However it be. its Modern polyphony with power of expressing at the same time different. Bach analysis expression. its chief province (imitative. feelings is a marvelous instrument . to the period when the efforts of antiquity and of the middle ages finally furnished the musical imagination with the means of express ing itself completely. it take the trouble to invent. and the contrapuntists. ments. or in alternation. subtle. have opened a new path. picturesque music being only an episode and accessory). to the fact that the affective imagination. by their treatment in an states. vary indefinitely The boundless realm of musical them at the same them to various instru the pitch of singing and has been worth while to combinations is open. of tenuous.

During Chopin. form of imagination which. He sometimes succeeded in making such striking resemblances that all would . : con external or internal impression. By the side of a dead friend. whatever. alien to the forms moves only in time. in a room draped in black. composed one of of his Preludes. The biographers instances of Mendelssohn relate analogous transposition under musical form. furnishes this What us the best entrance into the psychology of sists in this form of imagination is the nat It ural transposition operative in musicians. he impro vises the adagio of the sonata in C sharp minor.From the age of eight. drawing by means of various turns of song and varied rhythms the shades of character. a storm that almost engulfed George Sand.&quot. An lowing examples better understood than Beethoven said of Klopstock maestoso. any of a certain kind. Messiah. The case of Schumann is perhaps the most curious of all: &quot. for a 21$ clear-cut in space.always In his fourth symphony he expressed musically the destiny of Napoleon. which the fol undergoes change will make amount of any commentary.DIFFLUENT IMAGINATION. written in s D flat major. under the influence of his agony. alone in the house. and even the physical peculiarities. &quot. he would amuse himself with sketching what might be called musical portraits. in the ninth symphony he tries to give a proof of the existence of God. of his young comrades. and half unconsciously. occurrence even a metaphysical idea.

go into the composer s brain. Phil.2l6 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. we know. mix and come out changed into a musical struc plastic it The proof: imagination furnishes us a counterThe musical im transposes inversely. pression traverses the brain. politics. That is why many of my compositions are so hard affected all that goes they relate to events of distant interest.&quot. me like a procession of 22-23. We have already cited examples from Victor Hugo (ch. After .a when the moon s water rushes and boils to glisten short. Let us recall again that Weber interpreted in one of the finest scenes of his Frey- schutz (the bullet-casting scene) landscape that he had seen near the falls of Geroldsau. way and it issues outwards in the form of music. by reflect on all that in my own I literature. 234-35. but comes out transformed into visual images. had poor musical gifts. pp. but everything remark able that is furnished me by the period I must to understand: express musically.&quot. . &quot. the figure recognize. indicated by the skillful fingers that genius was feel myself He said later: already guiding.&quot. I) Goethe. having the young Mendelssohn render an overture from Bach. see Paulhan. Bev. he exclaimed. the events there. sets it in turmoil. &quot. ture. though important. grand Oelzelt-Newin. with no further designation. pp.How pompous and grand that 1 is ! It seems to op. cit. rays cause the basin in which the 1 In like silver.I on in the world men. For analogous facts from contemporary musicians.. at the hour &quot. 1898.

In : &quot. generally have no visual images. might generalize the question and ask We whether or no there exists a natural antagonism between true musical imagination and plastic imagi nation.&quot. I . liable to An answer in the affirmative I be challenged. unsought which fact saves me from happens that it . any charge of a preconceived opinion. in gala attire. stage. The result of observation and of the collected answers are this is summed up as follows: Those who possess great musical far culture and - more important taste or passion for by If these music. and scenery impose on the observer visual perceptions in that have a tendency to be repeated later in the form of memories. seems scarcely had undertaken an inves tigation which. I give arise. The question asked orally of a large number of &quot.Does people was this hearing or even remember ing a bit of symphonic music excite visual images : dent you and of what kind are they?&quot. a few of the answers am see absolutely nothing I occupied altogether with the pleasure of the music I live entirely in a world of sound. it is only momentarily. 217 personages. goal. It made : for a different answered clearly enough the question propounded above the conclusion has arisen of itself. and by chance. at the outset. For self evi reasons dramatic music was expressly ex cluded: the appearance of the theater.DIFFLUENT IMAGINATION. : accordance with my knowledge of harmony. descending the steps of a gigantic staircase.I .

less be admitted that it is very hard to investigate these people. &quot. I follow analyze the harmonies but not for long. since the nature and quality of the music does not matter we may quote &quot. is I believe that the chief effect of music to heighten in every one the predominating feelings/ Those who possess especially those having little little musical culture. evidently For the sake of brevity and clearness I do not give here the observations and evidence. It very clear visual representations.&quot. and taste for music. see nothing the development of the phrasing. or at the most.Hearing a Barbary organ in : here. putting into pathos of which he is capable. music calls up pictures and various scenes .&quot. 1 the hearing of music acts as excitant.besieged by visual images. people familiar with design or painting.the C execution the it The other sees in tumult and excitement of a fair. I see the man turning the crank.2l8 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. I picture the instrument to myself. If military music sounds from afar. selves to sit have must neverthe they avoid concerts. one of these persons Here says that he is &quot.&quot.&quot. An s excel lent pianist plays for a friend Beethoven its sonata in all sharp minor. the street. Here the musical rendering is misinterpreted through misap I have several times noted this in prehension. &quot.I : I am given up wholly to my impressions. They will be found at the end of this work. as 1 Appendix D. resign them through an opera. title Under the An experimental test of musical expressive- . I see a regiment marching. However. Because of their anti-musical natures.

More recently. &quot. sensory images remain without opposition and come to the front. not to cases we may say that during the working of the musical imagination the appearance of visual images is the exception. having gone to the concert fatigued and jaded. vol.even then they are fragmentary. There is an irreducible antithesis acteristic of between affective imagination. unless they are reenforced by a state of semi-morbid excitation. basically objective. and soon disappearing. IV. he sees nothing during the first number: the visions begin during the andante visible for a of the second. &quot. and visual imagi Intellectual nation. of the emotional vital tone. No.DIFFLUENT IMAGINATION.in profusion&quot. that when this form of imagination weak. in him only very rarely visual representations. remaining moment or two. consisting of simple forms without bond between them. V. the Psychological Eeview (September. (See Appendix D. pp. 1 (1892-3). 4. 463 ff. at least.) May we not assume that the state of fatigue.&quot. by lowering the life. the appearance of images is the rule. the rendering of the third. ness. emotional states. the char which is interiority. and vol. No. which is the basis likewise diminishes the tendency of affec tive dispositions to arise again under the form of memory? On the other hand. in American Journal of Psychology. 219 ogy In a word. has studied from another point of view the effect of music on various listeners. is Furthermore. But. language Gilman. Eleven selections were given. I note that three or four at the most excited visual images ten (perhaps eleven). appearing on a dark background. and accompany &quot. insofar as it is permissible in psychol to make use of general formulas and with the all proviso that they apply to most. The author characterizes himself as a he declares that music arouses poor visualizer . 1898.) has published a personal observation of Macdougal in which sight-images accompany the hearing of music only excep tionally and under special conditions. . this result of observation is alto gether in accord with logic.&quot.

an arrangement of words that stand for objects. . Emotional appropriate ordering of successive or simultaneous sounds. relations. origin without. of melodies and language music is an harmonies that are signs of affective states in order to be understood. that of the sounds. which fixes in it expresses and language peculiar to itself. it alto Taking gether. the only great Division possible between the different types of imagination is perhaps reducible to this To speak more exactly. qualities. in : the non-musically inclined. there are exterior and interior imaginations. ill To sum up which has its : In contrast to sensorial imagination. to study the less There now remains for us general forms of the creative power. The exterior excita tion. affective imagination begins within. of which it has been able to make wonderful use. states. extracts of things: in order to be understood they must call up in con sciousness the corresponding images. visual representations. The stuff of its creation is found in the mental states enumerated above. But. well or adapted. tends to arouse objective images. they must call up in consciousness the corresponding affective modifications. the evocative power is small sonorous combinations excite only superficial and unstable internal resistance.22O speech is THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. and in their innumerable combinations. These two have : chapters given a sketch of them. follows the line of least and acting according to the psychic na ture of the individual. pictures.

which we need not study. Indeed. and does not draw conclusions after the method of scientific hypotheses. repre sents the intellectual factor. it has theoretic invention. in the present instance. THE MYSTIC IMAGINATION it Mystic imagination deserves a place of honor. tion. or at the most it is as signs revealing and frequently laying bare the solid sup world of port in he scorns reasoned thought.CHAPTER III. and imagination. inductions. reality. which. as is the most complete and most daring of purely Related to diffluent imagina form. the mystic considers the data of sense as vain appearances. Mysticism rests essentially on two modes of mental life feeling. halt He makes neither deductions nor ing half-way. perception. which we shall try to separate out. consciousness that this state of Whether the part of mind requires and permits be imaginative in nature and nothing else easy to find out. The conclusion He therefore finds no On the other hand. looking upon it as a cripple. . especially in the latter s affective its own special characters.

The nature of this symbolism must. and does not proceed here. root of the mystic imagination consists of a tendency to incarnate the ideal in the sensible.. i.222 is THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. to The every material phe nomenon or occurrence. Let us make the differences between the two clear by a few simple examples. is thus a way of think ing symbolically. in its broadest sense may be divided into two distinct groups: 1 i ) Concrete images. to suppose in things a supradiscover a hidden &quot. that he imagines. and he never proceeds. earliest to be received. being representations of greatest power. save ex analogia hominis. with which they have a direct and im mediate relation. of secondary ac quirement. in natural principle that reveals itself to whoever may Its fundamental character. In the visual sphere. construction in images that then. which the others are derived.image&quot. being representations of lesser power. yet is not on that account a mystic. e. In doing so.idea&quot. from penetrate to it. that he realizes a is for him knowledge of the world. (2) Symbolic images. us note first be determined. let of all that our images understanding the word &quot. residues of our perceptions. the Concrete images are: . then. but the algebraist also thinks by means of symbols. or signs. having only indirect and mediate relations with things.

the remembrance of the sounds of the sea. is proven by very numerous examples is The originality of mystic imagination : found in this fact transforms concrete images into sym It extends bolic images.. If they have not the same origin. motor sphere. the illusions of those who have had limbs amputated. a melody. in the motor order. Psychologically. the human voice. . or of image and image. to so that all mani this process even perceptions. significant gestures. wind. ideographic signs. landscapes. etc.MYSTIC IMAGINATION. no more do they disappear in the same way. shall later find on a value numerous is examples of rials that it this. the finger-language of deaf-mutes. etc. It festations of nature or of human art take as signs or symbols. from an association of perception and image. We itself. the auditory sphere. writ . ten words. 223 in monuments. and uses them as such. in the resting after Symbolic images are: In the visual order. Its mode of. symbolic and draw from the latter all images result from a mental synthesis. these two groups are not iden tical in nature. the tossings one feels when having been at sea. and even better. as of aphasia. etc. in the auditory order. also differs . Concrete images result from a per sistence of perceptions their validity. In makes use and because of the mate it differs from the affective it imagination previously described. recollection of faces. of expression neces sarily synthetic. spoken words or verbal images . etc.

ch. full of leaps. colors. inaccessible to the greater causes. whatever &quot.decadents&quot. which makes use of forms. metaphorical in the extreme now flat and ordinary. definite ob which fact makes them people. methods that merely indicate and suggest or hint instead of giving jects: real. language. We find in almost We might add that obscurity and unintelligibility of all those who have it even in the plastic arts. character the manner of writing ( i ) An external : and of speaking. IX.The dominant style among mystics. part 2. as having a value of their own. and gaps. Other characters are related to this one of : sym bolism. as far as possible.&quot. Excess of imagination betrays itself there. number of First. the mode of expression. jerks. or else are derived from it. in the thought and in the form of in which that is it rendered. it makes use of the language of images. . movements. which is purely subjective. It has thus a rather special mark.. just as the 1 Philosophy of the Unconscious. Again. A may which has been believed is sign mysticism often be taken as an essential sign. viz. says von Hartmann. have attempted. it is. through an analytic process. and from the imagination developing in the functions of words. from sensuous imagination.. 1 written. symbolists and &quot.224 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. especially visual images a language whose ideal is vagueness.&quot. more often turgid and em &quot. .is phatic. I. ordinarily. This characteristic of obscurity is due to two is mystical imagination guided by the logic of feeling.

parable. in Kecejac. ideal of verbal 225 All this can language in a is precision. the mystic uses a personal idiom : things becoming symbols at the pleasure of his fancy. After J. not concepts. and other sacred books have given rise.MYSTIC IMAGINATION. which is boundlessly arbitrary.) thinking An by means of symbols. has been said. While seeming to speak like everyone else.the only force that makes the vast field of mysticism fruitful is that proceeds It 1 analogy. &quot. the Bible.One of the characteristics : the pushing of allegories to the at extreme limit. has given commentators a freedom to imagine equal to that of the myth- creators. and rightly. having their disposal overexcited senses. had already remarked of these authors is Bossuet.&quot. the Koran. surprising if we do not understand him. hoping thereby world s mysteries. p. The dis tinction between literal and figurative sense. Essai sur connaissance mystique. X les fondements de la . be summed up phrase the subjective character inherent in the symbol. (2) extraordinary abuse of analogy and com parison in their various forms (allegory. Darmesteter. With warm imagination. a great opponent of mystics. that &quot. he does not use signs that have a fixed and It is not universally admitted value. 124. a natural consequence of a mode of etc. All this is yet very reasonable.&quot. they are lavish of to explain the changes of expressions and figures. but the imagina tion left to itself stops at no extravagance. We know to what inventive labors the Vedas.

Here. etc. sides these fantastic meanings. Thus. mind employs struction. 1 Be representing the moon and the planets. for which s name. the having strained the meaning of expressions. In the Zohar. which have such per (Tr. they would composing words the represent in substitute for the letters num bers that these letters the Hebrew numerical system and form the strangest combina tions with them. symbol of the cosmic elements. number is no longer the means that in order to soar in time and space. 7. like the number 13. symbol of the trinity. and &quot.lucky&quot. the last letters of the words composing a verse. each one begging to be chosen as the creative element of the universe. Let us also bring to mind numerical mysticism. itself on words and imaginative mind exercises take the first or would caballists the letters. 4. etc. form of this mathematical mysticism. there are plicated inventions calculating. as Zeller has shown.sacred : numbers&quot. all the letters of the alphabet come before God. teeming in the old oriental religions 3. may perhaps be best found the genesis of superstitions in regard to &quot. the a The Pythagorean auspices marriage.) sistence.un numbers. different from numerical imagination heretofore studied. is the systematic philosophy. the years of of 1 In such notions present the lucky&quot. and a new word which was to them form with would reveal the hidden meaning. . more com from the letters of one life of a sick person. Again.226 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. it becomes a symbol and material for fanciful con Hence arise those &quot.

by being embodied in an invention that is useful and answers its purpose. in the case appears at first. by explaining. which makes the works of mystics so fragile. This exaggerated symbolism. and in the case of the man of affairs. so. . In the esthetic a field. and for a moment. and with mystics it attains its maximum. even in the lection. chapter II. But this illusion of imaginative construc has degrees. creation momentary belief. of a form of a it recol purely passive reproduction. what distinguishes it from association and from ^ee Part Two.MYSTIC IMAGINATION. the work of the imagination is accompanied by only a condi tional and provisional belief. is accompanied by remarks Groos. numbers are not symbols of quantitative but the very essence of things. is Its special char necessarily joined to appearance. just as real as a percept. 227 relations. also in art. and which permits the mind to feed only on glimpses. in the case of the scientist. acter does not consist merely in freedom in images. (3) Another characteristic of mystic imagination the nature and the great degree of belief accom 1 panying it. but its enchanting capac Without doubt suggestion exists much more weakly. for reasons that we is shall indicate. In the scientific and practical world. already know that when an image We enters consciousness. Much more tions. The construction in images must justify its existence. Fancy. has nevertheless an undeniable source of energy in ity to suggest.

they have Mystics are believers in the faith. The merely representative creative artist has a conscious illusion (bewusste Selbsttauschung) : the esthetic pleasure is an oscillation between the appear ance and the reality* Mystic imagination presupposes an unconditioned and permanent true sense belief. This character is peculiar to them. and which these regards phenomena as valid and true revela tion. as psycho-motor hallucinations which we now regard all that we meet every moment in their works. &quot. touch-illusions. pp. by a spontaneous movement that 1 Groos. 308-312. until they become commonplace. . Visions. to the nature of these psychic states there are only two solutions one.wordless&quot. knowledge only been when Intuition becomes an object of clothed in images. There has much dispute as to the objective value of those symbolic forms that are the working material of the mystic imagination. inner and voices. tends outwardly. external voices. This contest does not concern we may make the positive statement that the constructive imagination has never obtained us here. that we shall indicate. the mystic imagination seems to us naturally It tending toward objectification. which most theologians hold. is memory is this that what is taken for the reality. and has its origin in the intensity of the affective state that excites and supports this form of invention. In either case. the other. possible But as naturalistic.228 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. super natural. Die Spiele der Thiere. but such a frequently hallucinatory form as in the mystics.

places it 229 on the same level as reality. justice. was frequently &quot. 132. all-embracing cosmological form is the of the world by a purely imaginative conception (i) The being. to caution lifeless 1 and encourage me. Mabilleau. dos. op. &quot. man s body the and its structure. tree. Whichever conclusion same adopt.At certain times every subject to hallucinations) : 1 thing takes on for me a new aspect secret voices come out of plant. Thus. no imaginative type has the great gift of energy and permanence in belief. p. geometry. Victor Hugo sees in each letter of the alphabet the pictured imitation of one of the is the objects essential to human knowledge: head. its etc. the console. as a kind of survival and tem porary form.MYSTIC IMAGINATION. with only esthetic in abnormal. moreover. It is rare. from the humblest insects. animals. working along the liar lines pecu to it. and is nowadays met a few artists. II we Mystic imagination. religious.A D is the back. so that man s house and architecture. produces cosmological. Gerard de Nerval (who. the gable. all that is comprised in the alphabet through the Even more radical is mystic virtue of form. harvesting. the arch. E is the basement. Formless and have mysterious turns the meaning objects cit. mountains. etc. a summary exposition of which will help us understand its true nature. . the cross-beam. war. dreamers. or morbidly persons. church.&quot.. and then music. and metaphysical constructions. arx..

is In our day of intense intellectual development. particular soul inherent in each thing. the legs are the apostles.&quot. the buttresses and abut ments are the divine assistance. but it does not an autonomous. is There are extant special books in which does not know seriously explained. the eye is contemplation. that Who and the vagaries to which it has given rise ? The towers are prayer. has disappeared. and that the visible is worth nothing except insofar as it covers up the invisible. contemporaries. the columns the apostles. all the members of the body are emblems. life. real world is a fairy The middle ages and is a period of lively imagination overflowed in this direc slight rational culture this earth everything on that tion.&quot.230 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. symbolism does likewise. the stones and the mortar the assembly of the faithful the windows . the symbolism of the cathedrals. &quot. it not given to many to return sincerely to a mental condition that recalls that of the earliest times. animals there is nothing that does not become subject for interpretation. characteristic of humanity in its early beginnings.Many thought a sign. distinct. the hairs are the saints. and so on to the minutest detail. everything believe in . when it peoples the world with myriads of animate beings. land. a figure. Plants. are the organs of sense. Even Primi into we come near tive man puts if it. activity. consciousness.the To others. all etc. the head is Christ. of which I understand/ &quot. Every . we still find a difference. The absence of abstraction and generalization.

imaginative builders. logical relations and methods. history shows us that there completest expansion. Although it may be held that every religion. and to keep strictly within our sub us note that in the completely developed great religions there has arisen opposition between the rationalists and the imaginative expounders. it descends from a At single primary. strictly utilita mystical in fact matter how rian. the root of this imaginative construction there is always either theism or pantheism. but a show. following the special mode of mystic imagination that we already know. no dull and poor. by deduction and induction 1 . The for mer. (2) Mystical imagination has often and erron eously been identified with religious imagination. personal or impersonal. beyond the reach of sense. spring. . 1 However. among barbarians. the others. Rome and Greece. build by means of abstract ideas.MYSTIC IMAGINATION. presupposes a latent because it supposes an Unknown mysticism. let be brief. according to Aristotle. were not dogmatic teaching. among civilized races. acting by evocation. which. 23! source of activity revealed by symbols appears as a fragmentary manifestation. or sug gestion. rational architects. there are religions very slightly those of savages. between the dogmatists and the mystics. even though the mystic imagination religious is not confined to the bounds of it thought. care If we leave out oriental influences and the Mysteries. the martial cults of the Germans and the Aztecs. an assemblage of symbols. attains its To ject.

medi But the images made use of are not dry ators. as we have differ seen. their derivatives or abbreviations. the affective states cannot longer remain vague. and all colorless like direct representative value words that by long use have lost and are merely marks i. a . they are. be noted that if &quot. diffuse. being repugnant to the mystic nature. they must become fixed in time and space. it is on images through which they may be seen e. and consequently their wholly symbolic speech is at the same time an original construction. g.&quot. or rite. because in their feelings. Being symbolic.in they speak a language made up of concrete images. abstract ideas. The mystic imagination is a transformation of the mythic It imagination. purely internal. which are. the idea of divine protection in incarnations. or tags. &quot. differ as much from words as sketching and and they drawing from our alphabetical signs. however. legend. ever. for this learned magnificence vivid creations is them they excel in because the moving energy with their hearts. etc. represents the tendencies towards pity and resignation. On summing up the aspirations for final the other hand. cannot escape the necessity of this. On the other hand. and condensed into images Buddha rest. event. concrete. pure con s cepts. the myth changing into symbols.. It how must.the mystic fact is a naive effort to apprehend the absolute. the relations between God and man. forming a personality. in the various forms of communion also necessary that they take . direct substitutes for reality.232 little THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. Thus.. e.

which metaphysical realism hopes to attain by other methods and by a However interesting they may be for psychology. vol. turned ^ecgjac. these attempts. with out image and without form.. op. that lives on symbols and finds in them the only fitting expres 1 it seems that this imaginative sion. mystic symbolism elements imagination it cit. I. we find it in the nature of the constitutive elements. ff. shows that philosophy has done but transform ideas of mystic production. s (Tr. nothing for form of images and undemonthe substituting (3) &quot. . 233 mode of symbolic. cit. aspiring 2 to grasp the ultimate principle as a pure unity. luring one on further different route..MYSTIC IMAGINATION.&quot. for they have attempted to go beyond it through ecstacy. Turned presupposes two and feeling. system. part chapter IX. whose highest philosophy is a kind of indescribable ecstacy. in the direction of religion. and we cannot consider them at greater length here. 139 One at once calls to mind Plotinus. become foreign to our sub ject. pp. thinking. not dialectic. When we seek the difference between religious and metaphysical or philosophical symbolism. by their seeming or real elimination of every symbolic element. and further.&quot.) 2. op 2 principal in a metaphysical direction.History strated rational statements 3 the form of assertions of a This declaration of a metaphysi cian saves us from dwelling on the subject long. Hartmann. phase has been to some minds only an internal form.

just as in the history of religion. in place of human romances. etc. reason and life. each unfolding comprising seven eons. allegorical beings.234 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. the sysygies or couples of Gnosticism and itself reflection. a very small rational presupposes imagination and element. immutable forms of soul being. appear Here allegorical beings mentioned above. hereditary entities of spirits and In short. by the unfolding of fifty-two attributes. the pro between Plotinus and the fren gression apparent zied creations of the Gnostics and the Cabalists. In this imaginative plan of the world we may recognize stages according to the increasing weak ness of the systems. transition-form towards metaphysical rationalism. half concept. the subject-matter is though still resembling symbolic images tends to become concepts: such are vivified abstractions. Besides. corresponding to the 364 days of the year. quality of the hypotheses. It would be weari some to follow these extravagant thoughts. we come into a world of unbridled invents the fancy which. and this the important characteristic. etc. cosmic romances. the ten Sephiros of the Cabala. inspiration and depth and silence. truth. depending on the number and For example. is With the latter. metaphysical mysticism is a of gods. This substitution involves appreciable devia tion from the primitive type. which. . although these two tendencies have always been inimical in the history of philosophy. the absolute manifesting . half symbol. The construction is of greater logical regularity.

which. 235 though the learned may treat them with some respect. . is second to no form. Following the most venturesome methods of analogy. not even to esthetic invention. it has constructed conceptions of the world images made up almost wholly of feelings and symbolic architectures. Moreover.MYSTIC IMAGINATION. and its richness. according to common prejudice. have for the psychologist only the interest of pathologic evidence. its variety. To conclude: The mystic imagination. this form of mystic imagination presents too little that is new for us to speak of it without repeating ourselves. in its alluring freedom. is the type par excellence.

. that without it we .CHAPTER IV THE is SCIENTIFIC IMAGINATION It is quite generally recognized that imagination indispensable in all sciences. imitate that it is a stimulus driving us onward and launching us into the un known. of art. repeat. the must become subject to preestablished of This variety imagination being. If there does exist a if very widespread preju dice to the contrary culture throttles many hold that scientific imagination we must look for the explanation of this view first. requirements regulating the develop it may not wander at e. and in order to be accepted. or even of mechanical invention. could only copy. after the . that makes the essence of the creative imagination consist of images. in extracts of things the rational ment of the will. in is determined. creative faculty In either case its end i. invention rules. and then. order to exist. pointed out several times. which are here most often replaced by abstractions or whence it results that the created work does not have the living forms of religion. in the equivocation.

One may well speak geometry the empirical origin of which is no longer anywhere contested but we cannot escape from representing them as somehow in space. Indeed. in whom invention ob the most abstract form of discontinuous functions symbols figures and of their relations cannot imagine of the like the geometrician. who by his work has aided builders.SCIENTIFIC IMAGINATION. then. that its form must vary according to the nature of the science. mechanics. more concrete. are at least two well-marked varieties. No more generally the tains in analyst. consequently. and general. since he . tion is The physicist imagina is inces necessarily refer to to the of data sense or to santly obliged that totality of visual. acoustic. architects. each one of which should be the work of a competent man. the 237 one that psychologists have best therefore be brief. we may remark that there is no &quot. it really resolves itself into a certain number of genera and even of species. Does anyone think that Monge. . Whence arises the need of monographs. however. and that. motor. described. tactile. the algebraist. could imagination as the mathematician given up all his life to have the same type of who has been the theory of number ? s Here. esthetic form. one will question that mathematicians have a of way thinking all their own but even this is too The arithmetician. we may A complete study of the subject. remains yet to be made.scientific imagination&quot. to say nothing of mixed forms. in general. the creator of descriptive geometry. stone ideal cutters in their labors.

its The increasing details.. and apply it also to invention in social matters.&quot. etc. but in addition construct a see that the latter picture of the future according to probable induc tions and deductions. we term says dilate.&quot. the &quot. but we them in thought e.&quot. but of the discovery of a new pathologic &quot. tac let representations (touch. to the physician. and The com their arrangement in compound bodies. representations matter. that eye. with level of perception.f diseases. cannot see sound waves contract and construct Tyndall.entity. Lastly. proven and made certain from the symptoms. we shall is still more exacting. auditory representations (auscultation).scientific. etc. has need of visual representa tions of the exterior and interior. the zoologist. in whom science becomes also an art. it approaches more and more. microscopic and of various forms of diseased condi the macroscopic. plexity of the imagination increases still more in the geologist. and pictured them in the mind s eye.) . by means of visual images. the botanist.properties of Our i. if we do not hesitate to give a very broad extension to the term &quot.. The same remarks are true of chem The founders of the atomic theory certainly saw atoms.gt. tile tions.238 thermic. reverberation. It might be objected that the foregoing enumera tion proves a great variety in the content of creative . for one must represent to oneself not only the elements of the past and of the present. and us also add that we are not speaking merely of o&amp. ists. THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. which is a matter of repro diagnosis ductive imagination.

chapter II. The first depends on external and internal the second on the creative imagination.creative power. that the role is only from them col of the imagination in the sciences could be completely shown. its on influence scientific development. no one mere indeterminate images. be a not unneeded work. conjecture. observation. excite novel but only wants combinations of The nature of first the separable materials. there does not exist a so-called scientific imagination. Mathematics facts aside. separated from what gives soul. and we might by abstraction separate out the characters common to all varieties the essential marks of this imagi native type. then. is nothing but a pure abstraction called for It The monographs lectively above would. then. . that always remains identical. third on rational operations. a factor of the importance it is determining. verifica tion. and is indicates to the all mind the direction in which it treason in this regard is paid for aborted construction. For we have seen above that there exists no creative instinct in general. 1 This position is untenable.SCIENTIFIC IMAGINATION. it turned. by painful labor for some by petty result. 239 imagination but not in the imagination itself. the sense. that. namely. and body and Invention. we study 1 See Part I. all the sciences dealing with from astronomy to sociology suppose three moments. is &quot.&quot. and that nothing has proven that under all these various aspects. in certain cases. although the imagina In order to tion is not entirely barred from it. .

because they spring from the very nature of reason. that its lack of completeness measured by the amount of includes. magic. and which cannot be answered. reason is always troubled with questions which can not be ignored. (Tr. for they were the beginnings of more exact disciplines and their fan cies have not been without use.240 shall THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. conjectural solution in place of an objec This substitution has tive. conversely. which it would be more proper to call embryonic sciences. rational explanation. the processes of verification. incompletely proved (cerCf the Preface to Kant s Critique of Pure Eeason. Imagination fulfills Where the human mind cannot the function of a substitute. this is the golden age of the creative imagi nation.) . In the history of science. there it invents. Our . preferring a semblance 1 of knowledge to its total absence. astrology. degrees 1 i ) : The sway of in the imagination is almost com plete (alchemy. etc. the pseudo-sciences 1 (2) The semi-sciences.. study it (a) in the sciences in process of (c) in formation. we might is it say. It is imagination that necessity. occultism. .). a psychological explain or prove. (b) in the established sciences. it furnishes a subjective. because they transcend the powers of human reason. corresponding to the myth-making period already studied. ii has often been said that the perfection of a science is measured by the amount of mathematics It it requires..

magnetism. there is another character to be noted the nature of the belief that accom have already seen panies imaginative creation. electricity. nevertheless abound in commonplace truism that does not on they furnish ad libitum of has what been rightly termed scientific examples is hypotheses. e. tain 241 etc. There is also to be mentioned the hypothesis held . the &quot. often without great profit.&quot..prop venient method of explanation. the its mind to an undemonstrated assertion is here at maximum. sociology. regarded by physicists as distinct qualities even in first matter&quot. half of the last century. destroy one a need to be dwelt mythology. that the two phenomena are really one We merely the two aspects of one and the same state of But faith i. they furnish a simple and con Thus the &quot.). that are preserved for their didactic because usefulness. repeatedly that the intensity of the imaginary con ception is in direct ratio to the accompanying belief.).two electric these cohesion.SCIENTIFIC IMAGINATION. in chemistry are some of the convenient and admitted expressions the to which. fluids. although they show a regression of imagina tive explanation repulsed by the hitherto absent or portions insufficient experimentation. There are in the sciences hypotheses that are not in. psychology. It that succeed. however. we attach no explanatory value. believed erties of (heat. another. etc.. affinity. or rather. contradict. etc. of biology. the adherence of consciousness. Aside from the quantity of imagination expended.

scientists. or. that it because in adopting it. Let us take the hypothesis of evolution. It is visional and ever-revocable by all belief.242 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. dogma. and has been put into practice by Lastly. proven sciences than anywhere more The less proof there flourishing is. 111 Should we assign as belonging solely to the . seems to the The mind clings tenaciously psychologist natural. and the immense influence that it exerts on almost it still forms of human thought. truth itself the hypothesis regarded as the one that is accompanied by a complete. there is many of them. the latter harmonize with its so much does : inner states. remains an hypothesis. but for many it is an all indisputable and inviolable all controversy. however wrong logician. from the standpoint of the This attitude. This is admitted. show us But daily observation and history that in the realm of embryonic and illthis disposition is else. the more we believe. for example we need not mention its high philosophical bearing. belief. it seems to the mind should have itself discovered the hypothesis. in principle at least. the truly accompanied by a pro this is as an approximation of reality scientific position. raised far above They accept it with the uncompro mising fervor of believers: a new proof of the underlying connection between imagination and belief they increase and decrease pari passu. to the hypothesis because the latter is its own crea tion. absolute. Nevertheless.

says preventive. it must nevertheless be admitted that It resembles. with the position. and even the solu tion of their problems. but. for we cannot reason concern Even when a problem seems to advance towards solution wholly through the reason. of invention. is not induction and deduction going from the known to the un known ? Without desiring to depreciate the method and its value. constantly- broadening doctrine? It is a hard question. trials. the imagination ceaselessly intervenes in ing the completely unknown. 243 imagination every invention or discovery in a word. and possibilities that it proposes. the of a Condillac. parapets bridge. not inventive. that provides the rational faculties with their materials. logical results. The . help keep him from falling it is over. the imagination that invents. Reasoning is only a means for control and proof it transforms the work of the . the form of a succession of groupings. the logical method is aimless and useless.SCIENTIFIC IMAGINATION. whatever is new in the well-organized sciences that form a body of solid. People have wisely discoursed on the &quot. imagination into acceptable.methods&quot. If one has not imagined beforehand. It is of value especially as a habit of mind. but for which fact we could manufacture inventors just It is as we make mechanics and watchmakers. which do not the traveler to but walk. There are none. guesses. That which raises scientific knowledge above popular knowledge is the use of an experimental method and rigorous reasoning processes.

from which are borrowed most of the facts here given. Let us show by a few examples that conjecture. is at the root of the most diverse scientific inventions. allowed him to perfect it.In a only a thing imagined. 2 Every mathematical invention is at first only an hypothesis that must be demonstrated. 1 In the rare Notes that he has left. For further information we refer to the Logique de I hypoby E.. . employed in turn. He might have said all the mathematical truths.&quot. should expand and be precipitated in a space for merly void. to accept or reject it. conversation concerning the place of imagination in verification scientific work. without being wrong. having imagined the masterpiece of his discovery. and his thoughts were absorbed with the experiments was busied. says Liebig. e. It is true that it has been concluded.244 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. 2 thdse. elastic fluid. trying to prevent the cooling of the The thought then came to him that steam. must be brought under previously established general principles prior to the decisive moment of rational : it is &quot.&quot. i. know that Pascal dis covered the thirty-second proposition of Euclid all by himself. is function of method 1 to determine its value.a great French mathematician expressed the opinion to me that the greater part of mathematical truth is acquired not through deduction. he enumerates the processes that. Thus. &quot. we see what should follow. the work of the combining imagination. and having made a vacuum in a separate vessel and opened communication between the steam of the cylinder and the vacant space. but through the imagination. James Watt writes that one afternoon he had gone out for a stroll on the Green at We in which he Glasgow. Naville. being an cylinder.



wrongly perhaps, that he had

also discovered all

the earlier ones, the order followed by the Greek geometrician not being necessary, and not excluding

other arrangements. However it be, reasoning alone was not enough for that discovery. "Many people,"








might have

without rinding out the This fact alone of Euclid." thirty-two propositions shows clearly the difference between invention and

thought hard

all their lives

demonstration, imagination and reason.

In the sciences dealing with facts, all the bestestablished experimental truths have passed through

a conjectural stage.
this point.


History permits no doubt on makes it appear otherwise is the

fact that for centuries there has gradually



making a whole, stored away in classic treatises from which we learn from childhood, and in which they seem to be ar
be formed a body of solid

ranged of themselves.

We are not

told of the series

of checks and failures through which they have Innumerable are the inventions that re passed.

mained for a long time

in a state of conjecture,

matters of pure imagination, because various cir cumstances did not permit them to take shape, to be demonstrated and verified. Thus, in the thir
teenth century,

Roger Bacon had a very

clear idea


This much-criticised defect has been only partially over in our methods of education through "object" lessons,

and, if we may call them so, evolutionary methods, showing to Cf. J. Dewey, "The the child "wie es eigentlich gewesen."

School and





of a construction on rails similar to our railroads; instruments that would permit, as does of

the telescope, to see very far, and to discover the It is even claimed that he must have invisible.

phenomena of interferences, the demon stration of which had to be awaited ten centuries. On the other hand, there are guesses that have met success without much delay, but in which the
foreseen the

know that easy to locate. but rich in inventive genius lacking Tycho-Brahe, an met for exact observation, Kepler, capacity adventurous spirit: together, the two made a com

imaginative phase demonstration

that of the invention preceding


plete scientist.


have seen how Kepler, guided

by a preconceived notion of the

of the







by discovering


Copernicus recognized

expressly that his theory was suggested to him by an hypothesis of Pythagoras that of a revolution

of the earth about a central


assumed to be


a fixed position. Newton imagined his hypothesis of gravitation from the year 1666 on, then aban



with observation ;
lapse of a

the result of his calculations disagreeing finally he took it up again after a

few years, having obtained from Paris
of the terrestrial meridian that


new measure

permitted him

to prove his guess. In relating his Lavoisier is lavish in discoveries, expressions that leave no doubt as to their originally conjectural
"He suspects that the air of the atmos not a simple thing, but is composed of two




very different


permanent (lime, magnesia) should not be considered simple And he adds "What I present here substances."


presumes that the (potash, soda) and the earths



at the


most no more than a mere conjecture" above the case of Darwin. Be mentioned have
of scientific discoveries

sides, the history



facts of this sort.


The passage from the imaginative to the rational may be slow or sudden. "For eight months/

says Kepler,

have seen a first glimmer; for three months, daylight; for the last week I see the sun On light of the most wonderful contemplation."

the other hand, Haiiy drops a bit of crystallized cal cium spar, and, looking at one of the broken prisms,
cries out,



and immediately


his quick intuition in regard to the true nature of

the psy for these differences. reasons chological Underneath all the reasoning, inductions, deduc

We have already indicated




logical apparatus of every sort, there is something animating them that is not understood, that is the

work of


complex operation

the constructive

imagination. To conclude




a creation of the

mind, invested with a provisional reality that may,

become permanent.

False hy

potheses are characterized as imaginary, by which designation is meant that they have not become freed

See above, Part Two, chapter IV.


first state.

from the

different neither in their origin

But for psychology they are nor in their nature


scientific hypotheses that, subjected to reason or of experiment, have come out of power to addition in abortive victorious. Besides,

from those

hypotheses, there are dethroned ones.



was more

clinging, more fascinating in its applica 1 than that of phlogiston? Kant praised it as

one of the greatest discoveries of the eighteenth cen

The development of the sciences is replete with these downfalls. They are psychological re

gressions: the invention, considered for a time as adequate to reality, decays, returns to the imagin
ative phase whence it seems to have emerged, and remains pure imagination.




not absent from the third stage of

scientific research, in

tation, but here

we must be

demonstration and experimen brief, (i) because it

passes to a minor place, yielding its rank to other modes of investigation, and (2) because this study would have to become doubly employed with the practical and mechanical imagination, which will

occupy our attention later. The imagination is here only an auxiliary, a useful instrument, serving (i) In the sciences of reasoning, to discover in

genious methods of demonstration, stratagems for avoiding or overcoming difficulties.

Preface to the Critique of Pure Eeason.



(2) In the experimental sciences for inventing methods of research or of control whence its anal
ogy, above mentioned, to the practical imagination. Furthermore, the reciprocal influence of these two

forms of imagination
tion of


a matter of

common ob

servation: a scientific discovery permits the inven new instruments; the invention of new in

struments makes possible experiments that are in
tion at

more complicated and


One remark

This constructive imagina the third stage is the only one met with in

many scientists. They lack genius for invention, but discover details, additions, corrections, improve ments. recent author distinguishes (a) those


created the hypothesis, prepared the ex periments, and imagined the appropriate apparatus; (b) those who have imagined the hypothesis and the

who have

experiment, but use means already invented; and (c) those who, having found the hypothesis made
of verification.

and demonstrated, have thought out a new method 1 The scientific imagination becomes
poorer as





this scale, which,


ever, bears

no relation firmness of method.

to exactness of reasoning

Neglecting species and varieties, we may reduce the fundamental characters of the scientific imagina
tion to the following:
Colozza, L immaginazione nella Scienza (Paravia, 1900), In this author will be found abundant details re pp. 89 ff. specting famous discoveries or experiments those of Galileo,

Franklin, Grimaldi,




has concepts, the degree of abstraction of which varies with the nature of the





employs only those associational forms that have an objective basis, although its mission is to

form new combinations, "the discoveries consisting of the relation of ideas, capable of being united, 1 which hitherto have been isolated." (Laplace.)
All association with an affective basis
is strictly


aims toward objectivity:

in its conjectural



attempts to reproduce the order

and con

nection of things.
realistic art,



natural affinity for


midway between


esthetic imagination,

unifying, and so just the opposite of the which is rather developmental.

It puts forward the master idea (Claude Bernard s idee directrice), a center of attraction and impulse

that enlivens

the entire work.




unity, without which no creation succeeds, is no where more visible than in the scientific imagination.
1 Here is an example in confirmation, taken from Duclaux s book on Pasteur: Herschel established a relation between the crystalline structure of quartz and the rotatory power of the

acid, etc.

on, Biot established it for sugar, tartaric for substances in solution, whence he concluded that the rotatory power is due to the form of the molecule

not to the arrangement of the molecules in relation to one another. Pasteur discovered a relation between molecular

dyssymetry and hemiedry, and the study of hemiedry in crystals led him logically to that of fermentation and spontaneous gen



Even when


it is


Pasteur, scrupu

lous scientist that he was, did not hesitate to say: "The experimenter s illusions are a part of his

power: they are the preconceived ideas serving as
guides for

It does not seem to me wrong to regard the imagination of the metaphysician as a variety of the scientific imagination. Both arise from one and


same requirement.

Several times before this
that the various

we have emphasized


forms of imagination are not the work of an alleged "creative instinct," but that each particular one has arisen from a special need. The scientific imagina
tion has for

prime motive the need



knowledge or explanation the metaphysical imagin ation has for its prime motive the need of a total
or complete explanation. The latter is no longer an endeavor on a restricted group of phenomena, but a conjecture as to the totality of things, as aspira

toward completely unified knowledge, a need of final explanation that, for certain minds, is just as imperious as any other need.

This necessity
cosmic or



expressed by the creation of a hypothesis constructed after the
only apparently ob

type and methods of scientific hypotheses, but rad
ically subjective in its origin


It is a rationalised





requisite for the constitution

of a science are found here, but in a modified form



observation, the choice



hypothesis becomes all-important, and


to everything corresponds to scientific proof.

The first moment or preparatory stage, does 1 i ) It requires, however, a not belong to our subject. word in passing. In all science, whether well or ill
established, firm or weak,




facts de

rived from observation or experiment.

are replaced by general ideas. every science is, then, the starting-point of philo

Here, facts The terminus of

sophical speculation: metaphysics begins where each separate science ends and the limits of the lat ter are theories, hypotheses. These hypotheses be

come working material

for metaphysics which, con an hypothesis built on hypotheses, a conjecture grafted on conjecture, a work of imagin ation superimposed on works of imagination. Its
principal source, then,
flection applies

imagination, to which re

Metaphysicians, indeed, hold that the object of
their researches,





from being symbolic and ab or fictitious and imaginary,

as in art,

the very essence of things,

reality. Unfortunately, they have never proven that it suffices to seek in order to find, and to wish in

order to get. (2) The second stage is critical. It is concerned with finding the principle that rules and explains
In the invention of his theory the meta physician gives his measure, and permits us to value
his imaginative power.

But the hypothesis, which

All imaginative metaphysics have a dynamic basis. sum the sciences. are proven in develop ment. systems (idealism. divide metaphysicians into imaginative is the and rational. morality. must its involution and justify universal validity by explaining everything. The between in the these two types of mind. the fixed position. the in- concussum quid. Leibniz Monadology. a belief that tends to recruit ad the influence of earlier sys of acquired knowledge. : herents.. Nature-philosophy Schopenhauer s . the Platonic Ideas. already shown its choice of the hypothesis. here the supreme reality. the social variable predominance of religions. This is the third moment. esthetic culture. when the scientific process of verification is replaced e. Secondary causes are tems. the milieu. the of Schelling. a personal totality Every metaphysician has a point of view. (3) The fundamental come out of its state of principle.SCIENTIFIC IMAGINATION. indeed. into which we may group shall. g. otherwise very numerous. Without troubling ourselves with classifications. monism. way of contemplating and interpreting the of things. by a process of construction. The causes: choice of the principle depends on several The chief of these is the creator s indi viduality. in 253 is science is always provisional and revocable. according differences clearly as the imagination rules superior to the reason or the reason the imagination.) we for our purpose. materialism. etc.

etc. Avenir de la Metaphysique. systems that assume are permeated stract. which brings them nearer the abstract Such are most of the mechanical con Hegelian Dialectic. *On pp. of Leibniz. etc. whatever view we L adopt as to its ulti mate value. But art is not wholly absent. sciences. as that of much as art of a work of fascination the science. Spinoza s ceptions. .254 Will. and in the branching is multiplicity of ornamentation. These are buildings of concepts solidly ce mented together with logical relations. and this is no longer questioned by meta 1 are living things. in showing It has been ever-present. have a the on Rational metaphysics. the construc tion more geometrico. the Summa of the Middle Ages. in which the domi nant idea incessantly repeated in the numberless details of the construction. physicians themselves. it is seen in the systematic con catenation. semi-poetic constructions. the mystics. in the sym metry of division. they with imagination not only in the general conception. Further. to these possible compare systems with the archi tecture of the Gothic cathedrals. but also in the numberless details of its application. 79 ff. in the beautiful ordering. in the skill with which the gen erative principle it is constantly brought in. it must be recognized that the imaginacf. this point Fouillee. and Hartmann s Unconscious. Such are the &quot. the Semi-ab a world-soul. they other hand.fulgurations&quot. THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. chilly aspect. explaining everything. those very They have rich digressions of Schopenhauer.

by the originality and fearlessness of its conceptions. 255 tion of the great metaphysicians. if it does not indeed surpass them. by its skill in perfecting all parts of its work. is inferior to no other form. It is equal to the highest. .SCIENTIFIC IMAGINATION.

of To convince ourselves of this its manifestations. memories. and all the dreams of escaping from the present and there is . This had to be mentioned . this func tion is not a negligible quantity: it includes the plans and constructions for the future. Even thus limited. let us take a subtract is man regarded as least ative : the moments when his imagin con sciousness busied with perceptions. gin.CHAPTER V THE PRACTICAL AND MECHANICAL IMAGINATION The study without of the practical imagination is not First of all. it has not hitherto difficulties. determination of this form of imagination. often insignificant. all the rest emotions. so that at we enter the field random. no man but makes such. and in the absence of boundary lines. fact. likely to lead us astray through the diversity. attracted psychologists. and wander unguided in an unexplored But the principal obstacle is in the lack of region. life Where is does it be and where does even in its it end? it Penetrating all our least details. logical thought and action of his mental life must be put down to the credit of the imagination.

ingenious. un derstanding by singles out for one whom his nature no special invention we see that he excels moment. becom- . in or der to dwell on the higher form chanical imagination. this expression. being limited little by little to exceptional cases. we shall rapidly pass over the lower forms of the practical imagination. in to &quot.take knows how hold of American. furnishes a If we good example. be recognized that these small little. The active. one that a fruitful. dwelling longest on the clearer and more evident cases which the work of cre ating appears distinctly. however. and consequently the field of the creative imagination is unduly restricted. always imagining what they haven t. dustrious mind. the small inventions.&quot. 257 it on account of its very triteness. opportunity. enterprising cording to circumstances. trying in turn all professions. technical or me If we take an ordinary imaginative person. It facts teach us must. Consequently. descend from this form of sane imagina first tion toward the morbid forms. hunters of adven ture. following our in adopted procedure. or imagined profits. for the petty needs constantly in is It arising in human life. unstable people hungry for change. cap able of passing from one occupation to another ac things.PRACTICAL IMAGINATION. because is often forgotten. inventors frequently of questionable means. we meet the knights of industry. adapted for a for a detail.

after hav ing wasted haphazard much useless imagination. this instability. abstract. end in an insane asylum or worse still. there were not within them a sufficient number of concrete. but from natural instability. sailors.freaks&quot. and who. in my just upside down. who extreme form of the unstable.. but it is not sufficient. to the imagination. soldiers. attributes opinion. Let us consider these three groups together. susceptible of various combinations. but it is because they are changeable that their imagination is active. It is not because they have an active imagination that they are changeable. Further &quot. which establish notable differences between them. which is also the opinion of moral this and of most psychologists. Doubtless the inner push is a If necessary condition. merchants. tion that It is a matter of current observa men Common ists of lively imagination are changeable. opinion. One character common to all is mobility the ten dency to change.258 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. is mo bility. or semi-abstract representations. This. not from expediency. down are found the acknowledged are but the at the brink of insanity. us eliminate the intellectual Let and moral qualities characteristic of each group. nothing would happen. etc. Each new or merely modified disposition becomes a center of at traction and pull. and let us consider only their inventive capacity as applied to practical life. but the origin of invention and of its fre quent or constant changes of direction lies in the . We thus return to the motor basis of all creative work. ing workmen.

the superstitions of gamblers.. in passing. fate. Has it not often been said that the religion of one is superstition to another. e. Part One. Without taking the trouble let to set arbitrary limits. that starts common opinion from an erroneous conception of the primary conditions of invention whether great or small. to every There are peculiar beliefs. 259 emotional and motor constitution. superstitious beliefs form a goodly province. from which the most radical freethinker is not exempt. not in the quan I shall not dwell tity or quality of representations. longer on a subject already treated. complete view. chance. imaginary creations. for example. without possible question. having a reality only for those admitting them. In the immense empire of the practical imagina tion. 1 but it was proper to show. only a single instance from among many others . us take the facts as they are. we always find the vague. for the common opinion that restricts super stition within the bounds of religious faith is an in too. and present su- See above. a flitting notion that depends on the times. semi-conscious notion of a mysterious power destiny. chapter . is and vice versa? This. Even 1 summary collection of past II. speculative or practical. i.PRACTICAL IMAGINATION. and nature of minds. subjective fan cies. What is superstition? it ? do we recognize An By what positive signs exact definition and a sure It is criterion are impossible. at the bottom of all such beliefs. places. Indeed. foreign dogma and every religious feeling.

propitious or fateful words. see A. death. ergo propter hoc.They some extraordinary thing appears. they note it as 1 For a complete and recent study of the question. appearance and healing of diseases. would fill a library. because. Aberglaube und Zauberei von den dltesten Zeiten bis in die Gegenwart. is in the last analysis very in We shall thus answer an indirect and criterion. dies fasti atque nefasti. Man seeks to divine future events. when &quot. Lehmann. Aside from those having a frankly religious mark. by this fate. and by various means to act on the order of things to modify it for his own advantage or to appease his evil As for the mental mechanism that. reduced to a post hoc. tian priests : Herodotus says of the Egyp have discovered more prodigies and presages than any other people. 1 would be endless. others almost as numerous surround civil life. . incomplete manner the question of First. a tendency. 1898. auguries drawn list from the meeting or acts of certain animals. a desire. where then is the origin of that inexhaustible fount of is we fancies? In the instinct for individual preserva tion. it produces the vain images of the implies: superstitious. the psychology of which simple. birth. set in motion desire. orientated in the direction of the future. since hold that the origin of all imagin a ative creation need. (i) A deep idea of causality.260 perstitions THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. marriage. All that can be attempted here is The a determina tion of the principal condition of that state of mind.

liant silvery light this other is of a pure.PRACTICAL IMAGINATION. bril (Venus) or livid (Saturn). believes that it discovers there an ani mal shape. assumed without verification.. 96. I. which even day still in our The gave cultured people? physicians of the time of Charles II.&quot. but an hy it pothesis of the mind imposed on things. Need we mention the acts in We Middle Age practice of charms. This (2) The abuse of reasoning by analogy. This manner of thinking depends on the weakness of the logical faculties or on the excessive influence of the feelings. know what clever structures of conjectures and prognoses have been built on these foundations. life. mummies) because 1 the mummies. so that a simi prodigy appears anew. without criticism. Resemblance is no longer a of quality things imposed on the mind. having 1 (pulverized lasted a long time. and a different way. It is the hypothesis of an indissoluble association between two or more events. has adherents among their patients &quot. they expect to see the same events reproduced. op cit. great artisan of the imagination is satisfied with likenesses so vague and agreements so strange. says Lang. must prolong Lang.&quot. well as lar all 26l if the events following it. sign of blood. stars that are billions of miles apart. .mummy powder&quot. that dares everything.constellations&quot. Gold in solution has There will be found many other facts of this kind. human or any other.influences. and deduces there from alleged &quot. Astrology groups into &quot. This star is reddish (Mars).

which shows us creative force in action. low its origin. Works on linguistics are full of evidence on this One could do better still by attending exclusively to the vernacular. and picturing language.has the property of figuring. &quot.&quot. are metaphor and allegory. however expressing. conferring life and power on them of in a word. the activity that creates myths and final basis is the of 2 all constructive imagination ap pears also here. It is the triumph of the theory nomina numina. Its principal. But the working of the mind on words. we should have had language as an instrument of the practical life in its relations to the creative imagination. one could reconstruct a people or a society. there is the magic influence ascribed to certain words. It lends itself equally to methods that degrade or ennoble existing words. .262 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. and to strike the injured part with an arrow or knife. order to get rid of a disease nothing is more fre quent among primitive men than to picture the sick fect substance. not only. . being a per In should produce perfect health. . (3) Finally. .Slang. With it. gold. ii Up to this point we have considered the practical imagination only in its somewhat petty aspect in small inventions or as semi-morbid in superstitious If this book were not merely an essay.&quot. in order to annihilate the sickening principle. point. &quot. erecting them into entities. says one philologist. in the extension and transformation of the meanings of words. to slang. but with a very marked preference for the worse or degrading meanings. been esteemed as a medicine person on wood or on the ground. especially the function of to study J analogy. we need not return to it. means.

Why. other In order to appreciate its importance. tion. I see no way than to put ourselves face to face with the works that it has produced. then. after all. will not seem paradoxical to those considered the question. the view above mentioned? Why are people inclined to believe that our present subject. we can give here only a rough sketch. 263 We now come to its higher form. if not entirely foreign to the imagination. which is. to profit by the disclosures of inventors and their biographers. that we many to be expressing a paradox when if we say that imagination that nent in esthetic nical we could strike the balance of the man has spent and made perma life on the one hand. and in tech and mechanical invention on the other. which would be very long because the materials are scattered. to speak of it very evident. and claims that they are mutually ex clusive. is who have only an impoverished . mechan ical invention. Not that they have misunderstood its role. fancies. Of a work of this kind.PRACTICAL IMAGINATION. the This asser balance would be in favor of the latter. however. shall is seem to so widespread and so persistent. This subject has not been studied by psychologists. to question the his of tory discovery and useful arts. but they limit themselves cursorily. The erroneous view that opposes imagination to the useful. merely to take therefrom what of interest for psychology and what teaches us in regard to the characters peculiar to this type of is imagination. without emphasizing it.

lines. over. subjected to rigorous physical conditions. and lastly. in defer ence to public sentiment. to change an ending. it is end in itself. forms. to add or reduce an episode. a statue is. e. It is arbitrary neither in its choice nor in its its means . of reasoning. colors. It is at this cost that it becomes tithesis a reality. it seems is that mechanical invention outside the realm of the imagination. a drama. furnish naive novelist in the course of his his characters. it ? form of sons: I account for it by the following rea fully Esthetic imagination. when complete. reality. personal work character. a novel. We . the The who testimony of this freedom of imagination. might have been otherwise than it modify the general plan. arbitrary in its choice of means. nized as such. expressing words. of a manual operation of supreme importance.264 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. and as we instinctively establish an an between the imaginary and the real. In order to suc to a determinism. it allows creation. it requires the constant intervention of calculation. is in The mechanical imagination objective it must be embodied. a pic It simply fixed. It is possible to work changes dramatic author who.material&quot. take on a form that gives it a place side by side with products of nature. Moreover. i.. remains a fictitious matter recog A ture. of art a poem. is cast in a mould that only a feeble &quot. is has a frankly subjective. it is not a free creature having ceed. artistic itself More sounds. an opera. substitutes a happy de nouement in place of a catastrophe.

we should not exaggerate its de Often the same end can be reached by different inventions through lows that. and it fol all allowances are made. different mental constructions. sculpture. things Others have confounded two distinct liberty of imagination.. prove that the birth and development of mechanical whom I knew to be strangers to . which may be have questioned certain inventors very skillful in mechanics. after by means differently imagined. But this last moment. g. preferably. especially moment. objective. in music. tending to become Otherwise. As for the latter. The difference between the two types is found in the nature of the need or desire stimulating the in vention. which is. for psychology. often of long duration (e. addressing myself to those. and psychological theory. these dif ferently realized imaginations are equally useful. any preconceived Their replies agree. terminism. the differences here pointed out be tween the two forms of imagination mechanical are but relative. ination. painting). esthetic is and not The former independent of technical apprenticeship. should not vention. I and quality and power of imag identical in both cases. manipulation make us forget its the initial antecedents. when the idea arises. and secondly in the nature of the materials employed.PRACTICAL IMAGINATION. similar to all other instances of in decisive. which belongs rather to esthetic creation. 265 may say without many mechanical because it is exaggerating that the success of creations depends on the skillful of materials.

But this image always appears simple and clear. and completion.By germ I mean the first idea coming to the mind to furnish a solution for a s problem that the whole of one struck one. however. aptitudes. incubation. In order to get the ideal solution into practice.When a chance remark. put by another. Instinctively as well as voluntarily one brings to the solution of the problem all the materials that the eyes and ears can gather.The ceeds in very different ways. in the same individual. again. or that. it may be at the end of a voluntary tension of mind.We may. which I render literally: so-called creative imagination surely pro &quot. or on the occasion of &quot. as far as regards mechanical inventions. As an example. the milieu. according to tempera ment. invention are very strictly like those found in other forms of constructive imagination. the idea suddenly bursts forth. and. I cite the following statement of an engineer. &quot. and the bring ing to an issue is the most thankless part of the in ventor s work.266 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. &quot. even unconscious. is . distinguish four sufficiently clear phases the germ. and researches has put before one. or. this latent work is sufficiently complete. often very long and painful. studies. flowering. has comes incubation. follow ing the mental disposition. there required a struggle against matter. tearing the veil that hides the sur mised image.Then observations. &quot. &quot.

as almost everywhere. the foregoing remarks are not enough. General Characters I ical term general characters those that the mechan imagination possesses in common with the best least questioned known. how one may in a general all way understand lows from the genesis of an invention. &quot. the inventor succeeds. &quot.In 267 order to give consistence and body to the idea caught sight of enthusiastically in an aureole. But for a slightly explored subject. and it is against this arduous require ment that the great majority of inventors rebel again and again. In order to be convinced that. one must have patience.PRACTICAL IMAGINATION. so far . It fol this that here. forms of the constructive imagination. One must view on all sides the mechanical agencies that should serve to set the image together. in getting novel combinations producing new effects.Thanks to a profound acquaintance with known mechanical methods. until the latter has attained the simplicity that alone makes invention viable. It is necessary to de termine more precisely the general and special char acters of this 1 form of imagination.&quot. I. In this work of bringing to a head. I believe. through association of ideas. a perseverance through all trials. This is then. the imagination acts through association of ideas. the same spirit of invention and imagination must be constantly drawn upon for the solution of the details. towards the realization of which his mind has in advance been bent.

The idea is at first hidden. esthetic imagination. a machine. that this coincide in the is the model par excellence. since it is agreed. the first . little by little. decomposes. It thus presupposes a dissociation of expe rience. i. to use our corre suggests. inventor undoes. in which associations groups appropriate it is enwrapped and organized into a structure. of a destiny they had to fulfill. breaks or makes of experience a tool.268 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. ensemble of means converging toward a common end. for the sake of comparison. the rest. excites. who fought to the bitter end against relatives and friends drawn by the need of creating. What more have poets and artists done? The fixed and irre sistible idea has led more than one to a foreseen death. e. s phrase. The up in thought. and of images. ruin. fascinated not by the hope of future gain but by the idea of an imposed mis sion. instances.the germ.. persecution. rightly or wrongly. tory of useful inventions is full of men The his who suf fered privations. ideal. that it is. The practical imagination is no more foreign to inspiration than the esthetic imagination. it as concerns these characters let does not differ from us take. an instrument. &quot. an spondent center of attraction. as in the discovery of explosives.&quot. the principle of unity. We shall see that the essential psychological conditions two The mechanical imagination thus has er its like the oth a perfection conceived and put forward as capable. an agency for building anew with the debris. of being realized.

Moreover. 269 attempts at lightning conductors. to enter the humanistic age. early or lacks clear vision. tive civilizations Thus. considers himself an instrument of divine revela Assyria. Prometheus. abridge. Ample information on this point will be found in the work of Espinas. changes and modifies accord ing to his own inspiration. Mechanical and industrial imagination. blos soms. like es its preparatory period. he labors freely. after him the work passes into the hands of dii 1 minorcs. first a venture is made. . despite their dry imagination. erected into divinities or demi gods historical or legendary personages in whom the genius of discovery doos. and many others. Hephaestos.PRACTICAL IMAGINATION. Daedalus and Icarus. of the great inventors. pupils or imitators. then a great imaginative mind arises. Les Origines de la Technologic. . who add. effort is wasted with small thetic imagination. aeronautics. during which the artisan. sub jected to fixed rules and an undisputed tradition. from a true intuition. The the Chinese. primi have put on a level great poets and great inventors. the practical have passed through a first period of no-change. has : zenith and decline the man has come too result. Triptolemus. have done same and we find the same condition in Egypt. its the periods of the precursors. 1 Little by little he has emerged from that theological age. and of mere At perfectors. when. . being fully conscious of being the author of his work. and mechanical arts tion. and everywhere. is personified : among the Hin Vicavakarma among the Greeks.

not in the realm of a bent in a practical. : modify such is the order. be coming capable. useful direction. a tendency dreams or human feeling. : the im provements made the statement. shall position. with Tycho-Brahe. we study them at greater length. then a water gauge causes a hand to move around a dial. not toward the attainment of theoretical knowledge of nature. that does not originate in experience latter and owes the is only its development. This quality to act. Huyghens invents the spiral spring to replace the weights. becomes the watch. from the time of the eolipile of Hero of Alexandria to the heroic period of Newcomen and Watt. is first of all. at least in great in There (I) an inborn that is. 2. of marking sec first onds and then another moment . then comes a great moment by the use of weights the clepsydra becomes a clock. later lightened. but . and the clock.270 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. a natural dis ventors. quality. The many-times writ ten history of the application of steam. and since their time. not on individuals or social groups. at massive and cumbersome. Special Characters characteristics The special of the mechanical imagination being the marks belonging to this type. then two hands for the hours and minutes. simplified and lightened. is one proof of Another example is the machine for measuring duration at first a simple clepsydra. then there are added marks indicating the subdivi sions of time.

I told my father. The tendency toward etc. I began a childish construction of one. . the sight of a steam threshing-machine suggested to me the idea of making a horseless wagon. in 1887. Later. material or mental need. Every mechanical invention arises from a need from the strict necessity for individual preservation in the case of primitive man who wages war against the powers of nature from the desire for well-being and the necessity for luxury in growing civilization from the need of creating little engines. without father s stove also made fire and smoke. &quot. . it would move like a locomotive. a speech of Bismarck made me so angry 1 that I immediately thought of arming my my having asked him in regard to this. mechanical invention shows itself very early in some children we gave examples of it before. forming a natural consequence of the principal con ceptions born of the period of youth. If. Our inventor adds: &quot.As far as writes my memory allows. we put wheels under the stove. when about thirteen. great or small. imitating In a word.PRACTICAL IMAGINATION. to transform them and adapt them toward an end. we repeat again. A man distin guished for various inventions along practical lines. but lacked wheels. My The same correspondent.When about seven years old I saw a locomotive. I can state : my case conception always results from a 1 It springs up suddenly. in the child.&quot. there no creative instinct in general. every particular invention. its fire and smoke. gives me the following details: &quot. instruments and machines. After that time it seems to me that the remainder of life is good only for producing less important conceptions. which my father made me give up. for.My imagination was strongest at about the age of 25 to 35 (I am now 45 years old). that in Thus. : . arises from is a particular need. to 271 become master over natural forces. then.

unfortunately.272 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. L. So we should feel grateful to a historian of the useful arts. Part Two. previously If we measure the distance traversed since the distant ages when man was naked and to the present time of the of we are astonished at the amount reign machinery. motor) that may be decisive in determining the direction of the (II) Mechanical invention grows by successive stratifications and additions. country with a repeating I had already made various applications to the ministry of war. for 1 make even a summary table of ment. often use lessly lavished. The reader can consult long develop See above. as in the sciences. Among the requisite qualities I mention the nat ural and necessary preeminence of certain groups of sensations or images (visual. I learned that the Lebel system had just when been adopted. still patriotism was fully satisfied. are most often fragmentary and lack a general view. tactile.subsidiary It is a fine verification of the discussed. Bourdeau. of imagination produced and expended. . &quot. unarmed before nature and we ask ourselves how such a so lightly work could have been misunderstood or appreciated. more completely. My This communication mentions two or three other in ventions that arose under analogous circumstances. rifle. but have had a chance of being adopted.&quot. but inventor. chapter V. but I have the design of the gun that I invented. 1 law of growing complexity&quot. It does not pertain to our subject to this the special works which.

In this manner there gradually formed an arsenal of instruments. Be fore all else. as a hammer. &quot. abounding in facts. conceived after a systematic plan. according to the observations of M.state Human of by special adaptation : the battle-club serves as a lever. the tomahawk etc. the nature&quot. Man. with the ax. we do it Some still better birds. has applied his creative activity to natural forces and has set them to work according to a regu lar order. This very substantial work. has aided us much in this study. man created weapons: the most cir cumscribed primitive races have invented engines for attack and defense of wood. . 2/3 having attempted to separate out the philosophy of the subject.Inferior to most animals as regards certain work that would have to be done with the aid of our organic resources alone. viz.PRACTICAL IMAGINATION. Paris. stone. 1884. Bour- deau. (i) ing the forces. : only ones available dur and the savage state. we tools at work. Bourdeau. with L. the saw. Les Forces de I Industrie. &quot. and for having fastened it down in the following formulas l : (a) The exploitation of the powers of nature is made according to their degree of power. are superior to all as soon as we set our If the rodents with their sharp teeth better than cut wood we can. the flint is ax as a hatchet. (b) The extension of working instruments has followed a logical evolution in the direction of grow ing complexity and perfection. the 1 chisel. as Then the weapon became a tool they were able. bone.

the gimlet. .. the help of a strong beak. (2) During the pastoral stage man brought ani mals under subjection and discipline. it and roads with which and on which *0p. pp.274 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. in the form of he uses substances and combinations of effects that cannot figure as part of 1 It is scarcely likely that most of an organism. that needs only to be trained to obedience. ready-made. the wing of The distaff and spindle allow our imi the bird. them. these inventions arose animals : from a voluntary imitation of but even supposing such an origin. pene trate the trunk of a tree but the auger. but this training has required and stimulated all sorts of inventions. An animal is a machine. be cause. so that the still Man creative imagination in man is a succedaneum of the generative powers of nature. : the wimble do the same work quickly. better and more s The knife is . ness with which to equip to the chariots. superior to the carnivore s teeth for tearing meat the hoe better than the mole paw tail for digging earth.&quot. it. there remain a would work. etc. thus reproduces and sums up in his technical con trivances the scattered perfections of the animal world. 45-46. He even succeeds in surpassing tools. Man tating the industry of insect spinners. moves. by repeated blows. The oar per mits us to rival the fish s fin the sail. from the har wagons. cit. the trowel than the beaver s for beating and spreading mortar. life fine place for personal creative has produced by conscious effort what realizes by methods that escape us. .

at re first . powder and all its which has steam. its author the credit for its dis The immense majority of inventions are anonymous some great names alone survive. has man imagined not excepting even esthetic to such a great ex One of the reasons though not the only one that supports the contrary opinion is. imagination In order that the plow. great or small.PRACTICAL IMAGINATION. wind. whether individual or mains imagination. sawing. 275 (3) Later. e. In all the useful arts improvements have been so slow. collective. if he please to note that fixed every invention.and water-mills.. and so gradually wrought. the natural motors air and water have furnished new material for human ingenuity. in navigation. without leaving covery. that by the very law of their growing complexity. inventions are grafted one on another. ex plosives. an assembly of new new relations. much later. (4) Lastly. lifting hammers. If the reader please to represent to himself well the immense number of facts that we have just in dicated in a few lines. was at first an imagination. before becoming a and realized thing. g. come products of an artificial al ready stitutes mature civilization. combinations or a mere contrivance of the brain. he will be forced to admit that nowhere production tent. milling. then for a multitude of uses etc. derivatives and sub great made such progress. used at first to grind grain. that each one of them passed unperceived. But. motors.

(Ill) More than any other form. even the most ordinary and most com mon that now serve us in our everyday-life. which. ! who knows In the same how many imaginations have labored way. It cannot rest content with combining images. Others are known as curiosities because they have blazed the path. followed by its improve ments.276 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. every great invention has been preceded by a period of abortive attempts. its ation has much more freedom hypotheses. Compared to it. know that Otto de Guericke have We . tions that There must have existed innumerable inven we might term mechanical romances. should become what it is to-day. All objects. of imaginative construction that has not been able to enter into the mold of an appropriate determin ful trials : ism. to gas and electric lighting. a simple piece of wood hardened by the fire and pushed along with the human hand. History shows that the so-called &quot. the scientific imagin in the building of In general. not being born viable. of a mechanical discovery. is the moment ending a series of unsuccess we thus skip a phase of pure imagination. we cannot refer to because they left us no trace. however. the uncertain flame of a resinous branch guid ing vaguely in the night leads us.initial moment&quot. it postulates material factors that impose themselves unyieldingly. mechanical imagination depends strictly on physical conditions. are con densed imagination. through a long series of modi fications described in the special works. through a long series of inventions.

277 made four fruitless attempts before discovering his air-pump. he said. would cause a needle to move about ing the text graph. Salva (Madrid.. a work published in 1624 the Jesuit.In those they saw moving over the Alps. 1 many Quoted by L. people could converse at a &quot. &quot. they at first enclosed water- vapor in a light.&quot. The insufficient study of dynamic electricity did not permit them to succeed. like &quot. hydrogen then the production of a gas with electrical properties. by the connec tion of their movements. Then they finally succeeded. 1780. From the end of the sixteenth century there was offered the possibility of com municating at a distance by means of electricity. and so on. letters of the alphabet is would be written the and the drawing accompany almost a picture of Breguet s tele But the author considered it impossible 1 ability. Beiser. Father Leurechon. they tried . after a succession of hypotheses and failures.&quot.PRACTICAL IMAGINATION. p 354). a German (1794). Lesage of Geneva. The brothers Montgolfier were possessed with the desire to make &quot. who also mentions other attempts: an anonymous Scot in 1753. . which fell on cooling.&quot. 1787). order to imitate nature.in a dial on which . Lhomond (France.In distance) for the aid of lovers who. described an imaginary apparatus (by means of which. the absence of lovers having such fail Mechanical inventions that erroneous or unverified scientific correspond to hypotheses. cit. stout case. Battencourt (Spain. They do not emerge from the stage of pure imagination. Thus.&quot. Bourdeau (op.imitation clouds. 1787). 1796).

climate. But. There still remain the requirements of reasoning. habits of all things that may require much skill. a theater. one can reach the same goal Besides. calculation. of calculation. do not interest . must take on a body. In this respect.278 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. which. a palace before else subordinate its work to the This is not all: it must signed to it in advance. take account of materials. is subject to so many limitations that its process of invention strongly resembles technical and me chanical creations. a spectral image haunting a dreamer s brain. submit to external conditions on which it depends. Thus it has been possible to say that &quot. this determinism has sev eral possible forms through different means. tact. location. soil.Before is the least personal of it is all the arts. however. but it example. What must end as it builds all a temple. we repeat. but they are instructive to the psychologist because they give in bare form the initial work of the con structive imagination in the technical field. of adaptation to the properties of matter. sense that it an industry in the has nearly always a useful end that is being an art imposed on ever it it and rules its manifestations. moment that what.&quot. architecture is an excellent It is classed among the fine arts. these determin ing conditions are not lacking in any type of imagin ation. there is only a difference as between lesser Every imaginative construction from it is little more than a group of fancies. and which materialize it some the and greater.Architecture &quot.

there is an identity of nature between the constructive imagination of the me chanic and that of the artist the difference is only : in the end. the essential mechanism is the same in their imagination has for the two cases a great mechanic is a poet in his own way. p. has been too formula. organs of steel.&quot. and exploiting everything for our sake. and the conditions. L Esthetique. soul of fire. hold that them a loftier quality a disputed question that psychology need not dis cuss. it should often restricted to esthetics comprehend Ars homo everything artificial. skeleton of iron. muscles of leather. capable of giv Their ing inert substances a regular functioning. They are counterfeits of animate beings. the means. fest its 279 and do not permit architecture to mani 1 purely esthetic qualities. machines.PRACTICAL IMAGINATION.Those constructions that at other times are the marvel of the ignorant crowd deserve the admira tion of the reflecting : Something of the power that has organized matter seems to have passed into com binations in which nature is imitated or surpassed. for it. doubtless. panting or smoking breath. 315. Esthetes. Thus. . are the representatives of a new kingdom inter Our mediate between senseless and animate forms. art as such. at bottom. because he makes instruments imitating life. The additus naturae. : &quot. hav ing the passivity of the former and the activity of the latter. rhythm of movement 1 sometimes even the shrill or plaintive E. Veron. so varied in form and in function.

cit. 233.280 cries THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. p.. expressing effort or simulating pain : all that contributes to give them a fantastic likeness to life a specter and dream of inorganic life. 1 L. . Bourdeau. op.&quot.

the great among these are inventors of all kinds human mind equal those is whom general opinion ranks as highest. place. the great body invent nothing. live according to tradition. physical. Geographical. making for in Even less studied than the form preceding. in its broadest all understand by this expression those forms of the constructive imagination that have for their chief aim the production and dis tribution of wealth. etc.CHAPTER VI THE COMMERCIAL IMAGINATION Taking the word signification. time. I &quot. varying according to Such is its external de social here in place of cos mic.. Here. and people. this imaginative manifesta tion reveals as much ingenuity as any other. in routine and imitation. as in mechanical invention. as elsewhere. Invention in the commercial or financial subject to various conditions with field is which we are not concerned : (i) External tical.commercial&quot. all inventions dividual or collective enrichment. poli economic. terminism human and . conditions: social. The There largely busied in that way.

the active and emotional ele pations. during the period of development and organization. if we leave out the the calculating. unknown in a word. the intuitive act that its germ. then. great a changed form. the organizers of the inventors of monopolies. recklessness. Of this sort were the merchant-sailors of Tyre. and seventeenth . we generally understand a prac- . ative minds. I see only two points for us to treat. with no great moral or social preoccu In the latter. ventive act: . what is not the purely imaginative element in order to study it alone. psychological conditions. two the venturesome. on the other hand. in a word.intuition&quot. Carthage. Eliminating. American &quot. etc. from our subject. calculation. and Greece the merchant-travelers of the Middle Ages. the necessary and exclusive role of schematic images. the mercantile and gain-hungry ex plorers of the fifteenth. most of (2) Internal. They have a broader sweep. if we would avoid repetition at the initial is moment of in vention. later.&quot. They exploiters. soaring into the ity for action. selfish mixed forms. ment predominates. calculating. strong capac Whence arise. foresight.trusts. These are the great imagin centuries . in and essential the to are which primary foreign on one hand. sixteenth. ment is first. in companies. i By &quot. assurance.2 82 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. principal types In the former the rational ele are cautious. capacity for re strength of reasoning flection.

groups symptoms in order to deduce a new disease from them. are the equals of fine diplomats. First let us note equivalent expressions. furnish examples of intuition.. who. if one attempts to discover its mechanism. these facts teach us nothing concerning its Intuition presupposes ac psychological nature. etc. the merchant who scents a good venture. mous or out. this accumulated knowl itself of edge gives no evidence as to the future. Now. easy. Nevertheless. tical. but in commercial invention someone has said. for it is found in parvo through it is preponderat ing on account of the necessity of perceiving quickly and surely. all But quired experience of a special nature that gives the judgment its validity and turns it in a particular direction. a matter merely of giving examples. on a higher level.&quot. divination. like Duchenne de Boulogne. whose insight into practical matters is well known. &quot. scent. the politician who knows human na ture.consists in making of is exact hypotheses regarding the fluctuations values. It does not depend on the degree of culture.&quot.Genius for business. . in their limited sphere. 283 immediate judgment that goes straight to the Tact.COMMERCIAL IMAGINATION. that intuition does not belong exclusively to this part of our subject. there are ignorant people peasants. every intuition is an anticipation of the future. not to mention women. and of grasping chances. are synony goal. wisdom. &quot. if it To characterize the mental state is The physician who in a trice diagnoses a disease. very difficult. even savages who.

ing. Which is the chief process here? struction. . &quot. experience and lean toward attach little importance to theory.&quot. penter. Every intuition. in persons who have but practical 1 things. By &quot. likens this state to In ending. But what seems obscure and even mysterious in it is the fact that. becomes concrete as a judg ment. then. habit. from among many possible first solutions. tion. In my opinion this culty arises largely from a partial comprehension of the problem. chapter XI (end). Intuition resembles logical much more than it does imaginative com We may liken it to unconscious reason are not afraid of the seeming contradic tion of this expression which supposes a logical operation without consciousness of the middle term. the chemist foreseeing a e. if new case.&quot. : inductive or de ductive reasoning. because it is not a matter of fan cied hypothesis.nervous connections. a representative con Evi dently the former.instinct.284 resulting THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. g. he reprints a letter that Stuart Mill wrote to him on the subject. reaction. it finds at the diffi shot the proper one. but of adaptation of former expe rience to a operations binations. &quot. people mean only Carpenter. i. imagination.unconscious cerebra deserves to be consulted..&quot. equivalent to a conclusion.intuition&quot. Mental Physiology. Car who as promoter of &quot. from only two processes e. Although questionable.. in John which he says in substance that this capacity is found reflection. it is perhaps to be preferred to other proposed explanations we such as automat ism.

The human race passed through a pre-commercial The Australians. it just as they are born right. ii age. that is a question comes down to the natural distinction between accurate and erroneous minds.or left-handed: expe rience does not give it only permits it to be put to use. arising like the other forms simple and indispensable fluous later. Fuegians. Further. cases in which the divination is 285 the other. Commercial invention. vouchsafed to one. This primitive period. and super that dim period when the groups had almost their sole relations with . corresponds to the age of the horde or large clan. and follow it development. denied to another: people are born with it. Without dwelling longer on in its to this initial stage. artificial could not arise in from needs. which was long. correct. far more numerous. which we do not need examine here. and their class seem to have had no idea whatever of exchange. but its rapidity the latter is the essential character. must be acknowledged that the gift of seeing correctly is an inborn quality. As for knowing why the intuitive act now suc ceeds and at another time that fails. they forget cases that are failures.COMMERCIAL IMAGINATION. a spe cial case What constitutes the originality of the operation is not its accuracy. the former ac cessory. let us return to the commercial imagination. at first. is The act by which one reaches a conclusion of it.

beings or material objects serving as a common measure shells. 1 Historically. and people certain slaves. to arise. which. in the form of powder and ingots. struck under the authority of a chief or of a social group. but For thousands of years Egypt used ingots.standard values. g. however. mercial evolution the chief effort at invention con sisted of finding increasingly in the more simple methods mechanism of exchange. seems the most logical one. salt. the precious metals. see Letourneau. etc. money. money of fixed denomination. 1897. . appeared early and almost everywhere. the Peruvians made use of the scale. For details. for all the rest : their choice e. 384. gold and silver are replaced by the letter of credit. and the numerous forms of fiduciary money. 264. etc. the bank check. new world. Then. cocoa-seeds. Nothing called it one another as war. . cumber some. L Evolution du commerce dans les diverses races Tiumaines. But at a higher stage the rudimentary form of com merce. especially pp.. 330. Finally. for stitution. the Azteca were ignorant of its use. Paris. exchange in kind or truck. the evolution has not always proceeded strictly this order. subject to theft and the inconveniences of weighing.286 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. Negotiable drafts were known to the Assyrians and Carthagin 1 in ians. etc. straw-matting.&quot. cloth. Then this long. but this innovation held all the remain it was the first attempt at sub But during the earliest period of com der in the germ. inconvenient method gave place to a more ingenious invention the employment of &quot. Thus. 354. cattle. va ried with the time. there suc ceeded to these disparate values. not real it was acquainted with In the fiduciary money. place.

because proven that every change in the means of ex change has been imagined several times. way on the surface of Summing up is the inventive labor of this period reduced to creating increasingly more simple and rapid methods of substitution in the more cial commer mechanism. by the mixed expeditions.COMMERCIAL IMAGINATION. social and economic conditions and political extension. whose expenses are defrayed by merchants in common. in several ages though in the same our earth. from . It came into being toward the end of the The appearance Republic. moment when commercial complex form and must move mechanism work. lastly comes the incorporation of great companies that have been wittily dubbed &quot. in the plural. with the great maritime discoveries. is Taken as a whole. . industry. We now come to the its invention attains great masses. in the sixteenth century by the Con- quistadores. its psychological the same as that of any other creative first In the instance. hungering for adventure and wealth.&quot. later on. ways state depended of communication. After the interrup tion of the Middle Ages the activity is taken up Roman again by the Italian etc. and which are often accompanied by armed bands that fight for them.Conquista- dores of the counting-house. of commerce on a large scale has on the of agriculture. Every ventors. cities. is 287 is -one of these I forward steps due to in it say inventors. in the fifteenth century the Hanseatic League. the idea arises.

commer imagination would be merely the reiteration. with slight changes. Finally. from reflection. All ital. or is only half-suc cessful. must be overcome. even . divergent. etc. derived from the very nature of its determinism. repre sents to himself the material to be worked upon. very exact calculation of frequently numerous. the grouping of stockholders. of forms already studied. This spe like it. the mechanism of buying this differs from the genesis of an esthetic or me chanical work only in the end. purely imaginative phase. we have met nothing mark is commercial project. and become a requires &quot. which is very different from that lim iting the scientific or mechanical imagination.&quot. the work is triumphant. As minor inventions become grafted lets us see the poverty or richness in resource of his mind. Every Heretofore. on the principal invention the author . in order to emerge from the in ternal. Then appear a thousand obstruc tions in the details that everywhere else. or in the nature of the images.288 inspiration. but Did cial it has characteristics all its own that must be dis tinguished. (i) cial It is a combining or tactical imagination.coming to a head. the making up of a cap and selling. fails. it keep only to these general traits. Then comes a period of fermenting during which the in ventor sketches his construction in images. THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. In the second phase it is necessary to pro a castle in the air must be made ceed to execution a solid structure. reality. or by chance.

Let us follow to the end the working of this creative imagination. the least error means great of account. Lacking that. multiplied and increased into a noticeable initial intuition that Besides that shows opportune business and moments.COMMERCIAL IMAGINATION. losses. a rapid and reliable glance at every moment of execution in order to incessantly modify this plan it is a kind of war. All this totality of special conditions results from a general condition. he buys and in sells haphazard. detailed campaign for at tack and defense. that export or import. etc. the smallest profit on a unit is and gain.&quot. of the expansion of the individual under the form of enrichment. the tariff duties of the various countries. competition. namely. ing in grain is 289 The American dealer speculat under the absolute necessity of being quickly and surely informed regarding the agri cultural situation in all countries of the world that are rich in grain.self. well-known law of the emotional as a itself. Like the other forms. can It is a undergo changes.feeling. strife. But this tendency. contrary elements. as he deals enormous is quantities. We shall come back to this point at the end of the chapter. in regard to the probable chances of rain or drouth. Moreover. and with it the resulting imagin that ative creation. a desire that of the spreading of &quot. this kind of invention arises from a need. life what is at first sought end and be desired for means may become an A very sensual pas- . commercial imagination pre supposes a well-studied.

in among them Money. the source of invention the emotional nature of the inventor. the pleasure of invent 1 ing for invention s sake. it is the victory of pure construc the unheard-of The natural equilibrium between the three necessary elements of creation mobility. daring the extraordinary. is obliterated. Here it is the same is and : later in order to the financial inventor often possessed with a kind of intoxication he no longer labors for lucre. is Here. now seeks complete expansion. in an unmeasured and morbid want of expansion of self. Zola. an author of romance. may at length first because people study a science at later because of its fascination and . calculation tional element gives way. the assertion and erup its tion of creative power.290 sion THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. set at the only its beginning toward gain. Although this process is also A met with 1 in the sciences and especially in social This condition has been well-described by various novelists. as everywhere. speculator is launched into adventure with the possi bility of a dazzling success or astounding catastro phe. and the tion. But let cause of this change us note well that the primary and sole is in the affective and motor element. . and we may desire money in order to spend it. it is useful. undergo a sort of idealization. but for art. in his own way. combina The ra is destroyed. he becomes. His imag ination. in an hypertrophy of the lust for power. hoard it. second special character of commercial (2) imagination is the exclusive employment of sche matic representations. tion of images.

would be copies of reality. 29! inventions. their is auditory.. undergoes : corrosions. as the difference between the chief types of creative imagination depends in part on the materials employed on the nature of the images that serve in mental building a precise determina- . and transformation whence it comes about that this remainder of former impressions varies according to in simplicity. may seem improper but it is to add another class to this subtlety. i. have seen We that the image. e.schematic images&quot. not a meaningless Indeed. Even etc. grouping of its constitu its and takes on many aspects.COMMERCIAL IMAGINATION. plastic pertaining imagination. tive elements. fa It miliar in mystics. visual.. On the other hand.. list. damages. but approach more nearly the concept. that. the emotional abstractions of the dif fluent imagination. there are no images in general according to the ordinary conception. I mean their very nature. be cause it origin. distinguishes them only with regard to their There are other differences. is the proper moment By &quot. the imaginative type that we are now considering has the privilege of using them with out exception. then. intermediate those that are. complexity. separation into not sufficient. like everything living. etc. motor. the type of which found in musicians. twisting. composition. very different kinds We of have already pointed out concrete representations and material to mechanical images. This. symbolic images. is affective images. for a description. by between the concrete image and the pure concept.

For further details on this point. we consider the foregoing figure merely as a means of representing the gradation to the eye. impoverished. P. the horse. If. As far as I am aware. C. let us represent by a line. at S. Indeed. whose nature and process of becoming are well-known.292 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. from the mo ment of perception. 1 place farther along. images belonging to each tion of the nature of the type is not an idle operation. I do not regard it as impossible. primitive forms of generalization. PC. P. we refer the reader to our Evolution of General Ideas (chapter I). the generic image results from a spontane we should ous fusion of like or very analogous images such as the vague representation of the oak. then. the image in moving. to the concept. At let us locate and G generic images. this determination of all the degrees has never been made. which require a higher function of mind. by hypothesis. I have no intention to undertake it. becomes its simplified. J . even as I do not pretend that I have given above the complete list of the various forms of images. In order to clearly explain what we mean by schematic images. from the percept. At X it crosses the middle threshold to approach nearer nearer to the concept. schematic images. and some of constitutive elements. is less and less in contact with loses reality. the scale of images acording to the degree of complex ity. The work would be delicate.

it proceeds as in the stating and solving of abstract problems in which. and indirectly with things.COMMERCIAL IMAGINATION. must be recognized that we shall be disposed to hold that the imag inative type we are now studying is a kind of in- . and reduced. to the it is mere notion of value cept. because from the time that it it requires a substi tution of increasing generality. then. so is scarcely accompanied it by a is it fleeting representation of concrete objects almost reduced to the word. are the materials par excellence of the creative imag ination. jects. etc. freed from is all sensuous elements or pictures. after having sub stituted for things and their relations figures and letters. . Aside from the finding state it moment of invention. materials become values that are in turn reducible to symbols. the commercial imagination can act directly neither on things nor on their imme diate representations. 293 it The schematic image it belongs to only one class of ob results from a volun it tary act. the negro. calculation works with first signs. the of the idea an invariable in its psychological development and detailed construction the commercial imagina tion is made up chiefly of calculations and combina tions that hardly permit concrete images. is At a higher level. is not limited to exact resemblances it rises into abstraction. in the present instance. Con goes beyond the primitive age sequently. While the artist not different from a pure con and the mechanic build with concrete images. If we and this is unquestionable that these admit.

a case of impoverishment thesis as acceptable but strictly regards the invention itself.&quot. an unacceptable volution. abandoned hitherto to chance and em His ideal was the institution of credit piricism. with various fortunes. the principles of Descartes. Every system rests on a master-conception. imposes upon In closing. or at most notorious of these &quot. commodity or universal . a center about which there is assembled the mental construction made up of imagination and calculation which. ad dress itself strenuously to a problem as complex as the reformation of the finances of a powerful state. on an ideal. must take shape. in making it prevail. act on greater masses. in a second stage. as regards the conditions that necessity it.system. must Let us call to show that it can live. to social economy. se- more managable. of the least. methods of claimed that he was applying Law &quot. ciates : All the civilized nations count in their history men who imagined a financial system and succeeded.294 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. consecrated by usage. if circumstances permit. by the first state. us note that financial imagination does not always have as its goal the enriching of an individual or of a closely limited group of asso let it can aim higher. exchange by means of another. said he. makes un necessary any comment.systems. and relates this form of imagination to that of scientists and philosophers.&quot. mind the author of the first. The word &quot. was during its stage the exchange of merchandise in kind.&quot.the philosophy. value. Commerce.

he could not keep from exclaiming.&quot. or gleaned from authorities. con latter credit. We know the history of cisms ity the downfall of this system. it must enter a third stage when exchange will be made by a purely conventional sign having no value of its own. but a simple promise. 295 curity equivalent to the object it represented. and the care in all the details of his operations. a kind of war. then.COMMERCIAL IMAGINATION. &quot. in its higher mani Here. ! . The subject cannot be treated save by a man of the pro fession. so I shall limit myself to a few brief re marks based on personal information. but it must also do what individuals cannot do create currency by printing on the paper of exchange the stituting seal of public authority. Paper represents money. the conception of the whole. told me 1 that when he heard a great merchant tell of the quick and sure service of his commercial information. would be the place to study the military imagination. a former professor in the War College. the inexhaustible fe cundity of his lesser inventions.lt. the eulogies and criti but because of the original it has received : and boldness of his views. that is war &amp. Why.with the difference that the paper is not security. disputed place Law holds an un among the great imaginative minds. Between the various types of imagination hitherto studied we have shown great differences as regards A general. in We said above that is commerce. just as the represents goods. 1 festations. The state must do systematically what individuals have done instinctively.

reasoning). and the difficulty arises not merely solved. little the goal is fixed. in spite of everything. but from the multiple elements of the problem to be from ceaseless changes in their positions. the others can become em bodied only when they satisfy an ensewible of numer ous. gious. as in commerce and war then the imag . nious inventor cannot invent an object as a whole. .that art of in venting without which veals itself to we hardly power advance&quot. So one can advance only step by step. this creative 1 everywhere. spontaneity (the apt ness for finding new combinations. the materials are rigid. letting his work develop through an immanent logic: the early plan must be continually modified and readapted.296 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. there is choice of the appropriate means. reli their external conditions. 1 ) re few clear-sighted persons is but. mythic. . rigorously determined conditions. whence esthetic. &quot. human inative construction is confronted with problems of The most inge constantly growing complexity. Leibniz. and strict Hence it results that examination of pos underneath this intellectual condi thick covering of material and tions (calculation. inevitable. or the offensive combination of opponents. If there be inflexible laws of nature unforeseen added to the passions and determinations. as in political or social invention. While the so-called forms of pure imagination. can realize themselves by submitting to material conditions that are simple and not very exacting. and go for calculations ward by sibilities. mystic creations arise.

thought out at length.&quot. the characteristic work of pure imagination. Thus &quot. mercenaries. en gines. based on a principle that may be summed up thus : . acquired by the personal is the power of reflection. &quot. Ad vancing more and more within the secret psychology of the individual.are army strong. place.&quot. instruments of destruction and supply. flowing agency. the habitual solving of tactical and strategic problems. find their justification in it. a natural gift bearing the hall mark of each inventor. richness of the coun (2) The equally variable human element try.Battles. vivifying These general remarks. etc. the conception. said Napoleon. we come to art. rapid intuition at the commencement of the opoprtune moments. vary ing according to time. although not applicable exclusively to the military imagination. Let us rapidly enumerate. a national or weak and new. (4) More . like 297 a subterranean streams.COMMERCIAL IMAGINATION. and it in order to be successful is necessary that we think All several times in regard to what may happen. &quot. proceeding from without inwards. tried troops (3) The general principles of study of the masters. (6) Lastly. the creative ele ment. because of its extreme complexity. the foregoing should be headed &quot. (5) Let us note the exact. the enormous mass of representations that it has to move and combine in order to make its construction adequate to reality.science. war.the Napoleonic es thetics was always derived from a single concept.&quot. able at a precise moment to cease being a dream: (i) Arms.

him (Napoleon). 1899. i. especially his battle-tactics. . and it is to be that spring attributed neither to experience nor to reasoning. calculation. Such. says the writer. economy wherever it can be done.there was something of the poet. expendi ture without limit on the decisive point.298 Strict THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. of goal and means. p. This prin of the master.&quot. it directs ciple inspires the strategy everything. nor to wise combinations. 6. tit. one that reaches the limits of human 2 perfection. and unconsciously is that he applies it. passion. such were the heterogeneous elements that clashed in that powerful Op. &quot. appears the hidden makes everything move. Les Maitres de la Guerre. e. causes to flash from his brain the spark stimulating the artistic solution par excellence. p. &quot. in which it is synthetized and summed 1 up. (p.In a medley of imagination. for it arises from the in nermost depths of the inventor. and one could explain all his acts by means of &quot. when the shock of the circumstances... 137.&quot. in the depths of it the unconscious. and The dreams of an Ossian with the positive cast of mind of a mathematician and the passions of a Corsican this singular complex. General Bonnal. 151).The principle exists in him in a latent state. organization&quot. in analytical terms.

it can use only its idea. both being speculative. Consequently. Esthetic crea tion is the disinterested form. In industrial aspect. interested inventions. the forces of the or ganic and inorganic worlds. ideas. e. seeking to explain. corresponds only in part to the contents of this chapter. passions. This title. and actions. to be definite. classes of ideas as materials to embody (1) Natural phenomena. (2) Human. i. social invention is the utilitarian form. In its scientific form. feelings. and that mechanical and indus trial a common invention approaches social invention through tendency toward the practical. psychic elements instincts.CHAPTER VII THE UTOPIAN IMAGINATION When two the 1 human mind creates. to know.. I shall not insist on this distinction. it ends in the hypothe its a disinterested creation. sis. ends practical. as will be seen later. we may say that invention in science resembles invention in the fine arts. 1 . it aiming towards application and in utilization. which.

and which we need One only belongs to the successive appearance of idealistic conceptions that. re mains none the less invention. adopt certain processes while neglect ing others. who were inventors or re formers in the social and moral That a We where. in order to be a success. ing of new combinations arising from the predomi nance of one feeling. This the Utopians do not do. part of the inventions attributed to them must be credited to predecessors or successors is probable. bestowed on all men admit. universal. At the beginning of civilizations we meet semihistoric. . or from an unconscious elab oration (inspiration). that the expression inventor in morals may seem strange to some. no matter who is its author.30O rests only THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.. societies depends on a multitude of factors. but the invention. the creation of an individual or of a group. Confucius. on partial characters. indeed. or from analogy. because we are imbued with the notion of a knowledge of good and evil that is innate. geographic conditions. but a morality in the it must and in all times. litical and moral evolution large. etc. and may repeat. must. Zoroaster. have said else semi-legendary persons Manu. I merely wish to whose role in social. on the other hand. tend to realize themselves.. the moral ideal consist neither enumerate nor study. not a ready-made morality. like all other creations of mind. as observation compels us to do. If we making. of The development economic our topic human war. Moses. etc. po is mention that invention. spheres. be. such as race.

in the plastic and mechanic arts. that Buddha. matters little. but there men who. see the Psychology of the Emotions. chapter VIII. it its complete form. Second Part. there arise moral geniuses at all. and during fifty years of ceaseless wanderings preaches. initiators. then he beholds the light. 3OI Everybody recognizes inventors in geometry. 1 For reasons of which have also been we are ignorant. in comparison with : But it is not enough that they feel they must create. to an extravagant of this He perceives it. Soon he renounces the life of contemplation. they must realize their ideal in a belief and in rules of conduct accepted by other men. or from a collectivity of which they are the sum and incarnation. and from the necessity of being born again. in music. analogous to those that produce a great poet or a great painter. and were promoters. the uselessness For seven years he meditates. were very superior to their contemporaries. possessed with the desire of rinding is the perfect road of salvation for himself and all other men. He comes into posses sion of knowledge of the means that give freedom from Karma (the chain of causes and effects). Whether the invention comes from themselves alone. In them moral invention has found like all invention. who feel strongly what others do not feel just as does a great poet.UTOPIAN IMAGINATION. in their moral dispositions. All the crowd. makes con and renounces dor facts in support. at first. . the founders of great religions were inventors of this kind. The legend relates organic. asceticism. gives himself up.

under various and often con . habits and laws they offer to men a concrete. from differ of creationmode this does others. the decisive moment of lation manifests itself outwardly. from the viewpoint of our present study. capable of organizing. categories of minds the fantastic. is Whether true or false historically. Eureka! then the inner reve and through the his disciples labors of the master and becomes com In what plete. practical beings. with out appreciable influence on the masses. and the rational codification of. respect at least in the practical order ? Thus. are closely related to poets artists. THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. we may divide ethics into living and dead. stimulate an imaginative construction that becomes fixed in ac tions. aspects.302 verts. imposes itself on millions of men. the The former. trial psychologically exact. purely imaginative The latter. belong to the family of in- . speculative. they remain theoretical. arise from reflection upon. followed by failure. Living ethics arise from needs and desires. positive ideal which. visionaries. and invention in the social and moral order becomes manifest as the work of two In proportion as we principal positive. this tale A fixed and besetting idea. losophers. recede from distant origins the light grows. is always happiness. Utopians. and creators or reformers. Stored away in the writings of phi living ethics. trary ethics. organizes his followers. mere ma terial for dissertation and commentary. The lifeless from which invention has withdrawn.

Wisest Verulam. 303 ventors in the industrial-commercial-mechanical or der. without ever pass It is the ing through the test of application. Thomas More s Utopia. creative imagination in its unconscious form. Campanula s City of the Sun. active and distinguished in so many fields. etc. one of the best specimens of its kind. easily show that all the materials of their ideal are taken from the surround ing reality. subjected merely to the conditions of an inner logic. be 1 it Our author does not mention Bacon s New Atlantis. The the social sciences. human societies in their large outlines ists. an ideal life. Their dreams. as their fancy pleases. they bear the stamp of the milieu. seeking for a lost or to-bediscovered-in-the-future golden age. Such are the cre ators of ideal republics.UTOPIAN IMAGINATION.) . &quot. Fenelon s Salente. and is here found among idealists.&quot. as elsewhere among the foremost empiricists and iconoclasts. constructing. re strained to its first phase. one could they may be. is not amenable to rules. applied to is the one that. spreads out freely. have lived only within themselves. They are social novel who bear the same relation to sociologists that poets do to critics. Nothing is better known than their names and their works The Republic of Plato. (Tr. and in their details. chimerical form of imagination. Harrington s : 1 However idealistic Oceana. taking account neither of the external determinism nor of practical requirements.

&quot. where there will be &quot. Christian.whales. etc. English. etc. with the special charac of being at the same time exuberant to de lirium and exact in details to the least minutiae. &quot. who would of individual psychology deserve a study Ch. Among the creators of ideal societies there is one.counter-cast&quot. he assigns it first a . almost contemporary. Fourier. it hinders social routine and prevents stagnation. the constructive imagination is a spur that arouses. it should not be forgotten that in the Utopians is everything not chimerical some have been to re- vealers..&quot. is one example of hundreds hot and showing ions: the his inexhaustible richness in fantastic vis work of an imagination that is overflowing. True to its mission. his psychogony. others have acted as stimuli or ferments. where the present ugliness and troubles of animal reign become changed into their opposites. is He such a fine type of the imaginative intellect that he deserves that we stop a moment. If it is a question merely of fertility in pure construction.anti-crocodiles. His con ception of the future world with its &quot. &quot. with no rational preoccupation.. gives itself up to numerical vagaries.304 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. and Greek.&quot. I doubt whether we could find one superior to him he is teristic equal to the highest. in which they lived.anti-lions.anti. His cosmogony seems the work of an omnipotent demiurge fashioning the universe at will. based on the idea of metempsychosis borrowed from the Orient. creations. Assuming for every soul a periodical rebirth. which is make innovations. On the other hand.

his has a passion for classification and ordering. the duality of his imagination and minute reappears. 9. then comes a period of completion. comprising twenty-four to thirty-two groups . is relatively rational.000 years.&quot. the first phase of which lasts five thousand years. organization the group. This form of imagination is already known to us. city. that chief intellectual Let us add an incredible abuse of analogy.UTOPIAN IMAGINATION. the universal metropolis. For. because of its mixture of apparent exact ness and a natural. the second thirtysix thousand. the provincial the imperial capital. petty details.000 years. phalanstery works like a clock.descending sub version. the theory of the emotions. a phalanx that includes eighteen . : We know his power method to composed of seven nine persons. chapter III. unconscious utopianism and ex travagance.000 years a total of 81. 1 The principal part of his psychology. beneath all these pulsating inven tions of precise. This rare imaginative type well deserved a few remarks. questionable in many respects. constituting the phalanstery the small a general center of phalanges. 305 period of &quot.ascending subversion. and then a period of &quot.000 years. and the second 4. groups. But in the construction of hu man ful ical society. the foundation is none the less a purely speculative construction of the mind.&quot. whose first stage is 27. the series. of his which only the reading of 1 books can give an See above. Part III.&quot. He &quot. city. . instrument of invention.

etc.Epilogue sur 1 AnaloIndustriel. There are several pages in this tone. with alleged reasons in support of the statements. orientals. the pheasant represents the jealous husband. in Le Monde to the reader the &quot. 1 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.. where he will learn that the &quot. always an excellent accountant. .He has a still Hindoo The term would apply better to Fourier. but because they have a comprehension of The imaginative construction must be possibilities. 1 See above. Heinrich Heine said of Michelet. chapter II.&quot. and he took ad The study of the vantage of it in his calling. mutilated. the cock is the symbol of the man of the world . narrowed. 2 numerical imagination has shown how it is fre quently met with tive among is development whose imagina and we have seen unquestioned. This dualism existed very nature of his mind. if it is to enter into *We recommend gie. the idealistic imagination agrees so well with the indefinite series of numbers and makes use of it why as a vehicle. is in the taking the effect for cause. the cabbage is the emblem of mysterious love. &quot. pp.goldfinch depicts the child born of poor parents.&quot. imagination. in whom coexist unchecked pro fusion of images and the taste for numerical ulations. accum People have tried to explain this abund ance of figures and calculation as a professional habit he was for a long time a bookkeeper or But this cashier.&quot.306 idea. ii With falls practical inventors and reformers the ideal not that they sacrifice it for their personal interests. 244 ff. corrected.

men grouped tion. This process to repeat ideal has been described several times. and puts etc. professional unions. The founder conceives an one limited to a given having for material ideal of complete living or it into practice.&quot. of their free choice. 307 the narrow frame of the conditions of existence. according to the tendency and power of There are the founders of small societies. the earliest Christian ligious in form communities. and it is needless it here in other terms. the understanding by this term the unifying it principle that excites creative in its work and supports development undergoes metamorphosis and must be not only individual but collective. Less complete because it does not cover the individual altogether in all the acts of life is the creation of secret associations. the monastic orders of the Orient and Occident. That form of imagination. sects like Mormons. end. manifests itself in various degrees creators. semi-religious the Moravian Brotherhood.com minds. ation does not realize itself save through a &quot. etc. the cre munion of of wills . learned societies. the great Catholic or Mohammedan con gregations. the semi-lay. Nevertheless. or by coopta- There is social or political invention strictly so called invention operating on great masses ordi- . un til it becomes adapted and determined.UTOPIAN IMAGINATION. the Shakers. creating and organiz ing social groups. re the Essenes. by a co-operation of feelings and the work of one conscious individual must become the work of a social consciousness.

(i) A and the play of the free fancy that spends itself in social novels. that its area of devel opment has been little by little narrowed. customs. is subject to requirements despite its coercive power. If we omit the spontaneous. even more numerous than mechanical. not that inventive genius. It has to struggle against natural forces. but on its part it has had to make increasingly greater room for ex periment. has suffered an eclipse. we may sum up the role of the constructive imagination in social matters by saying that it has undergone a regression i. Re naissance) when triumphed the pure imagination. It must make terms with dominant ing its justification. narily not proposed but imposed. that was sufficient for primitive societies. e. industrial. passions and ideas. reduced to pure construction in images. instinctive. which would require useless repeti tion. or commercial invention. only in success. inductions and deductions that permit foresight for practical necessities. we : can roughly distinguish three suc cessive periods very long idealistic phase (Antiquity. calculation. Without entering into the details of this inevitable determination. rational elements. traditions. Between the creation of the mind .308 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.. however. ations that were the result and keep to cre of reflection and of great pretension. but most of all against human forces inherited habits. rind like all other creation. which. semi conscious invention of the earliest ages.

Communistic Societies in the United ff.UTOPIAN IMAGINATION. and in the 1 United States. Contemporary Socialism. strangers to one to The true Utopians scarcely troubled them make applications. and for an account of some of the trials. An pure speculation to social eighteenth century. at the request of interested persons. see Eae. Political Science Quarterly. they were worlds apart. tends to become objectified in acts. During this period. the primitive civilization after his ideal rapidly dis appeared.phalan in France. when an attempt is to pass from the ideal to the practical. XX. 625 (Tr. 309 and the another. selves life of contemporary society there was no relation. Let us recall the fruitless attempts steries&quot. phase in which imaginative creation be (3) A comes subordinated to practical life: The concep tion of society ceases to be purely idealistic or con1 For an excellent account of the principles of these move ments. when the work of the imagination. his Autobiography. for Owen s ideals. we find many failures and some of successes.) . vol. after his and with varying fortune founded short-lived colonies. States. from facts. Brazil. in four years he ideal. reformed New Larnak. Robert Owen was more fortunate. Plato and More to realize their would they have wished (2) dreams ? made intermediate phase. instead of merely becom some Rousseau) drew up constitutions. pp. Saint-Simonism has not entirely died out. the &quot. in the philosophers (Locke. ing fixed in books. Bushee s &quot.&quot. in Algeria. Already. but some of his theories have filtered into or have become incorporated with other doctrines.

with its difficulty and without we calculations. can appreciate the amount of imaginative elements lost in favor of an at least equivalent quantity of rational elements and positive dle of the last century. adapts itself to the necessities of its development. form. Social ism is a well-known and excellent example of this. Compare its former Utopias. . sci and especially the practical. it recognizes the conditions of its environment. In other words. by deduction from a single princi structed a priori ple. It is the passage from the absolutely autonomous state of the imagination to a period when it sub mits to the laws of a rational imperative.310 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. down to about the mid contemporary forms. the transition from the esthetic to the entific.



We might just as well ask why does man have eyes and not an electric apparatus like the torpedo? Why does he perceive directly sounds but not the ultra-red and ultra-violet rays? Why does he perceive netic changes of odors but not so on ad infinitum. tendencies. Part I. motor in two principal reasons. and even worse. how is the creative imagina ? tion a natural product of this constitution Man The is able to create for first. desires.CONCLUSION i THE FOUNDATIONS OF THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION Why is the human mind able to create? In a certain sense this question may seem idle. . The second is the possibility of a spontaneous revival of images that become grouped in new combination. We have already shown in detail that the 1 See above. mag will changes? And We put the question in a very different manner: Being given the physical and mental constitution of man such as it is at present. appetites. nature. chapter II. childish. 1 i. is found in the action of his needs.

instru ments. industrial invention.&quot. that excite The wants. As in for the sexual instinct. The need and for individual and and social expansion or disinterested extension has given rise to military. just or unjust. been we have careful to note that agination always of mode creation be reduced. Let us recall for the last time these initial conditions of all invention it. less its no way than the physical it is psychic fertility is an inexhausti life ble source of imagination in in art. and machines. in its form. housing. as regards may every mula but in the strict sense. commercial. through instinctive or reflective action. desires it matters not which term we adopt been the generators of the whole of which consti tutes the instinct of individual preservation. its beginnings. everyday as well as The wants of man in contact with his fellows have engendered. to a tendency. if the expression is used not as an abbreviated or metaphorical for is a pure chimera. the numerous regulating or harsh. hypothesis of a &quot. con scious or not. an In the various types of im studying empty entity. making of weapons.creative instinct. they are rough or social complex. de terminate desire. esthetic creation. tendencies. stable or unstable. these desires. well or . kindly The need of knowing and of explaining. a want. a special.314 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. all have inventions dealing with food-getting. human and practical creations and groups.

. give rise to any movement they receive from without. So we come back. a third interposes. has a motor origin. and restores outwards according to his own organiza par excellence the moment for psychology. between the two moments that. then. not to a special prop 1 erty. that is. of which needs. Every want. is made have a their feeble ten effects motor are and at a long range. of long duration. and expend their energy outwards. religions. to the same definition of spontaneity. But this intermediate moment moment of tion. and into these final elements it is that analysis must resolve &quot. It is also the the personal equation: every man receives. of them selves. tendency or desire may. 2. temperament. the ultimate basis of the constructive imagination is motor. ac cording to his personality. has created myths. in reflex and instinctive actions. Nevertheless. In many animals that are endowed only with memory the return of images is always provoked.CONCLUSION. trans forms. Thus. indirect. seem con may be tinuous. But needs and desires by themselves cannot create they are only a stimulus and a spring. be come creative. scientific hypotheses. Every invention. then. idiosyncrasies.creative spontaneity. for the higher psychic acts. This vague ex pression corresponds to a sum. Whence arises the need of a second condition the spontaneous revival of images. by itself or associated with others.&quot. 315 ill. by another route. reasonings in logical form and reflection regarding a decision to be dency to become changed into acts. which. are the direct and immediate expression. Sensation from without or from within bring them 1 It is a postulate of contemporary physiology that all the neurones taken together cannot spontaneously. desires. philosophical sys tems. tendencies. character in a word.

pure and sim whence we have repro ple. the simplest of all. (a) The sketched form is primordial. unstable and uncoordinated manifesta tion of the creative imagination a transition-stage attempt. under the form. unconscious elaboration. and consist of thinking by analogy. We know that these act in a latent form. repetition without ple of slight imagination and used to routine ap into consciousness proach this mental condition. man from his second year on. and however numerous its manifestations. without apparent antecedents. or takes on a material but con tingent and unstable form. associated by chance. go beyond this stage they are capable of spontaneous vival that revival. as a matter of fact. It between passive reproduction and organized con struction. contain the first elements of the creative act. fixed. affective This sudden dispositions. and some higher animals. appearance excites other states which. according as it remains an internal fancy. Taken altogether. But. the constructive imagination seems to me reducible to three forms. objectified. without personal in- . or is subjected to the conditions of a rigorous internal or external deter minism. which I shall call sketched.316 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. original. it is a nascent moment or first appears first of all in dreaming an embryonic. of former experience. whose flitting images. associations. Peo new duction. By this term I mean that re comes about abruptly. A step higher is revery. grouped into new associations.

sequence of its weakness of ternal will. to change them into a work of a theory. penetrat ing our entire life. able. come all the plans for the future conceived vaguely and as barely possi foreseeing the end of a sickness. a con . power and wealth. does not change into acts.outline&quot. The the coherent. Conformably to the gen automatic primitive. still higher. Lastly. form is or remains an elementary. are nevertheless vivid 317 enough to exclude world it from consciousness every impression of the external so much so that the day-dreamer re-enters only with a shock of surprise. has its peculiar characters the unifying principle is nil or ephemeral. tervention. from the incoherent to &quot.CONCLUSION. basically chimerical nature or of which reduces it to a strictly in needless to say a permanent and definite form with the dreamers living in a world of existence. of a business ble enterprise. This vague and &quot. imagination. It is and individual that this kind of imagination is ceaselessly reappearing images. or a useful invention. the goal of which seems to be forever beyond our reach. More coherent are the imaginary constructions known as &quot. organize them. fancies of love.sketched&quot. form. which fact al ways reduces it to the dream as a type it does not externalize itself. ambition. from spontaneity to reflection. having no power to art. of a political event. from the reflex to the voluntary period the imagination . etc. eral law ruling the development of mind passage from indefinite to definite.castles in the works of a wish considered unrealiz Spain&quot.

outline&quot. are the work of a free will. they could have been otherwise they preserve an indelible imprint of contingency and subjectivity. The former has no reality other than the momentary belief accompanying ter exists it . in spite of the spontaneous adherence of the mind accepting them. the accepted. Fur writing. The material elements circumscribing it and com posing it have a certain fluidity . Fiction rests on the same level as reality. (c) This last mark is rubbed out without disap pearing (for a thing imagined is always a personal . is changed of a teleological act that intervention the through it an end through the union of rational ele assigns . colors. examined. While the hypotheses. for its creator and for others. existing only in and for a single indi vidual. comes out of Then ap it for an adaptation. forms. musical sounds. the fixed form is projected outwards. imagination remains an internal and scientific phenomenon. and of metaphysical theories ? the action of a novel or drama as though it were a matter of real events? the character of the dramatis personae as though they were living flesh and blood ? The fixed imagination moves in an elastic frame. two other pear the (b) The fixed form comprises mythic and esthetic ments that subdue creations. Do not work people discuss seriously the objective value of certain myths. philosophical &quot. forms. thermore. the lat by is itself. we know that its creations. made something else. rejected. its swaddling-clothes. criticised.318 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. they are language. lines.

the bodily organs.outline&quot. the &quot. but must undergo transformation. the pattern of living people the ideal is incarnated. The imagination is a soul or spirit surrounded by an almost immaterial sheath. last character. 319 thing) in the objectified form that comprises suc cessful practical inventions whether mechanical. in the strict sense of the word. in order that it may become practical just as the soul. it According to general opinion the great imaginers are found only in the first two classes. The body. &quot. according to spiritualism. to be at the same time the servant of. imagination is a soul without a spirit. must bend to the necessities of the body. social. These have no longer an arbitrary. true. We not dwell longer on this pointed out. or savages. a pure &quot. borrowed real they have their place in the totality of physical and social phenomena. subject like them to fixed conditions of shall existence and to a limited determinism. a complete organization after .fixed&quot. reductions and adaptations. genii. so often In order the better to comprehend the distinction between the three forms of imagination let us borrow for a moment the terminology of spiritual ism or of the common dualism merely as a means of explaining the matter clearly. shadows. like angels or demons. in dustrial. which is. commercial. military. without determination in space. or political. tion is soul The objectified imagina and body.CONCLUSION. in the full . and served by. nature.double&quot. the peresprit of spiritualists. etc. They resemble creations of ity .

&quot. &quot. What in deceives us is the fact that we see Here the imaginative the open.fixed. .positive&quot. partly practical or objective.320 sense of the line. As long as it remains &quot. halffixed 1 and \ve find religious and social and political conceptions. it still rules.&quot. by way of conclusion. First. word false. principally under insofar as it knows and thinks. Objectified. they can do nothing without it. living chiefly on the external world. the constructive imagination can reign as supreme mistress. that are hard to classify: certain mythic creations are half -sketched. on what Besides these three principal forms. its intellectual e. transitions from one category to another. Let us try now. but shares its power with competitors. If we consider the aspect human mind i. THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. and ii THE IMAGINATIVE TYPE. there are intermediate forms. to present to the reader a picture of the whole of the imagina tive life in all its degrees. it no longer stroke resembles those powerful streams of water that of canals in must be imprisoned in a complicated network and ramifications varying in shape and 1 diameter before bursting forth in multiple jets in liquid architecture.. . those of a or realistic turn of mind. deducting its emotions ity and voluntary activ the observation of individuals distinguishes some very clear varieties of mentality. it avails nought without them. partly theoretic or fixed.out or even &quot.

are grafted one on the other. phenomena of .quintescence abstractors.&quot. former alone interest us. I.CONCLUSION. Part I. others. which Taine has so admir 1 He has shown in detail how the ably treated. abstract minds. of the earth earthy. the abstract perfect form. which fact distin whom The guishes them clearly from the abstractors. men of action. in a more general form. I shall not dwell long on this point. without anything to spirit counterbalance them. the pure metaphysicians. Book II. limited. On Intelligence. therefrom alien or inimical to vain fancy some of flat. The explanation of the various phases of this de velopment is reducible to a well-known psychologic law the natural antagonism between sensation and image. &quot. 1 Taine. energetic but limited by real things. them with whom the internal life is dominant in the form of combinations of concepts. is 321 perceived and what is immediately deducible . ch. and we shall try to trace this imaginative type in its development from the normal or average stage to the moment when ever growing exuberance leads us into pathology. these If two tendencies exist together. between phenomena of peripheral origin and central origin. noted by symbols. as happens. attains its Midway between iners in these two groups are the imag- the internal life predominates in the form of combinations of images. Such are the pure mathematicians. reduced to a hierarchy of general ideas. They have a schematic representation of the world. between the outer and inner life. Second. or. or.

Thus. ( i ) In the is first place the predominance of imagi nation tions apart. image is a spontaneously arising sensation. combine easily and ous ways. when the external world is as is it were suppressed. during the waking hours. per In this movement ceptions. All the imaginative persons who have us their given experiences either orally or in writing agree in regard to the extreme ease of the forma tion of associations. more and more feeble. The psychology of the imaginer reduces itself to a progressively increasing interchange of roles.322 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. subjective fact. (4) complete systematization. but during sleep. (3) : quantity. which is its reducer. their hallucinatory tendency of dreams is no longer kept in check. and the world momentarily the reality. producing on it an arresting action and maintaining it in the condition of an internal. Images become stronger and stronger states. invading they teem. exped but in sketching I little romances. 1 From of among many examples 1 choose one. one that is. the frequency&quot. One my See Appendix E. aborted by the opposing shock of real sensation. however. intensity and duration. . and intensity of impres sions from without press the images back to the second level. each of which corresponds to particular conditions ( i ) The quan tity of images. opposite to nature I note four steps. not in repeating past ience. marked only by the quantity of representa consciousness. break in vari become associated. (2) quantity and intensity.

occupation representing to himself the part of the city he or she must dwell in. between images and perceptions. find fault. There are dreams imaginary creations that remain firm in face of reality. is necessary occurs. Surely this disposition normal. our noc turnal imaginings vanish as empty phantasmagorias at the inrush of the perceptions and habits of daily life they seem like faraway phantoms. are not always victorious. without ob jective value. on waking. the interchange of place. from the appearance. I is have many proofs of it. 323 correspondents writes that if at church. indicated above. carriage and at tractiveness his or her present or past. or to criticise. strong states We the simplest example of this state in the exceptional persistence of certain dreams. Taine was perhaps the first to see the importance . to analyze. the latter i. e. on a street.. in the struggle occurring. Next. more 2. the apartments. his attention is at tracted to a person man or woman he immediate ly makes up. Ordinarily. Weak states (images) become (perceptions) become weak. it departs from the average only by an excess of imagination that is replaced in others by an excessive tendency to observe. or in a railway station. But. strong. furniture. etc.CONCLUSION. In order to take the decisive step and become abnormal one condition intensity of the representations. manner of life. a construction most often erroneous . theatre. and for some time go along parallel with it. The impressions from without are powerless to ful fill their find regular function of inhibition. reason.

Soof one our and-so. tional persistence of certain But this ephemeral in the triumph of the image. He having dreamt that one of reports that his relative. THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. larger.&quot. accidental and in normal man. imaginers of the second Many among them have asserted that this internal world is the only reality. The real Likewise. contrary.324 of this fact.had very early the conviction that the majority material universe in which it is mistaken. and several weeks afterward meets his creditor. and doubt arose mind only toward the end of the afternoon.&quot. merchant who dreams of having paid a certain debt. The emo in his dreams is known. and eyes see it only so. Dr. on the was the world. Gerard de Nerval &quot. chapter X. because its and its hands touch it. and maintains that they are even. Bailhis friends had news been appointed editor of a journal. is nothing but and For him the invisible phantoms appearances. 165. Edgar Allan Poe: things of the world would affect me like visions. neighbors. the case of a .a Sante de Santis. Dr. only one not chi merical. that the believes. giving way only to proof. plays in a dream an odious role. while the wild ideas of the land of dreams became in turn not only the feeding ground of my daily existence but positively the sole and entire life existence a itself. Les Eeves. Others describe their as &quot. Since then contemporary psychologists have gath 1 ered various observations of this kind. I Sogni. we may have a feeling of repulsion or spite toward him persisting throughout the day. Tissie. is frequent and stable class. esp. announced the seriously to several persons. p.

its sphere becomes ex first tended. may by little it engrosses the greater part even entirely supplant the earlier self.absorbed&quot. In an 2 account by Fere one may follow step by step this * For the complete account. cases of double personality (those of Azam. Thanks to two causes acting in unison. it through its intensity. Everyone may be &quot.CONCLUSION. Aside from the poets and artists. Let us take an exagger ated instance This permanent dream is.&quot. indeed. temperament and habit. but. tive life for a moment. We could multiply examples. Reynolds) are known in which the second state is at Some embryonic and of short duration. : only a part of their existence. pp. Alcan. then its appearances are repeated. similar The growing working of the imagination is to this. F. This third degree is but the second carried to excess. see (Paris. while is it above all active lasts. it absorbs them so completely that they enter the external world only with a sudden. the mystics would furnish copious examples. then the imagina undergoes a partial systematization that approaches insanity. external life. the above-mentioned authors are so frequently. On a higher level this invading suprem acy of the internal life becomes a habit. 325 permanent dream. 345-49. Little it of life . (3) If the changing of images into strong states preponderating in consciousness is no longer an episode but a lasting disposition. the imaginative and internal life tends to become systematized and to encroach more and more on the real. violent and painful shock.) his Pathologic des Emotions. .

To sum up. whole hours would be spent in this way. sistent. of systematization which work its we abridge here to chief characteristics. as before. &quot. a man thirty-seven years old. he had some respite. servants. not very durable absorbing. . &quot. an imaginary summer residence surrounded by a gar den. took on a His construc were ones. A wife had come to give life to the picture two children had been born. When he had well entered into imaginary role. water-fixtures came to ornament the domain. The furnishings of the inside had been modified at the same time. at first ephemeral. on the outskirts of the forest. horses. replaced every day by new his They became progressively more con . . but gradually they acquired more intensity and duration. The subject.&quot. meant had : M built at Chaville. a park. At college. M . Nothing was . &quot. Married. then he returned to his tions. . here is what this ideal life.They former construc commenced by or being.&quot. lasting almost from his fourth year. the garden. often he would see and hear nothing. a By successive additions the pavilion became chateau.he build castles in Spain that little by little considerable importance tions in his life. Seated in an out-of-the-way corner of the house or commenced from that time on to out of doors. he often succeeded in continuing his musing in the presence of other people. and lastly became fixed in a definite form. had from childhood a decided taste for solitude.326 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. the head of a prosperous business house.

He was so absorbed in the matter that he did not notice a man coming toward him. occupied in watching an upholsterer who was changing the arrangement of the tapestry. given in I believe that public. he answered. aroused in I him a said. without This reply. real terror. The grows. the extreme form. because there is no been excluded. . which outside our subject. . was ready do anything to get rid the imaginative type is at its maximum. the world. the beginning of insanity. (4) The fourth stage is is an exaggeration of the This is foregoing. only the being true. 327 wanting to .&quot. from which pathology has in the insane would deserve a special would be lengthy. . that form of imagination that insanity has not adopted. it forms a compact mass the imaginary systematizaits complete.CONCLUSION. . parasitic life undermines and cor its rodes the other in order to become established in place tion it parts adhere more closely. in his imaginary salon at Chaville. he declared that he of his ideas. which remains impervious Its world becomes to impressions from without. at the brink of insanity without being over it. if you please is ? He at Chaville. Asso ciations and combinations of images form the entire Here content of consciousness. Imagination study. The completely systematized and per life manent imaginative is excludes the other. *M thinking. was foolish/ he Coming to to himself. this One day he was household. and at the question.

and in the sciences. December.328 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.&quot. for social and in plans and political reform. 326. perceives invisible relations and enjoys spectacles that escape the material Such was Gerard de Nerval. dress. Do not believe. There are also great imaginers who. cast a longing glance backwards to the condition in which I found myself. he eyes. be abundantly supplied with facts. We 1 should. or mystic life. of an act of the creative faculty. or as at ity&quot.Sometimes. when it is a question of an inventor. for while it lasted I had many hours of pure happiness. would assert that he should be envied the days spent in an insane asylum. the general paralytic lives in grandeur and attributes capital importance to everything. vents complicated and symbolic attributes. holds that every kind of mental disease has its own form of imagina *Dr. symbolic designs. comparison. Max Simon. The maniac sketches. Barine. compositions. he said in a letter to Coleridge. in persecuted. i.as a state in which the soul. in poetry. As for Charles Lamb. mechanical. the decorations. Everything seems to me now insipid in Quoted by A. 1876). religious. that you have tasted the grandeur and all the transport of fancy if you have not been &quot. in an article on &quot. more exalted and more refined. in industrial. megalomaniacs look for the effect of everything they say and do. the fine arts.Imagination in Insan (Annales mtdico-psychologiques. &quot. for. Ill no period have insane creations been lacking in the practical. that tion expresses itself in stories. having passed through a period of insanity. of a venture into the unknown! How many innovators have been regarded as insane. . have strongly regretted it &quot. if in ordinary life we are often perplexed to decide whether a man is sane or not.I insane. and improbable designs. p. how much more then. It would be difficult. com mercial. Coleridge. Ntvroses. military projects.. strange writings. bordering on the horrible. e. lunatics love the naive and childishly wonderful.&quot. then.

psychological How may we rightly assert that a form of imaginative life is clearly pathologic? In my opin ion. the two forms of existence are not confounded. being real not only for me but for all those whose constitution is similar or analo gous to mine. realistic there are One. let two degrees of the development For the imaginer of the third us compare the last of the imaginative stage. Many non-viable or abortive inventions have been fathered by very sane minds. existing in consciousness and outside of it. having no reality except in con for the one experiencing it. It is idealist or realist of an axiom unchallenged by anyone whether any shade of belief that noth ing has existence for us save through the conscious and experi ness we have of it. subjective. objective.CONCLUSION. The other. Let us leave these not our own. to that first affirmation of being sciousness. This much borne in mind. the answer must be sought in the nature and degree of belief accompanying the labor of creating. visionary 329 invoke ! We cannot even success as a criterion. least unbalanced. the mind so often described. life. and people regarded as insane have vindicated their imaginative constructions through success. its reality due only to belief. but for realism mental psychology is of necessity two distinct forms of existence. He distinguishes . in difficulties of a subject that is order to determine merely the criterion belonging to the fourth stage.

The observation of Fere. is a proof of this. basic it remains identical with its itself in its nature. extreme. . in constitutive elements. the papers that they read. but believing in both. Throughout its multiple manifestations. 1 By way of summary we may say The creative imagination consists of the property that images have of gathering in new combinations. materials employed which. do not reach one in this stage. two worlds. although alternation. preferring one and making the best of He is conscious the other. in the insane. imaginative the only kind with which we are concerned labor is the two kinds of so systematized that the distinction between existence has disappeared. and that all was only a con trivance of their persecutors. despite the stories that were told them. in degrees that spontaneity whose nature we have at It always tends to realize itself vary from mere momentary belief to complete objectivity. who. as we have 1 seen. that the war was only imagined. through the : effect of a tempted to describe.330 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. At the fourth stage. during the Franco-Prussian War. the conditions required for its attainment. and the shells bursting under the walls of the maintained asylum. The diversity of its deeds depends on the end desired. There is an of passing from one to the other. or else are interpreted in accordance with the diseased fancy. under the col- There has often been cited the instance of certain maniacs at Charenton. even the most extra reality. There is no longer any alternation. ordinary. All the his brain are invested with objective phantoms of Occurrences without.

As for the latter.) but also as regards their psychologic nature (concrete.representations&quot. another. there are prac tical. It is an invincible need of in the man to reflect and reproduce his first own nature world surrounding him. tactile. fantastic conceptions of the little world that may become scientific conceptions. esthetic de a fallen. form a mythic creation. with. . lective 331 are very unlike one name &quot. not only as regards their sensuous origin (visual. we could not trace them to the same mythic source except by dialectic subtleties which we renounce. to arbitrary Myth-making activity. each group itself having every This constructive activity. concepts shades or degrees). is the embryonic form whence arise by a slow evolution religious creations velopment. which vivifies everything after the human model and attempts to know everything according blances. generic and sche matic images. all applying itself to is thing and radiating in typical directions. impoverished mythol ogy the little by . auditory. objective creations. Alongside of these creations. The application of his mind is thinking by analogy. symbolic. an irreducible residuum of hypotheses. which is gross or refined.CONCLUSION. however. in its early. affec tive. emotional-abstract images. The former latter arise from an internal efflorescence the from urgent life-needs they appear later and . etc. . all bordering upon what we have called the fixed form. resem which we have studied in the child and in primitive man.

IT is in all its forms speculative and practical. EVERYWHERE. imagination penetrates every part of our whether individual or collective. but the same The constructive life. : are a bifurcation of the early trunk sap flows in both branches. .332 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.



and keeping myself from crying aloud. which in are brief and have each a special character. Mystic inspiration. declare before God Jacob Boehme (Aurora) that I do not myself know how the thing arises within me.Invention de Musset: tremble. I am delivered of an idea that 1 is intoxicating me. I do not even know that which I must write. I select only three. annoys me and makes me Execution. makes my heart beat awfully. wonderful knowledge. Feverish and painful inspiration in Alfred &quot. without the participation of my will. chapter III. and weeping. : in &quot. If I write.&quot. II. it is because the Spirit moves me and com Often great. always too slow for my wish. . do not even know whether I dwell in spirit in this present world and whether it is I myself that have the fortune to possess a certain and solid municates to I me a knowledge.I a passive form. OF INSPIRATION 1 of the inspired state the descriptions in various authors. but of which I See Part One.APPENDIX A THE VARIOUS FORMS Among found I.

It presses and better to forget tortures me. that I go to all kinds of excess. I. it has taken realizable propor the other pain. touch one another. that I should live as have imagined living. 1 III. but this so confused and misshapen that other comes to me my poor being cannot contain it. but which I call. Thanks to this the object emerges out of the average level of 1 George Sand. properly so called. instead of being disseminated over the whole world. and that I kill this never-dying worm that people like me modestly term their inspiration. thus: &quot. is the concentra and aptitudes on a single for the moment. a truly physical suffering that I cannot define. should include the point which.. of bringing forth. it deserts me it is much and wait for another. its completing themselves. it is it worse. . And that is how my life is spent when I let myself be when comes dominated by this artistic monster in me. until tions. plainly. cit. then. isolation. I It is much better. reenforcing. find themselves contained within the limits of a single object. op. am If I change it. mortally ashamed and disgusted next morning. p. 49. The poet Grillparzer analvzes the condition.Inspiration. rest of the world less than represent it. reciprocally upholding. my 2 weakness.&quot. Elle et Lui.336 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. 1 In Oelzelt-Newin. The tion of all the faculties strengthening of the state of the soul comes from the fact that its various faculties.

is 337 milieu.APPENDICES. illumined all takes body. It is only the art-work has been a world for the artist it is also a world for others. lives.&quot. . sary the concentration of around and put in relief it But to attain this is neces when that all the faculties. moves.

&quot. and. . It would be just as valid to say that a traveler covers leagues by lying abed. I think. was explained by some psychologists prior to Carpenter by &quot. The author See Part I. of rest. of elaboration and incuba tion. The well-known fact that We an intellectual work gains by being interrupted. well. might give a multitude of proofs of this unconscious rumination. comprising habits. since suffer incessant corrosion and representations (2) Dynamic unconscious. that in resuming it one often finds it cleared up. in Insofar as the facts are concerned. to establish general.APPENDIX B ON THE NATURE OF THE UNCONSCIOUS FACTOR in the question of the We facts. state of latent activity. it would be two categories (i) static unconscious. very relatively. Chapter III. have seen that uncon scious there must be recognized a positive part and an hypothetical part theories. which is a change. even accomplished. all that is organized knowledge. changed. memory. It is a state of preservation.the resting of the mind.

they give out immediately and rapidly are able to give . the cause of which is unknown. clearest and &quot. It is useless time for reflection or invention. sometimes rising to ever. The men who think the most are not those who have the conscious&quot. continues unknown to us. . in its it remains the same when progress and retreats. Book . all that they they have no reserve. but those having at their disposal a rich fund of unconscious elaboration.APPENDICES. just as in consciousness itself. theoretically. commercial problem appeared suddenly after hours and days of vague. which. On the other hand. for the trouble. with the exception that a message does not arrive as far as the self. undefmable uneasi ness. is anguish.most ideas. chapter 13. As to the nature of the unconscious working. Yet is it must that consciousness 1 rigorously subject to the conII. we find disagreement and darkness. capable of but slight development . that the labor that may be followed. in clear consciousness. that in the inventor every thing goes on in subconsciousness and in uncon sciousness. ceases as soon as the unawaited conclusion has entered consciousness. One may doubtless maintain. shallow minds have a naturally poor unconscious fund. mechanical. They them to allow will not do better they may do worse. 1 339 just mentioned has brought together many observa tions in which the solution of a mathematical. how only the result of an underlying cerebral working. at least be recognized This is possible. Mental Physiology.

The physiological simple is and to it.&quot. i. is absent. consciousness.) that sensations&quot. The psychic factor. the unconscious ference. is not negligible. &quot. Newbold. since they produce sensations. Janet. (Tr. act. not to not. The contemporary principal of the unconscious seem to positions theories regarding the nature me reducible to two one psychological. theory is the other physiological. Although I incline toward this hypothesis.) .unconscious sensa tion&quot.&quot. rational opera- 1 This expression is put in quotation marks because in Amer ican and English usage sensation&quot.the the same reactions Mosso has been able of consciousness sphygmograph. corrections. which ordinarily accompanies the activity of the nervous centers. an cerebration. &quot. is as conscious and to maintain that less certain testimony than that of the particular instance of for it does not very different. is paradoxical. merely an the end which the physio to suppose adaptation logical factor would suffice to explain. and would lead to futile discussion. 1 etc. This dif mention others. is defined in terms of &quot. It has been proven through numerous experiments (Fere.340 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. is dition of time.unconscious Mosso. Binet. scarcely permits any variations.unconscious simply cerebral. is According it unconscious activity &quot. I confess that it is full of difficulties. and could well arouse other problems. and such an expression as &quot. it implies a But the invention is series of adaptations.

1898. &quot.APPENDICES. not by it is itself. down to its final term. as known by me.brutal. 121-127.&quot. 1 The psychological theory is based on an Con equivocal use of the word consciousness.stupid. better yet.uncritical. &quot. No difficulty arises when we bear mind the legitimate distinction between consciousness of self and consciousness in general. pp.&quot. New York.credulous. tions. 1 We may admit that this For the detailed criticism of unconscious cerebration. etc. who assumes the coexist tons.&quot. to the subconscious. ence of two selves one waking. and who attributes to the latter all weakness the unconscious is it and vice (according to him incapable of rising above mere association is &quot. sciousness has one definite mark it is an internal 2. AppleThe author. It is an hypothesis that in nothing justifies. the other subwaking. the fluid captivated by an attractive form of revery or of the awaking from syncope). the former entirely subjective. of 341 which nervous activity alone furnishes us no example. but for me and insofar But the psychological theory of the unconscious assumes that if we descend from event existing.) would be greatly puzzled to explain its rOle in creative activity. to the unconscious that manifests itself only through its motor reac tions. The Psychology of Suggestion: A research into the subconscious nature of Man and Society. . &quot. see Boris Sidis.&quot. by contiguity. the first state thus successively impoverished. the latter in a way objective (the con sciousness of a man scene. still remains. identical in its basis with consciousness. clear consciousness progressively to obscure con sciousness.

ter. the authors declare that with these compari sons and metaphors they make no pretense of explaining. is &quot. has dependent on the entire vegetative . but certainly they all reduce uncon sciousness to consciousness. unable to unite into a whole.field of consciousness&quot. rather than perceived. Others sup mediums. and what is that if not explaining? I do not intend to enumerate all the varieties of the psychological theory. which remain isolated. accepted by Delboef and others. affective in nature. In others liken the deed. of relations among the internal states. whose summit alone is lighted up. is due to a lack of synthesis. which allows stages whose obscurity increases in proportion as we move away from clear consciousness.). The lat much broader in scope it than personal conscious life ness. that of Myers. phenomenon to the movement of waves. The difficulty commences when we descend into the region of the subconscious. The most systematic. is full of a biological mysticism all its own.like a lake in which the action of light always nearing extinction&quot. and potential selves constituting the subliminal consciousness. pose a Still &quot. as a special to a general case. automatic writing.342 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. Here some postulate two currents etc. of consciousness existing at the same time in one person without reciprocal connection. felt evanescent consciousness. (in double coexisting personalities. with a brilliant center and extending indefinitely toward the dim distance. Here it is in substance: self In every one of us there is a conscious adapted to the needs of life.

according to them. if notably by Bramwell. but in certain extra scious self is ordinary states sciousness. all trophic actions entered consciousness and were regulated by it. how how could it lose it ? At all the foundation of the psychological theory in its forms is the unexpressed hypothesis that . circulation.) it is (hypnosis. If. dwell on this conception of the unconscious. trophic changes of a miraculous appearance. etc. 343 Ordinarily the con on the highest level. the higher consciousness has delegated to the subliminal consciousness the care But in of silently governing the vegetative life. for example. Its authors suppose bold part of the hypothesis: that the supremacy of the subliminal consciousness is a reversion. the subliminal consciousness on the second. In the course of evolution this became organized. case of mental disintegration there occurs a return In this manner they explain burns through suggestion.APPENDICES. etc. a return to the ancestral. divided con Here is the just the reverse. little by of conscious domain subliminal little fall into the ness because they were no longer necessary for the certain faculties could struggle for life. there are nevertheless faculties so essential to the well-being of the individual that we ask ourselves they have been able to escape from the control of the will. trophic actions. It is needless to to the primitive state. hysteria. etc. some lower type had the power of arresting pain. In the higher animals and in primitive man. stigmata. It has been vehemently who remarks that criticised.

has an aversion for con tinuity. His medium. This is a may The experiments postulate that nothing justifies. in order that an increase or maximum diminution be it is felt between these two extreme limits. To sum up: The two rival theories are equally unable to penetrate into the inner nature of the unconscious factor. or know minimum perceptible quantity.summit Likewise in regard to the or of per perceptible. The tioned above. the excitation limit. disclosures of . consciousness be likened to a quantity that forever decreases without reaching zero. and others that I omit. Part observations of Flournoy (in his book. Helene S fied very unlike others. any increase of ception&quot. who are satis with forecasts of the future. s All these facts. Moreover.344 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. chapter III) have a particular interest in relation to our subject. without solving the question. is appears and disappears sud not felt under a determinate &quot. denly . would support rather the opposite view. of psychophysicists.threshold We of consciousness&quot. have thus had to limit We ourselves to taking assign it it as a fact of experience and to its place in the complex function that produces invention. excitation is no longer felt if above a determinate limit. are not favorable to the thesis of growing or diminishing continuity of consciousness. men I. that the &quot. It has even been main tained that consciousness &quot. necessary that both have a constant relation differential threshold as is expressed in Weber law.&quot.

terrestrial on comparison to be borrowed from our globe..APPENDICES. to richness of invention that say nothing of the others. there is a is rare among mediums : the creative imagination in its subliminal (uncon scious) form encloses the other in its eclat. coun dwellings. etc. without creating anything. and transposed and changed. as an exceptional case. Although the descriptions and pictures of Helene S. We know how much regard to the mediums teach us in unconscious life of the mind. tries.Martian novel. is which. prognosis. as Flournoy has well shown. . counsel. and we can appreciate the importance of the labor that is going on there. in the proper sense the author of three or four novels. 345 unknown etc. evocation. to pene dark laboratory of romantic invention. one of least. are found inhabitants. at invented out of whole cloth its revelations in regard to the planet Mars. Here the cases of we trate into the are permitted. it is certain that in this &quot. is past events.&quot.

Fancy Hartmann tive is etc. in the the kernel the principle that shall give the plant its form and construct its organism it spreads out into . So Darwin was right in asserting that a slow evolu up organized beings towards fulness of and beauty of form. Chapter IT.APPENDIX C COSMIC AND HUMAN IMAGINATION 1 is the original prin In his of philosophical theory it plays ciple things. For Froschammer. the same part as Hegel s Idea. at first. Schopenhauer s Will. it succeeds in becoming conscious of itself in the mind of man it becomes subjective. Step by step. Part One. but it tive imagination increases its . the myriads of vegetable and animal existences that have been succeeded or that still live on the surface of the Cosmos. . just as there is contained in s Unconscious. it invents and realizes by little the objec energy by exercising increasingly more complex of its artistic images that tion raises life attest the progress genius. It is. objec universal the creative power beginning immanent in things. See above. The first organized beings must little have been very simple.

and the creative These three imagination in psychology. 2 that arise and die in the mind. may profitably con sult the excellent analysis that SSailles has given (Rev. instinct in psychophysiology. since are dealing with hypotheses. subjective images. being. may form a pole opposed to the reproductive organs. i. Psicologia delV immaginazione nella storia della filotofia. phenomena disposition of cer tain materials following a determinate type. its hereditary influences. 198-220). every other. In nature and in man it is the same principle that causes living forms to appear objective images in a and a kind of living forms way. pp.. not having the courage to read the 575 pages of Froschammer s book. This metaphysical theory. in living beings. personal conception. pp. becomes localized diffused throughout the in the generative organs. especially when these beings are very high in the organic scale. want more details.. of bringing forth internal worlds. the ovum after fertilization is subject to a rigorously determined evolution whence arises such and such an individual with its specific and personal characters. at first organism. . 347 Generative power. 472-498. In the first case. a superfluous to discuss or like we But.The brain. I venture to risk a comparison between embryological development in physiology. a are creations. the generative power has become capable of perceiv ing new relations. See also Ambrosi. one of the ties many varie of mens a git at molem. 1878. 3 Those who. Thus changed. it is criticise its evident anthropomorphism. e. and becomes established in sex.&quot. &quot. Philos. March.APPENDICES.

a represen tation Embryology can follow There remains one and that is. and the plan of the invention. but instinct. the ideal. etc. a sketched construction. for the spider. its special kinds. may arise as a whole and develop regularly in an embryological manner. it is creative imagination evident that the plasticity of the is much greater than that of radiate in several The imagination may very different ways. This initial state puts into action a mechanism determined by the nature of each species. of a web to be spun. or rather. and the creation does not attain the normal. Perhaps 1 an identical process. 1 as we have seen. show that the con ditions of the determinism are less simple. of a . partial form that be comes complete after a series of attractions. obscure point in any event. for the bee and the wasp. the nature of the bird the image of a nest to be built. In the third case. of what the ancients called the nisus formativus. Part II. these changes step by step. the initial moment is an external or internal sensation. that the creative activity is endowed with a certain plasticity. in the case of a tunnel to be dug. In the case of instinct. . forming three See above.348 etc. variations of instinct. or else pre sent itself in a fragmentary. is the quivalent of the ovum. THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. adaptation to various conditions. and ends in creations of However. in this evolution pro duces monstrosities. comb to be made. creative imagination. Every disturbing factor deviations. for the ant . chapter IV.

middle. . foreign to psychology proper. 349 is at the root a lower. hypothesis. and higher stages But this is only a speculative of all three cases.APPENDICES.

and they are all of the auditory type. then. M. a . IV. . give replies non-musicians. The 2 and of what nature and under what conditions? seemed to me to enter a more general field the else affective imagination where in a special which I intend to study work. When that amateur began to reflect methodically on the &quot.. . Lionel Dauriac you ask me is writes that complex. me I am : &quot. universally.APPENDIX D 1 EVIDENCE IN REGARD TO MUSICAL IMAGINATION question asked above. Hid. I. first the of of those musicians.The question not a Visual- izer. Symphonic music aroused in me no image of the visual type while I remained the amateur that you knew from 1876 to 1898.. I have infrequent hypnagogic hallucinations. picking from them several that I give here I for the sake of shedding light on the question. 1 See Part Three. Chapter II. Does the experiencing of purely musical sounds evoke images. For the time being I limit myself to observations and information that I have gathered.

The Heroic Symphony (aside from the funeral march.Under what condition. produced? In the event of a break in the melodic web Psychologic dans I Opera. introduced by the psychic image. Psychic images suggestion of a mental anger. non-musical images thunder. religious feeling. : clock. love. Sonorous.2. which military.i. in a symphonic work.APPENDICES. does not cause I consider superior to other parts. 119Here are given. first portion is based on notes harmony trumpet-notes and. Visual images.3. whether following upon the psychic image or through the intermediation of a &quot. art of his taste. the meaning of which is indicated in the title) suggests to me images of a military character. &quot. Example. pp. &quot.Beethoven s symphony it in C major appears to to me purely musical is of a sonorous design. state programme. me to see anything. some of the ideas that have come to me: (see my &quot. I see Symphony in C minor it is dramatic. The symphony in D major (the second) suggests me visual-motor images I set a ballet to the first part and keep track altogether of the ballet that I picture. by associa The finale of this symphony. the overture of William Tell. ment. without orderly arrange 120). is the visual image. Symphony in B flat major nothing there this may be said without qualifica tion. ever since the time that I noticed that the funda mental theme of the of perfect tion. he recognized in music a 351 power of suggesting &quot. al- .

a musician. brought by psychic images. is though the melodic web never broken. Three do not . I I listen to composition I behold . accompanied by a hope of Visual images do not come except as victory.dancing see an orchestra. once. When or play music by another composer I my own do not see anything. F. Three see images.. In Bach s Passion he beholds the scene of the mystic lamb.&quot. see anything. but of a soul overcome with the crises of revolt. : Here are the results of his inquiry Eight see curved lines. not of Fate knocking at the gate.When I compose or play music of figures. of a musician that had some trouble to make him understand the term never goes to concerts. How he went fifteen ever. an audience. he cannot recall phrase of a minuet (he hums it) it without seeing people dancing a minuet.symphonic music. The first part suggests the image. so little who see nothing. as Beethoven said. D . always sees that is the rule. This communication also men I tions three other musicians 2. and in the Heroic Sym phony.352 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. years ago.&quot. fantastic designs. composer writes A me: &quot. etc. and there re mains in his memory very clearly the principal &quot.&quot. notably in the Pastoral. G. Two see the waves of the ocean. M. O. L has been kind enough to question in my behalf sixteen non-musical persons. figures springing in the air.

. very lively in 1 See Conclusion. and North Indo-China.. without professional care. It is worthy of remark.. Hindoostan. North America. imagination. B.. let their fancy wander as it wills. . not making a profes sion of creating. II. that the remem brance of such various countries does not have first which place in this brilliant. and has not passed through these countries on the run..In a general way. &quot.APPENDIX E THE IMAGINATIVE TYPE AND IDEAS 1 ASSOCIATION OF I have questioned a very great number of imagi native persons. forty-six years of age. but. is acquainted with a large part of Europe. In all the mechanism is the same. because of his duties.. Africa. differing scarcely more than temperament and degree of culture. above. and have chosen preferably those who. resided there some time. Oceania. well known to me as such. fanciful personage fact is an argument in favor of the very personal character of the creative imagination. Here are two examples. as will be seen from the following observation.

often and say it. architecture &quot. I make up infinite Sometimes variations upon it. . happens that I think aloud the things start from a reflex. mechanically to in the course of erection the rises it That ought to be fixed. Memory or On this data there is imaginative work not always.Another example illustrating the role of asso ciation of ideas in the same matter.Were I to explain or attempt to explain how the Middle Ages have such an attraction for my mind. and of religiousness these touch. on the female in ecclesiastical no doubt. and then things remain it as they are. one after another. me. proper. . is not an architect.&quot. : I should see therein an atavistic accumulation of religious feeling fixed in side my family. night there. After having noted his preference for the archi adds (here he tecture of the Middle Ages. .But when I meet a construction matters little whether ancient or formula. looking at 1 my watch. I left Noumea in the carriage of F who was going to visit a leagues from At the moment of our arrival the doctor asked what time it was. Half-past two/ I said. without end. nunnery five One Sunday Dr. .354 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. &quot. functions by association of ideas. B touches on the unconscious factor) &quot. 1 subject under consideration. is one that my mind in such a case. . although from the architectural When going away alone. though there should be. the outer world furnishes me some data. . As we stopped in the convent- B .

But this is Romano-Gothic sociological stance. The doctor had seen through me. the chapel the doctor that vespers had was vacant. the doctor remarked. to architecture. me. I remarked to the doctor. Naturally I was treated to this it. transforming power of my imagination not present in me to the same extent as regards all things. and had with fine insight perceived why I had heard the end of the psalm.APPENDICES. for I travels. It is much more operative in relation to &quot. is ex plained to children by telling them that during these two days the bells have flown to Rome. by association of ideas. time are vespers sung in your town? At I I answered. and in knowledge my memories of than in relation. and as they finished telling I saw a bell flying at an angle that I could still describe. It was the very moment before the bells remain silent for three days. 355 court in front of the chapel I heard the lusty conclu sion of a psalm. and it is known that this silence. ordained in the liturgy. little tale. They are singing vespers. but of sight It was at L that on Good Friday they rang at the cathedral with all their might. in all the The incident made a great impression on more as ever since the age of eight my testifies to memory place of hearing. half-past two/ opened the chapel What door in order to : show just been held there. When see . &quot. a like hallucination. As I stood somewhat non-plussed. Cerebral automatism. mystic literature.I may add here. He commenced to laugh.

and Saint-Simon excepted. and Middle Age prose excites within me a whole world of ideas. and Beethoven. things are very unequally sugges tive to me. St. I read the Homer. without making a comparison. On the other hand. Cer- . the family of great castle. I d Outre-tomb c besiege me see. the barrier reef of Tahiti. canto-fermo. the reading of Dante.When. like Chateaubriand himself. Tahiti. the graphic representation lectually perfect. objects live again in all their I feel the Khamsinn. &quot. the mind s eye. outwards Classic literature has only few paths for me Tacitus. like Wagner s music. Jerome s compact verses on the Hebrew. famished lords in their feudal With Cha teaubriand I return in the twinkling of an eye to the Niagara that we have both seen. the castle weighs upon me in all massiveness .In literature. and after that I think of that dark cathedral of Dol that evidently suggested to the author his Genie du Christianisme. Lucretius. Shakespeare. I take a walk over the its Comburg moor. other authors of this class partly for themselves.356 again. Calcutta. the external surroundings. Melbourne. desert The pey s wind that scorched me at the foot of PomColumn I hear the sea breaking into foam on . in THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. the Pyramids and the Sphinx. the recollections of the Memoires like living pictures. the Isle of Bourbon. on the other hand. &quot. In the fall of the waters I find the deep and melancholy note that he himself found. Juvenal. is intel Niagara. But the image does not lead to evocation of related or parallel ideas.

&quot. In the S. in the form of fragmentary notes made day by day. association of ideas will perform the work. and a dislike for numbers. Puvis de Cha- vannes and the Merovingian narratives. When it is any if cir cumstance brings is me into one of them. is sociology. &quot. Michaelangelo and Rembrandt and Balzac. e. one produced. and. &quot. Because of the necessities of he has followed a profession entirely opposite to his bent. M ment. When I give myself up to serious work. form a link for me from one order of For example.From my dream. the proportions of which I have constructed according to the descriptions of the monument and the idea that I had of the life of the Greeks. I note especially the unconquer able tendency to details in make up little romances and some regard to visual representation. . He has given me his &quot. the Bible. g. Many are moral remarks on the subject of his imagination I leave them out.. G.confession&quot. artistic tempera life. tain things 357 ideas to another.To sum up: There are in me certain milieux especially favorable to imagination. The photograph mars &quot.APPENDICES. the Pan theon. rare that an imaginative network does not occur. I this connection I have to mistrust myself: and in shall surprise people say that in the class of ideas above indicated the subject exciting the most I when ideas in me . sixty years of age. the seen to the unknown.It happens that I see the photograph of a experience sharp regret when I monument.

He must locate the letter this advises people who. perhaps a student. a and tiny pencil affectation this ing.In to her family. in a morning in a classic and dull build of poor workmen? She is not a servant-maid. he turns the leaves with the sage leisure of a scholar looking for a commentary. are near him. &quot. It is a question of money and employment. into her home. smartly dressed between her fingers a small spotless black gloves What business has this note-book. harken- ing to an inner voice that arranges them in order to get the sense. THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. calculations. from the Almanack Bottin.When I feel myself drawn to anyone. Now I follow the for the solution of the unknown. his hands in his hair.358 library. and the figures group themselves mechanically. A young man. and it is quite I want to get an address the same library. has borrowed the ridiculous volume. &quot. provincial ignorance said. And so goes the wandering imagination. A slender young woman. From the empty dictionary he often draws out a letter. the imagination goes afield. I prefer seeing images or portraits rather than the reality. Bent over it. and not a teacher.If make numerical of concrete factors. common environment woman a task. &quot. He must have received this morning from the country. That is how I avoid making unforeseen discoveries that would I spoil my model. in the absence &quot.There may be an imagination devoted to arith- . His family him to apply to so-and-so.

I tion revert to the impossibility of making an addi without a swerve of imagination. because plastic figures lator. and then the addition or any other calculation is ruined. THE END . even the outline of the figure 3. &quot. are always ready before the calcu The man of imagination is always construct 1 Life possesses ing by means of plastic images.&quot. so he never gets 1 We see that the speaker is a visualizer. intoxicates him. him.APPENDICES. for example. metical 359 calculations forms. beings intrude. tired.




Role of. Activity. race. of. 261. Usefulness 107. Discovery depends suggests cause. 27. Abuse of. change occupations. of. 8. 325. Apprehensio figment. a logical 15. Blood circulation. Boehme. 86. Artificial 250. vi. Binet. 23. 148. 93. 46. . Bipartite division of the brain. worthy in science. Forms of. theories of. 56. of later inventions. 299. of primitives. 74. not trust Automatisms. Alexander. 52. Absent images. 23. 287. of ideas. 104.INDEX. Apperception. 250. of. 34. Association Abstraction. 261.94. Thinking by. 340. Americans. on 26. 67. 25. Role of. ii.. 71. to man. 303 n. 275. 274. motors. Animals. Analogy. 196. 285. 353. 98. Alfieri. qualitative resem essential to crea Attention. Bacon. Anger. simplex. 59. Baillarger. imagination. 286. 123. based blance. 23. Bismarck. of ideas. . Aryan Alembert. 214. 257- 150. 97. Claude. tive Associational systems. 141. Animism. Baudelaire. Animal fancy. Dr. 94. coveries of. Importance of. 134. Bach. 70. centers. fibers Baldwin. 67. 335. 39. Allen. normal end of imagina ii. Roger. 218. Affective states. Astral influences. of ideas. 189. 283. 65. Art. 216. 271. idee directrice of. 264. Bernard. 143. 138. Imagination in. Australians. 146. Abulics. Use development. Alcoholic liquors. Association lacking in. Aristotle. 288. 100. 69. 142. tion. Association. 129. Eras of. of. 52. Late appearance no. Various a late Adaptation of means to end. Laws of. 324. Importance 50. 55. 71. Asyllogistic deduction. d 87. 305. 125. Anatomical conditions. Anticipations 277. 22. Indefiniteness Realistic. in primitive life. Jacob. 117- Azam. of. Apollo. 250. modern. Criticism of the term. 145. Arago. Beethoven. Advance plans in commerce. 245. or Dis Barter. on. of 203. 16. Adventure.

Stages of. Chopin. Brown-Sequard. regions. not essential. 58. Commerce. Deities. Development Confusion of impressions. L. 277. Darwin. 125. 181. 249. 303. 260. con ditioned by knowledge. 37. of. Brain. to Condi imagination. Creative imagination. Columbus. tion of belief and doubt in the. Common factor in comparison. 284. 32. 144. Commercial tions of. Cabalists. 343. aginative. Borgia. 44. Multiplicity Roman. 272. vii. 281. Dante. 183. THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. Defiant. 145. of. a special Constellation. Child. Coalescence 200. 269. Lucretia. 146. Confucius. 285. the. 24. Buffon. Cooperation. 140. Cumulative inventions. 225. . Bourdeau. 272. increasing 287. 76. 104. Conjecture. 77. Categories of images. 99.3 64 Bonnal. Cromwell. and abstrac 100. 246. 18. Coleridge. du. Dauriac. 226. 346. Process of. 78. Curiosity. Madame 199. Motor basis and im Causality. 52. 66. 5- versus repetition. Cabanis. 298 n. in. 58. 48. 215. 145. 339. Combative element 295- Daedalus. 16. Creative instinct. 9. 89. either of Reasons for. 131- Cuvier. Creation hindered redintegration. Breguet. Contrapuntists. 104. 52. Copernicus. Buddha. Cid. imagination Exaggeration in esthetic or practical. 43. 38. De. Contrast. 309. Physiological 76. 101. 205. Association by. his Oscilla intelligence. Search for. 186. Complete images impossible. Campanella. Critical of stage investigation. imagination. Adult misinterpretation Creative 103 ff. complete physio logical inhibition. 40. Charcot. 6. 59. 22. Christopher. 150. 283. development due substitution. 138. Classes of discoverers. 282. 6. Classification. 234. Chateaubriand. 126. of. 16. weights. Carlyle. Conscious case. Constitutions by philosophers. Life Byron. 173. of primitive man. Difficulties of. mentary. The. Colored hearing. 246. 73. Crisis. 117. Child-study. Deduction. Cabalistic mysticism. 300. 258. by in Carpenter. 304. 313. of. Cherubini. 214. non-existent. 301. Stages of development. Chatterton. Counter-world. 115. a growth. 252.development tion. of intellect and feeling. 12. . 42. Chorea. by writers on psychology. Composite character of. 45. 105. Contiguity and resemblance.. Boulogne. Condillac.i39. Bossuet. 309. Neglect of. 243. implies feeling. 145. 245- 67. 283. Carthage. Charlemagne. of. Comte. 350. Complementary scientists. Mo of development. beginning of science. Bramwell. 113. 40.

Essenes. semi-science. Facts and general ideas. French. 149. Goethe. 193. DeQuincy. 245. 34. 35. Fresnel. 70. of. Exact knowledge requisite in com merce. Egyptian conception of causality. Durer. 89. 247. 136. Eureka. 227. Descartes. Fenelon. 145. 29. 324. Epic. Harrington. Fixity of. fac common measure Geniuses. Revolution. by ideal Fear. Dii minores. 302. 187. Gnostics. 97. Double personality. Disinterestedness of the artist. literary External factors. Greece. Faith. 325. Gretry. Flournoy. of Emotional tor. No for imagination. 69. 346. Froschammer. 88. 294. Law s statement of. Experience requisite for invention. 183. 314. 135. Generic image. as Fuegians. in Fancy. Emotional Dreams. Hartmann. 146. of inven n. Rise of the. 268. Goya. Moment of.INDEX. 58. Forel. . Gilman. 73. 33. Effect of. 38. highest of. 142. 19. Otto de. excitants. 31 ff. 303. Gauss. 216. 325. of. 96. 103. Euclid. of art. Curative powers of. 365 animals. Determinism. 75. 138. 264. Haiiy. pre 32. 6. 38. 261. 260. of series. 68. 132 Fixed ideas. Fere. 306. Gautier. 35. Expansion of self. 55. 99. and brain structure. Hanseatic League. ence of. 307. Esthetic imagination. 142. 39. -cure. 100. Evolution of commerce. 196. 260. exceptional. mate rial 57. unsatisfied of. 303. Emotion. Hegelian. 340. 302. 285. 7. Dualism of Fourier. Dewey. tion. 276. in 254. 252. 254. 143. Neglect ists. 278. by concom itant variations. 55. Grillparzer. Fiduciary money. 303. Diffluent imagination. 15. 287. 206. Gavarni. depends on subliminal imagina tion. and matter. 244. abstraction. 145. 264. 60. 67. ff. 342. 282. 294. 219 Empedocles. 190. 80. 47. 286. 149. Genius. Role Haydn. Guericke. Source of. 112. 193. Egypt. Greek republics. Dialectic. 346. Dissociation. Delboef. 18. 22. Theophile. 151. Goncourt. 234. 264. 17. n. Habits. 68. 151. contrasted to mechanical. judgment. Use of. Living and dead. 346. Groos. 269. 344. supposes Realization needs. and sensation. 19. 55. 145. 189. 289. 304. 73. John. 196 Flechsig. Gold. 247. 150. 241. not strong in imagination. 21. Drugs. 21. Ethics. Fourier. 336. 74. of mastery over men. 85. 38. Hamilton. Fouillee. persist Fromentin. 145. Handel.

39. tions 167 complete condensed in Condi objects. n. Hellenic imagination. Idea and emotion. 276. Modification of. 137. sketched form. Imitative music. thetic. 36. Inductive reasoning. 222. 95. by suddenness and 51. 229. 81. Homo duplex. 18. Interesting. 20. beginning of son. of mystic. characterized impersonality. 216. 316. 93. 320. needs. Images. Intuition. primitive man. Icarus. 318. Creative. Instinct. Diffluent. 196 ff. 276. 256 ff. ff. valuable to scientist. . Inspiration. Hero. 130. Varieties of. Mechanical and technical. 82. 202. differ not op ent from religious. Introspectors. 346. Scientific. 128. present in all activities. 251. Huyghens. 267. 257. 313. 56. Intentional combination ages. 270. provoked by music. 132. Symbolic. Homonomy. 74. 6. 138.. answer to specific Image. in experimentation. 278. 228. Visual. provoked. Individual variations. Howe. Hume. 15. 265. imagination. Illusions. 207 ff. 44. 189. anthropo in common 142. symbolic. 236 ff. Herodotus. 244. Development of. 179. 188. 188. 59. 54.. Characteristic of. Infantile insanity. 221 ff. and legend. 217. 144. a factor in creation. 18. 282. 306. 321. 35. Imaginative type. through pleasure. Hyperaemia. Hegel. 29. sketched type. Hoffding. 180. 291. Ideal modified in practice. anthropocentric. . untrustworthy. force. Temporary. Hercules. Illusion. Hyperesthesia. morphic. 70. 232. 10 . Hephsstos. Helmholtz. 149.. in animals. 75. . fixed form. 52. 87. Impersonality. 57. 85. 98. 269. Re 48. Practical. Initial moment of discovery. Es 281. Nu merical. Hodgson. 86. semblance of invention Intellectual factor. Categories of. Quality of. Progressive. 251. 263. animals. Hypermnesia. Motives of different sorts of. basis of the cosmic process. 101. Hoffman. 189. 23 1 . Equivalence 80. 41. 42. Subjective feeling of. abbreviations of real ity. 206. Animism Human in. Idealization. 50. 254. Mystic. Heine. 60 Huber. and 284. 273. Conscious. Process of. Incomplete images. Hindoos. 212 ff. substitute for rea ff.. 43. 137. 264. Plastic. Musical. defined. Inhibition by representation. in. of. 251- resembles somnambulism. Concrete. Commercial. Hypothesis. 269. 139- 75. Imitation. 285. Periods of. 260. and intoxica tion. 96. 248. 184 Poetical. posed to the useful. foresight.366 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. of. Incubation. of im Imagination. 214. Idealistic conceptions. Mystical. 95. Hindoo 202. Hesiod. inven tion. to.. in 118. 306. Individuality of genius. viii.. 270. and Interest. 222. Victor. 80. abulia. Hugo. n. 107. 16. same in many lives. Periods of de velopment of. 55. 350. 300. Henry IV. 120.

Literal mysticism. 309. 271. Mission. Mendelssohn. 246. 58. 128. 286. 99. 59. Metaphysics. Leibniz. predominantly 295. 145. Morgan. Leurechon. deities. Me chanical. im aginative. 307. 253. 17. 289. 307. 261. 25. subjected to tradition. 134. Specific quality Man of. counterfeits of beings. Methods of invention. human Moral geniuses. Kuhn. 129. 98. 243. 282. Inventions. A. 296 n. 237. . 309. invention. 141. 145. 246. Meynert. 148. Loch Lomond. 253. 273. Localization. 151. Metaphysical speculation. 269. Machines. 299. 250. stimulates Men. 150. as makers of history. 34- Mental chemistry. Spirit of. of. 146. Inventors of. 275. 120. Predominant tendencies in. 34. 47. 277. thought.. poet. Milton. 82. Moses. 277. Monadology. 226. Origin Laplace. of. Louis XIV. Machiavelli. Michelet. Manu. Jordaens. 213 n. 99. Stages of. Consciousness of. Varieties of. Memory. More. 252. Lang. Invention as an end. 114. 82. Mastery. 247. sought Monge. of Metamorphosis. Joy. 300. Love. Ages. Moravian brotherhood. 294. 142. 320. 301. of. 21.. Lammennais. Lelut. 297. 73. Love-plays. 300. 149. Mormons. 284. 61. Lloyd. Regressive. 251. 73. deified. Lazarus. 65. 258. 263. 215. Higher forms of. Materials of imagination. 71. Larvated epilepsy. Middle Military Mill. Stratification of. largely Maury. 74. Mimicry. 129. 244. Misunderstanding of the new. Amplifiers of. Kant. Spontaneity of. 282. 150. . Locke. neglected by psycholo gists. 183. Ideal 268. Oddities Mediate association. 145. Michelangelo. Great. James. 83. William.INDEX. Lombroso. 186. 279. Merchant sailors. 141. 28. 306. Mind. anonymous. 279. 37. Liebig. Pain of. 300. untrustworthy. 216. in morals. 303. 296. 174. Kepler. in successive parts. 272. Klopstock. John Stuart. Lagrange. Montgolfier. 145. Mechanical aptitude. 112. Mobility of inventors. Linnaeus. Jealousy. and hate. 215. 73. 34- imagination. 72. 148. Monoideism. Money. 51. tions of. 100. Lavoisier. of monopolies. 87. 171. 51. 73. 367 and animals. 248. Language. Janet. Invention arises to satisfy a need. 140 ff. Mechanical imagination. Condi Law. 6 Mechanic and n. 270. 252 ff. 340. 269. 141.

. 6. Musset. Paradox of belief. 47. J. Movements. Importance 3. 191. Gerard de.22S Belief of. 27. 146. practice. 87. Mystic imagination. manifestation basis of creation. Precocity in. Nervous overflow. Pathological view of genius. Napoleon. Poetical invention. 335. and human phenomena. Newbold. Robert. 65. Organic conditions. Nerval. 130. 340. 145. Metaphorical . and imagination. Newton. Effect of. posed tors. Phlogiston. 220. 224. mo Use of. 50. on imagina Mozart. of aborigines and children. and conception. 79- 133. in due to feel 134. 234. 266. 331. 275. of. Phalanges. 314. a transformation of 298.. Myth. Numerical imagination. 28. 227. Pathology and physiology. representa 207. 95. Plastic art and mythology.. Perez. 106. 261. 248. 150. 267. elements. 184. Mysticism by suggestion. Vari ations in. characteristic Myth-making activity. Alfred de. Old 129. 251. Perception. 229. Munsterberg. to Uniformity dissociation. sonal. 122. 226. 120. Muses. 305. Role of. 120. for man. 73. style of. 342. Platonic ideas. Music an emotional language. Need 20.. 186. 303. Polynomy. New Plotinus. mystic ideas. 17 n. 207 ff. special characters. Neglect of details in Plato. 134. 134. 123. series unlimited. Poe. Organization of soci ety into. 350. 10. 324. Inspiration in. Abuse of allegory. 245. 143. 71. 270. Uses of. 212. 309. 142. 120. 15. Poet. 66. denned. ff. science. Paralysis by ideas. 71. Myers. Nomina Nutnina. 74. 71. op Physiological states. Pasteur. 299. 221 244. imagination. 41. general char acters. of. Natural. 233. Pascal. Polyideism. 184 f. of knowing. tion. 70. 127. Myths. Philippe. 340. 253. 33. Depersonification of. tion. 229. Miiller. Significance of. 144. B. 262. in all mysticism. Physiology and pathology. 119. 242. Nordau. 115. Musical imagination. 190. Play. a workman. 60. source of myth. age. 77. Mummy powder. Newcomen. his war Philosophy. 268. Poetical imagination. Max. 270. . 142. Subjective and ob jective factors in. 87. 81. 74. 48. Naville. 309. 2 1 . 97. in Oelzelt-Newin. THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. 58. in Plato. Larnak. 309. Motor elements 4. viii. 72. 206. 114. 324. Persistence of ideas ing. 9- Objective study of inventors. Orientation conditioned by vidual organization. Personification. 142. imagination. indi Per Owen. 39. Nietzsche. law. Oddities of inventors. sensation. 270. 7. 335. Stages of. by.3 68 Mosso. 71. 146. Mystics.

Reciprocal working of scientific Sensation changed in memory. in finance. Rossini. Psychic atoms. ining. 145. Provoked Schubert. Renaissance. Du Bois. 73. Pseudo-science. 17. Shakespeare. Socialism. Rubens. 206. of. 248. Social aims and practical discoveries. 56. 254. Powers of nature. Pythagoras. To 36. 316. jects. Three movements in growth of. . 51. vention. no. 1 motor crea 145. not general imagination. Reni. mathematicians. Reymond. 117. 95. 240. 5. 253. 198. Poncelet. of Rousseau. scientific. 54. 6. . ff. Attribution of. prescribes conditions and limits to imagination. 37. Rational Metaphysics. Roman Romans. 325. 52. Conjecture beginning of. 19. Science. 150. Repetition versus creation. 236. 138. 246. 151. 309. 307. 125. Psychological regressions. 19. Reason. 249. 76. Semi-science. 96. modes of scientific imag no. 143. 314. in Practice. Romanes. Primitive man. Schematic images. Guido. 143. Qualities. 69. to ob Self-feeling. 318. 47. 369 Republic. Spencer. tion. 204. Number 322. tal. 142. Spontaneity. Schiller. 237. Prometheus. in poetry. 308.INDEX. Spinoza. revival. George. 35. Societies for special ends. 101. 97. 147. Schelling. 45. 294. 60. Spirits. 236 Scripture. Roland. 18. 128. Sensorial insanity. Sand. Satanic literature. Riidinger. Practical of. Saint-Simonism. Shakers. Pre-Raphaelites. Interchange of. in limited by the past. Universality of. Ubiquity 254. Influence of. 145. 115. 124. 314. 179. Preyer. 245. 47. Principle of unity. Schumann. 175. Puberty. Representation and belief insepar Religion. Rontgen. Sorrow. 23. essential 86. paralysis. 118 ff. 346. 253. imagination. 250. Positive minds. Representations. 186. 145. Regis. 134. and myth. wants. 323. Romantic invention. Law of. 144. Belief in. Schopenhauer. 6. Pythagoreans. Progressive stages of imagination. 45. 254. Revery. 291. 141. Exploitation of 271. Raphael. Redintegration. 151. 52. able. 307. 240. 239Scientific imagination. Seneca. 226. 215. 10. Recuperative theory of play. 73. on imagi nation. Special Specific. 38. 150. 94. 131. 309. 94. Shelly. Sexual instinct. 215. 73. 296. 149. 269. 145. 84. Objectivity of. Precocity. Utopian and 310. 34. 143. 72. Reynolds.

Sully. Vedic epoch. Summary... 259. Wundt. Tyre. Evolution of the. Stigmata. Voltaire. 141. 202. unprecedented individual s experience. 224. 270. 270. 330. Wahle. 339. 57. Von Hartmann. 112. 78. Vico. Will. Unconscious. not a distinct element in invention. 206. Vicavakarma. and Von Baer. Wallace. 128. Thales. Universale post rem. 315. 254. 48. a coordinating function. 62. on physiological 5. Voluntary activity analogous 9. 274. 290. Stages of passage from percept concept. 18. 94. Dugald. 83. Tools. Change of. 39. 182. 10. 100. Utopias. Vis a frente and a tergo. Weismann. 150. Moreau de. 24. Van Dyck. 292. Tours. 64. 145. to tion. 129. 20. Weber. fac 50 ff. Tylor. 269. in. James. 53. 238. 340. 270. Spontaneous variations. State credit. to creative imagination. 300. Taine. Utopians. 134. Tropisms. 216. Wealth. Utopian imagination. Leonardo da. 96. Vocation. 129. 117. Wiertz. Watt. 125. F. 123. Titchener. Vinci. 150. Superstition and religion. E. 131. 286. 61. based on author s lieu. 9. mi Ziehen. 84. 5. func tioning. Units of exchange. 282. 303. 99. etc. Subliminal imagination. 99. Subjective factors. Tolstoi.. 96. Principle of. Words. 7. Unity. 73. mo Tycho-Brahe. 99. Law s system of. Zeller. in. 144. 145. 269. Role of. Vesication. 145. physiological theory. Watch. indifferent to realiza 309. 151. . Triptolemus. 6. Spontaneous revival. Choice of. 299. Vignoli. 58. 62. 172. 226. Stewart. desired from artistic tives. 139. Ef fect of. Stallo. 210. factor. 55. 341.370 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. Symbolism of Hindoos. The broad meaning of. Nature of the. 40. 140. Tyndall. 246. 79. 244. 200. 294. 66. 148. Wagner. in Vaucanson. 149. Unconscious cerebration. 134. Summa. 7. 5. 75. Zoroaster. tor. 174. Stigmatized individuals. Teleological character of will imagination. Wernicke. 21. u. Wallaschek.

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.H.N. Baron. trans.JUL 1 4 1982 PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET TORONTO LIBRARY UNIVERSITY OF Ribot. by A. Theodule Armand Essay on the creative imagination.

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