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A STUDY ON BUYING BEHAVIOUR OF CONSUMERS TOWARDS INSTANT FOOD PRODUCTS IN KOLAR DISTRICT

Thesis submitted to the University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Degree of

MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION In

AGRIBUSINESS MANAGEMENT

By USHA V.

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL MARKETING, CO-OPERATION AND AGRIBUSINESS MANAGEMENT COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, DHARWAD UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, DHARWAD-580 005 JULY, 2007

ii

ADVISORY COMMITTEE
DHARWAD JULY, 2007 Approved by : Chairman : (H.S. VIJAYAKUMAR) MAJOR ADVISOR

_________________________ (H.S. VIJAYAKUMAR) 1. _________________________ (V.R. KIRESUR) 2. _________________________ (S.B. MAHAJANASHETTI) 3. _________________________ (R.A. YELEDHALLI)

Members :

CONTENT
Sl.No. CERTIFICATE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT LIST OF TABLES LIST OF APPENDICES INTRODUCTION REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.1 Awarencess of consumers 2.2 Factors influencing consumption 2.3 Brand loyalty 2.4 Brand composition 2.5 Demand estimation METHODOLOGY 3.1 Description of study area 3.2 Sampling design and data collection 3.3 Analytical tools RESULTS 4.1 Awareness of consumers towards Instant Food Products 4.2 Factors influencing the consumption of Instant Food Products 4.3 Brand loyalty of consumers of Instant Food Products 4.4 Brand composition of Instant Food Products 4.5 Demand potential for Instant Food Products DISCUSSION 5.1 Awareness of consumers towards Instant Food Products 5.2 Factors influencing the consumption of Instant Food products 5.3 Brand loyalty of consumers of Instant Food products 5.4 Brand composition of Instant Food products 5.5 Demand potential for Instant Food Products SUMMARY AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS REFERENCES APPENDICES ABSTRACT Chapter Particulars

List of Tables

Table No. 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5

Title

Income Wise Distribution of Households of Kolar District Socio-Economic Characteristics of Different Income Groups Awareness of Consumers About Instant Food Products Brand Awareness of Consumers about Instant Food Products Overall Brand Awareness of Consumers about Instant Food Products User Categories of Instant Food Products Reasons for not Purchasing the Instant Food Products Factors considered for using Instant Food Products in Mulbagal Taluk Factors considered for using Instant Food Products in Mulbagal Taluk Factors considered for using Instant Food Products in Gudibande Taluk Sources of information about Instant food products Monthly Expenditure of Households (Rs/Months) Purchase and Consumption of Instant Food Products by Households in Bangarpet Taluk Purchase and Consumption of Instant Food Products by Households in Mulbagal Taluk Purchase and Consumption of Instant Food Products by Households in Gudibande Taluk Products Purchase Frequency in Bangarpet Taluk Products Purchase Frequency in Mulbagal Taluk Products Purchase Frequency in Gudibande Taluk Sources of Purchase of Instant Food Products in Bangarpet Taluk Sources of Purchase of Instant Food Products in Mulbagal Taluk Sources of Purchase of Instant Food Products in Gudibande Taluk Contd…

4.6 4.7 4.8

4.9

4.10

4.11 4.12 4.13

4.14

4.15

4.16 4.17 4.18 4.19 4.20 4.21

Table No.23 4.30 4.31 4.25 4.29 4.27 4.26 4.24 4.32 .28 4.22 Title Decision Makers of Instant Food Consumption in Different Income Groups Brand loyalty of Consumers towards Instant Food Products in Bangarpet Taluk Brand loyalty Consumers of Instant Food Products in Mulbagal taluk Brand loyalty Consumers of Instant Food Products in Gudibande Taluk Reasons for not preferring particular brand of Product Purchase behaviour of different Brands of instant food products in Bangarpet Taluk Purchase behaviour of different Brands of instant food products in Mulbagal Taluk Purchase behaviour of different Brands of instant food products in Gudibande Taluk Factors Influencing Brand Preference of Instant Food Products Estimated equation of demand for Instant Food Products in Kolar District Potential Demand for Instant Food Products 4. 4.

1.List of Appendices Appendix No. Title List of Taluks and Hoblies selected under study A study on buying behaviour of consumers towards Instant Food Products in Kolar District (schedule for individual consumer families) . 2.

secondary and tertiary processing. The body requires food for growth. INTRODUCTION The word 'food' refers to the chemical substances taken into the body in order to keep the body in a healthy and active condition.3 per cent in 1981 to 27.7 per cent. fats.99. proteins. This throws open an ideal opportunity for small entrepreneurs who are eyeing this segment for making a fortune. Rabo India Finance had projected that the Indian food processing industry would increase to Rs 11. It generates 18% of gross domestic product and employs about 19% of the industrial labour at national level. time which translates into an increased need for convenience. especially for young couples. which comprised of Rs.. 619 for non-food items. The production of raw food materials is estimated to worth over Rs 60. There are a whopping 15 crore middle class individuals.com). energy and other regulating substances. pickle and spice mixes have been hugely successful in recent years. Products like papad. it is likely to be doubled in next ten years. 328 in 1980-81 to Rs. 206 for non-food commodities. India has taken giant steps in producing food grains. 000 crores and included Rs. etc. it is Rs. The change in food habits was evident from the growth of food processing industries. milk. GOI). According to Ministry of Food Processing Industries. 511 for rural India. packaged/convenience foods. During the same period the female work participation rate had increased from 19.7 to 25.000 crore. besides meeting the calorific requirements like carbohydrates. the share of urban population has increased from 23. The average monthly per-capita consumer expenditure (MPCE) was Rs.8 percent in 2001.10. Indian Food Processing industry The food processing industry in India is one of the largest in terms of production. Important sub sectors in food processing industries are fruit and vegetable processing. India is the world’s second largest producer of food next to China and has the potential of being biggest industry with food and agricultural sector contributing 26 per cent to Indian GDP. Hence. increasing number of working women. Processed food products like pickles.10. In the last two decades. fruits and vegetables. There was a decline in the share of food in total expenditure that is 54 per cent in rural areas compared to 64 per cent in 1987-88 and 42 per cent in urban areas compared to 56 percent during 1987-88 (National Sample Survey Organization. 000 crore of value added products.315. of which 60% are below 35 years — a segment that is increasingly depending on processed foods. The size of this particular segment alone is estimated at about Rs 100 crore.1. meat and poultry processing. Food accounts for the largest share of consumer spending. Food and food products account for about 53 per cent of the value of final private consumption. This share is significantly higher than in developed economies. Processed products like ‘chapaties’. which comprised of Rs. alcoholic beverages and soft drinks and grain processing. Nevertheless. rise in per capita income. 306 in 2000-2001. out-of-home food consumption is increasing due to increase in urbanization. ‘subzies’ and portion packs of concentrated curries are fast becoming regular diets. consumption. changing lifestyles and increasing level of affluence in the middle income group had brought about changes in food habits. juices and curry powders had made their entry into the kitchens of most middleclass households a long time back.441 for food and Rs. The food processing industry accounts for 13. the size of the food processing industry was about Rs. food has to provide the required raw material. 1060. majority of food consumption is still at home. This cost overrun reflects the opportunities . where food and food products account for about 20 per cent of consumer spending (www. like vitamins and minerals. About 300 million upper and middle class people consume processed food. export and growth prospects.305 for food and Rs. The per capita income increased from Rs.5% of the country’s industrial output. In India.7. Over the past five decades. repair and replacement of its worn-out tissues. milk processing. The product range includes foods like ‘puri-bhaji’ and ‘dosa-vada’. For urban population. the total size of the industry is estimated to be as high as Rs 1.tata. breaking up of the traditional joint family system. It has the capacity of producing over 600 million tons of food products every year.000 crore. 200 million more consumers are expected to shift to processed food by 2010. chutneys. After primary. desire for quality. for the smooth functioning of the body.500 billion by 2014-15. fish-processing.

There are varieties of instant/ready-to-eat foods available in the market to choose from and they have become a part of every day life. as they do not have sufficient time to cook food in the conventional methods. Among the processed food segment.17. which are simple and easy to digest. Capitalizing this situation. etc.100 crores during 2002-03. vada. a cut in customs duty on major bulk plastics and a reduction of customs duty on packaging machines. The very term 'instant food' means simple. instant products. preparations of meat. ice cream. Hence. the present trend changed the habits to foods. Indian government had been giving importance to the food-processing sector. dosa mix.000 crores in 2003-04. Considering the greater potential for food processing industry in India. from Rs. excise duty on certain ready-to-eat packaged foods is reduced to 8% from 16%.53. fish and poultry. frozen foods. The instant food products are not only easy to cook but also have a significant role and place in the celebration of the family functions and religious functions of the people. gulab jamun. "Instant Foods" play an important role in everyone's day-to-day life. fast and convenient food. all come under instant foods or ready-to-eat foods. From 2000-01 to 2006-07 Government had also approved proposals for joint ventures. that are otherwise called instant. preserved foods. These foods are widely used in catering industries as well as at homes. for minimizing pre/post harvest wastage. where the life is at fast pace with the time very valuable to every person. It is a food revolution that's been a long time coming. instant food products occupied a considerable shelf space in stores and super markets in India. are found today in the kitchen shelves of every Indian household. fast foods. government had committed to encourage various activities for the development of this sector. Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary defined instant food products as “Instant food products which are prepared and packaged often in powered form are required only the addition of a liquid as water or milk for final preparation”. The food processing industry will also be benefited from the reduction in excise duty on paper. 600 crores in 2002-03. convenience foods. pasta and yeast. Instant food products The Instant food products. by way of fiscal incentives to encourage commercialization and value addition of agricultural produce. In the modern days. Canned foods. Products focused towards children and young adults and products catering to those who lead a fast modern-day life.. The food habits in India have changed due to the Western influence and the usage of these foods is also on the rise. etc. equipment and tools but still people are in search of new techniques to speed up the cooking process in order to cope up with mechanical life. generating employment and export growth. everyone who is anyone in the food business has been eyeing the ready-to-eat food sector with considerable hunger. business houses ranging from small time manufactures to multinational corporations have started innovating and commercializing “easy to cook food items” like noodles. free from microbial contamination and also convenient to eat. 9100 crores. Food companies through instant food . the existence of these foods fulfilled all the needs of modern human being. The government gave five-year tax holiday for new food processing units in fruits and vegetable processing. Big opportunities lie in upgradation from commodities to packaged and branded products and convenient foods. both men and women have to necessarily go for employment to augment the household income and cooking food in traditional methods is really an ordeal for women.19. Unlike olden days where man used to have his food lavishly and slowly. The total exports of Indian food processing industry had increased by about three times to Rs. As double-income nuclear families become the norm in urban India. which originated in Japan with Instant noodles had its beginning in India in 80’s. Preparing food with instant mixes has become a way life and no doubt they are going to be an integral part of food habit in future. which offer value for money. In the ever changing socio-domestic scenario.that food-processing industry offers to the economy as a whole and entrepreneurs in individual. foreign collaboration. which is easy and fast to prepare besides being hygienic. instant idli. foreign investment was over Rs. the government has exempted from excise duty for condensed milk. Out of this. Further. Realizing the potential and in order to provide further boost. which would reduce packaging costs (Budget 2007). The advancement of science and technology offered the people new foods processing vessels. dried foods. industrial licenses and 100 per cent export oriented units envisaging an investment of Rs. vermicelli. pectins.

The standard of living is also changing due to raise in income level.600-700million (Indiantelevision. 2. created the need for instant foods in the market. a group of several nuclear families were living in a single place. 4. Badham mix. economic factor.As there are different new products coming up in the markets daily that are very cheap and easy for using and preparing. And by March 2007 the size of the Indian Ready to eat market was approximately Rs. etc.350 crore.. are playing an important role in creating awareness of the products manufactured and released in the market. 9. Emergence of nuclear families. Instant food mixes formed a range of convenience food for households.In order to award the heavy laborious work like grinding manually and other drudging works. Modern homes also do not offer the facilities necessary for traditional processing and hence these products gained instant acceptance. lemon rice mix and coconut rice mix.e. the lady of the house also started working. influence of western countries. Convenience. a single family consisted of many people i. which would have been inconceivable to ancestors. which are easy to prepare and eat.. As the prices of some of the raw materials are continuously increasing. 2007).This forms one of the major factors for the use of instant foods in the present world. Emergence of Industrial society (i. people opt for instant foods. the labour category is getting attracted to it because of better emoluments and hence there is a shortage of home maids-servants. 8. 5. Womenfolk taking to job. Payasam mix. The instant mix market in India was approximately Rs. energy and money. But as these joint families started disappearing due to various reasons. March 10.Due to establishments of multi-national companies in India. particularly electronic and print media. 10. evolution of various new factors. Main reasons for popularity of Instant Food Products 1. tomato rice mix. availability. 7. These instant mixes can be used for preparations of various snack foods. traveling etc. Even India is being influenced by these instant foods. bonda mix and the preparations with rice includes puliogare mix. time factor. food is prepared depending on the habits.. Increasing income..In the modern era. because of which there is no time to prepare food at home. it was around Rs.150 crore during the year 2003 and at the end of 2004. New products. Hence larger quantities of the food were used to be prepared. Standard of living. The most sought after in the present age are the instant/ready-to-eat foods. people are changing their taste to instant foods more compared to the old traditionally prepared foods. Bisibele bath mix. 11.products had provided high quality food choices. metropolitan cities) – Development of the metropolitan cities due to increase in population. the housewives in order to save time started using instant foods. They are very popular in the Western region of the world. being easy to use without terminal processing and women found it very convenient to use. sweets and preparations with rice. Media. the popularity of instant foods is increasing. traditions. It helped them to save time and effort and relieved them of the tedious jobs of collecting various ingredients. social status. of the people of that region. each single family started using these instant foods in order to save time and energy..e. cleaning and sorting them and preparing food. etc. Reduced domestic servants – Due to industrialization. tastes. These are creating the need for ready-to-eat foods. 6. a large number of them in our country are taking up jobs to setup their own status in the society and to use the extra income generated. the purchases of these foods formed more economical. the snack mixes included bajji mix.. etc.Earlier times. . the media. habitats.As the literacy rate is increasing among women. more global trade. Drudgery of work. Hence this created the need to opt for instant foods.Instant foods are convenient to prepare and are economical. Hence. Prices of raw materials. Due to this. vada mix. This increased its usage by the people as it saves the time. Purfi mix. emergence of industries. Generally.com. The sweet preparation included Gulab jamoon mix. 3.

due to lack of awareness compared to larger cities where they are widely available and also more popular. e. v. e. Hence. especially in the rural markets. To analyze brand loyalty for Instant Food Products. One product from each category is selected for the study such as 1. Fruit and Vegetable based products.g. the collected data would be subjected to recall bias. iv. where they want and the manner in which they want. Cereal based products. ii. Dosa/Idli mix 2. To analyze factors influencing the buying behaviour of Instant Food Products. Pickles 3. Objectives of the Study The specific objectives of the study were. . iii. a study on consumer behaviour was deemed to be important to understand the buying behaviour and preferences of different consumers. Sambar masala Problem focus Several firms had been engaging in production and marketing of instant food products. To study brand composition of Instant Food Products To estimate demand potential for Instant Food Products Limitation of the study This study was based on primary data collected from sample consumers by survey method. The marketer should see to it that the instant food is available to the consumers without any difficulty at competitive rates.g. Though there are so many instant foods available in the market. as vast differences exist among the consumers with regard to demographic and psychographics characteristics. Consumer’s taste and preference were found to change rapidly. These methods help in increasing the sales of the product with good feedback from the customers and creating a niche for instant foods in the market. i. The study area was limited to Kolar district and the findings may not be applicable to other markets. the present study was undertaken with the following objectives. Hence. the consumers had greater options to choose from. To study the extent of awareness towards Instant Food Products.The above factors are responsible for the popularity of instant food products in Indian market. Keeping in view the importance of consumer behaviour and consumption pattern. The products should be provided to consumers by keeping in mind as when they want.g. For the convenience Instant Food Products are classified into three categories. the findings of the study may be considered appropriate for the situations similar to study area and extra care should be taken while generalizing the results. which suits to rural consumers that involves less cost. especially in a dynamic environment. Understanding the consumer behaviour would help the firms in formulating strategies to cater to the needs of the consumer and thereby increase their market share. As many of the consumers furnished the required information from their memory and experience. e. their popularity is increasing in a slow pace. Spice based products. In this context.

studied consumer and producer awareness about nutrition labeling on packaging. their food preference behaviour did not always appear to reflect such knowledge.3 Brand loyalty 2. particularly within the school and social environments. a sense of presence or commitment and substance and it was very important to recall at the time of purchasing process. school and social). the results suggested that the level of brand awareness for ZESPRI is low among consumers. event promotions. It is indicated that brand awareness could be increased through a relationship-making programme involving targeted marketing and supply chain management. aimed to create awareness of high fat content of pies. Potato topped or cottage pies had the lowest fat content (7.2% fat). The authors suggested that food preferences are often of a 'fast food' type and consequently the food habits of many young consumers may fuel the consumption of poorly nutritionally balanced meals.2 Factors influencing consumption 2.4 Brand composition 2.1 AWARENESS OF CONSUMERS Brown et al. Beverland (2001) analyzed the level of brand awareness within the New Zealand market for ZESPRI kiwi fruit. brand composition and demand estimation of food products has been reviewed and presented as under. The effectiveness of this branding strategy employed by kiwi fruit. given their general food habits and behaviour. It provided a sense of familiarity (especially in low.2. The implications of the findings for agribusiness in general using the data collected from surveys of kiwi fruit consumers (n=106) outside three major super market chains in Auckland. Potato topped pies are lower in fat and are widely available.1 Awareness of consumers 2. Yee and Young (2001).involvement products such as soaps). 2.. particularly during adolescence and analyzed that the interaction between young consumers' food preferences and their nutritional awareness behaviour. particularly during the adolescent years. The results indicated that the perceived dominance of home.2% fat.5 Demand estimation 2. The study was successful at raising consumer awareness about the high fat content of pies and influencing the food environment with a greater availability of lower fat pies. Aaker (2000) regarded brand awareness as a remarkably durable and sustainable asset. publicity. In his view. a brand could be well known because it had bad quality. While young consumers were aware of healthy eating. REVIEW OF LITERATURE In this chapter. sampling and other attention-getting approaches. Nandagopal and Chinnaiyan (2003) concluded that the level of awareness among the rural consumers about the brand of soft drinks was high which was indicated by the mode of . It is possible to produce acceptable lower fat pies and food companies should be encouraged to make small changes to the fat content of food products like pies.1 to 19. factors influencing the consumption. New Zealand. within three environments (home. Regular pie eaters could be encouraged to select these as a lower fat option. school and social interaction appears to be somewhat overshadowed by the young consumers. seven leading pie brands were analyzed for fat content and are ranged from 7. there were other effective means to create awareness viz. while developing an 'independence' trait. (2000) reported that the need for effective nutritional education for young consumers has become increasingly apparent. brand loyalty. New Zealand was studied. For this. Chen (2001) expressed a different thought on brand awareness that it was a necessary asset but not sufficient for building strong brand equity.1-9. research works done in the past regarding awareness. Over half of the consumers (52%) who responded to the survey (42% response rate) were aware of the campaign. Apart from the conventional mass media. Most pies did not display nutritional labeling on packaging.

family members. since the consumers were attracted by the brands. For young people. A large number of respondents laid emphasis on quality and felt that price is an important factor while the others attached importance to image of manufacturer.r irrespective of income. Consumers are responding to messages about safety and health eating. use of foreign language and graphics were taken as important clues for quality and price. colour. price. high quality. Demographic and household role changes and the introduction of microwave ovens have produced changes in eating habits. texture appearance. The prospects for high quality branded products are seen to be good. range of vegetables and accessibility as the factors in the order of importance which had influenced purchase of vegetables by respondents from modern retail outlet. Ramasamy et al. the familiarity with brand name. fragmentation of family means and an increase in ‘snacking’. Pineapple juice consumption increased with a rise in the income. as those days were considered auspicious. the price of wine. followed by displays in retail outlets. The study revealed that 77 per cent of respondents consumed fish for dinner and 22 per cent for lunch. Country of origin and brand of the products were cross-tabulated against age. The brand image seemed to be more important than the origin of the product. Commercial advertisements over television was said to be the most important source of information. Current trends include greater emphasis on health and safety of foodstuffs and less attention to price. appearance. regular availability. gender and income. About 30 percent of the respondents did not consume fish on festival days. colour and appearance. Some of the implicit factors identified through extensive questioning were. (1987) examined the factors influencing the buying decision making of 200 respondents for various food products. quality or the mouth feel of the liquid. in his study revealed that factors influencing the consumer’s choice of food are flavour. while the rest had no notations and consumed fish. the buying behavior is vastly influenced by awareness and attitude towards the product. taste with regards to its sweetness or dryness and the suitability for all tastes. ‘natural’. Development in retailing with concentration of 80% of food sales in supermarkets is also considered to be important. The major source of brand awareness was word of mouth followed by advertisements. ornateness. accuracy in weighing and billing. high quality food at an appropriate price. relatives and friends. Packaging. (2005) indicated that. Jam was found to be most popula. Ragavan (1994) reported that. Orange squash consumption was maximum in high and middle-income families. Rees (1992). and generally an increased demand for convenience foods.purchase of the soft drinks by “Brand Name”. Results revealed that the considered factors were independent of age. etc. Vigorous sale of chilled and other prepared foods is related to the large numbers of working wives and single people. Gluckman (1986) studied the factors influencing consumption and preference for wine.2 FACTORS INFLUENCING CONSUMPTION Balaji (1985) studied fish consumption behaviour of 526 consumers in Vishakapatnam city. more concern with enjoyment and less for health. Puri and Sangera (1989) conducted a survey to know the consumption pattern of processed products in Chandigarh. 2. with more meals eaten away from home. price and taste of the product were the major criteria based on which the consumers selected a brand of processed fruits and vegetable products. Jorin (1987) examined changes in spending power and buying habits of Swiss consumers since the beginning of the 20th century and in the more recent past. education and income. advertising a reduction in traditional cooking. Consumers do build opinion about a brand on the basis of which various product features play an important role in decision making process. . irrespective of festivals. increased demand for low calorie light products and increased demand for organically grown foods. The explicit factors identified were. They are concerned about the way in which food is produced and want safe. who require and value convenience. Kumar et al. Most consumers seemed to prefer white wine to red. quality. Sabeson (1992) in his study stated that. Consumers preferred French or German made wines to Spanish or Yugoslavian wines.

using Garrets ranking technique. The study undertaken by Sheeja (1998) in Coimbatore district considered the quality aspects like aroma. Price had a negative impact and income a positive impact on consumption. education. Finally it was recommended to convey the pupils that the fish served would be healthy and prepared with care. Consumers are influenced by the dealers’ recommendation. was mainly influenced to purchase by the opinions of their family members. followed by retail price. income and price significantly influenced the consumption of table butter. Kamalaveni and Nirmala (2000) reported that. the image is weak in the attributes. freshness and purity as the major factors deciding the preference for a particular brand of processed spices. friends' behaviour and perceived control were important predictors of the intention to eat fish and barriers for fish consumption were a negative attitude towards both smell and accompaniments and fear of finding bones. the product quality was ranked as first. The involvements of his own family members were exerting maximum influence on his purchases. door delivery and in sales promotional measures. They were milk quality. the change in consumption pattern was due to changes in food habits. quality of goods. Good quality and availability were the main factors. would result in discontinuance of the use processed product. The results suggested that. location. availability of range of products. Nandagopal and Chinnaiyan (2003) conducted a study on brand preference of soft drinks in rural Tamil Nadu. Consumers were influenced by touch and feel aspect of any promotional activity. The urban consumers preferred mostly branded products compared to rural consumers. accompaniments included. consumer with higher educational level was found to consume more processed products. Attitudes towards the fish. occupation. correctness of weight. Amitha (1998) studied the factors influencing the consumption of selected dairy products in Bangalore city. (2002) conducted a study to examine the factors influencing adolescents' fish consumption in school. number of sales persons and convenient shopping hours. Srinivasan (2000) reported that. supply in quantity desired. freshness and mode of payment showed higher levels of consumer satisfaction. They found that. Consumers preferred processed products because of convenience of ready to eat form. Above all. (1995) studied factors influencing consumer preferences for milk. any price change above this limit. Age. But the eaters of fish were more satisfied with the taste. Fish consumption was assessed by observation on 4 occasions. grocery department of Saravana Bava Cooperative Supermarket. At the same time. variety of goods. such as. credit facility. the percentage of income spent on consumption increases. convenient availability. packaging of goods. to rank factors influencing the soft drinks preferred by rural consumer. moving space. The most significant factors . The tolerate limit of price increase identified was less than 5%. flavour.Singh et al. family size and annual income had much influence on the per capita expenditure of the Instant food products. acceptance of returns. irrespective of income groups. They also thought to a greater extent that the fish was healthy and prepared with care. buying behaviour is very much influenced by experience of their own and of neighbour consumers and his own family. it is important to alter dishes so that they appeal to children and to pay attention to the whole meal. such as. texture and appearance of the fish and rated safety significantly higher than those who resisted. fallowed by advertisement. behaviour of sales persons. equality of price. The results of the study revealed that. Cuddalore was enjoying favorable images of consumers in the attributes. If income and urbanization increase among consumers. Kubendran and Vanniarajan (2005) elicited that. Study of Sundar (1997) revealed that. which influenced the rural consumers of a particular brand of a product. The study conducted by Shivkumar (2004) showed that the consumer. The quantities of processed fruit and vegetable products were consumed more in high-income group. the quality of the product and its easy availability were the primary and the vital determinants of his buying behaviour. Nagaraja (2004) opined that. colour. Prell et al. taste. there is complete agreement between ranking given by the housewives and working women regarding the reasons promoting them to buy Instant food products.

mainly on account of increased market shares of Gala. Hans et al. Only when the price of a particular brand is . Relative retention explains profits better than market share. efficiency of the preferred brand and influence of advertisement significantly influenced the brand loyalty. 55. Because of convenience in carrying. Frederick Reichheld (1994) pointed out in his book.74 per cent. that. freshness and desired flavour were important in the order in influencing the decision of buyers for BAMUL milk. The result of the study revealed that Maggi. the brand switching of consumer was based on variety seeking behaviour. time saving and reliability. quality. Shanmugasundaram (1990) studied about soft drink preference in Vellore town of north Arcot district in Tamil Nadu. cost position or any other variable associated with competitive advantage. Brand choice and store loyalty were found to affect the brand loyalty of the consumer. which revealed that the price of the preferred brand. Sil and Kissan were having market retention of 74. quality. Ashalatha (1998) studied the factors influencing the performance of BAMUL milk for a sample of 100 respondents.3 BRAND LOYALTY Singh and Singh (1981) found that consumers had single or multi-brand loyalty based on the nature of product.20. The result of study revealed that Kissan brand of jam and Maggi brand of ketchup had a maximum brand loyalty among consumers. “The Loyalty Effect”. Various companies share characteristics that could serve as guidelines for any company hoping to build successful brand.80%). Veena (1996) studied brand switching and brand loyalty of processed fruit and vegetable products in Karnataka state by using Markov Chain Analysis. Other brands were likely to decline. The study revealed that Kelvinator scored higher for working of its power saving compressor. except for defrost and new features. motivations. television played a vital role in influencing consumer to go for particular brand. studying methods of companies outside one’s own individual and country can be instructive for managers. The study revealed that. Padmanabhan (1999) conducted study on brand loyalty. scale. the most preferred soft drink among respondents as Gold Spot (26%). The equilibrium shares determined in order to predict future market position among the different brand showed that in long run. (1996) revealed that. 2. The study revealed that the factors such as door delivery. ‘customers equity effectively explains success and failure in business’. He revealed that. The factors that influence and strengthen loyalty to brand were quality of product. The potential buyers felt that Godrej and Voltas had got a well known corporate identity. several companies in Europe have come with alternative age.78 and 48. Ali (1992) studied the brand loyalty and switching pattern of processed fruit and vegetable products in Bangalore city by using Markov Chain analysis. like necessities or luxuries. Rex. Voltas brand clearly outperformed others with respect to working of defrost system and always caused satisfaction with the models available under its brand name. good value for money. The major characteristics are (i) Senior managers were carefully involved with brand buildings efforts. regular supply. The companies with the highest retention rates also earn the benefit profits. followed by Limca (24. respectively for jam products. It was found that taste was the main factor for preference of particular brand and among the media. Sil and Maggi. and less amount of brand switching occurred for these brands. Aaker (1997) studied about building brands without mass media.influencing buying decisions were accessibility. shares of Kissan. tetra pack was most preferred one. door delivery and the mode of payment. Ranganatham and Shanthi (1995) conducted a study on brand image among refrigerators in Tamil Nadu. (ii) The companies recognized the importance of clarifying the core brand identity and they made sure that all their efforts to given visibility were lead to that core identity. curiosity and price motive. cooling power and its price was considered. hygienic preparation. habit of use and ready and regular availability. clean packing.

It appeared to quantify intuitive recognition about the value of the brands. brand and channel resources. rose to power point fame in marketing for several reasons. brand loyalty. supporting the price discrimination hypothesis. brand equity. Otherwise farmers would naturally continue to purchase the same brand. The three atoms. value and loyalty. White (2001) examined the factors motivating US specialty food and beverage buyers to make purchases via the Internet. the respondents are ready to postpone their decision. which embedded to molecule. they will go for another store and their favorite brand. with 22% citing it as a purchase motivator. Cereal prices are positively affected by coupon values. Nearly one-third of all respondents indicated that their purchase was motivated by product-related factors. In addition. This is overarching device of retaining and attracting customers. higher price. Discount levels are positively related to brand market share and the size of discounts redeemed for rival cereals. Rajarashmi and Sudarsana (2004) revealed that. He concluded that brand awareness has positive effect on brand image and brand preference and recommended that the contract food service companies should focus on improving brand awareness as a brand strategy. The problems faced by farmers were supply of seed or poor quality seed. (2005) analyzed the relationship among brand equity factors (brand awareness.e. the farmers would naturally prefer to low priced brand. The results revealed that. like perceived quality.5% of the households purchased canned peaches in syrup. Brand strength provides a means to rank winners and losers in branding wars. meaning that there is a tendency for brand loyalty. Brand loyalty promotes . Coupon values fall with increasing brand loyalty among RTE cereal purchasers. It was found that factors influencing brand loyalty of farmers were dealer’s suggestions. The results revealed that 47. Kamenidou (2002) presented the findings on the purchasing and consumption behaviour of Greek households towards three processed peach products: canned peaches in syrup. More than half (55. But the author mentioned the measure of brand is a pseudo-measurement. adulteration and irregular supply of seeds. while loyalty retains customers. it doesn’t know how to count.6%) of the respondents who purchased items available locally and 39% of the respondents who purchased items that were not available locally cited convenience as a motivator. the companies should strive to strengthen brand loyalty through building brand preference and brand image. advertising expenditures. such as. Raj Reddy and Pruthviraju (1999) studied about buying motives of rural consumers about seeds and different sources of information about brands with regard to seeds. higher brand prices caused coupon values to rise. input costs and the prices of competing brands. branding has a little secret. were image.6% purchased peach jam.comparatively low. It incorporated two brand strengths – it’s standing with purchases and perception among prospects and customers. juice and peach jam. reveals that. quality product and co-farmers. Image and value perceptions pull in new customers. brand preference and brand loyalty) and suggested a strategy for brand management in contract food service management companies. almost all the sample respondents preferred branded products and if their favorite brand is not available in the retail shop. Nick Wreden (2004) in his book entitled “Fusion branding: how to forge your brand or the future”. perceived quality and/ product experimentation. Price was of relatively little importance to respondents. i. Coupon values fall with in-store displays and more intense advertising. while households usually purchased the same brand name. previous experience with a retailer. brand image. If it is not available in the market. It can be used to overcome the inability of traditional accounting to measure intangible strategic assets. product selection. Thus. The results also indicated that the consumption quantities were considered low. 67. Price and Connor (2003) identified the determinants of coupon values at the brand level within the context of a complex marketing programme. Kim-Hyunah et al. best described as brand equity molecule.. Reasons for such purchase were satisfactory taste and qualities and households' perception that they are healthy products. but rise when couponed products are featured in store flyers. brand preference and brand image have significant positive effects on brand loyalty.4% purchased peach juice and 42. Burke (2001) created a brand equity index comprising of three components.

Media is a key constituent in promoting and influencing brand. it has been observed that the price is the factor. consistent with the idea that consumers have more developed memory structures for more familiar brands. which might be due to the fact that most of the respondents were of monthly salaried class and they would have planned their purchase accordingly along with other provision items.(2) Perceived barriers to switching from the present brand.5%) (urban 37. so that it appeals to the youth and the brand name should be developed as a fashion statement. Repetitive advertising can be used to promote brand recall. The quality and the image of the brand were ranked as the major factors for brand preference in the purchase of branded fine rice. It is very interesting to find out that the company image and brand image were not totally considered by the households. People do not mind paying extra for branded products. customers would still prefer to purchase a branded product. A node was activated initially by an external cue. Most of the urban consumers (67per cent) purchased soft drinks in nearest Kirani stores (rural 73%). He reported that. followed by Coco cola (28. a buyer does not stick to one brand in case of food purchasing. In a study conducted by Sarwade (2002). The product should be associated with style and trend.5 per cent of consumers prefered Thumbs-up (urban 30%). Consumers might be willing to expend more energy in processing information regarding familiar brands compared to unfamiliar brands.more customer visits. Narang (2006) opined that. Thus. 2. Sampathkumar (2003) studied about brand preference in soft drinks in Telangana region of Andra Pradesh. repurchase intent is a function of four sets of independent factors such as (1) Attitude that results mainly from earlier experiences with the brand. A child’s insistence affects family’s buying behavior. where creating and maintaining a strong brand loyalty is essential to long-term marketing success. in his study stated that high quality. (2002) reported that.4 BRAND COMPOSITION Sabeson (1992). which is directly related to profitability of contract food service management companies. Al-Weqaiyan (2005). The retailers were ranked as the prime source of information about branded fine rice. Promotional schemes such as discount and free offers with purchase are suggested to increase rates. price and taste of the product were the major criteria based on which the consumers selected a brand of processed fruits and vegetable products. brand name might be part of several different sequences. (2002) mentioned brand name as a node to which the linkages or the brand associations might be linked. Vincent (2006) elicited that quality is an important factor that draws consumers towards branded products. which influences the purchasing decision as against the quality of the product. depending upon the activated path. followed by super bazaar (27 . Sanjaya et al. and (4) cultural differences represented in some traits of the national character. He found that in rural market about 37. Limca (4 per cent) (urban8. would also activate associated nodes through a set of linkages in place and the final set of information recalled would be based on the particular path of nodes and linkages activated in the given situation. Low and Lamb Jr. Children are highly aware and conscious of branded items. Pepsi 12. the authors concluded. The monthly purchase is the most preferred frequency of purchase. (2000) came out with an interesting conclusion that well-known brands tend to exhibit multi-dimensional brand associations. conducted a cross-national study of purchase intentions of fast-food meals in Kuwait. They should be able to recall different brand names when they go for purchase. Bristow et al.5%). The results revealed that factors affecting repurchase intents vary across the two cultures.5 per cent (urban 9%). (3) tendency to seek variety to break the boredom resulting from engaging in consistent brand choices. Although unbranded products sometimes give same satisfaction as branded products.5%). as they get value for money. the decision for purchasing branded fine rice was mostly made by the wives of the family. Branded products are accepted as good quality products. using the attitude behaviour model.

The study showed that children start to recognize product brands at an early age. However. It was also observed that the demand for milk products. Demand projections were made under two alternative income growth scenarios for the period from 1988-89 to 1992-93.63 lakh tonnes surplus milk in the year 1987-88 and there would be about 24. The income elasticity of demand for milk was 0. Meat had acquired a dominant position as indicated by its fourfold increase in quantity. but had low price elasticity.per cent) (rural 26%) and others (6 per cent0 (rural 1%). the demand for milk was to be met up to 1995-96. while 64% of respondents attached importance to the image of the manufacturer and 50% considered packaging as an important factor and an equal percentage (50%) felt longer shelf life influenced them. The demand for milk.D. Kubendran and Vanniarajan (2005) founded that. Vincent (2006) studied brand consciousness among children. quality. found that after globalization most of the consumers like the international brands such as Pepsi and coco-cola. After that Haryana state would be marginally deficit in milk production. The popular “Almost Ideal Demand System” was used for this purpose. The income elasticity of milk was derived using double exponential function. The two-model variant was found to forecast the demand . Transportation is among the major functions of physical distribution. If income and urbanization increase among consumers. was 122. The most significant factors influencing buying decisions were accessibility. taking into consideration the socio-economic status of the producers and consumers. Income elasticity was used as proxy for expenditure elasticity. growth in per capita income and urbanization.84. There was about 11. Banumathy and Hemameena (2006). dairy products and eggs was high and had a rather stable food budget share. (2005) studied consumer behaviour towards instant food products in Madurai. regular supply. The results showed that demand for milk would depend upon growth of human population. urbanization and growth in real income of people.28 litres per capita per year and the expected increase in total demand was 7. It was estimated that the average expenditure on milk by the sample consumers was 9 per cent and the elasticity was 0. which influence family buying behaviour. Mergos and Donatos (1989) applied the “Almost Ideal Demand System” model for annual food expenditure in Greece for the period from 1950-1986. The projected demand for 2000 A. which was the highest. (1993) made an attempt to estimate demand for and supply of milk in Haryana by considering factors like growth in population. The empirical results showed that milk had an income elasticity of 0. door delivery and the mode of payment. Singh et al. It is helpful for plants in making purchase decision of durable goods for the family.89. Durga and Murthy (1995) attempted to estimate demand for food in urban and rural areas using NSS data. especially ghee. were rapidly increasing compared to that of milk. A large number of respondents (78%) laid emphasis on quality and 76% on price which is an important factor.0113. Sharma and Vashisi (1991) used secondary data from various sources to project the demand and supply of milk in Himachal Pradesh. yogurt and butter. the second largest city in Tamil Nadu and observed that consumers do build opinion about a brand on the basis of which various product features play an important role in decision making process. the percentage of income spent on consumption increases. while studying consumer brand preference with respect to soft drinks. The urban consumers prefer mostly branded products compared to rural consumers.170 tonnes.76. the change in consumption pattern is due to changes in food habits. Ramaswamy et al.5 DEMAND POTENTIAL Alderman (1987) attempted to estimate the demand for milk supplied by the cooperative sector. The method of physical distribution played very vital role in company’s success and failure in the market. Transport adds time and place utility for the product. 2. The study revealed that current and future milk production in Haryana would meet the minimum nutritional requirement during the period (1987-88 to 2004-05). Consumers preferred a certain brand or a particular drink mainly because of its taste and refreshing ability.52 lakh tonnes of surplus milk after meeting nutritional requirement of milk by the end of 200405.

demand was greatest for products with a long storage life. This is consistent with strong consumer reaction to price changes. . These were estimated at 20. one percent of annual production for processing. education.2 percent. The study suggested that.62 thousand metric tonnes at the rate of 30 gms per capita per day for the state. Herrmann et al. He found there was very strong consumer reaction to price changes for jams and breakfast cereals. Selvaraj and Sundavaradarajan (1999) undertook a study of demand for and supply of fruits and vegetables in Tamil Nadu. An active pricing policy. The study also observed that the state would face a deficit of 18.50 per cent of annual production as waste due to lack of preservation. 20 percent for postharvest losses and one percent for industrial processing were included in estimating the total requirement. milk. They can adopt innovative improvements in the production and marketing of soft drinks in order to compete with the international brands.85 kg/year of fruits and 103. (2001) aimed at explaining theoretical aspects of pricing consumer behaviour and to analyze them with reference to groups of breakfast products and results indicated that. Paroda et al. The demand (requirement) for grapes in the state was estimated for the year 2001 AD for the projected population of the state (8. occupation and choice of brands but there is association between monthly income and brand preference and also there is close relationship between price and satisfaction level. using time series data with the assumption of 1. by 2030. thus. the study suggested production-enhancing strategies. The horticultural farms could be made to stabilize productivity through technological breakthrough.72 thousand metric tonnes at the rate of 20 gms per capita per day and it was 140. Study also revealed that there is no association between age.17 lakh tonnes. Pagire and Shinde (1999) conducted a study on the demand for and supply of grapes in Maharashtra. The MNCs can promote demand by effective advertising. respectively for 2000 AD.30 per cent growth in population for 2000 and based on minimum per capita requirement of 32.differently. (2000) projected household and domestic demand for food products between the years 2000 and 2030 in different south Asian countries. Hajarika and Sarma (2001) projected demand for and supply of rice in Assam for 2010-11. Nearly 10. The estimated requirement was 93.40 lakh tonnes. improving quality by keeping a check on the taste and price.66 kg/year of vegetables. It was concluded that the cereal consumption declined over the years in urban India. The household and domestic demand for food grains was projected to grow by 1. vegetables.24 per cent. Banumathy and Hemameena (2006) in their study suggested that. meat. eggs and fish in the diet. It appears likely that consumers bought some items only during special offer periods. by using secondary data from various sources for the period of 1980-81 to 1994-95 for the six agro-climatic regions or zones. considering recommendation of 120 gms of fruits per capita per day by the ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research).68 crores). It was observed that the consumption of cereals would decline with the increasing share of fruits. The study estimated that the aggregate demand for rice in 2010-11 for the state as a whole would be 63. the companies manufacturing soft drinks must manufacture high quality soft drinks in order to compete with soft drinks of multinational companies (MNC). increasing the possible area through wasteland management for growing fruit trees and vegetables could arrest the low production. represents a central marketing instrument in food retailing.67 lakh tonnes of rice in 2010-11 with a demand supply gap of 29. signaling shift in consumers taste and preference away from cereals. such as coffee.84 lakh tonnes and the production or supply of rice in the state would be 45. In view of the vast agricultural potential remaining under-realized.

chutney.8 per cent (according to 2001 census). the consumers are more opted to use the products available in the market at convenient packages and reasonable rate. In case of food products. due to the availability of wide range of instant food products in recent years. increase in urbanization.321 villages (2. This chapter covers the following aspects: 3. an attempt was made to study the buying behaviour of consumers towards Instant Food Products. jamun mix. However. the district comprises of 53 hoblies which fall in 11 taluks. Among cereals.10. considering the growing market and popularity of instant food products in the area. due to increased economic status. tomato and beans. Even though. most of the consumers of the study area are adopting the consumption habits of the metropolitan consumers.1 DESCRIPTION OF STUDY AREA Kolar District. increased literacy rate. etc.3 Analytical tools 3. The district is bounded by Bangalore and Tumkur districts on the West and all other sides by the districts adjoining to the States of Andra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. brand composition in choosing the particular brands in the study area and to predict the demand for instant food products.523 in urban areas. whereas pigeon pea is the only pulse. consisting of 15 towns and 3. sambar masala. METHODOLOGY This chapter presents a comprehensive view of the methodology adopted for the present investigation undertaken to know the awareness of consumers about instant food products. noodles. turmeric powder. The total area is 8. The average literacy rate of the district was 62. the consumers are switching from traditional foods to instant food products. Hence. Most commonly available and used instant food products in the study area are puliogare.km. bisibele bath mix. The major crops grown in the district include cereals.. ragi. changing food habits. chips. Major sources of employment in the district are agriculture and allied activities.1 Description of study area 3. lack of time for shopping due to increased number of working women and changing life styles. chicken masala. tastes and preferences. pickles. extending over an area of 8.3. jams and jellies and sauce to a larger extent.2 Sampling design and data collection 3.223 sq.36. Hence. brand loyalty.546 people live in rural areas and 6. Of this. Traditionally.225 km². especially dairy and sericulture. factors influencing consumption of instant food products. pulses and horticultural crops. sambar powder. desire for quality. 19. At present. lies 0 0 between 77° 21' to 78° 35' East longitude and 120 46' to 130 58' North latitude. rice and maize are the important ones produced in the district. increased consciousness about health and easy availability of ready made food products like instant foods. .889 inhabited villages and 432 uninhabited villages) with a total population of 25. it is popularly known as the land of Silk. coriander powder. It is more so incase of urban and semi urban areas because of breaking up of traditional joint family system. potato. The major horticulture crops grown are mango. sapota. Since Kolar district is situated besides metropolitan city Bangalore. situated in the state of Karnataka is popularly known as the golden land of India for its famous Kolar Gold Fields. the people in the district have been consuming cereal based foods prepared by their own. vermicelli including the other important products such as soft drinks. consumers in the study area are highly influenced by ever changing environment of the city. papads.069. The farmers in the district are totally depending on bore well water for both irrigation and drinking purposes. are prepared at home since ages. the indigenous instant food products like pickles. Milk and Gold.25. the consumers are shifting their consumption habit from cereal based products to non-cereal based food products. Therefore. Situated in semi-arid drought-prone region.

10. fruits and vegetable and spice based categories.2 Sample Selection To study the buying behaviour of consumers towards instant food products. required data were collected from primary as well as secondary sources. 30 consumers from each hobli were selected randomly totally accounting to 180 samples. 3. Respondents with monthly income of less than Rs.2. 2.31.2 SAMPLING DESIGN AND DATA COLLECTION 3. The particular products were selected in such a way as to represent one product from each group like cereals. Classification of respondents The respondents were post classified into four income groups based on their income. branded. 3. 000 were grouped as Income Group 3 (IG3) and finally those with income of more than Rs. In the second stage.2. . Finally. the population of 4. 5. 10. occupation. three taluks of the districts were selected based on population as high. which are either home made or purchased from the market and the marketers as well as about the brands available and preferred in the study area.21.2. the products such as dosa/idli mix.000 were classified into Income Group 2 (IG2). Kolar district was selected. Avani and Byrakur from Mulbaghal taluk and Somenahalli and Kasaba from Gudibande taluk were selected to collect information about buying behaviour of the consumers in the rural markets. multistage random sampling technique was adopted.000 were categorized as Income Group (IG4). Information on the following aspects were collected from 180 households (30 respondents from each selected hobli) 1. two hoblies from each taluk namely Bethamangala and Budikote from Bangarpet taluk. General information from the individual respondents on their social. educational status.3. 2. medium and low population.3 Collection of Data To evaluate the objectives of the study.1 Selection of instant food products Based on less cost and frequent use of instant food products. 5. 4. Information regarding the consumption pattern of instant food products and also regarding decision making relating to Instant Food Products. pickles and sambar masala were selected after discussion with the local consumers of the study area about the consumption of instant food products. followed by Mulbagal with a medium population of 2.828 were selected. Primary data The data required for the study were collected from the selected respondents by personal interview method using well-structured schedule. annual income. those with income group between Rs. Satisfaction level of the respondents regarding their present brand and awareness about various brands of instant food products. The type of instant food products consumed and their source viz. Monthly family expenditure on food and non-food items in general and instant food products in particular. In the initial stage. unbranded and home made.501 and Rs.302 and Gudibande with lowest population of 51. 2. 3. In the next stage. economical and demographic characteristics like age. Secondary data The secondary data on location. The survey was undertaken during the month of February-March 2007. those with income of Rs. demography and other details about the study area were collected from District Statistical Office. 5.437 was considered to be highest in Bangarpet taluk. etc… Purchase pattern of instant food products and factors influencing the purchase.500 were considered to belong to Income Group 1 (IG1).. Hence. as the district was familiar to the researcher.001 to Rs. family size and family type.

The responses to the above statements were measured in a three-point scale namely.3. poor taste. Strongly Agree. frequency of purchase and quantity per purchase were also analyzed using percentage analysis. reasonable price. retailers influence. good brand image. and 1 were given to the above scales and the respondents were classified into three categories based on the total scores obtained by them. In the analysis. The responses to the above statements were measured in a five-point scale namely. recommend the brand to others. X2. not good colour. purchase the brand even if price increases and purchase the same brand even in absence of sales promotion were used in the study. The buying behaviour of consumers for Instant food products. 2. attractive packaging design and convenience. family size and type. less keeping quality were the statements used in asking the reasons for not using a particular brand of instant food products. named after Rensis Likert. occupation and. Disagree. definitely. definitely not and the scores of 3. In contrast. Based on the mean score inference was drawn for factors influencing brand preferences and reasons for not using the particular brand of instant food products. Undecided. Consumer awareness towards instant food products and brands. monthly family income and number of family members. and Strongly Disagree responses to indicate the level of agreement to a particular statement. monthly quantity consumed is used as a dependent variable and the other independent variables used were price of the product. Tabular analysis Percentage analyses were used to study the socio-economic characteristics of the sample respondents like age. good packaging. probably. poor quality. The respondents with a score of 9 to 12 was considered as highly brand loyal. The statements considered for studying the brand preferences of consumers were best quality of the product. Agree. Traditionally. 4. readily available. 3. Likert Scaling technique A type of psychometric response scale called Likert Scale (Pronounced ‘lick-urt’) was employed for studying factors influencing brand preferences and reasons for not preferring particular brand of products by the consumers of instant food products. high price. The functional form of regression equation used was D = f [X1. Regression Analysis To study the factors influencing on demand for instant food products in Kolar district. This scale. who published a report describing its use and is widely used in Survey Research where respondents specify their level of agreement to a statement. Scaling technique Scaling technique was used to measure the brand loyalty of consumers towards instant food products. 2. the respondents with a score of 5 to 8 were considered as medium loyal and the respondents with a score of upto 4 were considered as low brand loyal. and Strongly Disagree and the scores of 5. and 1 were given to the above scales. purchase decision. Later scores were added and the mean score was calculated. X1= price X2 = monthly family income X3 = number of family members . Disagree. The tools used for analysis are as follows. place of purchase. advertisements. Undecided. a five-point scale is used with Strongly Agree. multiple linear Regression Analysis was used. educational status. The statements such as confirm to use the brand. X3] Where. Agree. poor brand image. poor flavour.3 TOOLS OF ANALYSIS The collected data were tabulated and analyzed.

Demand potential The total potential demand for the Instant Food Products in Kolar district was estimated by the users population and calculated per capita consumption of instant food products by the randomly selected households. .

Under the occupation classification. 16. 28.50 per cent in IG4. in Bangarpet taluk. IG2. Similarly. 35 per cent.75 each in IG3 and IG4.33 in IG1. 10. respectively. respectively. IG2. 4.76 per cent business/self employed.25 per cent and IG2 was 14. IG3 and IG4 in Bangarpet was Rs. agriculture and allied were 73.67 per cent in IG1.67 per cent. Hence.1. The percentages of sample households under food habit classification. it is necessary to study socio-economic characteristics of the consumers.50 per cent employed and 6. followed by IG1 (37.552.001 to Rs. 2. IG3 and IG4 was 25. 26.5 Demand potential for Instant Food Products 4.500 were considered to belong to Income Group 1 (IG1). IG2 and IG3 and IG4 respectively. In contrast. In Mulbagal taluk.75 per cent in IG3. the expenditure on consumption of food products also increases.33 per cent. 2. the consumer’s socio-economic characteristics were studied and the results are presented hereunder. the proportion was 25 per cent in IG1. 35.33 per cent in IG3 and 25 per cent in IG4. The average family size was 4. 000 were grouped as Income Group 3 (IG3) and finally those with income of more than Rs.25 per cent business /self-employed were found in IG3. 4. about 42.10. IG3 was 31.000 respectively. 14. 28.13 years). Respondents with monthly income of less than Rs. 6.33 per cent respectively. 100 per cent were non-vegetarians. 7075 and Rs. 5. the proportion of household respondents in IG1.28 per cent employed and 4.501 and Rs.2 presents the socio-economic characteristics of the sample households across different taluks.75 per cent of housewives followed by 37. 12. The average education in the taluk was highest in IG4 (14. those with income of Rs. half .1.3 years) subsequently in IG3 (11. IG3 and IG4 respectively. housewives were 20 per cent and business/self employed were 6. The average age of respondents of IG3 was the highest (37. The classification of sample households according to their family type revealed that in the IG4 was 37.1. Whereas in the case of Gudibande.12 in IG1.5 years). However. at an overall the proportion of respondents in IG1. Rs. However.2 Factors influencing the consumption of Instant Food Products 4. the average number of children in the households was 2. 5. no joint families were observed in IG1. Accordingly.1 Awareness of consumers towards Instant Food Products 4.4. as the income.18 and 6. RESULTS The results of the study are presented under the following headings. vegetarians and in IG1. In case of IG2.50 per cent.56 per cent (46 in number). whereas incase of IG4.28 per cent belonged to joint families. 31.000 were classified into Income Group 2 (IG2).4 years). IG2. IG4 (34 years) and IG2 (32. the nuclear families were highest in IG2 (87.2 Socio-economic characteristics of different Income Groups Table 4.56 per cent (64 in number). which decide the consumption pattern of food products in the family. 2. About 43.67 per cent and 13. 40 per cent in IG2. Generally it is believed that.89 per cent (52 in number) and 10 per cent (18 in number).3 Brand loyalty of consumers of Instant Food Products 4. It could be seen from the table that the average monthly family income of IG1. 62.50 per cent agriculture and allied.14 in IG2 and 2. this proportion was 26.1 AWARENESS OF CONSUMERS TOWARDS INSTANT FOOD PRODUCTS To know the awareness.28 per cent and 25 per cent.46. 4. IG2 (4.1 Income-wise distribution of sample households Income-wise distribution of sample households is presented in Table 4.67 per cent each and 10 per cent in IG1. IG3 and IG4 was 25 per cent.366.71 per cent) followed by 68. In IG4. Rs.000 were categorized as Income Group (IG4).4 years) and IG1 (3. those with income group between Rs.85 per cent were found in agriculture and allied activities followed by 38. 5.3 years).14.4 Brand composition of Instant Food Products 4.09 per cent housewives.33 per cent. as these are the important variables.85 years). 2. IG2. age and education of the consumers increase. 4. IG2 and IG3 were 13. 14.

IG3 and IG4 respectively.67 per cent (28 in numbers) of the respondents respectively of Bangarpet.33 per cent. 21.29. all the respondents were non-vegetarians. 66. In the case of Pickles and Sambar masala. The average family size was 4. 66.15.14. The average education in the taluk was highest in IG4 (14.33 per cent were joint in IG4. 2.000 and Rs.246. 16. In IG4.29 per cent agriculture and allied.2 years).7.312. 5.78 per cent and 84. IG3 and IG4 respectively.67 per cent and 83.12. 31. The average age of respondents of IG2 was the highest (34.33 per cent in IG2.6894 and Rs.89 per cent in IG1 and 7.31years). 5. Under the occupation classification.87 years). IG2. 15.82 per cent in IG3 and 31. The classification of sample households according to their family type shown that in 8. about 47. . the average monthly family income of IG1.88 per cent each in employed and business/self-employed were found in IG3. IG2.67 per cent were under agriculture and allied activities. The classifications of sample households according to their family type were shown that 33. followed by IG4 (34.50 per cent in IG1. 8.47 per cent in IG2 followed by 68. 41. 2. The average age of respondents of IG1 was the highest (37.42 per cent in IG3.33 per cent respectively. IG2.2 years) subsequently in IG3 (10.33 per cent business/self-employed.21.15 per cent of housewives followed by 21. 15. 5. In the case of Dosa/Idli mix. cent per cent of the families were found to be nuclear in IG1 but it was 89. Rs. IG2. 6.57 per cent in IG3 and 10.67 per cent (40 in number). IG2 and IG3 were 13.11 per cent respectively.42 years) and IG2 (32.3 Awareness of Consumers towards Instant Food Products Table 4. 100 per cent of the respondents in all the taluks and across income groups were aware about the selected instant food products. IG3 and IG4 were 18. The average number of children in the households was 2. The percentage of sample households under food habit classification as vegetarian and non-vegetarians in IG1. 5.12. IG3 and IG4 respectively. At an overall. 50 per cent were under agriculture and allied activities and 25 per cent each were business/self employed and employed in the taluk. agriculture and allied were 87.67 per cent.82 per cent of housewives followed by 35. In case of IG2.16 per cent were found in agriculture and allied activities followed by 33. 58.78 per cent in IG4.4.33.33 per cent and 91.75 per cent and 81. Rs.67 per cent.33 per cent housewives and 8.05. Under the occupation classification. However. 25 per cent were housewives and 12.67 per cent each were housewives and employed.52 per cent in IG2. housewives 12. 16. IG3 and IG4 respectively. IG2. 10.1. 4. IG3 and IG4 was Rs. 56. IG4 (33years) and IG2 (32.05 per cent agriculture and allied. In Gudibande taluk. However. IG3 and IG4 was Rs. 8.26 per cent employed. IG2. Mulbagal and Gudibande taluks were aware of the products availability in the market. The average family size was 4.78 per cent business/self-employed and 5.33 per cent and 86.13.05 per cent and 78. the average numbers of children in the households were 2.94 per cent.52 and 6 members in IG1. 2.93 years). However.88 per cent and 94.67 years).67 per cent in IG2.2. About 63. RS.21 per cent.57 per cent of housewives.3 years) subsequently in IG3 (10 years).76 years). The average education in the taluk was highest in IG4 (12. In IG3.78 per cent of IG3 were aware of this product in the market followed by 17.25 per cent. 4300.36 per cent were found in agriculture and allied activities followed by 31.53 and 2.67 per cent in IG1. Rs. among different income groups.3 years). In Mulbagal taluk. IG3 (33. the nuclear families were highest in IG4 (75 %) followed by 58. agriculture and allied were 73.2 years) and IG1 (2.26 per cent business/self-employed were found in IG3.26 and 2.12 and 5 members in IG1. In IG4.17 per cent in IG3 and 25 per cent in IG4 were joint families and no joint families were found in IG1.3 shows the awareness of consumers about Instant food products across different income groups in different taluks of the district. whereas in IG4. 5.15.045.50 per cent.500 respectively. The percentages of sample households under food habit classification as vegetarian and non-vegetarians in IG1.22 per cent in IG2.750 respectively. 2. IG2 (4 years) and IG1 (2.2 years).52 per cent employed and 15.67 per cent (34 in number) and 46. In case of IG2 about 54. IG2.50 per cent each were self-employed or business and employed in the taluk. the average monthly family income of IG1.67 per cent in IG4.5 in IG1. housewives were 20 per cent and 6. about 22. 66. 2. IG2 (4. followed by IG1 (33.16 years).25 in IG1.of them were under agriculture and allied activities.

00) 64 (35.000 IG4 8 (13.00) 19 (31.5001 to 10.00) Figures in parentheses indicate percentages to their respective income group totals .00) 60 (100.56) Rs.00) 180(100.56) Rs.00) 16 (26.00) 46 (25.33) 6 (10.89) Above 10.67) 15 (25.33) 52 (28.00) 4 (6.00) 60(100.00) Overall 60 (100.67) 24 (40.000 IG3 16 (26.2.500 IG1 15 (25.67) 17 (28.Table 4.67) 18 (10.2501 to 5000 IG2 21 (35.67) 19 (31.1 Income Wise Distributions of Households of Kolar District Taluks Households Income/Month Income Groups Bangarpet (n=60) Mulbagal (n=60) Gudibande (n=60) Overall (n=180) Below Rs.

50) 3 2 1 Employed Nos.52) 12 (63.5 11.85) (37.00 ) 1 (25.36) 16 (84.75 IG1 (n=16) 2312 4.15 2 (10.13 3. Nos.16) 16 (94.76 10 2.00) 2 (50.25) 3 (18.00) Rs.42 10.2 2.00) Note: Figures in parentheses indicate percentages to the sample size Nos.26 6 (31. Years Years Nos.21 5 (8. (20.33) 13 (54.88) 10 (58.50) (12.33) 4 (66.16 14.33) 1 (6.2 2.67) IG1 (n=15) 2246 4.67) 7000 6.12 32.25) (12. of children/family Family Type Joint Nuclear Food habit Non-Vegetarian Vegetarian Occupation Business/ Self employed Nos.75 5 (31.13 IG4 (n=4) 14750 5 33 12.3 2.75) (25.00) 8 (100. Nos.00) 3 (37.00) 4 (25.53 7 (41.3 2.4 2.82) 6 (35.87 2.00) 11 (73.82) IG1 (n=15) 2366 4.00) 13 (81.12 IG4 (n=6) 15500 6 34. Nos.29) 4 (100.52) 17 (89.71) 7075 6.75) Taluks Mulbagal (n=60) IG2 IG3 (n=19) (n=19) 4300 5.18 37.94) 4 (21.33 33.28) 18 (87.17) 10 (58.75) 2 (12.50) 14 (87.67 4 2.50) 16 (100.3 2.15) 4 (21.67) 2 (8.57) 13 (68.67) 2 (13. Allied (73.52 33.29 34. Nos. .00) (38.33) 1 (16.11) 1 (5.00) Unit Bangarpet (n=60) IG2 IG3 (n=21) (n=16) 4552 5.25 1 (25.5 2 (33.42) Gudibande (n=60) IG2 IG3 (n=24) (n=17) 4045 5.33) (42.14 32.50) 15 (78.47) 6894 5.09) (43.00) 15 (100.76) (6.05) 5 (83.88) 1 (5.67) 13 (86.93 2.85 4.67) 4 (66.33) 22 (91.67) 1 (16.12 37. 15 (100.67) 2 (13.2 Socio-Economic Characteristics of Different Income Groups Socio-Economic Characteristics Average family income Average family size Average age of decision makers Average education Average No.2 2.25) 11 (68.33) 1 (6.67) 3 (20.05) 3 (15.31 4.67) 18 (85.Table 4.28) (12.00) 1 1 1 (4.00) 3 (75.3 2.4 2.2 2.78) 1 (5.14 3 (14.33 IG4 (n=8) 16000 6.50) (50.33) 19 (31. (14.28) 12 (75.33) 8 (33.05 32.26) 2 (10.57) 9 (47.12 34 14.46 37. 13 (86.67) 1 (16.00) Agriculture and 11 9 6 4 Nos.26) 6 (31.50) 3 8 7 2 Housewives Nos.78) 1 (5.00) 1 (25.71) 3 (14.50) 5 (62.21) 3 (15.33) 2 (8.

00) 3 (5.00) 46 (100.00) 24 (100.00) 24 (100.00) 60 (100.00) 17 (100.00) 8 (13.00) Overall (n=180) 16 (8.00) 14 (66.00) 16 (100.00) 19 (100.00) IG1 IG2 Dosa/ Idli mix IG3 IG4 Total IG1 IG2 Pickles IG3 IG4 Total IG1 IG2 Sambar masala IG3 IG4 Total .67) 15 (100.00) 16 (100.00) 21 (100.00) 19 (100.00) 16 (100.89) 31 (17.00) 60 (100.00) 52 (100.00) 18 (100.78) 14 (7.67) 16 (100.66) 14 (87.22) 41 (22.00) 19 (100.00) 64 (100.00) 60 (100.67) 46 (100.00) 180 (100.00) 180 (100.00) 17 (100.00) 52 (100.33) 15 (25.5) 6 (75.00) 28 (46.00) 4 (100.33) 34 (56.00) Gudibande (n=60) 4 (6.00) 19 (100.67) 9 (15.00) 8 (100.00) 6 (100.00) 4 (100.00) 6 (100.67) 15 (100.00) 18 (100.00) 5 (8.00) 60 (100.00) 15 (100.00) 60 (100.Table 4.00) 60 (100.00) 12 (20.00) Mulbagal (n=60) 6 (10.00) 8 (100.00) 64 (100.00) 15 (100.00) 21 (100.00) 40 (66.78) 102 (56.3 Awareness of Consumers about Instant Food Products Taluks Products Income group Bangarpet (n=60) 6 (40.

00) 3 (75.67) 6 (10.25) 1 5 (4.33) 33 (55.00) 2 (50.67) 4 (6.67) (62.50) 4 (50.50) Overall 28 (46.09) (56.33) 20 (33.61) (37.33) 2 (13.75) 4 (25.05) 6 2 1 (31.00) 16 (66.10) (52.63) (63.83) 9 (37.82) 9 (52.67) Gudibande (n=60) IG2 IG3 IG4 4 8 3 (16.67) 4 (26.88) 1 (5.00) 3 (75.50) 7 (29.00) 9 (15.67) 20 (33.Table 4.00) IG4 6 (75.25) 7 5 (33.50) 4 3 (19.50) 8 9 (38.75) 2 1 (9.88) 2 (50.33) 2 5 1 (10.25) 1 (4.52) (21.94) (89.52) (21.00) 3 (75.00) 3 (20.00) 4 4 (19.00) 3 (20.41) 10 (58.42) (75.33) 26 (43.00) 2 3 (9.67) 18 (30.33) 14 (23.33) 2 (3.00) 10 12 6 (52.26) (16.67) (47.00) 6 (10.50) 7 (87.05) (33.33) (31.33) 2 (13.33) 1 (41.00) 1 (12.00) 42 (70.00) - Overall 25 (41.67) 5 (20.33) 8 (13.67) 7 (11.47) (50.57) (3.67) 3 (12.33) 5 (8.64) 1 (5.00) 9 (15.88) 4 (23.52) (6.57) (73.50) 1 (12.00) 6 (37.33) 2 4 2 (10.00) 1 (25.00) 5 (8.00) 13 (21.00) 3 (37.50) 5 (20.33) 3 (5.52) (81.67) 18 (30.26) (21.00) 3 5 (14.16) 11 (45.05) (75.04) (25.15) (100.05) (33.35) 12 (70.33) 3 6 2 (15.00) 6 (10.00) 1 (25.33) 8 (13.05) 1 1 (5.00) - Note: Figures in parentheses indicate percentages to the number of respondents in each income group .50) 3 (12.00) 19 (31.00) 1 4 (5.67) 7 (11.58) 3 (17.67) 35 (58.09) (62.78) (31.33) IG1 5 (53.33) 6 (40.67) 4 (6.33) 7 (11.25) 5 4 (23.33) 13 (21.67) 8 14 6 (42.00) 3 (75.33) 4 2 (21.68) (83.57) (73.33) 2 (8.67) 8 10 (42.50) 3 (37.05) (33.67) 18 (30.33) 15 17 3 (78.50) 1 (12.00) 20 (33.50) 2 (25.14) (68.67) 8 (53.80) (25.88) 3 (17.00) 2 (13.94) 1 (5.25) Taluks Mulbagal (n=60) IG2 IG3 IG4 6 14 5 (31.00) 6 14 5 (31.33) 11 (18.68) (100.64) 5 (29.25) 10 6 (47.33) 8 (13.83) 2 (8.25) 2 (12.50) 6 (75.63) 2 4 (10.33) 18 (30.33) (16.67) 4 (26.33) 3 (20.50) 8 10 (38.33) 5 (33.52) (21.00) 30 (50.00) 1 (25.50) 14 (82.00) 2 (50.00) 3 (37.52) (26.50) 5 (62.09) (81.00) 37 (61.76) 14 10 (66.67) 9 (15.33) 2 4 2 (10.00) 2 (50.33) Bangarpet (n=60) IG2 IG3 8 13 (38.17) 2 (11.67) 4 (26.57) (33.76) 1 (5.33) 25 (41.31) (16.00) 3 (75.00) 2 (3.52) (21.00) 6 (40.00) 20 (33.4 Brand Awareness of Consumers about Instant Food Products Products Dosa mix/Idli mix Brands MTR Aashirvaad Chinnis MN MTR Pickles Local brand Priya Ruchi MTR Everest Excellent Sambar masala Eastern Local Brand Iyengars Swastik Orkay IG1 1 (6.67) IG1 7 (43.83) 3 (12.00) Overall 15 (25.50) 7 (87.04) (18.25) 12 11 (57.05) (50.76) (31.00) 3 (20.75) 15 12 (71.52) 7 (41.00) 2 4 3 (10.28) (31.10) (73.00) 29 (48.67) 33 (55.33) 35 (58.33) 7 (11.00) 1 (25.00) 29 (48.00) 1 (12.50) 4 (25.68) (83.50) 5 (31.

Eastern brand and Orkay brands were known to the 15. 5 and 3.94. 47.33 per cent each were aware of Priya and Ruchi brands respectively.67 %) and Priya brand (10 %).68. . In case of IG2. 38. About 13.33. Swastik brand (11.05 of IG3 respondents only.25 per cent of IG3 were familiar with Eastern brand and 87. The other brand like Ruchi was familiar to few respondents in all the income groups. Orkay and local brands were aware among small per cent of the respondents.68 per cent and 31. Ruchi and local brands were familiar with less than 35 per cent of the respondents. In case of Gudibande taluk.33 per cent). 26.33.33 per cent of respondents followed by Iyengar’s brand (31. followed by Iyengar’s brand (30 %).33 per cent were local brands and 13. Excellent. followed by MN brand (48. majority of respondents 70 per cent were aware of Chinnis brand. most of IG1 respondents (53. 75 per cent.09 per cent each aware of MN and MTR brands. 33. Except Swastik brand. local brands (30 per cent).67 per cent and 10 per cent of respondents were aware of MTR and Aashirvaad brands of Dosa/Idli mix. Orkay and Eastern brands among the Instant food products.1. With regards to pickles.33 per cent). More than half of the consumers of IG3 and IG4 were conscious of MN.67 %) of respondents were aware of Chinnis brand followed by MN brand (33.33 per cent each aware of MTR and Iyengar’s brands.50 per cent of IG4 respondents and 4. respectively) were aware of MTR brand only whereas 37. MTR brand (11. The other brands such as MTR. MTR and Everest brands were found to be popular among 58.67 per cent were aware of local brands.67 per cent and 11. More than 50 per cent of respondents in different income groups were aware of Chinnis brand and MN brand was familiar among more than 70 per cent of the IG3 and IG4 respondents. Swastik. 25 per cent respondents were aware of MTR brand of Dosa/Idli mix. and the per cent across different income groups was 75 per cent.67 per cent and 6.33 per cent). Priya.75 per cent of the consumers in IG3. In case of Sambar masala. whereas Orkay brand was least known by all the income groups. IG3 and IG2 respectively. IG3 and IG2 were aware of MTR brand respectively.00 and 43.33 per cent of the respondents and 33.67 per cent of IG3.33 per cent were MTR brand. Priya and local brands were known to more than half of the IG4 respondents. 50. In this product. 73. Chinnis brand was familiar among 89. IG2 and IG1 respondents.33 per cent. 66.05 per cent and 16.67 per cent) and Orkay brand (6. In Bangarpet. MN and MTR brands and only 13. 41. In case of Mulbagal. 41.25 per cent. IG2. Excellent brand (18.33 %). 8. With regard to pickles. Priya and Ruchi brands respectively. Among income groups most 83. More than half of the respondents in IG3 were conscious of MTR and Everest brands. Everest. Iyengar’s. all the respondents of IG4 were aware of MTR and Everest brands and the similar brands were known to more than half of the respondents in IG3. at an overall. At the same time. Aashirvaad was known to 33.33 and 3.67 per cent).4 Brand Awareness of Consumers about Instant Food Products Table 4. 46. 21. Chinnis and MTR brands. MTR. IG4 and IG1 accordingly. 81. 10. 31.67 per cent each were conscious of Chinnis.57 and 25 per cent of the respondents were aware of MN brand.33 per cent of the respondents were aware of Swastik. majority of respondents (55 per cent) were aware of Chinnis brand followed by MN brand (48. by the consumers of the Instant food products. awareness of MTR and Everest brands were very popular among 55 per cent and 50 per cent of respondents.67 per cent of IG4. Everest brand was well known to 43. Eastern.57 per cent of the respondents in IG4. In different income groups.67 per cent were known Chinnis brand followed by 38.4 presents the brand awareness of different products in the three selected taluks of the district.67 per cent of respondents were aware of MTR and Aashirvaad brands of Dosa/ Idli mix. majority (61. almost all the brands were aware among IG4 respondents.67 per cent of the respondents. With regard to pickles. 8.76 per cent of IG2 respondents knew Aashirvaad brand only. In case of Sambar masala.33 per cent respectively. most (81. Only 4. The other brands like Excellent.67 per cent were conscious of MTR brand and 30 per cent. The other brands like Excellent.33 per cent were aware of Priya brand.33 per cent) sentient of local brands. respectively. 71. local brands were known among 21.09 per cent and 6.4. Swastik.67 per cent).5 per cent of IG4 were aware of MTR brands. Among different income groups. IG4. In Sambar masala.76 per cent of them were aware of Ruchi brand.47. 78. 83. In addition to these brands.33. Iyengar’s and Swastik were known to 20 per cent of IG1 respondents and about 40 per cent of them were aware of local brands also.42 per cent of IG2 respondents were aware of Everest brand. 73. About 40 per cent of IG1 were aware of local brands.33 per cent of IG4 and 21. local brands and Ruchi brands (15 % each). 23.

about 37.12 and 2.2 FACTORS INFLUENCING CONSUMPTION OF INSTANT FOOD PRODUCTS 4. . With regard to pickles.90. 71. 56.12.84 and 70. at an overall.18 per cent in IG2.30.33 per cent and 88.56 per cent was conscious of Aashirvaad brand.2.11 per cent) of respondents prepared Dosa/Idli mix in their home only. However.22 %). IG4. Excellent and Swastik were familiar among IG2 respondents in their higher order. local brand was sensitive among 36. Less than 20 per cent respondents were aware of Swastik and Orkay brands. only unbranded (8. the per cent was 83. local. all the respondents of IG1 and IG2 were preparing this product in their home only.89 %) and local brands (22. awareness of Everest and MTR brands accounted to 50.1 User Categories of Instant Food Products The user categories of different Instant food products across different income groups in the study area are presented in Table 4. 73. respectively.33 %). Priya (15 %) and Ruchi (13. 28.25 and 42.33 %). 6. majority of respondents (62.11 per cent consumed both branded and unbranded products.17 per cent of IG4. The local brand was familiar to 34. 24.33 %) brands. 4. In case of pickles. MTR. local brands (27. branded and own preparation (5 %) and both branded and unbranded products (1. 4.73 per cent in IG1 respectively.1. and 15. Excellent (13.21 and 21. majority (96.46 and 67. 63.67 %). It was noteworthy to mention that.5 Overall Brand Awareness of Consumers about Instant Food Products Table 4. IG3 and IG4 consumers. Iyengar’s.11 per cent).89 per cent of IG4 used only branded products.33 and 69. 28. It was revealed from the table that Everest and MTR brands were aware among almost all income groups. 17. Similarly.11 %).78. 10 per cent used only unbranded products and 1.1 Factors influencing consumers in usage of Instant Food Products 4. IG2.31 per cent of IG3 and IG2 respondents and were aware of Chinnis brand. about 57. 67.78 per cent of IG1 and 38.33.6. and 83.89 %) preferred branded product along with their own preparation. In case of sambar masala.78 %).30 per cent of IG3 used home made products only. MTR brand (23.78 %) and Orkay brand (5 %) were known to the selected consumers of instant food products in the study area.17. IG2 and IG1 respondents respectively. Here.43 and 65. Among different income groups.78 per cent of consumers prepared their own. Maximum of 59. the per cent of respondents aware of MTR brand was found to be more that is 77.The brands like Everest.78.30 per cent in IG3. IG2 and IG3 (52.89 %). Swastik (11.38 %) consumed their own homemade Sambar masala but half of the IG4 consumers used branded products only.30 and 14.89 per cent in IG4.67 per cent used branded products along with own preparation.22 per cent in IG1.1.78 per cent of the respondents were aware of MTR brand only and a meager of 5. 26.56 per cent and 48.23 per cent of these groups popularly knew MN only.06 per cent of IG1. most of the consumers in IG1. Among the different income groups.67 %). On the whole. About 34. It was observed that except IG4. IG3 and IG2 consumers.89 per cent of the respondents followed by Iyengar’s (31.5 reveals the overall brand awareness of consumers about the instant food products across selected taluks.22 %) were aware of Chinnis brand followed by MN brand (43. It was observed from the table that in case of Dosa/Idli mix.44 per cent used only branded products. about 78. Very meager percentage (3.19 and 22.44 per cent of respondents prepared own Sambar masala followed by only branded (26. 33.2.87 per cent of IG2 and 67. However. only MTR and Aashirvaad brands were familiar among Dosa/Idli mix product. Eastern brand (7. IG3.

00) 0 (0.78) 10 (5.30) 12 (23.25) 27 (42.73) 0 (0.22) Overall 68 (37.39) 4 (8.56) 15 (83.78) 10 (55.33) 7 (38.12) 1 (15.Table 4.33) 8 (44.20) 9 (17.33) 43 (23.89) 3 (16.78) 5 (27.68) 2 (3.89) 25 (13.18) 9 (14.23) 18 (34.78) 5 (10.22) 2 (11.00) 3 (4.68) 13 (20.84) 33 (63.12) 27 (42.67) 9 (5.5 Overall Brand Awareness of Consumers about Instant Food Products (n=180) Products Dosa/Idli mix Brands MTR Aashirvaad Chinnis MN Pickles MTR Local brand Priya Ruchi Everest MTR Excellent Sambar masala Eastern Local Brand Iyengars Swastik Income Groups IG1 1 (2.56) 112 (62.37) 36 (56.06) IG3 35 (67.21) 10 (21.06) 3 (4.11) 0 (0.00) 16 (34.86) 3 (6.07) 15 (28.61) 9 (17.17) 0 (0.90) 2 (4.18) 9 (14.19) 23 (44.89) 7 (38.67) 15 (83.67) 21 (11.84) 36 (69.00) 24 (13.30) IG4 14 (77.62) 45 (70.78) 8 (17.69) 17 (36.37) 6 (9.56) 88 (48.33) 91 (50.68) 18 (28.78) 27 (15.06) 6 (9.67) 4 (22.44) 6 (33.89) 41 (22.00) 16 (34.00) 7 (15.34) 0 (0.00) 4 (22.31) 9 (14.69) 41 (78.52) IG2 18 (28.46) 35 (67.30) 9 (17.00) Orkay 0 (0.84) Note: Figures in parentheses indicate percentages to the number of respondents in each income group .30) 4 (7.78) 49 (27.89) 14 (7.33) 16 (88.31) 19 (29.22) 57 (31.22) 78 (43.38) 11 (26.30 8 (15.89) 3 (16.

12) 1 (1.00) Branded 16 (34.00) 5 (10.46) 2 (11.00) 51 (98.46) 9 (50.38) 2 (11.00) 47 (26.00) 64 (100.17) 1 (1.07) 12 (66.89) 2 (4.87) 35 (67.67) 1 (2.43) 7 (13.34) 2 (3.92) 7 (38.6 User Categories of Instant Food Products User categories Products Income Groups IG1 (n=46) IG2 (n=64) Dosa/ Idli mix IG3 (n=52) IG4 (n=18) Total (n=180) IG1 (n=46) IG2 (n=64) Pickles IG3 (n=52) IG4 (n=18) Total (n=180) IG1 (n=46) IG2 (n=64) Sambar masala IG3 (n=52) IG4 (n=18) Total (n=180) Own prepared 46 (100.86) 1 (1.Table 4.43) 5 (9.56) 9 (17.33) (n=180) Both Branded & Unbranded 2 (3.44) 16 (34.30) 104 (57.11) Unbranded 5 (10.92) 6 (33.84) 5 (27.33) 7 (3.78) 24 (52.30) 3 (16.56) 2 (3.78) 9 (5.43) 34 (65.00) 46 (71.67) 18(10.84) 2 (1.89) 44 (24.17) 47 (73.44) Own prepared & branded 1 (1.61) 8 (38.89) 12 (6.56) 7 (13.11) 107 (59.78) 15 (23.11) 23 (50.84) 2 (1.67) 173 (96.78) 15 (23.11) 2 (3.11) Note: Figures in parentheses indicate percentages to the number of respondents in each income groups .11) 15 (8.86) 1 (1.

pickles and Sambar masala were not purchased due to non-availability of these products by 19.92 per cent each said traditional usage and necessary ingredient for preparations were the factors responsible for consuming the same. Only 25 per cent said traditional usage was the factor responsible for consuming pickles. accordingly.67 per cent. Pickles and Sambar masala. Similarly. as opined by the respondents.44 per cent of the respondents. respectively. 4.11 per cent and 19. respectively were not purchased these products because of low cost of home preparation. 11.1. However. less than 50 per cent opined tastes liked by family members. It could be seen from the table that Dosa/Idli mix were consumed by cent per cent each of the consumers due to likeliness by their family members. It was revealed from the table that 66.7. Similarly. The reasons like traditional usage influence of friends/relatives.22 per cent and 55.11 per cent of consumers opined lack of awareness regarding the availability of Dosa/Idli mix product in the market.67 per cent of respondents. liked by family members and habit of eating were the factors responsible for using this product. 52.33 per cent and 75 per cent of the respondents also opined that tastes liked by family members. Cent per cent of the consumers told that ready availability and save time of preparation were the factors responsible for consumption of pickles and 91. The results of the Bangarpet taluk are presented in Table 4. . save time of preparation. save time of preparation and necessary ingredient for preparations were the factors considered in using Sambar masala product. liked by their family members and traditional usage were the factors responsible for consumption of this product.8.3 Factors Considered for Purchasing Instant Food Products An attempt was made to elicit the factors considered by the respondents for consumption of Instant food products in the three selected taluks of Kolar district. ‘save time of preparation’ and ‘necessary ingredient for preparations’(100%) were the factors considered for consuming this product.43 per cent each of the respondents.2.10 revealed that save time of preparation.2 Reasons for not Purchasing Instant Food Products Reasons for not purchasing the Instant Food Products. High price was the reason for not consuming the respective products by 91. 83.67 per cent. Very small of about 11. 52. ready availability were considered by cent per cent of consumers and liked by their family members was the reasons considered by 85. are presented in Table 4. habit of eating were the reasons quoted by less than 60 per cent of the consumers. The results for Gudibande taluk presented in Table 4.4.22 per cent and 48. influence of friends/relatives and availability of quality products.44 per cent. whereas 54. Similarly. The factors responsible for using pickles were ‘Tastes liked by family members’ and ‘save time of preparation’ by the 94. cent per cent of the consumers replied that ready availability. of the respondents. availability of product at reasonable price.56 per cent of respondents of Dosa/Idli mix. whereas ready availability and habit of eating were the factors considered by more than 75 per cent of the consumers.78 per cent of the consumers. availability of products at reasonable price and availability of quality products in the market. 47. pickles and Sambar masala because of disliking of these products by their family members.1. The other reasons for using this product by respondents (75%) were liked by family members. Dosa/ idli mix.2. In case of Sambar masala.67 per cent.9. quality products availability in the market. save time of preparation. 83.44 per cent each of the respondents quoted the same reason for not using pickles and Sambar masala.78 per cent and 41.67 per cent each of the respondents.33 per cent of the consumers opined ‘ready availability’. ready availability.89 per cent of respondents did not purchase Dosa/idli mix.10 per cent each quoted ‘liked by family members’ and ‘availability at reasonable price’ as the factors for consumption of pickles. About 76.67 per cent. The results of the Mulbagal taluk are presented in Table 4. Differences in tastes between home made and purchased product was the reason for not using Dosa/Idli mix by 52. ready availability and availability of quality products was the reasons considered while eating Dosa/Idli mix by the 1. About 41. In case of Sambar masala cent per cent each of the respondents opined save time of preparation and ready availability were the factors responsible for consuming Sambar masala. in the case of pickles. 64. It was noticed from the table that the major factors considered while using Dosa/Idli mix were ready availability and save time of preparation by cent per cent each.71 per cent of the consumers in using pickles.

44) Note: Figures in parentheses indicate percentages to the number of respondents .67) 5 Lack of Awareness of products availability in the market 20 (11.89) 4 High price of market product 165 (91.56) 2 Differences in tastes (between home prepared and purchased) 95 (52.22) 100 (55.11) 35 (19. No.11) - - 6 Non-availability of Instant food Products 35 (19.67) 94 (52.67) 85 (47. Reasons Dosa/Idli mix Pickles Sambar masala 1 Low cost of home preparation 120 (66.44) 3 Dislike of purchased product by the family members 75 (41.44) 98 (54.Table 4.7 Reasons for not Purchasing the Instant Food Products (n=180) Products Sl.67) 95 (52.44) 20 (11.78) 98 (54.22) 88 (48.78) 75 (41.

00) 4 (100.22) 30 (83.44) 8 - - 36 (100.33) 35 (97.00) 4 (100.74) 38 (97.43) 35 (89.77) 8 (22.46) 15 (41.10) 30 (77.00) 9 10 3 (75.78) 15 (41.00) Pickles (n=39) 5 (12.10) 38 (97.8 Factors considered for using Instant Food Products in Bangarpet Taluk Products Sl.10) 25 (69. No.82) 25 (64.00) 15 (38.67) Note: Figures in parentheses indicate percentages to the number of users .22) 1 2 3 4 5 6 3 (75.00) 28 (77.00) - 25 (64.43) Sambar masala (n=36) 10 (27. Factors Dosa/Idli mix (n=4) Traditional usage Liked by family members Taste liked by family members Readily available Save time of preparation Influence of friends or relatives Availability of products(IFPs) at reasonable price Necessary ingredient for preparations Availability of quality products Habitual 3 (75.67) 7 - 25 (64.Table 4.

00) Note: Figures in parentheses indicate percentages to the number of users .00) 6 - 10 (41. No.50) 7 2 (100.67) 10 - 18 (75.67) 1 2 3 - 22 (91.00) 24 (100.00) 20 (83.67) 20 (83.00) 9 2 (100.00) 16 (66.00) 15 (62.Table 4.00) 2 (100.00) 24 (100.50) 16 (66.33) Sambar masala (n=24) 10 (41.9 Factors considered for using Instant Food Products in Mulbagal Taluk (n=60) Products Sl.33) 8 - - 24 (100.67) 10 (41.00) 18 (75.00) 24 (100.00) 24 (100.5) 4 5 2 (100. Factors Dosa/Idli mix (n=2) Traditional usage Liked by family members Taste liked by family members Readily available Save time of preparation Influence of friends or relatives Availability of Products(IFPs) at reasonable Price Necessary ingredient for preparations Availability of Quality Products Habitual 2 (100.00) Pickles (n=24) 6 (25.67) 15 (62.67) 9 (37.

Table 4.10 Factors considered for using Instant Food Products in Gudibande Taluk (n=60) Products Sl. No. Factors Dosa/Idli mix (n=1) Traditional usage Liked by family members Taste liked by family members Readily available Save time of preparation Influence of friends or relatives Availability of Products(IFPs) at reasonable Price Necessary ingredient for preparations Availability of Quality Products Habitual 1 (100.00) 1 (100.00) Pickles (n=14) 5 (35.71) 12 (85.71) 14 (100.00) 14 (100.00) 8 (57.14) Sambar masala (n=13) 10 (76.92) 5 (38.46) 13 (100.00) 13 (100.00) 8 (61.53)

1 2 3 4 5 6

7

-

10 (71.42)

8 (61.53)

8

-

-

10 (76.92)

9 10

1 (100.00) -

6 (42.85) 8 (57.14)

7 (53.84) 6 (46.15)

Note: Figures in parentheses indicate percentages to the number of users

4.2.1.4 Sources of Information The sources of information about Instant food products for the consumers in the study area are presented in Table 4.11. It was observed from the table that, about 92.30 per cent of the pickles and 91.67 per cent of the Sambar masala buyers, retail shop was the major source of information, followed by TV/radio advertisements (87.17 per cent of pickles and 58.33 per cent of the Sambar masala consumers). However, friends/relatives were the sources for about 88.89 per cent of Sambar masala and 66.67 per cent of pickle consumers. Whereas in the case of Dosa/Idli mix, Newspaper/magazine and TV/radio advertisements were the sources for getting information by 75 per cent and 50 per cent of the respondents in Bangarpet taluk. In Mulbagal, about 79.16 per cent and 91.67 per cent of the consumers preferred retail shop, followed by 87.50 per cent and 58.33 per cent opined TV/radio advertisements as the sources of information for pickles and Sambar masala respectively. In addition 87.50 per cent and 54.16 per cent of the consumers of Sambar masala and pickles respectively got information from friends/relaives. Among the purchasers of Dosa/Idli mix expressed newspaper/magazine (cent %) and retail shop, TV/radio advertisement, friends/relatives (50 %each) as the sources. Similar results were found to be existed in the case of Gudibande taluk where in cent per cent and 92.30 per cent of consumers preferred retail shop for pickles and Sambar masala, cent per cent and 61.53 per cent opted for TV/radio advertisements. However, 78.57 per cent and 92.30 per cent of pickles and Sambar masala were also through friends/relatives. Only 1.67 per cent of the Dosa/Idli mix purchasers used retail shop, newspaper/magazine and TV/radio advertisements as the sources of information.

4.2.2 Consumption Pattern of Instant Food Products
4.2.2.1 Consumption pattern of households The monthly average expenditure of the households in selected taluks is presented in Table 4.12. It could be seen from the table that in the case of Bangarpet taluk, the households monthly expenditure increased with increase in monthly income. The average monthly expenditure on Instant food products was found to be highest in the case of IG4 (Rs.492.50) followed by IG3 (Rs. 348.13), IG2 (Rs.247.14) and IG1 (Rs.189.33). Similar trend was noticed with respect to total monthly expenditure, which was Rs.5080 in IG4, Rs.3495.13 in IG3, Rs.2694.76 in IG2 and Rs. 1609.33 in IG1. However, on an average Bangarpet consumers spend Rs. 292.33 on instant food products which accounts to 16.28 per cent in their total monthly expenditure. Similarly, in Mulbagal, the average Monthly expenditure on Instant food products was highest in case of IG4 (Rs.433.33) followed by IG3 (Rs. 323.68), IG2 (Rs.272.63) and IG1 (Rs.123.75). Similar trend was noticed with respect to total monthly expenditure, which was Rs.4841.67 in IG4, Rs.3526.32 in IG3, Rs.2783.16 in IG2 and Rs.1780 in IG1. However, on an average Mulbagal consumers spend Rs. 265.16 on instant food products which account to 15.11 per cent their total monthly expenditure. In Gudibande taluk , the average monthly expenditure on Instant food products by IG4 respondents was highest (Rs.492), followed by IG3 (Rs. 348.13), IG2 (Rs.247.14) and IG1 (Rs.189.33). With respect to total monthly expenditure, it was Rs.4362.50 in IG4, Rs.3407.65 in IG3, Rs.2528.33 in IG2 and Rs.1882 in IG1. However, on an average Gudibande consumers spend Rs. 252 on instant food products which account to 14.84 per cent their total monthly expenditure. On the whole, it can be inferred that the average monthly expenditure on instant food products was highest in case of IG4 (Rs.465), followed by IG3 (Rs.317.31), IG2 (Rs.251.56) and IG1 (Rs. 165.22). On an average, the consumers spend Rs.269.82 on instant food products which accounts to 15.42 per cent in their total monthly expenditure.

Table 4.11 Sources of information about Instant food products Bangarpet (n=60) Sources Dosa/Idli mix (n=4) Pickles (n=39) Sambar masala (n=36) 33 (91.67) 5 (13.89) 21 (58.33) 32 (88.89) Mulbagal (n=60) Sambar masala (n=24) 22 (91.67) 5 (20.83) 14 (58.33) 21 (87.50) Gudibande (n=60) Sambar masala (n=13) 12 (92.30) 2 (15.38) 8 (61.53) 12 (92.30)

Dosa/Idli mix (n=2)

Pickles (n=24)

Dosa/Idli mix (n=1)

Pickles (n=14)

Retail shop

2 (50.00) 3 (75.00) 2 (50.00) 1 (25.00)

36 (92.30) 13 (33.33) 34 (87.17) 26 (66.67)

1 (50.00) 2 (100.00) 1 (50.00) 1 (50.00)

19 (79.16) 7 (29.16) 21 (87.50) 13 (54.16)

1 (100.00) 1 (100.00) 1 (100.00)

14 (100.00) 4 (28.57) 14 (100.00) 11 (78.57)

Newspaper/ magazine

TV/Radio advertisement

Friends/Relatives

-

Note: Figures in parentheses indicate percentages to the number of users

Table 4.12 Monthly Expenditure of Households (Rs/Month) IFPs Others IG1 189.33 (20.82) 720.00 IG2 247.14 (14.16) 1497.62 Bangarpet (n=60) IG3 348.13 (16.47) 1765.63 IG4 492.5 (16.67) 2462.50 Average 292.33 (16.28) 1503.34 IG1 123.75 (12.55) 862.50 IG2 272.63 (15.40) 1497.57 Mulbagal (n=60) IG3 323.68 (15.37) 1781.58 IG4 433.33 (16.40) 2208.33 Average 265.16 (15.11) 1489.23 IG1 185.33 (17.08) 900.00 IG2 238.75 (14.44) 1414.58 Gudibande (n=60) IG3 281.18 (13.23) 1844.12 IG4 457.5 (18.62) 2000.00 Average 252.00 (14.84) 1207.26 IG1 165.22 (16.63) 828.26 IG2 251.56 (14.64) 1466.47 Overall (n=180) IG3 317.31 (15.01) 1797.12 IG4 465 (16.97) 2275.00 Average 269.83 (15.42) 1479.74 Note: Non-food expenditure includes money spent on clothing, housing, education, utilities etc. Figures in parentheses indicate percentage expenditure of instant food products in total food expenditure Taluks Income Group Food Non-food 700.00 950.00 1384.38 2125.00 1160.00 793.75 1013.16 1421.05 2200.00 1202.50 796.67 875.00 1282.35 1875.00 1037.50 764.13 940.63 1364.42 2094.44 1133.33 Total 1609.33 2694.76 3495.13 5080.00 2954.87 1780.00 2783.16 3526.32 4841.67 2956.84 1882.00 2528.33 3407.65 4362.50 2738.17 1757.61 2658.59 3477.93 4841.11 2883.29

IG3 and IG4 respectively purchased it once in two months.2. 44.52.2. IG2. the average per capita purchase was 0. and Rs. purchased once in a month.44 per cent and 14.33 per cent and 28.04 and 0.04 Kg/month each in IG2 and IG3 with the per capita expenditure of Rs.33 per cent.7 Kg/month by IG4 respondents and the average per capita expenditure on it was Rs. IG2. respectively.44.0.54 for IG2. IG3 and IG4 respectively. the average per capita purchase was 0.1. 7.7.05 Kg each in IG1 and IG4 and 0.07 for IG4.23 Rs. in case of Sambar masala. respectively and their per capita expenditure was Rs.1 Purchase Frequency of Instant Food Products Table 4.12 Kg /month by IG1.84 and Rs.44 per .05. 0. no purchase of Dosa/Idli mix was observed in other income groups.46 for IG3 and Rs.05 Kg/ month in Dosa/ Idli mix.28 per cent users of IG1.2.69 kg/month.29 and Rs. IG3 and IG4 consumers respectively. 6. 16.03 each in IG1 and IG3. the average per capita purchase was 0. It was revealed from the table that in Bangarpet. 0.2.7. Similarly. Similarly.9.65.52. IG2. and Rs.1. no purchase of Dosa/Idli mix was observed in case of IG2.50 per cent.05 Kg/month in Dosa/Idli mix.7.15 where the average per capita quantity of Dosa/ Idli mix purchased by households was 0.43. the average per capita purchase was 0.03 kg/month in IG1. 25 per cent. Pickles were purchased once in three months by 15. IG2 and IG3.5. IG2. The per capita purchase of pickles was 0. On the whole.5.2.33 and Rs.56 per cent.2.9.50 per cent of IG4 households.03 and 0.02 respectively.09 and 0.3. 33.05 Kg/each in IG1. Rs. IG3 and IG4 respondents respectively.33 per cent.7.3.7.15. The same was purchased monthly by 30.5 per month.14 reveals the per capita purchase and expenditure on selected Instant Food Products of Mulbagal taluk. 0. 6.92 by IG1. The per capita purchase of pickles was 0. In the case of pickles. Rs. 33. Rs. IG2.29.5 Kg/month by IG4 respondents and the average per capita expenditure on the same was Rs. The per capita purchase of pickles was 0. once in fortnight purchase was done by 75 per cent of IG1 households.1.96 for IG1. With regard to Sambar masala. IG3 and IG4 respectively.4. Table 4.4. pickles and Sambar masala. 50 per cent and 37.16 depicts the frequency of purchase of Instant food products by households in Bangarpet taluk. About 7. The table reveals that cent per cent of IG3 and 66.04. the proportion of per capita expenditure on the pickles was Rs.04 Kg each in IG2 and IG3 but the respective expenditure was Rs. 50. On the whole. However.03 for IG1.32.50 per cent of IG1. At an overall.05 kg /month in IG4 and the proportion of per capita expenditure on this was Rs. Rs.04 Kg/month in IG4 and the respective expenditure were Rs. 4.57 per cent consumers of IG1. the average per capita quantity of Dosa/ Idli mix purchased by households was 0.38 per cent of IG1 households and 12.32 and Rs.4. About 8.07 for IG1.22 per cent and 57. pickles and Sambar masala with their respective per capita expenditure of Rs.76 per cent.65 for IG1. The results for Gudibande taluk was presented in Table 4. 22.05 Kg/ month in Dosa/ Idli mix.07 kg/month and 0.54 Rs. Apart from this.58. IG2. 40 per cent and 50 per cent users of IG1. IG3 and IG4 consumers.3. IG3 and IG4 respectively. purchased once in two months. Rs. 0. Rs.07 and Rs. Rs.95. respectively and the per capita expenditure on this was Rs.14. The average per capita purchase of Sambar masala was 0. pickles and Sambar masala.29 by IG1. 0.8. Rs. 0.36.8. 6. in case of Sambar masala. 0. IG3 and IG4 respectively.33 per month by respective groups.02 and 0. Rs. the average per capita quantity of Dosa/ Idli mix purchased by households was 0.70. Rs.39 and Rs. IG3 and IG4 respondents respectively. 55. 33.79 Kg/month by IG3 and IG4 users and the average per capita expenditure on the same was Rs.00 per cent of IG3 households purchased once in fortnight.69 per cent. Similarly. 25 per cent. 6.2 Purchase and Consumption of Instant Food Products The per capita purchase and consumption of instant food products by sample households of Bangarpet taluk across the different income groups is presented in Table 4.67 per cent of IG4 consumers purchased Dosa/Idli mix once in two months.33 per cent of IG4 consumers purchased occasionally.13.15 per cent of IG1 and 10. However. and Rs.9 and Rs. Rs.1. the average per capita purchase was 0.36. IG2.41.68 on respective products. Rs. respectively and their per capita expenditure was Rs.2. no purchase of Dosa/Idli mix was observed in case of IG1 and IG2. 10.5. IG3 and IG4. IG2 and IG3 and 0.26.91.2.40 and 0. IG2.9. IG2. At the same time.05 Kg /month in IG2 and IG4.75 per month by respective group.04 kg/month each in IG2 and IG3 and 0. 46.12.67 per cent.75. 8.05 Kg/month each in IG1 and IG4 and 0.3 Purchase Pattern of Instant Food Products 4. 37. IG2. However.

With regard to sambar masala.22.cent of respondents of IG2.50 per cent of IG3 and 20 per cent of IG4 consumers purchased it from departmental stores. Table 4. About 50 per cent each consumers of IG2. The results of Mulbagal taluk presented in Table 4. In addition. once in three months and only 12. about cent per cent of IG1 and IG2. 4. 42. IG2 and IG3 purchased it from retail shops only.2. Moreover. but 66.67 of IG4 consumers purchased it once in two months. IG2 and IG3 were also purchased once in month.20.2 Sources for Purchase of Instant Food Products by Different Income Groups The sources for purchase of instant food products in Bangarpet taluk are presented in Table 4. once in fortnight purchase was noticed in 66. 33. IG3 and IG4 users accordingly.45 per cent of IG3 and 50 per cent of IG4.42 per cent consumers of IG1. it was observed that retail shop was the only source of purchase for all the selected instant products. IG3 and IG4 were also purchased once in two months. However.19. 50 per cent and 33. it was noticed from the table that only IG4 (100 %) consumers purchased Dosa/Idli mix occasionally. all the consumers of IG1. 4. All the consumers of IG1.67 per cent respondents of IG3 and IG4 purchased the same once in two months.27 per cent of IG3 and 75 per cent of IG4 respondents bought it from departmental stores. 45. IG3 and IG4 respectively. The sources of purchase for Mulbagal taluk was presented in Table 4. once in month was observed in 25 per cent each in IG1 and IG2 and 50 per cent each in IG3 and IG4 consumers respectively. The product purchase frequency of Gudibande taluk were presented in Table 4.33 per cent users of IG1. In the case of pickles. IG3. IG2 and IG3 and 75 per cent of IG4 purchased pickles from retail shops and only 25 per cent of IG4 preferred to purchase from departmental stores.33 per cent.41 per cent of the households. Only IG4 consumers purchased Dosa/Idli mix and the sources they preferred were departmental store (50 per cent) and retail shops (50 per cent). 20 per cent and 71.50 per cent of IG3 and 80 per cent of IG4 households purchased from retail shops. about 50 per cent of IG2 purchased sambar masala once in three months. Further. except 71.33 per cent of respondents of IG2 and IG4 consumers purchased the same once in three months and only 14. purchased it once in two months.42 per cent of IG4 households. which are also purchased once in month by 40 per cent.50 per cent of IG2 households purchased it occasionally.2. 50 per cent and 66. 40 per cent. In the case of Sambar masala. 87. Whereas incase of pickles. 58. about 50 per cent each of IG1 households purchased weekly and fortnightly. 72.85 per cent and 33. In case of pickles. housewives were the decision makers.57 per cent of IG3 households.33 per cent of IG4) and retail shops (66. cent per cent of IG1 and IG2.3 Decision Makers of Instant Food Products in Different Income Groups The decisions makers in purchase of Instant food Products across different income groups in the selected taluks of the district are presented in Table 4. IG3 and IG4 consumers respectively purchased it once in month.72 per cent of IG3 and 25 per cent of IG4 households purchased from retail shops. about 40 per cent and 83. 14. In case of Sambar masala. and IG4 consumers purchased the same.67 per cent of IG4 households). In 16. However. joint decisions by both husband and wife were noticed in about 25 per cent each of .67 per cent respondents of IG2.3. once in fortnight purchase was seen in 75 per cent of IG1 and 50 per cent of IG2 households. at an overall it represents 56. 27.18 per cent of IG3 respondents.3. Cent per cent consumers in all the income groups purchased all the selected products from retail shops. For Sambar masala. husbands were the decision makers in purchasing instant food products. the same were purchased once in three months by 60 per cent of IG2 and 28. once in week purchase was found in 75 per cent of IG1 households and 25 per cent of IG2. It could be noticed from the table that in Bangarpet taluk.67 per cent of IG1 and 18.18.33 per cent of IG2. It was observed from the table that.57 per cent of IG4 purchased it from departmental stores. 12.28 per cent of IG3 households purchased it occasionally. 75 per cent of IG2. Similarly.18 revealed that only IG4 (cent per cent) consumers purchased Dosa/Idli mix occasionally. In contrast.67 per cent of IG1 households. only IG3 and IG4 households purchased Dosa/Idli mix from different sources like departmental stores (100 per cent of IG3 and 33.28 per cent and 16. wherein only 28.33 per cent of IG1. 25 per cent.21 presents the sources of purchase for Gudibande taluk.

71. In Mulbagal taluk. However. 33.67 per cent of IG4 were also noticed as low brand loyal.33 per cent of respondents of IG1 belonged to high. Table 4. It could be revealed from the table that cent per cent in IG3 and IG4 purchasers of Dosa/Idli mix were considered to be as medium brand loyal. it accounts for 55. joint decisions by the family members and all the members of the family made the decisions regarding the same. 75 per cent and 25 per cent of IG2.33 per cent each in IG1. IG4 and cent 16. 50 per cent each of IG2.45 per cent belonged to low loyalty categories.42 %) belonged to high brand loyalty group and 28.33 per cent of the respondents.50 per cent each of the users fall under high and medium loyalty group and only 25 per cent of them belonged to low loyalty category.67 per cent of IG4 respondents.24 represents the brand loyalty consumers of instant food products in Mulbagal taluk. 37. in IG4. medium and low loyal consumer groups. like confirm to use the brand.23. recommend the brand to others. .67 per cent of the households.42 per cent of IG3 and 50 per cent of IG4 households. About 50 per cent each of the users of IG3 belonged to high and medium brand loyalty group. about 80 per cent and 20 per cent of respondents in IG3 belonged as high and medium loyalty group and 50 per cent each in IG4 were categorized as high and medium loyalty consumers in sambara masala. respectively in IG2.57 per cent in IG3 households. On the whole. about 30 per cent. It could be inferred from the table that cent per cent users of Dosa/Idli mix in IG3 and 33.33 per cent as medium brand loyal and 12.33 per cent and 13. 80 per cent each and 20 per cent each of IG3 and IG4 belonged to high and medium brand loyalty categories. as a whole it accounts to 66. IG4 and 28. In the case of pickles. The results also revealed that about 12. In case of pickles.57 per cent were categorized as medium brand loyal for pickles. On the whole. purchase the same brand even if price increases and purchase the same brand even in the absence of sales promotion.67 per cent of IG1.33 per cent in IG4 were found to be medium brand loyal but 66. The data were analyzed and the results for each of the instant food products covered in the study are presented. on the whole it constitutes 8. The brand loyalty of purchasers towards instant food products in Bangarpet taluk is presented in Table 4. and no low loyalty consumers were observed for Dosa/ Idli mix. In the case of sambar masala. in contrast to this 25 per cent each of the households in IG4. In Gudibande.87 per cent as low brand loyal households. elders in the family made decision on consumption of instant food products.50 per cent each of the families in IG4 jointly by the family members and elders in the family made the decisions regarding the consumption of Instant food products.36 per cent of IG3 respondents respectively. IG2 and IG4 and 36.75 per cent as high brand loyal. 4.27 per cent each in IG1 belonged to high and medium brand loyal but about 45. At an overall.54 per cent as high brand loyal. it constituted 43. In about 20 per cent of IG2 and 16.37 per cent as medium brand loyal and 21.67 per cent of IG2 and IG3 decisions regarding purchase of Instant food products were made by housewives only.12 per cent of respondents as low brand loyal consumers.3 BRAND LOYALTY OF CONSUMERS OF INSTANT FOOD PRODUCTS Using scaling technique. 27. medium and low loyal consumer groups. 20 per cent and 40 per cent each of IG1 users falls under high and medium and low loyalty group. about half of the consumers of IG1. the responses for the statements. 33.IG1. 50 per cent and 25 per cent each as high. Decisions by husband and wife jointly were made in 33. it represents 50 per cent each as medium and low brand loyalty consumers for Dosa/Idli mix. husband alone took decisions about consumption of instant food products. 80 per cent of IG2. about 60 per cent and 40 per cent consumers grouped into low and medium loyalty category. totally it accounts to 25 per cent of the households. In sambar masala. decisions regarding purchase of Instant food products were made by housewives in 66. 50 per cent each in IG3 and 80 per cent and 20 per cent in IG4 were considered to be as high and medium brand loyalty consumers respectively. 34. most of them (71. Whereas in case of IG2 . were measured on a three point scale. And 50 per cent of households in IG1.

32 Per capita purchase (Kg/capita/month) Pickles Per capita Expenditure on Instant Food Products (Rs/capita/Kg) 0.40 0.44 7.33 50.29 58.69 - - 26.05 0.79 0.07 2.68 .Table 4.23 7.84 9.9 Per capita purchase (Kg/capita/month) Sambar masala Per capita Expenditure on Instant Food Products (Rs/capita/Kg) 0.04 0.12 0.04 0.09 0.05 0.05 6.65 2.92 7.05 0.13 Purchase and Consumption of Instant Food Products by Households in Bangarpet Taluk Income Groups (n=60) Products Particulars IG1 IG2 IG3 IG4 Overall Per capita purchase (Kg/capita/month) Dosa/ Idli mix Per capita Expenditure on Instant Food Products (Rs/capita/Kg) - - 0.41 7.96 5.4 12.04 0.

04 1.5 - - - 36.03 0.29 8.75 36.33 4.03 3.91 3.05 0.29 8.05 0.04 0.95 2.05 6.Table 4.14 Purchase and Consumption of Instant Food Products by Households in Mulbagal Taluk Income Groups (n=60) Products Particulars IG1 IG2 IG3 IG4 Overall Per capita purchase (Kg/capita/month) Dosa/ Idli mix Per capita Expenditure on Instant Food Products (Rs/capita/Kg) - - - 0.02 .05 0.04 0.04 0.15 9.07 Per capita purchase (Kg/capita/month) Sambar masala Per capita Expenditure on Instant Food Products (Rs/capita/Kg) 0.75 Per capita purchase (Kg/capita/month) Pickles Per capita Expenditure on Instant Food Products (Rs/capita/Kg) 0.05 0.39 9.5 0.

07 1.15 Purchase and Consumption of Instant Food Products by Households in Gudibande Taluk Income Groups (n=60) Products Particulars IG1 IG2 IG3 IG4 Overall Per capita purchase (Kg/capita/month) Dosa/ Idli mix Per capita Expenditure on Instant Food Products (Rs/capita/Kg) - - - 0.05 0.05 0.54 8.7 .65 6.54 1.32 Per capita purchase (Kg/capita/month) Sambar masala Per capita Expenditure on Instant Food Products (Rs/capita/Kg) 0.05 0.46 10.43 0.03 0.04 0.7 0.02 0.14 2.03 1.Table 4.07 7.05 6.5 52.7 - - - 52.5 Per capita purchase (Kg/capita/month) Pickles Per capita Expenditure on Instant Food Products (Rs/capita/Kg) 0.03 0.04 0.

00) Once in three months 2 (15.50) 4 (44.22) 4 (57.16 Products Purchase Frequency in Bangarpet Taluk Frequency Products Income group IG1 (n=0) IG2 (n=0) Dosa/ Idli mix IG3 (n=1) IG4 (n=3) Overall (n=4) IG1 (n=13) IG2 (n=8) Pickles IG3 (n=10) IG4 (n=8) Overall (n=39) IG1 (n=12) IG2 (n=8) Sambar masala IG3 (n=9) IG4 (n=7) Overall (n=36) Weekly Fortnightly 6 (46.22) Occasionally 1 (33.57) 9 (25.00) 2 (22.76) 3 (33.15) 1 (10.00) 7 (17.00) 9 (25.67) 2 (25.50) 3 (7.00) 3 (33.38) 1 (12.69) 2 (25.33) 5 (50.78) Note: Figures in parentheses indicate percentages to the number of instant food products users .50) 1 (2.89) 2 (16.00) 14 (35.00) 4 (50.Table 4.00) Once in two months 1 (100.50) 15 (38.00) 2 (66.56) 4 (40.94) 9 (75.44) 1 (14.00) 3 (37.00) 1 (7.00) Once in a month 4 (30.28) 9 (25.00) 1 (12.69) 5 (55.33) 1 (25.14) 8 (22.67) 3 (75.33) 3 (37.33) 2 (28.46) 1 (8.

67) 4 (16.67) 2 (40.83) 2 (40.42) 8 (33.16) Occasionally 2 (100.00) 2 (28.17 Products Purchase Frequency in Mulbagal Taluk Frequency Products Income IG1 (n=0) IG2 (n=0) Dosa/ Idli mix IG3 (n=0) IG4 (n=2) Overall (n=2) IG1 (n=6) IG2 (n=5) Pickles IG3 (n=7) IG4 (n=6) Overall (n=24) IG1 (n=6) IG2 (n=5) Sambar masala IG3 (n=7) IG4 (n=6) Overall (n=24) group Weekly 3 (50.83) 1 (14.Table 4.00) 3 (42.00) 3 (12.50) 4 (66.00) 3 (12.67) 4 (16.33) 7(29.00) 5 (83.28) 1 (41.28) 1(16.67) Once in a month 2 (40.85) 2 (33.57) 5 (20.50) Fortnightly 3 (50.57) 2 (20.00) 1 (14.33) Once in two months 4(66.67) 4 (16.00) 5 (71.67) Once in three months 3 (60.33) 7 (29.33) 1(20.00) 2 (28.16) 2 (33.67) Note: Figures in parentheses indicate percentages to the number of instant food products users .00) 2 (100.

00) 2 (66.00) 5 (35.00) 1 (50.00) 1 (50.46) Once in a month 1 (25.57) Fortnightly 3 (75.Table 4.00) 2 (50.07) Once in three months 2 (50.00) 5 (38.00) 2 (50.00) 4 (28.18 Products Purchase Frequency in Gudibande Taluk Frequency Products Income group IG1 (n=0) IG2 (n=0) Dosa/ Idli mix IG3 (n=0) IG4 (n=1) Overall (n=1) IG1 (n=4) IG2 (n=4) Pickles IG3 (n=2) IG4 (n=4) Overall (n=14) IG1 (n=4) IG2 (n=4) Sambar masala IG3 (n=2) IG4 (n=3) Overall (n=13) Weekly 3 (75.00) 2 (15.67) 3 (23.71) 1 (50.00) 1 (50.00) 2 (50.00) 1 (25.33) 3 (23.00) 1 (25.71) 1 (25.07) Once in two months 2 (50.00) - Note: Figures in parentheses indicate percentages to the number instant food product users .00) 1 (33.00) 1 (100.38) Occasionally 1 (100.00) 5 (35.

00) IG1 (n=12) 12 (100.00) 6 (75.33) IG1 (n=12) 12 (100.67) 1 (33.57) Note: Figures in parentheses indicate percentages to the number of users .42) 2 (28.72) 3 (27.00) - 8 (72.Table 4.27) IG4 (n=8) 2 (25.00) IG4 (n=3) 2 (66.00) - IG2 (n=8) Pickles IG3 (n=11) 8 (100.00) - 9 (100.00) - IG2 (n=8) Sambar masala IG3 (n=9) 8 (100.19 Sources of Purchase of Instant food Products in Bangarpet Taluk Purchased from Products Income groups Retail shop Departmental stores IG1 (n=0) - - IG2 (n=0) Dosa/ mix Idli IG3 (n=1) - - - 1 (100.00) - IG4 (n=7) 5 (71.

50) 1 (12.00) - IG2 (n=5) Sambar masala IG3 (n=8) 5 (100.00) Note: Figures in parentheses indicate percentages to the number of users .Table 4.00) 1 (50.00) IG1 (n=6) 6 (100.00) - 7 (87.00) - 5 (100.00) 2 (25.20.00) - IG2 (n=5) Pickles IG3 (n=5) 5 (100.00) 1 (20. Sources of Purchase of Instant food Products in Mulbagal Taluk Purchased from Products Income groups Retail shop Departmental stores IG1 (n=0) - - IG2 (n=0) Dosa/ Idli mix IG3 (n=0) - - - - IG4 (n=2) 1 (50.50) IG4 (n=5) 4 (80.00) - IG4 (n=8) 6 (75.00) IG1 (n=6) 6 (100.

00) - IG1 (n=4) 4 (100.00) - IG2 (n=4) Pickles IG3 (n=4) 4 (100.Table 4.00) - 4 (100.00) - IG1 (n=4) 4 (100.00) - IG4 (n=2) 2 (100.00) - IG4 (n=3) 3 (100.21 Sources of Purchase of Instant food Products in Gudibande Taluk Purchased from Products Income groups Retail shop Departmental stores IG1 (n=0) - - IG2 (n=0) Dosa/ Idli mix IG3 (n=0) - - - - IG4 (n=1) 1 (100.00) - IG2 (n=4) Sambar masala IG3 (n=4) 4 (100.00) - 4 (100.00) - Note: Figures in parentheses indicate percentages to the number of users .

25) 11 (28.41) 4 (10.00) Overall (n=39) 22 (56.50) 2 (33.00) 2 (50.18) 4 (36.00) IG4 (n=4) 2 (50.56) 1 (2.00) - - - - - 1 (25.33) - - - - 1 (25.00) Gudibande (n=60) IG2 (n=4) 4 (100.57) 2 (33.67) 3 (25.42) (n=60) IG4 (n=6) 3 (50.42) 2 (14.00) Overall (n=14) 10 (71.00) IG3 (n=7) 5 (71.00) 1 (7.Table 4.33) - 2 (28.00) Overall (n=24) 16 (66.67) IG1 (n=4) 2 (50.00) 1 (12.56) IG1 (n=6) 4 (66.00) IG3 (n=11) 5 (45.67) - 6 (25.22 Decision Makers of Instant Food Consumption in Different Income Groups Taluks Decision makers IG1 (n=12) House wives 7 (58.33) 2 (16.00) 2 (25.00) Bangarpet (n=60) IG2 (n=8) 6 (75.50) 1 (12.20) 1 (2.14) - - - - - - - - Note: Figures in parentheses indicate percentages to the number of users .00) IG3 (n=2) 2 (100.36) IG4 (n=8) 4 (50.33) 1 (16.00) - - - - 1 (20.00) 2 (8.28) 1 (7.67) Mulbagal IG2 (n=5) 4 (80.45) 2 (18.14) Husband Husband and wife Jointly Elders in the family All the family members 2 (25.

00) 1 (33.00) 11 (33.33) Low (Upto 4) 2 (66.12) Products Income groups Note: Figures in parentheses indicate percentages to the number of users .27) 3 (37.00) 3 (50.75) 3 (30.50) 3 (50.00) 7 (21.00) 3 (27.00) 4 (80.33) 2 (50.37) 5 (33.00) 18 (55.42) 14 (43.00) 5 (71.27) 3 (37.54) Medium (5-8) 1 (100.00) 4 (50.00) 4 (12.57) 11 (34.33) 2 (25.Table 4.00) 1 (20.23 Brand loyalty of Consumers towards Instant Food Products in Bangarpet taluk Loyalty status High (9-12) IG1 (n=0) IG2 (n=0) Dosa/Idli mix IG3 (n=1) IG4 (n=3) Overall (n=4) IG1 (n=11) IG2 (n=8) Pickles IG3 (n=6) IG4 (n=7) Overall (n=32) IG1 (n=10) IG2 (n=8) Sambar masala IG3 (n=5) IG4 (n=6) Overall (n=33) 3 (27.67) 2 (50.50) 3 (50.00) 5 (45.00) 2 (28.87) 2 (13.33) 2 (25.45) 2 (25.00) 3 (50.

00) 1 (50.00) 11 (57.52) Products Income groups Note: Figures in parentheses indicate percentages to the number of users .00) 2 (100.00) 4 (80.00) 2 (50.00) 8 (50.24 Brand loyalty of Consumers towards Instant Food Products in Mulbagal taluk Loyalty status High (9-12) IG1 (n=0) IG2 (n=0) Dosa/ Idli mix IG3 (n=1) IG4 (n=1) Overall (n=2) IG1 (n=5) IG2 (n=4) Pickles IG3 (n=2) IG4 (n=5) Overall (n=16) IG1 (n=5) IG2 (n=4) Sambar masala IG3 (n=5) IG4 (n=5) Overall (n=19) 3 (75.00) 4 (80.25) 2 (40.00) 3 (18.00) 1 (25.00) 1 (20.00) 2 (50.00) 1 (20.00) 5 (31.00) 2 (40.00) 1 (20.00) 2 (10.57) Medium (5-8) Low (Upto 4) 3 (60.00) 1 (50.00) 6 (31.00) 1 (100.89) 1 (100.00) 4 (80.75) 2 (40.00) 1 (20.Table 4.

67) 1 (100.00) 1 (33.00) 4 (44.00) 1 (100.00) 3 (100.11) 1 (25.00) 5 (55.67) 2 (22.44) Medium (5-8) 1 (100.33) 6 (66.Table 4.00) 4 (100.00) Low (Upto 4) - Products Income groups Note: Figures in parentheses indicate percentages to the number of users .55) 1 (11.22) 1 (100.25 Brand loyalty of Consumers towards Instant Food Products in Gudibande taluk Loyalty status High (9-12) IG1 (n=0) IG2 (n=0) Dosa/ Idli mix IG3 (n=0) IG4 (n=1) Overall (n=1) IG1 (n=2) IG2 (n=4) Pickles IG3 (n=0) IG4 (n=3) Overall (n=9) IG1 (n=1) IG2 (n=4) Sambar masala IG3 (n=1) IG4 (n=3) Overall (n=9) 2 (66.000 3 (75.00) 2 (100.

30 3. not good colour (3.00).94).88). In case of Sambar masala. not good colour (2. poor brand image (3.90 3.10 3. On the whole. in Gudibande taluk also. less keeping quality (3.10). In the same way. poor taste (4.00 .30). poor brand image (2. it accounts to 44.88 3.00) were the reasons for not preferring a particular brand during their purchases of Instant food products. no low loyalty users were found for sambar masala.66) to high price followed by poor taste (3.34). poor quality (4.05).34 2.05 2. the respondents fastened more mean score to high price (4. subsequently poor taste (4.67 per cent and 11. poor brand image (2.00 2.79 2.55 per cent of them belonged to medium loyalty group. and poor flavour (2. 66.66 3.3) accordingly as the reasons for not preferring a particular brand during their purchases of Instant food products.66 2.79 Gudibande (n=10) 4.11 per cent of respondents as high.11). poor quality (3.94 4.66) and poor flavour (2.10). Similarly. cent per cent of IG1. Mulbagal taluk users affixed highest mean score based on their importance to high price (4. Table 4.25 illustrates the results on brand loyalty of instant food consumers in Gudibande taluk.33 per cent IG4 were considered as medium brand loyal and about 66.Table 4. On the whole.3. However. inconvenient packaging (3. It was revealed from the table that.10). inconvenient packaging (3.10 2. medium and low loyalty categories respectively.44 per cent of consumers were in high and 55. Whereas in case of pickles.78).67 per cent of IG4 were belonged as high brand loyalty group.74 3.90). cent per cent of IG4 respondents were the purchasers of Dosa/Idli mix and all belonged to medium brand loyalty group and hence no low and high loyalty purchasers were found in the product.22 per cent. not good colour (2. 4.16).26 Reasons for not preferring particular brand of Product Statements Poor Quality Poor taste High price Poor brand image Inconvenient package Poor flavour Not good colour Less keeping quality Bangarpet (n=32) 3.26 presents the reasons for not preferring a particular brand by the respondents of selected taluks of the Kolar district using Likert scaling technique and the scores given by the respondents are analyzed and presented in the table.10 4.97).2 Reasons for not Preferring Particular Brand of Product Table 4. poor quality (4.11 4.41 2. In Bangarpet taluk. cent per cent in IG1 and IG2 consumers constituted to medium brand loyal and cent per cent each in IG3 and IG4 belonged to high brand loyalty category.30 4.30) inconvenient packaging (3.47) and poor flavour (2.97 3.41) as the reasons based on their importance. 75 per cent of IG2 and 33. for not preferring a particular brand in the purchase of Instant food products.74). the respondents attached highest mean score (4. less keeping quality (3. less keeping quality (4.79).47 3.78 Taluks Mulbagal (n=19) Mean scores 4.16 4. it accounts to 22.79).30 4.

36 per cent of IG1 and 37.63).5 per cent each). 66. 50 per cent of IG1 and IG2 households respectively.57 per cent of IG4 households but local brands were used by 36.33 per cent of IG3 and 28.81).95).63) and convenience (4.67 per cent of IG4 consumers used MTR brand which accounts to 50 per cent on the whole.44). Cent per cent of IG1. 4. IG2. about 9. It could be seen from table that only IG3 (100 %) and IG4 (66.50 per cent.50 per cent. about 50 per cent each of IG4 respondents used MTR and Aashirvaad brands of Dosa/Idli mix. 20 per cent and 33.10 per cent in overall but across different income groups.89). about 33.09 per cent of IG1. 50 per cent each of IG2. In addition to this. 50 per cent of IG3 and 40 per cent of IG4 used Chinnis brand. readily available (4. Everest brand was used by 25 per cent of IG2 and 33.69). Similarly.50 per cent of IG2.67 %) respondents used MTR brand of Dosa/Idli mix. 20 per cent of IG1. IG3 and IG4 respondents used local brands. 40 per cent of IG3 and 80 per cent of IG4 preferred this brand.33 per cent of IG4 purchased MN and MTR brands. good brand image (3.63). attractive packaging design (3. 40 per cent and 50 per cent of IG1.29 presents the different brand users of instant food products in Gudibande taluk wherein cent per cent of IG4 respondents purchased MTR brand of Dosa/Idli mix. respectively.53). reasonable price (3.33 per cent of IG2 users but 100 per cent of IG1 gone for local brands. In the same way.50). advertisements (3. 20 per cent. readily available (4.67 per cent each of IG2 and IG4 preferred Chinnis brand.38).52 per cent across different income groups. local brands of pickles were used by 20 per cent. 40 per cent of IG3 and 25 per cent of IG2 used Everest brand only.2 Factors Influencing Brand Preference of Instant Food Products Table 4. In case of pickles. IG3 and IG4.50 per cent of IG2. good packaging (3.33 per cent of IG4. accounting to 20 per cent on the whole. Priya pickles was consumed by 9. 37. 40 per cent of IG1. in Gudibande taluk also the respondents affixed more mean score (5 per cent each) to best quality and retailers influence followed by ready availability and convenience (4.85 per cent of IG4 respondents used MN brand only. attractive packaging design (3.50 per cent of IG2.34) and as the factors based on their importance for preferring a particular brand in the purchase of Instant food products. local brands were used by 26. respectively.2) were the factors that influenced brand preference during their purchases of instant food products. retailer’s influence (4.91) to best quality followed by retailers influence (4. Everest brand was consumed by 20 per cent of IG1.33 per cent of IG4 respondents used Aashirvaad brand.41) and advertisements (3. Priya brand was used by 33.28). About 40 per cent of IG1. Whereas in case of Sambar masala. 33.00) and good packaging (3. Mulbagal taluk respondents contemplated highest mean score based on there importance to best quality (4.37) and good packaging (3. excellent brand was used by only 10. IG2. In the case of Sambar masala.45 per cent of IG1.27. and 40 per cent each of IG3 and 16.31 per cent of consumes in the taluk. MTR brand was preferred by 28.09 per cent and 33. And about 40 per cent. 33. However. In overall. In pickles. In Bangarpet taluk. Brand image (4.4. 12.00) were the other factors influencing brand preference during their purchases of Instant food products. good brand image (3. 25 per cent of IG2. Only 10 and 12. In Mulbagal (Table 4. IG3 and 60 per cent of IG4 households used MN brand. reasonable price (3.95). the respondents attached highest mean score (4. 37.57 per cent of IG4 consumers.50 per cent of IG1 and IG2 purchased Excellent and Eastern brands of Sambar masala. Table 4. 37. 25 per cent of IG2. 25 per cent of IG2 consumers used local brands constituting for 30 per cent.4. respectively opted for MTR brand.67 per cent of IG4 households. The Chinnis brand of pickle was used by 45. convenience (4.33 per cent IG1.33 per cent of IG1 and IG3 consumers.30 presents the factors influencing brand preference of instant food products by the respondents of selected taluks of the Kolar district using Likert scaling technique and the scores given by the respondents are analyzed and presented in the table. About 20 per cent of IG4. MTR brand accounts to 42. 50 per cent of IG2. In the case of pickles.47). On the whole. but only 10 per cent of IG1 respondents used Swastik brand. cent per cent of IG3 and 66. In sambar masala. . cent per cent of IG3 and 33.33 per cent of IG3 and 42. Whereas.4 BRAND COMPOSITION OF INSTANT FOOD PRODUCTS Purchase behaviour of differentbrands of instant food products across income groups in Bangarpet taluk are presented in Table 4.

50) 2 (6.33) Overall (n=4) 3 (75.00) 2 (40.33) 2 (33.00) 4 (40.68) 1 (3.50) 3 (37.25) 7 (21.85) 2 (28.00) 1 (20.00) IG2 (n=0) IG2 (n=8) 2 (25.09) IG1 (n=10) 2 (20.00) 3 (37.33) IG4 (n=7) 3 (42.00) 1 (16.50) 3 (37.27 Purchased behaviour of different brands of Instant Food Products in Bangarpet Taluk Income Groups IG1 (n=0) IG1 (n=11) MN Chinnis Pickles MTR Local brand Ruchi Priya MTR Everest Sambar masala Excellent Eastern Local Brand Swastik 1 (9.45) 4 (36.50) IG2 (n=8) 3 (37.57) IG4 (n=6) 3 (50.00) 2 (20.67) 1 (33.44) 10 (34.00) 1 (10.00) 1 (10.33) IG3 (n=5) 2 (40.50) 1 (12.00) Overall (n=32) 8 (25.50) IG3 (n=1) 1 (100.48) 1 (3.09) 5 (45.67) 2 (33.44) Products Dosa/ Idli mix MTR Brands Aashirvaad Note: Figures in parentheses indicate percentages to the number of users .00) IG4 (n=3) 2 (66.87) 3 (9.00) IG3 (n=6) 2 (33.33) 2 (33.50) 1 (12.48) 6 (20.00) 1 (25.36) 1 (9.57) 2 (28.37) Overall (n=29) 10 (34.Table 4.44) 1 (3.00) 12 (37.

00) 2 (20.Table 4.33) IG4 (n=3) 2(66.67) 1(33.00) IG1 (n=2) MTR Sambar masala Everest Local Brand 2 (100.00 ) 1 (10.00) 2 (20.00) 3 (30.00) 1 (25.00) 4 (40.00) Note: Figures in parentheses indicate percentages to the number of users .00) IG2 (n=0) IG2 (n=3) 2 (66.00) 1 (10.67) 1 (33.29 Purchased behaviour of different brands of Instant Food Products in Gudibande Taluk Income Groups Products Brands IG1 (n=0) Dosa/ Idli mix MTR IG1 (n=2) MN Chinnis Pickles MTR Local brand Priya 2 (100.67) 1(33.00) Overall (n=10) 2 (20.00) Overall (n=10) 5 (50.00) IG3 (n=0) IG3 (n=2) 2 (100.33) Overall (n=1) 1 (100.00) IG3 (n=1) 1 (100.00) IG4 (n=3) 2(66.33) IG2 (n=4) 2 (50.00) 1 (25.00) IG4 (n=1) 1(100.

90 Attractive Packaging Design 3.47 4.63 3.53 3.50 Readily Available 4.91 4.89 4.20 Advertisement 3.50 Good Packaging 3.00 Retailers Influence 4.00 Good Brand Image 3.Table 4.30 Factors Influencing Brand Preference of Instant Food Products Taluks Statements Bangarpet (n=32) Mulbagal (n=19) Gudibande (n=10) Mean scores Best Quality 4.38 4.81 4.00 3.00 Reasonable Price 3.44 3.63 3.50 .63 4.95 5.50 3.80 Convenience 4.34 3.95 5.41 3.69 4.37 3.

1 kg/month in Bangarpet.14. Both intercepts and slope coefficients were significant and ‘F’ value was 4.2 kg/month for sambar masala.855.335 F-value 4. Whereas.46 kg/month Dosa/Idli mix. In case of pickles.05431) 0.2 Demand Potential for Instant Food Products The potential demand for the Instant Food Products was estimated using the total population in the study area and per capita consumption of instant food products.4 kg/month for Bangarpet taluk. For the district as a whole. 13.153.00015) Mothly family income b2 0.145. the estimated demand was 89.434 kg/month for Bangarpet taluk.4. the estimated demand for Dosa/Idli mix was 33.149 0. 17578. it was anticipated as 42.14837 ** (0. which itself indicated less demand for this product in the rural areas.60 and indicated overall significance. In the case of sambar masala.000006 (0.00001) 0.0023) 0. for pickles.03 kg/month for Mulbagal taluk and 604.65 kg/month for Gudibande taluk. The estimated linear regression equation for pickles and sambar masala was presented in Table 4.28 kg/month for Gudibande taluk. Similarly. except number of family members other variables such as price and monthly family income considered were found to be statistically non-significant.000003 * (0.5. respectively.906 kg/month. Mulbagal and Gudibande.5 DEMAND POTENTIAL FOR INSTANT FOOD PRODUCTS 4.85. 4. 2. the estimated demand was 78.986.32 that.31.1438 Prices b1 0.0027 (0.00536) R 0.878 kg/month and 1.15 which indicated overall significance of the equation.157 11.8 kg/month for Mulbagal taluk and 2021. Here the ‘F’ value was 11. Table 4.605 Note: Figures in parantheses indicate standard error for respective coefficients * indicate significant at 1% level ** indicate significant at 5% level . in the case of sambar masala.000001) Number of family members 2 b3 0.8 kg/month for pickles and 1. monthly family income and number of family members found to be statistically significant.31 Estimated equation of demand for Instant Food Products in Kolar District Estimates Parameters Pickles Sambar masala Intercept 0. It could be inferred from the table Table 4.5.01623 ** (0.00002 (0.1 Factors influencing on demand for Instant Food Products The linear regression equation for Dosa/Idli mix was not adopted in the present study as sample of respondents or users of this product obtained in the selected taluks of the kolar district were very insignificant (7 in number) since the study concentrated on rural population.922. 3. However demand was estimated using per capita consumption of the users and population.451.57674 0.

578.986.40 Mulbagal 3.834.145.2 .3 District 78.8 1.434 89.28 Total 21.Table 4.03 13.855.878 17.14.502.80 Gudibande 604.922.14 514.1 2.76 58.021.85.65 1451.906 42.32 Potential Demand for Instant Food Products Products Taluks Dosa/Idli mix (Kg/month) Pickles (kg/month) Sambar masala (kg/month) Bangarpet 33.153.46 2.

respectively. 6894 and Rs. Rs.67 per cent. IG2. respectively in the selected taluks of Kolar district.5 per cent and 16.1.3 Awareness of Consumers towards Instant Food Products It was evident from Table 4. 56. The proportion was 26. The majority of the households in all the income groups of different taluks were nuclear families.1 Awareness of consumers towards Instant Food Products 5. on the overall.67 per cent each and 10 per cent in IG1.67 per cent and 13. 7000 and Rs. very small per cent of the respondents in IG3 (22. The average age of the decision makers was varied from 34 years to 38 years.56 per cent. among different income groups. 42 per cent in IG2. the Dosa/Idli mix was prepared by their own. In case of pickles and sambar masala. Under food habit classification. However. 15500 in Mulbagal taluk and it was Rs. 14750 in Gudibande taluk in IG1. The average family size varied from 4 to 6 members per family across different income groups in all the taluks. It is because of the reason that in almost all the rural areas. DISCUSSION The results of the investigation presented in the previous chapter are discussed in this chapter under the following heads. 4045. Rs.67 per cent and 46. IG2. IG3 and IG4.67 per cent of the respondents of Bangarpet. majority of the selected respondents were belonged to agriculture and allied activities as the study was conducted in rural areas and hence most of them in all the income groups were belonged to this category only. IG3 and IG4 were 25 per cent. More than 12 per cent of IG1. about 12. 31 per cent of IG2. Rs. 2366.3 Brand loyalty of consumers of Instant Food products 5. and the same reason may hold good in this area also. 31. 80 per cent of IG1.5. it was more than 73 per cent in IG1.2) revealed that the average family income of households were Rs. 35.1 Income wise distribution of households From Table 4. 7075 and Rs. IG2.2 Factors influencing the consumption of Instant Food products 5. IG3 and IG4 was 25. 35 per cent.67 per cent. 40 per cent in IG2. 78 per cent of IG2.1. 26.4 Brand composition of Instant Food products 5.56 per cent. It was observed that there was a positive relationship between income of the households and their education and family size. 75 per cent of IG3 and 83 per cent of IG4 households across different taluks were nonvegetarians and the remaining were vegetarians. the proportion was 25 per cent in IG1.3 that the awareness of consumers about Instant food products across different income groups.78 per cent in IG4 were aware of this product availability in the market. Rs.5 Demand potential for Instant Food Products 5.89 per cent in IG1 and 7. In case of Gudibande. However. 5. whereas Rs. more than.1 AWARENESS OF CONSUMERS TOWARDS INSTANT FOOD PRODUCTS 5. Mulbagal and Gudibande taluks were aware of the Dosa/Idli mix product availability in the market. the proportion of sample households in IG1.78 per cent) followed by 17. 32 to 37 years and 32 to 34 years in Bangarpet.1. With regard to occupation. IG2.22 per cent in IG2. 8.89 per cent and 10 per cent. However. at an overall. Rs.1. 43 per cent of IG3 were found to be housewives across different taluks. 4552. it was evident that a majority of sample households in IG1.33 per cent in IG3 and 25 per cent in IG4. 16000 in Bangarpet taluk. 28. about 66. in Bangarpet taluk.2 Socio-economic characteristics of different Income groups An examination of general characteristics of the respondents of different taluks (Table 4. 2246.33 per cent respectively. 5. cent per cent of the respondents in all the taluks . 28. Mulbagal and Gudibande taluks. 5. 2312. Rs. IG3 and IG4 respectively in Mulbagal taluk. respectively. 20 per cent in IG3 and 50 per cent in IG4 of Bangarpet. 4300.67 per cent of IG4 in Bangarpet and Mulbagal were housewives. Mulbagal and Gudibande taluks respectively were depended on agri and allied activities.

67%) and Orkay brand (6. 73.33.and across income groups were aware about these selected instant food products due to their common and traditional usage of these products. The local. almost all the brands were aware among IG4 respondents.33 per cent of respondents followed by Iyengar’s brand (31. The other brands such as MTR. In Bangarpet. Orkay and Eastern brands among the Instant food products. With regard to pickles. respectively) were aware of MTR brand only. In sambar masala.67 of IG4. majority of (41. majority of respondents (55 per cent) were aware of Chinnis brand followed by MN brand (48. Among different income groups.67 per cent of respondents were aware of MTR and Aashirvaad brands of Dosa/ Idli mix. Orkay and local brands were aware among small per cent of the respondents.05 and 16. . In case of sambar masala. With regard to pickles. awareness of MTR and Everest brands were very popular among more than half of the respondents. The other brands like Excellent.33. However. Eastern. family members and relatives and friends.67%) based on their product availability and popularity in the area. In the case of Mulbagal. Eastern brand and Orkay brands were known to small portion of the consumers of the Instant food products in the taluk. IG3 and IG2 respectively. In addition to these brands. Priya and Ruchi brands were knew to 30 per cent. 48. IG4.00 and 43. 78. 83.33 %. majority (61.57 and 25 per cent of the respondents were also aware of MN brand.33. More than half of the respondents in IG3 were conscious of MTR and Everest brands. In addition to this.4 that the brand awareness of different products in all the selected taluks of Kolar district.33 per cent of IG4 and 21. in contrast. 75 per cent. The brands like Everest. IG2 and IG1 respondents.76 per cent of IG2 respondents only. The other local brands. Excellent brand (18. More than 50 per cent of respondents in different income groups were aware of Chinnis brand and MN brand was familiar among more than 70 per cent of the IG3 and IG4 respondents. MTR. Excellent and Swasthik were familiar among IG2 respondents in their higher order. most of IG1 respondents (53. 47. majority of respondents (70 %. Excellent. 73. 5. Swastik.67%) were known to the consumers of Instant food products because of their popularity in the study area. 38. 46.33%). The other brands like Excellent.47. Ruchi.75 per cent of the consumers in IG3.67 %and 10%) of respondents were aware of MTR and Aashirvaad brands of Dosa/Idli mix only.67 per cent and 11.05 of IG3 respondents. IG3 and IG2.33%) were aware of Chinnis.67%). IG4 and IG1 accordingly in Mulbagal.67 per cent of IG3. 13.33 per cent each aware of MTR and Iyengar’s brands. 33.33 per cent) were sentient of local brands due to the fact that the consumers in the rural areas think that branded items were expensive than the local one. 50. The Chinnis brand was familiar among 89. 8. Priya and local brands were known to more than half of the IG4 respondents. Ruchi and local brands were familiar with less than 35 per cent of the respondents. It may be attributed to the fact that in almost all the areas MTR brand was popular among instant food products rather than any other brands. Priya. Ruchi and local brands were popular in this area and hence used by few consumers. The study conducted by Yee and Young (2004) on food industry awareness of the high fat content of pies shows that the major sources of brand awareness were word of mouth followed by advertisements.4 Brand Awareness of Consumers about Instant Food Products It was noticed from Table 4.09 per cent and 6. local. MN and MTR brands. Everest brand was well known to 43. But among income groups most (83. Similar results were noticed in Gudibande taluk also wherein.50 per cent of IG4 and 4.1. Iyengar’s. 31. The other brands like Priya. Iyengar’s.68.33 per cent of the respondents and 33. respectively were aware of MTR brand only. With regards to pickles. Swastik brand (11. The brands like Chinnis.67 per cent of the consumers respectively. 21. MN and MTR. Swasthik.33 per cent of the respondents were aware of Swastik. Among different income groups most of them (81. the respondents knew only MTR brand of Dosa/Idli mix however. local brands (30%).67%) of respondents were aware of Chinnis brand followed by MN brand (33.33 %.33%). IG2.67 per cent and 6. MTR and Everest brands were found to be popular among 58. All the respondents of IG3 and IG4 respondents in the taluk were aware of MTR and Everest brands. Aashirvaad brand was known to 37. and Priya brands were known to few higher income group consumers as they are highly advertised through various mass media. MTR. 5 and 3.33%) and MTR brand (41. the per cent across different income groups was 75. In case of sambar masala.94. MTR and Priya brands were popularly known among few portions of the consumers.57%) of the respondents in IG4.25 per cent. Except Swastik brand. Aashirvaad was known to 33.68 %and 31.

due to the conventional and routine usage of this product.11%). the study conducted by Ragavan (1994) . The other factors considered while using Dosa/Idli mix were likeliness of their family members and availability of quality products by 75 per cent each and cent per cent each of the respondents in Bangarpet and Mulbagal taluk. as these products are also available in small sachets with less prices. Mulbagal and Gudibande taluks respectively. most (73. 11. The other factors such as ready availability and save time of preparation were considered by cent per cent of Mulbagal and Gudibande and 83.11%) of the consumers consumed both brand and unbranded products. Differences in taste between home made and purchased product was the reason for not using Dosa/Idli mix.78 per cent and 54. availability of products at reasonable price and availability of quality products were quoted by few respondents. these products are prepared in home. A small portion (1. In case of pickles.3 Factors Considered for Purchasing Instant Food Products It was noticed from the Table 4.22 per cent of Bangarpet taluk consumers respectively. 47. In case of sambar masala.89 per cent of respondents were not purchased these products because of disliking by their family members.78 per cent and 41.11 per cent and 19.2.33 per cent and 61. if. Pickles and Sambar masala respectively were not purchased these products because of their low cost of preparation.56 per cent of respondents of Dosa/Idli mix. At an overall. Dosa/ idli mix.1. About 34. Very meager of 3. 83. 24.92 per cent of Gudibande consumers used as it is necessary ingradient for preparations. 5.10 that the major factors considered while purchasing Dosa/Idli mix were ready availability and save time of preparation by cent per cent users in Bangarpet.1 Factors influencing consumers in usage of Instant food products 5. 75 per cent and 57. brand and own preparation (5%) and both brand and unbranded products (1. Only 6.7 that 66. cent per cent of Bangarpet. more than half of the consumers prepared their own because of easy availability of raw materials like mango and lemon.67 per cent. And only 11.43% each) in Bangarpet taluk and the same factor was considered by cent per cent of Mulbagal taluk and Gudibande taluk consumers.8 to 4.2 FACTORS INFLUENCING CONSUMPTION OF INSTANT FOOD PRODUCTS 5.44 per cent of the respondents. The other factors such as traditional usage. maximum of 59.1 User Categories of Instant Food Products From Table 4.11%). 52. respectively.53 per cent of Bangarpet. Subsequently. pickles and sambar masala by 52. Mulbagal and 76. Mulbagal and Gudibande taluks respectively. High price was the reason for not consuming the same products by 91.67 per cent of respondents accordingly. About 41. Mulbagal and Gudibande consumers respectively. 5. However. It was noteworthy to mention that all the respondents of IG1 and IG2 were prepared this product in their home only. And availability of products at reasonable price was also considered by 69.43 % of IG2 and 65.22 per cent and 48.1.44 per cent of respondents prepared own sambar masala followed by only branded (26.78 per cent of IG1 and 50 per cent of IG4 were used branded products only because of their availability in small sachets with good taste.22 per cent and 55.2.33 per cent and 97.2.1. habit of usage was also one of the factors considered by 77 per cent. tastes liked by family members.5.67 per cent.2.14 per cent consumers of Bangarpet.98 per cent mostly of the higher income groups preferred branded product along with their own preparation.11 per cent of consumers were not purchasing Dosa/Idli mix due to lack of awareness about the product availability in market. only unbrand (8.67 per cent.11 per cent) of respondents across Kolar district prepared Dosa/Idli mix in their home only as the product is prepared and consumed traditionally in the district and also it is easy to prepare in the home.44 per cent used only branded products.67 per cent used branded products along with own preparation. 52.44 per cent each of the consumers.6 it was observed that majority (96. The factors considered for using pickles were tastes liked by family members and save time of preparation (97.38 % of IG3) were used home made products only as these products were prepared in required quantity at once and it involves low cost too.33%). In case of Sambar masala. pickles and sambar masala were not purchased due to non-availability of these products by 19.44 per cent.2 Reasons for not Purchasing Instant Food Products It was revealed from the Table 4.44 per cent. Similar to these results.

33 for sambar masala in Mulbagal. Rs.13.2.50 per cent and 92.33). .2 Consumption Pattern of Instant Food Products 5.13 in IG3.33 in IG2 and Rs. Rs. However.68 and Rs.247.2 Purchase and Consumption of Instant Food Products The Table 4.32 by Bangarpet.2528.4841. This is because the purchasers have more faith and belief among themselves rather than any other sources.32 in IG3. 5.492. Rs. And the expenditure on this product was Rs.76 in IG2 and Rs.30 per cent and 61. Rs.123. These results were coincides with the results obtained by the Kubendran and Vanniarajan (2005) while studying the change in consumption pattern due to changes in food habits.16 per cent and 78. It can be noticed from the tables that.17 per cent for pickles and 91.28 per cent.50.50) followed by IG3 (Rs. Rs.4362.2783. The amount spent on instant food products in all the taluks (Bangarpet. Similar trend was noticed with respect to total monthly expenditure. cent per cent each preferred retail shop and TV/radio advertisements for pickles and 92.07 and Rs. the per capita purchase was highest in Bangarpet consumers (0. on an average the percentage share of instant food products in the total expenditure of households was 16. 15. newspaper/magazine and TV/radio advertisements as their sources of information and the percentage was less than five per cent since almost all the respondents prepared this product in their home.11 that majority of the consumers of pickles and sambar masala preferred retail shop as the major source of information as the sellers themselves influence and motivate the consumers to opt for these products while making purchase followed by TV/radio advertisements as these are the common mass medias existing in almost all the households in all the selected taluks.1609.281.57 per cent of pickles and 88.30 per cent of sambar masala products in Bangarpet. Apart from this friends/relatives were also the major sources of information for these products by 66.67 per cent.3526.13 to 4.30 per cent and 87.84 per cent in Bangarpet. Mulbagal and Gudibande taluk consumers respectively.2.2. It could be observed that.67 in IG4. which had a positive relationship with income.33 per cent for sambar masala consumers in Bangarpet.63 and Rs. 50.67 and 58. whereas in case of Gudibande. As the monthly income increases.16 and 87.89 per cent.272.2694.33.69 kg/capita/month) and Mulbagal (0. availability and price were the important factors.90.07 kg/capita/month) followed by Mulbagal (0. Mulbagal and Gudibande taluk consumers respectively.238.04 kg/capita/month) and Gudibande (0. the per centage of income spent on consumption increases.33 in IG1 in Bangarpet.15 showed that the per capita purchase and per capita expenditure of Instant Food Products in three taluks.75 in the respective taluks. 52. 54.33 and Rs.65 in IG3. Rs.50 for pickles and 91.457.14.4 Sources of Information It was observed from the Table 4. Rs. 36. which had influenced purchase of vegetables by respondents from modern retail outlet.03 kg/capita/month) because consumers in Bangarpet taluk were highly influenced by urbanization and used more of branded products.185.3495.433.67 per cent and 58.5. They found that if income and urbanization increases among consumers.16 in IG2 and Rs.2.75) and IG1 (Rs.1882 in IG1 in Gudibande taluk.189. 5. the households monthly expenditure also increased and the same thing was noticed in case of Instant food products. Rs.2.348.53 per cent for sambar masala.18). the percentages were 92. Mulbagal and Gudibande consumers respectively. Rs.1780 in IG1 in Mulbagal taluk and Rs. It was noticed that the purchasers proportion were very small in Dosa/Idli mix in all the taluks and most of them were preferred retail shop.50 kg/capita/month) and the per capita expenditure on the same was Rs. In case of pickles.50 in IG4.11 per cent and 14. Rs. Rs.75 and Rs. on the whole the per capita purchase of Dosa/Idli mix was highest (0. wherein the expenditure was Rs.12 that in all the taluks. 5. 1. 87.1.2.1 Consumption pattern of households It could be seen from the Table 4. there exist a positive relationship between household’s monthly expenditure and monthly income.7 kg/capita/month) in Gudibande taluk followed by Bangarpet consumers (0. Mulbagal and Gudibande) was found to be highest in case of IG4 (Rs.3407. The percentage was 79.5080 in IG4.32 and Rs.323. 5. 3. Rs. Rs. IG2 (Rs.shows that quality.

67%) of IG4 consumers purchased once in two months and once in month (33.33%) respectively.67 per cent each purchased once in fortnight and once in two months. in Bangarpet taluk.67 per cent of IG4) consumers of Bangarpet taluk. 23.46 %. It was observed from the table that the only higher income groups purchased Dosa/Idli mix from departmental stores (100 % of IG3 and 33. However. once in two months and three months once respectively. 50 % of IG4 in Mulbagal) and retail shops (66. the per capita purchase was same (0.2 Sources for Purchase of Instant Food Products by Different Income Groups The sources for purchase of instant food products in the study area are presented in Table 4. The frequency of purchase in IG3 and IG4 was once in two months and three months as the consumers in these groups purchase products at once in bulk. 7.16 % and 35. respectively) purchased once in a month followed by (35. the non-availability of branded Dosa/idli mix in convenient packets was the reason quoted by some of the consumers. IG2.44 per cent of IG3 consumers purchased once in a month.89 %. at an overall most of the consumers (38. The frequent purchase of sambar masala by the IG1 consumers may be due to the frequent payments/wages received by these groups as most of them were belonged to labours categories and they purchase products in little quantities as and when needed.3.71 % of Bangarpet.71 % of Bangarpet. once in three months and occasionally.02 and Rs.In the case of sambar masala.57 per cent of IG4 households. about 27.3 Purchase Pattern of Instant Food Products 5. It is attributed to the fact that most of the consumers in rural areas prepared Dosa/Idli mix in their home only as it involves less cost rather than purchasing branded product from the market.16 per cent purchased once in three months and 16.27 per cent of IG3 and 75 per cent of IG4 respondents in Bangarpet.42 per cent of IG3 purchased once in a month and about 40 per cent of IG2 purchased once in two months. cent per cent of IG1. 50 % of IG4 in Mulbagal and 100 of IG4 in Gudibande) as the most of the consumers in the rural area prepare this product in their home only. once in fortnight. IG3 and 71. .33 % of IG4 in Bangarpet. respectively) once in two months. The highest of 83. Mulbagal and Gudibande taluk consumers respectively. With regard to Sambar masala. except 28.33 per cent purchased monthly once. 44.46 per cent.72 per cent of IG3 and 25 per cent of IG4 in Bangarpet.19 to 4.1 Purchase Frequency of Instant Food Products Table 4. Similarly.68. 29. and cent per cent each of IG1.07 per cent each and 15.21 revealed that retail shops and departments stores as the only two sources of purchase of instant food products in the study area. Here also about 75 per cent of IG1 purchased it once in fortnightly.33 per cent of IG4 were purchased once in three months.70 in Bangarpet. 72. cent per cent each of IG1 and IG2. at an overall.38 per cent respondents purchased once in fortnight. With regard to sambar masala. the highest of 75 per cent of IG1 consumers purchased sambar masala once in fortnight. more than half (66. In different income groups.2. in Gudibande. Further.67 % and 35. 33.42 per cent of IG4 respondents in Bangarpet. Few consumers in all income groups also purchased pickles once in a week. 71. cent per cent of IG1 and IG2. the overall purchase frequency was found to be different across taluks. 5. 8. IG3 and 75 per cent IG4 households in Mulbagal and all consumers of Gudibande taluk purchased from retail shops due to the absence of departmental stores in this area. 7.05 kg/capita/month) in all the three taluks with the expenditure of Rs. wherein their purchase frequency was once in three months. Mulbagal and Gudibande taluk. once in a month. once in fortnight. 29.18 depicts the frequency of purchase of instant food products by households in selected taluks of the study area. Rs. It was inferred from the tables that only some of the higher income groups such as IG3 and IG4 consumers in all the taluks in the study area purchased Dosa/Idli mix occasionally. except (100 per cent of IG3 and 66.16 to 4. the product is consumed in little quantity in routine food consumption the purchase quantity and frequency were varied across the consumers. once in month and once in two month purchase was found in 25 per cent each of the households. 16.3. In case of pickles. In case of pickles. 25 per cent of IG4 in Mulbagal bought it from departmental stores. 5. It was also noticed that more than 30 per cent of these consumers belonged to IG4 only but the per cent of consumers in other income group purchased in this frequency were varied drastically. 38. Mulbagal and Gudibande taluk. Since. IG2.2. more than half of the IG4 consumers purchased the product once in three months.67 % of IG4 households in Bangarpet.2. Whereas in case of Mulbagal.

poor brand image and not good colour for not preferring a particular brand during their purchase of instant food products. Otherwise they would naturally continue to purchase the same brand. 43. the study conducted by Shivkumar (2004) showed that the consumer from all the income groups is mainly influenced to purchase by the opinions of their family members.87 per cent (Bangarpet). on the whole. The other important reasons quoted by the consumers in the study area were poor taste and quality.90 in Gudibande) to high price and least mean score to poor flavour (2.26 presents the reasons for not preferring a particular brand by the respondents of selected taluks of the Kolar district.50 per cent of IG3 and 80 per cent of IG4 in Mulbagal. In sambar masala.42 % in Gudibande) and in all the income groups as the housewives sets the consumption pattern of food products in the family. on the whole. Ali (1992) study on brand loyalty and switching pattern of processed fruit and vegetable products in Bangalore city shown Kissan brand of jam. Mulbagal and Gudibande) respectively) as the reasons based on their importance for not preferring a particular brand in purchase of Instant food products as the rational consumer wanted to have good product at cheaper rate. the higher brand loyalty was noticed in sambar masala product only in all the income groups as most of the consumers in all the taluks used MTR brand generally because of its taste. 66. 66. all the consumers in different income groups of Gudibande taluk purchased the sambar masala from retail shops. In case of pickles. Similarly. Maggi brand of ketchup had a maximum brand loyalty among consumers and less amount of brand switching occurred from these brands. 50 per cent. The results obtained by Hans et al (1996) found that brand switching of consumer was based on variety seeking behaviour. .75 per cent (Mulbagal) and 22. 5. In accordance with this result. 5.37 per cent and 21. elders in the family and joint decision by all family members. convenient packaging and reasonable price. less keeping quality. where they belonged to medium loyalty and only 12.3 BRAND LOYALTY OF CONSUMERS OF INSTANT FOOD PRODUCTS It could be inferred from Table 4. In confirmation with this. The respondents attached high mean score (4.20 per cent in Bangarpet.11 per cent (Gudibande) consumers were in high. 5.22 that in all the taluks.22 per cent.67 per cent and 11.75 per cent. medium and low loyalty groups respectively.12 per cent of Bangarpet. 31.14 per cent in Gudibande taluk. on the whole 50 per cent each of the users of Dosa/Idli mix in Bangarpet falls under medium and low brand loyalty group.3.66 in Bangarpet. motivations such as curiosity and price motive. The high brand loyalty in higher income group was noticed due to the fact that they look for tastes rather than prices of the products/ brands.25 that.2 Reasons for not Preferring Particular Brand of Product Table 4. the consumers would naturally prefer to low priced brand.23 to 4. the study conducted by Nagaraj (2004) reported that buying behaviour is very much influenced by experience of their own and of neighbour consumers and his own family and the involvement of his own members are exerting maximum influence on his purchases. 4.00 and 2. housewives were the major decision makers (56.25 per cent and 18. 34.41. 10. The other decision makers in households were grouped as husband alone.52 per cent of Mulbagal consumers were low loyal for sambar masala. The brand loyalty in lower income group was attributed to the availability of convenient packages in small quantities at reasonable prices in some brands.41 % in Bangarpet.30 in Bangarpet. inconvenient packaging.3. 25 per cent in Mulbagal and 7. Husband and wife jointly made decision in consumption of instant food products by 28. about 40 per cent consumers in all the taluks were high loyal followed by more than 30 per cent of consumers.67 % in Mulbagal and 71. Padmanabhan (1999) study on brand loyalty revealed that only when price of the particular brand is comparatively lower to prices of other brand in the market.2. And cent per cent of Mulbagal and Gudibande were considered to be as medium brand loyalty consumers.87. In contrast to other two products.3 Decision Makers of Instant Food Products in Different Income Groups It could be noticed from Table 4.79 in Mulbagal and 4. 2. at an overall.

as the factors for preferring a particular brand in purchase of Instant food products. brands available in sambar masala product were MTR. Brand choice and store loyalty were found to affect the brand loyalty of the consumer. it was 89.68 per cent in Bangarpet taluk. followed by MN brand by 25 per cent.28 kg/month for Gudibande taluk. reasonable price.85 per cent and 28.8 . 214145.45 per cent of IG1 consumers in Bangarpet taluk.95 and 5 in Bangarpet. 50 per cent and 20 per cent of users in Bangarpet.00 in respective taluks) and the least means score was assigned to advertisements (3. 31. the respondents attached highest mean score (4.10 per cent and 21.878 kg/month and 1.2 Factors Influencing Brand Preference of Instant Food Products Table 4. MTR and Everest brands was used by 34. Similarly.95 and 5. In case of Mulbagal taluk. Mulbagal and Gudibande taluk respondents respectively.87 per cent. ready availability.91. the study conducted by Nandagopal and Chinnaiyan (2003) on brand preference of soft drinks in rural Tamil Nadu revealed that the product quality was ranked as first followed by retail price. 17. Mulbagal and Gudibande consumers respectively.32 that the potential demand for Dosa/Idli mix was 33.46 kg/month Dosa/Idli mix.09 per cent and 45.20) in both Mulbagal and Gudibande taluk.57 per cent of IG4.65 kg/month for Gudibande taluk. Mulbagal and Gudibande) to best quality followed by retailers influence (4. Swastik and some local brands. The other important factors influencing the consumers to go for branded products were good brand image. followed by 100 per cent each of IG3 and IG1 used MN brand and local brands of pickles respectively.578. Chinnis.8 kg/month for Mulbagal taluk and 2. The factors that influence and strengthen loyalty to brand were quality of product. 5. 33.4.021. Singh and Singh (1981) found that consumers have single or multi-brand loyalty based on the nature of product like necessities or luxuries. On the whole for the district. Mulbagal and Gudibande.906 kg/month. habit of use and ready and regular availability. Across different income groups.05 per cent in Mulbagal taluk and 50 per cent and 20 per cent in Gudibande taluk consumers.1 kg/month in Bangarpet. the study undertaken by Sheeja (1998) in Coimbatore district inferred that consumers considered the quality aspects like aroma. Among the branded product users most of the IG1 and IG2 consumers used MN.434 kg/month for Bangarpet taluk.33 per cent each of IG3 respondents and 25 per cent and 37. for pickles. 50 per cent each of IG3. 42.4 BRAND COMPOSITION OF INSTANT FOOD PRODUCTS Purchased behaviour of different brands of instant food products across income groups in the study area are shown in Table 4. convenience and attractive packaging designs. In the same line.25 per cent and 40 per cent of Bangarpet.29. MTR. 60 per cent and 40 per cent of IG4. more than half of IG4 and IG2 used Chinnis brand.03 kg/month for Mulbagal taluk and 604.34) in Bangarpet and good packaging (3. on the whole. 4.27 to 4. freshness and purity as the major factors deciding the preference for a particular brand of processed spices.855. 5. Most of the IG4 consumers only preferred and purchased branded Dosa/ Idli mix in the study area. MTR and other local brands of pickles and their per cent varied across taluks. In case of pickles.75 per cent and 20 per cent of the consumers in Bangarpet.48 per cent and 20. Excellent.30 presents the factors influencing brand preference of instant food products by the respondents of selected taluks of the Kolar district using Likert scaling technique. Ruchi.81. MTR brand of Dosa/Idli mix was used by 75 per cent and 50 per cent and 100 per cent each in Bangarpet. MN brand followed by Chinnis brand was consumed by 42. Similar to this study. the anticipated demand was 42. taste. Whereas in Gudibande. 18. on the whole.5. Priya and some local brands were the major brands in pickles. respectively and in sambar masala. 4. In all taluks. It was noticed that at an overall.5 DEMAND POTENTIAL FOR INSTANT FOOD PRODUCTS It could be inferred from Table 4. Chinnis brand was purchased by 37. In addition to this.50 per cent. Similarly in case of sambar masala. Eastern. Everest. and Mulbagal and Gudibande preferred local brands of pickles. 50 per cent of IG2 and 40 per cent of IG1 used MN and Chinnis brand respectively. 3. the estimated demand was 78922.986. and Mulbagal taluk and Gudibande taluk respectively but Aashirvaad brand was used by 25 per cent and 50 per cent users in Bangrpet and Mulbagal.50 per cent of IG2 and 9.4 kg/month for Bangarpet taluk. 13. Similarly. It was revealed from the tables that MTR and Ashirvaad were the major brands available in case of Dosa/Idli mix whereas MN.00 and 3.451. about 21. which influenced the rural consumers of a particular brand of a product. Good quality and availability were the main factors.

. These estimated demands were based on the calculated per capita consumption and prevailing users population in their respective areas.85.2 kg/month for sambar masala.153.kg/month for pickles and 1.

Since. majority of food consumption is still at home. changing lifestyles and increasing level of affluence in the middle income group had brought about changes in food habits. Hence. gulab jamun.com. SUMMARY AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS India is the world’s second largest producer of food next to china and has the potential of being biggest industry with food and agricultural sector contributing 26% of Indian GDP. out-of-home food consumption is increasing due to increase in urbanization. dried foods. instant idli. an attempt was made to examine the buying behaviour.150 crore during the year 2003 and at the end of 2004. as they do not have sufficient time to cook food in the conventional methods. increasing number of working women. iii. fast foods. March 10.600-700million (Indiantelevision. instant products. To study the extent of awareness about Instant Food Products To analyze factors influencing the buying behaviour of Instant Food Products To analyze brand loyalty for Instant Food Products and To study brand composition of Instant Food Products To estimate demand potential for Instant Food Products . it is Rs. ii. iv.441 for food and Rs. Food accounts for the largest share of consumer spending. factors influencing the buying behaviour. i. their popularity is increasing in a slow pace especially in the rural markets due to lack of awareness compared to larger cities where they are widely available and are also more popular. Unlike olden days where man used to have his food lavishly and slowly. all comes under instant foods or ready-to-eat foods. time which translates into an increased need for convenience. 206 for non-food. The specific objectives of the study were. Though there are so many instant foods available in the market. 511 for rural India comprised Rs.350 crore and in March 2007 the size of the Indian ready to eat market is approximately Rs. the demand for instant food products is undergoing a change both in qualitative and quantitative terms. 619 for non-food.305 for food and Rs. GOI). breaking up of the traditional joint family system. brand composition and also estimated demand potential for instant food products. rise in per capita income. “Instant food products which are prepared and packaged often in powdered form are required only the addition of a liquid as water or milk for final preparation” [Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary]. in the present investigation. desire for quality. dosa mix etc… that are otherwise called instant. vada. Instant Food Products came into light. The instant food products are not only easy to cook but also have a significant role and place in the celebration of the family functions and religious functions of the people. convenience foods. For urban population. vermicelli. The food habitats in India have changed due to the Western influence and the usage of these foods is also on the rise. Hence.6. There was a decline in the share of food in total expenditure that is 54 per cent in rural areas compared to 64 per cent in 1987-88 and 42 per cent in urban areas compared to 56 per cent during 1987-88 (National Sample Survey Organization. it was around Rs. equipment and tools but still people were in search of new techniques to speed up the cooking process in order to cope up with mechanical life. Capitalizing this situation. consumption pattern. the existence of these foods fulfilled all the needs of modern human being. 1060 comprised Rs. The advancement of science and technology offered the people new foods processing vessels. Hence. which are simple and easy to digest. 2007). The average monthly per-capita consumer expenditure (MPCE) was Rs. brand loyalty. the present trend changed the habits to foods. frozen foods. which originated in Japan with Instant noodles and had its beginning in India in 80’s. In India. preserved foods. Food and food products account for about 53 per cent of the value of final private consumption. etc. Nevertheless. v. with the rising income levels of the consumers and their changing tastes and preferences. The instant mix market in India was approximately Rs. business houses ranging from small time manufactures to multinational corporations have started innovating and commercializing “easy to cook food items” like noodles. Canned foods. are found today in the kitchen shelves of every Indian household.

Rs. 6894 and Rs. 30 consumers from each hobli.500 respectively in Mulbagal taluk and it was Rs.89 per cent of the respondents. Very meager of 3.22 per cent in IG2.98 per cent preferred branded product along with their own preparation. in selected taluks of the district.246. 7075 and Rs. 4300.300. Rs. 2. 5. 3.56 per cent were conscious of Aashirvaad brand. 15.14. With regard to pickles. cent per cent of the respondents in all the taluks were aware of these two instant food products. Mulbagal and Gudibande taluks.4.78 per cent of consumers prepared their own. IG2.22 per cent) were aware of Chinnis brand followed by MN brand (43. 4.552. 6. Finally. The potential demand for the Instant Food Products was estimated using the total population in the study area and per capita consumption of instant food products. The awareness of consumers about Instant food products across different income groups in different taluks of the district showed that.67 per cent used branded . about 57.89 per cent). 2.The study was carried out in respect of Kolar district. IG3 and IG4 in all the selected taluks was Rs.7. In the next stage two hoblies from each taluk were selected. Classification of households according to their food habit revealed that more than 80 per cent of IG1 and IG4 respondents and more than 75 per cent of IG2 and IG3 were non-vegetarians and remaining were vegetarians in Bangarpet. The average monthly family income of IG1.78 per cent of the respondents were aware of MTR brand only and very meager of 5. Findings of the study The important findings of the study are summarized and suitable conclusions are drawn and presented below.78 per cent) were aware of Dosa/Idli mix product in the market followed by 17. majority of respondents (62. majority (96. Rs. 2. households were grouped into four income groups. The general characteristics of the 180 households revealed that majority (35.56 per cent) of households belonged to income groups IG2. Rs.33 per cent) and MTR brand (23.000 and Rs. In case of sambar masala.11 per cent) of respondents prepared Dosa/Idli mix in their home only. A multi-stage sampling technique was followed to collect data.750 respectively in Gudibande taluk. awareness of Everest and MTR brands were highest accounting to 50. Based on economic status of the rural population in the study area. medium and low population. small proportion of the respondents in IG3 (22. The overall brand awareness of consumers about the Dosa/ Idli mix across selected taluks revealed that about 37. Rs. The user categories of different Instant food products across different income groups in the study area presented that in case of Dosa/Idli mix.56 per cent and 48. 1. totally accounting to 180 samples were selected and data were collected from the housewives in the case of households.000 respectively in Bangarpet. 2312. 16. simple averages and percentages were calculated. as they are the one’s who normally set the consumption patterns in the family. 4. To study the awareness of consumers and factors influencing the consumption of Instant Food Products. In case of pickles.56 per cent) and IG4 (10 per cent) in the study area. Likert Scaling technique was employed to study the factors influencing the brand preferences and reasons for not preferring the particular brand by the consumers of instant food products. as the district was familiar to the researcher and also assuming that district is highly influenced by ever changing environment of metropolitan city Bangalore.78 per cent in IG4. To measure the brand loyalty of consumers towards instant food products scaling was used. Rs. while IG3 comprised of 28. A sample of 180 households was choosen randomly from three selected taluks of the districts namely Bangarpet. Mulbaghal and Gudibande based on population.89 per cent in IG1 and 7. In case of pickles and Sambar masala. The average family size varied from 4 to 6 members and the average age of the respondents varied from 32 years to 38 years and majority of the households were nuclear families. Rs. as high.045. since kolar district is situated besides Bangalore. Data were collected with the help of prestructured and pre-tested schedules through personal interview. 8.89 per cent households followed by IG1 (25.

7 kg/capita/month.53 per cent and of the Sambar masala consumers. 12. Mulbagal and Gudibande taluk. pickles and sambar masala 0. the per capita purchase and expenditure on the respective products was 0.189.67 per cent. 0. whereas 54.56 per cent of respondents of respectively).68 in Bangarpet taluk. Reasons for not purchasing the Dosa/Idli mix. Rs.70 respectively. 8.78 per cent and 41.43 percent of consumers. 0.14.03 kg/capita/month and 0.07 per cent each of Gudibande taluk consumers purchased once in a month and once in two months respectively.33.11 per cent and 19. 47. Rs. The average monthly expenditure on instant food products (Bangarpet.30 per cent. Newspaper/magazine was the source for getting information by the 75 per cent.44 per cent each). retail shop was the major source of information followed by TV/radio advertisements for 87.74 per cent and 97. Only higher income groups respondents .67 per cent each and 92. In case of Dosa/Idli mix. Mulbagal and Gudibande respectively. 52. In case of Mulbagal taluk. 25 per cent of Bangarpet consumers and 23.30 per cent of Sambar masala buyers of Bangarpet.32 and Rs.04 kg/capita/month and 0. for about 92. 6.238.247.16 per cent and 100 per cent of pickle buyers and 91.17 per cent.44 per cent of respondents prepared own sambar masala followed by branded (26.68 and 281.50.33).33 per cent). at an overall most of the consumers (25 per cent. habit of using. Rs.50. 52. High price (91.63 and Rs. Rs.457) followed by IG3 (Rs. 3.11 per cent). 1. Differences in tastes between home made and purchased product (52.67 per cent) and non-availability of these products in the area (19.123.33 and Rs.11 per cent).33 per cent of Bangarpet. 24.272.67 per cent and 8. In case of Gudibande. 5. The average per capita purchase and per capita expenditure on selected instant food products had a positive relationship with income of households. And in case of both pickles and sambar masala same factors were considered by all the cent per cent consumers of Mulbagal and Gudibande taluk but in Bangarpet they were considered by 89.185. respectively) purchased once in a month.75.11 per cent of respondents consumed both brand and unbranded products. In case of pickles.22 per cent and 48. The per capita purchase of Dosa/Idli mix. 0. Rs.44 per cent).69 kg/capita/month. and 100 per cent each of the respondents in Bangarpet. necessary ingredient for preparations so on by most of the consumers in respective taluks.32.433.05 kg/capita/month and the expenditure on this was Rs.33 per cent each and 61.50 kg/capita/month.22 per cent and 55. only unbrand (8. In case of sambar masala. 79. 87. Mulbagal and Gudibande) was found to be highest in case of IG4 (Rs.05 kg/capita/month and the expenditure on this was Rs. 52. it is attributed to the fact that most of the consumers in rural areas prepared Dosa/Idli mix in their home only as it involves less cost rather than purchasing from the market. The sources of purchase for selected instant food products in the study area were retail shops and departmental stores. Pickles and Sambar masala by the respondents were low cost of preparation (66. Maximum of 59.07 kg/capita/month and 0. Rs. brand and own preparation (5 per cent) and both brand and unbranded products (1. It was inferred that only some of the higher income groups such as IG3 and IG4 consumers in all the taluks in the study area purchased Dosa/Idli mix that to occasionally. 9. IG2 (Rs. 10. In addition other factors were also considered such as availability of quality products.75) and IG1 (Rs.50 per cent and 100 per cent of pickles and 58.78 per cent of the consumers.44 per cent used only branded products. disliking of these products by their family members (41. Mulbagal and Gudibande taluks.348. 7.492. the per capita purchase of Dosa/Idli mix.75 and Rs. 50.products along with own preparation. 7.67 per cent. The factors considered by the respondents for consumption of Dosa/Idli mix were ready availability and save time of preparation by Cent per cent consumers of Bangarpet. 36.323. Rs. The sources of information about instant food products for the consumers in the study area showed that. 7.07 and Rs. pickles and sambar masala was 0. Mulbagal and Gudibande respectively. 10 per cent were used only unbranded products and 1.02 respectively.44 per cent. 11. 8. 11.67 per cent.90 and Rs.05 kg/capita/month and expenditure on this was Rs.89 per cent).13.18). 11.

Thus. in case of Dosa/Idli mix the consumers used MTR brand compared to Aashirvaad brand. efforts must be made to overcome this perception by propaganda and publicity. rather all most all the IG1 and IG2 respondents purchased the selected products from retail shops. Sales promotion should target this group.2 kg/month (sambar masala). High price was an important reason for non-consumption of Dosa/Idli mix by significant proportion of households.46 kg/month (Dosa/Idli mix). 2.42 per cent in Gudibande) in all the income groups as the housewives set the consumption pattern of food products in the family. 15. importance and awareness towards these products should be created through various media or literatures especially in rural areas. And in case of sambar masala majority of respondents preferred MTR brand followed by Everest brand and other local brands that are available in the area. 17. There is a general perception among the consumers that Instant Food Products are expensive than home made products. The factors that influenced brand preference of the selected instant food products were best quality followed by retailer’s influence. The study revealed that in majority of the households women made the buying decisions of instant food products. Most of the respondents in the study area are not purchasing the Dosa/ Idli mix.145. instead like to prepare their own. 14. Housewives were the major decision makers (56. Pickles and Sambar masala even though they are readily available in the market.14. 18. ready availability and convenience. Hence. The retailers influence plays very important role in the purchasing of instant food products and retail shops are the important source for purchase of these products by consumers.41 per cent in Bangarpet. 2.153. 4. most of the consumers of Dosa/Idli mix found to be medium loyal and no respondents were found in high loyalty group but in case of pickles and sambar masala most of them belonged to higher loyalty group followed by medium and low loyalty category. 16.85. retailers should be given training and incentives to promote sales. 5.8 kg/month (pickles) and 1. As the study was conducted in rural areas it was observed that.922. 13. efforts may be made to reduce the price of this product so as to increase its sale. The purchased behaviour of different brands of instant food products revealed that. 3. POLICY IMPLICATIONS 1. Most of the pickle buyers liked to purchase chinnis brand and MN brand than other brands of the study area. poor quality and less keeping quality. Reasons for not preferring particular brand of the product by respondents was due to the factors such as high price followed by poor taste. The demand for the selected instant food products in kolar district was estimated based on the calculated per capita consumption and users population in their respective areas and it was 78. .preferred to purchase from departmental stores along with retail shops.67 per cent in Mulbagal and 71. 86.

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APPENDIX I LIST OF TALUKS AND HOBLIES SELECTED UNDER STUDY Sl.No. Taluks Hoblies a 1 Bangarpet b Bethamangala Budikote a 2 Mulbagal b Avani Byrakur a 3 Gudibande b Somenahalli Kasaba .

Name of the respondent 2. Type of family 9.APPENDIX II INTERVIEW SCHEDULE “A STUDY ON BUYING BEHAVIOUR OF CONSUMERS TOWARDS INSTANT FOOD PRODUCTS” IN KOLAR DISTRICT (SCHEDULE FOR INDIVIDUAL CONSUMER FAMILIES) THE DATA WILL BE USED FOR RESEARCH PURPOSE ONLY I. Age 3. Food Habit 10. Family particulars : : : Illiterate/Primary/High/SSLC/PUC/Graduation : : : : : Joint/Nuclear : Vegetarians/ Non. Income (monthly) Rs 8. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: 1. Education 4. Hobli 7. Taluk 6.vegetarians Family members Number Adult males Adult females Children Total . Occupation 5.

Food I. Instant food products ii .Other foods 2. MONTHLY CONSUMPTION PATTERN OF INSTANT FOOD PRODUCTS Quantity purchased per month Product Brand/ Own prepared a) b) c) d) a) b) c) d) a) b) c) d) Quantity Price/ unit Rs Total Amount (Rs) Purchased From Dosa mix/ Idli mix Pickles Sambar mix a) Who makes buying decisions? Age: Education: Occupation: . Non-food III.II. MONTHLY EXPENDITURE Items Expenditure (amount in Rs) 1.

mention the brands you know Products Brands a) Dosa mix/Idli mix b) Pickles c) Sambar mix V. REASONS FOR NOT PURCHASING INSTANT FOOD PRODUCTS Sl. AWARENESS OF CONSUMERS ABOUT IFPS a) Are you aware of IFPs? If aware. No . mention some brands Yes / no a) b) c) d) a) Dosa mix/Idli mix b) Pickles c) Sambar mix Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No e) f) g) h) b) Are you aware of Among these products.IV. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Reasons Low cost of preparation Differences in tastes (between home prepared and purchased) Dislike on purchased product High price of market product Lack of Awareness of products availability in the market Non-availability of Instant food Products Dosa/Idli mix Pickles Sambar mix .

ii. BRAND LOYALTY Sl. REASONS FOR CONSUMING INSTANT FOOD PRODUCTS Reasons 1. Newspaper or magazine 3. iii. Liked by the Family 3. PRODUCTS PURCHASE FREQUENCY Frequency Weekly once Fortnightly Monthly once Two months once Three months once Occasionally VIII. Traditional Usage 2. SOURCES OF INFORMATION SOURCES 1. No 1 2 3 4 Statements Confirm to use the brand Recommend the brand to others Purchase the brand even if price increases Purchase the same brand even in case of absence of sales promotion Definitely Probably Definitely not Products Pickles Dosa/Idli mix Pickles Sambar mix Dosa/Idli mix Pickles Sambar mix Dosa /Idli mix Sambar mix . Friends/ relatives 5. Products easily available for preparation 7. Any other IX. Influence of friends or relatives 8. Readily Available 5. Any other i. Retail Shop display 2. Nutritive value 9.VI. TV/ Radio Advertisements 4. VII. Save time of preparation 6. Adds taste to food while eating 4.

REASONS FOR NOT PREFERRING PARTICULAR BRAND Statements Quality Taste Price Brand image Package Flavour Colour Keeping quality Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree .X. FACTORS INFLUENCING BRAND PREFERENCE Statements Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree Quality Brand image Retailers influence Reasonable price Ready available Packaging Advertisements Packaging design Convenience XI.

The average per capita purchase and per capita expenditure on Instant food Products had a positive relationship with income of households.67 per cent of respondents were aware of Dosa/Idli mix. Low cost of home preparation and differences in tastes were the major reasons for non consumption. Dr. VIJAYA KUMAR MAJOR ADVISOR . About 96. whereas ready availability and save time of preparation were the reasons for consuming Instant Food Products. Chinnis and MN brands of pickles and Everest and MTR brands of Sambar masala were aware among the users of Instant Food Products. H. All the respondents were aware of pickles and Sambar masala but only 56. Retail shops are the major source of information and source of purchase of Instant Food Products.A STUDY ON BUYING BEHAVIOUR OF CONSUMERS TOWARDS INSTANT FOOD PRODUCTS IN KOLAR DISTRICT USHA V. retailers influence and ready availability were considered for preferring particular brand of products by the consumers. Most of the Dosa/Idli mix consumers found to be medium loyal and majority o pickles and Sambar masala consumers belonged to higher loyalty group. MTR brand of Dosa/Idli mix. Chinnis and MN brands of pickles and Everest and MTR brands of Sambar masala were highly preferred by the consumers.11 per cent consumers of Dosa/Idli mix and more than half of consumers of pickles and Sambar masala prepared their own. Among branded products. S. 2007 ABSTRACT The present study made an attempt to analyze the existing buying behaviour of Instant Food Products by individual households and to predict the demand for Instant Food Products in Kolar district. High price and poor taste were the reasons for not purchasing particular brand whereas best quality. MTR brand of Dosa/Idli mix. The average monthly expenditure on Instant Food Products was found to be highest in higher income groups. Housewives were the major decision makers on consumption of Instant Food Products.

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