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MINELAYINGNOV06.ppt

MINELAYINGNOV06.ppt

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Published by Kiran Moy Mandal
mine laying
mine laying

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Published by: Kiran Moy Mandal on Jun 30, 2013
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05/02/2014

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OBSTS

AIM OF OBSTs
• TO ASSIST IN DESTR OF EN BY : – DENYING APCHs AND ROUTES TO DELAY AND CAUSE ATTRITION

– DISORGANISING EN PLANS OF ATTACK
– RESTRICTING EN MOV AND CHANNELISING HIM INTO AN AREA – ENHANCING DEF POTENTIAL OF EXISTING NATURAL OBST SYS

TYPES OF OBST SYS • AXIAL • LATERAL –PRIMARY BELT –SUBSIDIARY BELT .

• SUBSIDIARY BELT.LATERAL OBSTS • PRIMARY BELT. SELECTED AND ORDERED BY THE HIGHEST COMMANDER AND IS CONTINUOUS ACROSS THE ENTIRE FRONT OF THE FORCE HE COMMANDS. OR BEHIND THE PRIMARY BELT OR TO A FLANK. IT MAY BE FORWARD OF. . THIS IS A PRIORITY TASK FOR ALL ENGINEERS IN THE FORCE. AN OBSTACLE BELT SELECTED AND ORDERED BY THE HIGHEST COMMANDER OR BY A LOWER COMMANDER OVER AND ABOVE THE PRIMARY BELT.

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TO HINDER THE ENEMY. .E. TO CREATE A SITUATION IN WHICH THE DEFENDERS CAN TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THEIR WEAPONS AND TO SEPARATE THE INFANTRY FROM ARMOURED ELEMENTS OF AN ATTACKING FORCE BY IMPOSING VARYING DEGREES OF CAUTION ON THEM.MINE LAYING • THE PRINCIPAL FUNCTION OF MINES IS THE SAME AS THAT OF ANY OTHER OBSTACLE I.

• COORDINATED SITING OF MINEFIELDS. MINEFIELDS SHOULD PREFERABLY BE SITED ALONG WITH THE NATURAL OBSTACLES • COVERED BY FIRE. MINEFIELDS LAID SHOULD PREFERABLY BE COVERED BY SMALL ARMS OF THE INFANTRY BATTALION. DEPTH. INDISCRIMINATE LAYING OF MINES CAN BE OF GREAT NUISANCE TO OWN TROOPS. MINEFIELDS SHOULD BE WELL CONCEALED.TACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR LAYING MINEFIELDS • CONTINUOUS OBSTACLE IN DEPTH. FRONTAGE. • DENSITY. • DESIGN. • SURPRISE. . THIS WILL DEPEND ON THE TERRAIN CONDITIONSAND UPON THE PERCENTAGE CASUALTIES/DELAY DESIRED TO BE ACHIEVED. DENSITY AND TYPE OF MINE FIELDS SHOULD BE DECIDED AFTER DUE CONSIDERATION ON ENEMY’S CAPABILITY TO BREACH THE MINE FIELD.

ANTI PERSONNEL DENSITY. DENSITIES ARE INDICATED AS • • ANTI TANK DENSITY.DENSITY • DENSITY IS THE AVERAGE NUMBER OF MINES PER METRE OF FRONTAGE OF THE MINE FIELD. .

• SITED AHEAD OF DEFs TO HINDER PENETRATION. AROUND DEPTH DEFs TO PREVENT DEEP PENETRATION • CONTINOUS ACROSS ENTIRE WIDTH OF APCHs • BYPASSING SHOULD NOT BE POSSIBLE • SHOULD BE UNDER OBSN AND FIRE .PRINCIPLES OF SITING • INTERPOSED ACROSS LIKELY AVENUES OF APCH.

PLG OF MINEFDS • FMN CDR LAYS DOWN IN OUTLINE PLAN :– TK & INF APPCH – APPROX ALIGNMENT – DENSITIES – LOC OF GAPS & LANES – ALLOTMENT OF MINES – EFFORT BY INF / OTHERS – POLICY REGARDING AND DEF SECTs PROTECTVE MINEFDs WITHIN DEF As COORD • IN FRONT OF BNs BY INF • OTHER MINEFDS BY ARMD REGT CDR / ENGRS / FMN CDR • GAPS / LANES / MARKING POLICY BY DIV CDR .

2 FT / . • WITHDRAWAL OF COVERING SCREENS. • VEH LANE. LANES & GAPS : UTILITY • MOV OF INF PTLS. 20 FT / 6 MTRS.LANES & GAPS • INF LANE. MIN 100 MTRS. • GAPS. • COUNTER ATTACK. • FWD DPLY OF TEMP POSNS.6 MTR. TPS AND .

TYPES OF MINEFDS • PROTECTIVE • DEFENSIVE • TACTICAL • NUISANCE • DUMMY .

PROTECTIVE MINEFDS • OBSTRUCT PENETRATION INTO DEF LOCs. • ORDERED BY CDR NOT BELOW BN CDR. . HABOUR AREAS. • LAID BY ALL ARMS EXCEPT AC AND SIGS. DEF POSTS. • LAID BY TPS OCCUPING DEFs. • NEAR EDGE OUT SIDE WIRE OBSTS. • MAY BE LAID BETWEEN FWD & DEPTH LOCs. • COVERED BY LMG & RL.

• PROVIDE DEPTH & DENS TO PROTECTIVE MINEFDS. ARTY. • LAID BY ENGRS. . • PLANNED & ORDERED AT DIV LEVEL. • COVERED BY MMGs. • NEAR EDGE OUT SIDE WIRE OBST.DEFENSIVE MINEFDs • OBSTRUCT PENETRATION BETWEEN DEF AREAS. ATGMs.

• MUST BE COVERED BY FIRE / PATROLLED. • LAID BY ENGRS. . • LAID TO FLANKS TO DISCOURAGE BYPASSING. • PLANNED AT HIGHEST LEVELS.TACTICAL MINEFDS • CHANNELISE EN INTO KILLING AREAS.

NUISANCE MINEFDS
• LAID ALONG EN ROUTES OF ADV /XG PLACES/ AA/FUP. • SMALL FRONTAGE. • RETROGRADE OPS. • LAID BY ENGRS. • RECORDS PREPARED.

DUMMY MINE FDS
• LAID WHEN EN IS MINE CONSCIOUS.

RESPONSIVE / REACTIVE MINE FDS
• RESPONSIVE MINEFDS. – PLANNED BUT NOT LAID INITIALLY – GENERALLY LAID BY MOGs • REACTIVE MINE FDS. – SITING NOT PLANNED INITIALLY – GENERALLY LAID BY RDMs

TYPES OF MINES

MINE A PERS NMM 14 • FRAGMENTATION .MINE A PERS FRAG M 16 • DIRECTIONAL .TYPES OF MINES ANTI PERS • BLAST.MINE A PER M16 A1 (CLAYMORE) ANTI TK • MINE A TK ND MK 1 • MINE A TK MK 3 BAR MINE • MINE A TK INFLUENCE – ADRUSHY – HPD F-2 .

MINE ANTI PERSONNEL NMM 14 .

MINE ANTI PERSONEL M 16 .

.

BAR MINE .

• FULL WIDTH ATTACK. contd… . • BETTER WT/EXPLOSIVE RATIO. • ACTIVATED BY SEISMIC VIBRATION AND OR CHANGE IN MAG FD VIBRATION.INFLUENCE MINES • BASED ON HOLLOW CH (SHAPED CH) PRINCIPLE • PHYSICAL CONTACT & PRESSURE NOT REQD.

• REDUCTION IN NO OF MINES. • OP LIFE . • ALD. • BLAST PROOF.INFLUENCE MINES • ARMING DELAY-GETS ARMED ONLY WHEN PERS HAVE MOVED TO SAFETY DISTANCE. PERS AND TPT .LIFE OF BTY. • ANTI TRAWL DEVICE.

.

.

METHODS OF MINE LAYING • STRIP METHOD • ROW METHOD • SCATTERED METHOD • CLUSTER METHOD .

.

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MINE FIELD .

STRIP METHOD OF MINE LAYING 6* TP 4* 2* SSM 3* 6* 9* A PERS A TK FRAG ESM .

PAK – CLUSTER METHOD OF MINE LAYING 2’ RADIUS TP 3* 3* SSM ESM .

MINE LAYING EQPT • MECH MINE LAYER UNIVERSAL FOR ND MK1 & 2 AND BAR MINES • MINE PLANTING EQPT 2A FOR BAR MINES AND A PERS MINES • MINE LAYING EQPT FOR INFLUENCE MINES .

MINEFD LAYING RATES • ENGR MLP 700 MINES /24 H CYCLE • INF MLP 500 MINES /24 H CYCLE • DESERTS .LAYING RATES 70% • MTNS .LAYING RATES 40% .

.

PRESENT CONCEPT EVAL OF EARLIER SYSTEM .

.

• • ONLY EXTENDED FMN FOR NEGOTIATING A MINEFD. NO • • • INTRO OF NEW MINE NOT TAKEN INTO CONSIDERATION. COMBINATION OF MINES NOT TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT. . TR WIDTHS OF TKS HAVE CHANGED SINCE.SHORTCOMINGS IN EARLIER SYS OF MINEFD PLG (GRAPHS – FE PAMPHLET NO 5 & ERPB 94) • • BASED ON Mk V HC MINES AND WIDER TR WIDTH. METHODOLOGY OF PREP OF GRAPH NOT KNOWN.. CAS % . ONLY DENSITY GIVEN FOR PARTICULAR OF ROWS NOT GIVEN.

STOPPING POWER .

STOPPING POWER STOPPING POWER CAN BE DEFINED AS THE PROBABILITY THAT A TANK WILL GET DESTROYED WHILE CROSSING A MINEFD. . IT IS EFFECTIVENESS OF A MINEFD RELATED TO PASSAGE OF TKS THROUGH IT AND IS EXPRESSED IN TERMS OF PERCENTAGE. IN OTHER WORDS IT MEANS POTENCY OF MINEFD.

IT IS THE PROBABILITY OF A TK GETTING DESTROYED IN A MINEFD. FACTORS AFFECTING ARE AS FOLLOWS:– – – – – – SIZE AND TYPE OF MINE TR WIDTH MIN WIDTH OF PRESSURE PAD FOR ACTAUTION SPACING BETWEEN MINES IN A ROW WIDTH OF A TK PROBABILITY THAT A MINE FUNCTIONS EFFECTIVELY/RELIABLY .HIT PROBABILITY • SYNONYMOUS TO CAS.

EFF RG .

IT WILL GET DESTROYED. .EFF RG • EACH MINE HAS AN EFF RG WHICH CAN BE DEFINED AS THE DISTANCE WITHIN WHICH IF A TK TR COMES.

ND MKI T1 W= TR WIDTH W 6Cm = 58 Cms EFF RG = W +6 =64Cms 9 Cm W+6 .EFF RG .

EFF RG -ND MKI T1 W = TR WIDTH = 58 Cm 9 6 EFF RG = W + 6 W W+6 = 64 Cm .

ND Mk III W 56 Cm 76 Cm 10 W = TR WIDTH = 58 Cm EFF RG = W +56 = 114 Cm W +56 .EFF RG .

ND Mk III 10 56 Cm 76 Cm W= TR WIDTH = 58 Cm EFF RG = W +56 W +56 = 114 Cm .EFF RG .

IN CASE  IS THE ANGLE BETWEEN THE DIRECTION OF TK APCH AND MINE. THEN :- -  Eff Rg = W + 56 Sin  .

EFF RG : INFLUENCE MINE= TK WIDTH(T) .

14 .14 12 .11 SPACING (L) MTRS 24 .21 .21 6 .28 9 .11 .32 3 .PROBABILITY OF TK CAS (BASED ON SPACING) Ser No Mines 30 1 2 3 ND Mk I ND Mk III Influence .27 - .16 .

PROBABILITY OF CAS DUE TO MINE TYPE 2) X (1.{ (1-PROBABILITY OF CAS DUE TO MINE TYPE 1) X (1.PROBABILITY OF TK CAS (BASED ON SPACING) • PROBABILITY(P) = 2X EFFECTIVE RG SPACING • STOPPING POWER = 1.PROBABILITY OF CAS DUE TO MINE TYPE 3)} .

52 OR 52% .11)) = 0.21)x (1-0.32)x (1-0.SAMPLE CALCULATION • CONSIDER A MINEFD COMPRISING THREE ROWS – ROW ONE ND MK1 WITH DENSITY 1/6 – ROW TWO ND MK111 WITH DENSITY 1/6 – ROW THREE INF MINE WITH DENSITY 1/30 STOPPING POWER = 1-((1-0.

STOPPING POWER OF MINES ND MK I TABLE FOR STOPPING POWER ND MK I MINES S No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Row1 1/3 1/6 1/9 1/12 1/6 1/3 1/6 1/3 1/3 Row 2 0 1/6 1/9 1/12 1/6 1/3 1/6 1/3 1/3 Row3 0 0 1/9 1/12 1/6 0 1/6 1/3 1/3 Row 4 0 0 0 1/12 0 0 1/6 0 1/3 Total Dens 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/2 2/3 2/3 1 4/3 Mines/ Km 333 333 333 333 500 667 667 1000 1334 SP 28% 37% 36% 37% 49% 48% 61% 62% 73% .

STOPPING POWER OF MINES ND MK III SL No Row1 Row2 Row3 Row 4 Total Dens Mines/Km SP 1 2 1/6 1/9 1/6 1/9 0 1/9 0 0 1/3 1/3 333 333 53% 50% 3 4 1/12 1/6 1/12 1/6 1/12 1/6 1/12 0 1/3 1/2 333 500 50% 68% .

STOPPING POWER OF MIXED ANTI TANK MINEFD Ser Mine 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 ND MkI ND MkI ND MkI ND MkI ND MkI ND MkI ND MkI ND MkIII ND MkI ND MkI ND MkI ND MkI ND MkI ND MkI Row1 Dens 1/12 1/12 1/12 1/3 1/6 1/9 1/9 1/12 1/9 1/12 1/6 1/12 1/9 1/9 Mine ND MkI ND MkI ND MkI ND MkIII ND MkI ND MkI ND MkIII ND MkIII ND MkIII ND MkIII ND MkIII ND MkIII ND MkIII ND MkIII Row 2 Dens 1/12 1/12 1/12 1/12 1/6 1/9 1/6 1/12 1/12 1/12 1/6 1/6 1/6 1/6 Mine ND MkI ND MkI ND MkIII ND MkIII ND MkIII ND MkIII ND MkIII ND MkIII ND MkIII ND MkIII ND MkIII ND MkIII ND MkIII ND MkIII Row 3 Dens 1/12 1/12 1/12 1/12 1/12 1/12 1/6 1/12 1/12 1/12 1/6 1/6 1/6 1/9 Mine ND MkIII ND MkI Influence Influence Influence Influence Influence Influence Influence Influence Influence Influence Influence Influence Row 4 Dens 1/12 1/12 1/30 1/30 1/30 1/30 1/30 1/30 1/30 1/30 1/30 1/30 1/30 1/30 Mine/ Km 333 333 283 534 450 339 478 284 310 284 533 450 478 422 SP 40% 37% 41% 54% 53% 44% 64% 47% 46% 44% 67% 63% 64% 58% .

REDUCTION IN REQMT OF MINES BY 30 TO 40 PERCENT. .

FACILITATES SAVING OF MANPOWER AND RESOURCES. • .ADVANTAGES BASED ON STOPPING POWER • • A SCIENTIFIC METHOD FOR MINEFD PLG. PROVIDES MULTIPLE OPTIONS TO CHOOSE BASED ON AVAILABILITY OF MINES. HENCE MAKING STUDY USER FRIENDLY. • • CAPABILITIES OF EXISTING EQPT PROFILE CONSIDERED (BOTH IA AND PAK). GIVES CDR A QUANTIFIABLE PARAMETER IN TERMS OF STOPPING POWER OF EACH MINEFIELD LAID IN HIS SECTOR.

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