Effectiveness Concept for Heat Exchangers

The Design Equation for a Heat Exchanger Q H = UA ∆T 2 – ∆T 1 ln ∆T 2 ∆T 1 = UA∆T lm

A typical problem in the analysis of a heat exchanger is the Performance calculation. That is, we are asked , given inlet conditions to evaluate how the exchanger performs, that is what are the outlet temperatures. With the equation given above, the solution may be reached only by trial-and-error.

An alternate approach lies in the notion of exchanger effectiveness, E.

E =

actual heat transfer maximum possible heat transfer

Overall Energy Balance
The actual heat transfer is given by the energy balance

(wCp ∆T)hot = (wCp∆T)cold
The maximum possible temperature rise is the difference between the temperatures of the two entering streams (Thin - Tcin). Which fluid undergoes the maximum temperature rise ? Of course, it is the one with the least heat capacitance

(wCp)min (∆T)max = (wCp)max (∆T)min
It follows then that

Qmax = (wCp)min (Thin - Tcin )max

Lecture 21 ChE 333


Definitions of Effectiveness For the Double-Pipe Heat Exchanger there are four possible cases: Hot Fluid minimum Cold Fluid minimum Co-Current Case 1 Case 2 Counter-Current Case 3 Case 4 Case 1.Co-Current flow. hot fluid minimal E = wC p h Th1 – Th2 wC p h Th1 – Tc1 = Th1 – Th2 Th1 – Tc1 Case 2.Counter-Current flow.Co-Current flow. cold fluid minimal E = wC p c Tc1 – Tc2 wC p c Th1 – Tc2 = Tc1 – Tc2 Th1 – Tc2 Lecture 21 ChE 333 2 . hot fluid minimal E = wC p h Th1 – Th2 wC p h Th1 – Tc2 = Th1 – Th2 Th1 – Tc2 Case 4.Counter-Current flow. cold fluid minimal wC p c Tc2 – Tc1 wC p c Th1 – Tc1 Tc2 – Tc1 Th1 – Tc1 E = = Case 3.

A good deal of algebra leads for Case 1 to – 1+R E = 1 + e C 1 + R c UA For case 2 the equation is the relation is very similar and indeed would be the same if R were replaced by Rmin = Cmin /Cmax .Number of Transfer Units Recall the definition of the ratio of thermal capacitances R = WC p WC p c h = Cc T – Th2 = h1 Tc2 – Tc1 Ch Also we can reexamine the Design Equation and rewrite it in the following form: ln or Th2 – Tc2 Th1 – Tc1 = – UA 1 + R Cc Th2 – Tc2 Th1 – Tc1 = e– UA 1 + R Cc We need to express this temperature ratio in terms of the effectiveness. – 1+R 1 – e C E = 1 + R min min UA min Lecture 21 ChE 333 3 . E.

. e. a cross-flow exchanger. Cross-flow Heat Exchangers Types Example Mixed Un-Mixed Automobile radiator Cross-flow Mixed/Unmixed Exchanger unmixed stream.minimal stream E = 1 – exp – R 1 – e –RNTU Lecture 21 ChE 333 4 .shell and tube with n tube passes and one shell pass. – 1 –R E = 1 – e C– UA 1 – R 1 + R mine C min min min UA min We can define a dimensionless group as the Number of Transfer Units (NTU) NTU = UA C min This whole concept can be extended to all kinds of exchanger configurations.For case 3 and case 4.minimal stream E = R 1 – exp – R 1 – e –NTU mixed stream. the equation can be expressed as a single relation..g.

22 exp –R NTU 0.78 –1 Lecture 21 ChE 333 5 .Unmixed/Unmixed Exchanger Cross-flow E = 1 – exp R NTU 0.

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