Bachelor’s Degree Programme in Psychology (BPCE-022

)

HANDBOOK ON PRACTICUM IN BA THIRD YEAR

Discipline of Psychology School of Social Sciences Indira Gandhi National Open University Maidan Garhi, New Delhi- 110068

Programme Coordinator
Prof. Vimala Veeraraghavan Emeritus Professor, Psychology SOSS, IGNOU, New Delhi

Preparation Team
Dr. Swati Patra Dr. Suhas Shetgovekar Dr. Monika Misra Dr. Smita Gupta Dr. Bhagwanti Jadwati

Print Production
Mr. Manjit Singh Section Officer (Publication) SOSS, IGNOU, New Delhi

August, 2012 © Indira Gandhi Naitonal Open University, 2012 All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced in any form, by mimeograph or any other means, without permission in writing from the copyright holder. Further information on the Indira Gandhi National Open University courses may be obtained from the University’s office at Maidan Garhi, New Delhi-110 068 or the official website of IGNOU at www.ignou.ac.in Printed and published on behalf of Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi by Director, SOSS, IGNOU. Laser Composed by : Tessa Media & Computers, C-206, A.F.E-II, Jamia Nagar, Okhla, New Delhi

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0 5.0 6.0 Introduction Practicum in BA Third Year ( 4 Credits) Procedure to be followed by the Academic Counsellor Format for Practicum Evaluation A brief description of practicals Conduction of term end examination in BPCE 022 Appendix. 1.0 4.0 7.CONTENTS Page No.0 3.Certificate 5 5 6 7 8 8 26 27 3 .0 2.

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1. The practicum option from the three categories (Clinical Psychology/ Counselling / Industrial and Organizational Psychology) should be chosen on the basis of the theory course BPCE 014/ BPCE 015/ BPCE 017 opted by the learner. and have an idea about how to conduct experiments and administer psychological tests. a learner opting for BPCE 014 (Psychopathology) will have practicum in Clinical Psychology. they will now be exposed to certain psychological tests based on the theory course BPCE 014/ BPCE 015/ BPCE 017 opted by them. practicals in Clinical Psychology or practicals in Counsellling or practicals in Industrial and Organizational Psychology.0 PRACTICUM IN BA THIRD YEAR BPCE 022 (4 CREDITS) This course is compulsory for BA (Major) in Psychology. The learner has to conduct practicals from any one of the three categories namely. Thus.0 INTRODUCTION TO PRACTICUM IN PSYCHOLOGY The learners have conducted practicum BPCL 007 and BPCL 008 in BA part II. Thus. the learner opting BPCE 015 (Introduction to Counselling Psychology) will have practicum in Counselling and the learner opting for BPCE 017 (Industrial and Organizational Psychology) will have practicum in Industrial and Organizational Psychology. the learners can new opt for practicum in clinical psychology or counseling or industrial and organizational psychology. 2. In BA part III. A) PRACTICUM IN CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY • • • • • Mental Status Examination Clinical Interviewing PGI General Well-Being Scale Medico-Psychological Questionnaire Draw a Person Test Or B) PRACTICUM IN COUNSELLING • • • • • • Counselling and Clinical Assessment Adjustment Inventory for School Students Adjustment Inventory for College Students Differential Aptitude Test Interest Inventory Family Relationship Questionnaire Or (4 Credits) (4 Credits) 5 . The procedure and format are similar to the ones followed in BA part II.

7) Explain how to interpret the data. Establishing rapport with the subject. Reading the instructions for test administration from the manual and showing it to learners as to from where they have to read the instructions. reliability.PRACTICUM IN INDUSTRIAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY (4 Credits) • • • • • The Big Five Factor Scale Emotional Intelligence Scale Achievement Motivation Scale Authentic Leadership Scale Job Stress Survey 3.0 PROCEDURE TO BE FOLLOWED BY THE ACADEMIC COUNSELLOR FOR BPCE 022 1) Go though the manual of the test thoroughly. 2) Explain the test in detail to the learners in the class. wherever applicable. stopwatch) ready. Taking the answer sheet from the subject after completion of the test. precautions) Taking informed consent for undergoing the test and informing the subject that the test findings will remain confidential.g. 3) Introduce the test in terms of: • • • • • • • History of the Test Author Development of the test Features of the test (e. dimensions. 6) Explain the scoring procedure (as given in the test manual) to the learners. 5) The demonstration of administration will include the following: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) Preparation for the test. making the subject feel comfortable Explaining the test ( procedure. Clearing all doubts in the mind of the subject about the test administration. 6 . no. validity) Administration Scoring Interpretation 4) After the introduction of the test. answer sheet. keeping the test material (test booklet. demonstrate to the learners how to administer the test. of items. . The subject takes the test. time limit. Taking permission to record the session. for instance.

Introduction: Here. to be considered while administering the test are mentioned under this sub heading. Introspective Report: After completion of the test by the subject. Description of the Test: Under this. • • Title: This heading will contain the ‘title’ or ‘name’ of the practical e. score and interpret.8) Ask learners to administer the test on each other in pairs and monitor the same. name of the subject (optional). if they are performing a test on ‘djustment Inventory for College Students’ then the basic objective of the test will be: ‘To assess the personality of the subject using Adjustment Inventory for College Students’. Instructions: Instructions as give in the test manual are included here. the background of the test is mentioned. like. dimensions/ factors. like author of the test. is noted down in first person. like. an introspective report is to be taken of the subject. in case of Adjustment Inventory for College Students. educational qualification and occupation.g: Adjustment Inventory for College Students. The concept is defined and discussed. For example. apparatus or instrument. 10) The learners will have to write a report of the test in the practicum note book which will be evaluated by the academic counsellors. validity. the subject’s feeling and constraints faced by him/her while undergoing the test/ experiment. answer sheet. basic purpose of the test. no. test booklet. Precautions: Precautions. the test booklet. time limit. age. if any. For example. 9) The learners will now administer. For example. scoring. scoring key.0 FORMAT FOR PRACTICUM The academic counsellor introduces the following format to the learners which they have to follow while preparing their practicum notebook. pencil. the details with regard to the test are mentioned. Procedure and administration: The following sub headings are included here Preparation: The material required for conduction of the test. stopwatch are kept ready. reliability. gender. that is. of items. in case of Adjustment Inventory for College Students. Subject’s Profile: This will contain of all the detailed information about the subject. • • • • • 7 . the background of Adjustment Inventory for College Students is described. Rapport: The learner has to mention that rapport was created with the subject and that the subject was well informed about the details of the test. Materials Required: The materials required for the administration of the test are mentioned. answer sheet. eraser. 4. Aims/ Objectives: This will basically consist of the main objectives or purpose of the practical. The concept of personality is defined and the theories related to it are discussed.

For experiments.• Scoring and Interpretation: After the subject completes the test.al. the subject has to discuss the result based on the interpretation. (1984). Bringing corporate culture to the bottomline. the findings are to be analyzed and mentioned here. In: Garg. 22-24.mcb. A. Distance education for development. websites and the manual referred to by the learner are mentioned in American Psychological Association (APA) format. the learner has to conclude the findings of the test.0 EVALUATION Actual Conduction of Practicals and reporting it in the practical note book in the prescribed format (internal assessment) carries 50% weightage. the answer sheet is to be scored with the help of the scoring key and the data is to be interpreted with the help of the norms given in the manual.(Eds. Book Chapter: Khan. Organizational Dynamics. et. References: The books. (1968). A. Psychological Testing.uk/apmforum (accessed on 2.3. Journal Article: Dennision. It may be further analyzed in the light of the introspective report. Discussion: Here. (2005). B. New Delhi: Viva Books. London: MacMillan Company.) Open and distance education in global environment: Opportunities for collaboration. The Term End Practical Examination including Viva Voce (External Assessment) carries 50% Weightage. Internal Attendance Conduction Interpretation Practical notebook Total Weightage 10% 10% 10% 20% 50% Marks 10 10 10 20 50 Total 50% 50 External Conduction Answer sheet Viva Voce Weightage 10% 20% 20% Marks 10 20 20 8 . Conclusion: Under this heading.W. These should be alphabetically listed. S. 13.2011) • • • • • • • 5. Total marks for practical examination will be 100 marks (Internal 50 marks and External 50 marks).co. The scores can then be mentioned and interpreted under this heading. Websties http://www. Books: Anastasi.

or is not fluent in the language of the examiner. speech. It is one part of a full neurologic (nervous system) examination and includes the examiner’s observations about the patient’s attitude and cooperativeness as well as the patient’s answers to specific questions. The MSE is an important part of the differential diagnosis of dementia and other psychiatric symptoms or disorders. appearance. The history and Mental Status Examination (MSE) are the most important diagnostic tools to make an accurate diagnosis. The MSE cannot be given to a patient who • • • cannot pay attention to the examiner. and speech and thought patterns at the time of evaluation. for example. Although. and reasoning or problem-solving ability.0 A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF PRACTICALS IN BPCE 022 A brief description of practicals under BPCE 022 are as follows: A) PRACTICUM IN CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY • MENTAL STATUS EXAMINATION A Mental Status Examination (MSE) is an assessment of a patient’s level of cognitive (knowledge-related) ability. they remain primarily subjective measures that begin the moment the patient enters the psychologist’s room. Patient’s social interaction with office staff and others in the waiting area. The MSE results may suggest specific areas for further testing or specific types of required tests. The purpose of a MSE is to assess the presence and extent of a person’s mental impairment. memory. general intellectual level. Whether the patient is accompanied by someone (this helps to determine if the patient has social support). and personal identity. or is completely unable to speak (aphasic). insight or judgment. Patient’s personal appearance.6. 9 . as a result of being in a coma or being unconscious. The cognitive functions that are measured during the MSE include the person’s sense of time. Description: Given below is the description of all aspects of MSE to be conducted. sense of place. Steps to be followed are given here: Step 1: The psychologist must pay close attention to the following regarding the patient: • • • • Patient’s presentation. these important tools have been standardized in their own right. mathematical ability. MSE can also be given repeatedly to monitor or document changes in a patient’s condition. emotional mood.

The psychologist observes the person’s gait (manner of walking). Step 3: Establish rapport The next step for the psychologist is to establish adequate rapport with the patient by introducing himself or herself. 6) Thought content.The above few observations can provide important information about the patient that may not otherwise be revealed through interviewing or one-on-one conversation. Whether the person is in a sad mood. (These types of observations are important and may offer insight into the patient’s illness. Note things such as whether the patient is dressed appropriately according to the season. d) the appropriateness of the answers. Each of the following will have to be checked by the psychologist trainee. posture. coordination. c) the length of answers to questions. e) clarity of the answers and similar characteristics. pay attention to whether the patient is maintaining eye contact. pay close attention to the following: • • • • • • • Note the personal grooming. 4) Mood.) Note if patient is talking to himself or herself in the waiting area Note if the patient is pacing up and down outside the office door. 2) Movement and behavior. 5) Speech. sex. Problems with walking or coordination may reflect a disorder of the central nervous system. then immediately attempt to ease the situation by offering small talk or even a cup of water. The examiner assesses what the patient is saying for indications of the following which are indicative of certain typical disorders. Mental notes such as these may aid in guiding the interview later. The psychologist evaluates the following a) the volume of the person’s voice. Record all observations. Note things as obvious as hygiene. happy mood. These features are significant because poor personal hygiene or grooming may reflect a loss of interest in self care or physical inability to bathe or dress oneself. Step 2: When patients enter the office. facial expressions. Note if patients appear uneasy as they enter the office. It may include either a lack of emotional response to an event or an overreaction. and similar behaviors. b) the rate or speed of speech. Mood refers to the underlying emotional “atmosphere” or tone of the person’s answers. eye contact. A complete MSE is more comprehensive and evaluates the following ten areas of functioning: 1) Appearance. Many people feel more at ease if they can have something in their hands. Speak directly to the patient during this introduction. The psychologist notes the person’s age. This reflects an image of genuine concern to patients and may make the interview process much more relaxing for them. 10 . civil status. angry mood etc. and overall appearance. 3) Affect. Affect refers to a person’s outwardly observable emotional reactions.

felt. and remain firm even when overwhelming proof is presented to dispute them. To test for delusions the questions to be asked are • • • • Do you sometimes feel that people are after you? Do you sometimes feel that people are talking about you? Do you sometimes feel that your phone is tapped? Do you sometimes feel people are overhearing your conversation? Dissociation: Dissociation refers to the splitting off of certain memories or mental processes from conscious awareness. and loose. Thought process refers to the logical connections between thoughts and their relevance to the main thread of conversation. The evaluation assesses the person’s 8) 11 . To test for hallucination the question to be asked is: • • • Do you sometimes hear some voice telling you to do something or not to do something? Do you sometimes hear some voice when no one is present? Do you feel that someone is talking about you and loudly saying whatever you are doing? Delusions: A delusion is an unshakable belief in something untrue. Irrelevant detail. To find out about the obsessions. These can be noted by the psychologist and recorded as and when these occur. may be signs of a thought disorder. the questions to be asked include the following: • • • 7) Do you feel that a particular thought keep coming to your mind again and again despite your not wanting it? Do you feel sometimes a strange idea or feeling which you think is not correct and however much you try the thought does not go? Do you find sometimes an impulse to keep washing your hands or other things at home even though you know it is unwarranted? Thought process. illogical connections between thoughts. depersonalization. and may be seen. repeated words and phrases. heard. Cognition refers to the act or condition of knowing.Hallucinations: Hallucinations are false or distorted sensory experiences that appear to be real perceptions. and confusion about one’s identity. and even smelled or tasted. These sensory impressions are generated by the mind rather than by any external stimuli. The questions to be asked would include: • • • • What is your name? Who are you? What work do you do? Do you sometimes feel that you do not know who you are? Obsessions: a persistent unwanted idea or impulse that cannot be eliminated by reasoning. Dissociative symptoms include feelings of unreality. interrupted thinking (thought blocking). These irrational beliefs defy normal reasoning. Cognition.

12 .) Ability to distinguish between right and left (touch the person’s left hand and ask what hand is it? Repeat the same thing with the right hand). or other organic brain disorders may require fifteen or twenty minutes. Patients with speech problems or intellectual impairments.) Ability to perform simple arithmetic (counting backward by threes or sevens) General intellectual level or fund of knowledge (identifying the last five Presidents. that shows lack of insight) Note: The length of time required for a Mental Status Examination depends on the patient’s condition. After the Mental Status Examination is over. 10) Insight. To test long term memory.term memory and short-term memory (ask the person what he had for breakfast. The examiner asks the person what he or she would do about a commonsense problem. It may take as little as five minutes to examine a healthy person. tell me the name of the school in which you studied. depending on the patient’s condition and answers. • • • • • • • 9) Judgment. such as running out of a prescription medication. dementia.) Ability to understand and perform a task (showing the examiner how to comb one’s hair or throw a ball ) Ability to draw a simple map or copy a design or geometrical figure 9 draw a design like square or a triangle and ask the person to draw it after you. Show simple sentences and ask the person to read or write the same. or similar questions) Ability to think abstractly (explaining a proverb) Ability to name specified objects and read or write complete sentences (Show some objects and ask the person to name the same. record the entire thing in detail. Then take up the interview with the family member or members who have accompanied the patient.• • • • Orientation (ability to locate himself or herself) with regard to time (ask the person what time is it now?) Orientation to place (ask the person where are you now?) Orientation to personal identity (ask who are you and what your name is?) Long. The examiner may choose to spend more time on certain portions of the MSE and less time on others. Insight refers to a person’s ability to recognize a problem and understand its nature and severity (do you think you are ill? If the person says he or she is not ill and that the family member who has brought him or her is ill. Or ask the person what he would do if he or she finds a sealed envelope on the road).

details of previous treatment are also to be noted down with details about current problem and psychiatric issues. 13 • . social network. work. education. It further covers information about family. A sample of Case History Format is given as follows: • Personal details: These are mainly for the identification of the subject and to understand his/ her basic details. details about children. details of previous episodes of illness. Case history covers personal information like name. CASE HISTORY: It is necessary to take case history of a subject so as to understand his/ her back ground. This covers common psychiatric symptoms . childhood. interval functioning (what is the subject like between episodes/when “well”). habits. income. Further. suicide attempts/drug and alcohol abuse. religion. medical or any other treatment or help sought by the subject. adolescence.: Gender: Male/ Female Age: Marital status: Occupation: Referred by: Main/ Present/ Chief Complaint: • Personal History/Development: This can cover various aspects like early development. job if any. Mental Health Status (MHS) can also be included in clinical interviewing. school. As it is not only useful to create rapport with the subject before the psychological tests are administered but they also help gain information about various details about the subject. occupation. menstrual history. marital history. comment on the impact of the illness on the subjects life. social relations and self-care. In this section of the practicum. This will be followed by certain other details about the subject. History of Present Illness: These are details of problems experienced by the subject. sexual history.• CLINICAL INTERVIEWING Interviewing is one of the most important skills in practicum. age. the learner should have an understanding about how to take case history. leisure and forensic history. gender. previous psychiatric admissions/treatment. socio economic status etc. A particular format may be followed by psychologists in order to take case history of a subject. medical complaints. They may be: Name: Address: Contact No.

a mental health status appraisal. How to objectively measure these life size components? The developers of this test prefer to go rather for a subjective measure than an objective one.98 (by Kuder Richardson formula) and test retest reliability was . and no distress. suicide attempts).91 for English version and . The person taking the test reports about his/her state of being by responding to 20 simple statements. The components mentioned in the definition . For scoring. is to be noted down. etc’. 1986). Reliability of the measure was found to be . happiness. but this healthy being is not necessarily the absence of psychological ill being. contentment. including behaviour at work or in school or during social gatherings is to be noted down.39 correlation) and education (. nature of the relationships between family members. lack of distress could present a challenge for measurement. The scale was initially developed in English and the Hindi version was later developed by Moudgil et al (1986). number of tick marks is counted. Bharath Raj. Family History: Parents and siblings. USA). The scale consists of 20 items in the form of short statements. (for example ‘Not easily tired feeling useful wanted being in good health’) which the person taking test has to answer by putting [√] in the square if the statement is applicable for him/her for the past month. Social History: The social interactions of the subject. J. The scale was reported to be ‘useful in a variety of research and applied settings such as quality of life index. a measure of psychotherapy’ (Fazio 1977: 12). sense of achievement. Verma (1978) is a modified version of General Wellbeing schedule by H Dupuy (1970. family history of psychiatric illness (incl.K. satisfaction with life’s experiences and one’s role in the world of work. General well being can be associated with a state of psychological healthy being.happiness. This number constitutes the well being score. utility. This questionnaire was developed by Dr. Medico. The questionnaire consists of 50 items selected from various instruments available for measuring neurosis. dissatisfaction or worry. any family tensions and stresses and family models of coping.86 for Hindi version.12) but it showed significant correlation with age (.52) (Moudgil et al.Psychological Questionnaire is one of the tools that can be used for this purpose.• • Medical History: The details of medical treatment that the subject has undergone or is undergoing has to be noted down. ‘absence of psychological ill-being does not necessarily mean the presence of psychological well being. belongingness.’ Verma has defined General Wellbeing ‘as the subjective feeling of contentment. Each item is to be 14 . This measure can be self-administered and can be given orally also. • • PGI GENERAL WELL-BEING SCALE PGI General Wellbeing measure developed by S. The measure is reported as unaffected by variables like socio-economic status (-. The administration and scoring takes 5-6 minutes per subject. Test procedure is very simple. drug/alcohol abuse. writes S K Verma (1988). • MEDICO-PSYCHOLOGICAL QUESTIONNAIRE One of the significant issues in the filed of clinical psychology is the measurement of neuroticism.

However. The scoring mainly depends on the various parts of the body drawn by the child and their details. likes. Hence correct identification of the client’s problem is a crucial part of the counselling process. anxiety neurosis.man test developed by Pramila Pathak may also be used. There is no time limit. This requires the counselor to understand the client. Subject is asked to draw a man. Administrative procedure of this test involves the administrator asking the subject to complete three separate drawings on separate paper. but objective judgemnet is needed. interests. It enables the client to take appropriate decisions.answered by the subject by encircling ‘Yes’. The number of ‘Yes’ answers are counted and this total has to be multiplied by 2. and himself/ herself. reactive depression and obsession compulsion. a woman. individual administration is advised if the test is administered to a preschool child or child under clinical study. his problems and his situation in a proper perspective. Draw-a. The total number of doubtful (?) answers are calculated and this total is multiplied by 1. hysteria. ? or ‘No. plans and adjustments. neurasthenia. The subject is free to draw the way he/she wishes to. the readings on draw-a-man test must be supplemented by some other tests. For critical individual study. abilities. An informal method should be used to interview the client so that the client does not feel intimidated. In order to gain an understanding of the client’s problem. making the client feel accepted and understood and develop confidence in the counselor. The questions 15 . B) PRACTICUM IN COUNSELLING • COUNSELLING AND CLINICAL ASSESSMENT Counselling is a process where the counselor helps the client to understand himself and his situation and accordingly make intelligent choices. The total score on the test is the sum of the above two. This test may be administered to a single child or a group of 20 children. The questionnaire can also be used to make diagnosis with regard to the sub categories of neurosis namely. The counselor needs to be skilled in conducting this initial interview a it has significance in terms of getting to know the client. No other instructions are given. Draw-a-man test is based on one single performance which hardly takes more than ten minutes. It is a quick measure of intelligence and hence is appropriate to use when a quick. the counselor needs to first develop an understanding about the client – his needs. however the subject is asked to draw a whole person each time and not certain body parts or face alone. values and goals etc. personality.’After the subject finishes answering all the 50 items. • DRAW A PERSON TEST This test was developed by Goodenough-Harris. The total score may then be interpreted with the help of the norms available in the test manual. The scoring of the picture drawn is covered in detail in the manual provided with the test. Material required for the test is just sheets of paper and a pencil. All these information are collected through an interview which is called History ‘Taking’ or ‘Initial Interview’. The drawing can be evaluated with the help of various scoring scales. Initial interview helps the counselor to build up rapport with the client. It helps to measure the cognitive development of children. Calculation of IQ is possible by using the age-norms table provided in the manual. the questionnaire may be scored.

2) Information related to the problem: Whatever information the client gives about his problem should be recorded as it is. the counselor needs to pay attention to the client’s non-verbal behavior also. address. 1) Identification Data: a) Name. occupation. The process of initial interview or history taking usually starts with collecting standard information data or identification data such as name. The following can be asked to the client: a) Does the problem interfere with the client’s day-to-day activities? To what extent? b) What are the thoughts. education and occupation of father and mother b) How are the personalities of the father and mother? c) How is the relationship between the father and mother. An outline of the initial interview is given below. The physical appearance. b) Age. The client has to be assured of the security and confidentiality of all the information he will be providing during the counselling session and that no information will be disclosed without the client’s consent. relationship of each parent with the client and with other siblings. relationship of the client with the grandparents etc. sex. his/her interactions and relationships. occupation and marital status. The most important thing before the interview is the assurance of confidentiality to the client. education. emotions and motivations. the present behavior of the client. various information through questioning. 16 . age. Information about the address will give an idea of the locality/area in which the client stays. etc.should be such to provide a wide understanding of the client’s life. This provides information about whether the client is a minor or mature enough to provide the counselor with reliable information. religious. This will help in addressing the client in the first person and contacting the client whenever necessary. Further. In addition to collecting. feelings and behavior associated with the problem? c) Since when has the problem begun? How frequently does it occur? d) What pattern of events usually lead to the problem? When does it occur? With whom? What happens before and after the problem occurs? e) What made the client seek counselling? 3) Client’s present life situation: a) How is a typical day or week in the client’s life? b) What type of activities related to social. Address and Telephone. the body language of the client convey a lot about the client which the counselor needs to consider to get a comprehensive picture about the client. it gives data about the educational and occupational status of the client. recreational does the client take up? c) What is the nature of his present educational and vocational situation? 4) Family Setting a) Age. education. behavioral problems and adjustments and goals in life.

weaknesses and competencies all should be noted and recorded. active. disruptive/hyperactive behavior. tone of voice. nature and duration of jobs. lethargic. age . etc. How open was the client. aloofness. postures and gestures. The counselor must also take into account the social and cultural background of the client to understand the problem and provide appropriate and effective counselling. any significant experience/achievement during work. energetic. their name. nail biting. any present or previous emotional involvements. the self concept of the client. This information will provide insight into the stability of the family and the kind of socio-cultural exposure the client has had. 7) Summary: At the end of the interview the counselor needs to analyze all the information obtained and see how the different information provided by the client may be linked to the problem that the client has presented in the beginning. Observation and noting down of each and every aspect of client’s behavior and personality is crucial. reasons for previous relationships breaking down e) Is there any previous experience with counselling? f) Is the client currently using drugs/alcohol or has used in the past. client’s strengths. hobbies. involvements in different activities. How was the client in his academic career including his talents. b) Behaviors/mannerisms: fidgeting. a) Temperament: warm and friendly. As part of your practical you will need to practice the interview skill by role playing in the class. peer relationship and relationship with the teachers? b) Work experience: has the client held part time/full time jobs. facial expressions. occupation and marital status e) Is there any history of long physical or mental illness/disturbances in the family? f) Family mobility: How many places family has lived in. education. d) Language: fluency. c) Body language. This helps the counselor put the problem in a proper perspective. This will also help in deciding what type of counselling approach/strategy will be helpful for the client. etc. coherence. c) Medical history: any major illness/injury/surgery since childhood to present d) Marital history: relationship with the opposite sex/partner/spouse. sex. logical. etc. etc. birth order. 5) Personal History: a) Educational history: academic progress and achievement from nursery to high school and post high school. how many times parents have changed jobs. degree of motivation and interest shown during counselling. under the supervision of the academic counsellor. relationship with the coworkers etc. eye contact. and to what extent? g) Does the client have any personal or career goals in life? What are they? 6) Description of the client during the interview: It is very crucial to note down the client’s appearance and behavior during the counselling interview. 17 .d) Number of siblings.

he has aptitude for music.K. abilities. home. Assessment of aptitude along with other aspects of behavior such as interest.A.Sinha (Pt.Singh (Patna University). Thus. social. achievement and personality will provide useful information to arrive at a better understanding of the individual.P. It is helpful in screening the poorly adjusted students who may further need counseling and therapy. Ability refers to what the individual is capable of achieving in the present situation. are indicative of unsatisfactory adjustment towards home surroundings. High scores in the health area refer to unsatisfactory health adjustment. Aptitude tests came into existence as a result of the increasing need for career guidance and counselling.• ADJUSTMENT INVENTORY FOR COLLEGE STUDENTS The adjustment inventory for college students has been constructed by Prof. High scores in the area of emotion indicate unstable emotional adjustment. with suitable training he will be able to develop this ability. high scores refer to poor adjustment with curricular and co-curricular activities.Ravi Shankar Shukla University. Whereas achievement refers to what the individual has been able to learn/achieve. health. Thus. High scores in the area of home.g. It has 102 items. It indicates the probability of success in a particular area of work. no amount of training can help him develop musical talent. ability is concerned with the present whereas achievement depends on past experience and training. Yes/No. while as. Every item requires the subject to response in either of the two alternatives. High scores in social area refer to poor adaptation in the society. Raipur) & Prof. ability and achievement here. There is difference 18 . A low score means emotionally stable subject. It’ll be useful to distinguish the terms aptitude. This means he has the potential for music.P.. On the scale of educational adjustment. Aptitude refers to the potential that the individual has. namely. Area Home Health Social Emotional Educational 15 19 31 21 Number of Items 16 • DIFFERENTIAL APTITUDE TEST Aptitude has great relevance in educational and vocational guidance and counselling. aptitude can be termed as a special ability or cluster of special abilities required to do a job or perform a task. while as low scores indicate satisfactory adjustment. low scores indicate satisfactory health adjustment. Low scores indicate socially adaptable and dominant nature of the subject. It is a self-administering inventory that seeks to segregate normal from poorly adjusted college students in five areas of adjustment. if a person does not have an aptitude for music. what the individual can achieve with necessary training input given. Scores are obtained by using scoring keys. R. On the other hand. Aptitude is concerned with future performance. Subject scoring low scores is highly adaptable with his/her school activities. The inventory has been prepared in Hindi as well as in English language. emotional and educational. e.

hard work. It does not mean that you’ll not be able to do well in reading. Seashore and Wesman (1984). 19 3) . whereas playing it for earning money is extrinsic interest. Manifest or Observed Interests: These are the interests which we observe in a person by seeing that person involve in some or the other activity. Interests change depending on one’s motives. These must be taken into account before reaching a conclusion. it may continue long term or it may even change also. Language Usage. If a child is exposed to a family environment where everybody talks about music then there is more likelihood that the child will develop interest in music. etc. These reflect the subjective opinion of the individual. Interest may be intrinsic or extrinsic. General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB) etc. Thus. Super (1990) has classified interests into three groups: 1) 2) Expressed Interests: These are the interest expressed or told by the individual. Combination of these abilities is required for success in different occupations. Administration of the whole battery may be time consuming. an interest is a tendency to become absorbed in an experience and to continue it and to enjoy it. Thus extrinsic interests are connected with the pursuit of different activities which give rise to satisfaction or pleasure. developed by Bennett. e. work preferences. David’s Battery of Differential Aptitude (DBDA). Other factors such as interest. Aptitude test scores must be used along with previous achievement data. but may not have any musical potential to sing well (aptitude). The development of interests depends on our environment. Clerical Speed & Accuracy. Once an interest is developed. motivation. so combination of subtests can be used as per requirement. However. intrinsic interests are those related to the pursuit of the activity itself. • INTEREST INVENTORY Interest refers to one’s likings and preferences. Abstract Reasoning. This reflects your interests. exposures and emotional responses.g. and Spelling and Grammar. consists of eight subtests. However. This means you have more liking for playing football compared to reading. general mental ability etc. The most commonly used Aptitude tests are Differential Aptitude Test (DAT). For example. many of our interests get stabilized by the age of adolescence and young adulthood. Spatial Reasoning. It may be noted that aptitude data provide only clues/suggestions to help in educational and career planning. These are Verbal Reasoning. in order to effectively guide the person. Mechanical Reasoning. it indicates your natural inclination or natural desire to undertake one activity in place of another. You may like to play football more than reading a story.. These tests usually consist of a number of subtests. Interest is an integral part of our personality. Aptitudes are assessed by administering Aptitude Tests. a person may like to sing (an interest). Numerical Reasoning. playing hockey or tennis for the sake of it is intrinsic interest. It does not explicitly establish a fit between the individual and the job.between aptitude and interest too. However. Interest refers to one’s preferences whereas aptitude refers to potential. experiences. Differential Aptitude Test (DAT). present interests. also contribute a lot. the observation has to be on a long term basis and across different occasions to arrive at an accurate data Measured or Tested Interests: These refer to interests found by assessing/testing the individual by using different types of Interest Inventories.

Important ones are Kuder’s Preference Record (KPR) and Strong’s Vocational Interest Blank (SVIB). Singh Interest Record and Chatterjee’s Non-language Preference Record. The SVIB is designed to find out the extent to which the interest of an individual corresponds to those of people who are successful in a given occupation. Measurement of family relationship can provide counsellor vital information about a particular family and an intervention then can be suitably developed. measures preferences of the individual for specific activities. Kuder Preference Record (KPR) developed by G. formal assessment techniques make use of interest inventories. this is eliciting information at an informal level. As part of your practical course work. and another as her third choice. Frederic Kuder. Powell. when you ask somebody about her interest. any type of Interest Inventories may be used. 20 . Indifferent (I) or Dislike (D). It uses a category response type of assessment. An example is given below: • • • Build birdhouses Write articles about birds Draw sketches of birds This particular item aims to assess three types of interests such as mechanical. you can interview the client and collect information regarding the client’s interests. In other words. The subject has to select one of the three choices as her first choice. avoidance and concentration scores of adolescents towards their parents. P. Fritzsche. The first systematic assessment of vocational interests was the development of Strong Vocational Interest Blank by Edward K. even though she may not like any of these. Some other tools like Self Directed Search (SDS) (Holland. 1994) and the Unisex Edition of the ACT Interest Inventory (UNIACT) (Swaney. It can be used for intermediate students. Strong Jr. It may be described in terms of ways that family members interact and relate with each other. It consists of 150 items that measures acceptance. • FAMILY RELATIONSHIP QUESTIONNAIRE Family is a basic unit of society and has major influence on its members. it can be said that interests can be assessed formally as well as informally. On the other hand. Each item contains three choices. the KPR uses a forced choice pattern type of assessment where the individual is forced to say which one of the three activities she likes best and which one she likes least. literary and artistic interest. In contrast to SVIB. The Inventory is available in both Hindi and English. Sinha may be used by the learners to measure family relationship. There are also R. The first two types of interest represent informal assessment whereas the third one involves formal assessment. The Family Relationship Inventory by G. As a guidance counselor. The SVIB helps to reveal the client’s interest patterns by asking the subjects to indicate their preference in terms of Like (L). 1995) developed on the lines of Holland’s theory are also frequently used to assess interest. Sherry and J. Informal assessment techniques include client’s expression of interests and observation.Thus. Assessment of interest provides useful information about the individual which is important for providing educational and vocational guidance and counselling. There are different types of Interest Inventories. C.P. The relationship amongst family members is very crucial and is a determinant of their behaviour and overall development.

Hans Eysenck (1953) arrived at two personality factors: introversion – extraversion and emotional instability – stability (neuroticism). The NEO-PI has been the most heavily researched tools during the last decade. Neo. Costa et al. The authors of NEO-PI have identified three broad categories. Personality inventories are questionnaires on which individuals report their reactions or feelings in certain situations. With factor analysis. Personality Research Form (PRF) (both based on Murray’s need press theory of personality) and Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) (based on Carl Jung’s theory of personality types). or 48 items for each of the five domains).Psychoticism. NEO-PI-R assesses all the domains of Five Factor Model. Apart from theory based inventories. It includes a thorough understanding of the client’s strengths and weaknesses.O). Responses to subsets of items are summed to yield scores on separate scales or factors within the inventory’ (Hilgard and Atkinson 2003: 459). 21 .. Each domain has six specific facets or subscalespersonality traits that represent various aspects of each domain. Personality inventories are questionnaires that assess personality. namely.2002) and factor analytical findings. NEO-PI-R provides a broad-based assessment of individual’s personality.E. Cattell has identified 16 personality factors using factor analysis. Revised NEO-PI(NEO-PI-R. health and illness behaviour. Some examples of theory guided inventories are Edward Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS). neutral. It is based on NEO personality theory (Five Factor Model of Personality. factor-analytic approaches contribute in developing theories based on the initial test findings. Several personality inventories are based on preexisting theories.PRACTICUM IN INDUSTRIAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY • THE BIG FIVE FACTOR SCALE Personality refers to organized. psychologists identify personality dimensions that can define personality.Personality Inventory is a multipurpose inventory for predicting interests. The original version of the instrument assessed only three of the five factors (N. Half of the NEO-PI-R items are reverse scored. Neuroticism(N).and Openness(O). There are two main trends in the area of personality assessment: use of unstructured projective techniques (for example.hence. consists of 240 items(8 items for each of 130 facets . Agrreeableness(A)and Conscientiousness(C). The subject rates each of the 240 statements on a five-point rating scale (strongly disagree. This was done to address a potential acquiesance(or nay-saying) bias. consistent and general pattern of behaviour of a person across situations which help understand his/her behaviour as an individual. that is lower scores are more indicative of the trait in question. Rorschach test) and structured approaches such as self report inventories and behaviour ratings. the name. The work on NEO-PI-R started in 1970’s.Costa & McCrae. It is also very helpful in identifying therapeutic interventions that maybe effective. There are a number of theories that explain and describe the concept of personality. Extraversion (E). psychological well-being and characteristic coping styles of the person. The third dimension added later was. agree and strongly disagree). disagree.1992).

Agreeableness (A): the kinds of interactions an individual prefers from compassion to tough mindedness. feelings(openness to inner feelings and emotions). ideas(intellectual curiosity). gregariosness (preference for the company of others). Conscientiousness(C): degree of organization. In simple terms emotional intelligence is about knowing our own emotions and managing them.excitement seeking(need for environmental stimulation). compliance(response to interpersonal conflict). warmth(interest in and friendliness towards others). dutifulness(emphasis place on importance of fulfilling moral obligations). straightforwardness(frankness in expression). modesty(tendency to play down own achievements and be humble). The traditional view of intelligence has undergone change to consider the impact of emotional aspects on our personal and social life. some people are great in motivating oneself and others. achievement striving(need for personal achievement and sense of direction). and vulnerability(general susceptibility to stress). order(personal organization). and express human emotions in healthy and productive ways. despondency and loneliness). persistence. however it was 22 . sadness. altruism(active concern for the welfare of others). The six facets included in this domain are competence(belief in own self-efficacy).depression(tendency to experience feelings of guilt. and tender-mindedness(attitude of sympathy for others).actions(openness to new experiences on a practical level). activity(pace of living). impulsiveness(tendency to act on cravings and urges rather than reining them in and delaying gratification). Emotional Intelligence (EI) is the ability to use emotions effectively and productively. All these require people to be smart about feelings. control and motivation in goal directed behaviour. The six facets included in this domain are trust (belief in sincerity and good intentions of others). and values(readiness to re-examine own values and those of authority figures). The term Emotional Intelligence was first proposed by Salovey and Mayer. The growing trend has been to emphasize the non-cognitive aspects of intelligence. selfdiscipline(capacity to begin tasks and follow through to completion despite boredom or distractions). and some are able to wait for the satisfaction of their desires. use. assertiveness(self-expression). Extraversion(E): quantity and intensity of energy directed outwards into the social world. aesthetics(appreciation of art and beauty). • EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE SCALE In our interaction with people around us. angry hostility(tendency to experience anger and related states such as frustration and bitterness). The six facets included in this domain are. This ability to be intelligent about one’s feelings and emotions is called emotional intelligence. and positive emotion(tendency to experience positive emotions). self-consciousness(shyness or social anxiety). The six facets included in this domain are. The six facets included in this domain are fantasy(receptivity to the inner world of imagination). Openness to Experience(O): the active seeking and appreciation of experiences for their own sake. we see that some people are more confident and know how to get along with others. and deliberation(tendency to think things through before acting or speaking). and knowing others’ emotions and learning how to handle them.Description of the domain and facet scales Neuroticism(N): identifies individuals who are prone to psychological stress. Emotional intelligence has been defined as a learned ability to understand. anxiety(level of free floating anxiety).

It helps improve the interpersonal skills. and has implications in the educational. The Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i). 25 items in each area. Emotional Intelligence Test by N. Salovey and Mayer (1997) point out that emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive emotions. Shubhra Mangal. There are various tests which assess emotional intelligence such as Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Thus EI has implications for academic as well as social achievement. Pratibha Deo (former Head & Professor. Pethe and Dhar. good student behavior.K. is an essential component for enhancing academic. Inter-personal Awareness (knowing about others’ emotions). It benefits both children as well as adults. to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought. • ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION SCALE Deo-Mohan achievement test was developed by Prof. Research findings indicate that emotional intelligence skills are important factors contributing to student achievement and retention. Asha Mohan (Reader. 23 . and effectively manage the demands and pressures of daily life and work. and helps improve peer relationship and positive behavior. to understand emotions and emotional knowledge. Mumbai) and Dr. and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth. Mangal and Mrs. The test consists of a total of 100 items. Emotional Intelligence Test by Hyde. Bombay University. get along and work well with others in achieving positive results. It assesses EI in the four areas of emotional intelligence such as Intra-personal Awareness ( knowing about one’s own emotions). S. Goleman. The scale consists of 50 items out of which 13 are negative and 37 are positive items or statements. Intra personal Management (managing one’s own emotions) and Inter personal Management (managing others emotions). as a learned ability. Research also indicates that emotional intelligence and related non-traditional measures of human performance may be as or more predictive of academic and career success than IQ or other tested measures of scholastic aptitude and achievement. social and career. K. Thus emotional intelligence as a concept has widespread implications in each aspect of our life ranging from academic to personal.popularized by Daniel Goleman with the publication of his book: ‘Emotional Intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ?’ in the year1995. We’ll describe here Mangal Emotional Intelligence Inventory by Dr. The score yields a total score for EI as well as scores for each component. and reduce risk behaviours. social and organizational sectors. Chadda. and career success. the pioneer in the field of emotional intelligence describes emotional intelligence as consisting of five components: • • • • • Self awareness : knowing our own emotions Self regulation : managing our own emotions Motivation : motivating ourselves Empathy : recognizing the emotions of others Social skills : handling relationships Emotional intelligence. The mode of response to each item is in the form of ‘yes’ or ‘no’. Emotional intelligence helps in establishing and maintaining healthy and productive relationships in the workplace. Punjab University. college. Chandigarh) to assess the level of achievement motivation within an individual or a group (25-30 people).

In other words.The items related to this field assess the level of interest of the subject in organizing and participating social activities. Subsequently. however. leadership style refers to a leader’s behavior. But. The items of the scale are rated on a five point likert type rating scale. The approach explained that leadership is rooted in characteristics of the leader. and experience of the leader. in order to get the work done or achieve the common goal.. music. came up in order to explain the leadership style in different ways. but not in others. this trait-based perspective dominated empirical and theoretical work in leadership. work methods. Basically. Factors of general field interest. as only one person decides for the whole group and keeps each decision to him/ herself until he/she feels it needs to be shared with the rest of the group. painting. Evidences suggested that persons who are leaders in one situation may not necessarily be leaders in other situations. fine arts and so on. situational and contingency theories.These items are related basically to 3 major areasi) Academic factors. transactional and transformational theories. Different situations call for different leadership styles. They can win the cooperation of their group and can motivate them effectively and positively. It is the result of the philosophy. More or less it is a process with the help of which a leader manages and organizes a group of people to achieve a common goal. a series of qualitative reviews of these studies showed a different view of the driving forces behind leadership. The method of the scoring and interpretation is provided in the manual of the test. intensity of facing academic challenges and so on. The scoring is done with the help of the stencil given. Such a leadership style.The items related to this field tries to assess the potentials of the group or individual in the degree of need of achieving a target. Participative or democratic style: The leaders following this style of leadership takes decision with the consent of the group. By now. This approach to the leadership was called as trait based approach. in an organizational context). They do not entertain any suggestions or initiatives from subordinates. In the late 1940s and early 1950s. not developed. Research work done in the 19th century showed that leadership was inherited. For decades. Some of the leadership styles can be explained as follows: Autocratic or authoritarian style: The leaders who follow this style are more dictators. permits quick decision-making. as situational approaches which says that individuals can be effective in certain situations. • AUTHENTIC LEADERSHIP SCALE Leadership can be explained as a process of social influence with the help of which one person (the leader) takes the assistance and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task. etc. This approach dominated much of the leadership theory and research for the next few decades.The items are concerned with extra curricular activities like dancing. These evidences were later on revisited and several theories like. personality. 24 . ii) iii) Factors of Social interest. leadership was no longer characterized as an enduring individual trait. they can very strongly motivate the followers (employees. you might have got an idea that the leaders follow different styles.behavioral and style theories. leaders were born.

William L. An authentic leader is a person who can stand alone. challenges and opinions? Ethical/Moral: To what degree does the leader set a high standard for moral and ethical conduct? Balanced Processing: To what degree does the leader solicit sufficient opinions and viewpoints prior to making important decisions? The scale may be used on a single subject or a group. The leaders following this kind of leadership do not commit more. Gardner & Fred O. Authentic leadership: Authentic leadership is quite a big buzzword in the alternative business community. • JOB STRESS SURVEY There are different scales or questionnaires which can be administered on different level of employees of the organization. they are given a free hand in deciding their own policies and methods. how others see him or her and how the leader impacts others? Transparency: To what degree does the leader reinforce a level of openness with others that provides them with an opportunity to be forthcoming with their ideas. Authentic leadership relies on persuasion and persuasion relies on trust. Assessment of Authentic Leadership: One of the methods of assessing the authentic leadership is Authentic Leadership Questionnaire for Researchers by Bruce J. so that they can fulfill the limited promises that they make. The Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ) is a theorydriven leadership survey instrument designed to measure the components that have been conceptualized as comprising authentic leadership. live fearlessly. Such a leader allows maximum freedom to subordinates. Avolio. The scoring and interpretation is done with the help of the available manual of the scale/questionire being used. 25 . Walumbwa. The basic purpose of these scales is to assess the extent to which an employee is facing stress or pressure at his or her work place. The job stress survey to helps in finding out the reasons which lead to a stressful environment for the employees and help the organization to find out ways to manage stress.Laissez-faire or free rein style: A free-rein leader does not lead. but leaves the group entirely to itself. It consists of four scales (which comprises authentic leadership) which assesses the following criteria: • • • • Self Awareness: To what degree is the leader aware of his or her strengths. limitations. take unconditional responsibility for oneself and at all the times see things impersonally. The scoring and interpretation is provided in the manual.

The duration of TEE can be 3 hours followed by viva-voce. S/he will have to bring one subject along with her/him. Viva voce will be conducted by the external examiner. This will be followed by the viva voce. 26 . Chits with names of various practicals may be prepared before hand and the learner may be asked to pick one chit at the time of the examination. S/he may then collect the test/ material and start conducting the practical. The answer sheet is then to be submitted to the internal examiner. The practical may be allotted to the learner by the way of lot system. The answer sheets will be corrected by the external examiner.0 CONDUCTION OF TERM END EXAMINATION (TEE) IN BPCE 022 Conduction of the examination: The examination will to be conducted in the respective study centres during which the learner has to administer a test. write report (in answer sheet) and appear for vivavoce. s/he will have to report the findings in the answer sheet.7. Once the learner finishes conducting the practical. The duration per student may be 10-15 minutes.

27 .______________________________________________________ Enroll No. ______________________________ of BDP.: Name of the Study Centre: Regional Centre: Place: Date: Signature of Academic Counsellor Name: Designation: Place: Date: Note: Certificate to be attached in Practicum Note Book.APPENDIX CERTIFICATE This is to certify that Ms/ Mr.BA (Psychology) Third Year has conducted and successfully completed the practical work in BPCE 022 (Practicals in Clinical Psychology/ Counselling/ Industrial and Organizational Psychology) Signature of the Learner Name: Enrolment No.

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