Question 1

:
Leaching: Acid leaching ( ) ( ) ( ( ) ) ( ) () ()

(1) (2)

( ) ( ) Oxidation leaching ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

) ( )

(

) (3) () (4)

NaOH dissolution:

Acid Neutralization: ( ) ( ) ( ) () (5)

Fe precipitation: ( ) ( ) ( Cu precipitation
( ) ( )

( )

)

(

) ( )

(

)

(6)

(

) ( )

(

)

(7)

( Cu electrowinning:

)

. with the remaining CuO (10 %) and CuS entering the oxidation leach stage. 5. 6. 100 % conversion of ferric oxide in the acid leaching stage. 4. 3. However. 2. It was assumed the insoluble Fe originates from ferric oxide and is all liberated by acid leaching i. 7. neither producing nor consuming acis. Only 95 % of the sulphide is leached in the oxidation stage. Furthermore. it was assumed all sulphide is oxidised to sulphate. The H+ refers to the amount of acid in the specific stream.Mass balance Assumptions 1. It was assumed perfect separation of the leach liquor (solids-liquid mixture) from the acid stage. The concentration in the split stream and the resulting stream remains the same.e. Only the volumes are splitted. The remaining 5 % remain as sulphide mineral. It was assumed the covellite oxidation (CuS) iscompletely neutral. leaching of sulphide minerals (CuS) requires the oxidising agent (O2 from the air) as well as the lixiviant (Sulphuric acid). Non-sulphide copper minerals (CuO) are leached directly by sulphuric acid in the acid leaching stage. It was assumed conversion is complete (100 % conversion) at all stages.