Question 1

:
Leaching: Acid leaching ( ) ( ) ( ( ) ) ( ) () ()

(1) (2)

( ) ( ) Oxidation leaching ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

) ( )

(

) (3) () (4)

NaOH dissolution:

Acid Neutralization: ( ) ( ) ( ) () (5)

Fe precipitation: ( ) ( ) ( Cu precipitation
( ) ( )

( )

)

(

) ( )

(

)

(6)

(

) ( )

(

)

(7)

( Cu electrowinning:

)

The concentration in the split stream and the resulting stream remains the same. It was assumed the covellite oxidation (CuS) iscompletely neutral. The H+ refers to the amount of acid in the specific stream. 6. . It was assumed conversion is complete (100 % conversion) at all stages. It was assumed the insoluble Fe originates from ferric oxide and is all liberated by acid leaching i. The remaining 5 % remain as sulphide mineral. with the remaining CuO (10 %) and CuS entering the oxidation leach stage. 7. 100 % conversion of ferric oxide in the acid leaching stage. Non-sulphide copper minerals (CuO) are leached directly by sulphuric acid in the acid leaching stage. Furthermore. Only the volumes are splitted. 5. It was assumed perfect separation of the leach liquor (solids-liquid mixture) from the acid stage.Mass balance Assumptions 1. 2.e. 4. it was assumed all sulphide is oxidised to sulphate. However. Only 95 % of the sulphide is leached in the oxidation stage. leaching of sulphide minerals (CuS) requires the oxidising agent (O2 from the air) as well as the lixiviant (Sulphuric acid). neither producing nor consuming acis. 3.

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