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ESL Pathways: Frontiers

English for Advanced Level Language Learners


By:

Daniel Harrington Kimberly Heeren David Treanor

Copyright 2004 by the authors. Unauthorized reproduction without the expressed consent of the authors is prohibited.

Table of Contents
Lesson
1. Early American History Timeline 2. American History Timeline II 3. George Washington 4. The American Revolution 5. Buffalo Bill 6. The Original Cowboys 7. 8. 9. Bizarre Criminals Organized Crime Cross Cultural Marriage

Page
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45

10. Robinson Crusoe 11. Controversial Issues 12. Newspapers 13. The Earthquake of 1964 14. Disasters 15. Elementary Education-General Trends 16. Elementary Education-Problems 17. Littering 18. Solar Energy 19. Delicacies 20. Potato Chips 21. Growing up-Peer Pressure 22. Growing up-Role Models 23. Stress and Pressure

Lesson

Page

24. Being Overweight and Obese 25. The American Civil War 26. Abraham Lincoln 27. Colonel Sanders 28. Hetty Robinson 29. Predicting the Future 30. Personality Traits 31. Buying a Pet 32. Facts about Cats and Dogs 33. Smoking in Public Places 34. Underage Smoking 35. Ghost Stories 36. Urban Legends 37. Computers 38. Keeping in Touch 39. Franklin Delano Roosevelt 40. The Great Depression 41. Effects of Television 42. Family Television 43. Westward Expansion 44. Yellowstone Park 45. Occupational Hazards 46. Department Stores 47. Arguments in Favor of Zoos 48. Arguments Against Zoos

47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 89 91 93 95

Lesson 1

Early American History Timeline

What is a timeline? Who was Christopher Columbus? What is a colony? Who colonized America? What was the American Revolutionary War? Who was the first president of the United States? What do you know about him?

Read the timeline of early American history.


1492 Christopher Columbus sails from Spain and discovers the New World. 1607 - The English settle Jamestown, Virginia. 1619 - A Dutch ship transports 20 Africans to Jamestown. From here, African slavery would eventually spread in the Southern colonies. 1620 - English citizens, searching for religious freedom and reform, leave England and settle at the Plymouth colony in Massachusetts. 1765 - The first direct tax, the Stamp Act, is imposed on the colonists by the British government. 1770 - The Boston Massacre occurs on March 5th. 1773 - The Sons of Liberty carry out the Boston Tea Party on December 16th. 1775 - The American Revolutionary War begins. 1776 - The thirteen colonies declare independence from Britain. Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, and Ben Franklin write a draft for a Declaration of Independence. 1776 - George Washington is placed in command of the Continental Army. 1781 The final battle of the Revolutionary War is fought at Yorktown, Virginia. The British army surrenders and the Revolutionary War ends. 1783 - The Peace of Paris officially ends the Revolutionary War. The U.S. is officially recognized as a free and independent country around the world. 1788 - The Constitution becomes law in the United States and creates a new form of government, based on individual rights and representation. 1789 - George Washington is sworn in as the first president of the United States.

Comprehension Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. What did Christopher Columbus discover? Who settled Jamestown, Virginia? What early event eventually led to slavery and to the Civil War? Who settled the Plymouth colony? What were they seeking? What was the first direct tax passed on the colonists? When did the Boston Massacre occur? When did the American Revolution begin? Who worked on a draft for the Declaration of Independence? Who was placed in command of the Continental Army? When was the final battle of the Revolutionary War? Who surrendered? What officially ended the Revolutionary War? What also happened at The Peace of Paris? When did The Constitution become law in the United States? Who was the first president of the United States? When was he sworn in?

Discussion Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Why did people leave their home and sail to the New World? Why do you think so many people choose to move to America? Would you want to move to America? Why? If you immigrated to another country what things would you probably miss about your home country? What things would you take with you? What kinds of crops are grown in your country? What kinds of things are imported into your country? What kinds of things are exported from your country? Why are imported items usually more expensive than domestic items? What imported things do you like to buy? What is religious freedom? What religions exist in your country? What is your religion? Are you a religious person? Do you think it is interesting to talk about religion and politics? Why? What is a revolution? Do you know about any famous revolutions? What is colonization? Which countries have been colonized? What kind of government exists in your country? What are the political parties? Do you vote? Do you think your vote really matters? Why? If you could be the president of your country, what is the first thing you would do?

Complete this sentence:

If I were president I would _______________________________________.


18. 19. What other changes would you make if you were president of your country? If you could meet anyone from the past, whom would you choose? Why?

Lesson 2

American History Timeline II

Are you interested in history? Why? What do you know about American history? Name some famous explorers. Where did they go? What did they do? What do you know about World War II? Do you know anyone who was alive during World War II? Who? Do you have any stocks? Which ones? Are stocks a good investment? Why?

Read the timeline of American history.


1800 - Thomas Jefferson is elected president. 1803 - Jefferson negotiates the Louisiana Purchase with Napoleon from France. 1804- 1806 - The Lewis and Clark expedition across the new Louisiana lands is a success. 1849 - Gold is discovered in California. 1860 Abraham Lincoln is elected president. 1861 The American Civil War begins. 1863 The Emancipation Proclamation becomes law. Slavery is abolished and slaves are legally declared free. 1865 The American Civil War ends and the Union is preserved. 1917 The United States joins Britain and France in World War I. 1929 The stock market crashes and Great Depression begins. 1941 Japan attacks Pearl Harbor and the United States enters World War II. 1948 The Cold War begins. 1950 The United States enters the Korean War. 1961 The United States officially commits to the Vietnam War. 1963 President John F. Kennedy is assassinated. 1979 The Iran hostage crisis begins. 1991 The Cold War officially ends as the Soviet Union breaks apart.

Comprehension Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Who was elected president in 1800? Who did Jefferson negotiate the Louisiana Purchase with? Who were Lewis and Clark? What happened in California in 1849? When was Lincoln elected president? What happened in 1861? When did slaves become legally free? When did the Civil War end? When did the US enter World War One? What happened after the stock market crash of 1929? Why did the US enter World War Two? When did the Cold War begin? What happened in 1950? What happened in 1961? What happened to President Kennedy? When did the Iran hostage crisis begin? When did the Cold War officially end? Why did it end at this time?

Discussion Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. How many leaders has your country had? Which ones did you like? Dislike? What responsibilities do presidents have? What problems do they have to face? Has gold or silver ever been discovered in your country? Would you like to be a gold miner? Why? Do you like to wear gold? Do you have any diamonds? Have you ever been to the United States? Where? Why do people want to immigrate to America? Would you like to move to America? Why? What was the Cold War about? Who was involved? What is communism? Which countries are communist today? Do you think communism works better than democracy? Why or why not? Can you name some well-known communist leaders? What is the voting age in your country? Are you old enough to vote? Do you ever vote in elections? Why? How do you feel about the United States getting involved in foreign wars? If your country went to war, which other countries would help you? Why? For what reasons would your country fight a war?

Timeline: Draw a timeline of some important events in your countrys history. 1600 1700 1800 1900

Lesson 3

George Washington

Who is your countrys current leader? Who was the first leader of your country? Who was George Washington? What do you know about George Washington? Who is the current American president? What do you know about the current American president? Which other American presidents do you know about? Name some other well-known world leaders.

Read about George Washington.


George Washington was the first president of the United States and is known as the Father of His Country. He was born on February 22, 1732 in Westmoreland Country, Virginia. He was the oldest son of Augustine Washington and his second wife, Mary Ball Washington. He came from a wealthy Virginia farmer family of English descent and they brought George up as an 18th century Virginia gentleman. In 1754, he began his military career and was commissioned as a lieutenant colonel. From 1759 until the beginning of the American Revolution, Washington managed his lands around Mount Vernon, Virginia. He married Martha Custis and devoted himself to the life of a farmer. However, Washington felt exploited by British merchants and was annoyed by British regulations. As quarrels with the mother country grew, he moderately but firmly voiced his resistance to the restrictions of British rule. When the Second Continental Congress assembled in Philadelphia in May 1775, Washington was elected Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army. On July 3, 1775, he took command of his ill-trained troops and fought in the six-year-long Revolutionary War. As an army general, Washington helped the 13 colonies win the Revolutionary War against the British. In 1787, Washington presided over the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, during which the US Constitution was written. George Washington wanted to retire from the military and return to his former life as a farmer. However, he soon realized that the new nation was not functioning well, so he decided to enter politics. Electors unanimously elected Washington president in 1789 and in 1792. He was the only president in American history to be elected unanimously. During his presidency, the Bill of Rights was adopted but Washington decided to concentrate most of his efforts on foreign policy. When the French Revolution led to a major war between Britain and France, Washington insisted on remaining neutral until the United States could grow stronger. In his farewell address Washington urged his countrymen against excessive party spirit, involvement in foreign affairs, and long-term alliances. Washington enjoyed less than three years of retirement. He died on December 14, 1799 of a throat infection.

Comprehension Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. When was George Washington born? Where was Washington born? Where were Washingtons parents from? Did George have any older siblings? When was George commissioned lieutenant colonel? Who did Washington marry? When was Washington elected Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army? How long did the American Revolutionary War last? How many colonies did America originally have? Where was the US Constitution written? Why did Washington decide to enter politics? How many terms did Washington serve? What did Washington concentrate his efforts on? What were the three things that Washington urged against in his farewell speech? For how long did Washington enjoy his retirement? When did Washington die? How did Washington die?

Discussion Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. George Washingtons stature reflected a man of great qualities. Look at his picture and decide what kind of a man you think he was. Who was the first leader of your country? How did he or she come into power? Who is the leader of your country now? How many terms can he or she serve? In America there are two major political parties, Republican and Democrat. What are the major political parties in your country? What are their platforms? Who do they represent? Do you prefer any one political party over the others? Why? Have you ever voted? Why? Who did you vote for? Why? What are some important political issues in your country right now? Do you ever disagree with anything your government does? What? Why do countries have constitutions? Who benefits from having a constitution? What is a foreign alliance? Why do you think Washington urged against them? Who are your countrys main allies? Who are your countries enemies? July 4th is Independence Day in America. Does your country have an independence day? Why? What are some other important holidays in your country? When are they? What are the main differences between kings and presidents? Which countries still have royal families today? Where are these countries? What do you think about royal families? Are they important? Why? Have you ever had a throat infection? What did you do about it?

Lesson 4

Th he Amer rican Re evolution n

What is a re evolution? Why do peo ople revolt against their governme ent? Which coun ntries have had revolut tions? What do yo ou know abo out the American Revo olution? What is tax xation? Are taxes high in your cou untry? Why do gov vernments have taxes? ? Who usually pays the highest taxes in a coun ntry?

Rea ad about the Amer rican Rev volution.


At one o time, th he British Empire E was the most s successful that t the wo orld had eve er seen. The en, the thirte een colonie es of British North Ame erica attemp pted someth hing that no o colony had ever tried to do. They revolted against a their mother co ountry. The e British Em mpire in Nor rth America a was creat ted when different d gro oups of peo ople left their homes to start new lives in a ne ew land. They T went to o different places, at different d time es, and for different re easons. Som me were seeking busin ness venture es and othe ers were look king for reli igious libert ty. The Am mericans we ere a very diverse gro oup of peop ple who wer re governed d by a mother country that t was at least two months m awa ay by ship. By 1763 1 Great Britain had d a lot of problems wit th its Amer rican colonie es. British officials had no plans f for dealing with the ra apidly grow wing colonie es. British administrat tors and polit tical adviso ors only kne ew how to manage a small island d and lacke ed the expe ertise of long g-distance manageme ent. They tried to manage m Am merica from m London but the colo onists demanded the right to manage their ow wn lands without Britis sh interferen nce. The e British gov vernment and a army protected p th he Americans from Na ative Americans as well l as from French and Spanish S set ttlers. As a way of repaying the British, a series s of taxe es were im mposed on the colon nies. The Sugar Act t taxed im mported sug gar and proh hibited the import of foreign fo rum and French h wine. Th he Currency y Act prohib bited the colo onists from issuing leg gal money of their ow wn. The St tamp Act p placed a tax x on all prin nted items, from news spapers to playing p card ds. The To ownsend R Revenue Act ts taxed pap per, tea, gla ass, lead, an nd paints. The colonists thought t these taxe es were unfair and got revenge by y boycotting g English im mported goo ods. In 1768, 1 Samuel Adams wrote w a circu ular letter opposing o taxation without represe entation and called for the colonist ts to unite against the e British gov vernment. Violence began b to erup pt between British offi icials and groups of an ngry colonis sts. One of the most notable events, the Bo oston Mass sacre, occur rred in 177 70 when an American n mob hara assed a grou up of British h soldiers. The British soldiers the en fired the eir muskets pointblank into the crow wd, killing a number of f colonists. At dawn d on Ap pril 19, 1775 5 the Ameri ican Revolutionary War began. T The war last ted until 178 81. Americ ca eventually won ind dependence e from Gre eat Britain and was officially o declared an ind dependent country c in 1783. 1

Comprehension Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. How many colonies did British North America originally have? What did the colonies do that no other colony had ever done? Why did colonists go to America? What were the problems that Great Britain had with its American colonies? How long did it take to get to America from England? Who did the British protect the Americans from? What was the Sugar Act? The Currency Act? The Stamp Act? Who wrote the Circular Letter? When? What was the point of the Circular Letter? What was the Boston Massacre? When did the American Revolution begin? When did it end? How long did the American Revolution last? What was the outcome of the Revolutionary War? When did the United States officially become an independent country?

Discussion Questions:
What is colonization? What is a colony? Which countries have been major colonial countries? Which areas did they colonize? Name some former colonies. What is their status today? Do you think colonization has helped or hindered colonies? Give an example. Hong Kong is a former British colony. What do you know about Hong Kong? Is it better off now or when it was a colony? Why? 6. One act imposed by the British was the Tea Act. It was an import tax on tea arriving into the colonies. In retaliation, a group of colonists disguised themselves as Mohawk Indians, boarded British ships and dumped 342 containers of tea into Boston Harbor. This was known as the Boston Tea Party. Why do you think the colonists did this? Was it a good idea? Why? 7. Patrick Henry gave a speech against British rule in which he declared, Give me liberty or give me death! What do you think he meant by this? 8. The United States was based on principles of liberty and justice for everyone. Do you think America is a place where everyone is treated equally? Why? 9. America is known at the land of opportunity. What do you think this means? 10. If you had the chance to immigrate to the United States, would you go? Why? 11. Would you rather immigrate to the USA, some other country, or not immigrate at all? Why? 12. What are some advantages and disadvantages of immigrating to another country? What problems would immigrants have? What benefits would they have? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Les sson 5

B Buffalo B Bill

Have you e ever seen a western mo ovie? What did A American cow wboys look k like? What did A American cow wboys do? Would you like to be a cowboy? Why? What is a c circus? Wha at can you see s there? What can y you see in a zoo? Do you y like zoo os? Why?

Rea ad about Buffalo Bill. B


William F. Cody y, or Buffalo o Bill as he was later k known, was s born in 18 846 in Iowa. While he was w still a child, c his fam mily moved d to Kansas. . When he was eleven n years old, Buffalo Bill left home. He got a job herding g cattle and d working as a a driver on a wago on train. This s was the beginning of o his caree er. He we ent on to fu ur trapping g and gold mining. The en, he joine ed the Pony y Express in n 1860 as a messenger. After serving s time e in the Civil War, Cody y scouted for f the Army y and gaine ed the nick kname "Buff falo Bill" du ue to his hun nting skills. Codys life in the Wes st was made e popular in n newspape ers and nove els. His life paints a pic cture of life in the old American A W West. He be ecame an Am merican folk k-hero. In 1859, 1 Buffalo Bill tried his luck as a gold prospector in the t Pikes Pe eak gold rush. For two o months he e searched for gold bu ut was unsu uccessful. The next y year, he joined the Pon ny Express. They were e looking for r skinny, ex xpert riders who were w willing to ris sk death daily y. Buffalo Bill was alr ready familiar with the e plains and d at age 14, he deliver red mail for the t Pony Ex xpress. During the Civ vil War, Buf ffalo Bill se erved as a Union scou ut. As a scout, he fo ought in seve eral battles against Na ative Americans. After the war, he continue ed to work k for the Arm my. He was chief of sc couts and took t part in n 16 battles s. For his service ove er these years, he was awarded the t Congressional Med dal of Hono or in 1872. . This awa ard was take en back in 1976 becau use Buffalo Bill was no ot a membe er of the ar rmed forces s at that time e. The awa ard was rest tored in 198 89. During this tim me, Buffalo Bill B earned a reputation n for skill an nd bravery and was be ecoming a national folk k hero. It was said that t he kille ed over 4,0 000 buffalo o in one ye ear. He supplied the men m working g on the rai ilroads with h buffalo me eat and ear rned his nic ckname, Buff falo Bill. In 1869, Ne ed Buntline created a character named Buf ffalo Bill in a dime nov vel. In 187 72, Ned per rsuaded Buf ffalo Bill to o act in a play p called, The Scouts ts of the Plai ins. Althoug gh Buffalo Bill B was not an actor, he h agreed and was very y successful. Acting inspired Buffalo Bill. In 1883, he organiz zed Buffalo Bills Wild W West Show. It was an outdoor o sho ow that dramatized buffalo b hunt ts with real buffalo, In ndian attac cks, and Pon ny Express rides. r The show was like a circu us but it wa as also a history lesso on. The show w was a huge h succe ess and tou ured the U United State es and Eur rope for 30 0 years. Buff falo Bill mad de a fortune from his show busin ness success s, but event tually lost it t due to financial mismanagement t. Buffalo Bill died on n January 10, 1 1917, a and is burie ed near Den nver, Colora ado.

Com mprehens sion Ques stions.


1. What was s William F. Codys nick kname? 2. When did d Buffalo Bill leave hom me? 3. When did d Buffalo Bill join the Po ony Express s? 4. Why did he h go to Pik kes Peak? 5. Was he successful? 6. What kind of o men was s the Pony Express E look king for? 7. What did Buffalo Bill do for the Pony Expre ess? 8. What was s Buffalo Bills job in th he army? 9. What was s he awarde ed in 1872? ? 10. Why was the award taken back k? 11. How did Buffalo B Bill earn his nic ckname? 12. In what play p did Buf ffalo Bill act? 13. What did he do in 18 883? 14. What cou uld you see at a Wild West W Show? 15. Was the show s succe essful? 16. How did Buffalo B Bill lose his fort tune? 17. When did d Buffalo Bill die? 18. Where is he buried?

Dis scussion Questions Q s.


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. Do you th hink life in the t old Ame erican West was easy or o difficult? Why? Would yo ou like to ha ave lived in the old American West t? Why? If you cou uld travel back in time, , when and where wou uld you go? What did your count try look like in 1870? Buffalo Bill was a folk hero. Some of his st tories are tr rue while ot thers are fic ctional. Does you ur country have any fam mous folk heroes? Wh hat did they do? Why were e people lik ke Buffalo Bill fighting against a Nati ive Americans? Does you ur country have a nativ ve population? If so, ho ow are they y treated? Have you u ever been to a circus? ? What can n you see in n a circus? If the circ cus came to o your town n, would you u go? Why? ? Some peo ople think th hat circuses s are bad be ecause they y are cruel t to animals. Do you agree e or disagre ee? Why? Say some ething positive about zo oos. Say some ething negative about zoos. z Should we w have zoos s? Why? Do you th hink animals s should ha ave rights? Why or why not? Why do some s compa anies test th heir product ts on anima als? How do you y feel abo out testing products p on n animals? When you u buy things, are you concerned c a about anima al testing? Why or why not? Do you th hink we sho ould test pro oducts on humans h instead of anim mals? Why? ? Would yo ou like to ea at buffalo meat? m Why? ?

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Lesson 6

The Original Cowboys

Describe an American cowboy. Were cowboys generally good guys or bad guys? What did cowboys do for a living? What did a cowboy wear? Are there still cowboys today? Where did cowboys live? What famous cowboys do you know about? Are there any cowboys in your country?

Read about the first cowboys.


The first cowboys were dedicated to doing their best and took pride in a job that required hard labor. A professional cowboy had to be an expert rider and roper. He worked from sunup to sundown with two hours of night guard duty. The dangers of the job included: leading a thousand stampeding cattle without getting trampled, the risk of being kicked by a horse or charged by a steer, drowning at a river crossing, getting struck by lightning, or dying of pneumonia. Cowboys usually wore clothing that was very practical. The first cowboys, discharged from the Civil War, sometimes wore their military uniforms. Later, their clothing changed. The cowboys wore chaps over their pants to protect their legs while riding. They wore boots to the knee to keep out gravel, spurs to urge the horse to move quickly, bandanas to keep dust from their faces, and hats to protect their heads and faces from the heat and rain. A cowboys main job was driving cattle. He could earn about $50-$90 for one drive. Following the Civil War, cowboys went on long drives from Texas to the North. They took cattle to trains to be delivered to the East where there was a demand for beef. The cook was also a very important member of the cattle drive. He cooked three meals a day, and served as a doctor, dentist, barber, and counselor. A good cook was necessary in order to keep the cowboys happy. Most meals consisted of beans, biscuits, coffee, beef stew, and sometimes a sweet dessert like apple pie. Cowboys later joined shows to demonstrate their roping and riding skills. Buffalo Bills Wild West Show toured cities and towns where people were not familiar with that kind of lifestyle. Europeans were very interested in the cowboy shows and perceived America as a wild western country. Wild West shows later evolved into rodeos. One legendary cowboy was Bill Pickett. He was the first African American to be inducted into the Cowboy Hall of Fame. Cowboys portrayed in Hollywood were generally white actors but actually one of every three cowboys was African-American, Native American, or Hispanic. Whether represented in truth or fiction, Americans continue to be fascinated with the cowboy legends and the lifestyle of the Wild West.

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Comprehension Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. What did a professional cowboy have to be an expert at? How long did a cowboy work? What were the dangers of a cowboys job? What did the first cowboys wear? What was the purpose of chaps? Knee boots? Spurs? What was a cowboys main job? How much could a cowboy earn on a cattle drive? Where was there a demand for beef? What were the various jobs of a cook? What kind of food did cowboys eat? What did cowboys do at Wild West shows? What did Wild West shows evolve into? How did Europeans perceive America? Who was the first African American to be inducted into the Cowboy Hall of Fame? Were all cowboys white?

Discussion Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. Describe what an authentic cowboy looked like. What kind of personality do you think cowboys would have had? What are the similarities and differences between authentic cowboys and the cowboys that Hollywood portrays? Cowboys of the old West would sit around the campfire at night and entertain one another with poems, tall tales and just plain good old stories about their adventures. Have you ever sat around with friends and relatives and entertained one another with stories, poems, or songs? What are some tall tales or legends associated with the history of your country? African-American, Native American and Hispanic cowboys were generally ignored by those who made movies and television shows about the old American West. This convinced viewers that there were no minorities involved in the frontier cattle industry in the American West. How does this statement make you feel? Is this fair? Why would this happen? Hollywood usually glamorizes images of cowboys. What images does Hollywood or television usually portray of: Politicians? Gangsters? Judges? Lawyers? Detectives? Secret Agents? 8. Imagine that you and some friends are going to travel on horseback for a week through the American West. Prepare a list of equipment that you would need to take as modern cowboys going off to explore the rugged American West. You should outfit yourself as completely as possible with appropriate clothing, tools, and other necessary supplies and equipment.

5. 6.

7.

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Lesson 7

Some Bizarre Criminals

Why do people steal things? Have you ever had anything stolen from you? Have you ever stolen anything? Do you think your country is a safe place to live? Have you ever seen a crime? Is it ever okay to break the law? Why? Have you ever broken the law? Why?

Read these stories about some bizarre criminals. A thief was arrested after he was found asleep in a pub he was robbing after he tried some expensive liquor. The 42-year-old man entered the pub through the roof and started to load his pockets with money and whatever he could find. Then, he tried some whiskey and other drinks but could not stop. The pubs owner found him in the morning. The owner called the police but not before writing the burglar's bill which was about $120. The thief was charged with burglary and faces at least three years in jail. The police said the man had robbed another bar the day before.
Another thief broke into a residential home but did not plan his crime very well. He entered the house and quickly unhooked and removed two television sets, a VCR player, and some stereo equipment. Then, he remembered that he was on foot and had no way of getting the stolen goods back to his apartment. He worked hard to steal all that stuff and didn't want to leave it behind, so he called a taxi. He stacked all the equipment on the sidewalk, sat down, and waited for the taxi to arrive. When the taxi arrived, the driver helped the man load all of the equipment into the truck. The thief jumped in and gave the driver his address. The driver thought the situation was a bit strange, so he called the police. The cops arrived at the thiefs house and immediately arrested him. An employee at Edwards Elementary School stole one of the school's refrigerators and took it home. When she got home she discovered the refrigerator wasn't working. She called a repairman to fix it, but not just any repairman. She called the school system's maintenance department. The repairman came to her house and recognized the refrigerator. He told the woman that he knew she had stolen the fridge but she did not offer the man hush money to keep it a secret. She didn't even offer him money for fixing the fridge. The maintenance man called the police and the woman was arrested and fired from her job. A purse-snatcher was arrested after he chose the wrong person as his victim. The man, who was suspected of a string of handbag robberies, sped past his last victim on his motorcycle and lifted her purse without slowing down. As he turned around to see the surprise on his victim's face, he realized he had made a stupid mistake. The woman was his mother. She immediately reported the incident to the police and said she believed her son was stealing purses to finance his drug habit. The next time the mother and son were reunited it was in a courtroom.

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Comprehension Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Where was the first thief caught? Why was he sleeping? Who found him in the morning? How much was his bill? What was he charged with? What did the second thief break into? What did he try to steal? What did he call? What did the taxi driver think? Who did the taxi driver call? Where did the third thief work? What did she try to steal? What did she discover when she got home? Who did she call? What did she tell the repairman? Why was the purse-snatcher arrested? How did he steal the purse? Who was the woman? What did she do? Where were they next reunited?

Discussion Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

Is your city a safe place to live? Why? Does your city have any dangerous areas? Where are they? Are you afraid to walk outside after dark? Why? Do you know anyone who has been robbed? If so, what happened? Have you ever been robbed? Have you ever had something stolen from you? If a person steals a loaf of bread to feed his starving family, should he be punished? Why? Is it ever okay to break the law? If so, when? What are some things people can do to protect themselves from crime? What are some things that are legal but you personally think should be illegal? What are some things that are illegal but you personally think should be legal? What What What What crimes have you heard about recently in the news? do you think is the worst crime a person could commit? Why? crimes do you think will increase in the future? Why? crimes do you think will decrease in the future? Why?

Does your country have the death penalty? If so, for what crimes can people receive the death penalty? Do you think the death penalty is a fair punishment? Why? Are there any reasonable alternatives to the death penalty? What?

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Lesson 8

Organized Crime

What is organized crime? What do you know about the mafia? Does organized crime exist in your country? What do gangsters do? What do gangsters look like? Have you ever seen a gangster? Where? Have you ever heard of Al Capone?

Read about organized crime.


Organized crime is crime carried out by formal criminal organizations. Organized crime is defined as the illegal activities of a highly organized and disciplined association. Some criminal organizations, such as terrorist organizations, are politically motivated. Mafias are criminal organizations whose main goal is financial profit. The mafia originated hundreds of years ago in Sicily, Italy. The Spanish were occupying Sicily and the locals felt they could not trust the Spanish police. The Sicilians formed their own protection societies which developed into the mafia. The mafia spread to America when Italian immigrants came to American cities. They were unable to speak English and were considered strangers by the locals. Many Italians felt that they could not rely on the local police force to help them so they turned to the mafia for protection. Criminal organizations keep their actions secret, and members communicate by word of mouth. Many organized crime operations have legitimate businesses, such as gambling, trash hauling or dock loading which provide "cover" for drug trafficking, money laundering, prostitution, protection and extortion. In order for a criminal organization to be successful, it needs support from the society in which it exists. It is often necessary to corrupt some of societys respected members through bribery, blackmail, and relationships with legitimate businesses. People in the government, police forces, businesses, and the legislature are occasionally targeted for control by organized crime through bribes, threats, or both. In addition, criminal organizations also benefit if the people distrust the government or the police. Criminal organizations sometimes arise in closely-knit immigrant groups who do not trust the local police or the local government. Criminal organizations can usually organize quickly when the need arises. They are quick to take over newly-opened markets and quick to rebuild themselves under any disguise when caught by the police. Criminal organizations operate all around the world. Although the Italian mafia is the most well known operation, there is also the Russian mafia, Japanese mafia, and the Chinese mafia. If you are interested in learning more about the mafia, movies such as The Godfather, GoodFellas, and The Untouchables are entertaining and informative.

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Comprehension Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. What is organized crime? What is the main goal of the mafia? Where did the mafia originate? Who was occupying Sicily at that time? How was the mafia spread to America? How do members of criminal organizations communicate? What kind of legitimate businesses do criminal organizations have? What do these businesses provide a cover for? Who does a criminal organization need support from? How do criminal organizations corrupt respected members of society? What kind of people do criminal organizations target to control? How can a criminal organization benefit if the people distrust the police? Where do criminal organizations sometimes arise? Where do criminal organizations operate? What are some good movies to watch about the mafia?

Discussion Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Does organized crime exist in your country? What do you know about it? What is the difference between a gang and the mafia? What does a gangster look like? Have you ever seen one? Is there a problem with gangs in your country? If illegal drugs were made legal, do you think organized crime would still exist? What kind of crimes to gangsters commit? What are the most common crimes in your country? Do you think prison is an effect form of punishment? Why or why not? What do you think the punishment for murder should be? Can organized crime ever be stopped? How? Do you know about any famous gangsters? What makes some people become criminals? What kind of weapons do the police carry in your country? Do you think people should be allowed to own a gun? Why or why not? Why do you think the crime rate is higher in some countries than others? American gangsters often have interesting nicknames. Think about these people and what their nickname means.

ScarfaceJimmytheBladeJohnnyTwotimesSammyNonose
MikeytheRatFrankietheBeardTheDapperDonTommyThreefingers

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Lesson 9

Cross-Cultural Marriage

Culture involves many different things. How many aspects of culture can you name? What do you know about American culture? How is American culture different from the culture of your country? How is American culture similar to the culture of your country? Why do people get married? Why do they get divorced?

Read about an American girl and a Chinese man.


Susan is a twenty-six year-old American girl. She went to Beijing to learn Mandarin Chinese. While she was studying at the university language center, she met John. John is a thirty year-old Taiwanese man and he is a professor at the university. He teaches chemistry. John and Maria dated for about six months and then they fell in love with each other. Eventually, John proposed to Susan. She accepted his proposal and they are going to get married next year. Now they have many things to do and many things to consider: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. They They They They They They They They They They They have to tell their parents, friends and families their good news. need to plan the wedding ceremony and the reception. must decide if it will be a small, medium, or large wedding have to decide whom to invite. need to send out invitations. must choose a best man and a maid of honor. have to buy rings. need to pick out a wedding dress for Susan and a new suit for John. must hire a photographer. need to decide where to go on their honeymoon. must decide where to live after they are married.

Comprehension Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. How old is Susan? Why did she go to Taipei? When did she meet John? What is Johns job? Who proposed to whom? When will they get married? Who do they have to tell? What do they need to plan? What must they decide? What do they need to send? Who must they choose? What do they have to buy? What do they need to pick out? Who must they hire? What other things do they have to decide?

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Discussion Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Do you think Johns parents will approve or disapprove of the marriage? Why? Do you think Susans parents will approve or disapprove of the marriage? Why? Do you think their friends will approve or disapprove of the marriage? Why? In which country should they have the wedding and the reception? Why? Where should they have the wedding and the reception (what kind of places)? Should they have a small, medium or large wedding? Why? Should they have a Western-style wedding or a Chinese-style wedding? Why? Do you like to go to weddings? Why? What kind of food do people usually eat at Chinese weddings? What kind of food do people usually eat at Western weddings? In Chinese culture people give cash in red envelopes to the newlywed couple as a wedding gift. In Western cultures people usually give a gift. Which custom do you think is better? Why?

After they are married: 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. Which country should they live in? Why? Do you think Susan and John should have kids? Why? Susan doesnt know how to cook Chinese food. John doesnt really like to eat Western food. What should they do? Should their children have an American or a Chinese education? Why? What other problems do you think John and Susan will face? What are the positive things about cross-cultural marriages like John and Susans? Do you know anyone who has a cross-cultural marriage? Would you ever marry someone from a different culture? Why?

Think of some positive and negative aspects of cross-cultural marriages. Fill in the chart with your ideas:
Positive Aspects Negative Aspects

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Lesson 10

Robinson Crusoe

Have you heard of Robinson Crusoe? What do you know about this story? Imagine that you are on a deserted island: 1. What would you need to do? 2. What would you need to find? 3. What would you need to make? Would you like to be on a deserted island? Why? Do you think it would be interesting or boring? Why?

Read the following story. Robinson Crusoe is a young man who lives in Hull, England. He is eighteen years old. Although his father wishes him to become a lawyer, Robinson dreams of going on a sea voyage. When his parents refuse to let him, he runs away and goes to Yarmouth, a harbor town on the south coast of England. In Yarmouth he manages to find a voyage headed to Brazil. He works on the ship as a cabin boy. The cabin boys job is to help the captain.
On the way to Brazil there is a huge storm on the ocean. The ship rocks in the water and capsizes. There is a terrible shipwreck and Robinson is the only survivor. He manages to swim to the shore of an island. Robinson stays on the island for twentyseven years. He is able to take many provisions from the ship, as it is wrecked near the shore. In that time, he does many things. He builds a home, learns how to cook, raises goats and chickens and grows crops. At first he is very miserable, but he is a Christian and his religion helps him. He finds a bible on the ship and reads it everyday. Robinson doesnt see any other people until about 15 years later. One day, when he is walking around the island he sees a footprint, and later sees some local island natives. He discovers that they are cannibals and they have a prisoner whom they plan to eat. Later that night, Robinson rescues the prisoner and they go to the other side of the island to hide from the natives. Robinson names the prisoner Friday, because he saved him on Friday. The cannibals don't live on Robinsons island. They come in canoes from another island not too far away. Robinson is filled with outrage, and plans to scare them away. Using his guns, Crusoe scares them and they go back to their island. They never return to Robinsons island. Friday is extremely grateful and becomes Robinson's devoted servant. He learns some English and takes on the Christian religion. For many years the two live happily on the island. Then one day a Spanish ship arrives and Friday and Robinson are rescued and taken to England. Even though Crusoe has been gone a long time, he finds that his familys plantations have done very well and he is quite wealthy. He gives some money to the Spanish captain who was so kind to him and Friday. He returns to the English countryside and settles there. He marries and has three children. He is glad to be back in England, but sometimes he misses his life on the island. Friday loves the sea so much that he stays with the Spanish captain and travels all around the world.

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Comprehension Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Where did Robinson live? What did he want to do? What was the problem? What did he do about it? Where was the voyage going? What happened to the ship? What did Robinson do? How long did he stay on the island? When did he see other people? What kind of people were they? What were they doing? What did Robinson do? How did he scare them? What did Friday become? Who rescued them? What happened in England? How did Robinson feel? What did Friday do?
Imagine you are stranded on a desert island. Write a short letter to your family.

Discussion Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. What kind of shelter could you use on a desert island? What could you eat? What would you need to find? What would you need to do? How could you pass the time if you were alone on a desert island? What would you miss most about your home? If a ship came to rescue you would you go with them or would you want to stay on the island? Where do you hope they will take you? How could you signal for help if you wanted to be rescued? What provisions would you take from the ship? What would you leave behind? Look at the following lists. Imagine that you can only take four things from each list. What will you take to the island? Say why you will take each one and why you didnt take the others. Tools
Flashlight Batteries Swiss army knife Shovel and saw Compass Magnifying glass

Food
Canned meat Canned fruit Vegetables Salt and sugar Whiskey Coffee

Clothing
Winter jacket Sweaters Shorts and T-shirts Hiking boots Sandals Hat and scarf

Equipment
Gas stove Oil lamps Oil and gas 2-person tent Sleeping bag Backpack

Others
Rifle Bullets Bow and arrows Fishing pole Matches First-aid kit

8. 9. 10. 11.

Which of these things do you think are most useful? Why? Which of these things do you think are most useless? Why? What other things (not on the lists) would you like to have on the island? Why? If you could choose one person to be with you, whom would you choose? Why?

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Lesson 11

Controversial Issues

Different people have different points of view, opinions and ideas about many things. Often these things become issues or questions for people to answer or decisions for them to make. Issues become controversial when people disagree or even argue about them. People are often divided on controversial issues. Some people support one side of an argument. Other people oppose this side and support another side. Sometimes we have to decide whether we are for or against such issues because they can affect and influence our daily lives and the country and the world that we live in. Sometimes we have to reach a compromise. A compromise is a solution to an issue that both sides can agree upon. One such controversial issue is about using animals in laboratory experiments. Before you read the article, think about these questions: What kinds of animals are usually used in laboratory experiments? What kinds of things are scientists trying to find out? Why do they use animals instead of using humans in the experiments?

Every year about seventeen million animals are used in medical laboratory experiments. In many countries, people are questioning whether this is morally right or wrong. They are asking the question: Do we have the right to use animals in research this way? The case for using animals in medical research: The use of animals in medical research has many practical benefits. Animal research has enabled researchers to develop cures and treatments for many diseases. This includes treatments and medicines for heart disease, AIDS, cancer, hypertension, and depression. It would not have been possible to develop vaccines for smallpox and polio without using animals for research. Every drug anyone takes today was first tested on animals. This way we can be sure it is safe and there are no harmful side effects. Which is more important: the life of a mouse or the life of a human? Another argument for using animals in laboratory experiments is that it can help to get rid of unwanted animals. Last year in the USA five million animals were killed in animal shelters because nobody wanted to taker them as pets. The case against using animals in medical research: Using animals in laboratory experiments and research is cruel and unnecessary. Animals suffer a lot in these experiments. They are forced to live in small cages, and sometimes do not have enough room to move. The experiments often are painful, uncomfortable experiences for the animals. The animals are often afraid or forced to take dangerous drugs and medicine. They can even involve killing the animals. Much of the research done on animals could be done in other ways. Researchers could use cell samples or virtual computer simulations to do experiments instead of using animals.

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Ten Controversial Issues:


Think about these controversial issues. Fill in the chart. What are the pros and cons of each? What would people who support them say? What would people who oppose them say? What is your personal opinion? Try to think of a compromise for each of these issues. Issue Animal Testing Religion in Schools Legal Abortion Death Penalty Legal Guns Immigration Higher Taxes Military Service Electric Cars Nuclear Power Support Oppose Your Opinion

Discussion Questions:
1. What are some controversial issues in your country right now? 2. What is the pro-side? What is the con-side? What is your opinion? 3. Can you think of a compromise for these issues?? 4. What are some controversial issues in some other countries right now? 5. What is the pro-side? What is the con-side? What is your opinion? 6. Can you think of a compromise for these issues? 7. Are there any controversial issues in your family right now? 8. What is the pro-side? What is the con-side? What is your opinion? 9. Can you think of a compromise for these issues?

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Lesson 12

Newspapers

Which newspapers do you or your family read? Why do you read that one? What different kinds of stories can you read about in the newspaper? What kinds of newspaper stories interest you? What kinds of stories dont interest you?

Look at theses newspaper headlines. What kind of story is each?


1. 2. WHO Sees Civet Cats as Prime Suspect in SARS Spread. U.S. Fast-Food Chains Expanding in China.
National News Technology Science Middle East Business

3.

Mayor opens new city park.

4.
5.

2003 Computer Viruses Caused $55 Billion Damage


NASALookstoPrepareforMarsMission

Health
Sports Local News NationalNews

6.
7.

First Japanese Soldiers Leave for Iraq


Wie, 14, About to Make PGA Tour History Jackson Set to Appear in California Court President travels to Japan on an un-official state visit.

8. 9.

FamousPeople

Match the headlines with the appropriate text.


Analysts said the number of attacks between January and June 2003 exceeded 70,000, which is about twice the rate for 2002. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is discussing plans to send people on three-year trips to Mars, the most hazardous voyage ever planned. It doesn't prove anything, but it showed that the civet cats carried the virus," Robert Breiman, head of the WHO team told a news conference earlier Friday. Jackson had a similar experience 10 years ago after making a multimillion-dollar out-ofcourt settlement with the family of a teenage boy. The troops are expected to arrive in Kuwait on Saturday and travel overland later in the month to southern Iraq, where they will take part in humanitarian and reconstruction projects.

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The president will spend a week in Tokyo visiting with Japanese politicians and sightseeing. KFC also plans to increase the number of drive-through outlets, currently just one in Beijing. This decision reflects the sharp growth in private car ownership among urban Chinese. Wie is a ninth grader at Punahou School in Hawaii. At 14, she is believed to be the youngest player to compete on the PGA Tour A large crowd of people gathered at the park entrance on Sunday to see the mayor and take part in the opening ceremony.

Comprehension Questions:
1. What animal is taking the blame for SARS? 2. Who is Robert Breiman? 3. Where are US fast food chains expanding? 4. What do drive through outlets reflect? 5. What did the mayor do? 6. What day did then park open? 7. How much damage did computer viruses cause? 8. How much of an increase in computer attacks occurred between 2002 and 2003? 9. Where does NASA want to go? 10. How long will it take to get there? 11. Where were the Japanese soldiers going? 12. What will they do there? 13. Who made PGA history? 14. Where does she study? 15. What happened to Michael Jackson? 16. What happened to him ten years before? 17. Where is the president going? 18. How long will he spend there?

Discussion Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. What do you know about SARS? How can you prevent being infected? Do you like U.S. fast food? Why? What do you like to eat? Say something good about U.S. fast food. Now say something bad about it. How often do you go to the park? What do you like to do there? What other things do people like to do in the park? Do you have a computer? What do you use it for? Would you like to go to Mars? Why? Do you like to play golf? What other sports do you like? What do you think of Michael Jackson? What popular music do you like to listen to? Have you ever been to Japan? Would you like to go? Do you like Japanese food? Do you like raw fish and wasabi? What other international food do you like?

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Lesson 13

Disasters: Earthquakes

What is an earthquake? What causes earthquakes? Have you ever felt an earthquake? What was it like? What kinds of damage can an earthquake do? What should you do during an earthquake? Which countries have had serious earthquakes?

Read about the earthquake of 1964.


It was Good Friday, March 27, 1964. I had gone to an afternoon movie with my family because we all had the day off. The movie was going along fine until at 5:36 p.m. the earth started to move. Both of my parents thought to themselves, this is really a good movie. It feels like the earth is moving. It was the beginning of an earthquake. Within a fraction of a second, the earth started to roar. The lights were flashing and you could see the seats rolling in peaks of four-foot high waves. The picture on the screen started jumping from the floor to the ceiling. The film finally broke and the screen went blank. My parents threw their arms out to keep us in our seats. People started to panic, scream, and run up the aisles. They were trampling each other. Finally, my father stood up and yelled, Sit down! A few other people started chanting with my father, Sit down, sit down, sit down! The ground roared, jerked, and rolled for about four minutes. Then, it went into a slow rolling movement like a bowl of jello. People started to get up and a lot of them thanked my father for stepping up and taking control. My mother stepped outside to see what had happened. She came back in and said, Go look at 4th Avenue. My father went and looked but 4th Avenue was gone. At first, he thought Russia had dropped a bomb. The destruction was complete. All you could see on the left side of 4th Avenue were the roofs of the buildings that had dropped to street level. The 1964 earthquake in Alaska was the second largest earthquake ever recorded in the world. Roads, railroad tracks, and bridges were lost. In Anchorage alone, thirty blocks of houses and buildings were destroyed or badly damaged. The schools in Anchorage were almost all wiped out. Although the earthquake was destructive, the death toll remained amazingly low. The earthquake happened at 5:30 on a holiday. Most people were already at home because schools and businesses were closed. Homes in Alaska are made from wood and wood is more flexible than concrete. The shaking lasted for about 4 minutes. In some areas the movement on the ocean floor caused the most disastrous tsunami that ever hit the west coast of the United States and Canada. It traveled down the West Coast and across the ocean to Hawaii and Japan. The largest wave height was 67 meters (220 feet) at Shoup Bay, Alaska. This great earthquake and ensuing tsunami took 125 lives (tsunami 110, earthquake 15), and caused about $311 million in property loss and damage.

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Comprehension Questions:
1. What was the holiday on March 27, 1964? 2. Where had the family gone? 3. What happened at 5:36 p.m.? 4. What did the earth start to do? 5. What did the picture on the screen start to do? 6. What did the father stand up and yell? 7. Why did the father start to yell? 8. How long did the ground roar and jerk? 9. What happened to 4th Avenue? 10. What was the first thought that came to the fathers mind? 11. What was the damage in Anchorage? 12. Was the death toll high or low? 13. What time did the earthquake happen? 14. What did movement on the ocean floor cause? 15. How many people died? 16. How much property loss and damage was caused?

Discussion Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. Have you ever experienced an earthquake? If so, what was it like? What are some other kinds of natural disasters? Do you have a lot of natural disasters in your country? What kind? What is the worst disaster that your country has experienced? What happens during a landslide? Have you ever witnessed one? Do typhoons happen in your country? When? Where? Have you ever been caught in bad weather? If so, what did you do? Do you think global weather patterns are changing? How? What season receives the most rain in your country? What season is the hottest in your country? What is the average temperature in your country? What kind of weather is your favorite? Why? What is your favorite season? Why? Does your country ever have snow? Have you ever seen snow? Where? What kind of climate do you prefer when going on vacation? Why? In your opinion, which season is the most beautiful? Why? If there was an earthquake right now what would you do? Is there anything people can do to make their homes safer during an earthquake? What can people do to help victims of earthquakes and other natural disasters? What man-made disasters do you know about? Which are worse: man-made or natural disasters? Why?

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Lesson 14

Disasters: Air Tragedies

What do you think is the safest way to travel? Are you afraid to travel by air? When was the last big airplane crash in your country? What is a zeppelin? What is a space shuttle? What do you know about the Hindenburg? What kinds of transportation do you usually use?

Read the following about air tragedies. On May 6, 1937 the German zeppelin Hindenburg caught fire and was destroyed within a minute. It was attempting to dock at Lakehurst Naval Air Station in New Jersey. Although the disaster is famous, of the 97 people on board, only 35 died. The zeppelin was named after the German President Paul von Hindenburg. The Hindenburg was a brand-new all aluminum design. It was 245 m long (804 feet), 41 m in diameter (135 ft), and would travel at a maximum speed of 135 km/h (83 mph). It could carry 72 passengers and had a crew of 61. It made its first flight in March 1936.
The Hindenburg was filled with highly flammable hydrogen. Knowing of the risks with the hydrogen gas, the engineers used various safety measures to keep the hydrogen from causing any fire when it leaked. They also treated the airship's coating to prevent electric sparks that could cause fires. The Zeppelin Company was very proud of the fact that no passenger had ever been injured on one of their airships. Zeppelins were considered extremely safe. However, the Hindenburg accident changed all that. Public faith in airships was completely lost after the Hindenburg disaster. Zeppelin transport came to an end. It marked the end of the giant, passenger-carrying airships. TWA Flight 800 was a passenger flight from John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York to Charles De Gaulle International Airport in France. On July 17, 1996, the plane, a Boeing 747, exploded off Long Island in mid-air and crashed into the ocean. It killed all 230 people on board. The flight number was retired after the crash, although TWA continued to operate flights between New York and Paris. The cause of the explosion is still unknown. Investigators decided the plane exploded due to an electrical failure. However, many people still believe terrorists were responsible for the crash. The Space Shuttle Challenger was the second shuttle to be placed into service. Its first voyage was on April 4, 1983. On January 28, 1986, Space Shuttle Challenger was destroyed 73 seconds after launch and all seven astronauts on board were killed. It exploded because of rocker booster failure. Among the crew was Christa McAuliffe, scheduled to be the first teacher in space. Students worldwide watched the shuttle launch and explode on television. The Challenger flew 10 flights, including its final fatal mission. It spent 69 days in space and made 987 orbits of the Earth.

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Comprehension Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. When was the Hindenburg destroyed? Was the Hindenburg an airplane? How many people were on board the Hindenburg? How many people died on the Hindenburg? Who was the Hindenburg named after? When did the Hindenburg make its first flight? What was the Hindenburg filled with? Where was TWA Flight 800 going? Where is John F. Kennedy International Airport? When did TWA Flight 800 crash? Did it crash into a mountain? How many people were killed on TWA Flight 800? What was the explanation for the crash? What do many people believe really happened? When did Challenger make its first voyage? When did Challenger explode? How many astronauts were killed? Who was Christa McAuliffe? How many flights did Challenger fly?

Discussion Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Would you like to take a zeppelin ride? Would you like to be an astronaut and go to outer space? Have you ever watched a space shuttle take off or land on TV? Did you see the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster on TV? Why are some people afraid to fly? Are you afraid to fly? Why? Do you think airplane travel is exciting, boring or dangerous? Why? Have you ever been on an airplane? Where did you go? Name some famous international airlines. What do you know about them? Name some famous domestic airlines. What do you know about them? How many different kinds of transportation have you used in your life? What do you think is the safest kind of transportation? Why? What do you think is the most dangerous kind of transportation? Why?

Think of some advantages and disadvantages of airplane travel. Write your ideas here.

Advantages

Disadvantages

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Les sson 15

Elemen ntary Ed ducatio on: Gen neral Tr rends

Did you enj joy element tary school? ? Why? Who was your favorite e teacher? Why? Who was your least fa avorite teach her? Why? What was y your favorit te subject in n school? Do you pre efer private or public sc chools? Wh hy?

Rea ad about elementa ary educa ation in Am merica.


In America A ele ementary sc chool is usually a plea asant experience. School starts around 8:00 0. Its man ndatory that t you attend d the school closest to your house e unless you u attend a pr rivate schoo ol. Some kids walk to school or ride r their bic cycle. If yo ou live far from the scho ool then yo ou can tak ke the scho ool bus. Private P scho ools charge e tuition an nd offer sma aller class sizes and sp pecialty clas sses. The majority m of children att tend public schools whe ere there is no tuition, except for minimal fee es. Before classes c begin everyone e recites the Pledge of A Allegiance. The Pledge e of Allegiance was firs st said on October O 8, 1892 by over 12 million n American school chi ildren. Afte er that day y, the Pledg ge became a daily rout tine in all of o Americas s public sch hools. The teacher an nd students s all say, I I pledge alleg giance to th he flag of the t United States of A America, an nd to the re epublic for which w it stan nds, one nation, under God, indivi isible, with liberty and justice for a all. Clas ss size in A American ele ementary sc chools can be as small as 15 and d as big as s 30. It dep pends on wh hether you live in a big g city or a s small town. The morni ing may beg gin with Eng glish, Spellin ng, and Scie ence classe es. At 12:0 00 the children go to t the cafeteria a to eat lunc ch. Some k kids buy lun nch from th he school while w others s bring a sa ack lunch or o lunch box from home e. After lun nch the kids s usually go o to recess. Recess us sually lasts from f 15 to 30 3 minutes and a children n can swing g, play kickb ball or sit ar round talkin ng with frien nds. Clas sses begin again at 12 2:30. You might hav ve 3 more subjects s lik ke music, gym and writ ting. At the e end of th he day the principal makes some announcem ments, the children pack up their t things and they t go home at 3:00. School is s finished and then its time to play y. There is rarely a lot t of homewo ork and the ere are only a few tests s in one yea ar. After scho ool some kids go to ba aseball pract tice, dance class, or just stay hom me. Elem mentary sch hool in Taiw wan is a diff ferent exper rience. Kids are usually in the cla assroom as early e as 7:3 30. During this time they t study, read books s, and do their assigne ed jobs. Som me kids clea an the black kboard while others m mop the floo or. Classes begin around 8:30 and class size averages a ar round 40 to o 50 studen nts. The children also study 4 sub bjects in the morning an nd lunch be egins at 12: :00. Lunch h is brought t into the cl lassroom an nd most every child eat ts the scho ool lunch. After lunch h the children take a nap for ab bout 40 minutes. Classe es begin ag gain at 1:30 0 and the st tudents stud dy 3 more s subjects. At A 4:00, mos st kids go home while other o go to cram schoo ols. A busy elemen ntary studen nt goes to a cram sch hool from 4:30 to 6:30 0 and mayb be again from m 7:00 to 8:30. When n classes are e finished th he student returns hom me to do his or her hom mework. On the avera age, elemen ntary schoo ol students in Taiwan stay s up unt til 10 or 11 p.m. p doing homework and studyin ng for tests. .

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Comprehension Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. What time does elementary school start in America? Where do the children eat their lunch? Do American kids always buy the school lunch? What do the kids do after lunch? Do American kids take naps at school? What is recess? What can kids do? What time do elementary school students go home? What do American kids do after school? What time do kids in Taiwan go to school? What is the typical class size in Taiwan? Where do Taiwanese kids eat their lunch? What kind of jobs do Taiwanese kids have at school? Where do some kids go after school? Why? What time does a busy Taiwanese child finish class? What time does a hard working elementary student go to bed? Why?

Discussion Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
How do you feel about elementary education in America? What are its advantages? Disadvantages? How do you feel about the Taiwanese educational system? What are its advantages and disadvantages? Which elementary school experience sounds better to you: The American one or the Taiwanese one? Why? Do you think that tests are important in school? How do they help us learn? Did you enjoy elementary school? What did you usually do after school? How much homework did you usually have each night? Which subjects did you like in elementary school? Why did you like them? Which subjects didnt you like in elementary school? Why didnt you like them?

7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Complete this sentence about elementary school subjects: I liked to learn _______________________ and _____________________ but I didnt like to learn _____________________ or ___________________ in elementary school.

12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

How do you feel about cram schools? Are they useful or useless? What kinds of kids usually go to cram schools? Would you send your children to a cram school? Why? How do you feel about wearing uniforms to school? Are they necessary? What are the differences between a public school and a private school? Which one do you prefer? Why do you prefer this one?

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Les sson 16

Prob blems in n Eleme entary Educat E ion

What kinds s of problem ms do eleme entary schoo ol students face in your cou untry? tional syste How do you u feel about t your coun ntrys educat em? How are sc chools in your country different d fro om schools in other count tries? Did you enj joy element tary school? ? Why? If you had the chance, , would you u like to go to school in n another cou untry? Why y? What things should ele ementary sc chools teach h their students?

Rea ad about some pro oblems in American n elementary scho ools.


Curr rently, the biggest pro oblems facing America an schools are the use e of drugs, lack of financial suppo ort, busy parents, pove erty, school safety, and d gangs. school stud Its hard to im magine an elementary e dent using drugs, but t in America a it has beco ome reality y. Drugs have h found their way into the po ockets of y youngsters through olde er brothers, sisters, or through frie ends. Pub blic schools often find it hard to of ffer extra c classes and activities due to lack of o funds If there or financial f sup pport. Publ lic schools fund f their programs p th hrough tax increases. i are not enough h tax dollar rs then ther re are fewe er teachers, , bigger class sizes, an nd more portunities fo or kids to g goof aroun nd and not c concentrate e on their sc choolwork. opp Busy y parents a are also a big problem m. When m mothers be egan to go back to wo ork, the latch-key kid w was created d. Children went to sc chool with a house key y attached to their belt t. This was to prevent the child fr rom losing t the house key. k The ch hild needed the key to get g into the house beca ause mom wouldnt w be e there after r school. As s children were w left unsupervised for f long per riods of time e, they had d more time e to get into o trouble. Working W pare ents are als so tired par rents. Whe en they com me home th here isnt always time to help their children w with their homework h o attend PT or TA meeting gs. Divorce e is also a problem p for elementary y school children. Sin ngle mother rs or father rs rarely ha ave the ext tra time needed to mak ke sure that t their childr ren are behaving prope erly in schoo ol or after school. s Children below w the povert ty level suff fer the most in America an public sc chools. If they t are unable to buy books b or ex xtra materia als then they y automatic cally will fall l behind in class. c Gan ngs, guns, and knives s also plag gue school safety. More and more scho ools are installing metal detectors at the main entrance. This is an unfortuna ate fact, bu ut it is a nece essity when n considerin ng the safety y of the stu udents and the t teacher rs. Bein ng a teache er in Amer rica has ch hanged. Te eachers not t only have e to educa ate their stud dents but also have to act as police officers. Safety wit thin classroo oms has be ecome a major problem m in America an society. A big question for Am merican edu ucation in the t new ennium is: How can teachers keep their classrooms s safe for t their students and mille prov vide them with w a good education? ?

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Comprehension Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. What are the biggest problems facing American elementary schools today? How have drugs found their way into the pockets of elementary school students? Why do public schools find it hard to offer extra classes and activities? How do public schools fund their programs? If there are not enough tax dollars, what can happen? What is a latch-key kid? How did latch-key kids begin? What can happen when kids are left alone for long periods of time? Why are parents not more involved in their childs education? How is divorce a problem for elementary school parents and children? Which kids suffer the most in elementary schools? Why do poor children fall behind in class? What are more schools installing at the main entrances? How has the job of a teacher changed in America? What is a big question for American education in the new millennium?

Discussion Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. How do you feel about the problems facing American schools? After reading this article, would you send your child to an American public school? Why do you think the American school system is failing? How do you feel about gun control? Should guns be legal? Why? Why do kids try drugs? Is this a big problem in your country? How does divorce affect childrens education? How can parents involve themselves more in their childrens education? Do schools have parent-teacher conferences in your country? How often? Do you think that mothers should work or stay home with their kids? Why? How do you feel about day-care centers? What do day-care centers do for children? Are day-care centers usually expensive in your country? How much does it cost to send a child to a day-care center? Do you think teachers give too much homework? Do you think teachers are paid enough? What is a reasonable salary for a teacher? What are the characteristics of a good teacher? Is your teacher a good teacher? Would you like to be a teacher? Why? What are the characteristics of a good student? Are you a good student? What What What What were your favorite subjects in elementary school? were your favorite subjects in junior high school? were your favorite subjects in college? would you like to learn in the future? Why?

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Les sson 17

Littering

What is litte ering? Wha at causes lit tter? Does litter bother your r? Is there a lot of litte er in your neighborho ood? Have you e ever thrown your garba age on the ground? g What shoul ld you do if you have to t throw som mething away but th here arent any garbag ge cans nearby? Do you eve er pick up lit tter off the street? Wh hy? Do you eve er recycle? What thing gs do you re ecycle?

Rea ad the fol llowing article abo out litterin ng:


Litte er is an im mportant env vironmental issue. It is amazing that 94% of people identify litte er as a majo or environm mental problem and ye et people still litter. Litt ter causes harm to peo ople and ani imals, dama ages our waterways, costs c us mo oney and su uggests that we do not care for ou ur environment. Fortun nately, we can c all do something s to o help prev vent and redu uce litter.

The ere are many y sources of f litter. Ped destrians dro opping garb bage in the s street or gut tters and mot torists disca arding garba age out of ca ar windows s are two wa ays people c commonly litter. l Litter can also result from household garbage dis sposal and collection. c Commercia al refuse and disposal th hat are not properly p sealed can also o become lit tter. Enterta ainment eve ents ate a large a amount of li itter, which can overflo ow onto neig ghboring ar reas when crea mea asures to control it are not n carefull ly planned. Illegal dum mping and people p at leisure are othe er sources o of litter.
Litte er can caus se many problems for everyone in the com mmunity. Litter disca arded in stre eets and par rks can trav vel through the water system to our o bays an nd oceans, where w it can cause harm m to wildlif fe. Plastic litter can c choke or su uffocate bird ds and mar rine life. Care elessly disc carded cont tainers can n trap smal ll mammals s. Removi ing litter fr rom the environment co osts everyo one money. Litter is a threat to public p health h and is a breeding b grou und for ger rms and bac cteria. Item ms such as broken glas ss and syrin nges can be e health haza ards in pub blic places. Litter nega atively affec cts the imag ge of places s, especially y tourist loca ations. Litte er sends ou ut a messag ge that people do not care for the e environment and that t it is accept table to litte er. The ere are a nu umber of sim mple ways to t help prev vent litter. Make sure your waste goes in the garbage c can, not be eside it. Take T your garbage g ho ome when visiting parks and dens. Wind d and anima als can often lead to lit ttering in ou ur parks. Pi ick up garba age and gard put it into a tr rash bin. Sweep S paved areas and pick up all the garbage, rath her than hosing it down n into gutter rs and drain ns. Pack a garbage fr ree lunch with reusable e plastic cont tainers and d water bott tles rather than t dispos sable containers and d drink boxes. . Never hose e paths bec cause the water w will wash w your waste into the drainag ge system. Use a reus sable bag when w you ar re shopping, or choose e cardboard boxes inste ead of plast tic bags. Nev ver pour oils s down the sink. Thro ow them out with othe er household d garbage. Take a pick k-up-bag wh hen walking g your dog. Don't leav ve its droppings in the gutter or r on the side ewalk becau use they will wash into the drainag ge system and a contaminate the water. w

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Comprehension Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. How many people identify litter as a major environmental problem? How is litter harmful? What are some sources of litter? How can entertainment events cause litter? How does litter harm wildlife? Does litter cost people money? How is litter a threat to public health? What kind of message does litter send people? What can people do to prevent litter? What can lead to litter in parks? Litter can be a breeding ground for what? Should you sweep or hose down paved areas with litter? What should you use when you go shopping? What should you never pour down the sink? What should you take when walking your dog? What can happen to dog droppings?

Discussion Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Who takes out the garbage in your house? How often? What kinds of things do you throw away? How often is garbage collected in your neighborhood? Is your neighborhood generally clean or messy? Why? What are some things that can be recycled? What are some things that you recycle? Do you think it is important to recycle? Why? What kinds of litter do you commonly see on the street? Why do some people litter? What are some ways that you can personally reduce litter in your neighborhood? What can you do to help prevent littering in your community? Is littering a major problem in your country? Do you think people in your country are concerned about litter? Do you ever litter? What kinds of things do you throw on the ground? Why? How do you feel when you see people littering? How do you feel when you see people picking up litter? Are there litter laws where you live? If so, what is the penalty for littering?

18. Have you ever thrown anything out of your car window? 19. Do you ever pick up garbage on the street and put it into a trash bin? Why? 20. Some people think that there are not enough trash bins on the street. What do
you think? How could you change this situation?

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Lesson 18

Solar Energy

What are fossil fuels? What are they used for? What is solar energy? Is solar energy used in your country? What other power sources do people use in your country? What major environmental problems is the world facing right now? What major environmental problems is your country facing right now? Do you think the air that you breathe is clean or dirty?

Read about solar energy: As the world becomes more polluted by fossil fuels, people are looking for alternatives to these non-renewable resources of energy. Many alternatives exist but they all have disadvantages and drawbacks. Solar energy is one alternative source for future energy. Over the course of the next century, solar energy may have a large impact on the world energy market.
Solar energy is the most abundant form of energy known. The sun releases energy at a rate 15,000 times greater than the rate that the earth uses energy. Solar energy can be used to produce clean, cheap electricity in amazing amounts. In the early 1990s lower prices for fossil fuels, coupled with government subsidies, helped to make fossil fuels appear more economical than renewable fuels. The United States government hoped to develop new technologies so they launched a research and development project headed by the Department of Energy. This research has begun to pay off because of lower prices for light- and heat-collecting solar cells, as well as higher storage capacity of those cells. Solar cells release far less pollution than fossil fuels. With lower emissions, the greenhouse effect can be slowed and global warming nearly stopped. These advantages are some reasons people may begin building more solar power plants in the near future. The price for solar plants has continued to drop while fossil fuels are being continually depleted. Eventually, this constant depletion will raise the price of coal, natural gas, and petroleum. One argument against solar power is the cost of the initial start-up. Building solar power plants is very expensive. However, the plants require almost no maintenance, clean up, or dumping of waste. This helps to offset start-up costs. Some experts argue that a solar plant can practically pay for itself after two or three years. Experts from the United States and Canada have said that solar energy could play a part in changing our lives in the twenty-first century. If solar power use increases and emissions decrease, solar energy and other alternative fuels could supply more and more of our everyday electricity needs. Environmentalists argue that we should power our homes with solar power and other cleaner sources or energy instead of polluting the air with fossil fuels or dumping nuclear waste into the environment.

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Comprehension Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. What is polluting the world? What are people looking for? What is an alternative source of future energy? What is the most abundant source of energy known? What happened in the early 1990s? Who hoped to develop new technologies? Do fossil fuels release more pollution than solar cells? What are some advantages of solar power? Has the price for solar power plants gone up or down? Why might the price for fossil fuels go up? What is one argument against solar power? What helps offset start-up costs of solar power plants? Who says solar power may change our lives in the 21st century? What do environmentalists argue? What could happen if solar power use increases?

Discussion Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Do you think solar power is a good alternative source of energy? Why? What are some other alternative sources of energy? What is nuclear power? Do you think nuclear power is generally safe or dangerous? Are there nuclear power plants in your country? How would you feel if a nuclear power plant was built near your home? What do you think about hydropower? Is it a good idea? Why? What are some ways people waste energy? Do you ever waste energy? How? Should governments be responsible for developing alternative energy resources? What can you do to promote alternative sources of energy? Are you ever bothered by air pollution? Why?

Think of some practical solutions to these environmental problems.

Environmental Problem Air pollution Nuclear waste Litter Water pollution Global warming

Solution

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Lesson 19

International Delicacies

What is a delicacy? What are some traditional delicacies in your country? Do you ever like to eat unusual or different food? Would you ever dare to eat chocolate covered ants? When you go to a restaurant do you usually order the same dishes every time or do like to try new dishes that you have never tried before? Why? What is the strangest food you have eaten? What is the strangest food you have ever heard of? Where do people eat it?

Read about some delicacies in different countries.


Would you like some chickens feet? How about frogs legs or a fifty-year-old egg? People around the world eat just about everything. A delicacy is a food that is rare and considered to be a delight. For instance, elephants trunks and monkey brains are delicacies in some countries. Although eating an elephants trunk may seem disgusting, some people pay a lot of money to eat it because it is considered to be a delicacy. Snakes and eels are delicacies in most parts of the world. In France and England, fish shops sell eels that are still alive. In Asia, there are special restaurants for snakes. Everything on the menu is snake. For example, you can order snake soup, snake appetizers, snake main course, snake desserts, and snake wine. When you go to the restaurant, the snakes are alive. You can choose the snakes you want to eat. The waiter will kill the snake right in front of you, if you can bear to watch. Insects are also considered delicacies to many people. Termites, ants, and bees are delicacies in Africa. For instance, people fight over termite nests. They eat the termites alive and say they taste like pineapple. In India, people make ants into a paste and eat them with curry. In Borneo, people mix ants with rice. They say it gives the rice a special flavor. In Australia, the native people drink ants. They mash them in water and say the drink tastes like lemonade. Fetus soup is a delicacy in China. Some people believe that the soup has special vitamins and minerals that can make your body strong. The Chinese also consider shark fins and birds nests delicacies. They are available dried and are used for flavorful soups. Eskimos consider seal blubber and whale fat tasty. In Spain and Mexico, bull testicles are considered a delicacy. After a bullfight, the testicles are removed from the bull and grilled with butter and olive oil. It seems that unusual foods always belong to someone else. Although your stomach cannot tell the difference between cow meat and donkey meat, your taste buds and your mind can. We consider certain foods strange or disgusting depending on our cultural background. Would you be willing to try a spider burger or fried lambs brains?

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Comprehension Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. What is a delicacy? Where do people sell eels that are alive? Where are there special restaurants for snakes? Can you choose the snakes you want to eat? Where are insects considered a delicacy? What do termites supposedly taste like? How do people eat ants in India? How do people eat ants in Borneo? How do Australians say ants taste? Why do Chinese people eat fetus soup? What else do Chinese people consider a delicacy? What do Eskimos consider to be tasty? Where are bull testicles considered a delicacy? How are they cooked? Why do we consider some delicacies to be disgusting?

Discussion Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. What delicacies from your country do you like to eat? Would you be willing to try some of the delicacies mentioned above? Which ones? If you were living abroad, what food would you miss most from home? Is there any food that you really dislike to eat? What? Which international foods have you tried? What countrys food do you like the most? Why? What foods have you tasted that you will never forget? What What What What What What What What What What do people in your country usually have for breakfast? did you have for breakfast today? do people in your country usually have for lunch? did you have for lunch today? do people in your country usually have for dinner? did you have for dinner today? is the most unusual thing you have ever eaten? Did it taste good or bad? kind of foods do you think are the healthiest? Why? kind of foods do you think are the unhealthiest? Why? special foods do you eat during the holidays?

If you were on death row, what would you request for your last meal? If you could only eat one kind of food for the rest of your life, what would you choose? Why would you choose this? If you could only eat one kind of food for the rest of your life, which other foods would you miss the most?

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Lesson 20

Potato Chips

Do you like to eat potatoes? Do you like to eat french fries? How else do people cook potatoes? What is your favorite snack food? How often do you eat snacks? Is snack food the same as junk food? What do you consider to be junk food? What are some healthy snacks? What are some unhealthy snacks? Which healthy snacks do you like to eat? What have you eaten today?

Read about the first potato chips.


In the late 18th century, Thomas Jefferson introduced fried potatoes to the United States. At that time Jefferson was the American ambassador to France. He had tasted fried potatoes while he was in Paris. Jefferson always served fried potatoes to his dinner guests. They were considered to be a delicacy. The french fry is an American invention but its name is based on the country of the origin of fried potatoes-France. The simplest explanation of the origin of the name is that the verb "to french" is a cooking term meaning "to cut into thin strings"; therefore, french fries are potatoes that have been frenched, and then fried. During the early 19th century, fried potatoes became increasingly popular in the United States. They became a common menu item at restaurants across the country. In 1853, a diner at Moon's Lake House in Saratoga Springs, N.Y., ordered the fried potatoes with his meal. The diner, Cornelius Vanderbilt, complained and said the potatoes were too thick. He sent the potatoes back to the kitchen and demanded a crispier potato. The chef at the restaurant, George Crum, was furious with the criticism. He sliced the potatoes paper-thin, salted them heavily and refried them. Instead of ruining the meal for the diner, Crum's creation was a hit with the customer. The owner of Moon's Lake House realized that the chips were a hit and made them a menu item. Eventually, Crum opened his own restaurant that featured the thin, fried potatoes. He called them Saratoga Chips. As word of the chips got out, other restaurants began to serve them too. It wasn't long before potato chips were a staple at restaurants across the country. For several decades potato chips were largely a Northern dinner dish. In the 1920s, Herman Lay, a traveling salesman in the South, helped popularize the food from Atlanta to Tennessee. Lay peddled potato chips to Southern grocers out of the trunk of his car. He built a business and a name that is still known today. Lay's potato chips became the first successfully marketed national brand of potato chips. Today, Americans consume more potato chips than any other people in the world. Some people say this could be one reason why so many Americans are overweight or obese.

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Comprehension Questions:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Who introduced fried potatoes in the United States? What did Jefferson always serve to his dinner guests? Who invented the french fry? When did fried potatoes become popular? Who complained about his potatoes in 1853? Where was the diner eating? What was wrong with his potatoes? What did the chef do? Did the chef ruin the customers dinner? What did Crum call the chips? Who was Herman Lay? Where did Lay peddle chips to local grocers? What was the first American national brand of potato chips? Who eats the most potato chips in the world?

Discussion Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Do you ever eat potato chips? Why? Why are potato chips not really a healthy snack? What snacks do you like to eat? Why do people eat snacks? When do you like to have a snack? What are some other popular snacks in your country? How many snacks should we eat in one day? What things do you consider to be junk foods? Why? How many times do you eat in one day? What kind of foods should we eat to maintain a healthy diet? What does it mean to go on a diet? Have you ever been on a diet? If so, did it work? Why cant some people stop eating? Is obesity a problem in your country? Why are some people overweight? Some people say that we are what we eat? What does this mean? What is your favorite thing to eat? How often do you eat it? If you were at a restaurant and didnt like the food, would you complain? Why?

Make a list of some healthy and unhealthy snacks.


Healthy Snacks Unhealthy Snacks

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Lesson 21

Growing Up: Peer Pressure

What kinds of problems do young people face growing up these days? Did your friends ever try to talk you into something you didnt want to do? Were you usually a leader or a follower in school? What kinds of peer pressure did you face in school? Did you enjoy your teenage years? Why?

Read the following stories about peer pressure.


STORY 1

Tracy Warner is a new seventh grade student at Paine Junior High School. She likes the new school, but she has not made many friends because she is a little shy. She was very happy when Julie, one of the more popular girls, asked her to her birthday party.

Tracy arrived at the party and was beginning to relax and enjoy herself. Julie and another girl named Michelle came up to Tracy. They told her how glad they were that she came to the party. They asked her to step out in the back yard so they could show her something. When they got outside Julie said, "When we make a new friend, we always share a beer with her." Then, Julie took out a can of beer and opened it. She took a couple of sips. She then smiled at Tracy and Michelle and held the can of beer out for Tracy to take.
Tracy knew that she was too young to be drinking alcohol. Her parents had always told her it was something they did not want her to do. If she drank the beer, she would do something that was against the law. Tracy was also afraid she might get caught with beer on her breath. She wondered what her parents would say if they found out she had been drinking alcohol. If she didn't drink the beer, Tina and Susan might not be her friends. She might never get invited to another party, and everyone might think she was a nerd. Tracy was confused and wondered what she should do.

STORY 2

Sam and Brian have been best friends for a long time. They are in ninth grade at Jefferson High School and sit next to each other in math class. Tomorrow, they have their final exam. Sam is good at math but Brian is not doing very well. If Brian doesnt get at least 80 percent on the test, he will fail the course. If he fails the course, he will have to go to summer school. That night, Brian called Sam on the phone. Brian asked Sam if he would help him cheat on the exam. Brian wanted Sam to let him look at his exam paper and copy the answers. Sam wasnt sure this was a good idea. If they had all the same answers, the teacher might think it looked suspicious. The teacher might see Brian looking at Sams paper during the test. If they both got caught cheating, they both would fail the course and both have to go to summer school. Sam didnt know what to do. Brian was his best friend and he didnt want to let him down. Sam would also disappoint his parents if he got caught. Brian was confused and wondered what he should do.

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Comprehension Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. What grade is Tracy in? What school does she go to? Why hasnt Tracy made many new friends? Whose birthday party is going to? Where did Julie, Tracy, and Michelle go? What did Julie want to share with Tracy? Why was Tracy not sure she should drink the beer? What might happen if she didnt drink the beer? How did Tracy feel? What grade are Sam and Brian in? What school do they go to? What class do they have together? Is Brian good at math? What will happen if he doesnt get at least 80 percent on the final exam? What did Brian ask Sam to do? Why didnt Sam think cheating was a good idea? What would happen if they both got caught cheating? How did Sam feel?

Discussion Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. What would you do if you were Tracy? Did you ever face a situation like hers? How old were you when you had your first beer? What did your parents tell you about drinking alcohol? Do you think Julie and Michelle are bad girls? What would you do if you were Sam? Did your friends ever ask you to help them cheat on a test? What did you do? Do you know anyone whoever got caught cheating? What happened? Do you think it is fair for Brian to ask Sam to help him cheat? What was the punishment for cheating in your school? What would your parents do if you were caught cheating on an important exam? Did you ever get in trouble at school? If so, what for? Do you think peer pressure is a big problem for teenagers growing up? What other problems do teenagers face these days? Parents often make rules for their children to follow. Imagine you have a sixteenyear-old daughter. What rules are appropriate for her: Curfew: Spending Money: Boyfriends: Television: Nutrition: Weekend Entertainment:

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Lesson 22

Growing Up: Role Models

Who were your role models when you were younger? Did you ever look up to any celebrities? Do you think celebrities should be role models? Why? Do you think that playing sports helps children learn some things? What? Why? Who are some famous athletes? Who are some of your favorite athletes? Why do you like these people?

Read the following about athletes as role models.


One main controversy surrounding professional sports is whether or not athletes should be considered role models for children. Since the history of sports, athletes have inspired many to follow their dreams to play. Athletes teach sportsmanship and moral lessons. Children, like it or not, look up to athletes and want to copy their success. They hang athletes posters on their walls. They collect sports cards and imagine what it would be like to be a superstar athlete. In the world of basketball, people look up to stars like Michael Jordan and Kobe Bryant. Michael Jordan won six NBA championships and is considered to be the best basketball player of all time. Yet, he has been rumored to have a gambling problem. He also has admitted to cheating on his wife. Kobe Bryant has been called the best player in the game today. He won three NBA championships with the Los Angeles Lakers and is still in his twenties. In 2003, he was accused of raping a young woman. Should children look at these men as role models? Other sports, like boxing, also contain questionable role models. Former undisputed heavyweight champion Mike Tyson once bit his opponents ear off and fought another during a press conference. Tyson was also convicted of rape and spent three years in prison. Some people once accused Muhammad Ali of being a bad role model for dodging the draft during the Vietnam War. For his beliefs, Ali was stripped of his boxing title. Today, Muhammad Ali is considered to be one of the most respected figures in professional sports. There are other factors that could determine which people would not make a good role model. For example, drugs have become a major factor in the world of sports. Top athletes have spoken out about the issue of drugs in baseball. Some athletes have been fined or suspended for testing positive for steroids and other drugs. An athletes personal life may affect the way people think of an athlete. Murder, divorce, and bad attitude all can cause an athletes popularity to fall. However, there are also many professional athletes that are active in their community and do a lot of charity work to help needy people. Should professional athletes be held at a higher standard than the general public? Some people might say with great fame and money comes more responsibility. Others would argue that professional athletes like everyone else, are human and make mistakes from time to time.

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Comprehension Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. What is one main controversy surrounding professional sports? What do athletes teach? Who do children look up to? What do children hang on their walls? What do children collect? How many NBA championships did Michael Jordan win? What kind of problem has Jordan been rumored to have? How many NBA championships did Kobe Bryant win? What was Bryant accused of in 2003? What has Mike Tyson bitten off? What was Mike Tyson convicted of? What was Muhammad Ali stripped of? How is Ali looked at today? What has become a major factor in sports? What can cause an athletes popularity to fall? What do some people say comes with great fame and money?

Discussion Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. What professional athletes do you think are good role models? Why? Is Michael Jordan a good role model? Why? What celebrities do you think are good role models? Is Madonna a good role model for women? Why? Should politicians be considered role models? Why? Name some positive role models for children and teenagers. Name some negative role models for children and teenagers. Do you think politicians in your country are good role models? Why? What should parents teach children about famous people? Should parents be a childs most important role models? Why? What other people in a childs life are role models? Do adults ever have role models? Who? Name some positive role models for adults. Why did you choose these? Name some negative role models for adults. Why did you choose these? Who are some of your role models now? Why? Who were your role models when you were younger? Why? Are your adult role models different from your childhood role models? Why? Would you make a good role model?

Complete this sentence: I would make a good role model because ___________ 19. Would your teacher make a good role model? Why?

Complete this sentence: My teacher would make a good role model because ___

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Lesson 23

Stress and Pressure

All of us experience some stress in our daily lives. A little stress can help to motivate us to work harder and more efficiently. Too much stress, however, can lead to health problems, and can seriously affect a persons happiness. What are some symptoms of too much stress? What things cause stress for you? What would cause stress for parents? What would cause stress for teachers? What would cause stress for students? What would cause stress for doctors? Which of the people above do you think has the most serious stress? Why?

Read some advice about stress from Dr. Walker. Hello, my name is Doctor Alice Walker. I am a general practitioner in the Los Angeles City Hospital. Last week I treated a woman for her third throat infection in three months. Her name is Linda. Linda is usually a very healthy and conscientious person. I suspect that stress is causing her health problems. Linda often gets headaches. She finds it very difficult to relax. She also is not sleeping very well. Because of this she often feels tired and irritable. She drinks a lot of coffee during the day to help keep her awake. The coffee makes her insomnia worse, so she sometimes takes sleeping pills at night to help her sleep.
Lindas job is very stressful. She is a Los Angeles high school teacher. Everyday she has to deal with lots of stressful situations at work. Sometimes her students misbehave in class. Sometimes she has disputes with her colleagues. Sometimes her job makes her feel frustrated and angry. Lindas personal life is stressful as well. She spends a lot of her time taking care of her sick mother. She spends a lot of time traveling from her apartment to school and too her mothers house. Linda also feels that she doesnt have enough time to eat right. She often grabs a snack or fast food and eats in the car. She feels that her schedule is too full and she is too busy. She feels like she doesnt have enough free time for herself. For someone like Linda I generally recommend a stress management program. General techniques of the stress management program include: Self-management: become better organized, plan a schedule. Conflict resolution: start to try solve any major problems at home or at work. Positive attitude: try to be more optimistic about things. Breathing: start to do deep breathing exercises. Meditation: try some relaxation techniques. Exercise: try to exercise regularly (three times a week). Diet: try to eat healthier food. Rest: get enough sleep at night. Take a short afternoon nap.

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Comprehension Questions:
1. Who is Alice Walker? 2. Who is Linda? 3. Why does Linda find it difficult to relax? 4. Why does Linda feel tired and irritable? 5. Why does Linda drink coffee? 6. What is Linda's job? 7. What problems does she have at work? 8. How is Linda's personal life? 9. What does she have to do? 10. Why does Linda often eat fast food? 11. What does Dr. Walker generally recommend for people like Linda? 12. What self-management suggestions does she offer? 13. What conflict resolution suggestions does she offer? 14. What attitude suggestions does she offer? 15. What breathing suggestions does she offer? 16. What meditation suggestions does she offer? 17. What exercise suggestions does she offer? 18. What diet suggestions does she offer? 19. What rest suggestions does she offer?

Discussion Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Do you sympathize with Linda? Why? Which is Lindas biggest source of stress? Which sources of Lindas stress are easier to control? Why? Which sources of her stress are more difficult to control? Why? What should you do if you have a headache? What should you do if you have insomnia? Would like to have her job? Why? What are some other stressful jobs? Why are they stressful? Is your life stressful? What are some sources of stress in your life? What can you do about the stress in your life?

How do these factors relate to your life?


Self-management: Are you organized? Do you ever plan a schedule? Conflict resolution: Do you have any problems that you havent solved? Positive attitude: Are you generally optimistic or pessimistic? Why? Breathing: Do you ever do any deep breathing or other breathing exercises? Meditation: Do you ever meditate? What are the benefits of meditation? Exercise: How often do you exercise? What kind of exercise do you do? Diet: What kinds of food do you normally eat? Is your diet healthy or unhealthy? Rest: Do you usually get enough rest? How much do you sleep at night? Do you ever take an afternoon nap?

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Les sson 24

Be eing Ov verweig ght and d Obese e

Do you kno ow anyone who w is over rweight? Why are so ome people overweight t? What health problems do overweight people e have? What kind of o exercise do you like? How often do you exercise? What healthy things do you eat or o drink? What unhealthy things s do you eat or drink?

Rea ad about being ove erweight and obes se.


Bein ng overweig ght and obe ese are two o major problems facin ng people in n the United d States toda ay. In 2003 almost 61 percen nt of U.S. adults and 13 percen nt of childr ren and adolescents we ere overweight. More than 30 percent of U.S S. adults ar re obese, ac ccording to th he U.S. Cen nters for Dis sease Contr rol and Prev vention. Th hat equals 5 59 million pe eople. The e chance o of developin ng serious health im mplications, such as h heart disea ase and diab betes risk in ncreases in overweight o people and d rises dram matically in o obese people. Ove erweight an nd obesity is i determin ned by calculating an individuals s Body Mas ss Index (BM MI). BMI represents a ratio of we eight to heig ght. Obesit ty is defined d as having g a body mas ss index of f more tha an 30. That t usually m means bein ng about 30 0 pounds (15 kg) overweight for r a woman and 35 to 40 pounds (17 to 20 kg) overwe eight for a man of average height t. Overweight is defin ned as a BM MI of 26 or r higher. T That usually y means bein ng about 15 5 or 20 pou unds (8 kg) overweight for a man n and 10 to o 15 pounds s (6 kg) for a woman. Look at the e formula to o see how BMI B is determined.
BMI Be elow 18.5 Weight Status Underw weight Norm mal Overw weight Obe ese

BMI I=

W Weight in Kilog grams (Heigh ht in cm) x (He eight in cm)

18 8.5 24.9

x 10,000
25 5.0 29.9 30.0 and Above

The ere are diffe ferent cause es of being g overweight and obe ese. One is in not eating e a bala anced diet. Too many y Americans s eat too many m fatty foods f with too many calories. c This s includes m many fast fo oods, junk foods, f and unhealthy in-between meal snacks. Not eno ough physica al activity is s another re eason people might be e overweigh ht or obese. . In the Unit ted States, 40% of adults a do not do any leisure tim me physical activity. 43% of adolescents wa atch more than t 2 hour rs of televis sion each da ay. Family genes are another caus se of being overweight t and obese e. Wha at should you y do if you have a weight pro oblem? Th he American n Surgeon General give es the follow wing advice e. First, see e your doctor and ask for a profe essional opin nion. If you are overw weight or ob bese, losing g just 10% of your bo ody weight can improve your health. If you need to lo ose weight, do so grad dually. Be physically a active and limit TV e to less tha an 2 hours per day. Yo ou should a also eat a wellw balance ed diet. time

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Comprehension Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. What are two major problems facing people in the United States today? What percent of US adults are overweight? What percent of US adults are obese? How many adults are obese in the US? How is obesity determined? What does Body Mass Index represent? How is Body Mass Index calculated? How is obesity defined? How is being overweight defined? What are three causes of being overweight and obese? How can diet affect being overweight? How can physical activity affect being overweight? What should you do first if you have a weight problem? What lifestyle changes should you make if you want to lose weight?

Discussion Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. Is being overweight and obese a problem in your country? Whats your opinion of overweight and obese people? Why are some people overweight? What causes obesity? Are you afraid of being overweight? Why? Do you eat a well-balanced diet? What different foods do you eat? What healthy foods do you eat? How often do you eat them? Do you eat a lot of junk food? What is your favorite kind of junk food? What unhealthy foods do you eat? How often do you eat them? What kinds of food can cause people to become overweight or obese? What kinds of habits or lifestyle can cause people to become overweight or obese? How many hours of TV do you watch per day? Do you think that you watch too much TV? Why? Do you know anyone who has had heart trouble? Do you know anyone who has diabetes? In your opinion, are most Americans healthy or unhealthy? Why? Do you think most people in your country eat a well-balanced diet? Are there many overweight children in you country? Why are they overweight? Is anyone in your family overweight? Why? Do you ever feel sorry for someone who is really obese? Do you think overweight and obese people are lazy? How can overweight and obese people become healthier? Would you rather be overweight or underweight? Why? What is your height? _________Cm. What is your weight? ________Kg.

Calculate your body mass index: BMI = __________ Are you overweight, underweight, obese, or normal?

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Lesson 25

The American Civil War

What is a civil war? How is a civil war different from a world war? Has your country ever had a civil war? What is racial discrimination? Have any people in your country ever been discriminated against? Who? Why? Look at these two flags. What do they represent?

Read about the American Civil War.


The American Civil War began in 1861 and ended in 1865. It was a conflict between the Northern states (the Union) and the Southern states (the Confederacy). It is generally known in the South as the War Between the States. It is also known as the War of the Rebellion, the War of Secession, and the War for Southern Independence. The Civil War began as a war for and against Southern independence. Although slavery was the issue that started the conflict between the North and South, the initial war goals of both sides were simple. Confederates (southerners) fought for the right to secede from the union and form their own country. Union forces (northerners) fought to prevent them. In the days of the American Revolution and the Constitution, there were differences between the North and South, but they were generally ignored. During the 19th century the areas had become two different places. The South was almost completely agricultural. It was filled with large plantations where slaves worked. Free slave labor formed the basis on which the South gained its wealth, and slavery was essential for its economic prosperity. There were a few areas in the North that could be farmed but it did not depend on farming, as the South did. The North was becoming filled with factories, taller buildings, and larger cities. It was more advanced and African Americans in the North were free. When Abraham Lincoln was elected president, the South began to worry. Lincoln was against slavery and the states in the South feared that he would prohibit the use of free slave labor. South Carolina called a meeting and voted to remove itself from the Union. The Union was the official name of the United States at that time. South Carolina seceded first. Then, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas seceded. Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina followed soon after. These eleven states formed the Confederate States of America. They had withdrawn themselves from the Union and formed a separate country. At first, Lincoln had one war goal: preservation of the Union. As the war continued, Lincoln faced pressures to change his goal to freedom for the slaves. This move was necessary because America had to prevent Britain from supporting the Confederacy. Lincoln did not want any international interference. The war officially ended in May 1865 when the remaining Confederate soldiers surrendered. Over 620,000 Americans died in the war, with disease killing twice as many as those lost in battle. 50,000 survivors returned home as amputees. The Civil War was, and still is, one of the bloodiest periods in American history.

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Comprehension Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. When did the Civil War begin? When did it end? What are the different names for the war? Why were the Confederates fighting? Why were the Union forces fighting? During the 19th century, how were the North and South different? 7. Why did the South worry when Lincoln was elected President? 8. Which state was the first to secede from the Union? 9. What eleven states made up the Confederate States of America? 10. What was Lincolns first war goal? 11. What was Lincolns second war goal? 12. Why did Lincoln change his goal? 13. When did the Civil War officially end? 14. How many Americans died during the war? 15. How did the victims of war die?

Discussion Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. What are the main differences between civil wars and world wars? Why do people fight wars? Would you ever fight in a war? Why? Has your country ever experienced a war? What was it about? Who was fighting? How did it end? If the South had won the war, the United States would have been split into two separate countries. What other countries have been divided as a result of war? The history of the world is filled with stories about conflict between nations. What are some important conflicts of the past? Why were these wars fought? Do you think humans are naturally violent? Why? Give an example. Slavery is on of the most shameful events in American history. What do you know about slavery in America? Who benefits from slavery? Who suffers from slavery? What are some shameful events in your countrys history? During the 19th century the American South was mainly agricultural while the North was more industrial. Where are the main agricultural areas in your county? What do they grow? Where are the main industrial areas in your country? What do they manufacture? Look at the picture of the American flag again. Do you know the significance of the design? Why are there fifty stars and thirteen stripes? What other flags do you know that have significant designs? What do they mean?

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Lesson 26

Abraham Lincoln

What do you know about the American Civil War? Who was Abraham Lincoln? What do you know about Lincoln? What is slavery? What did Lincoln do about slavery? Was your childhood easy or hard? Why? Have you ever moved to a new place? Where? Would you rather work on a farm or study? Why?

Read about Abraham Lincoln.


Abraham Lincoln was the sixteenth president of the United States. He was born in a log cabin in Kentucky on February 12, 1809. Lincolns childhood was not easy. His father was a farmer and had to work hard to earn a living. When Abraham was 7, the family moved to southern Indiana. Abraham had gone to school briefly in Kentucky and did so again in Indiana. In 1818 Lincolns mother died from milk sickness, a disease from drinking the milk of cows that had grazed on poisonous grass. Thomas Lincoln remarried the next year, and Abraham loved his new stepmother. As Abraham grew up, he loved to read and preferred learning to working in the fields. This caused difficulty in his relationship with his father who was just the opposite. The Lincolns moved again to Illinois and Abraham worked several jobs there. He managed a store, surveyed land, and served as a postmaster. He was well liked by the local people he earned the nickname "Honest Abe." In 1860 Lincoln was elected president and he soon faced the greatest internal crisis U.S. President has ever faced: the American Civil War. Lincoln raised an army and decided to fight to stop the Union from falling apart. His goal was to preserve the Union. As the war dragged on, Lincoln had to find a new goal. There were rumors that the Civil War could escalate into an international conflict if it continued. Lincolns worst fear was that the British would side with the South. Lincoln then decided to change his original war goal. He had always opposed slavery and on January 1, 1863, the Emancipation Proclamation was introduced. This was Lincoln's declaration of freedom for all slaves in the United States. Lincoln won re-election in 1864, the Union defeated the South, and the Civil War finally war ended in 1865. The North were the victors. On April 14, 1865, the Lincolns attended a play entitled Our American Cousin at Fords Theater in Washington D.C. During the performance John Wilkes Booth arrived at the theater and shot the president in the back of the head. Lincoln died the next morning. This was the first presidential assassination in American history, and the nation mourned its leader. His death was the result of the deep divisions and hatreds of the times. Abraham Lincoln is remembered for his vital role as the leader in preserving the Union during the Civil War and beginning the process that led to the end of slavery in the United States. He is also remembered for his character, his speeches, and as a man of humble origins whose determination led him to Americas highest political office.

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Comprehension Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Where was Abraham Lincoln born? How old was Abraham when the family moved to southern Indiana? How did Abrahams mother die? What did Abraham love to do when he was growing up? What jobs did Abraham have in Illinois? What was his nickname? What crisis did Abraham face after he was elected president? What was Lincolns original war goal? Why did Lincoln change this goal? What was the Emancipation Proclamation? When was Lincoln re-elected? When did the Civil War end? Which side were the victors? What happened on April 14, 1865? Where is Fords Theater? How is Abraham Lincoln remembered?

Discussion Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Racial discrimination was, and continues to be, a problem in the United States. Does racial discrimination exist in your country? What other kinds of discrimination are there? What kinds of people are generally discriminated against? Why? What do you think about slavery? Why? Is slavery fair or unfair? Why? Lincoln is known as a person of humble origins whose determination led him to the nations highest office. Is there anyone in your country like this? Lincolns face is on the US five dollar bill and the one-cent coin. What pictures are on the coins and bills in your country? Lincolns nickname was Honest Abe. Why do you think he had this nickname? Do you have a nickname? What is it? Why do people call you by this nickname? Are you an honest person? Give an example. Lincolns family moved a lot when he was young. Has your family ever moved? Where? Do you think moving was a good thing or not for your family? Why? People move to new places for many different reasons. How many can you think of? Make a list. Say Say Say Say something something something something optimistic about moving to a new city. pessimistic about moving to a new city. optimistic about moving to a new country. pessimistic about moving to a new country.

Lincoln was assassinated. Why do people assassinate other people? Which other famous people have been assassinated?

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Lesson 27

Colonel Harland Sanders

Are you a determined person? What is something you are determined to do? What do you know about this man? Where is Kentucky? Do you like the food at KFC? Why? Do you like to cook? What? Do you ever baby-sit children? Who? What food is famous in your country?

Read about Colonel Sanders.


Colonel Harland Sanders was born on September 9, 1890. He began franchising- selling his chicken business- at the age of 65. Now, the Kentucky Fried Chicken business has grown to be one of the largest fast food restaurants in the world. Two billion of the Colonel's "finger lickin' good" chicken dinners are served annually, and not just in North America. The Colonel's cooking is available in more than 82 countries around the world. When Harland was six, his father died. His mother was forced to go to work, and young Harland had to take care of his three-year-old brother and baby sister. This meant he had to do much of the family cooking. By the age of seven, he was a master at cooking a variety of dishes. When he grew up Harland had a variety of jobs. He was a railroad fireman, insurance salesman, and gas station attendant. When he was 40, Harland began cooking for hungry travelers who stopped at his service station in Corbin, Kentucky. He didnt have a restaurant but served folks on his own dining table in the living area of his service station. As more people started coming just for the food, Harland moved across the street to a motel and restaurant that seated 142 people. Over the next nine years, he perfected his secret blend of 11 herbs and spices. This is the basic cooking recipe that is still used in KFC restaurants today. The Governor of Kentucky made him a Kentucky Colonel in 1935 for his contributions to the states cuisine. In the early 1950s, a new highway was planned to bypass the town of Corbin. The Colonel saw an end to his business and sold his restaurant. He paid his bills and was reduced to living on his $105 monthly Social Security checks. The Colonel was confident in the quality of his fried chicken, so he devoted himself to franchising his business. In 1952, he traveled across the country by car from restaurant to restaurant. He cooked batches of chicken for restaurant owners and their employees. If they liked the chicken, he made a hand shake agreement. This agreement paid him one nickel (five cents) for each chicken the restaurant sold. By 1964, Colonel Sanders had more than 600 franchised restaurants in the United States and Canada. The Colonel eventually sold his share in the company for $2 million but remained a public spokesman for the company. The Colonel traveled 250,000 miles a year visiting the KFC restaurants that he had created. In 1980 at the age of 90, the Colonel was stricken with leukemia and died. The success of KFC franchising began with a 65-yearold southern gentleman who used his monthly Social Security checks to start a business.

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Comprehension Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. When was the Colonel born? At what age did he begin franchising his business? How many countries have KFC restaurants? What was Harland forced to do when his mother had to go back to work? How old was the Colonel when he started cooking for hungry travelers? Where was the Colonels service station? How many people could sit in the Colonels first restaurant? What basic cooking recipe is still used in KFC restaurants today? What happened in 1935? Why did the Colonel sell his restaurant? What did the Colonel do in 1952? How much did the Colonel first receive for each chicken sold? By 1964, how many franchised restaurants did the Colonel have? Where were these restaurants? How much did the Colonel receive for his interest in the company? How old was the Colonel when he died?

Discussion Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. What does it mean to go from rags to riches? What is determination? Do you think you are a determined individual? How? What does it mean to be successful? Have you been successful throughout your life? How? Do you know any success stories? If so, share one with the class. Would you like to own your own business? Why or why not? What are the advantages of owning your own business? Disadvantages? Do you like working for other people? Why? How much should the average person work in one week? Do you think most people work too much? Why? If you didnt have to work, what would you do? How much time off do you take each year? Is it enough? Do you like to eat fast food? Why? What is your favorite kind of food? How often do you eat it? Is fried chicken a healthy food? Why? Do you like to eat fried chicken? Why?

Say some good and some bad things about fried chicken. Write your ideas in the chart.

Good things

Bad things

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Lesson 28

Hetty Robinson

Would you like to be very wealthy? Why? How do people become wealthy? If you won ten million dollars, what would you do? Who are some of the worlds most famous wealthy people? What do very wealthy people look like? What kinds of problems do very wealthy people have? If you were wealthy would you be stingy or generous? Do you know any wealthy people?

Read about Hetty Robinson.


Hetty Robinson was born in 1834. Her family had made a fortune in the nineteenth century in whaling and foreign trade. When her brother died as a baby, Hetty became the sole heir of her familys wealth. Hetty learned about the world of business and finance at an early age. At the age of 6, she began reading the daily financial newspapers to both her father and grandfather. She attended private schools and her childhood education focused on business. She learned from her father how to deal with competitors and how to protect family interests. In 1867, Hetty married millionaire Edward Henry Green. Although they were both millionaires, Hetty insisted that they keep their finances separate. They moved to London and had two children. In the early 1870s, Hettys parents died and left her $10 million. She had acquired a large amount of money and it made her the richest woman in America at that time. In 1874, the Greens moved back to New York City and Hetty continued to increase her wealth. She bought government bonds and railroad stocks. She bought land in New York, Chicago, and St. Louis, the fastest growing cities at that time. Hetty became a shrewd investor and financer. She saw her wealth increase many times during her life. Hetty was the richest woman in the United States but she was very stingy. She always wore the same black dress and became known as the witch of Wall Street. Her undergarments were old newspapers that she got from garbage cans. She lived in a run-down boarding house with no heat. She never had a house in New York City because the taxes were too high. Hetty only ate onions, eggs, and cold oatmeal. She never cooked her food because she thought it was a waste of money to pay for electricity. She was even stingy with her children. For example, when her son hurt his knee in an accident, Hetty did not call a doctor. She dressed him in old clothes and took him to a free clinic. The doctors recognized her and asked for money. Hetty refused and took her son home. The boy did not receive medical treatment, and a few years later his leg was amputated. In her old age Hetty began to suffer from a bad hernia but refused to have an operation because it cost $150. Hetty Green died 1916 at the age of 80. Estimates of her net worth are around $100-200 million.

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Comprehension Questions:
1. When was Hetty Robinson born? 2. How did her family make their fortune? 3. What did her father teach her? 4. Who did Hetty marry in 1867? 5. How many children did she have? 6. How much did Hettys parents leave her? 7. Where did Hetty buy land? 8. What was Hettys nickname? 9. Where did Hetty get her undergarments? 10. Where did Hetty live? 11. Why didnt Hetty live in New York City? 12. What did Hetty eat? 13. Why didnt Hetty cook her food? 14. What happened to Hettys son? 15. Why did she refuse to have a hernia operation? 16. When did Hetty die? 17. What was her net worth?

Discussion Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. Would you like to be a millionaire? Why or why not? How important is money to you? What is more important than money? If you had no money, do you think you could be happy? If someone gave you a million dollars, what would you do with it? Some people say that money makes the world go around. Do you agree? What do you spend most of your money on? What is something you bought recently that cost a lot of money? What is something you bought recently that was a good bargain? What is something that you want to buy but dont have enough money to buy? What kinds of things are you saving your money for? What qualities must a person have to make big money? Do you ever give money to beggars on the street? Why? Do you ever give money to charity? If so, which ones? If you found a bag of money, what would you do with it? Who takes care of the money in your house? Why? If you had to save money, what could you do without? If you needed some extra money, how would you earn it? What are some different legal ways to get money really quickly? What are some different illegal ways to get money really quickly? Would you ever try to get money illegally? Why? Would you ever sacrifice a friendship for money? Why? How would you feel if a good friend betrayed you for money? Would you rather have a lot of money or a lot of friends? Why?

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Lesson 29

Predicting the Future

What do fortunetellers do? Why do people go to see fortunetellers? Do you believe most fortunetellers are accurate? What methods do fortunetellers use to predict the future? Can a fortuneteller really see into the future? Have you ever had your fortune told? What did it say? What good things do you think will happen to you in the future? Are you usually more scientific or more superstitious? Why?

Read about fortunetellers.


Fortune telling is the practice of predicting the future, usually of an individual, through mystical or supernatural means. Common methods used in fortune telling include astrology, tarot card reading, crystallomancy (reading of a crystal sphere), and palmistry. Are you interested in having someone read your palm? Would you like to take your chances with tarot cards? Would you like to visit an old-fashioned Gypsy fortuneteller who looks into a crystal ball and sees everything? There are many different forms of psychic art and different kinds of fortune telling methods. For example, palmistry is a method of interpreting the shape of the hand and the lines of the palm to determine your character and life experiences. One type of palmistry attempts to tell your future by reading the lines on the palm of your hand. Another type of palmistry tries to read the strengths and weaknesses of your personality from the shape of your hand. Other forms of fortune telling include the observation of the wind currents and cloud formation, interpreting the damage when a hatchet is smacked into a table, reading smoke, tea leaves or coffee grinds, reading the holes or mold in cheese, and even interpreting the lines in your belly button. A psychic is someone who claims to have paranormal or supernatural powers that he or she uses to answer your questions or make observations about you. The psychic might simply look you over and start talking, or they may use props or aids such as tarot cards, astrological charts, your palm, or pieces of jewelry or metal that have been against your skin. Readings can focus on issues of the past, present or future and are offered in various degrees of detail and complexity. Visiting a psychic can be a lot of fun. How much of it you take seriously is up to you. However, it can be interesting to hear what someone who doesnt know you has to say about you and about your life. Most people who take psychics seriously often dont use them for predicting the future, but use them as an aid in expanding the way they view themselves and / or their possibilities for the future. They see fortunetellers as advice or suggestion givers, rather than actually predicting what will happen in the future.

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Comprehension Questions:
1. What is fortune telling? 2. What are some common methods of fortune telling? 3. What can a gypsy fortuneteller do? 4. What is palmistry? 5. What are some other forms of fortune telling? 6. What is a psychic? 7. What props might a psychic use? 8. What kinds of issues can psychic reading focus on? 9. What is up to you when you visit a psychic? 10. What do most people who take psychics seriously often use them for?

Discussion Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

Name some things that are considered good luck in your country. Name some things that are considered bad luck in your country. Are you usually a lucky or unlucky person? Give an example. What lucky things have happened to you recently? What unlucky things have happened to you recently? Do you believe in miracles? Why? What is a magician? How are magicians and fortunetellers different? Do you know anyone who can predict the future? Do you believe in ghosts? Have you, or anyone you know, ever seen a ghost? If so, describe the experience. If you could ask a fortuneteller three questions, what would they be? Do you know anyone who has been to see a fortuneteller? Who? What did the fortuneteller say? Was the prediction accurate or not? How much should you pay a fortuneteller for a psychic reading? How much should you pay a fortuneteller to read your palm? What different lines on your palm do fortunetellers identify? What is your zodiac (star) sign? (Refer to the zodiac chart below) Find an English newspaper. What is your horoscope for today? Is it accurate? If possible, find yesterdays newspaper. Was your horoscope accurate?
March 21 April 19

Libra Scorpio Sagittarius Capricorn Aquarius Pisces

September 23 October 23

Aries Taurus Gemini Cancer Leo Virgo


April 20 May 20 May 21 June 21 June 22 July 22 July 23 August 22 August 23 September 22 October 24 November 21 November 22 December 21 December 22 January 19 January 20 February 18 February 19 March 20

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Lesson 30

Personality Traits

Check the box that best describes your different personality traits.

Personality Traits Hardworking Lazy Sociable Shy Moody Serious Easygoing Quiet Generous Outgoing Talkative Filial Friendly Selfish Make a sentence:

Very

Tend to be

Somewhat Can be

A little

Not at all

Im very ____________________________. I can be ___________________________ .. I tend to be _________________________. Im somewhat ____________________ . Im a little __________________________. Im not at all ______________________ .

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Match the personality trait with a behavior. Personality trait


Hardworking Lazy Sociable Shy Moody Serious Easygoing Quiet Generous Outgoing Talkative Filial Friendly Selfish Funny

Behavior
Doesnt like to share Respects her parents Likes to gossip Always gives presents Doesnt get angry easily Always thinking about things Likes to go to parties Nervous to meet new people Doesnt like to work Always works overtime Easily angered Likes to shake hands Has many friends Tells jokes Doesnt like to talk

Discussion Questions:
1. Describe your personality. Use the sentences and words from above. 2. Are you shy or sociable? Give an example. 3. Are you lazy or hardworking? Give an example. 4. Do you have a good sense of humor? Give an example. 5. Do people think you are funny? Give an example. 6. Are you ever moody? What puts you in a bad mood? 7. Are you neat or messy? Is your bedroom tidy or messy? 8. Do you think you are a generous person? Give an example. 9. Are you ever stingy? Are you ever selfish? 10. Are you a filial person? What do you do for your parents? 11. What personality trait is most important to you? 12. Would you like to change your personality? 13. If you could, what would you like to be like? 14. Whats more important: personality or appearance? 15. Do you like serious or easygoing people? 16. What personality traits do you like in your friends? 17. Describe your friends personality. 18. Do you and your friends have similar personalities? 19. Describe your fathers personality. 20. Describe your mothers personality. 21. Describe your siblings personality. 22. Describe your teachers personality.

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Lesson 31

Buying a Pet

What are good animals for people to keep as pets? Why? What animals are not suitable to keep as pets? Why not? Do you have a pet? What is it? What responsibilities do pet owners have? What should you consider before having a pet? What are some popular pets in your country? What are some status-symbol pets?

Read the following article about buying a pet.


About 60% of U.S. households have at least one dog, cat, bird, or other pet. Many have more than one. Pets are popular because they provide companionship, joy, unconditional love, and a sense of safety for their owners. These are probably some of the reasons why people choose to have a pet. Owning a pet is most enjoyable when you take the time to consider which animal best suits you and your family. Select your pet the way recommended by veterinarians. A pet will become your daily responsibility, so make an informed pet selection. Dont choose the first playful puppy, kitten, or bird you see or the latest status-symbol pet. Remember, you are accepting a responsibility for which you and your family must be prepared. There are millions of unwanted pets that have to be put to death each year. Pets selected on impulse, "for the children," or as a gift sometimes end up this way. Selecting a pet should be a family project. Everyone's needs, concerns, fears, and medical history (including allergies) should be considered. Family members should decide together what kind of animal they want and the amount of time they have to spend with it. Families should also talk about the amount of responsibility each person has to assume. Promises from some family members, particularly children, may not be fulfilled. Identify the best animal for your living space, lifestyle, and budget. Take your time and involve the family. Make sure you have enough room for your pet. Young dogs need more space and more daily exercise than older dogs. Make sure you have enough time to spend with your pet. Pets depend on people for daily affection and attention. Young puppies and kittens require time for housebreaking, training, and feeding. Feeding, exercise, grooming, and play are daily time commitments that must be considered in caring for a healthy, happy pet. If you are renting your home, make sure your landlord allows pets. Pet care can sometimes be expensive. All pets need food and shelter. Most should have regular visits to a veterinarian for health checkups and vaccinations. Before bringing a pet into your home, prepare a special place for it to eat and sleep. Decide where you will exercise your pet. Also, you should buy any necessary accessories (such as collar and ID tag, leash, scratching post, litter box, travel crate, bird cage, etc.) before you bring your pet home.

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Comprehension Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. What percent of U.S. households have at least one pet? Why are pets popular? What kind of pet should you not choose? What happens to millions of unwanted pets? Should you select a pet impulsively? What should be considered when selecting a pet? Should children decide by themselves what kind of pet to buy? What kinds of dogs need more space? What do pets depend on people for? What do young puppies and kittens require time for? What are some daily time commitments people have when caring for pets? Who should you ask to make sure pets are okay in your home? Can pets be expensive? Where do pets need to go for vaccinations? What should you do before bringing a pet into your home?

Discussion Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. Do you prefer dogs or cats? Why? What animal do you think makes the best pet? Why? What responsibilities do pet owners have? What are some pros and cons of keeping a pet? Fill in the chart. Good points of owning a pet Bad points of owning a pet

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

What can children learn by having a pet? What is the most unusual pet you have ever seen? What joys do pets bring to their owners? What kind of pet would you like to have in the future? Why do some people not like pets? How can pets be useful to their owners?

Sometimes pet owners give their pets unusual or interesting names. Think of some unusual or interesting names for the following pets: Lizard: Monkey: Parrot: Husky: Piranha: Siamese cat: Horse: Goldfish:

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Lesson 32

Facts about Cats and Dogs

Do you know any interesting facts about dogs? Do you know any interesting facts about cats? Do you know any funny animal stories? Do you know why cats sleep so much? What else do cats do besides sleeping? What do dogs do? How fast can dogs run? What tricks can dogs and cats do?

Read the following facts about cats and dogs.


Cats get more sleep than almost any other animal. They average about 16 hours of sleep per day. Much of that sleeping is in the form of short catnaps. Catnaps are short shallow periods of sleep that are relaxing to the cat. Catnaps also allow the cat to be fully alert at a moment's notice. Cats spend about 30% of their waking hours grooming themselves. Cats start grooming themselves following a certain pattern. They start by licking their mouths, cleaning their faces, moving to the front paws and eventually working their way down to their tails. Cats can be trained to use a toilet, come when called, and sit when told. They can also be trained to heel, jump through a hoop, eat with their paws, roll over, fetch and many other small tricks. Training a pet takes a lot of patience. You can tell a cats mood by reading its body language. If a cat is sharply moving its tail in a quick back and forth motion, it's angry or annoyed. A cat walking with ears erect and tail straight up is feeling content and satisfied. Many people believe that dogs are colorblind. This is not true. Dogs can see color but they do not see colors as vividly as most humans. It is much like our vision in the early evening. Dog experts estimate that some dogs sense of smell is almost 1 million times greater than humans. A dog can sniff out all sorts of smells that human noses miss. People train dogs for jobs such as tracking, rescue, or bomb detection. They also train dogs to detect a wide variety of other scents, such as drugs and fruits. Have you ever wondered why dogs bark? Barking is sometimes like an alarm. Dogs bark to tell humans or other dogs that someone or something is near their territory. Dogs also bark when they are excited, hot, cold or hungry. Sometimes you will hear a dog howl. City dogs are often left alone for long periods of time. They howl because they feel lonely. Wild dogs howl to gather the other dogs in their pack. If you have ever seen a dog chase a cat, then you know dogs can run like the wind. But just how fast are they? Most domestic dogs are capable of reaching speeds of about nineteen miles per hour when running at full speed. However, greyhounds are the fastest dogs. They are able to reach speeds of up to forty-four miles per hour. Today greyhound racing is a popular betting sport in America and many other countries around the world.

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Comprehension Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. How many hours a day does a cat sleep? What are catnaps? How do cats spend 30% of their waking hours? What pattern do cats follow when grooming? What can cats be trained to do? How can you tell a cats mood? How does a cat feel when its tail is moving sharply back and forth? Are dogs colorblind? How much greater is a dogs sense of smell than a humans? What do people train some dogs to do? What are some reasons that dogs bark? Why do some city dogs howl? Why do wild dogs howl? How fast can most domestic dogs run? How fast can greyhounds run?

Discussion Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Are there many stray dogs in your neighborhood? Are there many stray cats in you neighborhood? Are stray animals a big problem in your city? What should you do if a dog bites you? Does your city have a dogcatcher? Does it bother you when dogs bark? Do cats bark? What noises do cats make? Have you ever watched greyhound races? Have you ever watched a horse race? Have you ever seen a cockfight? What do you think about these kinds of games? Are there animal rights groups where you live? Do you consider yourself to be an animal lover? Do you think it would be fun to train a cat or a dog to do tricks? What kinds of tricks would you train a dog or cat to do? Why?

How are dogs and cats similar and different? Fill in this chart. Similarities Differences

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Lesson 33

Smoking in Public Places

Does it bother you when people smoke while you are eating? Should smoking be banned in bars and restaurants? Are you concerned about secondhand smoke? Why do some people smoke? How can people quit smoking?

Read the following opinion about smoking in public places.


Since California passed a statewide public smoking ban in 1998, smoking bans have been an issue of debate around the country. From California to Delaware, smoking bans have emerged throughout the nation. There are several issues surrounding public smoking. Nonsmokers are concerned about the health effects of secondhand smoke inside bars, restaurants, and other public places. Business owners are concerned with their right to manage their businesses as they see fit. Restaurant owners should be responsible for making decisions that drastically affect their business. Restaurants are customer-friendly establishments and can decide how to meet their customers needs. In a recent survey, eighty percent of the general public supports business owners having the choice to ban smoking in their establishments and 86 percent of the public thinks that ventilation systems can have a big impact on addressing secondhand smoke issues. Business owners are completely capable of accommodating smoking and nonsmoking customers in the same restaurant. Smoking-ban supporters are most concerned about health effects of secondhand smoke. Some restaurant and bar employees who work in establishments that allow customers to smoke have concerns about their health as well. However, the level of exposure to secondhand smoke for bartenders and employees is considerably lower than federal air quality limits established by the federal government. Several studies designed specifically to prove secondhand smoke causes negative health effects were not able to show any such results. The Congressional Research Service found there to be no scientific basis for the notion that secondhand smoke endangers health. The World Health Organization conducted one of the largest studies on secondhand smoke and lung cancer and found that there is no statistical evidence that passive smoking causes lung cancer. Public smoking might be annoying to some nonsmokers, but eating or drinking around smokers is not a health risk. One solution to accommodate both smoking and nonsmoking patrons is ventilation systems. With effective ventilation systems, the air quality in restaurants that permit smoking is actually better than in those that prohibit smoking. Some filtration systems are able to capture 99.97 percent of smoke, viruses, bacteria, allergens, carbon monoxide, and hazardous gases associated with sealed buildings. This system is ideal for businesses that allow their customers to smoke in designated sections of their establishments, especially because it usually costs under $3,500. This price is affordable to most business owners, especially when compared to financial losses because of declining clientele and violation fines. Business owners should have the right to choose how to manage their businesses.

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Comprehension Questions:
16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. When did California pass a statewide public smoking ban? Is California the only state with a public smoking ban? What are nonsmokers concerned about? What are business owners concerned about? What should restaurant owners be responsible for? What do eighty-eight percent of the general public support? How many people think that ventilation systems can have a big impact on addressing secondhand smoke issues? What are business owners capable of? What is lower than federal air quality limits established by the federal government? Did studies prove secondhand smoke causes negative health effects? What is one solution to accommodate both smoking and nonsmoking patrons? What are some filtration systems able to do? How much are ventilation systems? Should business owners have the right to choose how to manage their businesses?

Discussion Questions:
14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. Do you agree with the opinion of the writer of the above article? Why? What would you think if you saw the cook at a restaurant smoking while he is cooking your food? Would you complain? Do you think banning smoking in bars and restaurants is a good idea? Should smoking be banned in all public places? Why? Have you ever told someone to put out his or her cigarette? Are people allowed to smoke where you work? Are ventilation systems a good idea for bars and restaurants? Where should you not be allowed to smoke? What are the smoking laws in your country? Do you let friends smoke in your house? Why? Should people be able to smoke on airplanes? Why? Should people be able to smoke on buses? Why? Do you think secondhand smoke can give you lung cancer? Should people be able to smoke in open-air restaurants? Are you more concerned with secondhand smoke or air pollution from cars and other vehicles? Do you ever go to restaurants where people smoke? Does it ever bother you?

Write a warning to put on a cigarette pack.

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Lesson 34

Underage Smoking

Do many teenagers smoke in your country? Why do teenagers start smoking? Did you ever smoke? Why? Do you feel that underage smoking is becoming a problem? What are some of the problems facing teenagers today?

Read about underage smoking.


There are a variety of reasons why teenagers begin smoking. Peer pressure and the idea that smoking is cool may encourage a teenager to light up a cigarette. Advertising also creates the impression that smoking is socially acceptable. Sports sponsorship by tobacco companies and the televising of sponsored events increases young peoples awareness of the brands. Teenagers are also more likely to smoke if one or both of their parents smoke. Teenagers do not give much thought to the long term effects cigarettes can have on their bodies. This is not surprising since young people routinely engage in many types of other risk taking behaviors like drinking alcohol, taking drugs, and drinking and driving without thinking through the dangers and risks involved. Adolescents who smoke are two to six times more susceptible to coughs and increased phlegm, wheezing and shortness of breath than those who do not smoke. The earlier young people become regular smokers and persist in the habit as adults, the greater the risk of dying prematurely. Adolescents who experiment with cigarettes quickly become addicted to the nicotine in tobacco. One US survey found over half (58%) of regular smokers aged between 12 and 17 years say that they would find it difficult to go without smoking for a week while 72% thought they would find it difficult to give up altogether. There are laws that make it illegal for minors to smoke but the number of underage tobacco users is climbing at an alarming rate. In 2002, a survey in America showed that 3.8 million young people age 12 to 17 regularly smoked cigarettes. There have also been calls for harsher penalties against minors caught smoking and shop owners caught selling cigarettes to minors. Unfortunately, there is no compelling evidence to suggest that these calls for harsher penalties will have a significant impact. High prices can deter adolescents from smoking because they do not possess a large disposable income. A recent American study has shown that while price does not appear to affect initial experimentation of smoking, it is an important tool in reducing youth smoking once the habit has been established. SURGEON GENERAL'S WARNING: Smoking Causes Lung Cancer, Heart Disease, Emphysema, And May Complicate Pregnancy. SURGEON GENERAL'S WARNING: Quitting Smoking Now Greatly Reduces Serious Risks to Your Health. SURGEON GENERAL'S WARNING: Smoking By Pregnant Women May Result in Fetal Injury, Premature Birth, And Low Birth Weight. SURGEON GENERAL'S WARNING: Cigarette Smoke Contains Carbon Monoxide.

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Comprehension Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. What are some reasons why teenagers smoke? What is peer pressure? What kind of impression do advertisers create about smoking? What increases teenagers awareness of brands? Are young people more likely to smoke if their parents smoke? Do teenagers consider the long-term effects of smoking? What kinds of risk taking behavior do young people engage in? What are adolescents who smoke more susceptible to? Do adolescents who experiment with cigarettes become addicted slowly? How many young smokers said they would find it difficult to go without smoking for a week? How many young smokers said they would find it difficult to quit smoking? Is the number of underage smokers increasing or decreasing? How many young smokers were there in 2002? Can higher prices deter adolescents from smoking? What can reduce youth smoking once the habit has become established?

Discussion Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Do you think cigarettes should be advertised on TV? Why? Do you think cigarette companies should sponsor sporting events? What is the legal age you must be to buy cigarettes in your country? Did you ever smoke when you were a teenager? Why? Would you let your teenage son or daughter smoke? Why? Did you face any peer pressure at school? Did any of your friends in high school smoke? Why do you think young people want to smoke?

What are the penalties for young people caught smoking in your country? Can shop owners be penalized for selling cigarettes to minors? Do you have to show your ID card when buying cigarettes? Are teenagers in your country taught about the harmful effects of smoking? 13. Do you think there should be more education for teenagers about the harmful effects of smoking? Why? 14. If you were trying to teach your child about the dangers of smoking, what would you say?

15. Are there any positive things about smoking? 16. Why is smoking so popular?
17. Where can you see cigarette advertising?

18. Where can you buy cheap cigarettes? 19. How much is a pack of cigarettes in your country? Do you think this is a fair price?
20. 21. Do you know any smokers? Are they a heavy or a light smoker? If one of your friends asked you to help her quit smoking, what could you do?

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Lesson 35

Ghost Stories

Do you believe in ghosts? Why? Do you know anyone who has ever seen a ghost? Do you believe that houses can be haunted? Would you like to go inside a haunted house? Is it possible to communicate with ghosts? How? Do you like to watch scary horror movies? Why? Are ghosts generally good or evil? Why do you think so? Why are people afraid of ghosts? Can ghosts really harm people? How?

Read the following ghost story.


For quite sometime my dad's next-door neighbor had been complaining about a female ghost that was bothering them. They said it would appear behind them while they were looking in the mirror or when they were busy doing chores. They said she seemed to be in her late 40's or early 50's, rather heavy set with long black hair, and tall. They told us she always wore an old cheap white nightgown with a cheap white robe covering it. My Dad and I live in separate cities so when I visit him I usually stay overnight. Unfortunately, the ghost appeared on the night I was staying over. It's a small house so I had to sleep on the floor in my younger brothers bedroom. We got settled and I dozed off. I awoke about ten minutes later to my younger brother playfully slapping my ankles. My eyes were still closed but I was awake. The slapping continued up to my calves and I finally said, "Cut it out!" The slapping became more and more rapid. I opened my eyes expecting to see my brother, but I didn't. I only saw darkness and my brother was sound asleep, so I shut my eyes again quickly. The slapping continued all the way to my chest, but I could not scream. I tried but couldn't because I was filled with fear. I tried to get up but as I tried, the ghost pushed me back down and held me there. I was able to feel its hands on me and they felt real. The whole time I could not scream for help no matter how hard I tried. Then, I thought to myself, maybe if I look at it eye to eye, it will know that I am not afraid. Maybe, it will leave. When I opened my eyes the ghost was in my face. We were nose to nose. She was breathing hard and looked angry. Finally, I was able to scream. It was a weak scream and I had a hard time breathing after it, but I screamed. Finally my little brother woke up and I explained to him what happened. He got a candle that had been blessed, lit it, and we said prayers. Before we went back to bed, my brother saw the ghost in the mirror. We knew she was still there but she did not bother us for the rest of the evening.

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Comprehension Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. What had the neighbor been complaining about? Where did the ghost appear? What did she look like? What did she wear? Where did the man sleep? Who did the man think was slapping his ankles? Who was really slapping his ankles? Was the mans brother awake? Why couldnt the man scream? What happened when the man tried to sit up? How did the ghosts hands feel? Who did the man see when he opened his eyes? How did the ghost look? What did the man and his little brother do? Who saw the ghost in the mirror before they went back to bed?

Discussion Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Do you think the ghost story was scary? Why? Have you ever seen a ghost? If so, what happened? Is there an area where you live that is believed to be haunted? Where? Do you believe in haunted houses? Would you like to visit one? Has anything ever happened to you that you cannot explain? What are some things in our universe that cannot be explained? Give examples. Are you afraid of ghosts? What would you do if you saw one? Why can some people see ghosts while others cannot? Do you believe in God? Why? Do you believe in life after death? Why? What is the most frightening experience you have ever had? Do you believe in coincidences? Why? Do you believe that some people can predict the future? Why do some people go to fortunetellers? Have you ever been to one? What methods do fortunetellers use to predict the future? Imagine this situation: You and your spouse are a newlywed couple. After your honeymoon is over you move into a house near the beach. The house is an old house and needs some repairs but you both love it. It is in a perfect location and the rent is cheap. One day your neighbor tells you that the house is haunted and warns you to get out. What would you do? Would you ignore the neighbor and stay, or would you listen to the neighbor and leave? Explain your choice.

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Lesson 36

Urban Legends

What is a legend? What is an urban legend? Where do legends come from? How are they spread? Have you heard any good gossip recently? Do you know any good jokes? Laughter is the best medicine. What does this mean?

Read about some urban legends.


In 1994, the Las Vegas police reported a disturbing series of crimes along the Vegas strip. The first victim was an Ohio man in town for a sales convention. At the bar in his hotel, the man happened to strike up a conversation with an attractive young woman. According to the man, the two hit it off, sharing several drinks over the course of a couple of hours. At some point, the man passed out, and when he came to, he found himself lying in a hotel bathtub, covered in ice. There was a phone on the floor beside the tub, with an attached note that said, "Call 911 or you will die." He called an ambulance and was rushed to the hospital, where the doctors informed him that he had undergone massive surgery. A gang selling human organs on the black market had removed one of his kidneys. There's a good chance that you've heard this story, or some variation of it. Thousands and thousands of people have passed on news of the Las Vegas organ thieves over the course of 10 years. Word of mouth, e-mail, and even printed fliers have relayed it. However, there is absolutely no evidence that any such thing ever occurred, in Las Vegas or anywhere else. This fictional story is an urban legend. An urban legend is any modern, fictional story, told as truth, that reaches a variety of people by being passed from person to person. Urban legends are often false, but not always. A few turn out to be true, and a lot of them were inspired by actual events but have changed from person to person. Urban legends are usually a combination of humor, horror, warning, embarrassment, or morality. In the story of the organ harvesters, you can see how some of these elements come together. The most outstanding feature of the story is its sense of horror. The image of a man waking up lying in a bathtub full of ice, with one less kidney is a scary thought. The story also includes a moral lesson. The businessman ended up in the unpleasant situation only after going to drink at a bar and then flirting with a mysterious woman. Not all urban legends are horror stories. Many of them are amusing stories or ordinary jokes told as if they really occurred. One common story is about a drunk driver who is pulled over by the police. The officer asks the man to step out of the car just as another car up the road crashes into a telephone pole. As the officer runs off to help the other driver, the drunken man flees the scene. In the morning, he hears a loud knocking on his door and opens it to find the police officer from the night before. The man swears he was home all night. The officer asks to have a look in his garage. When he opens the door, he's shocked to see the officer's police car parked there instead of his own car.

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Comprehension Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. When did the police report a series of disturbing crimes in Las Vegas? Where was the first victim from? Where did the man meet a strange woman? When the man woke up, where was he? What did the man find attached to the telephone? What did the man do? What did the doctors tell the man? How has this story been passed along? What is an urban legend? Are urban legends always false? What are urban legends usually a combination of? What was the moral lesson of this story? What happened when a drunk driver was pulled over? Who knocked at the drivers door the next morning? Whose car was in his garage?

Discussion Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Do you think the Las Vegas story is true? Why? Do stories like the Las Vegas story make you afraid? What did you learn from the Las Vegas story? Would you ever pick up a hitchhiker? Why? If a stranger knocked at your door late at night, what would you do? How often do you read books? When do you usually read? What kind of stories do you prefer to read? What was the last book that you read? What was it about? Have you ever thought about writing a book? If so, what kind? Do you have a favorite author? Who is it? Would you rather read a book or watch a movie? Why? Urban legends become embellished as they are spread from person to person. Why do you think this happens? What things make you laugh? Have you laughed today? Why? What is the difference between a joke and a riddle?

Try to solve these riddles: What has the head of a cat, the tail of a cat but is not a cat? What type of nut has a hole? If a rooster laid an egg on a roof, which way would the egg roll? What starts with e, ends with e, but usually contains only one letter? What starts with P and ends with E and has a thousand letters? A cowboy rode into town on Friday, stayed 3 days and then left on Friday. How is this possible? Why did the guy throw the clock out the window?

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Lesson 37

Computers

What can personal computers do? Do you have a computer? What do you use it for? Do you like to use computers? Why? What is the Internet? Is it useful? Why? What can computers do that people cannot do? What can people do that computers cannot do? What kind of people use computers everyday at work? Name some of the different parts of a computer. Do you like to do math? Why?

Read about the meaning of the word computer.


Over the years there has been several slightly different meanings to the word computer, and several different words for the thing we now usually call a computer. For instance "computer" was once commonly used to mean a person employed to do arithmetic calculations, with or without mechanical aids. According to the Barnhart Concise Dictionary of Etymology, the word came into use in English in 1646 as a word for a "person who computes" and then by 1897 also for a mechanical calculating machine. During World War II it referred to U.S. and British servicewomen whose job it was to calculate the trajectories of large artillery shells with such machines. Charles Babbage designed one of the first computing machines called the Analytical Engine, but due to technological problems it was not built in his lifetime. Various simple mechanical devices such as the slide rule and abacus have also been called computers. In some cases they were referred to as "analog computers", as they represented numbers by continuous physical quantities rather than by discrete binary digits. What are now called simply "computers" were once commonly called "digital computers" to distinguish them from these other devices (which are still used in the field of analog signal processing, for example). In thinking of other words for the computer, it is worth noting that in other languages the word chosen does not always have the same literal meaning as the English language word. In French for example, the word is "ordinateur", which means approximately "organizer", or "sorting machine". In Chinese, a computer is called "dian now" or an "electric brain". In English, other words and phrases have been used, such as "data processing machine". With the invention of the microprocessor in the 1970s, it became possible to produce very inexpensive computers. Personal computers became popular for many tasks, including keeping books, writing and printing documents, calculating forecasts and other repetitive math with spreadsheets, communicating with e-mail and, the Internet. Computers' wide availability and easy customization has seen them used for many other purposes. Computers are highly versatile tools.

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Comprehension Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. What was computer once commonly used to mean? When did the word first come into the English language? What did the word mean in 1897? What did it mean during World War Two? What did Charles Babbage do? Why was it not built in his lifetime? What are analog computers? What is the French word for computer? What does it mean? What is the Chinese word for computer? What does it mean? When was the microprocessor invented? What can personal computers do? Why are computers useful for many other purposes?

Discussion Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. What do you think about computers generally? Are they useful or not? What do you personally use computers for? What kinds of things do people download from the Internet? Do you think its okay to download things from the Internet? How has the Internet benefited people? What problems has the Internet caused? People often speak of a global village. What does this mean? Some people believe that computers will one day become able to think for themselves. Do you think this is possible? Why? What benefits would thinking computers provide? What dangers would thinking computers present? What is a technophobe? Do you know anyone who is a technophobe? Are you generally optimistic or pessimistic about the future? Why? What other modern devices do you use everyday? Would you trust a completely computerized car? Why?

Think of some benefits and problems caused by technology. Fill in the chart.

Benefits of technology

Problems with technology

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Lesson 38

Keeping in Touch

Do you have a cell phone? Whats the number? How often do you use it? Do you use e-mail? Whats your e-mail address? How often do you send e-mail? Do you ever write letters? Who do you write to? How often do you write? Do you prefer to talk on the phone, send e-mail or write a letter? Why? What other ways can people use to keep in touch? Who do people usually like to keep in touch with? Why do we sometimes lose touch with people?

Read the following timeline of communication technology history.


3000s BC - Egyptians develop papyrus for writing. 1500s BC - Phoenicians develop an alphabet. 105 - Tsai Lun invents paper. 1450 - Chinese develop wooden block movable type printing. 1454 - Johannes Gutenberg finishes a printing press with metal movable type. 1831 - Joseph Henry proposes and builds an electric telegraph. 1835 - Samuel Morse develops the Morse code. 1843 - Samuel Morse builds the first long distance electric telegraph line. 1860 - Pony Express deployed before the first transcontinental electric telegraph service.

1876 - Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Watson exhibit an electric telephone in Boston.
1877 - Thomas Edison patents the phonograph. 1889 - Almon Strowger patents the direct dial telephone. 1925 - John Logie Baird transmits the first television signal.

1989 - Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau built the system which became the World Wide Web.

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Comprehension Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. What did Egyptians develop in 3000 BC? When did Phoenicians develop an alphabet? Who invented paper? When did Chinese develop wooden block movable type printing? What did Johannes Gutenberg invent? When did Joseph Henry build an electric telegraph? What did Samuel Morse develop? When else did Samuel Morse build? What happened in 1860?

10. When did Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Watson exhibit an electric telephone in Boston?
11. 12. 13. 14. What did Thomas Edison patent in 1877? Who patented the direct dial telephone? What did John Logie Baird do in 1925? When was the WWW originally started?

Discussion Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. How often do you write letters? Who do you send them to? Do you ever send cards to people? Who? When? What Kinds? Say the English alphabet. Now say it backwards. Which other languages use alphabets? Which languages do not use alphabets? Which newspapers do you read? Why do you read these? What was the last book you read? What was it about? Which English books have you read? Which did you like? Which did you dislike? Would you rather read a novel or a magazine? Why? How many telephones are there in your house? Where are they? How many phone calls do you usually make each day? Who do you call? What do you usually talk about? What kind of music do you like to listen to? What was the last CD that you bought? Do you like it? What CD would you like to buy next? Where will you probably buy it? How many TV sets are there in your house? Where are they? How much TV do you usually watch every day? What kind of TV shows do you like to watch? Computers are very useful machines. Make a list of things people can do with a computer, or things that computers can help people do. Do you have a computer? What do you use it for? Do you ever go on-line? Where do you go? What do you look at? How much does a new computer cost?

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Lesson 39

Franklin D. Roosevelt

Who was FDR? What did he do? What is an economic depression? What do you know about the Great Depression? Has your country ever suffered an economic crisis? Who is affected the most during an economic crisis? How is the economic situation in your country right now?

Read about Franklin D. Roosevelt.


Franklin Delano Roosevelt was born in 1882 in Hyde Park, New York. He attended Harvard University and Columbia Law School. He followed the example of his fifth cousin, President Theodore Roosevelt, whom he greatly admired, and entered politics. As a Democrat, he was elected to the New York State Senate in 1910. In the summer of 1921, when he was 39, FDR was stricken with polio. He temporarily lost the use of his legs and had to use a wheelchair. Demonstrating great courage, he fought to regain the use of his legs, by swimming in hot springs. Roosevelt was a man of determination and perseverance that was known for his famous words, we have nothing to fear but fear itself. Roosevelt was elected president in November 1932, to the first of four terms. When FDR assumed the presidency, the United States was in the middle of the Great Depression. Almost all banking activities had stopped; the financial system was failing; industrial production had collapsed; agriculture barely existed; many of the 12.8 million unemployed were wandering around homeless, hungry, even starving. A mood of despair had gripped the country. In his first "hundred days," Roosevelt proposed a program to bring recovery to business and agriculture, relief to the unemployed and to those in danger of losing farms and homes. Roosevelt created the New Deal program. He introduced strict supervision of banking, credits, and investments, putting banks under government control. Then, Roosevelt began national reconstruction. He created the Public Works Administration that provided electricity throughout rural America, built canals, tunnels, bridges, highways, streets, sewage systems, and housing areas. The New Deal also constructed hospitals, schools, and universities across the United States. In essence, Roosevelts program put Americans back to work and provided many public facilities for the American people. The New Deal projects also established minimum wage, created insurance for the unemployed, sick and old, established decent health care and abolished child labor. Roosevelts Social Security Act of 1935 secured him a place in history. Roosevelt tried to keep the United States out of World War II but when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, he had no choice. He felt that the future of peace of the world would depend upon relations between the United States and Russia so he devoted much thought to the planning of a United Nations where he hoped international difficulties could be settled. As the World War II drew to a close, Roosevelts health deteriorated and on April 12, 1945, he died of a cerebral hemorrhage.

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Comprehension Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Where was Roosevelt born? What schools did Roosevelt attend? Who was Roosevelts fifth cousin? Was Roosevelt a Democrat or a Republican? What happened to Roosevelt at the age of 39? How did Roosevelt fight to regain the use of his legs? What were Roosevelts famous words? How many terms did Roosevelt serve? When Roosevelt became President, what was the country suffering from? What were the problems during the Great Depression? What did the New Deal program do? What did the Public Works Administration do? What event forced FDR to enter World War II? What is the main intention of the United Nations? When did FDR die? How did FDR die?

Discussion Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. When was the worst economic crisis in your country? How were the people affected? How was the crisis solved? Roosevelt had a willingness to try everything. He believed that the right solution to any problem would eventually turn up. What do you do when a problem seems to have no solution? Eleanor Roosevelt, FDRs wife, once said that the nicest men are those who keep something of the little boy in them. What does that mean? Roosevelt developed a welfare program in the United States to help the unemployed. If you are unable to work or are fired from your job, Americans have the option of unemployment benefits. Does a system like this exist in your country? If so, how does it work? Roosevelt also established social security. At the age of 62, every American is entitled to social security benefits. They receive a fixed amount of income according to how much money they put into the program throughout their working life. How does your government provide for your old age? FDR was the only president in American history to serve 4 terms. How many terms can the leader of your country serve? Why do countries have restrictions on the number of terms that leaders can serve? Think about FDRs famous words, we have nothing to fear but fear itself. What does this mean? What things are you afraid of? Would you ever be willing to confront your fears? Why? What do you know about the United Nations? If you were the leader of your country, what things would you change? Why? What responsibilities would you have as leader of your country? Do you think you would enjoy being the leader of your country? Why?

5.

6. 7.

8. 9. 10. 11.

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Les sson 40

The Gr reat De epressio on

What is an economic depression? d ? Has your co ountry ever r experience ed hard time es? How is your countrys economy now? Do you feel that you earn e a comf fortable livin ng? Do you sav ve money? Why or why y not? Do you pre efer to save money or spend s mone ey? Why? Do you own n any stock ks? Why?

Rea ad about the Great t Depress sion in Am merica.


The e 'Great Dep pression' was w a period d in United States hist tory when business was w poor and many people were ou ut of work. It began in October 1929, when n the stock k market in th he United States S dropp ped rapidly. Thousand ds of invest tors lost lar rge sums of f money and many inve estors lost everything e t they owned d. The 'cras sh led Ame erica into th he Great Dep pression. This T period was the lon ngest and worst w perio od of high u unemployment and low business activity in modern times s. Banks, s stores, and factories w were closed and left milli ions of Ame ericans jobless, homeless, and penniless. Many M peopl le came to depend on the t governm ment or cha arities to pro ovide them with food. The e Depression n became a worldwide e business slump s in th he 1930's th hat affected d almost all nations. n It led to a sh harp decrea ase in world trade as each count try tried to protect their own indu ustries and products by y raising ta ariffs on imported goo ods. Some nations changed their leaders an nd their ty ype of gove ernment. In German ny, poor ec conomic cond ditions led to the rise e to power of Adolf Hitler. The Japanese i invaded China and developed indu ustries and d mines in Manchuria. . Japan cl laimed this s economic growth wou uld relieve t the depress sion. The actions a of th he Germans s and Japan nese eventu ually led to World W War II I (1939-194 45). In the t United States, President Herb bert Hoover r held office e when the e Great Dep pression began. The economy continued to slump almo ost every month. m Fra anklin D. Ro oosevelt was s elected P President in n 1932. Roosevelt R created the 'new deal' reforms. These refo orms gave t the governm ment more power and helped eas se the Depr ression. Ro oosevelt put people bac ck to work k by building roads, sc chools, brid dges, and h hospitals. He also star rted program ms to provid de electricit ty to the rur ral areas of the United States. The e Great Dep pression offi icially ended d in 1939. World War r II helped get America a out of the depression n because th he governm ment needed d people to o build tank ks and othe er things for warfare. People P went back to work w and money m start ted to flow again. Th he Great pression and Roosevelts New Deal D progra ams chang ged the relationship between b Dep Ame ericans and d their gove ernment in two t ways. First, the government g t would be directly invo olved in reg gulating the e economy in order to o prevent an nother disa aster like th he Great Dep pression. Second, S the e governme ent would take t the re esponsibility y of caring for the needy through welfare pro ograms and d caring for the elderly through so ocial security y.

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Comprehension Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. What was the Great Depression? When did it begin? What happened when the stock market crashed? Who lost their money during this time? Did the Great Depression affect the rest of the world? During this time, who came to power in Germany? What did the Japanese do in Manchuria? Who was the US president when the Depression began? When was Roosevelt elected president? Who created the New Deal reforms? How did Roosevelt put people back to work? When did the Depression end? What helped America get out of the Depression? Why would the government be directly involved in regulating the economy? Who else would the government take responsibility for? How did the relationship between Americans and their government change?

Discussion Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. How is the economy in your country now? Does the economy affect the way you live your life? How? Have you ever experienced hard times? If so, what was it like? Has your country ever been in an economic recession? Does your country take care of poor people? How? Does your country provide for your old age? How? Do you feel that you earn enough money? What is the average salary in your country? Do you think that you pay too much tax? Why do people pay tax? What does the government do with tax revenue?

11. Do you save money each month? How much? 12. Do you ever budget your money? Why? 13. How much should you save from your salary (In percent)? 14. Do you think you live fairly comfortably? Why? 15. Some people like to invest in the stock market. Why do they think that this is a good investment? 16. What other things do people invest their money in? 17. Do you think investing in the stock market is a good idea or not? Why? 18. Have you ever invested in the stock market? Why? 19. Are there any hot stocks that you think would be a good investment now? 20. Have you ever invested in anything else? What? 21. How would you feel if you invested your life savings in the stock market and there was another stock market crash? What would you do?

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Lesson 41

Effects of Television Viewing

What are some positive effects of watching television? What are some negative effects of watching television? What have you learned form TV? Has TV ever affected you negatively? How? Do you watch TV everyday? What do you like to watch? What other things do you like to do in your free time? Do you think watching TV is a waste of time? Why? Did you watch a lot of television when you were young? How much TV should kids be allowed to watch each day?

Read some conclusions of recent research into TV viewing.


American children view an average of three to five hours of television daily. Research indicates that TV viewing may be linked to a range of negative behaviors including: violence or aggression, obesity, poor academic performance, precocious sexuality, and the use of drugs or alcohol. Time Spent Watching Television: When children spend three to five hours a day watching television, time for other activities is severely limited. Childhood is a period of growth and development, when kids need to play -- both alone and with peers. Children need to read and talk with other children and adults. More Violence: The amount of violence on television is increasing. A recent report from the National Institute of Mental Health indicates that television violence can be harmful to young children. Children who see violence on TV can become frightened, worried, or suspicious. Researchers also found that children who watch many violent programs tend to be more aggressive than other children on the playground and in class. Be aware that viewing violent programs may encourage your child's tendency toward aggression. TV and Learning: Many recent studies indicate that excessive television viewing may have a negative effect on learning and school performance. The hours spent viewing television interfere with homework and limit the time available for other ways of learning. If your child is not performing well academically, ask yourself whether television watching is contributing to the problem. Commercials: The average child sees more than 20,000 commercials a year. Advertisers spend roughly $700 million annually to reach large numbers of kids. The majority of food advertising is for heavily sugared products such as candy and presweetened cereal during children's viewing time. This emphasis on snack foods can give children a distorted picture of how they ought to eat. A recent study found a direct link between amount of television watched and a child's risk of being overweight or obese.

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Comprehension Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. How many daily hours of TV do American children watch? What does research indicate? What negative behaviors may be linked to TV viewing? What happens to time for other activities? What is childhood? What do children need to do with other children and adults? What is happening to the amount of violence on television? What can happen to children who see violence on TV? What does research suggest? What effect does excessive TV viewing have on learning? What should you do if your child is not performing well academically? How many commercials does the average child see each year? How much money is spent on childrens' advertising annually? What kinds of products are advertised during childrens' viewing time? What has a recent study found?

Discussion Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Do you agree with the information in the article, or is it too serious? Do you think children watch too much television? What should children do instead of watching television? What indoor activities are good for children to do? Why? What outdoor activities are good for children to do? Why? What activities can children and parents do together? What did you and your parents do together when you were a child? What is your happiest memory from childhood? Did you watch a lot of TV when you were a child? What television shows did you like to watch when you were a child? Are there many overweight children in your country? What causes children to become overweight? How can children lose weight? Do you know any overweight children? Why are they overweight? What problems do overweight children have?

Make a list of some healthy and unhealthy activities for children.

Healthy activities

Unhealthy activities

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Lesson 42

Family Television Viewing

How many television sets are there in your house? How much television do you watch a week? Do you watch television every day? What TV shows do you like? Why do you like them? Which TV shows do you dislike? Why do you dislike them? What kinds of things do TV commercials usually advertise? What are some popular TV commercials right now? Do you like any products advertised in TV commercials?

Read about how parents can improve childrens TV viewing experience.


You can help your child avoid television's negative influences - and use TV as a positive, creative force for learning. These four suggestions will get you started. Set Limits. Know how many hours of television your child watches. Don't be afraid to limit viewing to one or two hours per day. You can ease the transition by encouraging and participating in alternative activities: sports, games, chores, reading, conversation, or hobbies. Examine your own TV-viewing habits and try to be a good role model. Eliminate some TV watching by setting a few basic rules, such as no television during meals, or before household chores or homework are completed. Plan. Encourage your child to use a TV guide or newspaper listing rather than flipping the channels to decide what to watch. The TV set should go on only for specific programs, and it should go off when they are over. Help your child to decide which show to see, and talk about the show after it ends. Select programs that feature children in your child's age range. Try to balance action, comedy, fine arts, and sports. Participate. Know what your child watches on television, and watch with him or her. Discussing TV programs may make it easier to explore difficult topics, such as sex and war. Parents who watch TV with their kids are able to point out that violence on television is not real, and that the actor has not actually been killed or maimed. They can also show disapproval of the violent episodes and stress that such behavior is not the best way to resolve a problem. By discussing the violence shown on television with your child, you can lessen its impact. The best solution, of course, is to eliminate the most violent programs from your child's schedule. Resist Commercials. Poor eating habits can be learned early and with ease. Advertisers have market researchers, writers, and producers with big budgets on their side. When your children requests foods and toys advertised on television, teach them that television makes them want things they doesn't necessarily need and that may even be harmful. Help your children to analyze commercials. Note the exaggerated claims, and point out that the makers of the product pay for the advertising.

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Comprehension Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. How many suggestions for TV viewing does the article mention? What time limits are suggested for childrens' TV viewing? What alternative activities does the article suggest? What should adults examine? What should adults try to be for their children? How can parents eliminate some TV watching? What should parents encourage their children to use? When should the TV go on and off? What should parents talk to their kids about? What programs should parents select? What kinds of shows should parents try to balance? What should parents try to know? What can discussing TV programs help? What can parents explain about TV violence? What is the best solution? When are poor eating habits learned? What do advertisers have? What should parents help their child to do? What should parents note and point out to their children?

Discussion Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Do you think the articles suggestions are generally useful? Which suggestions are most useful? Which ones are not very useful? What is a reasonable time limit for childrens TV viewing time? How many hours per day or week should children be allowed to watch? What What What What kinds kinds kinds kinds of of of of TV TV TV TV programs programs programs programs are are are are suitable suitable suitable suitable for for for for young children? elementary school children? junior high school, students? older teenagers?

Is it appropriate for teenagers to watch TV shows that have sexual content? Is it appropriate for teenagers to watch TV shows that have violent content? Which do you think has a stronger effect on teenagers: TV sex or TV violence? How do you feel when you see sexual content on TV? How do you feel when you see violence on TV?

13. What is your favorite television program? What channel is it on? How long is it? What time does it begin? What time does it end? Who is in it? 14. The article suggests that parents should watch TV with their children. Did your parents watch TV with you when you were a child? What did you watch? 15. What other things did you and your parents do together when you were a child? 16. What things do you and your family like to do together now?

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Lesson 43

Westward Expansion

Why did European people sail to the New World? Why do people move to different places? Have you ever moved to a new city? Do you own any land? Is land expensive in your country? Do you think buying land is a good investment? Why do you think people moved from the east coast to the west coast in America? How far is it from the east coast to the west coast of the USA?

Read about The Westward Expansion.


In 1803 President Thomas Jefferson sent a secret message to Congress. He wanted someone to explore the area west of the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. Jefferson's message was secret because France owned the territory and such an expedition would be considered trespassing. Then, in July of the same year, Napoleon of France, offered the whole Louisiana Territory to the United States for $15,000,000. America accepted and overnight the United States grew by about one million square miles, from the Mississippi to the Rockies and from the Gulf of Mexico to Canada. Shortly before this news, Jefferson had handed his personal secretary, Meriweather Lewis, whom he chose to lead the exploration, his instructions for the expedition. He told him to explore the area by traveling along the rivers. Jefferson believed that if they followed the water, it would be the most direct route to the Pacific Ocean. When Lewis needed a second-in-command, he recommended his good friend William Clark. On May 14, 1804, the Lewis and Clark Expedition started from St. Louis in search of the Pacific Ocean. Two and a half years and 8,000 miles later the explorers returned to St. Louis. Although their route never became widely used, it was the start of the western exploration movement. The search for America had begun. When America expanded to the West, the event that made people want to move was the California Gold Rush of 1849. That discovery boosted California's population by 80,000 people. It was not only the Gold Rush that made people want to move. The pioneer spirit that existed in the 19th century was born from a need to own land. The stories that were told by explorers and missionaries, just back from the west, were filled with images of open landscapes, plenty of animals to hunt, and clear rivers and lakes. The easterners longed for this type of life because the larger cities along the eastern seaboard were moving into the industrial age. The streets were crowded with workers and the skies were constantly blackened by coal smoke from numerous factories. This change in cities had occurred so rapidly that early settlers began to yearn for the simpler life they had led before. They found this life out in the Wild West.

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Comprehension Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. When did Jefferson send his secret message? Why was Jeffersons message secret? Who sold the Louisiana Territory to Jefferson? How much did it cost? Who was Jeffersons personal secretary? Who did Jefferson choose to lead the expedition? Who was the second-in-command? Where did the expedition start? How long did the expedition last? What happened in 1849? What was the pioneer spirit born from? Who told stories about the West? What did they say the West looked like? Why did people from the East want to move west? Why were eastern skies blackened with smoke?

Discussion Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. What is the purpose of an expedition? If you lived in America during the 19th century, would you have moved west or stayed in one of the eastern cities? Why? Do you prefer country life or city life? Why? How is the east of your country different form the west? Has gold or silver ever been discovered in your country? If so, when? What are the advantages of working in a mine? Disadvantages? Gold and silver were the original forms of money in the United States. What was the original form of money in your country? As America was being built, the Native Americans were killed and forced off of their lands. How do you think this could have been avoided? Does your country have a native population? If so, how are they treated? What was life like in the 19th century in your country? How did people get around? What kind of houses did people live in? Would you rather live now or in the 19th century? Why? Do you think owning land is profitable? How? If you were going to buy land, where would you buy it? Why? Who originally explored your country? Are there any unexplored areas left on earth? If so, where? If humans are finished exploring the earth, what is left to explore? If you could go on an exploring adventure, where would you go? What would you do? Why would you want to go there? Would you like to move or stay where you are now? Why?

17.

18. If you could move anywhere in the world, where would you go? Why?
19.

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Les sson 44

Yell lowston ne Park k

What is a n national park? Why do gov vernments make national parks? What can y you see in national n parks? What can y you do in na ational park ks? How many national pa arks are in your y country y? al parks in your y country y? Where are the nationa How many national pa arks have yo ou been to? ?

Rea ad about Yellowsto one Natio onal Park.


Nati ional parks are large re eserves of land, l usually y owned by y national governments s. They are protected from most human dev velopment. This mea ans construc ction of roa ads and buildings is lim mited. Yello owstone National Park is in the st tates of Ida aho, Montana, and Wyo oming. It is the first and a oldest national n park in the world. It cov vers 8,983.2 210 km (2,2 219,790.71 acres) most tly in the no orthwest co orner of Wyo oming. The e human his story of Yellowstone Pa ark dates back b 12,000 0 years. The e aboriginal natives knew it as " the "River of Yellow Roc cks," becaus se of the high sulfur co ontent of th he rocks in the t river's canyons. Fur trappe ers' fantasti ic stories of o bubbling mud and roaring geysers made t their way back b east. Se everal expe editions wer re sent to in nvestigate, opening o the west to fu urther expl loration. In n 1871, Fer rdinand Ha ayden led a an expedition that inclu uded artist Thomas Mo oran and ph hotographe er William H. H Jackson. T They broug ght back pictures and photograph p hs that helped convin nce Congre ess that th he area known as Yello owstone ne eeded to be protected and a preserv ved. In 1872, President Ulyss ses S. Gran nt signed a law decla aring that Y Yellowstone e would fore ever be "ded dicated and d set apart as a a public park or plea asuring ground for the e benefit and enjoyment t of the peo ople." Yellow wstone was s the world's first natio onal park. Yello owstone is one of the most popular national l parks in th he US. It is s unique be ecause it feat tures multip ple natural wonders all a in the s same park. You can find geyse ers, hot springs, a gran nd canyon, forests, wilderness, wildlife w and even a lar rge lake ins side the park k. There is s also a va ariety of an nimals to se ee in the park. Yellow wstone is home h to grizzly bears an nd wolves, moose, and d free-ranging herds of f bison and elk. The e list of acti ivities for visitors v is ne early endles ss. Visitors s can go ba ackpacking, , hiking, mou untain climb bing, kayak king and fishing. They y can also go g sightsee eing and wa atch the anim mals wande ering into th he parking lo ot of the vis sitor centers s. All visitors to Yellow wstone enjo oy a memor rable experi ience in nat ture. Due e to the gey ysers in Yello owstone the odor of su ulfur is com mmon and ca an be quite e strong. Visit tors with re espiratory difficulties sh hould consu ult their doc ctors before e visiting. Wild W land fire is common n in the par rk. One maj jor wildfire in 1988 burnt down m much of the e forests in th he park. Visitors to the e park must t always rem member to be careful.

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Comprehension Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. What are national parks? Where is Yellowstone National Park? How large is the area of Yellowstone? What did the native aboriginal people call Yellowstone? What happened in 1871? Who was Ulysses S. Grant? What did he do in 1872? Why is Yellowstone Park unique? What kinds of animals can you see in the park? What kind of activities can visitors do? What happened in 1988? What must visitors always remember when visiting a national park?

Park rules and regulations.


In 1988 a major wild fire burnt down much of the forests in Yellowstone Park. Visitors to the park must always remember to be careful and to follow the rules of the park. Imagine you are a park ranger. What kind of laws and rules should you have in the park so that it will stay natural and safe? Write your ideas here. Try to think of five. 1. ____________________________________________________________________________ 2. ____________________________________________________________________________ 3. ____________________________________________________________________________ 4. ____________________________________________________________________________ 5. ____________________________________________________________________________ Share your parks rules and regulations with your classmates. Are your ideas similar or are they different? Which rules are the most important ones? Why?

Discussion Questions:
1. Do you like to visit national parks? Why? 2. Which national parks have you visited? What did you do there? 3. In Yellowstone you can see many wild animals. You can see grizzly bears and wolves, moose, and free-ranging herds of bison and elk. Which of these animals would you be interested in seeing? Why? 4. What wild animals have you seen? Where did you see them? What were they doing? What did they look like? 5. In Yellowstone visitors can do many different kinds of activities. They can go backpacking, hiking, mountain climbing, kayaking and fishing. Which of these activities are you interested in? Which of these activities do not interest you?

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Lesson 45

Occupational Hazards

There are occupational hazards to almost every job. Sooner or later almost everyone gets injured or sick at work. Some jobs are more dangerous than others. Some are safer than others. What kind of injuries might people who do these jobs get? Taxi Driver Factory Worker Police Officer Chef Soldier Baseball Player President Construction Worker

Some businesses have more robberies than others. At these places it is the employers responsibility to make the work place safer for the employees who work there. What kinds of businesses are often robbed? What can these businesses do to prevent robbery? What things can an employer do to make the workplace a safer place to work?

Read the following story.


Gary was a student at the state university. He needed some extra money so he got a part-time job at a gas station. He was a gas station attendant. He studied at the university during the day so he always worked the evening shift or the night shift at the gas station. One night, he was working alone at the gas station. There were no customers so Gary was studying his physics book. Suddenly two robbers came into the gas station. They were both armed with knives and they told Gary that they wanted the money in the cash register. Gary tried to see their faces but they were both wearing masks so he couldnt see clearly. Gary was very nervous. He opened the cash register and took out the money. One of the robbers gave him a bag and told him to put the money inside. Gary followed the robbers order and put the money in the bag. Gary was shaking as he did this because he was so nervous, but he tried to stay calm. The robbers kept looking around the gas station to make sure that no other people came in during the robbery. Nobody else came in and the robbers left with their money. Gary had cooperated with the robbers so he didnt get hurt. After the robbers left Gary called the police and told them what had happened. The police came as soon as they could. They asked Gary what had happened. He told them that two men had come into the station and took all the money in the cash register. The policemen asked Gary if he could describe what they looked like. Gary told them that he couldnt because they were wearing masks and he couldnt see their faces. The policemen told Gary that he had done everything he should have. He was calm, he cooperated with the robbers, he gave them the money and no one got hurt. The police officers told Gary that he was lucky. If he had resisted or not cooperated, things maybe would have been different for him. He could have been hurt, or maybe even worse

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Comprehension Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Who was Gary? Why did he get a part-time job? Why was he studying his physics book? Who came into the gas station? What kind of weapons did they have? What did they tell Gary? Why couldn't Gary see their faces? How did Gary feel? Where did Gary put the money? Why did he put the money there? Why did the robbers keep looking around the gas station? Why didn't Gary get hurt? What did he do after the robbers left? What did they ask Gary? What did Gary tell the police officers? What did they tell him? Why was Gary lucky? What might have happened?

Discussion Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. If you were Gary, what would you do if the gas station was being robbed? Would you cooperate with the robbers or resist them? Why? What should you do if you are robbed on the street? Are there many robberies in your city? Do you think where you live is a safe place to live? Why? Is your home a safe place to live? Why? Have you ever been the victim of a crime? What happened? Have you ever stolen anything? Dont lie, what did you steal? Do you know anyone who is a police officer? Do they like their job? What are some good points of being a police officer? What are some bad points?

Do you think students should work? Why? What are some good part-time jobs for students? Have you ever had a part-time job? Where did you work? What did you do? How much money should a part-time job pay per hour? What are some dangerous jobs? Try to name at least six dangerous jobs. Do you know anyone who has a dangerous job? What are some very safe jobs? Try to name at least six very safe jobs. Do you know anyone who has a very safe job? Would you prefer to have a dangerous job or a very safe job? Why? Which jobs have high salaries? Do you know anyone who has a high salary? What do they do? Do they like their job? Why? 20. Which jobs have low salaries? Do you know anyone who has a low salary? What do they do? Do they like their job? Why?

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Lesson 46

Department Stores

What is a department store? What is a department? What kinds of things can you buy in department stores? Which department stores are near where you live? Do you like to got to department stores? Why ? What is the largest department store you can think of? What is a chain store? Name some chain stores.

Read about department stores.


There are many department stores in the USA. Department stores organize their goods by departments. Department stores are different from ordinary stores because of their size and range of goods and merchandise. Department stores provide the convenience of easy accessibility to a large variety of goods and merchandise. Department stores first started in the USA in the late 19th century. They started in both New York City and Chicago. Department stores first sprung up along Michigan Avenue in Chicago, with stores such as Marshall Fields. Born on a farm, Marshall Fields became an errand boy for a dry-goods store at age 16. He moved to Chicago and was hired in 1856 by a general store, in which he later attained full partnership. In 1867 he and a partner bought the general store they had joined two years earlier, and in 1888 he bought out his partner, creating Marshall Field and Co. In his store Field emphasized customer service, liberal credit, the one-price system, and the acceptance of returned merchandise. His department store was the first to have a restaurant for shoppers. In 1906, Harry Gordon Selfridge a junior partner in Marshall Fields left America to set up a department store, Selfridges in London. After it opened in 1909 it stimulated wideranging changes to British retail practice, and the establishment of further department store chains. In New York, the first stores were McCreary's and Abraham & Strauss. Macy's, founded on the corner of 14th Street and 6th Avenue in New York City as R.H. Macy & Company in 1858, later moved to 18th Street and Broadway on the "Ladies' Mile," the 19th century's elite shopping district, where it remained for nearly 40 years. As of 2004, Macy's has 248 stores in Arizona, California, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Guam, Hawaii, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Texas, Virginia, and Puerto Rico. In the beginning the departments were leased out to individual merchants, but by 1900 the smaller companies were purchased or replaced by the larger company. In some ways they were very similar to our modern malls, where the property owner has no direct interest in the 'departments' or 'stores,' other than to collect rent and provide utilities. Today only the most specialized departments are leased out. This could include photography and photo finishing, automotive services, or financial services. But this is rare. Even the store restaurant is usually run by the department store now.

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Comprehension Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. How do department stores organize their goods? How are department stores different from ordinary stores? What do department stores provide? When did department stores first start? Where did they first start? Who was Marshall Fields? What did he do in 1867? What did he create? Why was his store special? Who was Harry Gordon Selfridge? What did he do? What were the first department stores in New York? How many stores did Macy's have as of 2004? What was the 'ladies mile'? How many states does Macy's have department stores in? Who leased the departments in the early days of department stores? What does the property owner do in modern shopping malls? Which departments are leased out today? Who usually runs the department store's restaurant?

Different departments. These are some different departments in American department stores. What would you find in these different departments? Write five examples for each department.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Housewares: Mens Fashions: Womens Fashions: Baby: Furniture: Appliances: Electronics: Cosmetics: Kitchenware:

10. Home Entertainment: 11. Hardware:

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Lesson 47

Arguments in Favor of Zoos

Have you ever been to a zoo? What animals can you see at a zoo? Whats your favorite zoo animal? Why? Which zoo animals do you dislike? Why? Does your city have a zoo? Do you think zoos are educational? What is an endangered species? Which species are endangered right now? Why are these species endangered?

Read the following argument in favor of zoos:


There are many zoos in the world today. Most countries have zoos. People go to zoos to see many kinds of animals, such as lions, elephants, gorillas, snakes, and giraffes. Zoos have kept and protected many kinds of animals for a long time. Why are there zoos in the world? Zoos provide good education for people. Many parents take their children to zoos. They learn how animals survive, eat, behave, and breed. They also learn where the animals come from, how many varieties there are, and which animals are endangered species. Some people believe that we can get enough information about animals or wildlife from television. We often hear it said that television is now the best way to teach children and adults about wildlife. However, seeing an animal up close offers a more lasting effect on your memory. Many animals feel comfortable in zoos. Everyday, animal habitats are quickly disappearing all over the world. Zoologists are learning more and more about animals and their habitats. Zoos make it possible to provide excellent homes for different animal species and meet their particular needs. Many original habitats in which particular animals have developed and grown have been changed by human activities. The animals living in zoos might remind people that humans are destroying animals' natural habitats. Zoos may also remind people we must save some wild places or lose many different kinds of animals forever. Some animals are safer in zoos. There are some wild animals being captured and sold or killed by illegal poaching. Some animals are sold to private buyers as exotic pets. Most private buyers do not know how to properly care for the animal. The animals usually die from poor care. Zoos provide a safe environment from hunters. Many wild animals are killed for their fur. A tigers skin can be sold for thousands of dollars. The ivory from a rhinoceros tusk can also be sold for a lot of money. Animals in zoos are protected from this illegal poaching. Zoos are a good place to study wild animal diseases. The University of Nebraska has worked many years at diagnosing and preventing common and exotic animal diseases. They work with zoos to find treatments and cures for different animal illnesses. Good zoos continue to create a more natural habitat for the animals. They educate people about animals and provide a safe place for them to live.

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Comprehension Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Why do many people go to zoos? Do zoos educate people? What do children learn about animals at the zoo? Where do some people believe we can get enough information about animals? What is good about seeing an animal up close? What are disappearing all over the world? What are zoologists learning? What do zoos make it possible to provide? Are some animals safer in zoos? Who are some animals sold to? Why? Do most private buyers know how to care for wild animals? What usually happens to animals sold to private buyers? What are many wild animals killed for? Do zoos help protect animals from poaching? Are zoos a good place to study animal diseases? What has the University of Nebraska done?

16.

Discussion Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Do you feel zoos are basically good or bad? Why What animals would you want to see at the zoo? Why? What animals would you not want to see at the zoo? How many zoos have you been to? Were they all the same? If you could be an animal, what would you want to be? Why? Would you rather go to a zoo or to an aquarium? Why? What kinds of things can you see at an aquarium? Should entrance to zoos be free? Why? How much is a reasonable entrance fee for a zoo? Why? Which animals do you think are the strangest-looking? Which animals do you think are cute? Why? Which animals do you think are ugly? Why? Which animals are symbols of your country? Which animals are you afraid of? Which animals do you think are the most dangerous? What is the largest animal you have ever seen?

16.

17. Some animals have special abilities. What special abilities do these animals have?
Chameleon: Seahorse: Dolphin: Cheetah: Parrot: Donkey: Kangaroo: Polar bear:

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Lesson 48

Arguments Against Zoos

Do you think zoo animals are happy? Do you think its okay to keep animals in cages? Should animals be used for entertainment? Do you think zoos are cruel to animals? Do you think all zoos take good care of animals? What kinds of people work in zoos? Would you like to work in a zoo? Why?

Read the following argument against zoos.


Many people say that zoos educate people and preserve species. However, many zoos do not. Most zoo cages are quite small. Many zoos provide little information about the animals. Visitors are more interested in entertainment than in educating themselves. The purpose of most zoos is to breed and maintain more animals. This helps increase their numbers. However, many of the animals living in zoos are not endangered. They are also not being prepared for release into natural habitats. Zoos are full of animals that are commonly seen - such as mongooses, peacocks, wolves and ducks. These kinds of animals should not be kept in zoos. They should be released. This would create more space for endangered animals. Scientists have said that animals are psychologically affected by the lack of space. They are also affected by a lack of privacy. These poor living conditions in zoos and the lack of privacy often lead to animals behaving abnormally. They bang their heads against the wall, bite cage bars and even bite their own limbs! Many zoo animals have marks their head from the banging. Many animals die in zoos every year because of depression. Of course, zoos do give visitors a chance to see animals they would never be able to see. However, people should be aware these animals are not behaving normally. Animals behave differently when they are in their natural environment. Animals locked in a cage for their entire life is not healthy for the animals. Many animals go crazy. They start behaving strangely. Some animals pace back and forth in their cage. Some animals go insane from boredom like tigers and lions. They want to roam and hunt in wide-open spaces. Some zoo visitors tease the animals so they will move or make a sound. People should respect the animals. Animals are not in a zoo to play for the people. They are there to educate them. Zoo animals should be respected. Wildlife preserves are an alternative to zoos. Wildlife preserves try to keep endangered species alive in their own natural habitat. They also protect the animals from hunters, poachers and human development. Many wildlife preserves also serve as eco-tourism areas. Eco-tourism gives people a chance to see animals in a way that is closer to their true nature. Eco-tourism makes it possible for wildlife preserves to fund their conservation activities. They also give conservationists a chance to educate the general public about animal protection and animal behavior.

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Comprehension Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Do all zoos educate people and preserve species? Are most zoo cages big or small? What are many zoo visitors interested in? Are all animals living in zoos endangered? Why should some commonly seen animals be released? What are some animals psychologically affected by? How do some animals behave abnormally? What do many zoo animals die from every year? Do zoo animals behave the same as wild animals? Is being locked in a cage healthy for an animal? What do some animals go insane from? Why do some zoo visitors tease the animals? Should animals be respected? What is an alternative to zoos? What are some good aspects of eco-tourism?

15.

Discussion Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Do you think it is right to keep wild animals in a zoo? Have you ever seen animals act strangely in zoos? What did they do? Do you think animals have feelings? Do you think animals can be depressed or bored? Does it bother you seeing animals treated badly? Do you consider yourself an animal lover? Do you think people should buy and wear fur coats? How many national animal preserves do you have in your country? Are there any animal preserves near your city? What do you think of animals being raised in zoos? Does eco-tourism appeal to you? Why? Do you think zoos do more harm than good? Do you think zoos are necessary to educate people about animals? Have you ever been to a bad zoo? What was it like?

Write some good points and some bad points about zoos in the chart. Good points Bad points

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