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RIEMANNIAN GEOMETRY

PRC.ZZJ
To Professor Zhu
For better understanding on Lobatchevski Geometry...
Problem Set
Riemannian Geometry Manfredo Perdig¯ao do Carmo
Chapter 0 Differentiable Manifolds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,9
Chapter 1 Riemannian Metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,(4),5
Chapter 2 Affinece Connections; Riemannian Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,3,(8)
Chapter 3 Geodesics; Convex Neighborhoods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7,9
Chapter 4 Curvature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7,8
Chapter 5 Jacobi Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,4
Chapter 6 Isometric Immersions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,11
Chapter 7 Complete Manifolds; Hopf-Rinow and Hadamard Theorems . . . . . . . . . . . . 6,7,(10)
Chapter 8 Spaces of Constant Curvature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,4,(5)
Chapter 9 Variations of Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,(2,3),4,5
Chapter 10 The Rauch Comparison Theorem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,5
Chapter 11 The Morse Index Theorem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (2),(4),5,6
Chapter 12 The Fundamental Group of Manifolds of Negative Curvature . . . . . . . . . . . . no ex
Chapter 13 The Sphere Theorem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . no ex
Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0 Differentiable Manifolds
0.1 (Product Manifold). Let M and N be differentiable manifolds and let
¦(U
α
, x
β
)¦ , ¦(V
β
, y
β
)¦ differentiable structures on M and N, respectively.
Consider the cartesian product M N and the mapping
z
αβ
(p, q) = (x
α
(p), y
β
(q)), p ∈ U
α
, q ∈ V
β
a) Prove that (U
α
V
β
, z
αβ
) is a differentiable structure on M N in
which the projections π
1
: M N → M and π
2
: M N → N are dif-
ferentiable. With this differentiable structure M N is called the
product manifold of M with N.
b) Show that the product manifold S
1
S
1
of n circles S
1
, where
S
1
⊂ R
2
has the usual differentiable structure, is diffeomorphic to the
n−torus T
n
of example 4.9 a).
Proof. a) Clearly,
z
αβ
: U
α
V
β
→ x
α
(U
α
) y
β
(V
β
) ⊂ M N
(p, q) → (x
α
(p), y
β
(q))
1
2 PRC.ZZJ
is injective. Moreover,
_
α,β
z
αβ
(U
α
V
β
) =
_
α
x
α
(U
α
)
_
β
y
β
(V
β
) = M N
and if
z
αβ
(U
α
V
β
) ∩ z
γδ
(U
γ
V
δ
) = W ,= ∅
then
z
−1
γδ
◦ z
αβ
(p, q) = z
−1
γδ
(x
α
(p), y
β
(q)) = (x
−1
γ
◦ x
α
(p), y
−1
δ
◦ y
β
(q))
is differentiable. Thus, by definition, with this differentiable structure,
M N is a differentiable manifold.
b) Recall T
n
= R
n
/Z
n
. Let
F : S
1
S
1
→ T
n
(e

j
)
n
j=1

_
α
j

+n
j
_
n
j=1
where α
j
∈ [0, 2π), n
j
∈ Z
We have
• F is injective, since
α
j

+n
j
=
β
j

+m
j
⇒ α
j
−β
j
= 2π(m
j
−n
j
) ⇒ e

j
= e

j
• F is surjective, just note that
α
j
∈ [0, 2π) ⇒
α
j

∈ [0, 1)
• F and F
−1
are differentiable, this is proved by a list of graphs.
Indeed, one ”y
−1
◦ F ◦ x” is of the form
f(t) =
arctan t
π

1
4

0.9 Let G M → M be a properly discontinuous action of a group G on a
differentiable manifold M.
a) Prove that the manifold M/G (Example 4.8) is oriented if and only
if there exists an orientation of M that is preserved by all the diffeo-
morphisms of G.
b) Use a) to show that the projective plane P
2
(R), the Klein bottle and
the Mobius band are non-orientable.
c) Prove that P
2
(R) is orientable if and only if n is odd.
Proof. a) if part: Let (U
α
, x
α
) be an orientation of M that is preserved
by all the diffeomorphisms of G, i.e.
W = U
β
∩ g(U
α
) ,= ∅ ⇒ det(x
−1
β
◦ g ◦ x
α
) > 0
RIEMANNIAN GEOMETRY 3
We claim that (π(U
α
), π ◦ x
α
) is an orientation of M/G. Indeed,
π(U
α
) ∩ π(U
β
) ,= ∅ ⇒ det((π ◦ x
β
)
−1
◦ (π ◦ x
α
)) = det(x
−1
β
◦ g ◦ x
α
) > 0
for some g ∈ G.
Only if part: We know the atlas of M/G is induced from M, hence
the conclusion follows from the reverse of the ”if part”.
b) Let G = ¦Id, A¦ where A is the antipodal map. Recall that
Projective 2 −space P
2
(R) = S
2
/G, where S
2
= 2 −dim sphere
Klein bottle K = T
2
/G, where T
2
= 2 −dim torus
Mobius band M = C/G, where C = 2 −dim cylinder
Clearly, S
2
, T
2
, C are orientable 2−dim manifols, but A reverse the
orientation of R
3
, hence S
2
, T
2
, C. The conclusion follows from a).
c) We’ve the following equivalence:
P
n
(R)is orientable ⇔ A preserves the orientation of S
n
(by a))
⇔ A preserves the orientation of R
n+1
(The orientation is induced from R
n+1
)
⇔ (n + 1) is even
⇔ n is odd

1 Riemannian Metrics
1.1 Prove that the antipodal mapping A : S
n
→ S
n
given by A(p) = −p is an
isometry of S
n
. Use this fact to introduce a Riemannian metric on the real
projective space P
n
(R) such that the natural projection π : S
n
→ P
n
(R) is
a local isometry.
Proof. a) A is an isometry of S
n
.
We first claim that T
p
S
n
= T
A(p)
S
n
.
It is enough to prove T
p
S
n
⊂ T
A(p)
S
n
, since
T
A(p)
S
n
⊂⊂ T
A◦A(p)
S
n
= T
p
S
n
Indeed, for any v ∈ T
p
S
n
, ∃c : (−ε, ε) → S
n
such that c(0) = p, c

(0) =
v. Thus A◦c : (−ε, ε) → S
n
is a curve with A◦c(0) = A(p), (A◦c)

(0) =
dA
p
(c

(0)) = −c

(0) = −v. Hence −v ∈ T
A(p)
S
n
and v ∈ T
A(p)
S
n
since
T
A(p)
S
n
is a linear space.
Now the fact A is an isometry of S
n
is clear.
< dA
p
(v), dA
p
(w) >
A(p)
=< −v, −w >
−p
=< v, w >
−p
=< v, w >
p
b) Construction of a metric on P
n
(R) such that π is a local isometry.
For any p ∈ S
n
, π(p) ∈ P
n
(R), define
< (dπ)
p
(v), (dπ)
p
(w) >
π(p)
< v, w >
p
Indeed,
4 PRC.ZZJ
• Because of surjectivity of π and the construction of atlas on
P
n
(R), the vector ”on” P
n
(R) is of the form (dπ)
p
(v), p ∈ S
n
, v ∈
T
p
(S
n
).
• It is well-defined. Indeed,(dπ)
p
is surjective, thus injective, hence
the one-to-one correspondence between (dπ)
p
(v) and v. And if
π(p) = π(q), then q = p or q = A(p). In the latter case,
(dπ)
p
(v) = (d(π ◦ A))
p
(v) = (dπ)
A(p)
◦ (dA)
p
(v) = (dπ)
A(p)
(−v)
(dπ)
p
(w) = (dπ)
A(p)
(−w)
< −v, −w >
A(p)
=< v, w >
p
• Since the action of G on M is properly continuous, by definition,
π is a local isometry.

1.4 A function g : R → R given by g(t) = yt + x, t, x, y ∈ R, y > 0, is called a
proper affine function. The subset of all such function with respect to the
usual composition law forms a Lie group G. As a differentiable manifold G
is simply the upper half-plane ¦(x, y) ∈ R
2
; y > 0¦ with the differentiable
structure induced from R
2
. Prove that:
a) The left-invariant Riemannian metric on G which at the neutral ele-
ment e = (0, 1) coincides with Euclidean metric(g
11
= 1 = g
22
, g
12
=
0 = g
21
) is given by g
11
=
1
y
2
= g
22
, g
12
= 0, (this is the metric of the
non-euclidean geometry of Lobatchevski).
b) Putting (x, y) = z = x +i y, i =

−1, the transformation
z → z

=
az +b
cz +d
, a, b, c, d ∈ R, ad −bc = 1
is an isometry of G.
Proof. a) • For any g = (x, y) ∈ G, g
−1
=
_

x
y
,
1
y
_
.
Indeed,
y
_
1
y
t −
x
y
_
+x = t =
1
y
(yt +x) −
x
y
, ∀t ∈ R
• Denote by

1
=

∂x
, ∂
2
=

∂y
then
dL
g
−1(∂
1
) =
_
1
y
, 0
_
, dL
g
−1(∂
2
) =
_
0,
1
y
_
Since
γ(s) = (x +s, y), s ∈ R
RIEMANNIAN GEOMETRY 5
is a curve in G with γ(0) = g, γ

(0) = ∂
1
, we get
dL
g
−1(∂
1
) =
d
ds
[
s=0
_
1
y
(yt +x +s) −
x
y
_
=
d
ds
[
s=0
_
s
y
, 1
_
=
_
1
y
, 0
_
And dL
g
−1(∂
2
) =
_
0,
1
y
_
follows from the same lines.
• The left-invariant Riemannian metric of G is given by
< v, w >
g
¸dL
g
−1(v), dL
g
−1(w))
e
Hence
g
11
=
__
1
y
, 0
_
,
_
1
y
, 0
__
e
=
1
y
2
g
22
=
__
0,
1
y
_
,
_
0,
1
y
__
e
=
1
y
2
g
12
= g
21
=
__
0,
1
y
_
,
_
1
y
, 0
__
e
= 0
as desired.
b) Since
_
z = x +i y
z = x −i y
We get
ds
2
=
dx
2
+dy
2
y
2
=
−4dzdz

(z −z)
2
Hence for the transform
z → z

=
az +b
cz +d
, a, b, c, d ∈ R, ad −bc = 1
we’ve
dz

=
dz
(cz +d)
2
Thus
−4dz

dz

(z

−z

)
2
=
−4dzdz
(z −z)
2
as desired.

1.5 Prove that the isometries of S
n
⊂ R
n
, with the induced metric, are the
restrictions of S
n
of the linear orthogonal maps of R
n+1
.
6 PRC.ZZJ
Proof. Denote by Iso(S
n
), Iso(R
n+1
) the isometries of S
n
, R
n+1
respectively.
The orthogonal maps of R
n+1
is O(n + 1).
Clearly,O(n+1) ⊂ Iso(S
n
) because the metric on S
n
is induced from R
n+1
.
While for the converse, let f ∈ Iso(S
n
), define F : R
n+1
→R
n+1
by
F(x) =
_
0, if x = 0
f
_
x
||x||
_
[[x[[, if x ,= 0
then F ∈ O(n + 1) since
F(x) y = f
_
x
[[x[[
_
[[x[[ y = f
_
x
[[x[[
_
y
[[y[[
[[x[[[[y[[ =
x
[[x[[
f
_
y
[[y[[
_
[[x[[[[y[[ = x F(y)
if 0 ,= x, y ∈ R
n+1
.
2 Affine Connections; Riemannian Connections
2.2 Let X and Y be differentiable vector fields on a Riemannian manifold M.
Let p ∈ M and let c : I → M be an integral curve of X through p, i.e.
c(t
0
) = p and
dc
dt
= X(c(t)). Prove that the Riemannian connection of M is
(∇
X
Y )(p) =
d
dt
[
t=t
0
(P
−1
c,t
0
,t
(Y (c(t)))
where P
c,t
0
,t
: T
c(t
0
)
M → T
c(t)
M is the parallel transport along c, from t
0
to t (this show how the connection can be reobtained from the concept of
parallelism).
Proof. Let (e
i
)
n
i=1
be an orthonormal basis for T
p
M, e
i
(t) = P
c,t
0
,t
, i.e. ∇
c

(t)
e
i
(t) =
0, thus (e
i
(t))
n
i=1
is an orthonormal basis for T
c(t)
M. Indeed,

c

(t)
< e
i
(t), e
j
(t) >=< ∇
c

(t)
e
i
(t), e
j
(t) > + < e
i
(t), ∇
c

(t)
e
j
(t) >= 0
< e
i
(t), e
j
(t) >=< e
i
, e
j
>= δ
j
i
Now, we can write
Y (c(t)) = Y
i
(t)e
i
(t)
and the calculation as follows
d
dt
[
t=t
0
(P
−1
c,t
0
,t
(Y (c(t))) =
d
dt
[
t=t
0
(P
−1
c,t
0
,t
(Y
i
(t)e
i
(t)))
=
d
dt
[
t=t
0
(Y
i
(t)e
i
)
=
d
dt
[
t=t
0
(Y
i
(t))e
i
= (∇
c

(t)
(Y
i
(t))e
i
(t))[
t=t
0
= (∇
c

(t)
(Y
i
(t)e
i
(t))[
t=t
0
= (∇
X
Y )(p)

RIEMANNIAN GEOMETRY 7
2.3 Let f : M
n
→ M
n+k
be an immersion of a differentiable manifold M into
a Riemannian manifold M. Assume that M has the Riemannian metric
induced by f (c.f. Example 2.5 of Chapter 1). Let p ∈ M and let U ⊂ M be
a neighborhood of p such that f(U) ⊂ M is a submanifold of M. Further,
suppose that X, Y are differentiable vector fileds on f(U) which extend to
differentiable vector fields X, Y on an open set of M. Define (∇
X
Y )(p) =
tangential component of ∇
X
Y (p), where ∇ is the Riemannian connection
of M. Prove that ∇ is the Riemannian connection of M.
Proof. Denote by

X
Y = (∇
X
Y )

then
• ∇ is compatible with the metric on M. For all p ∈ M, f(p) ∈ f(M).
X < Y, Z > (p) = X < Y , Z > (p)
= < ∇
X
Y , Z > (p)+ < Y , ∇
X
Z > (p)
= < ∇
X
Y , Z > (p)+ < Y, ∇
X
Z > (p)
= < ∇
X
Y, Z > (p)+ < Y, ∇
X
Z > (p)
• ∇ is torsion-free. For all p ∈ M, f(p) ∈ f(M).
(∇
X
Y −∇
Y
X)(p) = (∇
X
Y −∇
Y
X)

(p) = [X, Y ]

(p) = [X, Y ](p)
For the last equality, we see in local coordinate,
[X, Y ]

(p) =
_
n+k

i,j=1
_
X
i ∂Y
j
∂x
i
−Y
i ∂X
j
∂x
i
_

∂x
j
_

(p)
=
_
n

i=1
n+k

j=1
_
X
i
∂Y
j
∂x
i
−Y
i
∂X
j
∂x
i
_

∂x
j
_

(p)
=
_
n

i,j=1
_
X
i
∂Y
j
∂x
i
−Y
i
∂X
j
∂x
i
_

∂x
j
_
(p)
= [X, Y ](p)
The third equality holds because ∇
X
Y (p) depends only on X(p) and
Y (c(t)) where c(t) is an integral curve for X through p.
Thus ∇ is the Riemannian connection of M.
2.8 Consider the upper half-plane
R
2
+
=
_
(x, y) ∈ R
2
; y > 0
_
with the metric given by g
11
=
1
y
2
= g
22
, g
12
= 0 = g
21
( metric of Lobatchevski’s
non-euclidean geometry ).
8 PRC.ZZJ
a) Show that the Christoffel symbols of the Riemannian connection are:
Γ
1
11
= Γ
2
12
= Γ
1
22
= 0, Γ
2
11
=
1
y
, Γ
1
12
= Γ
2
22
= −
1
y
b) Let v
0
= (0, 1) be a tangent vector at point (0, 1) of R
2
+
( v
0
is a unit vector
on the y−axis with origin at (0, 1) ). Let v(t) be the parallel transport of
v
0
along the curve x = t, y = 1. Show that v(t) makes an angle t with the
direction of y−axis, measured in the clockwise sense.
Proof. a) We’ve
Γ
k
ij
=
1
2
g
kl
_
∂g
il
∂x
j
+
∂g
lj
∂x
i

∂g
ij
∂x
l
_
=
y
2
2
_
∂g
ik
∂x
j
+
∂g
kj
∂x
i

∂g
ij
∂x
k
_
=
y
2
2

−2
y
3
_
∂x
2
∂x
j
δ
ik
+
∂x
2
∂x
i
δ
kj

∂x
2
∂x
k
δ
ij
_
Thus
_
¸
_
¸
_
Γ
1
11
= Γ
2
12
= Γ
1
22
= 0
Γ
2
11
=
1
y
Γ
1
12
= Γ
2
22
= −
1
y
b) Let v(t) = (a(t), b(t)) be the parallel field along the curve x = t, y = 1 with
v(0) = (0, 1), v

(0) = v
0
= (0, 1)
Then from the geodesic equations,we’ve
_
da
dt
+ Γ
1
12
b = 0
db
dt
+ Γ
2
11
a = 0
Taking a = cos θ(t), b = sin θ(t) ( since parallel transport preserves inner
product, we may just assume this. ) then the above equations imply

dt
= −1
While we know v
0
= (0, 1), thus
θ
0
=
π
2
Hence
θ =
π
2
−t
as desired.

3 Geodesics; Convex Neighborhoods
RIEMANNIAN GEOMETRY 9
3.7 (Geodesic frame). Let M be a Riemannian manifold of dimension n and let
p ∈ M. Show that there exists a neighborhood U ⊂ M of p and n vector
fileds E
1
, , E
n
∈ X(U), orthonormal at each point of U, such that, at p,

E
i
E
j
(p) = 0.
Such a family E
i
, i = 1, , n, of vector fields is called a (local) geodesic
frame at p.
Proof. Let U = exp
p
(B

(0)) be a normal neighborhood of p small enough,
(e
i
)
n
i=1
be an orthonormal basis of T
p
M. For any q ∈ U, let γ be the radial
geodesic joining p to q. Using parallel transport, we get
E
i
∈ X(U), i = 1, , n
defined by
E
i
(q) = P
γ,p,q
(e
i
)
We have
• E
i
orthonormal, since parallel transport preserves the inner product;
• ∇
E
i
E
j
(p) = 0, since ∇
v
E
i
= 0, ∀v ∈ T
p
M.

3.9 Let M be a Riemannian manifold. Define an operator ´ : D(M) →
D(M)(the Laplacian of M) by
´f = div ∇f, f ∈ D(M)
a) Let E
i
be a geodesic frame at p ∈ M, i = 1, , n =dimM(see Exercise
7). Prove that
´f(p) =

i
E
i
(E
i
(f))(p)
Conclude that if M = R
n
, ´ coincides with the usual Laplacian,
namely, ´f =

i

2
f
∂x
2
.
b) Show that
´(f g) = f´g +g´f + 2 < ∇f, ∇g >
Proof. a) Firstly, ∇f(p) =

i
E
i
(f)E
i
(p)
< ∇f, E
i
> (p) = df
p
(E
i
) = E
i
(p)f = (E
i
f)(p)
Secondly, ´f(p) =

i
E
i
(E
i
(f))(p)
´f(p) = (div∇f)(p) = (div(

i
(E
i
f)E
i
))(p) =

i
(∇
E
i
(E
i
f))(p) =

i
E
i
(E
i
(f))(p)
10 PRC.ZZJ
Lastly, if M = R
n
, since
_

∂x
i
_
n
i=1
is an orthonormal basis for T
p
R
n
, ∀p ∈
R
n
, we get
´f =

i

2
f
∂x
2
i
b) For p ∈ M, let (E
i
)
n
i=1
be a geodesic frame at p ∈ M, then
´(f g)(p) =

i
E
i
(E
i
(f g))(p)
=

i
E
i
(g E
i
f +f E
i
g)(p)
=

i
(E
i
f E
i
g +g E
i
(E
i
f) +E
i
f E
i
g +f E
i
(E
i
g))(p)
= (f´g +g´f + 2 < ∇f, ∇g >)(p)
The last equality follows from
< ∇f, ∇g > (p) =<

i
E
i
(f)E
i
,

j
E
j
(g)E
j
> (p) =

i,j
(E
i
f E
j
g)δ
ij
=

i
E
i
f E
i
g

4 Curvature
4.7 Prove the 2nd Bianchi Identity:
∇R(X, Y, Z, W, T) +∇R(X, Y, W, T, Z) +∇R(X, Y, T, Z, W) = 0
for all X, Y, Z, W, T ∈ X(M).
Proof. Since the objects involved are all tensors, it suffices to prove the
equality at a point p ∈ M. If we choose a geodesic frame (E
i
)
n
i=1
at p.
We’ve

E
i
E
j
(p) = 0, [E
i
, E
j
](p) = (∇
E
i
E
j
−∇
E
j
E
i
)(p) = 0, ∀i, j ∈ ¦1, , n¦
And it suffices to prove in case
X = E
i
, Y = E
j
, Z = E
k
, W = E
l
, T = E
m
RIEMANNIAN GEOMETRY 11
also.Hence
∇R(E
i
, E
j
, E
k
, E
l
, E
m
)(p) = (∇
E
m
R)(E
i
, E
j
, E
k
, E
l
)(p)
(definition)
= ∇
E
m
(R(E
i
, E
j
, E
k
, E
l
))(p)
(Leibniz formula and geodesic frame)
= ∇
E
m
(R(E
k
, E
l
, E
i
, E
j
))(p)
(Riemann connection)
= ∇
E
m
< −∇
E
k

E
l
E
i
+∇
E
l

E
k
E
i
+∇
[E
k
,E
l
]
E
i
, E
j
> (p)
(definition)
= < −∇
E
m

E
k

E
l
+∇
E
m

E
l

E
k
E
i
+∇
E
m

[E
k
,E
l
]
E
i
, E
j
> (p)
(metric and geodesic frame)
and
R(E
i
, E
j
, E
k
, E
l
, E
m
)(p) +R(E
i
, E
j
, E
l
, E
m
, E
k
)(p) +R(E
i
, E
j
, E
m
, E
k
, E
l
)(p)
= < −∇
E
m

E
k

E
l
E
i
+∇
E
m

E
l

E
k
E
i
+∇
E
m

[E
k
,E
l
]
E
i
, E
j
> (p)
+ < −∇
E
k

E
l

E
m
E
i
+∇
E
k

E
m

E
l
E
i
+∇
E
k

[E
l
,E
m
]
E
i
, E
j
> (p)
+ < −∇
E
l

E
m

E
k
E
i
+∇
E
l

E
k

E
m
E
i
+∇
E
l

[E
m
,E
k
]
E
i
, E
j
> (p)
= < (−∇
E
m

E
k
+∇
E
k

E
m
+∇
[E
m
,E
k
]
)(∇
E
l
E
i
), E
j
> (p)
+ < (−∇
[E
m
,E
k
]

E
l
+∇
E
l

[E
m
,E
k
]
+∇
[[E
m
,E
k
],E
l
]
)E
i
, E
j
> (p)
− < ∇
[[E
m
,E
k
],E
l
]
E
i
, E
j
> (p)
+ < (−∇
E
l

E
m
+∇
E
m

E
l
+∇
[E
l
,E
m
]
)(∇
E
k
E
i
), E
j
> (p)
+ < (−∇
[E
l
,E
m
]

E
k
+∇
E
k

[E
l
,E
m
]
+∇
[[E
l
,E
m
],E
k
]
)E
i
, E
j
> (p)
− < ∇
[[E
l
,E
m
],E
k
]
E
i
, E
j
> (p)
+ < (−∇
E
k

E
l
+∇
E
l

E
k
+∇
[E
k
,E
l
]
)(∇
E
m
E
i
), E
j
> (p)
+ < (−∇
[E
k
,E
l
]

E
m
+∇
E
m

[E
k
,E
l
]
+∇
[[E
k
,E
l
],E
m
]
)E
i
, E
j
> (p)
− < ∇
[[E
k
,E
l
],E
m
]
E
i
, E
j
> (p)
= R(E
m
, E
k
, ∇
E
l
E
i
, E
j
)(p) +R([E
m
, E
k
], E
l
, E
i
, E
j
)(p)
+R(E
l
, E
m
, ∇
E
k
E
i
, E
j
)(p) +R([E
l
, E
m
], E
k
, E
i
, E
j
)(p)
+R(E
k
, E
l
, ∇
E
m
E
i
, E
j
)(p) +R([E
k
, E
l
], E
m
, E
i
, E
j
)(p)
− < ∇
[[E
m
,E
k
],E
l
]+[[E
l
,E
m
],E
k
]+[[E
k
,E
l
],E
m
]
E
i
, E
j
> (p)(definition)
= 0(geodesic and Jacobi identity)

4.8 (Schur’s Theorem). Let M
n
be a connected Riemannian manifold with
n ≥ 3.Suppose that M is isotropic, that is, for each p ∈ M, the sectional
curvature K(p, σ) does not depend on σ ⊂ T
p
M. Prove that M has constant
sectional curvature, that is, K(p, σ) also does not depend on p.
12 PRC.ZZJ
Proof. For any p ∈ M, choose a geodesic frame (E
i
)
n
i=1
at p, i.e. (E
i
)
n
i=1
orthonormal in a neighborhood of p and ∇
E
i
E
j
(p) = 0. Denote by
R
ijkl
= R(E
i
, E
j
, E
k
, E
l
)(p)

m
R
ijkl
= (∇
E
m
R)(E
i
, E
j
, E
k
, E
l
)(p) = ∇
E
m
(R(E
i
, E
j
, E
k
, E
l
))(p)
Since the sectional curvature uniquely determines the Riemann curvature,
we’ve:
if K(p, σ) = f(p), then
• R
ijkl
= f(p)(δ
ik
δ
jl
−δ
il
δ
jk
)
• Ric
ij
=

k
R
ikjk
= f(p)

k

ij
−δ
ik
δ
kj
) = (n −1)f(p)δ
ij
• R =

i
R
ii
= n(n −1)f(p)
From the 2nd Bianchi identity,

i
R
ijkj
+∇
k
R
ijji
+∇
j
R
ijik
= 0
Summing over i, j over ¦1, , n¦, one gets

i

i
R
ik
−∇
k
R +

j

j
R
jk
= 0
2

i

i
R
ik
−∇
k
R = 0
2(n −1)∇
k
f(p) −n(n −1)∇
k
f(p) = 0
(n −2)(n −1)∇
k
f(p) = 0
Thus

k
f(p) = 0, ∀k
since n ≥ 3. Finally,
K(p, σ) = f ≡ Const
since M is connected.
5 Jacobi Fields
5.3 Let M be a Riemannian manifold with non-positive sectional curvature.
Prove that, for all p, the conjugate locus C(p) is empty.
Proof. For any p ∈ M, if C(p) ,=, i.e. ∃q ∈ C(p), then

_
geodesic γ : [0, a] → M
Jacobi filed J ,= 0
s.t.
_
γ(0) = p, γ(a) = q
J(0) = 0 = J(a)
From the Jacobi equation,
J

+R(γ

, J)γ

= 0
RIEMANNIAN GEOMETRY 13
We know
< J

, J >

= < J

, J > + < J

, J

>
= − < R(γ

, J)γ

, J > + < J

, J

>
= −K
M

, J)[[γ

∧ J[[
2
+ < J

, J

>
≥ 0
Since M is of non-positive sectional curvature. Thus
0 =< J

(0), J(0) > ≤ < J

, J > ≤ < J

(a), J(a) >= 0
< J

, J >= 0
< J, J >

= 2 < J

, J >= 0
[[J[[
2
= [[J(0)[[ = 0
A contradiction.
5.4 Let b < 0 and let M be a manifold with constant negative sectional curvature
equal to b. Let γ : [0, l] → M be a normalized geodesic, and let v ∈ T
γ(l)
M
such that < v, γ

(l) >= 0 and let [v[ = 1. Since M has negative curvature,
γ(l) is not conjugate to γ(0)(See Exercise 3). Show that the Jacobi field J
along γ determined by J(0) = 0, J(l) = v is given by
J(t) =
sinh(t

−b
sinh(l

−b)
w(t)
where w(t) is the parallel transport along γ of the vector
w(0) =
u
0
[u
0
[
, u
0
= (dexp
p
)
−1

(0)
(v)
and where u
0
is considered as a vector T
γ(0)
M by the identification T
γ(0)
M ≈
T

(0)
(T
γ(0)
M)
Proof. • The Jacobi field
˜
J along γ with
˜
J(0) = 0,
˜
J

(0) = w(0) ∈ T
γ(0)
M is
of the form
˜
J(t) =
sinh(t

−b)

−b
w(t)
where w(t) is the parallel transport of w(0) along γ.
Indeed, let (E
i
)
n
i=1
be an orthonormal basis for T
γ(0)
M,(E
i
(t))
n
i=1
be parallel
transport of E
i
along γ. Then if we write
˜
J(t) =

i
˜
J
i
(t)E
i
(t) ∈ T
γ(t)
M
w(0) =

i
w
i
E
i
∈ T
γ(0)
M
14 PRC.ZZJ
One gets from the Jacobi equation that
_
¸
_
¸
_
˜
J

i
(t) +b
˜
J
i
(t) = 0
˜
J
i
(0) = 0
˜
J

i
(0) = w
i
Hence
˜
J(t) =
sinh(t

−b)

−b
w
i
˜
J(t) =

i
J
i
(t)E
i
(t) =
sinh(t

−b)

−b

i
w
i
E
i
(t) =
sinh(t

−b)

−b
w(t)
• One can write
˜
J(t) = (dexp
p
)

(0)
(tw(0))
This is just another saying that Jacobi filed is the variational field of geo-
desic.
• Since
J(l) = v = (dexp
p
)

(0)
(u
0
) = (dexp
p
)

(0)
_
l
u
0
[u
0
[

[u
0
[
l
_
=
[u
0
[
l
˜
J(l)
We have
J(t) =
u
0
l
˜
J(t) =
u
0
l
sinh(t

−b)

−b
w(t)
Indeed,
M is of negative sectional curvature
⇒ C(γ(0)) = ∅
⇒ Jacobi fieldJ along γ is uniquely determined by J(0), J(l)
• Since
1 = [v[ = [J(l)[ =
[u
0
[
l
sinh(l

−b)

−b
We have
[u
0
[
l
=

−b
sinh(l

−b)
and finally
J(t) =
sinh(t

−b)
sinh(l

−b)
w(t)

6 Isometric Immersions
6.3 Let M be a Riemannian manifold and let N ⊂ K ⊂ M be a submanifolds of
M. Suppose that N is totally geodesic in K and that K is totally geodesic
in M. Prove that N is totally geodesic M.
Proof. From the hypothesis,we know, every geodesic in N is a geodesic in
K, thus a geodesic in M, hence the assertion.
RIEMANNIAN GEOMETRY 15
6.11 Let f : M
n+1
→ R be a differentiable function. Define the Hessian, Hessf
of f at p ∈ M as the linear operator
Hessf : T
p
M → T
p
M
(Hessf)Y = ∇
Y
∇f, Y ∈ T
p
M
where ∇ is the Riemannian connection of M. Let a be a regular value of
f and let M
n
⊂ M
n+1
be the hypersurface in M defined by M = ¦p ∈
M; f(p) = a¦. Prove that
a) The Laplacian ´f is given by
´f = trac Hessf
b) If X, Y ∈ X(M), then
< (Hessf)Y, X >=< Y, (Hessf)X >
Conclude that Hessf is self-adjoint, hence determines a symmetric
bilinear form on T
p
M, p ∈ M, is given by
(Hessf)(X, Y ) =< (Hessf)X, Y >, X, Y ∈ T
p
M
c) The mean curvature H of M ⊂ M is given by
nH = −div
_
∇f
[∇f[
_
d) Observe that every embedded hypersurface M
n
⊂ M
n+1
is locally the
inverse image of a regular value. Conclude from c) that the mean
curvature H of such a hypersurface is given by
H = −
1
n
divN
where N is an appropriate local extension of the unit normal vector
field on M
n
⊂ M
n+1
.
Proof. a) For any p ∈ M, let (E
i
)
n+1
i=1
be othonormal basis for T
p
M, then
´f = div
M
∇f
=
n+1

i=1
< ∇
E
i
∇f, E
i
>
=
n+1

i=1
< (Hessf)E
i
, E
i
>
= trace Hessf
16 PRC.ZZJ
b)
< (Hessf)Y, X > = < ∇
Y
∇f, X > (definition)
= Y < ∇f, X > − < ∇f, ∇
Y
, X > (metric)
= Y Xf −(∇
Y
X)f(definition)
= XY f −(∇
Y
X)f(definition and torsion-free property)
= < Y, (Hessf)X >
c) Take an orthonormal frame E
1
, , E
n
, E
n+1
=
∇f
[∇f[
= η in a neigh-
borhood of p ∈ M in M,then
nH = trace S
η
=
n

i=1
< S
η
(E
i
), E
i
>
= −
n

i=1
< ∇
E
i
η, E
i
> − < ∇
η
η, η >
= −
n+1

i=1
< ∇
E
i
η, E
i
>
= −div
M
η
= −div
_
∇f
[∇f[
_
d) As a simple consequence of implicit function theorem, for any p ∈ M,
there is a coordinate neighborhood (U, x) in M of p such that
M ∩ U = x¦x
n+1
= 0¦
[See S.S.Chern: Lectures on Differential Geometry, for example.]
If we take f : M →R defined locally by
f ◦ x = x
n+1
then
∇f ∈ (T
q
M)

, ∀q ∈ M ∩ U
Indeed,
< ∇f,

∂x
i
>=

∂x
i
f = dx
_

∂x
i
_
f =

∂x
i
(f ◦ x) =

∂x
i
x
n+1
= 0, ∀1 ≤ i ≤ n
Thus from c),
H = −
1
n
div
_
∇f
[∇f[
_
= −
1
n
div N

RIEMANNIAN GEOMETRY 17
7 Complete Manifolds; Hopf-Rinow and Hadamard Theorems
7.6 A geodesic γ : [0, +∞) → M in a Riemannian manifold M is called a ray
starting from γ(0) if it minimizes the distance between γ(0) and γ(s), for
any s ∈ (0, ∞). Assume that M is complete, non-compact, and let p ∈ M.
Show that M contains a ray starting from P.
Proof. Argue by contradiction.
M contains no ray starting from p
⇔ for any γ : [0, ∞) → M with γ(0) = p, ∃s ∈ (0, ∞), s.t. γ[
[0,s]
does not minimizes the distance between p and γ(s)
⇔ for any v ∈ T
p
M with [v[ = 1, ∃s ∈ (0, ∞), s.t. exp
p
(tv), t ∈ [0, s]
does not minimizes the distance between p and exp
p
(sv)
Define
c : T
p
M → R
+
v → c(v) = inf s < ∞
where the inf is taken over all s such that exp
p
(tv), t ∈ [0, s] does not mini-
mizes the distance between p and exp
p
(sv). Clearly,
• c(v) = inf s = min s;
• c is a continuous function of v.
This is done by careful analysis, see Chapter 13 for example.
Since ¦v ∈ T
p
M; [v[ = 1¦ is a compact set, we know c is bounded, i.e.
max c < ∞, thus
M = B(p, max c + 1)
Hence M is compact by Hopf-Rinow Theorem, a contradiction.
7.7 Let M and M be Riemannian manifolds and let f : M → M be a diffeomor-
phism. Assume that M is complete and that there exists a constant c > 0
such that
[v[ ≥ c[df
p
(v)[
for all p ∈ M and all v ∈ T
p
M. Prove that M is complete.
Proof. • p, q ∈ M ⇒ d
M
(p, q) ≥ c d
M
(f(p), f(q))
Indeed, for any piecewise differentiable curve γ joining p to q, f ◦ γ is
18 PRC.ZZJ
such one joining f(p) to f(q), thus
l(γ) =
_
b
a

(t)[dt
≥ c
_
b
a
[df(γ

(t))[dt
= c
_
b
a
[(f ◦ γ)

(t)[dt
≥ c d
M
(f(p), f(q))
Taking inf over all such curves, one gets
d
M
(p, q) ≥ c d
M
(f(p), f(q))
• M is complete as a metric space
For any Cauchy sequence (p
n
)

n=1
⊂ M, we’ve, from
d
M
(p
n
, p
m
) ≥ c d
M
(f(p
n
), f(p
m
))
that (f(p
n
))

n=1
⊂ M a Cauchy sequence, hence converges to some
point, q ∈ M, say. Then
p
n
= f
−1
(f(p
n
)) → f
−1
(q) ∈ M as n → ∞

7.10 Prove that the upper half-plane R
2
+
with the Lobatchevski metric:
g
11
=
1
y
2
= g
22
, g
12
= 0 = g
21
is complete.
Proof. We write H
2
= (R
2
, g).
• Lemma Let f : (M, g) → (M, g) be an isometry between two Riemannian
manifolds, then
df (∇
X
Y ) = ∇
df(X)
df(Y ), ∀X, Y ∈ X(M)
where ∇, ∇ are Riemann connections of M, M respectively.
In other words, isometries preserve Riemann connections.
Proof of the Lemma We simply use Koszul formula as follows.
2g (df(∇
X
Y ), df(Z))) ◦ f
= 2g(∇
X
Y, Z) (isometry)
= Xg(Y, Z) +Y g(Z, X) −Zg(X, Y )
−g(X, [Y, Z]) +g(Y, [Z, X]) +g(Z, [X, Y ]) (Koszulformula)
= X (g(df(Y ), df(Z)) ◦ f) − −g (df(X), df([X, Y ])) ◦ f +
= (df(X)g (df(Y ), df(Z))) ◦ f − −g (df(X), [df(Y ), df(Z)]) ◦ f
= 2g
_

df(X)
df(Y ), df(Z)
_
◦ f
RIEMANNIAN GEOMETRY 19
• Claim
γ(t) = (0, e
t
) = ie
t
, t ∈ [0, ∞)
is the geodesic with data (e = (0, 1) = i, dy = (0, 1) = i).
Method 1 we’ve only to show each portion of γ minimize curve length. To
this end,for c : [a, b] →H
2
with c(a) = a ≥ 1, c(b) = b ≥ 1,
l(c) =
_
b
a
¸
¸
¸
¸
dc
dt
¸
¸
¸
¸
dt
=
_
b
a
¸
_
dx
dt
_
2
+
_
dy
dt
_
2
dt
y

_
b
a
¸
¸
¸
¸
dy
dt
¸
¸
¸
¸
dt
y

_
b
a
dy
y
=
_
ln b
ln a
dt
= l
_
γ[
[ln a,ln b]
_
Method 2 We just see γ satisfies the geodesic equation. Indeed, since the
Christoffel symbols are
_
¸
_
¸
_
Γ
1
11
= Γ
2
12
= Γ
1
22
= 0
Γ
2
11
=
1
y
Γ
1
12
= Γ
2
22
= −
1
y
Thus
d
2
dt
2
e
t
+ Γ
2
22
e
t
e
t
= e
t

1
e
t
e
2t
= 0
• Claim
γ
θ
(t) =
cos
θ
2
ie
t
−sin
θ
2
sin
θ
2
ie
t
+ cos
θ
2
, t ∈ [0, ∞)
is the geodesic in H
2
with data (e, v = (sin θ, cos θ)), where θ ∈ [0, 2π).Hence
by Hopf-Rinow theorem, H
2
is complete.
Proof of the Claim
γ
θ
, as the image of γ
0
= γ under the isometry of H
2
:
z →
cos
θ
2
z −sin
θ
2
sin
θ
2
z + cos
θ
2
is geodesic;
γ
θ
(0) = i = (0, 1) = e;
20 PRC.ZZJ

γ

θ
(0) =
1
_
sin
θ
2
ie
t
+ cos
θ
2
_
2
ie
t
[
t=0
= i
_
cos
θ
2
−i sin
θ
2
_
2
= i(cos θ −i sin θ)
= sin θ +i sin θ
= v.

Remark In the proof we construct all geodesics starting from e = (0, 1).
• If v = (0, 1), the geodesic being (0, e
t
);
• If v = (0, −1), the geodesic being 0, e
−t
);
• If v = (sin θ, cos θ), θ ,= kπ, k ∈ Z, we’ve the geodesic γ
θ
satisfies

θ
(t) −cot θ[ = [ csc θ[
Indeed,

θ
(t)[
2
−2'(γ
θ
(t) cot θ)
=
sin
2 θ
2
+e
2t
cos
2 θ
2
cos
2
θ
2
+e
2t
sin
2 θ
2
−2'
_
cos
θ
2
ie
t
−sin
θ
2
sin
θ
2
ie
t
+ cos
θ
2
_

1 −tan
2 θ
2
2 tan
θ
2
=
tan
2 θ
2
+e
2t
1 +e
2t
tan
2 θ
2
−2
(e
2t
−1) tan
θ
2
1 +e
2t
tan
2 θ
2

1 −tan
2 θ
2
2 tan
θ
2
=
1 +e
2t
tan
2 θ
2
1 +e
2t
tan
2 θ
2
= 1
Finally,since H
2
is a Lie group, all geodesics in H
2
is known.
8 Spaces of Constant Curvature
8.1 Consider, on a neighborhood in R
n
, n > 2 the metric
g
ij
=
δ
ij
F
2
where F ,= 0 is a function of (x
1
, , x
n
) ∈ R
n
. Denote by F
i
=
∂F
∂x
i
, F
ij
=

2
F
∂x
i
∂x
j
,etc.
a) Show that a necessary and sufficient condition for the metric to have
constant curvature K is
(∗)
_
F
ij
= 0, i ,= j;
F(F
jj
+F
ii
) = K +

n
i=1
(F
i
)
2
.
RIEMANNIAN GEOMETRY 21
b) Use (∗) to prove that the metric g
ij
has constant curvature K if and
only if
F =
n

i=1
G
i
(x
i
)
where
G
i
(x
i
) = ax
2
i
+b
i
x
i
+c
i
and
n

i=1
(4c
i
a −b
2
i
) = K
c) Put a =
a
4
, b
i
= 0, c
i
=
1
n
and obtain the formula of Riemann
(∗∗) g
ij
=
δ
ij
_
1 +
K
4

x
2
i
_
2
for a metric g
ij
of constant curvature K. If K < 0 the metric g
ij
is
defined in a ball of radius
_
4
−K
.
d) If K > 0, the metric (∗∗) is defined on all of R
n
. Show that such a
metric on R
n
is not complete.
Proof. a) The metric and its inverse are
g
ij
=
δ
ij
F
2
, g
ij
= F
2
δ
ij
Thus the Christoffel symbols
Γ
k
ij
=
1
2
g
kl
(∂
j
g
il
+∂
i
g
lj
−∂
l
g
ij
)
=
1
2
F
2
(∂
j
g
ik
+∂
i
g
kj
−∂
k
g
ij
)
=
1
2
F
2

−2
F
3

ik
F
j

kj
F
i
−δ
ij
F
k
)
= −δ
ik
f
j
−δ
kj
f
i

ij
f
k
where
f = log F
Write down precisely,
_
¸
_
¸
_
Γ
k
ij
= 0, if i ,= j, j ,= k, k ,= i
Γ
j
ii
= f
j
, Γ
i
ij
= −f
j
, if i ,= j
Γ
i
ii
= −f
i
22 PRC.ZZJ
Hence the Riemannian curvature (i ,= j)
R
ijij
= ¸−∇
i

j
i +∇
j

i
i, j)
=
¸
−∇
i
_
Γ
k
ij
k
_
+∇
j
_
Γ
k
ii
k
_
, j
_
=
¸
−∂
i
Γ
k
ij
k −Γ
k
ij
Γ
l
ik
l +∂
j
Γ
k
ii
k + Γ
k
ii
Γ
l
jk
l, j
_
= −∂
i
Γ
k
ij
g
kj
+∂
j
Γ
k
ii
g
kj
−Γ
k
ij
Γ
l
ik
g
lj
+ Γ
k
ii
Γ
l
jk
g
lj
=
1
F
2
_
−∂
i
Γ
j
ij
+∂
j
Γ
j
ii
−Γ
k
ij
Γ
j
ik
+ Γ
k
ii
Γ
j
jk
_
=
1
F
2
_
f
ii
+f
jj
+ (f
2
j
−f
2
i
) +
_
f
2
i
−f
2
j

k=i,j
f
2
k
__
=
1
F
2
_
f
ii
+f
jj

k
f
2
k
+f
2
i
+f
2
j
_
Finally, the sectional curvature
K(i, j) =
R
ijij
< i, i >< j, j > − < i, j >
2
= F
2
(f
ii
+f
jj

n

k=1
f
2
k
+f
2
i
+f
2
j
)
= FF
ii
−F
2
i
+FF
jj
−F
2
j

k
F
2
k
+F
2
i
+F
2
j
= F(F
ii
+F
jj
) −

k
F
2
k
Now we prove a). The sufficiency is obvious. For the necessity, we
need only to show
F
ij
= 0, ∀i ,= j
Indeed, since K(i, j) = K = Const,
F
ii
= c, ∀i
Thus
K = 2Fc −

k
F
2
k
Differentiating w.r.t. l twice, we obtain
0 = 2F
l

k
2F
k
F
kl

k=l
F
k
F
kl
= 0

k=l
(F
kl
)
2
=

k=l
(F
kl
)
2
+F
k
F
kll
= 0
F
kl
= 0 ∀k ,= l
RIEMANNIAN GEOMETRY 23
Remark For simplicity and type convenience, we use i for ∂
i
=

∂x
i
.
And there is no confusion between ∇
i
and F
i
.
b) Claim From (∗),
_
F
ij
= 0, ∀i ,= j
F
ii
= 2a = Const, ∀i
We have
F =
n

i=1
G
i
(x
i
)
where
G
i
(x
i
) = ax
2
i
+b
i
x
i
+c
Indeed, F
ii
= 2a implies
F
i
= 2ax
i
+g(x
1
, , x
i−1
, x
i+1
, , x
n
)
while F
ij
= 0, ∀j ,= i implies
0 = F
ij
= ∂
j
g, ∀j ,= i
g = b
i
= Const
F
i
= 2ax
i
+b
i
Hence
F = ax
2
i
+b
i
x
i
+h
i
(x
1
, , x
i−1
, x
i+1
, , x
n
)
Thus
ax
2
i
+b
i
x
i
+h
i
= ax
2
j
+b
j
x
j
+h
j
, ∀j ,= i
h
i
−(ax
2
j
+b
j
x
j
) = h
j
−(ax
2
i
+b
i
x
i
)
Since the r.h.s. of the equality above doesn’t have the x
j
−term, we
have
h
i
=

j=i
(ax
2
j
+b
j
x
j
) +c
Hence the claim.
Now,
K = F(F
ii
+F
jj
) −

k
(F
k
)
2
= 4a

k
(ax
2
i
+b
i
x
i
+c
i
) −

k
(2ax
i
+b
i
)
2
=

k
(4c
i
a −b
2
i
)
24 PRC.ZZJ
c) Put a =
K
4
, b
i
= 0, c
i
=
1
n
, we obtain the formula of Riemann
g
ij
=
δ
ij
_

i
_
K
4
x
2
i
+
1
n
_
_
2
=
δ
ij
_
1 +
K
4

i
x
2
i
_
2
If K < 0, we should have

i
x
2
i

_
_
4
−K
_
2
i.e. g
ij
are defined in a ball of radius
_
4
−K
.
d) If K > 0, the metric (∗∗) is defined on all of R
n
. We shall show
(R
n
, g
ij
) is not complete.
Indeed, for any p = (x
1
, , x
n
) ∈ R
n
,
d
g
(0, p) ≤ [0p[
g
=
_
1
0
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_

i
x
2
i
_
1 +
K
4

k
(tx
k
)
2
_
2
dt
=
_
1
0
D
1 +
K
4
Dt
2
dt
_
_
D =
¸

i
x
2
i
_
_
=
2
K
arctan

K
2

2
K

π
2
=
π

K
< ∞
Hence (R
n
, g
ij
) is bounded, also, it is closed as a whole space, but
we know R
n
is non-compact ( Note that compactness is a topological
property. ). Thus, (R
n
, g
ij
) is not complete by Hopt-Rinow Theorem.

8.4 Identity R
4
with C
2
by letting (x
1
, x
2
, x
3
, x
4
) correspond to (x
1
+ix
2
, x
3
+ix
4
).
Let
S
3
=
_
(z
1
, z
2
) ∈ C
2
; [z
1
[
2
+[z
2
[
2
= 1
_
and let h : S
3
→ S
3
be given by
h(z
1
, z
2
) =
_
e
2πi
q
z
1
, e
2πir
q
z
2
_
, (z
1
, z
2
) ∈ S
3
RIEMANNIAN GEOMETRY 25
where q and r are relatively prime integers, q > 2.
a) Show that G = ¦id, h, , h
q−1
¦is a group of isometries of the sphere
S
3
, with the usual metric, which operates in a totally discontinuous
manner. The manifold S
3
/G is called a lens space.
b) Consider S
3
/G with metric induced by the projection p : S
3
→ S
3
/G.
Show that all the geodesics of S
3
/G is closed but can have different
lengths.
Proof. a) Claim 1 Each h
k
is an isometry of S
3
.
Indeed, denote by
α =

q
, β =
2πr
q
then
h
k
(z
1
, z
2
) =
_
e
ikα
z
1
, e
ikβ
z
2
_
dh
k
(z
1
,z
2
)
=
_
e
kαi
dz
1
, e
kβi
dz
2
_
For any p ∈ S
3
, u = (u
1
, u
2
), v = (v
1
, v
2
) ∈ T
p
S
3
, where
u
j
= u
j1
+iu
j2
, v
j
= v
j1
+iv
j2
, j = 1, 2
We have
¸
dh
k
(u)dh
k
(v)
_
h
k
(p)
=
__
e
ikα
u
1
e
ikβ
u
2
_
,
_
e
ikα
v
1
, e
ikβ
v
2
_
_
=
__
u
11
cos kα −u
12
sin kα
+i (u
11
sin kα +u
12
cos kα)
_
,
_
v
11
cos kα −v
12
sin kα
+i (v
11
sin kα +v
12
cos kα)
__
= (u
11
cos kα −u
12
sin kα) (v
11
cos kα −v
12
sin kα)
+(u
11
sin kα +u
12
cos kα) (v
11
sin kα +v
12
cos kα)
+(u
11
cos kα −u
12
sin kα) (v
11
cos kβ −v
12
sin kβ)
+(u
11
sin kβ +u
12
cos kβ) (v
11
sin kβ +v
12
cos kβ)
= ¸(u
1
, u
2
), (v
1
, v
2
))
= ¸u, v)
p
Claim 2 G operates on S
3
in a properly discontinuous manner.
Just note that for any (z
1
, z
2
) ∈ S
3
,
h
k
(z
1
, z
2
) =
_
e
ikα
z
1
, e
ikβ
z
2
_
, k ∈ ¦1, , q −1¦
are continuous, and ,= (z
1
, z
2
), Hence
∃U ÷ x, s.t. h
k
U ∩ U ,= ∅, ∀k ∈ ¦1, , q −1¦
Indeed,
26 PRC.ZZJ
♠ h
k
(z
1
, z
2
) ,= (z
1
, z
2
)
Since q and r are relatively prime,
∃ s, t, s.t. sq +tr = 1
if some k ∈ ¦1, , q −1¦ satisfies
e
ikα
= 1 or e
ikβ
= 1
then we have k = mq, a contradiction; or kr = mq for some
m ∈ Z, a contradiction again since
k = skq +tkr = skq +tmq = (sk +tm)q
♠ The existence of such U.
Set p = (z
1
, z
2
), q
k
= h
k
(p), then by Hausdorff property,
∃U ÷ p, V
k
÷ q, s.t. U ∩ V
k
= ∅
Since h is continuous, we may retract U such that
h
k
(U) ⊂ V
k
, ∀k ∈ ¦1, , q −1¦
This U verifies.
b) Since G is a group of isometry, we can introduce the metric on S
3
/G
such that p : S
3
→ S
3
/G is a local isometry. Thus the geodesics are
preserved. Now the geodesics on S
3
are all closed, the geodesics of
S
3
/G are close also, but they may have different length. Consider, for
example,
_
γ
1
= (e

, 0)
γ
2
= (0, e

)
θ ∈ [0, 2π]
the geodesics on S
3
, but we have
_
l(p(γ
1
)) = α
l(p(γ
2
)) = β
when α ,= β,i.e. r ,= 1, these two are different.

8.5 (Connections of conformal metrics) Let M be a differentiable manifold. Two
Riemannian metrics g and g on M are conformal if there exists a positive
function µ : M → R such that g(X, Y ) = µg(X, Y ), for all X, Y ∈ X(M).
Let ∇ and ∇ be the Riemannian connections of g and g, respectively. Prove
that

X
Y = ∇
X
Y +S(X, Y )
where
S(X, Y ) =
1

¦(Xµ)Y + (Y µ)X −g(X, Y )∇µ¦
RIEMANNIAN GEOMETRY 27
and ∇µ is calculated in the metric g, that is,
X(µ) = g(X, ∇µ)
Proof. By Koszul Formula,
µg(∇
X
Y, Z) = g(∇
X
Y, Z)
=
1
2
_
Xg(Y, Z) +Y g(Z, X) −Zg(X, Y )
−g(X, [Y, Z]) +g(Y, [Z, X]) +g(Z, [X, Y ])
_
=
1
2
¦(Xµg(Y, Z) +Y g(Z, X) −Zg(X, Y )¦
+
µ
2
_
Xg(Y, Z) +Y g(Z, X) −Zg(X, Y )
−g(X, [Y, Z]) +g(Y, [Z, X]) +g(Z, [X, Y ])
_
=
1
2
¦g ((Xµ)Y + (Y µ)X −g(X, Y )∇µ, Z)¦ +µg(∇
X
Y, Z)
= µg(S(X, Y ) +∇
X
Y, Z)

9 Variations of Energy
9.1 Let M be a complete Riemannian manifold, and let N ⊂ M be a closed
submanifold of M. Let p
0
∈ M, p
0
/ ∈ N, and let d(p
0
, N) be the distance from
p
0
to N. Show that there exists a point q
0
∈ N such that d(p
0
, q
0
) = d(p
0
, N)
and that a minimizing geodesic which joins p
0
to q
0
is orthogonal to N at
q
0
.
Proof. • Existence of such q
0
∈ N.
Let ¦q
i
¦ ⊂ N, s.t. d(p
0
, q
i
) → d(p
0
, N), then ¦q
i
¦ is bounded, and by
Hopf-Rinow therorem,
∃ ¦j¦ ⊂ ¦i¦, s.t. q
j
→ q
0
for some q
0
∈ M. But N is closed, we have q
0
∈ N and d(p
0
, q
0
) =
d(p
0
, N).
• Orthogonality.
Let γ : [0, l] → M be a minimizing geodesic joining p
0
to q
0
. We shall
show γ

(l) ⊥ N, i.e. γ

(0) ⊥ N, ∀v ∈ T
q
0
N.
Indeed, for v ∈ T
q
0
N, let ζ : (−ε, ε) → M be a geodesic with data
q
0
, v(i.e. ζ(0) = q
0
, ζ

(0) = v) and consider the variation f : (−ε, ε)
[0, l] → M such that f(s, 0) = p
0
, f(s, l) = ζ(s). If we denote by
V (s) =
∂f
∂s
[
s=0
, then from the formula for the first variation of energy,
0 =
1
2
E

(0)
= −
_
l
0
¸V (t), γ

(t)) dt −¸V (0), γ

(0)) +¸V (l), γ

(l))
= ¸v, γ

(l))
28 PRC.ZZJ

9.2 Introduce a complete Riemannian metric on R
2
. Prove that
lim
r→∞
_
inf
x
2
+y
2
≥r
2
K(x, y)
_
≤ 0
where (x, y) ∈ R
2
and K(x, y) is the Gauss curvature of the given metric at
(x, y).
Proof. Argue by contradiction. Denote the complete metric on R
2
by g and
suppose
lim
r→∞
_
inf
x
2
+y
2
≥r
2
K(x, y)
_
> 0
Then

_
c > 0
r > 0
s.t. inf
x
2
+y
2
≥r
2
K(x, y) ≥ c > 0
Hence by Bonnet-Myers Theorem,
__
(x, y); x
2
+y
2
≥ r
2
_
, g
_
(⊂ R
2
, complete) is compact. Thus
R
2
=
_
(x, y); x
2
+y
2
≤ r
2
_

_
(x, y); x
2
+y
2
≥ r
2
_
as the union of two compact sets, is compact. A contradiction!
9.3 Prove the following generalization of the Theorem of Bonnet-Myers: Let M
n
be a complete Riemannian manifold. Suppose that there exists constants
a > 0 and c ≥ 0 such that for all pairs of points in M
n
and for all minimizing
geodesics γ(s), parametrized by arc length s, joining these points, we have
Ric(γ

(s)) ≥ a +
df
ds
, along γ
where f is a function of s, satisfying [f(s)[ ≤ c along γ. Then M
n
is compact.
Proof. We claim that
diam(M) ≤
π
2

c
2

2
a −c
L
Thus by Hopf-Rinow Theorem, M is compact.
Indeed, if not, then

_
p, q ∈ M
minimizing geodesic γ : [0, l] → M
s.t. γ joing p to q with l(γ) = l > L
Now choose a parallel orthonormal field
e
1
(s), , e
n−1
(s), e
n
(s) = γ

(s)
along γ, and consider the proper variations V
j
defined by
V
j
(s) = sin
πs
l
, j = 1, , n −1
RIEMANNIAN GEOMETRY 29
Then from the formula for the second variation of energy,
1
2
E

(V
j
)(0) =
_
l
0
¸
V
j
, V

j
+R(γ

, V
j

_
ds
=
_
l
0
sin
2
πs
l
_
π
2
l
2
−K
γ(s)

, e
j
)
_
ds
Summing j over ¦1, , n −1¦, we get
1
2
n−1

j=1
E

(V
j
)(0) =
_
l
0
sin
2
πs
l
_
(n −1)π
2
l
−(n −1)Ric(γ

)
_
ds
≤ (n −1)
_
l
0
sin
2
πs
l
_
π
2
l
−a −
df
ds
_
ds
= (n −1)
__
π
2
l
−a
_
l
2
+
_
l
0
sin
2πs
l

π
l
f ds
_
≤ (n −1)
_
π
2
2l

al
2
+

l

2l
π
_
= −
n −1
2l
_
al
2
−2cl −π
2
¸
< 0
As a result,
∃ j, s.t. E

(V
j
)(0) < 0
which contradicts the fact that γ is minimizing.
Remark The theorem above has application to Relativity, see G.J.Galloway,
”A generalization of Myer’s Theorem and an application to relativistic cosmol-
ogy”, J.Diff. Geometry, 14(1979), 105-116
9.4 Let M be an orientable Riemannian manifold with positive (sectional) cur-
vature and even dimension. Let γ be a closed geodesic in M, that is, γ is an
immersion of the circle S
1
in M that is geodesic at all of its points. Prove
that γ is homotopic to a closed curve whose length is strictly less than that
of γ.
Proof. We have only to show ∃ a variation field V along γ such that E

V
(0) <
0( the second variation of energy concerning V ).
Indeed, since M is orientable, if we denote by P
γ
the parallel transport along
γ, then
• P
γ
is an isometry ⇒ det P
γ
= ±1;
• P
γ
preserves orientation ⇒ det P
γ
= 1;
• P
γ

(0)) = γ

(2π) = γ

(0) ⇒ P
γ
leaves some v(⊥ γ

(0)) invariant!
30 PRC.ZZJ
Thus, we may choose variation field V (t) = P
γ
(v), and by the formula for
the second variation of energy,
1
2
E

V
(0) = −
_

0
¸V, V

+R(γ

, V )γ

) dt
= −[v[
2
[ γ

(0)[
2

_

0
K
γ(t)
(v(t), γ

(t))dt
< 0
as asserted.
Remark Note that in this settting, in the formula for the second variation of
energy, the last four terms offset! Just because we consider closed geodesic...
9.5 Let N
1
and N
2
be two close disjoint submanifolds of a compact Riemannnian
manifold M.
a) Show that the distance between N
1
and N
2
is assumed by a geodesic
γ perpendicular to both N
1
and N
2
.
b) Show that, for any orthogonal variation h(t, s) of γ, with h(0, s) ∈ N
1
and h(l, s) ∈ N
2
, we have the following expression for the formula for
the second variation
1
2
E

(0) = I
l
(V, V ) +
_
V (l), S
(2)
γ

(l)
(V (l))
_

_
V (0), S
(1)
γ

(0)
(V (0))
_
where V is the variational vector and S
(i)
γ

is the linear map associated
to the second fundamental form of N
i
in the direction γ

, i = 1, 2.
Proof. a) Let ¦p
i
¦ ⊂ N
1
, ¦q
i
¦ ⊂ N
2
be such that d(p
i
, q
i
) → d(N
1
, N
2
).
Since M is compact, we can find (common) ¦j¦ ⊂ ¦i¦, s.t.
p
j
→ p ∈ N
1
, q
j
→ q ∈ N
2
then
d(p, q) = d(N
1
, N
2
)
Since d is continuous.
b) Now let γ : [0, l] → M be a minimizing geodesic joining p to q, then
γ

(0) ⊥ T
p
N
1
, γ

(l) ⊥ T
q
N
2
from the result of Exercise 1.
RIEMANNIAN GEOMETRY 31
b)
1
2
E

(0) = I
l
(V, V ) −
_
D
ds
∂f
∂s
,

dt
_
(0, 0) +
_
D
ds
∂f
∂s
,

dt
_
(0, a)

_
V (0),
DV
dt
(0)
_
+
_
V (a),
DV
dt
(a)
_
= I
l
(V, V ) −
_
B
_
∂f
∂s
,
∂f
∂s
_
,

dt
_
(0, 0) +
_
B
_
∂f
∂s
,
∂f
∂s
_
,

dt
_
(0, a)
( by a) and orthogonality of h)
= I
l
(V, V ) −
¸
S
γ

(0)
(V (0)), V (0))
_
+
¸
S
γ

(l)
(V (l)), V (l))
_

10 The Rauch Comparison Theorem
10.3 Let M be a complete Riemannian manifold with non-positive sectional cur-
vature. Prove that
[(d exp
p
)
v
(w)[ ≥ [w[
for all p ∈ M, all v ∈ T
p
M and all w ∈ T
v
(T
p
M).
Proof. Let
˜
M = (T
p
M = R
n
, δ
ij
) and
• ˜ γ(t) = tv, γ(t) = exp
p
(tv);

˜
J(t) = tw, J(t) = (d exp
p
)
tv
(tw).
Then by Rauch Comparison Theorem, using K
M
≤ 0, that
[d(exp
p
)
v
(w)[ ≥ [w[

10.5 (The Sturm Comparison Theorem). In this exercise we present a direct
proof of Rauch’s Theorem in dimension two, without using material from
the present chapter. We will indicate a proof of the Theorem of Sturm
mentioned in the Introduction to the chapter. Let
_
f

(t) +K(t)f(t) = 0, f(0) = 0, t ∈ [0, l];
˜
f

(t) +
˜
K(t)
˜
f(t) = 0,
˜
f(0) = 0, t ∈ [0, l].
be two ordinary differential equations. Suppose that
˜
K(t) ≥ K(t) for t ∈
[0, l], and that f

(0) =
˜
f

(0) = 1.
a) Show that for all t ∈ [0, l],
(1) 0 =
_
t
0
¦
˜
f(f

+Kf) −f(
˜
f

+
˜
K
˜
f)¦dt = [
˜
ff

−f
˜
f

]
t
0
+
_
t
0
(K −
˜
K)f
˜
fdt
Conclude from this that the first zero of f does not occur before the
first zero of
˜
f.
32 PRC.ZZJ
b) Suppose that
˜
f(t) > 0 on (0, l]. Use (1) and the fact that f(t) > 0
on (0, l] to show that f(t) ≥
˜
f(t), t ∈ [0, l], and that the equality is
verified for t = t
1
∈ (0, l] if and only if K(t) =
˜
K(t), t ∈ [0, t
1
].
Verify that this is the Theorem of Rauch in dimension two.
Proof. a) First, integration by parts gives (1). Second, we prove that the
first zero of f does not occur before the first zero of
˜
f. Indeed, if
t ∈ (0, l] is such that
˜
f(t) > 0 on (0, t
0
),
˜
f(t
0
) = 0
and if f(t
1
) = 0 for some t
1
∈ (0, t
0
), then
˜
f(t
1
) > 0, f

(t
1
) < 0
contradicting (1) with t replaced by t
1
.
b) We know from (1) that
˜
ff

−f
˜
f

≥ 0
i.e.
f

f

˜
f

˜
f
(ln f)

≥ (ln
˜
f)

Integrating from t
0
to t (0 < t
0
< t ≤ l), we obtain
ln f(t) −ln f(t
0
) ≥ ln
˜
f(t) −ln
˜
f(t
0
)
ln
f(t)
˜
f(t)
≥ ln
f(t
0
)
˜
f(t
0
)
f(t)
˜
f(t)

f(t
0
)
˜
f(t
0
)
But
lim
t
0
→0
f(t
0
)
˜
f(t
0
)
= lim
t
0
→0
f

(t
0
)
˜
f

(t
0
)
= 1
we’ve
f(t) ≥
˜
f(t)
as required.
And if the equality is valid for some t = t
1
∈ (0, l],then
f(t) =
˜
f(t), ∀t ∈ [0, t
1
]
(Otherwise, ∃ t

∈ (0, t
1
) satisfies f(t

) >
˜
f(t

), then
1 =
f(t
1
)
˜
f(t
1
)

f(t

)
˜
f(t

)
> 1
A contradiction!)
Thus
f

(t
1
) = 0 =
˜
f

(t
1
)
RIEMANNIAN GEOMETRY 33
Hence by (1),
0 =
_
t
1
0
(K −
˜
K)f
2
dt
K =
˜
K, ∀t ∈ [0, t
1
]
(f > 0, ∀t ∈ (0, l] and continuity of the K’s).

11 The Morse Index Theorem
11.2 Prove the following inequality on real functions (Wirtinger’s inequality). Let
f : [0, π] → R be a real function of class C
2
such that f(0) = 0 = f(π).
Then
_
π
0
f
2
dt ≤
_
π
0
(f

)
2
dt
and equality occurs if and only if f(t) = c sin t, where c is a constant.
Proof. Let γ : [0, π] → S
2
be a normalized geodesic joining γ(0) = p to
γ(π) = −p, and let v be a parallel field along γ with < v, γ

>= 0, [v[ = 1.
Set V = fv, then
0 ≤ I
π
(V, V ) (Morse Index Theorem)
=
_
π
0
_
[f

[
2
−[f[
2
_
dt (K
S
2 = 1)
as required. And
equality occurs ⇔ V is a Jacobi field. (f(0) = 0 = f(π), n = 2)
⇔ f

+f = 0 (K
S
2 = 1)
⇔ f = c sin t (f(0) = 0 = f(π))

11.4 Let a : R →R be a differentiable function with a(t) ≥ 0, t ∈ R, and a(0) > 0.
Prove that the solution to the differential equation
d
2
ϕ
dt
2
+aϕ = 0
with initial conditions ϕ(0) = 1, ϕ

(0) = 0, has at least one positive zero and
one negative zero.
Proof. We need only to prove ϕ has at least one positive zero, the other
assertion being similar. Argue by contradiction, if
t ∈ (0, ∞) ⇒ ϕ(t) > 0
then
ϕ

= −aϕ ≤ 0
i.e.
ϕ

is non-increasing
34 PRC.ZZJ
But now, a(0) > 0, ϕ(0) = 1,
ϕ

(0) = −a(0)ϕ(0) < 0
∃ε > 0, s.t. t ∈ (0, ε] ⇒ ϕ

(t) < 0 ⇒ ϕ

(t) < ϕ

(0) = 0
Thus
ϕ(T) = ϕ(0) +
_
T
0
ϕ

(t)dt
= 1 +
_
ε
0
ϕ

(t)dt +
_
T
ε
ϕ

(t)dt
< 1 +
_
T
ε
ϕ

(t)dt
≤ 1 +ϕ

(ε)(T −ε)
< 0
if T is large enough. A contradiction!
11.5 Suppose M
n
is complete Riemannian manifold with sectional curvature
strictly positive and let γ : (−∞, ∞) → M be a normalized geodesic in
M. Show that there exists t
0
∈ R such that the segment γ([−t
0
, t
0
]) has
index greater or equal to n −1.
Proof. Let Y be a parallel field along γ with < Y, γ

>= 0, [Y [ = 1. Set
ϕ
Y
= ¸R(γ

, Y )γ

, Y )
K(t) = inf
Y
ϕ
Y
(t) > 0
and let a : R →R be a differentiable function such that
0 ≤ a(t) ≤ K(t), 0 < a(0) < K(0), t ∈ R
Let ϕ be the solution of the system
_
ϕ

+aϕ = 0
ϕ(0) = 1, ϕ

(0) = 0
RIEMANNIAN GEOMETRY 35
and let −t
1
, t
2
be the two zeros of this system. If we denote by X = ϕY ,
then
I
[−t
1
,t
2
]
(X, X)
=
_
t
2
−t
1
¦¸X

, X

) −¸R(γ

, X)γ

, X)¦ dt
= −
_
t
2
−t
1
¸X

+R(γ

, X)γ

, X) dt (ϕ(−t
1
) = 0 = ϕ(t
2
))
= −
_
t
2
−t
1

ϕ +ϕ
2
ϕ
Y
]dt
≤ −
__
−ε
−t
1
+
_
ε
−ε
+
_
t
2
−ε
_

ϕ +ϕ
2
K]dt
< −
__
−ε
−t
1
+
_
ε
−ε
+
_
t
2
−ε
_

ϕ +ϕ
2
a] (K(0) > a(0), K(t) ≥ a(t))
= −
_
t
2
−t
1

+aϕ]ϕdt
= 0
Thus if t
0
= max¦t
1
, t
2
¦, then
Index
_
γ[
[−t
0
,t
0
]
_
≥ Index
_
γ[
[−t
1
,t
2
]
_
≥ n −1 (t
0
= t
1
or t
2
)

11.6 A line in a complete Riemannian manifold is a geodesic
γ : (−∞, ∞) → M
which minimizes the arc length between any two of its points. Show that
if the sectional curvature K of M is strictly positive, M does not have any
lines. By an example show that the theorem is false if K ≥ 0.
Proof. Of course, we take n ≥ 2. By Exercise 5,
∃ t
0
∈ R, ∃ X ∈ V(−t
0
, t
0
), s.t. I
[−t
0
,t
0
]
(X, X) < 0
Then by the formula for the second variation of energy,
γ[
[−t
0
,t
0
]
is not minimizing
Thus M does not have any rays.
If K ≥ 0, the theorem is false, because any ”line” is Euclidean flat space
(R
n
, δ
ij
) is indeed a line!
36 PRC.ZZJ
Concluding Remarks—Lobatchevski Geometry
• 1.4
As a Lie group, endowed with left-invariant metric, the isometry of which...
• 2.8
The Christoffel symbols, a beautiful parallel field...
• 7.10
As a complete manifold, all the geodesics are calculated...
• 8.1
Some extensions...

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