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A CASE STUDY On
Presented by: Espinosa, Rachael Ann B. Granadozin, Chenee L. Tapnio, Reselda
April 22, 2008
TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 ……………………………………………………………. Introduction Theoretical Framework Personal Data History of present Illness Past Personal History Family History …………………………………………………………… General appearance Motor behavior Sensorium and Cognities Perception Attitude and Behavior Defense Mechanism Affective State Speech Thought Process and Content ……………………………………………………………. Psychopathology Related Literature and Studies Drug Study Chapter 4 ……………………………………………………………. Process Recordings Prioritized Psychiatric Nursing Diagnoses Chapter 5 …………………………………………………………… Psychotherapies Implemented
CHAPTER 1 Introduction Paranoid schizophrenia is the most common type of schizophrenia in most parts of the world. The clinical picture is dominated by relatively stable, often paranoid, delusions, usually accompanied by hallucinations, particularly of the auditory variety, and perceptual disturbances. Disturbances of affect, volition, and speech, and catatonic symptoms, are not prominent. With paranoid schizophrenia, your ability to think and function in daily life may be better than with other types of schizophrenia. You may not have as many problems with memory, concentration or dulled emotions. Still, paranoid schizophrenia is a serious, lifelong condition that can lead to many complications, including suicidal behavior. (http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/paranoid-schizophrenia/DS00862) Patients who have paranoid schizophrenia that has thought disorder may be obvious in acute states, but if so it does not prevent the typical delusions or hallucinations from being described clearly. Affect is usually less blunted than in other varieties of schizophrenia, but a minor degree of incongruity is common, as are mood disturbances such as irritability, sudden anger, fearfulness, and suspicion. "Negative" symptoms such as blunting of affect and impaired volition are often present but do not dominate the clinical picture. The course of paranoid schizophrenia may be episodic, with partial or complete remissions, or chronic. In chronic cases, the florid symptoms persist over years and it is difficult to distinguish discrete episodes. The onset tends to be later than in the hebephrenic and catatonic forms. (http://www.schizophrenia.com/szparanoid.htm) According to the World Health Organization, It describes statistics about mental disorders of year (2008). Schizophrenia is a severe form of mental illness affecting about 7 per thousand of the adult population, mostly in the age group 15-35 years. Though the
incidence is low (3-10,000), the prevalence is high due to chronicity. According to the facts it reveals Schizophrenia affects about 24 million people worldwide. Schizophrenia is a treatable disorder, treatment being more effective in its initial stages. More than 50% of persons with schizophrenia are not receiving appropriate care.90% of people with untreated schizophrenia are in developing countries. Care of persons with schizophrenia can be provided at community level, with active family and community involvement. Schizophrenia affects men and women with equal frequency. Schizophrenia often first appears in men in their late teens or early twenties. In contrast, women are generally affected in their twenties or early thirties. In the U.S., mental disorders are diagnosed based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV). (http://www.howstuffworks.com/framed.htm?parent=schizophrenia.htm&url=http://www .nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/the-numbers-count-mental-disorders-in-america.shtml) In the Philippine setting, the disability survey done in 2000 by the National Statistics Office (NSO) found out that mental illness was the 3rd most common form of disability in the country. The prevalence rate of mental disorders was 88 cases per 100,000 population and was highest among the elderly group. This finding was supported by a more recent data from the Social Weather Station Survey commissioned by DOH in 2004. It reveals that 0.7 percent of the total households have a family member afflicted with mental disability. The Baseline Survey for the National Objectives for Health in 2000 stated that the more frequently reported symptoms of an underlying mental health problem were sadness, confusion, forgetfulness, no control over the use of cigarettes and alcohol, and delusions. The most recent study on the prevalence of mental health problems was conducted by the National Epidemiology Center (DOH-NEC) in 2006 which showed revealing results though the target population was limited only to government employees from the 20 national agencies in Metro Manila. Among 327 respondents, 32 percent were
found to have experienced a mental health problem at least once in their lifetime. The three most prevalent diagnoses were: specific phobias (15 %), alcohol abuse (10%), depression and schizophrenia (6%). Mental health problems were significantly associated with the following respondent characteristics: ages 20-29 years, those who have big families, and those who had low educational attainment. The prevalence rate generated from the survey was much higher than those that were previously reported by 17 percent. (http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:sGh-NeA_KcUJ:home.doh.gov.ph/ao/ao20070009.pdf+epidemiology+of+schizophrenia+in+the+philippines&cd=6&hl=tl&ct=clnk&g l=ph) Currently, there is no method for preventing schizophrenia and there is no cure. Minimizing the impact of disease depends mainly on early diagnosis and, appropriate pharmacological and psycho-social treatments. Hospitalization may be required to stabilize ill persons during an acute episode. The need for hospitalization will depend on the severity of the episode. Mild or moderate episodes may be appropriately addressed by intense outpatient treatment. A person with schizophrenia should leave the hospital or outpatient facility with a treatment plan that will minimize symptoms and maximize quality of life. This introduced psychiatric case was chosen primarily because it is the most interesting amongst the cases that were encountered by the group members. It posts relevant manifestations that are psychiatric in nature and the entire case is highly possible to be studied comprehensively within the limited time available. Theoretical Framework Maslow's hierarchy of needs is predetermined in order of importance. It is often depicted as a pyramid consisting of five levels: the first lower level is being associated with physiological needs, while the top levels are termed growth needs associated with psychological needs. Deficiency needs must be met first. Once these are met, seeking to satisfy growth needs drives personal growth. The higher needs in this hierarchy only come into focus when the lower needs in the pyramid are met. Once an individual has moved upwards to the next level, needs in the lower level will no longer be prioritized. If
a lower set of needs is no longer being met, the individual will temporarily re-prioritize those needs by focusing attention on the unfulfilled needs, but will not permanently regress to the lower level. For instance, a businessman at the esteem level who is diagnosed with cancer will spend a great deal of time concentrating on his health (physiological needs), but will continue to value his work performance (esteem needs) and will likely return to work during periods of remission. The lower four layers of the pyramid are what Maslow called "deficiency needs" or "D-needs": physiological, safety and security, love and belonging, and esteem. With the exception of the lowest (physiological) needs, if these "deficiency needs" are not met, the body gives no physical indication but the individual feels anxious and tense.
Personal Data Name of the Patient: Age: Gender: Address: Civil Status: Nationality: Religion: Birthday: Date admitted: Admitting Diagnosis: January 31, 2009 (2:35 pm) Paranoid Schizophrenia Mr. X 40 years old Male Nueva Ecija Single Filipino Roman Catholic
History of Present Illness Patient has previous admission at Mariveles Mental Hospital. He was discharged from male ward on December, 2007. He had 1-2 consultations with Dra. Medina. His parents cannot afford to bring him in Cabanatuan. Upon discharge he resumed smoking and after few months he resumed alcohol intake and he became suspicious and verbally assaultive when not giving cigarettes. After few hours upon admission, he heard his female cousin and a neighbor talking to each other and felt rejuvenated. He went down the house and with carrying an ice pick. He stabbed at his cousin who sustained several abrasions in the forearm and she got a scar on the head and on her right lower quadrant of abdomen. The neighbor placed him in restraints and informed his father who was out in the farm. History of Previous Illness The patient was first admitted on October 4, 200 at Mariveles Mental Hospital with chief complaints of poor appetite, cannot able to sleep and hears a female voice on his ear. A year prior to admission, the patient used illegal drug such as shabu. After using shabu, few months prior to admission he was engaged to abused substances like alcohol
and cigarettes. He started to become violent and shouts to his parents. Few hours upon admission, he was saw laughing by him only, becomes aggressive and always shouting. His father took him to MMH hence the reason for his admission. His condition becomes better and he was discharged on August 19, 2001. But he was then readmitted on November 15, 2002 for the reason of he took things from the stores and insisted that it was his property. On the nest seven succeeding years, he was in and out of MMH with an admitting diagnosis of Undifferentiated Schizophrenia. But early this year, January 9, 2009, he was again readmitted with a new diagnosis of Paranoid Schizophrenia. Family Health and Psychiatric History
Chapter 2 MENTAL STATUS ASSESSMENT A. General Appearance Criteria Good grooming Appropriate facial expression Appropriate posture Maintains eye contact Day 1 ☺ ☺ Day 2 ☺ ☺ Day 3 ☺ ☺ ☺ Day 4 ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺
During nurse-patient interaction, the patient’s grooming was not good prior to morning care but on the later part he improves and shows good grooming. Most of the time, he exhibited appropriate facial expressions and posture during interactions. At first, he cannot display eye contact which may show lack of focused and interest on the topic. As days passes by student nurse established trust on the patient and he maintains good eye contact. B. Motor Behavior Criteria Automatism Hyperkinesthesia Waxy Flexibility Cataplexy Catalepsy Stereotype Compulsion Psychomotor Retardation Echopraxia Catatonic Stupor Catatonic excitement Tics and spasms Impulsiveness Choreiform movements Day 1 ☺ Day 2 ☺ Day 3 ☺ Day 4 ☺
Automatism is defined as repeated purposeless behaviors often indicative of anxiety, such as drumming of fingers, twisting of locks of hair or tapping of foot. All
through out the 4 day nurse-patient interaction, the patient presented automatism. No other motor behaviors were noted. C. Sensorium and Cognitive Criteria Orientation Time Place Person Concentration Memory Remote Recent Immediate retention Day 1 ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ Day 2 ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ Day 3 ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ Day 4 ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺
Sensorium and cognities consist of the assessment of orientation, concentration, and memory. Orientation refers to the client’s recognition of person, place and time. That is, knowing who and where he or she is and the correct day, date and year. (Videbeck, Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing). Memory is an organism's mental ability to store, retain and recall information which is divided into recent and remote memory. Short-term memory allows recall for a period of several seconds to a minute without rehearsal. Long-term memory can store much larger quantities of information for potentially unlimited duration (sometimes a whole life span). During the 4 day nurse-patient interaction, patient’s orientation and memory are stable. He can recall memories from the past and aware of the place, who is he, time, day, and year. Based from the above definition of memory, he has an intact recollection of the past events in his life. D. Perception Criteria Hallucination Visual Olfactory Auditory Tactile Gustatory Liliputian Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4
In the most recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, a delusion is defined as a false belief based on incorrect inference about external reality that is firmly sustained despite what almost everybody else believes and despite what constitutes incontrovertible and obvious proof or evidence to the contrary. The belief is not one ordinarily accepted by other members of the person's culture or subculture. From the 1st up to 4th day of nurse-patient interaction, the patient manifest presence of delusions wherein he always claims that he was the husband of Sheryl Cosim. Other perceptions were not noted. E. Attitudes and Behavior Criteria Cooperation Outgoing Withdrawn Evasive Sarcastic Aggressive Perplexed Apprehensive Arrogant Dramatic Submissive Fearful Seductive Uncooperative Impatient Resistant Impulsive Day 1 ☺ ☺ Day 2 ☺ ☺ Day 3 ☺ ☺ Day 4 ☺ ☺
Attitude is a position of the body or manner of carrying oneself. It is a position or posture of the body appropriate to or expressive of an action, emotion The patient exhibited cooperation in the whole duration of duty and able to answers all questions asked to him and participates in all activities. It was also observed
that he was outgoing with other patient and student nurse. He also shows apprehensiveness throughout the interaction.
F. Defense Mechanism Criteria Denial Repression Suppression Rationalization Reaction Formation Sublimation Compensation Projection Displacement Identification Interjection Conversion Symbolization Dissociation Undoing Regression Substitution Fantasy Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 ☺ ☺ Day 4 ☺ ☺
Defense mechanisms are psychological strategies brought into play by various entities to cope with reality and to maintain self-image. Healthy persons normally use different defenses throughout life. An ego defense mechanism becomes pathological only when its persistent use leads to maladaptive behavior such that the physical and/or mental health of the individual is adversely affected. The purpose of the Ego Defense Mechanisms is to protect the mind/self/ego from anxiety, social sanctions or to provide a refuge from a situation with which one cannot currently cope. The patient manifests fantasy from day 1 to day 4 and shows also denial and reaction formation on the later days of interaction. G. Affective State Criteria Euphoria Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4
Flat affect Blunting Elation Exultation Ecstasy Anxiety Fear Ambivalence Depersonalization Irritability Rage Lability Depression
Affect is a grouping of physic phenomena manifesting under the form of emotions, feelings or passions, always followed by impressions of pleasure or pain, satisfaction or discontentment , liking or disliking, joy or sorrow. (/www.cerebromente.org). Flat affect: A severe reduction in emotional expressiveness. People with depression and schizophrenia often show flat affect. A person with schizophrenia may not show the signs of normal emotion, perhaps may speak in a monotonous voice, have diminished facial expressions, and appear extremely apathetic. (www.medterms.com) The patient sometimes shows flat affect during the whole interaction. H. Speech Criteria Verbigeration Rhyming Punning Mutism Aphasia Unusual rates of speech Unusual Volume of speech Unusual Intonation Unusual Modulation Speech refers to the processes associated with the production and perception of sounds used in spoken language. Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4
During the interaction, the patient does not show any alteration in his speech pattern. He did not experience verbigeration, aphasia, other speech problems.
I. Thought Process and Content Criteria Blocking Flight of Ideas Word Salad Perserveration Neologism Circumstantiality Echolalia Condensation Delusion Phobia Obsession Hypochondriac Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4
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During the first part of our nurse-patient interaction, the patient shows delusion. He also manifested obsession wherein he keeps on insisting that his wife is Sheryl Cosim who is a famous news anchor.
Chapter 3 Psychopathology Book-Based
Related Literature and Studies
What is Schizophrenia? It is a mental illness which affects one person in every hundred. Schizophrenia interferes with the mental functioning of a person and, in the long term, may cause changes to a person's personality. First onset is usually in adolescence or early adulthood. It can develop in older people, but this is not nearly as common. Some people may experience only one or more brief episodes in their lives. For others, it may remain a recurrent or life-long condition. The onset of illness may be rapid, with acute symptoms developing over several weeks, or it may be slow, developing over months or even years. During onset, the person often withdraws from others, gets depressed and anxious and develops extreme fears or obsessions. Although an exact definition of schizophrenia still evades medical researchers, the evidence indicates more and more strongly that schizophrenia is a severe disturbance of the brain's functioning. In The Broken Brain: The Biological Revolution in Psychiatry, Dr. Nancy Andreasen states "The current evidence concerning the causes of schizophrenia is a mosaic. It is quite clear that multiple factors are involved. These include changes in the chemistry of the brain, changes in the structure of the brain, and genetic factors. Viral infections and head injuries may also play a role....finally, schizophrenia is probably a group of related diseases, some of which are caused by one factor and some by another." (p. 222). There are billions of nerve cells in the brain. Each nerve cell has branches that transmit and receive messages from other nerve cells. The branches release chemicals, called neurotransmitters, which carry the messages from the end of one nerve branch to the cell body of another. In the brain afflicted with schizophrenia, something goes wrong in this communication system. Sometimes schizophrenia has a rapid or sudden onset. Very dramatic changes in behaviour occur over a few weeks or even a few days. Sudden onset usually leads fairly
quickly to an acute episode. Some people have very few such attacks in a lifetime; others have more. Some people lead relatively normal lives between episodes. Others find that they are very listless. depressed, and unable to function well. In some, the illness may develop into what is known as chronic schizophrenia. This is a severe, long-lasting disability characterized by social withdrawal, lack of motivation, depression, and blunted feelings. In addition, moderate versions of acute symptoms such as delusions and thought disorder may be present in the chronic disorder. What are the symptoms of schizophrenia? Major symptoms of schizophrenia include:
Delusions - false beliefs of persecution, guilt or grandeur or being under outside control. People with schizophrenia may describe plots against them or of think they have special powers and gifts. Sometimes they withdraw from people or hide to avoid imagined persecution.
Hallucinations - most commonly involving hearing voices. Other less common experiences can include seeing, feeling, tasting or smelling things which to the person are real but which are not actually there.
Thought disorder - where the speech may be difficult to follow; for example, jumping from one subject to another with no logical connection. Thoughts and speech may be jumbled and disjointed. The person may think someone is interfering with their mind.
Other symptoms of schizophrenia include:
Loss of drive - where often the ability to engage in everyday activities such as washing and cooking is lost. This lack of drive, initiative or motivation is part of the illness and is not laziness.
Blunted expression of emotions -where the ability to express emotion is greatly reduced and is often accompanied by a lack of response or an inappropriate response to external events such as happy or sad occasions.
Social withdrawal - this may be caused by a number of factors including the fear that someone is going to harm them, or a fear of interacting with others because of a loss of social skills.
Lack of insight or awareness of other conditions - because some experiences such as delusions and hallucinations are so real, it is common for people with schizophrenia to be unaware they are ill. For this and other reasons, such as medication side-effects, they may refuse to accept treatment which could be essential for their well-being.
Thinking difficulties - a person's concentration, memory, and ability to plan and organise may be affected, making it more difficult to reason, communicate, and complete daily tasks.
What causes schizophrenia? No single cause has been identified, but several factors are believed to contribute to the onset of schizophrenia in some people: Genetic factors A predisposition to schizophrenia can run in families. In the general population, only 1 per cent of people develop it over their lifetime. If one parent suffers from schizophrenia, the children have a 10 per cent chance of developing the condition - and a 90 per cent chance of not developing it. Biochemical factors Certain biochemical substances in the brain are believed to be involved in this condition, especially a neurotransmitter called dopamine. One likely cause of this chemical imbalance is the person's genetic predisposition to the illness. Family relationships
No evidence has been found to support the suggestion that family relationships cause the illness. However, some people with schizophrenia are sensitive to any family tension which, for them, may be associated with relapses. Environment It is well recognised that stressful incidents often precede the onset of schizophrenia. They often act as precipitating events in vulnerable people. People with schizophrenia often become anxious, irritable and unable to concentrate before any acute symptoms are evident. This can cause relationships to deteriorate, possibly leading to divorce or unemployment. Often these factors are then blamed for the onset of the illness when, in fact, the illness itself has caused the crisis. It is not, therefore, always clear whether stress is a cause or a result of illness. Drug use The use of some drugs, especially cannabis and LSD, is likely to cause a relapse in schizophrenia. Source: www.mental-health-matters.com Paranoid Schizophrenia People with paranoid schizophrenia, the most common form of the disorder, mainly experience hallucinations. They tend to believe that others are poisoning, harassing, or plotting against them. They may also hear voices, which order them to do things. Contrary to popular belief, people suffering from this type of schizophrenia are actually not prone to violence; in fact, they generally prefer to be left alone. Common Symptoms of Paranoid Schizophrenia For people with paranoid schizophrenia, the primary symptoms are delusions or auditory hallucinations. People with paranoid schizophrenia usually do not have thought disorder, disorganized behavior, or affective flattening.
People with paranoid schizophrenia have grandiose delusions. For example, they may believe that others are deliberately:
• • • • •
Cheating them Harassing them Poisoning them Spying on them Plotting against them or the people they care about.
Auditory hallucinations can include hearing "voices" that may:
• • • •
Comment on the person's behavior Order him or her to do things Warn of impending danger Talk to each other (usually about the affected person).
Paranoid Schizophrenia and Violence People with paranoid schizophrenia are not especially prone to violence and often prefer to be left alone. Studies show that if people have no record of criminal violence before they develop schizophrenia and are not substance abusers, they are unlikely to commit crimes after they become ill. Most violent crimes are not committed by people with paranoid schizophrenia, and most people with schizophrenia do not commit violent crimes. Substance abuse almost always increases violent behavior, whether or not the person has schizophrenia. If someone with paranoid schizophrenia becomes violent, their violence is most often directed at family members and takes place at home. Source: http://schizophrenia.emedtv.com
Name of drug Date ordered/ Date started/ Date changed Route/ Dosage/ Frequency of administration General action/mechanism of action Indication / Purpose Client’s response to medicine with actual s/e
Date Ordered: January 31 2009 Date Started: Clonazepam January 31 2009 Date Ended: ---------------------
Route of Chemical Effect: Administration: May act by Per Orem facilitating effects of Dosage and inhibitory Frequency: neurotransmitter 2mg HS GABA. Therapeutic Effect: Prevents or stops seizure activity.
For patients with acute manic episodes, panic disorders, or seizures.
Administratio n of the drug was not actually observed
NURSING RESPONSIBILITIES: BEFORE: • Explain the importance and action of the drugs. • • Tell the possible reaction or side effects of the drugs. Monitor patient for any adverse reaction.
DURING: • The client may sip small amount of water • • Stay with the client for at least 15-30 minutes after giving the drug Be alert for adverse reaction and drug interaction
Name of drug Generic Name: Haloperido l
Date ordered/ Date started/ Date changed Date Ordered: January 31, 2009 Date Started: January 31, 2009 Date Ended: --------------------
Route/ Dosage/ Frequency of administration Route of Administration : Per Orem Dosage and Frequency: 5mg tab tid
General action/mechanis m of action Chemical Effect: May block postsynaptic dopamine receptors in brain. Therapeutic Effect: Decreases psychotic behaviors.
Indication / Purpose This is given to the patient with chronically psychotic disorder who needs prolonged therapy.
Client’s response to medicine with actual s/e Administratio n of the drug was not actually observed
NURSING RESPONSIBILITIES: BEFORE: • Explain the importance and action of the drugs. • • Tell the possible reaction or side effects of the drugs. Monitor patient for any adverse reaction.
DURING: • Stay with the client for at least 15-30 minutes after giving the drug • Monitor patient for tardive dyskinesia, which may not appear until months or years later and may disappear spontaneously or persists for life despite stopping use of drug.
CHAPTER 5 PSYCHOTHERAPIES IMPLEMENTED Psychotherapy- treatment of mental disorders and behavioral disturbances using verbal and nonverbal communication, as opposed to agents such as drugs or electric shock, to alter maladaptive patterns of coping, relieve emotional disturbance, and encourage personality growth. Also called psychotherapeutics. Individual Psychotherapy- Through one-on-one conversations, this approach focuses on the patient's current life and relationships within the family, social, and work. Group Psychotherapy- Group psychotherapy is a special form of therapy in which a small number of people meet together under the guidance of a professionally trained therapist to help themselves and one another. Group therapy helps people learn about themselves and improve their interpersonal relationships. It addresses feelings of isolation, depression or anxiety. And it helps people make significant changes so they feel better about the quality of their lives. REMOTIVATION THERAPY Definition: A simple group therapy which aims to bridge the fantasy- world of the Psychotics to the real world. Is a technique of simple group therapy, objective in nature, used with a group of patients in an effort to reach the “unwounded” areas of each patient’s personality & to get them back into reality. Title of the poem: Ang Bulaklak The short poem describes the importance of flower in our nature. Goals: To stimulate patients to be fellow explore the real world.
To develop their ability to communicated and share ideas and experiences with the other people. To develop feelings of acceptance. To promote group harmony and identification. Role of the nurse: To be a facilitator in the activity To encourage clients feeling about the topic To present the reality to the client about the poem. NEWSPAPER THERAPY Definition: Newspaper therapy is giving information to the clients about events and what is happening outside Newspaper therapy is cutting clippings from newspaper and sharing this information to the clients and knowing their feelings and ideas about the information given. Providing basic information about places/events may motivate the clients to follow the medical regimen to be well. The facilitator let the clients to read the topic, then ask them questions. Title of the cut news: Boxing The news was all about boxing competition held in Araneta Coliseum & who won for that competition. Goals: To give information to the clients on what is happening outside and to give latest news today. To encouraged emotions and reactions about the news
Role of the Nurse: To introduce topics that will encourage clients participation/cooperation To assess level of intelligence of the clients To encourage the clients to express/verbalize feelings/ideas regarding to the topic PLAY THERAPY Definition: A form of psychotherapy used to help them express or act out their experiences, feelings, and problems by playing with dolls, toys, and other play material. Name of the Play: Ball catching Procedure: The clients are instructed to catch the ball with their respective partners. Goals: To establish rapport since it is the first recreational activity of the client To encourage release/ express clients emotions To let the client learn on how to cooperate To let the client play freely and actively Role of the Nurse: To be the facilitator of the game To let and encourage the clients to participate on the play DANCE THERAPY
Definition Dance is the most fundamental of the arts, involving direct expression through the body. Dance /movement therapy effects changes in feelings, cognition, physical functioning, and behavior. Title of the dance song: Cha-Cha-Cha Facilitators are in the front, dancing different steps, in able for the client to follow easily the facilitators. Goals: To encourage release/ express clients emotions To let the client learn on how to dance in simple steps To let the client dance freely and actively Role of the Nurse: To be the facilitator of the game To let and encourage the clients to participate on the dance SONG THERAPY Definition: A kind of recreational therapy under the music category, which connects us with our creativity, innate wisdom and our vast inner resources for growth and wellbeing. It has a soothing and pleasing effect and provides for emotion and release. Title of the song: Tag-ulan Procedure: Using the visual aids that has the written lyrics, the patients read it first. The nurse sings the song with the use of guitars.
Nurses, together with the patients, sing the song. Lastly, let the patients sing to the tune of guitars.
Goals: Develop patient’s ability to read and reflect. Develop patient’s listening skill. To encourage them to participate and cooperate. Patients will learn to express emotions and feelings. Role of the Nurse: Explain the procedure to the patients. To be a good facilitator. To be an active participant too. To promote trust. ART THERAPY Definition: is the use of art materials for self-expression and reflection. Name: House-Tree-Person Procedure: Patients are provided with crayons and 3 pieces of paper as drawing materials. They are then asked to draw a house, afterwards a tree, and lastly, a person on each of the papers with the use of crayons. Series of questions constitute the post drawing interrogations. During post drawing phase, paients are given opportunity to define, describe, and interpret the objects drawn.
Goals: To obtain data concerning patient’s progress. To aid in the establishment of rapport between the nurse and the patient. Help the patients gain insight through interpretations. Measure patient’s self perception and attitudes. Role of Nurses: Explain the procedure of the activity. Provide the means of the therapy (crayons, papers). Interrogate patients during post drawing phase. Assessing and interpreting answers based on Buck’s HTP interpretation. Develop a deeper nurse-patient relationship through building of trust. OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY Definition: Any activity, mental or physical, prescribed and guided to aid an individual’s recovery from diseases or injury. This activity excludes competition and pressure. There is opportunity for creativeness and produce something tangible out of patient’s own thinking and imagination. Self confidence and personal achievements are also experienced. Title: Designing Picture Frame Procedure: Designing Picture Frame Nurses play a great role in making this therapy successful. Nurses give picture frame. Different shapes of cut cartolina & different styles of stickers are also given along with the glue. Patients are asked to design their picture frame wherever they like.
Goals: Expose patients’ hidden abilities in designing and pasting. Increase patients’ self confidence. Assess patients’ motor and intellectual functioning. Role of Nurses: To select the most useful activity. To facilitate the activity successfully. To assist the patients. To promote positive personality growth
BIBLIOGRAPHY Videbeck, Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing, Third Edition Shives, Isaacs, Basic Concepts of Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing Rebraca et. al., Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing, 5th Edition Nurses Dictionary, Second Edition 7th Edition Nursing Diagnosis Handbook: A Guide to Planning Care by Betty J Auckley and Gail B. Ladwig http://www.answers.com/topic/psychosis http://www.emedicine.com/med/byname/brief-psychotic-disorder.htm http://www.hawaii.edu/hivandaids/Philippines_Mental_Health_Country_Profile.pdf http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychotic_disorder
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