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RADAR is a system, which uses radio waves to detect and fix the position of distinct objects or targets. RADAR is not a signal instrument but an electronic device which includes various techniques used for the purpose of detection and location of distant object or targets. Radar is basically a means of gathering information about distant objects or targets by sending electromagnetic waves (Radio waves) at them and analying the echoes.
Radar was developed during second world war, by the scientist of Great Britain, United states of America, Germany and France simultaneously.
Radar may be put to various uses both civilian and military. The main civilian uses of Radar is an navigational aid. Various regions such as mountains, aircrafts, aeroplanes, cities, rivers, oceans etc.
Government Polytechnic, Washim
H. Reflects some of this energy back to the transmitter. This is accomplished through a kind of Time Division Multiplexing (T. Objects such as aircrafts.Radar System FUNDAMENTALS OF RADAR Radar consist of a transmitter and a receivers.M.D. ships.) arrangements since the radio energy is often sent out in the from of short pulse. The transmitter is capable of sending out a large U. mountains buildings etc. or micro wave power through the antenna. each connected to a directional antenna. The time it takes the radio wave to complete it's two way journey indicates the distance between sender and target. The receiver collects as much energy as possible as from the reflected echoes in it's direction by the target and then treats and displays this information in a suitable way.F. The receiving antenna is very often the same as the transmitting antenna. Government Polytechnic. Washim 2 .
The duplexer should be automatic and disconnect the unwanted hardware when operated in a particular direction. a receiver which collects the echo signal received after reflection from target. Since.Radar System PRINCIPLE OF RADAR The block diagram of pulsed radar system is shown in fig. It is possible to detect in height speed and direction of travel of target by the time takes for the echo to come back after reflection to indicate the data. there should be switching system called duplexer. analyses this echo signal and displays it on radar screen. duplexer. display unit and highly directional antenna. the same directional antenna has to be used for the transmitting electromagnetic (EM) waves and for receiving it after reflection. Thus radar has five essential component viz. Washim 3 . Basically a radar system consist of transmitter which transmit microwave power through a highly directional antenna. Government Polytechnic. receiver. transmitter.
Washim 4 . Government Polytechnic. There are two types of modulator used i. Then o/p of this tube give to the ATR switch. TRANSMITTER SECTION : It consists of trigger source.e. Anti transmit receiver tube and Transmit receiver tube switch with antenna. Klystron or TWTA amplifier depending on specific requirement. Generally active switch modulator is used. Magnetron is commonly used because it can develop large power. TRIGGER SOURCE : It provided pulses of particular frequency to modulator and establish the rate at which pulse are to be transmitted. Modulator.Radar System PULSED RADAR SYSTEM The block diagram shows the arrangement of a high power pulsed radar set. out put tube. MODULATION : It provides rectangular voltages pulse which are used as supply voltage for o/p tube. it consist of two basic transmitter section and receiver section. OUTPUT TUBE : The output may be magnetron. tine pulsing and active switch modulator.
The capacity of TWTA 250 kw and to effective between 0. If amplifier. RF AMPR : It is generally low noise TWTA amplifier which amplifies the echo signal received from target. Government Polytechnic. The frequency of local oscillator is greater than RF signal. detector. MIXER STAGE : Mixer gets two signals from RF amplifier and local oscillator. it consist of TR and ATR switch.5 GH and95G Hz. Washim 5 . local oscillator. video amplifier and display unit. It consist of RF amplifier mixer. DUPLEXER : The information obtained from Antenna is feed to receiver section by switching CKT called duplexer. While ATR is open CKT.Radar System RECEIVER SECTION : The function of receiver is just like it super heterodyne. During transmission ATR acts as short CKT and during reception TR act's as short CKT. The o/p from mixer is selected at difference I frequency is about 30 MHZ.
Transmitted frequency in MTI system is a sum of o/p of two oscillator produced in mix . It belongs to klystron with narrow band filter and reduces noise. Fig shows MTI Radar system compare a set echo received during screen the echo in phase are cancelled out this applic to due to stationary object but for moving target there is change in phase so they are not cancelled in less time. Mixes 1 &2 are identical and both use same local oscillator which makes doppler ship at intermediate frequency. It is one effective variable frequency oscillator having range 1 GHz to 100 GHz.Radar System LOCAL OSCILLATOR: The local oscillator in Radar is reflex klystron with narrow band filter and reduces noise. Washim 6 . It belongs to klystron family of microwave generator.The first is stable local oscillator and second is conetent oscillator. So the transmitted and reference signal are lock in phase and sent to be content the phase different between transmitted and receiving signal may be constant for fixed target which vary for moving target to doppler ship and thus the position of moving target is detected according to change in Reflected frequency in small time. Government Polytechnic. It also the detection of moving target whose shoce are t100 times smaller than stationary target. The conetent oscillator is used to generate RF signals as well as for a reference of phase detector and the Mix 2 do not produce change in phase.
It sends out continues sine waves rather than pulse. VIDEO AMPLIFIRES : Video Amplifiers has same band width as that of if Amplifiers it amplifies the detector o/p and then feed to display Unit.R. generally low noise transistorized amplifier operates between DETECTOR : Since the vacuum tube or transistor do not operates at microwave frequency we use short key diode or crystal diode. A simple Doppler Radar is shown in fig.1. In this way pulse Radar system works. Such as C. Washim 7 . 5.Radar System CONTINUOUS WAVE RADAR IF AMPLIFIRES : It is 30 MHz to 60 MHz.T which shows the position of target. Government Polytechnic. DISPLAY UNIT: The o/p of Radar Receiver is presented to the operator in the form the mutual indication. It uses the Doppler effect to detect the frequency change caused by a moving target and displays this as a relative velocity.
It can be modified by using a local oscillator. The isolation of atypical circulator is of the order of 30 dB. This frequency being in the audio range hence the detector output can be amplified with an audio amplifier before feeding it to frequency counter. The disadvantage of simple Doppler cw radar is that it is not sensitive. the circular is used to provided isolation between the transmitter and receiver. Washim 8 .the Doppler frequency AF . The output of this mixer is amplified and demodulated again and the signal from second detector is Doppler frequency. except that its output is shown as Kilometers or Miles per hour. so that some of the transmitted signal leaks into the receiver. When its sign is lost then it is not possible to say the target is going or Government Polytechnic. and the sum is fed to the receiver mixer. The counter is a normal one. 5. This also receives the Doppler shifted signal from its antenna and presents an output difference frequency that is typically 30 MHz + or . This is quite alright as the signal can be mixed in the detector with returns from the target and the difference is the Doppler frequency. The type of diode detector which has been used to accommodate the high incoming frequency is not a good device at the audio output frequency because to the modulation noise which exhibits at a low frequency such a modified version of radar set is shown in fig.Radar System Because the transmission is continuous. rather actual than actual frequency in hertz.2 A small portion of transmitter output is mixed with the O/P of a local oscillator.
ADVANTAGES & APPLICATION OF CW RADAR SYSTEM Government Polytechnic.Radar System approaching away. Washim 9 . since there is no longer mixers there was in simpler Doppler radar (see Fig. but this is not compulsion. instead of two antenna single antenna with circulator can be used. 5.1). Extra sensitivity is obtained by low noise. Separate antennas increase the isolation between transmitter and receiver section of radar. The overall receiver system is same as superhetrodyne. Sue leakage is undesirable because it brings with it the hum an noise from the transmitter and thus degrade the receive performance. A separate transmitting and receiving antennas are shown in Fig.
It is used in radar speed meters used by police. the doppler frequency will be incorrect.Radar System ADVANTAGES: 1) CW radar gives accurate measurement of relative velocity of the target. Stationary target cannot affect results will not yield doppler frequency. Electronic Communication System Government Polytechnic. Simple circuitry and smaller size than that of pulsed radar system. 2) Power consumption is very low unlike a pulse radar because of low transmitted power. using low transmitted power . A large range of target velocities can be measured quickly and accurately. It is used in echo of climb meter for vertical take off planes. 1) It is limited in the maximum power it transmits and this places a limit on its maximum range. 2) If a number of simultaneous target are presents. BIBLOGRAPHY 1. DISADVANTAGE OF CW DOPPLER RADAR. APPLICATION OF CW RADAR : 1) 2) 3) CW doppler radar is used in o/r craft navigation for speed measurement. 3) 4) 5) 6) CW doppler radar receiver is working all time and pulses loss does not occurs. Washim 10 .
Radar System - George Keneddy 2. A. Deshpande P. Mazda Government Polytechnic. Washim 11 . Deshpande N. D. Rangole 3. Electronics Engineers Reference Book F. Communication Electronic D. F. K.