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4. Riemann , , Darboux
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Riemann ,
Darboux Darboux
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, Riemann ,
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7.
Peano. ,
, . Foundations of Analysis E.
Landau . ()
() Dedekind. , ,
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Mathematical Analysis, T. Apostol.
Dierential and Integral Calculus, R. Courant.
The Theory of Functions of Real Variables, L. Graves.

iv

Foundations of Analysis, E. Landau.


Principles of Mathematical Analysis, W. Rudin.
A Course of Higher Mathematics, V. Smirnov.
Calculus, M. Spivak.
The Theory of Functions, E. C. Titchmarsh.
, ,

Calculus, T. Apostol.
Introduction to Calculus and Analysis, R. Courant - F. John.
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, . (http://users.uoa.gr/apgiannop/).
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vi

1 .
1.1 R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3.1 .
1.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3.3 . . .
1.3.4 .
1.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5 Supremum inmum. . . . . . . . .

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3
3
5
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30
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51
52
59
61

2 .
2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.1 , , . . . . . .
2.1.2 n N . n N.
2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5 . e, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6 Supremum, inmum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.9 limsup liminf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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3 .
3.1 . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.1 . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.2 .
3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.3 , , . . . . .
3.3 . . . . . . . .
3.4 . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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70
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. 80
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. 84
. 86
. 88
. 99
. 101
. 101
. 102

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3.5.3 .
3.5.4 . . . . . .
3.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7 Cauchy. . . . . . . . . . . . .
4 .
4.1 . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.2 . . . . . . . .
4.2 . . . .
4.3 . .
4.3.1 . .
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4.5 . .
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103
105
107
110

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112
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112
114
120
126
127
129
138
146

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151
151
151
152
155
159
161
168
171
177
178
180
185
186
187
190
191
193
199
199
202
206
206
207
211
213
215

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221
221
224
224
229

5 .
5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.3 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.6 . . . . . . . . . . .
5.6.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.6.2 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.7 .
5.7.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.7.2 . . . . . . . . . . .
5.7.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.7.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.7.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.8 . . . . . . . . . . .
5.8.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.8.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.9 , . . . . . . . . . . .
5.9.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.9.2 .
5.10 Taylor, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.12 . . . . . . . . . . .
6 Riemann.
6.1 Darboux. . . . .
6.2 . Darboux. . . .
6.2.1 .
6.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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6.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
6.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
6.5 . Riemann. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
7 .
7.1 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.1 . . . . . . . .
7.3.2 . . . . .
7.3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.4 . . . . . . . . .
7.3.5 . . . . . . .
7.4 Taylor, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5 Riemann. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.4 Simpson. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.6.1 .
7.6.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.6.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.7 Riemann. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.7.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.7.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.7.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.7.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.7.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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257
257
257
258
262
269
269
270
272
275
280
292
293
294
294
295
295
296
297
299
301
306
306
307
310
312
314

8 .
8.1 . . . . . . .
8.2 - . . . . . . .
8.3 p- . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4 . . . . . . . . .
8.4.1 . . . . . . . . .
8.4.2 . . . . . . .
8.4.3 . . . . . .
8.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.5.1 .
8.5.2 Cauchy . . . . . . .
8.5.3 . . . . . . . .

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318
318
323
330
334
334
335
338
344
344
348
350

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9 .
355
9.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
9.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
9.3 Weierstrass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
ix

10 .
10.1 . .
10.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3 Taylor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.4 . . . . . . .
10.4.1 . . . . .
10.4.2 . . . .

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11 .
11.1 . . . . . . . . . . .
11.2 - . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . .
11.4 . . . . .
11.4.1 . . .
11.4.2 . . . . . . .
11.4.3 .
11.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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371
371
380
392
398
398
400

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404
404
410
414
414
415
420
420
423
424
433

II .

440

12 .
12.1 Peano. . . . . . . .
12.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.2.4 . . . . . . .
12.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.3.4 R+ . . . . . . . . .
12.3.5 . . . . . . . . .
12.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.4.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.4.5 R. . . . . . . . . .
12.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.5.1 Cauchy. . . . . .
12.5.2 . .
12.6 : R N. . . . .
x

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442
442
442
445
446
448
448
449
451
453
454
455
456
458
460
461
464
464
465
466
467
467
468
468
469
470

12.6.1 R. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470
12.6.2 R. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471
12.6.3 , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474

xi

xii

I
.

1
.
1.1

R .

R. ,
, , N, Z Q.
R, .
R
, .
.
. R = R {, +} R. +,
, .
R.
. , < x x < + x R < +.
(+) = () = +.
(+) + x = +, x + (+) = +, () + x = , x + () =
x R (+) + (+) = +, () + () = .
, (+) + (), () + (+) .
(+) x = +, x () = +, () x = , x (+) =
x R (+) () = +, () (+) = .
(+)(+), ()() .
()x = x() = x > 0, ()x =
x() = x < 0 ()() = +, ()() = .
()0, 0() .
1
1
= 0,
= 0.
+
1
0 .

= x > 0,
= x < 0
x
x
x
= 0 x.
x0 ,
,
, .
0

, | + | = +, | | = +.

( ) ( ) .
,
: (+) + (+) = +. ,
3

,

: (+) (+)
. ,
( )
, , :
(+)0 , ,
.
.
. 1. , , (a, u, x, m, n, , ) (M, S ) ,
R. , , , ,
R.
, .
: a R, (a, +], A R, A [, 3].
2. N = {1, 2, 3, . . . }. , 0 .
.
1. - ( )

( ) ( )
.
2. R R . ,
(, , )
R R ,
. : (xy)z = x(yz)
x, y, z R , xy, yz, (xy)z, x(yz).
3. x y < 0 z w < 0, 0 < yw xz.
4. [] x y, z w, t s x + z + t = y + w + s, x = y, z = w, t = s.
[] 0 < x y, 0 < z w, 0 < t s xzt = yws, x = y, z = w, t = s.
5. .
[] |x| a a x a.
[] |x| < a a < x < a.
[] :
||x| |y|| |x y| |x| + |y|.
[] |x + y| = |x| + |y| x, y 0 x, y 0.
[] |x + y + z| |x| + |y| + |z|. , |x + y + z| = |x| + |y| + |z|
x, y, z 0 x, y, z 0.
6. .
a x b a y b, |x y| b a.

7. .
++an
[] b1 , . . . , bn > 0 ab11 , . . . , abnn < u, ab11 ++b
< u.
n
n
[] b1 , . . . , bn > 0 ab11 , . . . , abnn > l, ab11 ++a
> l.
++bn
8. []
x : |x + 1| > 2, |x 1| < |x + 1|,
x+3
x
> 3x+1
, (x 2)2 4, |x2 7x| > x2 7x, (x1)(x+4)
> 0, (x1)(x3)
0.
x+2
(x7)(x+5)
(x2)2
[] x
x : (, 3], (2, +),
(3, 7), (, 2) (1, 4) (7, +), [2, 4] [6, +), [1, 4) (4, 8], (, 2] [1, 4)
[7, +).

1.2

R, .
, ,
:
, , . , A, B -
A B,
: ,
.
. - A, B a b a A, b B.
a b a A, b B.
R
. , 1.5
Q .
1.1. b n N n > b.
. - - b n b
n N. B = {b | n b n N} .
, n b n N, b B. ,
n b n N, b B. 1 < , 1 B.
n N n > 1 , , n + 1 > . , n + 1 N.
. a > 0 n N

1
n

< a.

. 1.1 b = a1 .
1.1. x k Z k x < k + 1.
. 1.1 n N n > x m N
m > x. l = m, l, n l < x < n.
, k Z, k x k + 1 x.
l x, k x k Z, k l. , ,
n > l n > x. , ,
k Z k x k + 1 > x, k x < k + 1.
k k x < k+1 . k x < k+1
k 0 x < k 0 + 1 k, k 0 Z. k < k 0 + 1 k 0 < k + 1, 1 < k 0 k < 1.
k 0 k Z, k 0 k = 0, k 0 = k.
5

. k Z k x < k + 1,
1.1, x [x].
, [x] x < [x] + 1 [x] Z.
. a, b, a < b r Q a < r < b.
1
. 1.1, n N n > ba
. na < [na] + 1
m
na + 1 < nb. m = [na] + 1, a < n < b,
r=m
a < r < b.
n

.
1. . 6 .
[] a > 0, a 0.
: a > 0. , a, > 0 < a.
[] a b + > 0, a b.
[] |a b| > 0, a = b.
[] x a x < b, b a. x a x > b,
b a.
2. [a, b)
(a, +) .
3. A = (, 0], B = [0, +)
: a b a A, b B.
A = (, 0], B = (0, +), A = (4, 2), B = (2, +)
A = (, 0), B = [1, 13].
4. 2.9.
- A, B A B = R a < b a A, b B.
A = (, ), B = [, +) A = (, ], B = (, +).
5. [] - A, B a b a A, b B
> 0 a A, b B b a .
a b a A, b B.
[] - A, B 0 < a b a A, b B
> 0 a A, b B ab 1 + .
a b a A, b B.
6. [] a n1 n N, a 0.
[] a b + n1 n N, a b.
[] |a b| n1 n N, a = b.
1: 1
R .
7. A = { n1 | n N}, B = { n1 | n N}
. a b a A, b B.
A = {r Q | r < 0}, B = {r Q | r > 0}.

8. .
[] r a r Q, r < b, b a.
[] {r Q | r > a} = {r Q | r > b}, a = b.
[] {r Q | r < a} {r Q | r > b} = , a b.
[] {r Q | r a} {r Q | r b} = Q, b a.
9. [] , , .

6= 0 .
[] ,
, .
10. .
[b]: n Z n > b, n Z
n b, n N n > b n N n b.
a > 0, [ a1 ] n N n1 < a.
11. [] k Z, [x + k] = [x] + k.
[] [x + y] = [x] + [y] [x + y] = [x] + [y] + 1.
[x + y + z].
[] [x] + [x + n1 ] + + [x + n2
] + [x + n1
] = [nx] n N, n 2.
n
n
12. k N, a < b. b a,
r (a, b) r = m
, m, n Z, 1 n k.
n

1.3

1.3.1

. , n N, a n an = a a,
n a.
1
1
, a 6= 0, n Z, n < 0, a0 = 1 an = an
= aa
,
|n| = n a.
00 .
, n Z , (a)n = an , n Z ,
(a)n = an . , n Z , an > 0 a 6= 0. n Z
, an > 0, a > 0, an < 0, a < 0.
1.2 .
.
1.2. 1. :
ax bx = (ab)x , ax ay = ax+y , (ax )y = (ay )x = axy .
2. 0 < a < b, (i) ax < bx , x > 0, (ii) a0 = b0 = 1, (iii) ax > bx , x < 0.
3. x < y, (i) ax < ay , a > 1, (ii) 1x = 1y = 1, (iii) ax > ay , 0 < a < 1.
. 1. : x > 0, ax bx = (a a)(b b) = (ab) (ab) = (ab)x .
x > 0.
: x, y > 0, ax ay = (a a)(a a) = a a = ax+y .
x, y > 0.
7

: x, y > 0, (ax )y = ax ax = (a a) (a a) = a a = axy .


x, y > 0 (ay )x = axy
(ax )y = axy x, y.
2. (i) a < b x , ax = a a <
b b = bx . (iii) (i) (ii) .
3. (i) 1 < a y x , ax = (a a)(1 1) <
(a a)(a a) = ay . (iii) (i) (ii) .
. - , 1.2
, , R
.
1.3.2

, 1 6 1.2.
.
Bernoulli, , .
Bernoulli.
(1 + a)n 1 + na,

n N, a 1.

a > 1, a 6= 0 a = 1, n 2, .
. .
Bernoulli 8.
Bernoulli a 0 6[] 2.7.
1.2. n N, a 0 x 0 xn = a.
. a = 0, , , xn = a 0.
a > 0. 0 n = a, , , > 0.
Y = {y | y > 0, y n a} Z = {z | z > 0, z n a}.
y0 = min{a, 1} z0 = max{a, 1}. y0 Y z0 Z,
Y, Z . y Y , z Z y n a z n , y n z n ,
y, z > 0, y z. , y z
y Y , z Z.
n = a.
0 < < . < , Z. 0 ( ( ) )n < a.
n
, ( )n < a. Bernoulli, an > 1 1 n ,
n a
n a
n
n1 < . > 0, < , > 0. n n1 0,
n a.
n
> 0. + > , + Y . +
( 0 )n(+)
( >a.)n
n

n
,
, ( +) > a. Bernoulli, a > + = 1 + 1n +
n

)
)

a
< +
< , , (a
< . > 0, (a
0
na
na
na
n
, , a.
n a n a n = a.
xn = a. 1 , 2 > 0, 1 n = a
2 n = a, 1 n = 2 n , 1 = 2 .

1.2 4.4 7
2.5.
. n N, a 0, - xn = a,
1.2, n- a n a .

, n 0 = 0 n a > 0, a > 0.
1.2 - xn = a. 1.3
; ,
1.2, .

1.3.
1. n N , xn = a : (i) ,

n
a n a , a > 0, (ii) , n 0 = 0, a = 0, (iii) ,
a < 0.

2. n N , xn = a : (i) n a , a > 0,
(ii) n 0 = 0, a = 0, (iii) n a , a < 0.
- - .
.

1.4. n,k. n k k n-
. , n k , .
.
k n- , m N k = mn .

n k = m
, , .

n
, k . n k = ml , m, l N -
- m, l > 1.
n
k = mln , ln k = mn . ,
> 1 , . ,
l ln k, mn = mn1 m. l > 1
m, l mn1 = mn2 m. , l mn2 = mn3 m.
, l m0 = 1. l = 1, k = mn k
n- .
, , R .
1.2 ,
, .
1.5. R \ Q .
. 2 , 1.4
.

, , , Q :
2. 1.2 Q. ,
x2 = 2 Q.
. a, b, a < b x R \ Q a < x < b.
. c. a c < b c, r Q a c < r < b c.
r + c a < r + c < b.

1.3.3

l k
k
m
n
1.1. a > 0, m, k Z, n, l N m
=
.

(
a)
=
(
a) .
n
l

nl
. (( n a)m )nl = (( n a)n )ml = aml
(( l a)k )
= (( l a)l )kn = akn .

ml

= akn ,
(( n a)m )nl = (( l a)k )nl . , ( n a)m > 0
l k ml = kn, a
( a) > 0, ( n a)m = ( l a)k .
. , a > 0, r Q. m Z, n N r = m
.
n
m
n
, 1.1,
( a) . ,
ar = ( n a)m .
, r Q, r > 0, 0r = 0.

, 0r , 0r = ( n 0)m r = m
, m, n N. ,
n

1
n
a n = a , a 0, n N. , ar ,
ar > 0 a > 0, r Q.
1.2 .
.
x = m
y = kl ,
m, k
Z, n, l N.
n
, (ax )n = (( n a)m )n = (( n a)n )m = am ,
(ax )n = am :
1. : a, b > 0. (ax bx )n = (ax )n (bx )n = am bm = (ab)m = ((ab)x )n ,
ax bx > 0 (ab)x > 0, ax bx = (ab)x . a = 0
b = 0 .
: x + y = ml+kn
. a > 0, (ax ay )nl = (ax )nl (ay )nl = ((ax )n )l ((ay )l )n =
nl
(am )l (ak )n = aml akn = aml+kn = (ax+y )nl , ax ay > 0 ax+y > 0,
ax ay = ax+y . a = 0 .
: xy = mk
. a > 0. ((ax )y )nl = (((ax )y )l )n = ((ax )k )n = ((ax )n )k =
nl
(am )k = amk = (axy )nl , (ax )y > 0 axy > 0, (ax )y = axy . (ay )x = axy
(ax )y = axy x, y. a = 0
.
2. (i) x > 0, m > 0. (ax )n = am < bm = (bx )n , ax > 0 bx > 0,
ax < bx . (iii) (i) (ii) .
3. (i) (ax )nl = ((ax )n )l = (am )l = aml (ay )nl = ((ay )l )n = (ak )n = akn .
x < y n, l > 0, ml < kn. aml < akn , (ax )nl < (ay )nl . ax > 0
ay > 0, ax < ay . (iii) (i) (ii) .
1.3.4

a > 1. r, s, t Q, s < r < t as < ar < at .



, s, t Q, x R \ Q, s < x < t as < ax < at .
as , at ax . ,
ax :
as < ax < at s, t Q, s < x < t.
1.2. a > 1.
1. b > 1 n N bn > a.
1
2. b a n n N, b 1.

10

. 1. n N n >
bn = (1 + b 1)n 1 + n(b 1) > a.
2. 1.

a1
b1

. Bernoulli,

1.3. 1. a > 1, x R \ Q. as < < at


s, t Q, s < x < t.
2. a > 1, x Q. as < < at s, t Q, s < x < t
ax .
. 1. x R \ Q. S = {as | s Q, s < x} T = {at | t Q, t > x}.
S, T , s, t Q s < x < t. , S
T . , s < x < t s < t ,
a > 1, s, t Q, as < at . S, T
, as at s, t Q, s < x < t.
as < < at . ,
0
, s0 , t0 Q s < s0 < x < t0 < t, as < as
0
at < at , , as < < at s, t Q, s < x < t.
2. x Q. = ax , as < < at
s, t Q, s < x < t.
, 1 2,
. 1 , 2 as < 1 < at as < 2 < at
s, t Q, s < x < t. 12 < ats 12 < ats s, t Q, s < x < t.
1
1
, n N s, t Q x 2n
< s < x < t < x + 2n
.
1
1
2

1
1
t s < n , , 1 < a n 2 < a n .
n N, 1.2 21 1 12 1, 1 = 2 .
. a > 1, x R \ Q, ax
1.3.
, , ax as < ax < at s, t Q,
s < x < t .
1.3, a > 1, x Q
ax .
9 1.5 ax ,
a > 1 x R \ Q.
. a = 1, x R \ Q, 1x = 1.
0 < a < 1, x R \ Q, a1 > 1, ( a1 )x . ax = 1/( a1 )x .
, x R \ Q, x > 0, 0x = 0.
, , ax : (i) a > 0, (ii) a = 0, x > 0 (iii) a < 0, x Z. , ax
: (i) a = 0, x 0 (ii) a < 0, x R \ Z.
. 4.3 ax a < 0 x .
ax . a > 0. x Q,
ax > 0. x R \ Q, , ax , ax > as s Q, s < x,
, as > 0, ax > 0. ax > 0 a > 0 x.
11

1.3. 1. s, t Q, s < x + y < t. s0 , s00 , t0 , t00 Q s0 < x < t0 ,


s00 < y < t00 , s = s0 + s00 , t = t0 + t00 .
2. x, y > 0, s, t Q, 0 < s < xy < t. s0 , s00 , t0 , t00 Q 0 < s0 < x < t0 ,
0 < s00 < y < t00 , s = s0 s00 , t = t0 t00 .
. 1. , s0 Q s y < s0 < x
s00 = s s0 Q. s0 < x, s = s0 + s00 s00 = s s0 < y. , t0 Q
x < t0 < t y t00 = t t0 Q. x < t0 , t = t0 + t00 y < t t0 = t00 .
2. s0 Q ys < s0 < x s00 = ss0 Q. s0 < x, s = s0 s00
s00 = ss0 < y. , t0 Q x < t0 < yt t00 = tt0 Q. x < t0 ,
t = t0 t00 y < tt0 = t00 .
1.2 . .
1. : a, b > 1. s, t Q, s < x < t as < ax < at
bs < bx < bt , (ab)s = as bs < ax bx < at bt = (ab)t . ax bx
(ab)s , (ab)t s, t Q, s < x < t, (ab)x ax bx = (ab)x .
- - a, b > 1.
: a > 1. s, t Q, s < x + y < t ,
0
0
1.3, s0 , s00 , t0 , t00 Q s0 < x < t0 , s00 < y < t00 , s = s0 + s00 , t = t0 + t00 . as < ax < at
00
00
0
00
0
00
as < ay < at , , as = as as < ax ay < at at = at . ax ay
as , at s, t Q, s < x + y < t, ax+y ax ay = ax+y .
a > 1.
: a > 1, x, y > 0. s, t Q, s < xy < t
s1 Q s1 s, 0 < s1 < xy < t. 1.3, s0 , s00 , t0 , t00 Q
0
0
0 < s0 < x < t0 , 0 < s00 < y < t00 , s1 = s0 s00 , t = t0 t00 . 1 < as < ax < at , ,
0
00
00
00
0 00
as as1 = (as )s < (ax )s < (ax )y < (ax )t < (at )t = at . (ax )y
as , at s, t Q, s < xy < t, axy (ax )y = axy .
a > 1, x, y > 0 (ay )x = axy
(ax )y = axy x, y.
2. (i) s Q 0 < s < x, , 1 < ab , 1 < ( ab )s < ( ab )x .
, ax < ax ( ab )x = (a ab )x = bx . (ii) (iii) (i).
3. (i) r Q x < r < y, ax < ar < ay . (ii) (iii)
(i).
2 1.2 ax , a, : (i)
(0, +), x > 0, (ii) 1 (0, +), x = 0, (iii)
(0, +), x < 0.
3 1.2 ax , x, : (i)
(, +), a > 1, (ii) 1 (, +), a = 1, (iii)
(, +), 0 < a < 1.

. a+ = 0, 0 a < 1, a+ = +, a > 1.
a = +, 0 < a < 1, a = 0, a > 1.
(+)b = +, b > 0 b = +, (+)b = 0 b < 0 b = .
00 , 1 , (+)0 , 0
.
, ,
. 3.
12

.
1. Bernoulli 1.3.
1.2,
.
2. a S = {s Q | s < a} T = {t Q | t > a}.
S, T Q s t s S, t T . Q s t
s S, t T , a, , .
Q .
3. - ( )
( ) ( )
1 .
.

4. [] a 1+
> 0, a 0.
[] a 1 + + 2 > 0, a 1.

5. 0 < a < 1. ax at < < as s, t Q,


s < x < t. ax a > 1.
a2 a 0
6. n N (1 + a)n 1 + na + n(n1)
2
(1 + a)n 1 + na + n(n1)
a2 + n(n1)(n2)
a3 a 1. .
2
6
7. [] n N , xn < y n x < y.
[] n N , xn < y n |x| < |y|
|y| < x < |y|.
8. .
.
[]
xn y n = (x y)(xn1 + xn2 y + + xy n2 + y n1 )

n N, n 2

xn + y n = (x + y)(xn1 xn2 y + xy n2 + y n1 ), n N, n 3 .
[] x2 + y 2 > 0, x2 + xy + y 2 > 0 x4 + x3 y + x2 y 2 + xy 3 + y 4 > 0.
;
x3 + x2 y + xy 2 + y 3 > 0 x5 + x4 y + x3 y 2 + x2 y 3 + xy 4 + y 5 > 0;
;
[] x, y 0, x 6= y,
n(min{x, y})n1

xn y n
xy

n(max{x, y})n1 ,

max{x, y}, min{x, y} , , x, y.


[] Bernoulli.
9. . O
1 n! = 1 2 n n N.
( n ) 0! = n!
m
= m!(nm)! m, n Z, 0 m n.
13

(n)
[] () m
n Z, n m
n
m m Z, 0 m n.
( n ) ( n ) (n+1)
[] m
+ m1 = m m, n Z, 1 m n.
n,
.
[] Newton:
(x + y)n =

(n)
0

xn +

(n )
1

xn1 y + +

n
n1

) n1 (n) n n (n) nk k
xy
+ n y = k=0 k x y , n N.

n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. Newton
, , 10.2 10.3.
: .
( )
( )
[] n N nk=0 nk = 2n , nk=0 nk (1)k = 0. n = 0;
10. ,
:

n
n
n m
m n
n
a=
a = nm a.
[] a 0, n, m N, a b = ab

[] n N, 0 a < b, n a < n b.

11. n N , n an = |a|. n ;

12. n a + b n a + n b n N, n 2, a, b 0.
a = 0 b = 0.

13. 3 , 7 129 3 2 + 5 .
14. 1.4.

k
[] n, k, m N k, m > 1. n m
k, m n- .
[] a0 , a1 , . . . , an Z k, m N > 1.
k
an xn + an1 xn1 + + a0 , k a0
m
m an .

1.4 .
1.4. a > 0, a 6= 1. y > 0 x ax = y.
. a > 1, y 1.
U = {u | au y} V = {v | av y}.
, 0 U . , 1.2, n N an > y , ,
n V . U, V . u U , v V au y av , au av ,
a > 1, u v. U, V ,
u v u U , v V .
a = y.
1
n N. n1 < , n1 V . a n < y , ,
1

a
< a n . n N, , 1.2, ay 1. a y.
y
1

, < + n1 , + n1 U . y < a+ n , ,
, 1.2, ay 1. y a .
a y y a a = y.
14

y
a

< a n .

.
a > 1, 0 < y < 1, , y1 > 1, a = y1 , , =
a = a = y.
0 < a < 1, , a1 > 1, ( a1 ) = y, =
a = a = y.
, ax = y . a1 = y, a2 = y, a1 = a2 ,
1 = 2 .
y 0 a > 0, a 6= 1, x ax = y.
. y > 0 a > 0, a 6= 1, ax = y,
1.4, y a loga y.
9 1.5 loga y.
, a > 0, a 6= 1, ax loga y .
1.6 .
1.6. a, b > 0, a, b 6= 1.
1. loga (yz) = loga y + loga z y, z > 0.
2. loga yz = loga y loga z y, z > 0.
3. loga (y z ) = z loga y y > 0 z.
ay
4. logb y = log
y > 0.
loga b
5. loga 1 = 0, loga a = 1.
6. 0 < y < z. (i) loga y < loga z, a > 1, (ii) loga y > loga z, 0 < a < 1.
. 1. x = loga y, w = loga z, ax = y, aw = z. ax+w = ax aw = yz,
loga (yz) = x + w = loga y + loga z.
2. loga yz + loga z = loga ( yz z) = loga y, loga yz = loga y loga z.
3. x = loga y, ax = y. azx = (ax )z = y z , , loga (y z ) = zx =
z loga y.
4. x = logb y, w = loga b, bx = y, aw = b. awx = (aw )x = bx = y.
loga y = wx = loga b logb y.
5. loga 1 = 0 a0 = 1 loga a = 1 a1 = a.
6. x = loga y, w = loga z, y = ax , z = aw . ax < aw , a > 1,
x < w , 0 < a < 1, x > w.
6 1.6 loga y : (i) (0, +),
a > 1, (ii) (0, +), 0 < a < 1.
.
1.
1.6;
2. a > 0, a 6= 1. log 1 y = loga y y > 0.
a

3. a > 0, a 6= 1. logaz (y z ) = loga y y > 0 z 6= 0.


4. a1 , . . . , an > 0, a1 , . . . , an 6= 1. loga1 a2 loga2 a3 logan1 an .
5. m, n N, m, n 2. , m, n,
logm n .
15

1.5

Supremum inmum.

. - A. A u u a
a A , , A (, u]. u
A. , A l l a
a A , , A [l, +). l
A. , A ,
l, u A [l, u].
u A, u0 u , , A ,
l A, l0 l A.
. 1. [a, b] u b
. (a, b], [a, b), (a, b), (, b], (, b). :
, b.
2. [a, b], (a, b], [a, b), (a, b), (a, +), [a, +)
l a . :
, a.
3. , (a, +), [a, +), (, +)
(, b), (, b], (, +) .
4. N , 1 ,
N l 1 . , 1
N. , 1.1 , , N :
u N u n N n > u.
, N
!!!
1.5. - A.
1. A , A
.
2. A , A
.
. 1. U = {u | u A}.
U A. , a u
a A, u U . , a u
a A, u U .
a a A, A. u u U ,
A.
2. : U , L = {l | l A}.
. -, A
inmum A inf A g.l.b. A.
-, A supremum
A sup A l.u.b. A.
. [a, b], (a, b), (a, b], [a, b) (, b], (, b)
supremum, b. , [a, b], (a, b), (a, b], [a, b), (a, +), [a, +)
inmum, a.

16

. , , A minimum A
min A.
, , A maximum A
max A.
1.7. 1. max A, sup A = max A.
2. min A, inf A = min A.
. 1. max A A. A
max A, max A A.
2. .
. 1. A = {0} [2, 3] {4} min A = 0 max A = 4. inf A = 0
sup A = 4.
2. min N = 1, inf N = 1.
3. A = { n1 | n N} = {1, 12 , 31 , 14 , . . . } max A = 1, sup A = 1. A
. inf A.
, l 0 A. l > 0, , ,
n N n1 < l, l A.
A - , A
0. , inf A = 0.
. - A inf A = .
- A , sup A = +.
. A ,
. , + ,
, , , , A.
. N , sup N = +.
. , sup A, ,
+. , , sup A = u ( )
sup A u, sup A = u R .
inf A.
1.8 , , supremum inmum.
1.8. - A.
1. a sup A a A. , u < sup A a A a > u ,
, u < a sup A.
2. a inf A a A. , l > inf A a A a < l ,
, inf A a < l.
. 1. A , sup A ( )
A, a sup A a A. A ,
sup A = + , , a sup A a A.
, u < sup A. sup A A, u
A, a A a > u.
2. .
1.9. 1. - A supremum inmum inf A sup A.
2. - A, B A B, inf B inf A sup A sup B.
17

. 1. - A , , 1.5,
sup A . A , , , sup A = +. ,
- A , inf A , , A
, inf A = .
, a A. inf A a sup A, inf A sup A.
2. B , sup B = +, sup A sup B
.
B , sup B < +. a A a B,
a sup B. sup B A , , sup A sup B.
inf B inf A .
. A , inf A, sup A
, , inf A = sup A. A ,
inf A < sup A.
1.5 .
supremum. -, .
, supremum . , 1.10 supremum.
supremum .
1.10. -, .
.
. A, B - a b a A, b B.
, b B A , B , A
. A , sup A.
sup A A, a sup A a A.
b B A sup A A,
sup A b b B.
, = sup A, a b a A, b B.
, , inmum, -,
. 1.5 .
1.10, inmum
. 14.
.
A . A :
x1 , x2 A, x1 < x2 x x1 < x < x2 x A. :
. 1.11
, - R, .
1.11. - A : x1 , x2 A, x1 < x2
x x1 < x < x2 x A. A .
. u = sup A l = inf A, l u +. , ,
A [l, u].
x (l, u). x A,
x1 , x2 A, x1 < x < x2 . , x A. , (l, u) A.
(l, u) A [l, u] : A = (l, u),
A = [l, u], A = (l, u] A = [l, u). A .
18

.
1. 1.5 1.7, 1.8 1.9.
2. max{x, y} =

x+y+|xy|
2

min{x, y} =

x+y|xy|
2

3. [] t x, t y t z t min{x, y, z}.
[] t x, t y t z t max{x, y, z}.
[] t
x, y, z;
4. (a, +), (a, b), (a, b] l a;
(, b), (a, b), [a, b) u b;
5. [] inma suprema {1, 0, 2, 5}, [1, 5], (1, 5), (1, 0] (2, 5].
;
[] inf A = inf B sup A = sup B. A = B;
n

6. inma suprema {(1)n n | n N}, { 1+(1)


+ 1(1)
n | n N},
2n
2
n
n(1) (n1)
1
1
1
1
1
n
{(1) + n | n N}, {
| n N}, { n + m | n, m N}, { n m | n, m N},
2n
+
{x
+
y
|
0
<
y
<
1,
4
<
x
<
5},
{x

y
|
0
<
y
<
1,
4
<
x
<
5},
n=1 [2n 1, 2n],
+ 1
1
1
[
,
],
{x
|
sin
x
>
0},
{x
>
0
|
sin
>
0}.
n=1 2n 2n1
x
7. - A. , sup A,
A, : sup A = +, sup A < +.
A inf A.
8. [] a < b A = {r Q | a < r < b}. ,
inf A sup A. A = {x R \ Q | a < x < b} ;
[] A = { r2r+2 | r Q}. inf A sup A.
9. [] a > 1, sup{as | s Q, s < x} = ax = inf{at | t Q, t > x}.
- -
ax x. a = 1 0 < a < 1;
: 1.3.
[] y > 0, a > 1, sup{u | au y} = loga y = inf{v | av y}.
- -
loga y. 0 < a < 1;
10. A = [0, 2], A = [0, 2), A = [0, 1] {2}
1.8, , , . - A u = sup A.
[] A (u , u] 6= > 0;
[] A (u , u) 6= > 0;
[] [], [] , , u
/ A;
[] l = inf A.
11. - A.
[] sup A u a u a A.
[] u sup A < u a A, a > .
[] inf A.
19

12. - A, B.
[] sup A inf B a b a A, b B.
[] a b a A, b B. , sup A, inf B,
: a b a A, b B.
[] a b a A, b B > 0 a A, b B
b a . sup A = inf B. 5 1.2.
13. - A, B. A sup A sup B a A
< a b B, b > .
14. [] inmum.
[] , supremum
inmum .
15. supremum inmum .
[] A, B -, sup(A B) = max{sup A, sup B}
inf(A B) = min{inf A, inf B}. , sup(A B) min{sup A, sup B} inf(A B)
max{inf A, inf B}.
[] . - A A = {a | a A}.
sup(A) = inf A inf(A) = sup A.
[] . - A, B A + B = {a + b | a A, b B}.
sup(A + B) = sup A + sup B inf(A + B) = inf A + inf B.
: a+b sup A+sup B a A, b B. sup(A+B) sup A+sup B.
a+b sup(A+B) a A, b B. , a A, b sup(A+B)a
b B. , a A, sup B sup(A + B) a. , a A,
a + sup B sup(A + B). , : sup B = +, sup B R.
[] . - A, B A B = {ab | a A, b B}.
A, B (0, +), inf(A B) = inf A inf B sup(A B) = sup A sup B.
A, B [0, +) A, B 0;
16. ; ,
inf , sup ; inf sup ;
17. 11 2.5.
[] f : [a, b] R [a, b]. f (a) > a f (b) < b,
(a, b) f () = .
: A = {x [a, b] | x f (x)}. A -
= sup A.
[] I f : I R x I 0 > 0
f (x0 ) f (x) f (x00 ) x0 , x00 (x 0 , x + 0 ) I, x0 < x < x00 .
f I.
: a, b I, a < b. A = {x [a, b] | f (a) f (x)}.
A - . = sup A , ,
A = b. f (a) f (b).

20

2
.
2.1

2.1.1

, , .

. ( ) x : N R
N . n N x(n)
, , xn . , xn = x(n) n N.
,
: x1 , x2 , x3 . ,
/ . xn+1
xn xn1 xn . n, N, .
x : N R (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn , . . . ), (xn ), (xn )+
n=1 .
, , , x, n,
: (yn ), (xk ), (zm ) .
. 1. ( n1 ) (1, 12 , 13 , . . . , n1 , . . . ).
2. (n) (1, 2, 3, 4, . . . , n, . . . ).
3. (1) (1, 1, 1, . . . , 1, . . . ).
4. ((1)n1 ) (1, 1, 1, 1, . . . , 1, 1, . . . ).
( )
1
5. 101n ( 10
, 1012 , 1013 , . . . , 101n , . . . ).
6. n- n,
(1, 2, 2, 3, 2, 4, 2, 4, 3, 4, 2, . . . ).
7. (m n)+
n=1 (m 1, m 2, m 3, . . . , m n, . . . ).
8. (m n)+
m=1 (1 n, 2 n, 3 n, . . . , m n, . . . ).

(xn )+
n=1 , (xn ), -
- .
: . ,
, .
(1)+
n=1 {1} . , ,
(1, 1, 1, . . . ). ,
. ,
. , (1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, . . . ),
21

(1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, . . . ) {1, 1}.


: (1, 21 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , . . . ), ( 12 , 1, 41 , 13 , 61 , 15 , . . . )
{1, 12 , 13 , 14 , 51 , 16 , . . . } = { n1 | n N}.
. (xn ) xn+1 xn n N,
xn+1 > xn n N, xn+1 xn n N,
xn+1 < xn n N. (xn )
. (xn )
, c xn = c n N.
, . ,
,
.
.
. (xn )
, u xn u n N. u
(xn ). (xn )
, l xn l n N. l
(xn ). (xn ) ,
l, u l xn u n N.
, u (xn ), u0 u
, l (xn ), l0 l .
. 1. (c) .
(
n1 )
2. ( n1 ), (1)n
, ( n1
), ((1)n1 )
n
[1, 1].
(
n1 )n )
3. (1+(1)
(1, 0, 3, 0, 5, 0, 7, 0, . . . ) 2
. , l 0 . -
n1 )n
- u . (1+(1)
u n N,
2
, n = 2k 1, 2k 1 u k N. k u+1
2
k N. .
4. (1, 0, 3, 0, 5, 0, 7, 0, . . . ), ,
. l ,
l, l,
.
5. ((1)n1 n) (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, . . . ) . , u l , , (1)n1 n u n N
l (1)n1 n n N. , n N,
.
(xn ) , l, u l xn u
n N. M = max{u, l}, M u M l , ,
M xn M , , |xn | M n N. , (xn )
, M |xn | M n N. :
M |xn | M n N, M xn M n N, M
M (xn ). :
(xn ) M |xn | M n N.
22

2.1.2

n N . n N.


n N. : n 234 4 n n2 n > 8
xn < xn+1 (xn ).
. , ,
n N n0 N n N, n n0 .
n (xn )
(xn ), (xn ) , ,
n N . : xn+1 xn , xn+1 > xn ,
xn u, xn = c. , (xn ) , , ,
, u, c.

. 1. (1, 23 , 2 , 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, . . . ) ,
.
2. (n2 14n+8) . , n2 14n+8 = (n7)2 41
n N n 7 , , .
n N. n0 N
n N, n n0 n0 0 N, n0 0 n0 ,
n N, n n0 0 .
, n N. n0 0 , n0 00
N n N, n n0 0
n N, n n0 00 . n0 = max{n0 0 , n0 00 } N. n0 n0 0 ,
n N, n n0 . , n0 n0 00 ,
n N, n n0 . , , n N, n n0 .
:
,
, , .

. n2 3n 37 n N, n 157+3
, , n N,
2
25
2n+1
n 8. , n+1 > 13 n N, n > 12 , , n N, n 13.
n2 3n 37 2n+1
> 25
n N, n max{8, 13} = 13.
n+1
13
, , :
, n0 0 , n0 00 ,
, . , ,
!
. n N .
. (1)n1 > 0 n N, n N.
, (1)n1 0 n N,
n N. n N
n N .
.
1. : 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36. : 49;
24; ;
:
.
23

)
+ (1)n1 ab
.
2
(
)
n +
[] m N, n m[ m
] n=1 .
: m = 1, 2, 3.

2. []

( a+b
2

3. [] , .
[]
.
4. [] (xn ) (yn ) (xn + yn ).
, ,
.
, .
[] (xn ) (yn ) (xn yn ).
(i) , , , xn , yn 0
n N.
(
) ( 13n ) ( n30 ) ( n ) (
)
n1 ) (
5. ((1)n1 n), (1)n
, n218n
, n! , 2n , 2[ 2 ] , n 3[ n3 ]
+n+1
; ; ;
6. , ,
, , . ,
() .
7. (xn ) . x xn = x n N.
. : 11 2.2, 2 12 2.7
2 2.9.
8. . a, b, p, q, p, q
0. (xn ) x1 = a
x2 = b xn+2 = pxn+1 + qxn n N.
n- xn .
[] p 6= 0, q = 0. xn = bpn2
n N, n 2.
n1
n2
[] p = 0, q 6= 0. xn = aq 2 n N xn = bq 2
n N.
[] p 6= 0, q 6= 0. x2 = px + q.

= p2 + 4q > 0, , 1 = p+2 , 2 = p2 . ,
+ = a, 1 + 2 = b. xn = 1 n1 + 2 n1 n N.
= p2 + 4q = 0, , = p2 . , = a, + = b.
xn = n1 + (n 1)n1 n N.

= p2 + 4q < 0 ( q < 0), , 1 = p+i 2 ,


( p )2 ( )2

2 = pi 2 . = q > 0. 2
+ 2
= 1, [0, 2)

, sin = 2
. 1 = (cos + i sin ), 2 = (cos i sin ).
cos = 2
2
cos 2 = p cos + q, 2 sin 2 = p sin . , = a, ( cos +
sin ) = b xn = n1 cos(n 1) + n1 sin(n 1) n N.

24

[] n-
x1 = x2 = 1 xn+2 = 3xn , xn+2 = xn+1 +xn ,
xn+2 = 2xn+1 xn , xn+2 = xn+1 xn . Fibonnaci
1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13.
9. - - (xn )
xn+1 = x1 + + xn ;
xn+2
, xn+1 = 1 x1n xn+1 = 2 x1n .
xn+3 = xnxn+1
10. :
[] n N k N
n N, n > k .
[]
n N
n N.
[] n N
n N
.

2.2 .
. (xn ) x (xn ) x x
(xn ) > 0 n0 N |xn x| <
n N, n n0 . : (xn ) x > 0 |xn x| < .
(xn ) x xn x lim xn = x limn+ xn = x.
(xn ) , (xn ) .
: (xn )
x n- xn x
. : (xn ) x n- xn
x n .
. xn x, > 0
n0 N - - n N,
n n0 () |xn x| < , , |xn x| < ()
n N, n n0 . :
(n N, n n0 )

(|xn x| < )


(|xn x| < )

(n N, n n0 ).

. 1. ( n1 ) 0. n1 0.
, > 0. n0 N | n1 0| <
n N, n n0 . n N, | n1 0| < n1 < n > 1 .
: (| n1 0| < ) ( n1 < ) (n > 1 ).
1.1 n0 N, n0 > 1 . , n > 1
n0 n N, n n0 . n0 N n N, n n0
n > 1 , , | n1 0| < . : (n N, n n0 ) (n > 1 ) ( n1 < )
(| n1 0| < ).
- - n0 N.
25

2.1. a 0, n0 = [a] + 1 n N, n > a. a < 0, n0 = 1


n N, n > a.
. .
: n N, n > 3 1, n N, n > 83 3 = [ 83 ]+1
n N, n > 2 3 = 2 + 1 = [2] + 1.
. n0 = [ 1 ] + 1 n N, n > 1 . ,
n0 N, | n1 0| < n N, n n0 .
2. (c) c.
c c.
> 0. n0 N |c c| < n N,
n n0 . |c c| < 0 < . , 0 < n N.
n0 = 1 N |c c| < n N, n n0 .
3. ((1)n1 ) , .
- - ((1)n1 ) x.
> 0 n0 N |(1)n1 x| < n N, n n0 . ,
n0 , n N, n n0 . n N, n n0
| 1 x| < n N, n n0 |1 x| < .
| 1 x| < 1 (x , x + ) |1 x| < 1 (x , x + ).
, > 0, 1, 1 2.
, , 0 < 1, 1, 1 2. ,
.
. (xn ) + (xn ) + +
(xn ) M > 0 n0 N xn > M n N,
n n0 . : (xn ) + M > 0 xn > M .
(xn ) +, xn + lim xn = + limn+ xn = + .
, (xn ) (xn )
(xn ) M > 0 n0 N xn < M n N,
n n0 . : (xn ) M > 0 xn < M .
(xn ) , xn lim xn = limn+ xn = .
: (xn ) +
n- xn . : (xn )
+ n- xn + n .
.
7, 8 9
.
. 1. (n) +. n +.
M > 0. n0 N n > M n N,
n n0 . 1.1, n0 N, n0 > M . , n > M
n0 n N, n n0 .
- - n0 = [M ] + 1 N
, n0 , n > M n N, n n0 .

2. ( n) +. n +.
M > 0. n0 N n > M n N, n n0 .
26

M > 0, n > M n > M 2 . : ( n > M ) (n > M 2 ).



n0 N n0 > M 2 , , n N,n n0 n > M 2
, , n > M . : (n N, n n0 ) (n > M 2 ) ( n > M ).

3. ,
n < M n < M ,
: n n .
4. ((1)n1 n) (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, . . . ) + .
- - +. M > 0
n0 N (1)n1 n > M n N, n n0 .
n0 , n N, n n0 . n N, n n0
n > M n N, n n0 n > M . , n > M ,
, , .
, .
, , .
. 1. ( n1 ).
na 0,

a > 0.

> 0. n0 N | n1a 0| < n N, n n0 . n N,


1
| n1a 0| < n1a < na > 1 n > ( 1 ) a .
1
1
n0 N n0 > ( 1 ) a , , n N, n n0 n > ( 1 ) a
, , | n1a 0| < .

2. (n) ( n).
na +,

a > 0.
1

M > 0. n N, na > M n > M a . n0 N


1
1
n0 > M a , n N, n n0 n > M a , , na > M .
3.
loga n +,
a > 1.
M > 0. n N, loga n > M n > aM .
n0 N n0 > aM , n N, n n0 n > aM , , loga n > M .
4. . (a, a2 , a3 , a4 , . . . ), (an ). : a.
(i) a = 1, (1) 1. , a = 0,
(0) 0.
(ii) a 1, (an ) a 1, a2 1, a3 1, a4 1, . . . .
(an ) . , (an ) x.
> 0 n0 N |an x| < , , an (x , x + )
n N, n n0 . , an n N, n n0
an n N, n n0 2. , 0 < 1,
. , (an ) +. M > 0 n0 N
an > M n N, n n0 . n N, n n0 .
, (an ) .
(iii) 0 < |a| < 1, (an ) 0. > 0. , |an 0| <
|a|n < n > log|a| . n0 N
27

n0 > log|a| , , n N, n n0 n > log|a| , , |an 0| < .


(iv) a > 1, +. M > 0. ,
an > M n > loga M . n0 N n0 > loga M , ,
n N, n n0 n > loga M , , an > M .

+,
a > 1

1,
a = 1
an

0,
1 < a < 1

, a 1
2.4 6 2.5
.
.
. -
2.3 2.23 - ,
.
. , lim, limn+ , .

, .
limn+ xn , , R . , ,
limn+ xn = x ( ), limn+ xn x,
limn+ xn = x R .
.
1. , , : limn+
limn+

(1)n 8n
32n

, limn+ log3 n, limn+

2. x limn+

(1)n 22n
3n
(x+1)2n
(2x+1)n

n 7n +, 2 + 2
n

+,

3+log2 n
1+3 log2 n

.
;

3. , :
2

n2

1
n+8

0,

3n+1
2n+5

3
2

1
n+5

0,

.
1
3

4. 0 +,
, , . :
n
n
[] 3+(1)
0, 3+(1)
> 0 n N
2n
2n
( 3+(1)n )
.
2n
(
n1 )n
n1 )n )
[] (3(1)
+ (3(1)
.
2
2
{
(
)
1, x Q
5. limm+ limn+ (cos m!x)2n =
0, x R \ Q
: x Q m N , m!x .

28

6. [] xn x. > 0 n0 () n0 N |xn x| <


n N, n n0 . , 0 < 0 < , n0 (0 ) n0 ().
[] xn +. M > 0 n0 (M ) n0 N
xn > M n N, n n0 . , M 0 > M > 0, n0 (M 0 ) n0 (M ).
7. :
[] (xn ) x 0 > 0
|xn x| 0 n N.
[] (xn ) + M0 > 0
xn M0 n N.
[] (xn ) M0 > 0
xn M0 n N.
8. .
[] 0 > 0, xn x , 0 < 0 |xn x| < .
: , > 0 0 > 0,
.
[] M0 > 0, xn + M M0 xn > M .
.
[] xn + M - -
xn > M .
9. .
[] , > 0 |xn x| < ,
|xn x| . . : xn = (1)n1 , x = 0, = 1.
: xn x > 0
|xn x| .
[] , M > 0 xn > M , M
xn M . . : xn = 1, M = 1.
: xn + M > 0
xn M .
10. :
.
(xn ) x : n0 N > 0
|xn x| < n N, n n0 . ;
xn x.
11. [] (xn ) . ,
xn x, (xn ) x .
: A (xn ) d > 0
A. n0 N |xn x| < d2 ,
, xn (x d2 , x + d2 ) n N, n n0 . (x d2 , x + d2 )
A.
[] (xn ) xn Z n N. xn x, (xn )
x Z.

29

2.3

, .
. > 0. (x , x + ) - x
Nx () = (x , x + ).
, x
Nx . , Nx x
. . . > 0 Nx () x . . .
Nx x . . . > 0, Nx ()
x . . . .
. > 0. ( 1 , +] - + [, 1 )
- . N+ () = ( 1 , +] N () = [, 1 ).
,
N . M = 1 , = M1
(M, +] ( 1 , +] [, M )
[, 1 ).
, x R ,
Nx () . 1.
x Nx (). x
Nx ().
|xn x| < xn x , ,
x < xn < x + , , xn (x , x + ) , , xn Nx ().
, xn > M xn < M xn ,
, xn (M, +] xn [, M ) , , xn N+ () xn N (),
= M1 .
, , , .
. x R . xn x > 0 n0 N xn Nx ()
n N, n n0 , , > 0 xn Nx ().
: xn x Nx x xn Nx .

. , ,
,
.
, .
.
1. x R .
[] , 0 < 1 2 , Nx (1 ) Nx (2 ).
[]  > 0 n N Nx ( n1 ) Nx ().
2. x R .

[] >0 Nx () = {x} , ,
x x.

1
[] +
n=1 Nx ( n ) = {x}.
3. x, y R , x 6= y. > 0 Nx () Ny () = .
30

2.4 .
2.1 , ,
. 6 2.1
.
2.1. (xn ), (yn ) .
, .
. (xn ), (yn )
k0 , m0 N xk0 = ym0 , xk0 +1 = ym0 +1 , xk0 +2 = ym0 +2 , . . . .
xn a R yn a.
> 0. n0 N xn Na () n N, n n0 .
n0 k0 , xn Na () n N, n k0 . yn Na ()
n N, n m0 .
n0 > k0 , p = n0 k0 , n0 = k0 + p. , xn Na ()
n N, n k0 + p. yn Na () n N, n m0 + p.
n0 0 N (n0 0 = m0 n0 0 = m0 + p) yn Na ()
n N, n n0 0 . yn a.
. 1. (1, 12 , 31 , 14 , 15 , 16 , . . . ), (2, 5, 41 , 15 , 16 , . . . ). 0. , , ,
, 0.
2. (xn ) . (xn ) (x1 , x2 , x3 , . . . ).
(x2 , x3 , x4 , . . . ), (xn+1 ), (xn ).
(x3 , x4 , x5 , . . . ), (xn+2 ). , m N, xn x R
xn+m x R .
1
0 log2 (n + 8) +.
: n+3
. , 2.2 2.3
.
2.2. xn x R .
1. x > u, xn > u.
2. x < l, xn < l.
3. u < x < l, u < xn < l.
. 1. xn x x > u. x u > 0, |xn x| < x u ,
, xn > x (x u) = u.
xn +. M > 0 M u. xn > M , ,
xn > u.
2. .
3. xn > u xn < l. xn > u xn < l.
2.3 - :

, . ,
. 16 2.7
13 2.9.

31

2.3. 1. xn l n N xn x R, x l.
2. xn u n N xn x R, x u.
3. u < l xn u n N xn l n N, (xn )
.
. 1. x < l, xn < l, xn l
n N.
2. .
3. (xn ) , u l, l u.
. 1. xn x R xn [l, u] n N, x [l, u].
2. a 1, (an ) , an 1
n N an 1 n N.
3. ((1)n1 n) , (1)n1 n 1 n N
(1)n1 n 1 n N.
(
)
4. n 3[ n3 ] . , n = 3k k N,
n 3[ n3 ] = 0 0 , n = 3k + 1 k N, n 3[ n3 ] = 1 1.
2.4 .
.
2.4. .
. (xn ) . a
. 2.2, xn > a , ,
xn < a. xn > a xn < a. .
2.5. xn yn n N xn x R, yn y R, x y.
. x > y. a x > a > y. xn > a
a > yn . , xn > a a > yn . xn > yn , ,
xn yn n N. .
. n1 < n1 n N n1 0, n1 0.
, xn < yn n N xn x R ,
yn y R , x < y. xn < yn n N
xn yn n N, x y.
2.6 2.7
:
.
2.6. xn yn .
1. xn +, yn +.
2. yn , xn .
. 1. M > 0. xn > M , yn xn ,
xn > M yn xn . yn > M , ,
yn +.
2. .

32

. 1. n+(1)n1 n1 n N. n1 +,
n + (1)n1 +.
2
2
2. n +2n+1
n n N n +, n +2n+1
+.
n+2
n+2

3. [ n] > n 1 n N n 1 +. [ n] +.
2.7 .
2.7. xn yn zn . xn a zn a, yn a.
. > 0. |xn a| < , , |zn a| < .
|xn a| < |zn a| < xn yn zn . xn > a
zn < a + xn yn zn . a < yn < a + , , |yn a| < .
yn a.
n1

. 1. n1 (1)n
n1 n N. n1 0
n1
(1)n 0.
2. , n1 sinnn n1 n N, sinnn 0.

1
n

0,

2.8. , .
. xn x. n0 N |xn x| < 1 n N, n n0 .
|xn x| < 1 |xn | = |(xn x) + x| |xn x| + |x| < 1 + |x|.
|xn | < 1 + |x| n N, n n0 .
M = max{|x1 |, . . . , |xn0 1 |, 1 + |x|} |xn | M n N,
n n0 1 |xn | < 1 + |x| M n N, n n0 . |xn | M
n N, (xn ) .
. 2.8. H ((1)n1 ) .
2.9. 1. +,
.
2. , .
. 1. xn +. n0 N xn > 1 n N,
n n0 .
l = min{x1 , . . . , xn0 1 , 1}, xn l n N, n n0 1 xn > 1 l
n N, n n0 . xn l n N, (xn ) .
, M > 0 xn > M . M > 0
(xn ), (xn ) .
2. .
. 1, 2 2.9 . (
n1 )n )
(1+(1)
, (1, 0, 3, 0, 5, 0, 7, . . . ), .
2
n1 )n
, + (1+(1)
0 n N.
2
, (1, 0, 3, 0, 5, 0, 7, . . . ) ,
.
(xn ) (xn ).
2.10. xn x R , xn x.
33

. xn x. > 0. |xn x| < .


|(xn ) (x)| = |xn x| < . xn x.
xn +. M > 0. xn > M , xn < M ,
, xn = (+).
, , xn , xn + = ().
(xn ) (yn ) (xn + yn ).
2.11. xn x R yn y R x + y
, xn + yn x + y.
. xn x, yn y. > 0. |xn x| < 2
|yn y| < 2 . |xn x| < 2 |yn y| < 2 . ,
|(xn + yn ) (x + y)| = |(xn x) + (yn y)| |xn x| + |yn y| <

, , xn + yn x + y.
xn + yn y R {+}. (yn ) , l
yn l n N. M > 0. M 0 > 0 M 0 M l.
xn > M 0 , xn > M l, xn + yn > (M l) + l = M .
xn + yn + = (+) + y.
.
. 1.

1
n

n
(1)n
0, n1 + (1)
0 + 0 = 0.
n
n
2
nn+1 = n + n1 () + 0 = .

2. n n1 0,

3. n + n +, n +

n (+) + (+) = +.

(+) + (),
+ R
:
. 1. n + c +, n (n + c) + (n) = c c.
2. 2n +, n 2n + (n) = n +.
3. n +, 2n n + (2n) = n .
4. n + (1)n1 +, n (n + (1)n1 ) + (n) = (1)n1 .
(xn ) (yn ) (xn yn ).
(xn yn ) ,
xn yn = xn + (yn ).
2.12. xn x R yn y R x y
, xn yn x y.
(xn ) (yn ) (xn yn ).
2.13. xn x R yn y R xy
, xn yn xy.

. xn x, yn y. > 0. |xn x| < 3|y|+1


, ,
1

|yn y| < min{ 3|x|+1 , 3 }. |xn x| < 3|y|+1 |yn y| <

min{ 3|x|+1
, 13 }.

|xn yn xy| = |(xn x)(yn y) + x(yn y) + y(xn x)|


|xn x||yn y| + |x||yn y| + |y||xn x|

3|y|+1
+ |x| 3|x|+1
+ |y| 3|y|+1
< 3 + 3 + 3 =
3
34

, , xn yn xy.
xn +, yn y (0, +]. l 0 < l < y. M > 0.
xn > Ml , , yn > l. xn > Ml yn > l.
xn yn > Ml l = M , , xn yn + = (+)y.
.
n

. 1. n1 0 (1)
0, (1)
0 0 = 0.
= n1 (1)
n
n2
n
n1
1
n1
n1 1
2. n 1 n 0, n2 = n n 1 0 = 0.
3. n + 1 n , n n2 = n(1 n) (+)() = .
(n n2 ) .
4. c xn x R cx ,
, , c = 0 x = . , c c, cxn cx.
, c = 0, , x R , cxn = 0xn = 0 0.
5. a > 0. c > 0, cna c(+) = +. c < 0, cna c(+) = .
6. a > 0, cna c0 = 0.
7. n. a0 + a1 x + + ak xk
, ak 6= 0, k 1.
(
)
1
1
a0 + a1 n + + ak nk = ak nk aak0 n1k + aak1 nk1
+ + ak1
+
1
.
ak n
1, 0. ,
ak nk ak (+).
{
a0 + a1 n + + ak nk ak (+)1 =

+,
,

ak > 0
ak < 0

.
, limn+ (a0 + a1 n + + ak nk ) = limn+ ak nk .
: 3n2 5n + 2 + 12 n5 + 4n4 n3 .
8. . a
(1 + a + a2 + + an1 + an ), (1 + a, 1 + a + a2 , 1 + a + a2 + a3 , . . . ).
:

a 1
+,
2
n
1
1 + a + a + + a
1a ,
1 < a < 1

, a 1
.
n+1
a > 1, 1 + a + a2 + + an = a a11 (+)1
= +.
a1
2
n
a = 1, 1 + a + a + + a = n + 1 +.
n+1
01
1
= 1a
.
1 < a < 1, 1 + a + a2 + + an = a a11 a1
a 1.
: an+1 = 1 + (a 1)(1 + a + a2 + + an ) n N. 1 + a +
a2 + + an x R, an+1 1 + (a 1)x. , (an+1 ) .
n+1
2
n N
: 1 + a + a2 + + an = a a11 1a
n+1
a
1
2
2
n
1 + a + a + + a = a1 0 n N. 0 < 1a
,
.
2.14. 1. xn x R k N, xn k xk .

2. k N, k 2. xn 0 n N xn x R , k xn k x .
35

. 1. xn k = xn xn x x = xk .
2. x 0.
x = 0. > 0. |xn 0| < k , xn 0

n N, 0 xn < k . | k xn 0| = k xn < . k xn 0.

x = +. M > 0. xn > M k . k xn > M ,

k x +.
n

0 < x < +. > 0. 0 = min{,


x} > 0. ( k x 0 )k < x <

0 k
k
( k x +
) , ( k x 0 )k< xn < ( k x + 0 )k .
x 0 <

k x < k x + 0 . | k x k x| < 0 , , k x k x .
n
n
n
. 1. n1
1, ( n1
)3 13 = 1.
n
n
2. n5 2n2 + n 7 +, (n5 2n2 + n 7)8 (+)8 = +.
3. n3 + 2n 1 , (n3 + 2n 1)5 ()5 = .

3
n+1
4. n+2 1, 3 n+1
1 = 1.

n+2

5. n3 n + 4 +, 4 n3 n + 4 4 + = +.
(+)0, + 0 R
:
. 1. n +, nc 0 n nc = c c.
2. n2 +, n1 0 n2 n1 = n +.
3. n2 +, n1 0 n2 ( n1 ) = n .
4. n +,

(1)n1
n

n1

0 n (1)n

= (1)n1 .
( )
(xn ) x1n .

2.15. xn 6= 0 n N. xn x R
- , x 6= 0 - x1n x1 .

1
x

. xn x > 0. l 0 < l < x. xn > l.


> 0. |xn x| < lx. xn > l |xn x| < lx. ,

1

1 = |xn x| < lx = ,
xn
x
xn x
lx
x1n x1 .
xn +. > 0. xn > 1 , 0 <


1
, x1n 0 = x1n < . x1n 0 = +
.
, .
. 1. a > 1,

1
loga n

1
+

1
xn

< ,

= 0.
n1

2. xn 0. , (1)n 0,
. 10 .

n
(1)n1

= (1)n1 n

.
, ;
2.16.
2.16. xn 6= 0 n N xn 0.
1. xn > 0, x1n +.
2. xn < 0, x1n .
36

. 1. M > 0. |xn 0| < M1 . xn > 0,


|xn 0| < M1 xn > 0. 0 < xn < M1 .
x1n > M , x1n +.
2. .
( )
(xn ) (yn ) xynn . ( xynn )
,
xynn = xn y1n .
2.17. yn 6= 0 n N. xn x R yn y R
, xynn xy .
. 1. n.
bm 6= 0.
a

a0 +a1 n++ak nk
b0 +b1 n++bm nm

ak nk
b m nm

a0 1
a
1
1
+1
+ a1 k1
++ k1
ak nk
ak n
k n
bm1 1
b0 1
b1
1
+b
++ b
+1
bm nm
m nm1
m n

a0 +a1 x++ak xk
b0 +b1 x++bm xm

x
y

, ak 6= 0,

1.
ak nk
= bamk nkm ,
bm nm

a0 +a1 n++ak nk
b0 +b1 n++bm nm

a
k

bm (+),
bamk ,

0,

k > m
k = m
k < m


.
3
2 +n+1
2
4
3
2 +n+4
: n 2n2n
+, nn+2+n , nn4n
1 n3n
0.
2 3n1
+1
+n2 +5n+6
( 2n3 +n2 +n+1 )7
2n3 +n2 +n+1
2.
,
()7 = .
2n+3
2n+3
(
)
3
n3 +n+7
1
n3 +n+7
1
3. 3n
( 13 )3 = 27
.
3 +n2 +1 3 ,
3n3 +n2 +1
,
, 00 +
+
0 +
R, , [0, +], ,
.
. 1. nc 0, n1 0 ( nc )/( n1 ) = c c.
2. n1 0, n12 0 ( n1 )/( n12 ) = n +.
3. n12 0, n1 0 ( n12 )/( n1 ) = n1 0.
4. n1 0, n12 0 ( n1 )/( n12 ) = n .
n1

n1

5. n1 2+(1)
n3 n N, 2+(1)
0. , n1 0
n
n
n1
( 2+(1)
)/( n1 ) = 2 + (1)n1 , 2 + (1)n1 1 n N
n
2 + (1)n1 3 n N.
6. 1 c > 0, 2, 3 5 (xn )
(yn )
+ [0, +] .
(xn ) (|xn |).
2.18. xn x R , |xn | |x|.
37

. xn x. > 0. |xn x| < .


||xn | |x|| |xn x| < , , |xn | |x|.
xn + xn . M > 0. xn > M xn < M ,
. , |xn | > M , |xn | + = | |.


. 2.18 . , (1)n1 = 1 1
(1)n1 . , , 12[].
- - .
6 2.5. , , 18[].
, , 5.8.2
l Hopitl.
. 1. a > 0.

n
a 1,

a > 0.

a = 1 : n 1 = 1 1.
a > 1.

: > 0. | n a1| < ( n a > 1) n a1 <


1
n a < 1+ n1 < loga (1+) n > log (1+)
.
a
1
1
n0 N n0 > log (1+) . n N, n n0 n > log (1+)
,
a
a

n
n
, | a 1| < . a 1.
:
Bernoulli (1 + a1
)n 1 + n a1
= a ,
n
n

a1
n
n
, 1 a 1 + n
n N. a 1.
1
0 < a < 1, a1 > 1, n a =
11 = 1.
n
1/a

2.

n
n 1.

n1
Bernoulli, (1+ n1
)n 1+n
=
n
n

1
2
n

(1 + n ) n N. , , n 1.
3. a > 1.
an
n

+,

n , 1 n n (1+ n1
)2 <
n

a > 1.

Bernoulli,
(
a)
=
(1
+
a

1)

1
+
n(
a 1) >

an
an
2
n( a 1) , , n > n( a 1) n N. n +.
: b 1 < b < a. Bernoulli
n
n
bn = (1 + b 1)n 1 + n(b 1) > n(b 1) n N. an = bn ( ab )n > (b 1)( ab )n
n
n N , ab > 1, an +.
4.
an
0.
n!
n

n0 = [|a|] + 1 N. n N, n n0 | an! | =

|a|n0 1 |a|nn0 +1
|a|n0 1 |a| nn0 +1
(n
( )
.
(n0 1)! n0 n
0 1)! n0
an
an
an
| n! | n! | n! |

0 n|a|0 < 1, ( n|a|0 )nn0 +1 0. | an! | 0 ,


n
n N, an! 0.
5. (an ) a > 1, |a| < 1.
n

38

a > 1.
: b = a 1 > 0. Bernoulli, an = (1 + b)n
1 + nb > nb n N. nb +, an +.
: an > nb. M > 0. ,
an > M nb > M n > Mb . n0 N
n0 > Mb . n N, n n0 n > Mb , , an > M .
an +.
: |a| < 1, :
0 < a1 < 1, a1n = ( a1 )n 0 , , an +.
|a| < 1. a = 0 , 0 < |a| < 1.
1
1 n
: |a|
> 1, , , |a|1n = ( |a|
) +.
n
n
n
n
n
|a| 0. , |a| a |a| n N, a 0.
1
1
: b = |a|
1 > 0. Bernoulli, |a|n = (1+b)
n
1
1
1
1
n
n
< nb n N. nb < a < nb n N, a 0.
1+nb
1
|an 0| <
: > 0. |a|n < nb
1
nb
< n > b1 . n0 N n0 > b1 .
n N, n n0 n > b1 , , |an 0| < . an 0.
, 2.19, 4.3.
, - .
1.3 ab . 00 , 1+ , 1 ,
(+)0 , 0 .
(
)
(xn ) (yn ) xn yn .
2.19. xn > 0 n N. xn x R yn y R
xy , xn yn xy . , xn 0 yn ,
xn yn +.

. 1. 2.19, n a 1 a > 0.
, (a) ( n1 ). a a n1 0,

1
n a = a n a0 = 1.
2. (an ) a > 1, 0 < a < 1 , ,
2.19. (a) (n).
a a n +, an a+ , +, a > 1,
0, 0 < a < 1.

3. n n 1 2.19. (n)
( n1 ), n + n1 0, (+)0 .
(+)0 00 , + 0 0 0
[0, +] .

1
. 1. n +, n1 0 n n = n n 1.
2. a > 1, an +,

1
n

0 (an ) n = a a.

3. a > 1, an +, n1 0 (an ) n =
1

4. n +,
n

1
n

1
n

0 (n ) = n +.
n

5. nn +, n1 0 (nn ) n =
1

1
n

0.
39

1
a

1
a

(1)n1

n1

6. nn +, (1)n
0 (nn ) n
= n(1)
. ,
n1
n1
1
1
(1)
(1)
n
= n 1 n N n
= n 2 n N.
7. , (xn )
. xn 0, yn 0 (xn yn )
[0, +] .
n1

2.19
0 = +, , , .
0 .
. 1. n1 0, n ( n1 )n = nn +.
2. n1 0, 2n 1 ( n1 )2n1 = n2n+1 .
(
n
n )n
2
2
3. (1)
0, n (1)
= (1)n nn , (1)n nn =
n
n
2
nn 4 n N (1)n nn = nn 1 n N.
, 1+ 1 , 2.5.
.
1. 2.2, 2.3, 2.6, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.12, 2.13, 2.15,
2.16 2.17.
( n2 +(1)n n+ 1 ) ( n(n+1)
)
(
27 (n+3)79 )
4n3
n ,
,

,
2. (n+1)
106
2
n1
n+4
4n +1
3n+2(1)
n

( n3 +n+1 9 ) ( 3n +(2)n )(2n+1)

5
4
2
2
((1 n) + n ), ( 3n2 +3n+1 ) , 3n+1 +2n+1 , ( n + 1 n), ( n + n + 1 n + 1).
(
)
3. - - (1 + 2 + 22 + + 2n ), 1 + 12 + + 21n ,
( 7
8
n+6 ) ( n
n+1
2n )
(1 2 + 22 + + (1)n 2n ), 237 + 238 + + 23n+6 , 32n + 23n+1 + + 322n .
(
) ( 23 1 33 1
)
3
31
4. 21
n1
, 23 +1 33 +1 nn3 1
.
2+1 3+1
n+1
+1
5. x 6= 1 xn 6= 1 n N. xn x

xn
1xn

x
1x

6. (xn ) : xn+1 = xn +2, xn+3 = xn 3, xn+1 = xn 2 3, xn+2 = xn 2 +3,


xn+1 = xn 2 + 3, xn+2 = xn+1 + xn 3 ;
7. (sin n);
8. (xn ) :
2
3+n
10 n2
1 < xn nn2+3n
, 2log
< xn < 1+2n
, xn 15n + 6n2 n3 .
+1
log n+4
10

9. , .
1
0.
[] 2n + (1)n1 n +, 2n + n sin n +, n(2sin
n)
3 +1
)
( ) ([ 3n2 n+1 ]) ( [ nn+2
]+1

[] : [n]
.
,
,
n+2
n
n[ n]+2n
(
)
n1 n
n1
[] 22n+(1) n 0, 12 + (1)4
0.
[] (1 + n1 )n +, (1 n12 )n 1, (1 + n12 )n 1.
[] n2n+1 + n2n+2 + + n2n+n 1 n12 +1 + n12 +2 + +
2

1
n2 +n

1
n2 +k

1
n2 +1

1 k n.
40

1
n2 +n

1.

[] a, [a]+[2a]++[na]
a2 .
n2
[] n2 x2n 2n(n 1)xn + n2 2n 3 0, xn 1.
[] 0 < a xn n b, xn 1.

[] 0 a b c. n an + bn b, n an + bn + cn c.
: bn an + bn 2bn .

n
[] : n3 1, n n4 + 3n2 + n + 1 1.
2
n
[] 1+2 ++n
1.
nn

+, x > 0
+, x > y
[] [nx] 0,
x = 0 [nx] [ny] 0,
x = y

, x < 0
, x < y

+,
x > y

0,
x = y Z
nx [ny]

,
x < y

, x = y Q \ Z
, x = y R \ Q, 17 2.9.
10. , . n5 +4n3 < 100;
3 n+5
n7 35n6 + n3 47n < 84 n N; 23 < 4n7n3 +n
2 +35 < 2;
2n4 n3 +7
2n3 n2 +7n+1
n3 +n2 +3 78; n3 +n2 +3 1 n N;
(
n1 )
11. 2.3, 2(1)
,
((
) (
)
(1)n1 )n ) (
10
n1
n1 n
1+ 2
, (1)
+ n3 , (1) n+1 .
12. [] |xn | 0, xn 0 :
. , , :
xn 0

|xn | 0.

[] |xn | a > 0 xn x, x = a x = a.
2.18.
13. xn x yn y, x, y R, max{xn , yn } max{x, y}
min{xn , yn } min{x, y}.
14. :
.
[] : 1 = n n1 = n1 + + n1 0 + + 0 = 0. 1 0.

[] : n = ( n n)n = n n n n 1 1 = 1. n 1.
2.11, 2.13, 2.19;
15. xn x R yn y R . x < y, xn < yn .
16. , xn [l, u] n N xn x, x [l, u].
x (xn ), xn (l, u) n N;
;
17. .
.
41

[] xn + (yn ) , xn + yn +.
[] xn (yn ) , xn + yn .
[] xn 0 (yn ) , xn yn 0.
[] xn + yn > l > 0, xn yn +
, .
[] xn + yn < u < 0, xn yn
+, .
18. .
[] b < 1 |xn+1 | b|xn |, xn 0.
|x

: |xn+1 | b|xn | n n0 , |xn | bnn00 bn n n0 .


[] b > 1 xn+1 bxn > 0, xn +.


a < 1, xn 0.
[] xxn+1
n
: [].
[] xxn+1
a > 1, xn + xn .
n
2

(n!)
[] a > 1, an +. , (2n)!
0, 2nnn! 0
n
an! 0 a.
[] x R (xn ) xxn+1
1 xn x.
n

19. [] (xn ), (yn ) (xn + yn ) .


[] (xn ), (yn ) (xn yn ) .
20. [] (xn + yn ) (xn ), (yn ) , ,
, .
[] (xn yn ) (xn ), (yn ) , ,
, .
21. (xn ), (yn ) xn , yn > 0 n N, xn 0, yn +
(xn yn ) .
22. x1 > 0 xn+1 x1 + + xn n N. 0 < a < 2,
xn
+. (2n ) a = 2.
an
23. .
.
[] x (rn ) rn Q n N
rn x.
: n N rn Q x n1 < rn < x + n1 .
[] x (tn ) tn R \ Q
n N tn x.
[] x (rn )
(sn ) rn , sn Q n N rn x sn x.
24. [] , , , Cesro:
n
x.
xn x R, x1 ++x
n
Cesro : ,
.
42

x R. > 0. n0 0 N |xn x| < 2 n N, n n0 0 .


}
{
[ 2(|x1 x|++|xn 0 1 x|) ]
0
+ 1 . , n N,
n0 = max n0 0 ,



|x1 x|++|xn 0 1 x|
0
n n0 | x1 ++xn x| = (x1 x)++(xn x) |x1 x|++|xn x| =
+
|xn 0 x|++|xn x|
0
n

0 +1)
n
< 2 + (nn2n
< 2 + 2 = . x1 ++x
x.
n
0
x = +. M > 0. { n[0 N xn > 2(M
+
]
} 1) n N,
n n0 0 . n0 = max 2n0 0 1, |x1 + + xn0 0 1 | + 1 . ,
x1 ++xn 0 1
xn 0 ++xn
2(nn0 0 +1)(M +1)
n
0
0
=
+
>
1
+

n N, n n0 x1 ++x
n
n
n
n
n
1 + (M + 1) = M . x1 ++x

+.
n
x = , x = + (xn ).
11 2.9 Cesro,
. ,
Cesro: xn > 0 n N xn x [0, +],

n
x1 xn x.
Cesro. , , ,
, 4 4.3
Cesro .
n
[] xn = (1)n1 n N, x1 ++x
0. , xn = 0
n
n
+
n N xn = n n N, x1 ++x
n
(xn ) . Cesro.
[] Cesro: (xn ), (yn )
n
yn > 0 n N y1 + + yn +. xynn l R, xy11 ++x
l.
++yn
: Cesro.

25. [] xn x xn x n N, sup{xn | n N} = x.
[] xn , x < y n N xn x, sup{xn |n N} < y.
26. xn x, inf{xn | n N, n k} x sup{xn | n N, n k}
k N.
27. [] xn x xn < x n N, (xn ) .
[] xn x k N xk x, (xn ) .
28. |xn xm | 1 n, m N, n 6= m. |xn | +. (xn )
; (n), (n), ((1)n1 n).

2.5

. e, .

2.1 .
, ,
, ,
. - : ((1)n1 )
((1)n1 n)
.
2.1. . :
1. (xn ) , limn+ xn = sup{xn | n N}. : (xn )
, +, ,
43

.
2. (xn ) , limn+ xn = inf{xn | n N}. : (xn )
, , ,
.
. 1. - {xn | n N}. -
- supremum , - supremum +.
(xn ) . sup{xn | n N} = +
xn +. M > 0. M {xn | n N},
n0 N xn0 > M . (xn ) , xn xn0 > M n N,
n n0 . xn +.
(xn ) . x = sup{xn | n N}
xn x. > 0. x < x, x {xn | n N}.
n0 N x < xn0 . (xn ) , x < xn0 xn
n N, n n0 . , x {xn | n N}, xn x < x +
n N. x < xn < x + n N, n n0 , , xn x.
2. .
2.1. (xn )
, , 2.1, (xn ) , x,
. , xn x
n N. , , (xn ) , xn < xn+1 x , ,
xn < x n N. .
:
(xn ) xn x, xn x n N. , ,
(xn ) , xn < x n N.
(xn ) xn x, xn x n N. , ,
(xn ) , xn > x n N.
2.1 .
. : ,
,
, , n-
. 2.1

(, ),
.
2.1 . , ,
- - . , ,
6 2.4.
2.1 supremum R ,
, .
2.1 , ,
supremum. , supremum
. 12.

. (xn )
x1 = 1 xn+1 = 2xn n N.

(xn ) 1, 2 , 2 2 , . . . .
44

. , x1 x2 xn xn+1
n N. 0 1


. : xn xn+1 2xn 2xn+1 2xn 2xn+1
xn+1 xn+2 . xn xn+1 n N, (xn )
, , .

xn xn+1 xn 2xn , xn 2
n N. (xn ) , , .
xn x. xn+1 2 = 2xn n N, x2 = 2x, x = 0
x = 2. (xn ) x1 = 1, xn 1 n N. x 1 ,
, x = 2.

(xn ) . xn xn+1
xn 2xn ( xn 0) xn 2. ,
xn 2 n N, (xn )
2.
.
x1 2
. xn 2 n N. xn+1 = 2xn 2 2 = 2,
xn 2 n N.
(
)
2.20. (1 + n1 )n .
1 n+1
n+2 n+1
. (1+ n1 )n < (1+ n+1
)
( n+1
)n < ( n+1
)

n
n
n+1 n+1
n+2 n+1
n
n2 +2n n+1
n
1
( n )
< ( n+1 )
n+1 < ( n2 +2n+1 )
n+1 < (1 n2 +2n+1
)n+1
n+1
Bernoulli. , n N

(1

1
n
= 1 n+1
= n+1
.
( n )n
(1 + n1 )n < 4 , , 12 < n+1
n N.
Bernoulli

( n )n (
n+1 n n
n+1 n
n+1 n

=
1

n
>
1

n
n
n+1
n+1
n+1


n
n
> 1 = 1
= 1 n( n + 1 n) = 1 n+1+
2
2 n
n
1
)n+1
n2 +2n+1

>1

n+1
n2 +2n+1

n N.

(
)
. 2.1 2.20, (1 + n1 )n .
e. ,
e = limn+ (1 + n1 )n .

) e
(
(1 + n1 )n . e
(1 + n1 )n e.
)
(
4 (1 + n1 )n .
(1 + n1 )n e (1 + nx )n ex , 2
x Z 5 2.7 15
2.9 x R. 3.5.3
12 3.5.
((1 + n1 )n ) , (1 + n1 )n < e n N.
e . 8.8.
. e , loge y,
y > 0 log y ln y.
45

2.21 , , 1.6.
2.21. 1. log(yz) = log y + log z y, z > 0.
2. log yz = log y log z y, z > 0.
3. log(y z ) = z log y y > 0 z.
log y
4. loga y = log
y > 0 a > 0, a 6= 1.
a
5. log 1 = 0, log e = 1.
6. 0 < y < z, log y < log z.
1+ 1 ,
1 + 1
[0, +] .
. 1. 1 1, n + 1n = 1 1.
2. a > 1 b = log a. 1 + n1 1, bn + (1 + n1 )bn = ((1 + n1 )n )b eb = a.

3. n n 1, n + ( n n)n = n +.
4. (xn )
(yn ) xn 1, yn + (xn yn )
[0, 1].

(1)n1
(1)n1
1
n
n
n
5.

n
n

N,

1. , n +
nn
( (1)n1 )n
n1
n1
= n(1)
, n(1)
= n1 12 n N
n n
n1
n(1)
= n 1 n N.
6. (xn )
(yn ) xn 1, yn
(xn yn ) [0, +] .
.
. 1. (xn ), xn = 1 + 1!1 +
(xn ) , ,
1+

1
1!

1
2!

+ +

1
n!

1
2!

+ +

1
n!

n N.

e.

1
xn+1 xn = (n+1)!
> 0 n N, (xn ) .
k1
k! 2
k N. k = 1 , k N, k 2
k! = 1 2 3 k 1 2 2 2 = 2k1 . ,

xn = 1 +

1
1!

1
2!

+ +

1
n!

1+

1
20

1
21

+ +

1
2n1

=1+

1( 21 )n
1 21

<1+

1
1 12

=3

n N.
n ) , , , , .
( )(x
n
, tn = 1+ n1 n N. Newton
9 1.3,
( )
( )
( )
( )
tn = 1 + n1 n1 + n2 n12 + + nk n1k + + nn n1n
=1+

1
1!

+ 2!1 (1 n1 ) + +

1
(1
k!

n1 )(1 n2 ) (1

k1
)
n

+ +

1
(1
n!

n1 ) (1

n1
).
n

> 0 < 1, tn 1 + 1!1 + + n!1 = xn n N.


k, n N, 1 k n, () k-,
tn 1 +

1
1!

+ 2!1 (1 n1 ) + +

1
(1
k!

46

n1 )(1 n2 ) (1

k1
).
n

n +, e 1 + 1!1 + 2!1 + + k!1 = xk k N ,


, e xn n N. tn xn e n N ,
tn e, xn e.
8. , 10,
2
n
1 + 1!1 + 2!1 + + n!1 e 1 + 1!x + x2! + + xn! ex x.
2. (xn ), xn = 1 + 12 + 13 + + n1 n N.
1 + 21 + 31 + +
xn+1 xn =

1
n+1

1
n

+.

> 0 n N, (xn ) .

x2n xn =

1
n+1

+ +

1
n+n

1
n+n

+ +

1
n+n

n
n+n

1
2

n N. ,
x2 x1 12 , x22 x2 21 , x23 x22 12 , . . . , x2k1 x2k2 12 , x2k x2k1 21 .
, x2k x1 k2 , , x2k k2 + 1
k N. (xn ) , (xn ) , xn +.
6 2.7
2 2.8.
3.
(
)
1 + 212 + 312 + + n12 .
xn = 1 + 212 + 312 + + n12 n N. xn+1 xn =
(xn ) .
xn 1 +

1
12

1
23

+ +

1
(n1)n

= 1 + 11 12 + 12 13 + +

1
(n+1)2

1
n1

> 0 n N,
1
n

=2

1
n

<2

n N. (xn ) , , .
2.8.
. (an ) (bn )
an bn n N. , [a1 , b1 ], [a2 , b2 ], . . .
[an+1 , bn+1 ] [an , bn ] n N. :
(i) (an ) (bn ) .
(ii) x an x bn n N.
(iii) x (ii) bn an 0.
, (an ), (bn ) x
.
. (bn ) , an bn b1 n N, (an ) ,
, . (an ) an a.
, (an ) , a1 an bn n N, (bn ) ,
, . (bn ) bn b.
an bn n N, a b. an a b bn
n N.
x [a, b] an a x b bn n N. , x
an x bn n N, a x b, x [a, b].
x an x bn n N
[a, b]. , x a = b , ,
bn an 0. x x = a = b.
47

(ii) ,
, 13.
. x [0, 1) p N, p 2.
n N xn = [pn x] p[pn1 x]. (xn )
p- x.
, n N sn = xp1 + + xpnn tn = xp1 + + xpnn + p1n . (sn )
p- ( ) x (tn )
p- x.
xn Z n N. [pn1 x] pn1 x < [pn1 x] + 1
p[pn1 x] pn x < p[pn1 x] + p p[pn1 x] [pn x] < p[pn1 x] + p,
0 xn < p , xn Z, 0 xn p 1.
, n N xn 0, 1, . . . , p 1.
1
1
1
n+1
n+1
sn+1 sn = xpn+1
0 tn+1 tn = xpn+1
+ pn+1
p1n pp1
n+1 + pn+1 pn = 0
n N. (sn ) (tn ) . , sn tn n N,
.
, tn sn = p1n 0, (sn ), (tn ) .
;
(
) ( 2
)
( n1
( n
n2 )
n1 )
n
n
sn = [px]
[x] + [pp2x] [px]
+ + [ppn1x] [ppn2x] + [ppnx] [ppn1x] = [ppnx] [x] = [ppnx] .
p
p
, [pn x] pn x < [pn x] + 1 sn x < sn + p1n = tn , sn x
tn x.
p- x [0, 1) :
p1. - - n0 N xn = p1
1
1
1
n+1
n N, n n0 . tn+1 = tn + xpn+1
+ pn+1
p1n = tn + pp1
n+1 + pn+1 pn = tn
n N, n n0 . (tn ) , tn x,
tn = x. sn x < tn n N.
: p = 2 0, 1, p = 3
0, 1, 2 , , p = 10 0, 1, . . . , 9.
p- 8.3.
.
1. 2.1.
2. (1 + n1 )n e.
1 3n+5
[] : (1 + n1 )n+3 e, (1 + n+2
)
e3 , (1 n1 )n
(1 n3 )n e13 .
1
1
)(1 + n+2
).
: 1 + n3 = (1 + n1 )(1 + n+1

1
e

, (1 + n3 )n e3 ,

[] (1 + nk )n ek k Z.
5 2.7
k. k Q k R.
)
(
3. [] , Bernoulli, (1 + n1 )n+1
, e (1 + n1 )n+1 > e n N.
[] ( k+1
)k < e < ( k+1
)k+1 k = 1, 2, . . . , n 1
k
k
n
n+1
nn! < en1 < n n! n N.
48

nn! 1e .
19 7.3.

n
n! +.
8.4,
.
(
)
4. (1 + n1 )n .
(
)

(1) + n1 )n . , Bernoulli,
(
(1 + n1 )n+1 . , ,
, .
5. .
[] x1 = 1 xn+1 = xn + xn1 2 n N. (xn )
.
[] 7xn+1 = xn 3 + 6 n N. , x1 ,
(xn ) .
n
[] x1 > 0 xn+1 = 6+6x
n N. ,
7+xn
x1 , (xn ) .
[] xn+1 = 2 x1n n N. x1 = 1, (xn )
. x1 > 1, (xn )
k N, (xn )
. x1 < 1 x1 6= k1
k
. x1 = k1
k N;
k
[] xn+1 = sin xn n N. (xn ) ,
, .
[] x1 , x2 > 0 xn+2 = xn+1 + xn n N.
( xxn+1
) .
n
6. .
[] a > 1, (an ) ,
an+1 = aan , an +. 0 < a < 1.
n
[] a > 1, ( an ) ,
n+1
n
an an
an+1 = n+1
, an +.
n

[] a > 1, ( n a) ,
( )2

2n a = n a , n a 1. a = 1,
0 < a < 1;

[]
( n n)

n n 1.
n
an+1
[] ( an! ) , (n+1)!
=
an a
an
, n! 0.
n! n+1
7. 1.2 xk = a.
a > 0 k N, k 2. (xn ) x1 > 0
xn + k1 xnak1 n N. xn > 0
xn+1 = k1
k
n N. , Bernoulli, xn k a
n N, n 2 , , xn+1 xn n N, n 2.
(xn ) , x = limn+ xn , x > 0 xk = a.
49

8. . (xn ) xn+1 xn +x2 n+2 n N.


n N, .
[] (xn ). (xn xn+1 )
xn xn+1 0. (xn ) . (xn )
. (xn ) ;
[] .

n
9. [] 0 < x1 y1 xn+1 = xn yn , yn+1 = xn +y
n N, (xn )
2
, (yn ) , xn yn n N (xn ), (yn )
, - x1 , y1 .

n yn
[] 0 < x1 y1 xn+1 = x2xn +y
, yn+1 = xn yn n N, (xn )
n
, (yn ) , xn yn n N (xn ), (yn )
, - x1 , y1 .
[] -
- .
10. xn = 135(2n1)
n N. (nxn 2 )
246(2n)
((n + 12 )xn 2 ) .
. , , 11
7.3.
11. 1.5.
[] f : [a, b] R [a, b]. f (a) > a f (b) < b,
(a, b) f () = .
) < a+b
, a1 = a, b1 = a+b
: f (x) 6= x x [a, b]. f ( a+b
2
2
2
a+b
a+b
a+b
, f ( 2 ) > 2 , a1 = 2 , b1 = b. : f (a1 ) > a1 f (b1 ) < b1 .
,
[a1 , b1 ], [a2 , b2 ], . . . [an+1 , bn+1 ] [an , bn ], f (an ) > an , f (bn ) < bn
bn an = ba
n N. an bn n N
2n
an , bn . f () < f () > . .
[] I f : I R x I 0 > 0
f (x0 ) f (x) f (x00 ) x0 , x00 (x 0 , x + 0 ) I, x0 < x < x00 .
f I.
: a, b I a < b, f (a) > f (b). f (a) > f ( a+b
), a1 =
2
a+b
a+b
a+b
a, b1 = 2 , f ( 2 ) > f (b), a1 = 2 , b1 = b. f (a1 ) > f (b1 ).
,
[a1 , b1 ], [a2 , b2 ], . . . [an+1 , bn+1 ] [an , bn ], f (an ) > f (bn ) bn an = ba
2n
n N. an bn n N an , bn .
0 , .
12. .
, supremum.
. ,
21n 0. , - A. x1 A
y1 A. [x1 , y1 ] A A.
1
1
1
A, x2 = x1 , y2 = x1 +y
, , x2 = x1 +y
,
x1 +y
2
2
2
y2 = y1 . [x2 , y2 ] A
A. ,
50

x1
[x1 , y1 ], [x2 , y2 ], . . . [xn+1 , yn+1 ] [xn , yn ] yn xn = y21n1

n N [xn , yn ] an A un A.
u xn u, yn u , , an u, un u.
u A.

13. (ii)
.
(an ) (bn ) an bn
n N. {an | n N}, {bn | n N}
, x an x bn n N.
14. A - R -
- a : N A -- .
an = a(n), A
- A = {an | n N} , , A
. , A
-
.
, I ( )
.
- - I = {an | n N}. [x1 , y1 ] I
y1 x1 > 0 a1
/ [x1 , y1 ]. [x2 , y2 ] [x1 , y1 ] y2 x2 > 0 a2
/ [x2 , y2 ].
, [x1 , y1 ],
[x2 , y2 ], . . . [xn+1 , yn+1 ] [xn , yn ] an
/ [xn , yn ] n N.
[xn , yn ] n N , , 6= an
n N. .
15. .
1 , n N, n 2, 2n
2n .
pn qn , , .

[] p2 = 4 2, q2 = 8
(
(
(
(
2 ) 1 )1
2 ) 1 ) 1
pn+1 = 2pn 2 + 4 p4nn 2 2 qn+1 = 4qn 2 + 4 + q4nn 2
n N, n 2.
1
(
)
2

n
2
[] qn = pn 1 4pn+1
n N, n 2.
[] (pn ) , (qn ) pn < qn n N, n 2.
[] (pn ), (qn ) .

, , , 2,
: pn 2 qn n N, n 2. pn 2 qn 2.

2.6

Supremum, inmum .

A. (xn ) A xn A
n N, (xn ) A.
2.22 supremum inmum - : sup A
A inf A A.
51

2.22. - A.
1. A sup A A
sup A.
2. A inf A A
inf A.
. 1. A , x = sup A .
n N x n1 A, xn A x n1 < xn x.
(xn ) A xn x.
, A , sup A = +. n N
A, n N xn A xn > n.
(xn ) A xn +.
, (xn ) A. (xn ) , sup A, xn sup A
n N. A sup A.
2. .
supremum inmum
4.
.
1. 2.22.
2. [0, 2], [0, 2), {2}, [0, 1] {2}
supremum . ,
(
) , , . ,
, ,
.

3. N, Z, Q, { n1 | n N}, {x R \ Q | 0 < x 1}, {x Q | 0 < x < 2}


, supremum
inmum .
4. - A u A. u = sup A
A u. inf A
l A.
5. - A. sup A A
A sup A. sup A
/ A,
A sup A. inf A.

2.7

. (xn ). n1 , n2 , n3 , . . . , nk , . . . n
n1 < n2 < < nk < nk+1 < . (xn ).
x1 , x2 , . . . , xn , . . . xn1 , xn2 , . . . , xnk , . . . .
: xn1 , xn2
. , (xnk ).
, (xnk ) (xn ).
52

, (xnk ) x n : N R
(x n)(k) = x(n(k)) = xn(k) = xnk k N,
n : N N x : N R, , ,
(nk ) (xn ).
, n1 < n2 < < nk < nk+1 < ,

.
. 1. n1 = 2, n2 = 5, n3 = 6, n4 = 9, n5 = 13,
(xn ) x2 , x5 , x6 , x9 , x13 .
2. , n1 = 2, n2 = 5, n3 = 6, n4 = 10, n5 = 8
(xn ). x2 , x5 , x6 , x10 , x8
(xn ) : x10 x8 (xn ) - x9 x10 x8 .
. .
1. nk = 2k k N (x2k ) (x2 , x4 , x6 , x8 , x10 , . . . )
(xn ).
2. nk = 2k 1 k N (x2k1 ) (x1 , x3 , x5 , x7 , x9 , . . . )
(xn ).
3. nk = k k N (xk ) (x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , x5 , . . . ),
(xn ). , (xn ) (xn ).
4. nk = 2k1 k N (x2k1 ) (x1 , x2 , x4 , x8 , x16 , . . . ).
5. nk = k 2 k N (xk2 ) (x1 , x4 , x9 , x16 , x25 , . . . ).
(xnk ) k. k
1, 2, 3, . . . , nk
(xn ).
2.2. nk N nk < nk+1 k N. nk k k N.
. n1 1 n1 N. nk k k N. nk+1 > nk
nk , nk+1 N, nk+1 nk + 1, nk+1 k + 1. nk k
k N.
2.23. , .
. xn x R (xnk ) (xn ). xnk x.
> 0. n0 N xn Nx () n N, n n0 . ,
k N, k n0 nk n0 , , 2.2, nk k.
k N, k n0 xnk Nx (). xnk x.
2.23 , , :
, . 16 13 2.9.
. ((1)n1 ) . ,
(1)(2k1)1 = 1 1
(1)(2k)1 = 1 1.
2.24 .
53

2.24. x R x2k x, x2k1 x. xn x.


. > 0. k0 0 N x2k Nx () k N,
k k0 0 . , k0 00 N x2k1 Nx () k N, k k0 00 .
n0 = max{2k0 0 , 2k0 00 1}. n0 N
xn Nx () n N, n n0 .
, 2.24
8 9.
.
.
(
)
1 12 + 13 14 + + (1)n1 n1 .
xn = 1 12 + 31 14 + + (1)n1 n1 n N. x2k+2 x2k =
k N. ,
1

x2k = 1 ( 12 31 ) ( 14 15 ) ( 2k2

1
)
2k1

1
2k

1
2k+1

1
2k+2
>0

<1

k N, . (x2k )
, , .
1
1
, x2k+1 x2k1 = 2k
+ 2k+1
< 0 k N. ,
1

x2k1 = (1 12 ) + ( 31 14 ) + + ( 2k3

1
)
2k2

1
2k1

>0

k N . (x2k1 )
, , .
1
, x2k x2k1 = 2k
0, (x2k ), (x2k1 ) . (xn )
.
3 2.8.
-: log 2.
11 6.4.
. .
, ((1)n1 ) . , ((1)n1 ),
, :
1.
((1)n1 ) .
, .
Bolzano - Weierstrass.
.
. (xn ) l, u l xn u n N.
(xn ) ,
:
, ,
.
], [ l+u
, u]. ()
[l, u] [l, l+u
2
2
(xn ) [l, u],
54

(xn ). [l1 , u1 ]. ,
[l, l+u
] (xn ) [ l+u
, u] ,
2
2
l+u
].

[
,
u]

[l, l+u
]
[l1 , u1 ] [l, l+u
2
2
2
l+u
, [l1 , u1 ] [ 2 , u]. , ,
, [l1 , u1 ] . [l1 , u1 ]
[l1 , u1 ] (xn ).
[l, u], u1 l1 = ul
2
(xn ) ( ) [l1 , u1 ]: xn1 [l1 , u1 ].
1
1
[l1 , u1 ] [l1 , l1 +u
], [ l1 +u
, u1 ]. [l1 , u1 ]
2
2
(xn ),
(xn ). [l2 , u2 ] -
. [l2 , u2 ] [l1 , u1 ], u2 l2 = u1 2l1 [l2 , u2 ]
(xn ). (xn ) ( ) [l2 , u2 ]:
xn2 [l2 , u2 ]. , , n2 > n1 . ,
(xn ) [l2 , u2 ].
2
2
[l2 , u2 ] [l2 , l2 +u
], [ l2 +u
, u2 ]. [l2 , u2 ]
2
2
(xn ),
(xn ). [l3 , u3 ]. [l3 , u3 ] [l2 , u2 ],
u3 l3 = u2 2l2 [l3 , u3 ] (xn ). (xn )
( ) [l3 , u3 ]: xn3 [l3 , u3 ]. , ,
n3 > n2 .
.
, , [lk , uk ] k N [lk+1 , uk+1 ] [lk , uk ]
uk+1 lk+1 = uk 2lk k N. , xnk (xn ) k N
nk+1 > nk xnk [lk , uk ] k N.
uk+1 lk+1 = uk 2lk k N uk lk = ul
k N,
2k
uk lk 0.
, (lk ), (uk ) .
lk x uk x. nk+1 > nk k N, (xnk )
(xn ) , lk xnk uk k N, xnk x.
10 Bolzano - Weierstrass.
+ .
. (1, 0, 3, 0, 5, 0, 7, . . . ) +.
, +,
+: , (1, 3, 5, 7, . . . ).
.
2.25. 1.
+.
2.
.
. 1. (xn ) .
+, .
(xn ) , > 1.
: xn1 > 1.
(xn ) , > 2.
> 2; - -
(xn ) 2. n0 N xn 2 n N,
55

n n0 . u = max{x1 , . . . , xn0 1 , 2} xn u n N, n n0 1
xn 2 u n N, n n0 . xn u n N, u
(xn ) . , , (xn )
2: xn2 > 2. , , n2 > n1 .
> 2.
(xn ) , - - > 3.
(xn ) 3: xn3 > 3 n3 > n2 .
.
xnk (xn ) k N nk+1 > nk
xnk > k k N. (xnk ) (xn ) xnk +.
2. .
2.26. .
. , Bolzano - Weierstrass 2.25.
.
1. 2.25.
2. a < b < c < d. (
) a, b,
c d.
.
3. (xn ) : () , () , , , .
(xnk ) (xn ) .
4. x 6= 1 ( xxn 1
) .
+1
x2n 1
( x2n +1 );
n

5. [] 2 2.5
1
2
1 n
2 n
(1 + 2n
) e 2 , (1 + 3n
) e 3 , , (1 + nr )n er r Q.
[] x.
> 0. ex , s, t Q, s < x < t
ex < es < et < ex + . ,
ex < (1 + ns )n < (1 + nx )n < (1 + nt )n < ex + .
(1 + nx )n ex .
[] xn x. (1 +

xn n
)
n

ex . xn +; xn ;

6. [] (xn ) (xnk ) xnk x R ,


xn x.
[] (xn ) (xnk ) xnk
x R , xn x.
[] xn = 1 + 12 + 13 + + n1 n N. 2.5
x2k k2 + 1 k N. xn +.
1
1
1
1
[] b , b+1
+ b+2
+ b+3
+ + b+n
+.
56

[]
(1 + a1 ) (1 + an ) 1 + a1 + + an

n N, a1 , . . . , an 0

(1 a1 ) (1 an ) 1 a1 an

n N, 0 a1 , . . . , an 1.

(1 + a)n 1 + na
Bernoulli a 0 1 a 0, .
b , a = b, a > b, a < b,
.
limn+ (a+1)(a+2)(a+n)
(b+1)(b+2)(b+n)
:

a+k
b+k

=1+

ab
b+k

7. .
[] x1 > 0 xn+1 = 1 + x1n n N.
(x2k ), (x2k1 ) . (xn )
.
2
[] x1 > 0 xn+1 = 1 + 1+x
n N.
n
(x2k ), (x2k1 ) . (xn )
.
[] 0 < p < 1 xn+2 = (1 p)xn+1 + pxn n N.
(x2k ), (x2k1 ) . (xn )
. xn n 8
2.1 yn = xn+1 xn ,
yn+1 = pyn n N. (xn ).
8. 2.24.
a, b, x R , a 6= b. x2k a, x2k1 b
(xnk ) xnk x. (xnk ) (x2k )
(x2k1 ). (xnk ) (x2k )
(x2k1 ); x = a x = b.
9. 2.24 .
[] x R x3k x, x3k1 x, x3k2 x.
2.24, xn x. .
[] a, b, c, x R , a 6= b, a 6= c, b 6= c. x3k a, x3k1 b, x3k2 c
(xnk ) xnk x. x = a x = b x = c.
[] N
(xn ). N, .
, (xn ) .
[] [] N
. .
n N n = 2m1 k m N k
N. N : A(m) =
{2m1 k | k } m N. A(1)
, A(2) , A(3)
57

. , xn = k1 n = 2m1 k
m N k N. (xn ) (m)
(m)
: (xk )+
= k1
k=1 m N, , m N, xk
(m)
k N. 0: xk = k1 0.
(xn ) 0, (x2m1 3 )+
m=1 .
10. [] .
(xn ). xn -
m N, m > n xm > xn . (xn ) -,
(xn ). (xn )
-, , , .
[] Bolzano - Weierstrass , ,
2.26.
11. (xn ) n N
(xnk ) k N.
12. ,
. 7 2.1.
13. (xn ) x R (xn )
x. : (xn )
(xn ) .
14. [] xn < x n N. sup{xn | n N} = x
(xn ) x.
[] ( n1 ). sup{ n1 | n N} = 1. ,
( n1 ) 0, ( n1 ) , ,
1. [];
15. (xn ) (xnk ). (xnk )
(xn ).
16. - .
[] (xn ) ,
. 2.23.
[] (xn ) , l, u, u < l xn u
n N xn l n N. 2.3.
17. .
[] xn x xn 6= x n N. (xn )
.
[] (rn ) , rn = pqnn ,
pn Z, qn N n N. qn +.
[] x (rn ) rn x rn = pqnn , pn Z, qn N
n N. qn + pn +, x > 0, pn , x < 0.

58

2.8

. (xn ) Cauchy > 0 n0 N


|xn xm | < n, m N, n, m n0 .
: limn,m+ (xn xm ) = 0.
: (xn ) Cauchy
.
2.27. (xn ) , Cauchy.
. xn x. > 0. n0 N |xn x| < 2
n N, n n0 . , n m, |xm x| < 2
m N, m n0 .
|xn xm | = |(xn x) (xm x)| |xn x| + |xm x| <

n, m N, n, m n0 . (xn ) Cauchy.
2.3. (xn ) Cauchy, .
. n0 N |xn xm | < 1 n, m N, n, m n0 . ,
n N, n n0 |xn xn0 | < 1 , , |xn | = |(xn xn0 ) + xn0 |
|xn xn0 | + |xn0 | < 1 + |xn0 |.
M = max{|x1 |, . . . , |xn0 1 |, 1 + |xn0 |}. |xn | M n N, n n0 1
|xn | < 1 + |xn0 | M n N, n n0 .
|xn | M n N, (xn ) .
Cauchy 2.27.
Cauchy. (xn ) Cauchy, .
. (xn ) , Bolzano - Weierstrass, (xnk ) . xnk x. xn x.
> 0. n0 N |xn xm | < 2 n, m N, n, m n0 .
, k0 N |xnk x| < 2 k N, k k0 .
k = max{k0 , n0 } N. k k0 , |xnk x| < 2 , nk k n0 ,
|xn xnk | < 2 n N, n n0 .
|xn x| = |(xn xnk ) + (xnk x)| |xn xnk | + |xnk x| <

n N, n n0 . xn x.
6 7 12 2.9
Cauchy.
Cauchy
2.1. (xn )
x (xn ), |xn x|
x, |xn xm | . , ,
Cauchy Cauchy.

59

. (xn ), xn = 1 +
, , (xn ) .
n, m N, n < m.
|xn xm | =
<
=

1
22

1
32

+ +

1
1
1
1
+ (n+2)
2 + + (m1)2 + m2
(n+1)2
1
1
1
1
+ (n+1)(n+2)
+ + (m2)(m1)
+ (m1)m
n(n+1)
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
n+1
+ n+1
n+2
+ + m2
m1
+ m1
n

, > 0. n0 N
n0 n < m |xn xm | < n1 n10 < .
(xn ) Cauchy , , .

1
n0

1
n2

1
m

n N.

1
n

1
m

<

1
n

< . n, m N,

Cauchy R.
. Cauchy .
Bolzano - Weierstrass,
, , .
. .
. , ,
, . :

. 5.
.
1. (xn ), (yn ) Cauchy. (xn + yn ), (xn yn )
Cauchy.
2. xn = 1 + 21 + + n1 n N, 2.5 x2n xn
n N. (xn ) Cauchy; xn +.
3. xn = 1 12 + 13 41 + +

|xn xm | = 1

1
2

(1)n1
n N.
n

(1)mn1
1
1
+

+
n+1
n+2
m

n, m N, n < m.
(xn ) Cauchy ( ) .
n+1

4. .
[] (xn ), 0 < 1 |xn xn+1 | cn .
n
n0 N |xn xm | = |(xn xn+1 )+(xn+1 xn+2 )+ +(xm1 xm )| c 1
n, m N, n0 n < m. (xn ) Cauchy. x
n
(xn ), |xn x| c 1
.
[] . (xn ), 0 < 1 |xn+1 xn+2 |
|xn xn+1 |. (xn ) .
(xn ) Cauchy. x
n
(xn ), c 0 |xn x| c 1
.
1
[] x1 > 0 xn+1 = 1 + 1+x
n N. (xn )
n
. n-
xn . (xn )
xn+1 = a + sin xn n N, || < 1.
: | sin x sin y| |x y|.

60

5. . , , supremum.
12 2.5 .
,
. 21n 0 , ,
(xn ), (yn ) Cauchy. -
.
6. Cauchy, .
Cauchy (xn ). [a1 , b1 ] b1 a1 < 1
xn [a1 , b1 ]. [a2 , b2 ] [a1 , b1 ] b2 a2 < 21
xn [a2 , b2 ]. ,
[ak , bk ] k N [ak+1 , bk+1 ] [ak , bk ]
bk ak < k1 k N xn [ak , bk ].
x x [ak , bk ] k N. > 0. , k1 < ,
[ak , bk ] (x , x + ), xn (x , x + ). xn x.
7. Cauchy, .
Cauchy (xn ). ln = inf{xk | k N, k n} un = sup{xk | k
N, k n} n N ln un , ln ln+1 un+1 un
n N un ln 0. x ln x un x.
ln xn un n N, xn x.

2.9

limsup liminf .

(xn ) :
U 0 = {x | xn > x n N},

U = {x | xn x}.

U 0 U
. U 0 , U
R:
U 0 U = ,
U 0 U = R.
, .
.
, U 0 = , U = R U 0 = R, U = . , ,
U 0 , U .
u0 < u

u0 U 0 , u U .

, u0 U 0 , u U . xn u. u u0 ,
xn u0 , u0 U . , u0 < u.
U 0 , U ,
. x
u0 x u

u0 U 0 , u U .

61

, . U 0 U = U 0 U = R,

U 0 = (, x],

U = (x, +)

U 0 = (, x),

U = [x, +),

x R.

. U 0 = U = R,
x = , u0 x u u0 U 0 , u U , ,
U 0 = (, x],

U = (x, +),

x = .

, x u u U . u0 x u0 U 0 , ,
, u0 U 0 ( U 0 = ) u0 x.
, U = (x, +) , U 0 = (, x] ,
.
U 0 = R U = , x = +, - - u0 x u
u0 U 0 , u U , ,
U 0 = (, x),

U = [x, +),

x = +.

. x R
(xn ). x (xn ) lim supn+ xn lim sup xn lim xn .
2.28 lim xn .
2.28. (xn ).
1. lim xn = + (xn ) .
2. lim xn = xn .
3. x > lim xn xn < x. , xn < x, x lim xn .
4. x < lim xn xn > x n N. , xn > x
n N, x lim xn .
. U 0 , U lim xn = x .
1. lim xn = +. U 0 = R U = . x xn > x
n N, x (xn ). (xn ) .
, (xn ) . x xn > x
n N. x = 2 ( x = 3) 2
2.25 x. , x U 0 x.
U 0 = R U = , lim xn = +.
2. lim xn = . U 0 = U = R. M > 0 M 1 U ,
xn M 1 < M . xn . , xn .
x xn < |x| 1 , , xn x. x U x, U 0 =
U = R. lim xn = .
3. x > lim xn . x0 lim xn < x0 < x. x0 U ,
xn x0 . xn < x. , xn < x.
xn x, x U . x lim xn .
4. x < lim xn . x U 0 , xn > x n N. ,
xn > x n N. x U 0 , x lim xn .
. 1. lim n1 = 0. U 0 = (, 0] U = (0, +).
2. lim( n1 ) = 0. U 0 = (, 0) U = [0, +).
3. lim 0 = 0. U 0 = (, 0) U = [0, +).
62

n1

4. lim (1)n = 0. U 0 = (, 0] U = (0, +).


5. lim(1)n1 = 1. U 0 = (, 1) U = [1, +).
6. lim n = +. U 0 = (, +) U = . ,
(n) , lim n = +.
7. lim(n) = . U 0 = U = (, +). , n ,
lim(n) = .
8. lim(1)n1 n = +. U 0 = (, +) U = . ,
((1)n1 n) , lim(1)n1 n = +.
n1 1

9. lim (1) 2

n = 0. U 0 = (, 0) U = [0, +).

n1

10. lim (1) 2 +1 n = +. U 0 = (, +) U = . ,


(
)
n1
n1
(1) 2 +1 n , lim (1) 2 +1 n = +.
. :
L = {x | xn x},

L0 = {x | xn < x n N}.

L L0
. L, L0 R:
L L0 = ,

L L0 = R.

L, L0 .
l < l0

l L, l0 L0 .

, l L, l0 L0 . xn l. l0 l, xn l0 ,
l0 L. , l < l0 .
L, L0 ,
. x
l x l0

l L, l0 L0 .

, L L0 = L L0 = R,
L = (, x],

L0 = (x, +)

L = (, x),

L0 = [x, +),

x R.

L = L0 = R, x = , l x l0 l L, l0 L0
, ,
L = (, x], L0 = (x, +),
x = .
L = R L0 = , x = +, l x l0 l L, l0 L0
, ,
L = (, x), L0 = [x, +),
x = +.
. x R (xn ).
x (xn ) lim infn+ xn lim inf xn lim xn .
2.29. (xn ).
1. lim xn = (xn ) .
2. lim xn = + xn +.
3. x < lim xn xn > x. , xn > x, x lim xn .
4. x > lim xn xn < x n N. , xn < x
n N, x lim xn .
63

. L, L0 lim xn = x .
1. lim xn = . L = L0 = R. x xn < x
n N, x (xn ). (xn ) .
, (xn ) . x xn < x
n N. , x L0 x. L = L0 = R, lim xn = .
2. lim xn = +. L = R L0 = . M > 0 M + 1 L,
xn M + 1 > M . xn +. , xn +.
x xn > |x| + 1 , , xn x. x L x, L = R
L0 = . lim xn = +.
3. x < lim xn . x0 x < x0 < lim xn . x0 L,
xn x0 . xn > x. , xn > x.
xn x, x L. x lim xn .
4. x > lim xn . x L0 , xn < x n N. ,
xn < x n N. x L0 , x lim xn .
. 1. lim n1 = 0. L = (, 0] L0 = (0, +).
2. lim( n1 ) = 0. L = (, 0) L0 = [0, +).
3. lim 0 = 0. L = (, 0] L0 = (0, +).
n1

4. lim (1)n = 0. L = (, 0) L0 = [0, +).


5. lim(1)n1 = 1. L = (, 1] L0 = (1, +).
6. lim n = +. L = (, +) L0 = . , n +,
lim n = +.
7. lim(n) = . L = L0 = (, +). ,
(n) , lim(n) = .
8. lim(1)n1 n = . L = L0 = (, +). ,
((1)n1 n) , lim(1)n1 n = .
9. lim (1) 2 1 n = . L = L0 = (, +). ,
(
)
n1
n1
(1) 2 1 n , lim (1) 2 1 n = .
n1

n1 +1

10. lim (1) 2

n = 0. L = (, 0] L0 = (0, +).

. , , ,
:
.
lim lim 14.
2.28 2.29. (i) . (ii)

.
. (iii)
. .
2.30. (xn ).
1. lim xn lim xn .
2. (xn ) lim xn = lim xn . , (xn ) ,
lim xn = lim xn = lim xn .
. 1. lim xn < lim xn . x lim xn < x < lim xn .
lim xn < x 2.28 xn < x x < lim xn
64

2.29 x < xn . xn < x x < xn .


.
2. (xn ) .
lim xn = +, lim xn = + , (xn ) ,
lim xn = +.
lim xn = , lim xn = , (xn ) ,
lim xn = .
lim xn = x. > 0. x < xn < x + .
2.28 2.29 x lim xn lim xn x + .
> 0, x lim xn lim xn x. lim xn lim xn ,
lim xn = lim xn = x = lim xn .
, lim xn = lim xn .
lim xn = lim xn = +, lim xn = + lim xn = +.
lim xn = lim xn = , lim xn = lim xn = .
, lim xn = lim xn = x. > 0 lim xn < x + , ,
2.28, xn < x + . , > 0 x < lim xn , ,
2.29, xn > x . x < xn < x + ,
lim xn = x.
. x R. x (xn ) (xn )
x.
. 1. (xn ) , ,
. , ( n1 )
0 (n) .
2. ((1)n1 ) , 1.
8 2.7, .
(
)
n1
3. , (1) 2 +1 n 0 +.
2.26, :
, ,
, .
,
, . 2.31
- .
2.31. (xn ). lim xn lim xn R
, , (xn ).
. , x = lim xn R .
x = +, (xn ) , + .
x = + (xn ).
x = , xn , (xn ) . x =
- , , - (xn ).
, x R. u0 , u u0 < x < u.
, 2.28, xn < u , , xn > u0
n N. , u0 < xn < u n N.
n1 N x 1 < xn1 < x + 1. , n2 N, n2 > n1
x 12 < xn2 < x + 12 . , n3 N, n3 > n2 x 13 < xn3 < x + 13 .
, (xnk ) (xn ), x k1 < xnk < x + k1
65

k N. xnk x, x (xn ).
x R (xn ). , (xnk ) xnk x.
- - x < x. t x < t < x. xnk x,
t < xnk . t < xn n N , , t x.
, x x. x (xn ).
, lim xn (xn ).
2.32. (xn ), (yn ). xn yn , lim xn
lim yn lim xn lim yn .
. u > lim yn . 2.28 yn < u.
xn < u, , 2.28, u lim xn .
u > lim yn , lim xn lim yn .
lim xn lim yn .
.
1. 2.31 2.32.
2. a < b < c (a, b, a, b, a, b, a, b, . . . ) (a, b, c, a, b, c, a, b, c, . . . ).
lim lim .
3. , , lim, lim : ( n+1
), ( n1
), (2n ), (2n ), ((2)n ),
n
n
( (1)n1 n ) (
)
(
)
(
)
2
, (1)n1 + n1 , (1)n1 (1 + n1 ) , (1)n1 (1 n1 ) .
4. .
an bn cn n N. lim cn lim an , (an ),
(bn ), (cn ) .
5. [] , , lim xn + lim yn lim(xn + yn )
lim(xn + yn ) lim xn + lim yn .
[] , xn , yn > 0 ,
lim xn lim yn lim xn yn lim xn yn lim xn lim yn .
[] t > 0, lim txn = t lim xn lim txn = t lim xn . t < 0;
6. [] , lim yn ,
lim(xn + yn ) = lim xn + lim yn lim(xn + yn ) = lim xn + lim yn .
[] , xn , yn > 0, lim yn
, lim xn yn = lim xn lim yn lim xn yn = lim xn lim yn .
[] (yn ) . , lim(xn + yn ) =
lim xn + lim yn (xn ), (yn ) .
7. m N. (xn ), (xn+m ) .
8. (xnk ) (xn ).
[] 15 2.7
(xnk ) (xn ).
[] lim xn lim xnk lim xnk lim xn .
9. [] (0, 1, 12 , 0, 13 , 23 , 1, 34 , 42 , 14 , 0, 51 , 25 , 35 , 45 , 1, 56 , 64 , 36 , 62 , 16 , 0, . . . )
[0, 1].
[] (xn ) (0, 1); (0, 1]; [0, 1);
66

10.
.
[] x R (xn )
> 0 xn Nx () n N.
: > 0 xn Nx () n N. n1 N
xn1 Nx (1). , n2 N, n2 > n1 xn2 Nx ( 21 ). ,
n3 N, n3 > n2 xn3 Nx ( 13 ). .
[] X R (xn ). (yn )
X yn y R, y X.
[] a < b < c d. (xn ) [a, b) [c, d] [a, b] Q.
11. [] , , , Cesro
n
24 2.4: xn x R, x1 ++x
x.
n
x R. > 0. n0 N |xn x| < n N,
n x)
n
n n0 . , n N, n n0 | x1 ++x
x| = (x1 x)++(x

n
n
|x1 x|++|xn0 1 x|
|x1 x|++|xn0 1 x|
|xn0 x|++|xn x|
|x1 x|++|xn x|
(nn0 +1)
=
+
<
+
.
n
n
n
n
n
x1 ++xn
x1 ++xn
n
lim | x1 ++x
lim
|

x|

x|
=
0.

x|

0,
n
n
n
n

x.
x1 ++x
n
x = +. M > 0. n0 N xn > M n N,
x ++x
x ++x
n
n n0 . , n N, n n0 x1 ++x
= 1 n n0 1 + n0 n n >
n
x1 ++xn0 1
n
n
+ (nn0n+1)M . lim x1 ++x
M . lim x1 ++x
= +,
n
n
n
x1 ++xn
+.
n
x = . M > 0. n0 N xn < M n N,
x ++x
x ++x
n
n n0 . , n N, n n0 x1 ++x
= 1 n n0 1 + n0 n n <
n
x1 ++xn0 1
n
n
(nn0n+1)M . lim x1 ++x
M . lim x1 ++x
= ,
n
n
n
x1 ++xn
.
n
[] , , ,
n
n
Cesro: lim xn lim x1 ++x
lim x1 ++x
lim xn .
n
n
lim xn < x. n0 N xn < x n N, n n0 . ,
x ++x
x ++x
x ++x
n
n N, n n0 x1 ++x
= 1 n n0 1 + n0 n n < 1 n n0 1 + (nnn0 +1)x .
n
n
n
lim x1 ++x
x. lim x1 ++x
lim xn .
n
n
x < lim xn . n0 N xn > x n N, n n0 . ,
x ++x
x ++x
x ++x
n
n N, n n0 x1 ++x
= 1 n n0 1 + n0 n n > 1 n n0 1 + (nnn0 +1)x .
n
n
n
x. lim x1 ++x
lim xn .
lim x1 ++x
n
n
[] [] Cesro;
[] , , xn > 0 n N,

lim xn lim n x1 xn lim n x1 xn lim xn .


lim xn < x. n0 N xn < x n N, n n0 .

, n N, n n0 n x1 xn = n x1 xn0 1 n xn0 xn <

n
n x x
xnn0 +1 . lim n x1 xn x, lim n x1 xn lim xn .
1
n0 1
0 < x < lim xn . n0 N xn > x n N, n n0 .

, n N, n n0 n x1 xn = n x1 + + xn0 1 n xn0 xn >

n
n x x
xnn0 +1 . lim n x1 xn x, lim n x1 xn lim xn .
1
n0 1

[] : xn > 0 n N xn x [0, +], n x1 xn x.


67

4 4.3.

[] an > 0 n N, lim an+1


lim n an lim n an lim an+1
.
an
an

an+1
[] : an > 0 n N an a [0, +], n an a.

[] limn+ n n , limn+ n nn!n .


[] Cesro 24
2.4: (xn ), (yn ) yn > 0 n N y1 + +yn +.
n
l.
xynn l R, xy11 ++x
++yn
n
[] [], : lim xynn lim xy11 ++x

++yn
x1 ++xn
xn
lim y1 ++yn lim yn .

12. , Cauchy.
Cauchy (xn ). x = lim xn R , x = lim xn R . (xn ) ,
x, x R. x < x . l, u x < l < u < x . xm < l
m N xn > u n N. xn xm > u l
n, m N. . x = x , , (xn )
.
13. 16 2.7.
14. .
(xn ).
[] n N un = sup{xk | k N, k n}. (i) (xn )
, un = + n N. (ii) (xn ) ,
un R n N un+1 un n N,
(un ) [, +). un lim xn .
[] n N ln = inf{xk | k N, k n}. (i) (xn )
, ln = n N. (ii) (xn ) ,
ln R n N ln ln+1 n N, (ln )
(, +]. ln lim xn .
[] ln un n N.
[] lim xn lim xn . [], lim xn =
+ (i) lim xn = lim un (ii). , [],
lim xn = (i) lim xn = lim ln (ii).
[] 2.28 - 2.32 lim xn
lim xn .
15. s, t Q s < x < t. (1 + ns )n < (1 + nx )n < (1 + nt )n n N.
[] 5 2.7,
es lim(1 + nx )n lim(1 + nx )n et . , ex
x, (1 + nx )n ex x.
16. (xn ) xn+1 xn 0.
9, +
1
1
)
(1
( + 21 + + n ),
1 2 + + (1)n1 n1 , , .
[] (xn )
[lim xn , lim xn ] R .
68

[] (xn ) xn+1 xn 0
R.
17. a > 0. (xn ), xn = na [na] n N.
[] xn [0, 1) xn n N.
{
xn + xm ,
0 < xn + xm < 1
[] xn+m =
n, m N,
xn + xm 1, 1 < xn + xm < 2
{ 0 < xn + xm < 2 xn + xm 6= 1 n, m N. ,
xn xm ,
0 < xn xm < 1
xnm =
n, m N, n > m,
xn xm + 1, 1 < xn xm < 0
1 < xn xm < 1 xn xm 6= 0 n, m N.
[] > 0. k N k1 < .
[0, k1 ), [ k1 , k2 ), . . . , [ k1
, 1) k1 .
k
k + 1 x1 , x2 , . . . , xk+1 n
. m, n N, 1 n, m k + 1, n > m 0 < |xn xm | < k1 .
, xnm = xn xm , 0 < |xn xm | < k1 , xnm = xn xm + 1,
k1 < xn xm < 0.
p N 0 < xp < 1 < xp < 1.
0 < xp < n = [ x1p ], 0 < xp < x2p < < xnp < 1
xp , x2p , . . . , xnp [0, 1] < .
1
1 < xp < 1 n = [ 1x
], 0 < xnp < < x2p < xp < 1
p
xnp , . . . , x2p , xp [0, 1] < .
> 0 < [0, 1]
(xn ). , (xn ) [0, 1].
[] (sin(na));

69

3
.
3.1

3.1.1

. .

2.3 R . R, > 0,
N () = ( , + ). = , > 0, N+ () = ( 1 , +]
N () = [, 1 ). , N () - R.
. N () = N () \ {}.
, R, N () = ( , + ) \ {} = ( , ) (, + ).

, N+
() = ( 1 , +] \ {+} = ( 1 , +) N
() = [, 1 ) \ {} = (, 1 ).
. R A > 0
A N () 6= , , A .
: (i) R A > 0
x A 0 < |x | < , (ii) + A N > 0
x A x > N (iii) A N > 0
x A x < N .
, R A > 0
A N () = . : (i) R A
> 0 A ( , + ) , (ii) +
A N > 0 A x > N
(iii) A N > 0 A
x < N .
, R A
A . , ,
R A A
.
3.1. 1. + A A
.
2. A A .
. 1. + A N > 0
x A, x > N N > 0 A A
.
2. .
70

. .
1. a < b. (a, b), (a, b], [a, b), [a, b]
[a, b].
[a, b). ,
[a, b) . < a, > 0
a, 0 < a , [a, b) N () = . , > b,
> 0 b, 0 < b,
[a, b) N () = . , , [a, b).
[a, b], > 0 [a, b) N () 6= . [a, b]
[a, b).
a, b (a, b),
(a, b], [a, b), [a, b].
2. (a, +), [a, +) [a, +].
, (, b), (, b] [, b].
, (, +) [, +].
3. a < b. {a, b} .
{a, b} , . < a > b
a < < b, > 0
{a, b}. , 0 < a 0 < b
0 < min{ a, b }. , , {a, b} N () = . ,
{a, b}, > 0
{a, b}. , 0 < b a
{a, b} N () = . {a, b}.
2.
4. a < b < c, [a, b) {c} [a, b].
5. N +.
N , + .
N N . N, N
1, , 0 < 1, N N () = .
< 1, > 0 1,
0 < 1 , N N () = . > 1
/ N,
[], [] + 1, > 0
, 0 < min{ [], [] + 1 },
N N () = . N.
6. 0 A = { n1 | n N}.
> 0 n N n1 < , n1 A N0 (). 0 A. A A . < 0,
> 0 0, 0 < ||,
A N () = . > 1, > 0
1, 0 < 1, A N () = . (0, 1] \ A, n N
1
< < n1 > 0
n+1
1
1
n+1
, n1 , 0 < min{ n+1
, n1 }. A N () = . ,
A. = 1, A
1
, 0 < 12 A N1 () = . = n1 , n N, n 2,
2
1
1
, n1
,
> 0 n+1
1
1
1
1
1

0 < min{ n n+1 , n1 n } = n(n+1) , A N 1 () = . 6= 0


n

71

A.
3.1
. , R
A A
. 3.1 A

.
3.1. R. A
(xn ) A xn xn 6= n N.
. A. n N AN ( n1 ) 6= ,
xn A N ( n1 ). (xn ) A xn 6=
n N. , > 0. n1 , N ( n1 ) N ().
xn N () , , xn .
, (xn ) A xn xn 6=
n N. xn , > 0 xn N () ,
xn 6= n N, xn N (). > 0 A N () 6= ,
A.
)
. 1. , , [a, b). a < b, ( + b
2n
[a, b) 6= . , a < b,
( a
) [a, b) 6= . [a, b]
n
[a, b). ,
/ [a, b]
[a, b) , , [a, b).
2. a < b, {a, b} . b
{a, b}, {a, b} 6= b (a),
, , a b. , a {a, b}. ,
R \ {a, b} {a, b}. (xn )
{a, b} xn xn 6= n N. (xn ) a
b, (xn ) . xn = a
xn = b , , xn a xn b. .
3. + N. (n) N +,
+ N. , [, +)
N. (xn ) N xn xn 6=
n N. xn 1 n N, 6= . , R.
xn , xn ( 12 , + 12 ). , ( 12 , + 21 )
1, . (xn ) . xn ,
xn = . .
4. 0 A = { n1 | n N}. ( n1 )
A, 0 6= 0. 0 A. ,
R, 6= 0 A. (xn )
A xn xn 6= n N. xn 6= 0 n N 6= 0,
x1n 1 . , x1n N x1n 6= 1 n N. 1
N, , , 1 = +. .
. R, > 0, N () = ( , ) N+ () = (, + )
- - , .
72

: N () N+ () = N (), N () N+ () = . ,
.
. A
> 0 A N () 6= , , x A < x < .
A > 0
A N+ () 6= , , x A < x < + .
()
A A
() .
:
A
A.
,
A. , 00 > 0 A N (00 ) = 000 > 0 A N+ (000 ) = .
0 = min{00 , 000 }, 0 00 0 000 . A N (0 ) A N (00 ),
A N (0 ) = , A N+ (0 ) A N+ (000 ), A N+ (0 ) = .
AN (0 ) = (AN (0 ))(AN+ (0 )) = , ,
A.
, A. > 0
A N+ () 6= , , A N+ () A N (), A N () 6= .
A. ,
A, A.
. 1. (a, b] (a, b)
[a, b) (a, b). (a, b)
(a, b).
2. b (a, b) (b, c),
(a, b)
(b, c).
3. 0 { n1 | n N},
{ n1 | n N}
{ n1 | n N} { n1 | n N}.
3.2 ()
.
3.2. R.
1. A
(xn ) A xn xn > n N.
2. A
(xn ) A xn xn < n N.
. 1. A. n N
xn A < xn < + n1 . (xn ) A xn
xn > n N.
, (xn ) A xn xn >
n N. xn , > 0 < xn < + ,
xn > n N, < xn < + . > 0 x A
< x < + , , A.
2. .
73

3.1.2

. .

x
A. , A
x A x A .
, f (x) > 0 f (x) 6= 7, f : A R
. x
A f . xn < xn+1 , (xn )
.
n N, x : N R.

. x x [0, +), [0, 1]


(1, +).
. R A.
A 0 > 0
x A N (0 ) , , x N (0 ) .

. 1. x x [0, +) [0, 1]. [0, 1), . , ,



/ [0, 1), .

2. 1x < 13 (0, +) (9, +). (9, +], . , ,

/ (9, +], .
. , , R A.
A
> 0 x A N () , ,
x N () .

, .
.
. sin x > 0 R.
+. , , sin x 0
+. +.
A , ,
A R A.

, , , , , .
, 0 0 > 0 x A N (0 0 )
0 00 > 0 x A N (0 00 ).
0 = min{0 0 , 0 00 } > 0, 0 0 0 0 0 00 . N (0 ) N (0 0 ) N (0 ) N (0 00 ).
x A N (0 ).

.

2.1.2 .
.
74

. N - ,
. + ( )
N.
. n0 N n N,
n n0 . N0 > 0 ( N0 = n0 ) n N(N0 , +).
+.
, +. N0 > 0
n N (N0 , +). n0 N n0 > N0 (
, n0 = [N0 ] + 1). n N, n n0 .
.
, ,
N.
+.
, - 9 -
N. n N
+.
. R A.

A 0 > 0 x A ( 0 , ) ,
, x ( 0 , ) .
,
A 0 > 0 x A (, + 0 ) , ,
x (, + 0 ) .
. , , R A.

A > 0
x A ( , ) , , x ( , ) .

A > 0
x A (, + ) , , x (, + ) .

()
() . :
() ,
() .

() , , () ,
, , () .
, , .
A
A,
.
, . 0 > 0
x A (( 0 , ) (, + 0 )). x A ( 0 , )
, , x A (, + 0 ).
75

.
,
. 0 0 > 0 x A ( 0 0 , ) 0 00 > 0
x A (, + 0 00 ). 0 = min{0 0 , 0 00 } > 0,
0 0 0 0 0 00 . x A (( 0 , ) (, + 0 )),
.
.
() A
A,
() .
A.
. 0 > 0
x A (( 0 , ) (, + 0 )). x A (, + 0 ).
.
, . 0 0 > 0
x A(, +0 0 ).
A, 0 00 > 0 A ( 0 00 , ) = . 0 = min{0 0 , 0 00 } > 0,
0 0 0 0 0 00 . , A((0 , )(, +0 )) = A(, +0 ) A(, +0 0 ),
x A (( 0 , ) (, + 0 )).
.
A.
3.3. R A.
(xn ) A xn ,
xn 6= n N xn n N.
. . > 0
x A N (). , n N
xn A N ( n1 ) xn . (xn ) A
xn 6= n N xn n N.
, > 0. n1 , N ( n1 ) N ().
xn N () , , xn .
, (xn ) A xn , xn 6=
n N xn n N. xn , > 0
xn N () , xn 6= n N, xn N ().
> 0 x A N () , ,
.
3.3
() xn 6=
xn > (xn < ). 14.
.
1. 3.1 3.2.
2. a < b <. (a, b) (b, c), (a, b) {c +
{ n1 + m1 | n, m N}, {(1)n1 (1 + n1 ) | n N}, {2n + m1 | n, m N}.

1
n

| n N},

3. A .
76

4. R. A
A \ {}.
5. R A
N A. ,
2.
6. R, A B. A,
B.
7. .
R Q
R \ Q. , (a, b) Q (a, b) \ Q.
: ,
, 23 2.4.
8. - A. , sup A A,
A. , inf A. A sup A
inf A .
9. N.
n N +.
10. []
x+2
1
1
1
> 1000, 100
< x+3
< 100
;
: x12 > 100, |x1|
0, 1 .
[]
1
: (1)[ x ] < 0, sin x > 12 , sin x1 < 0;
0, +
0.
0, +, 0.
11. . A A 0 > 0
A N (0 ) , ( 0 , + 0 ) A = {}.
[] A A
A A
A.
[] A. A
(xn ) A .
12. A A = A (, ], A+ = A [, +).
() A
A+ (A ).
13. [] R A1 An
A1 , . . . , An .
[] , R ,
. 0 [1, 0],
[0, 1] [1, 0] [0, 1].

77

14. R A.
() (xn )
A xn , xn > (xn < ) n N xn
n N.
15. :
[] R,
.
[] R
(, , ), :
.
[]
, :

.
[] ()
, :
() .
16. ,
A, ,
A, A . ,

A.
17. [] Bolzano - Weierstrass:
R.
: A. (xn )
A xn 6= xm n, m N, n 6= m.
Bolzano - Weierstrass, (xn ) : xnk x.
x A.
[] R.
[] Bolzano - Weierstrass , , .
: (xn ). {xn | n N} ,
(xn ) , , .
{xn | n N} , , x. (xn )
x.
[] , R ,
.
18.
.
,
.
.
[] . A
( ).
78

(i) ( ,
R), , N, { n1 | n N} {0}
. Q, { n1 | n N} -
6= R .
(ii) A (xn )
A, , A.
(iii) 10[] 2.9 .
(iv)
.
(v) - A , .
- A , .
(vi) Bolzano - Weierstrass:
A. A A.
: A A, A .
(vii) Bolzano - Weierstrass , , .
[] . A x A Nx
x Nx A, 0 > 0 (x 0 , x + 0 ) A.
(i) ( ,
R) . N, Q,
{ n1 | n N}, - 6= R
.
(ii)
.
(iii) .
[] A
R \ A .
[] , , R.
: A 6= , A 6= R A .
a A, b
/ A a < b. - A (, b] = A (, b) ,
. . , b < a.
[] . A : A1 A2 = A,
A1 A2 = A1 , A2 ,
A1 = A, A2 = A1 = , A2 = A.
1.11, A
.
[] . A : A
,
A .
(i) .

: A x A. x
/ A, A +
n=1 Un ,
+
1
1
Un = (, x n ) (x + n , +) n N. , A n=1 (n, n).
(ii) , A B, A B , A
79

.
: A .
B
R \ A.
(iii) [a, b] .
: [a, b] . K x [a, b] :
[a, x] . , K [a, b]. , a K a .
= sup K, a b. U a,
[a, x] x > a a. a < b.
U , [x, ] x K, x <
. K. < b U
, [, x] x > . x K
. = b.
(iii) A .
: A , A [a, b] [a, b].
[] [] [] : A
A
A.

3.2

3.2.1

f R.
f : A R, A R
f . f (x) f ,
f (x)
, x f (x).
A f (x) x A
f (x) A.
, , .
,
1.
1. c : R R c(x) = c x.
c {c}.
2. pa : A R pa (x) = xa x A.
(i) a N, A = (, +). a , xa
(, +) (, +). a , xa
(, 0] [0, +) [0, +)
[0, +).
(ii) a Z \ N, A = (, 0) (0, +). a = 0, xa 1
(, 0) (0, +) {1}. a < 0, xa
(, 0) (, 0)
(0, +) (0, +). a < 0, xa
(, 0) (0, +)
80

(0, +) (0, +).


(iii) a R \ Z, a > 0, A = [0, +). xa [0, +)
[0, +).
(iv) , a R \ Z, a < 0, A = (0, +). xa (0, +)
(0, +).
: p0 : R \ {0} R R \ {0} 1 : R R
R. x = 0, : x0 = 1,
1(x) = 1. 0 x0 : 00 .
3. a > 0. expa : R R expa x = ax
x.
a > 1, ax R (0, +). 0 < a < 1, ax
R (0, +). a = 1, ax 1
R {1}.
a = e, exp expe . exp x = ex x.
4. a > 0, a 6= 1. loga : (0, +) R.
a > 1, loga x (0, +) R. 0 < a < 1,
loga x (0, +) R.
a = e, log x ln x loge x.
a > 0, a 6= 1, ax , loga y . , x R, y (0, +)
: y = ax x = loga y.
5. . cos : R R, sin : R R,
tan : R \ { 2 + k | k Z} R cot : R \ {k | k Z} R.
.

10.4 .

. 10.4 .
, ,
.
. f : A R , R A.
f > 0 0 > 0 f (x) N ()
x A N (0 ). : f > 0 f (x) N ()
. f (x) f (x) (x ) limx f (x) = .
x

,
, , , = .
: f
f (x) x
.
, , .
1: , R.
f > 0 0 > 0 |f (x) | <
x A, 0 < |x | < 0 .
2: R, = +.
f + M > 0 0 > 0 f (x) > M
x A, 0 < |x | < 0 .
3: R, = .
81

f M > 0 0 > 0 f (x) < M


x A, 0 < |x | < 0 .
4: = +, R.
f + > 0 N0 > 0 |f (x) | <
x A, x > N0 .
5: = +, = +.
f + + M > 0 N0 > 0 f (x) > M
x A, x > N0 .
6: = +, = .
f + M > 0 N0 > 0 f (x) < M
x A, x > N0 .
7: = , R.
f > 0 N0 > 0 |f (x) | <
x A, x < N0 .
8: = , = +.
f + M > 0 N0 > 0 f (x) > M
x A, x < N0 .
9: = , = .
f M > 0 N0 > 0 f (x) < M
x A, x < N0 .

. limx f (x) ,
R . , , limx f (x) = ( ),
, limx f (x) = R .
. 1. - limx f (x)
R f .

, ,
.

. , f (a, b],
limx f (x) [a, b]. ,
f (a, b) (b, +), limx f (x)
[a, +] - , b
. , f (, b] {c} (d, e], b < c < d,
limx f (x) [, b] [d, e]
c, .
2.
. limx f (x) = , > 0
0 > 0 - -
x A, 0 < |x | < 0 () |f (x) | < , ,
|f (x) | < () x A, 0 < |x | < 0 .
. :
(x A, 0 < |x | < 0 )

(|f (x) | < )


(|f (x) | < )

(x A, 0 < |x | < 0 ).
82

. 1. limx4 (3x + 2) = 14.


> 0. 0 > 0 x, 0 < |x 4| < 0 |(3x + 2) 14| < .
|(3x + 2) 14| < |3x 12| < |x 4| < 3 . :
(|(3x + 2) 14| < ) (|3x 12| < ) (|x 4| < 3 ).
, 0 < 0 3 , x, 0 < |x 4| < 0 |x 4| < 3 ,
, |(3x + 2) 14| < . : (0 < |x 4| < 0 )
(|x 4| < 3 ) (|3x 12| < ) (|(3x + 2) 14| < ).
2. c. R,
limx c = c.
> 0. x |c c| = 0 < . ,
0 > 0 ( , 0 = 1) x R N (0 ) = N (0 )
|c c| = 0 < .
3.
limx |x |a = 0,
a > 0.
> 0. 0 > 0 x, 0 < |x | < 0 ||x |a 0| < .
1
||x |a 0| < |x |a < |x | < a . ,
1
1
0 < 0 a , x, 0 < |x | < 0 |x | < a , ,
||x |a 0| < .
4. R \ {}
limx |x |a = +,

a > 0.

M > 0. 0 > 0 |x |a > M x, 0 < |x | < 0 .


1
1
|x |a > M |x | < M a . , 0 < 0 M a ,
1
x, 0 < |x | < 0 |x | < M a , , |x |a > M .
5.
limx |x|a = +,
a > 0.
M > 0. N0 > 0 |x|a > M x > N0 x < N0 .
1
1
|x|a > M |x| > M a . , N0 M a , x > N0
1
x < N0 |x| > M a , , |x|a > M .
6.
limx |x|a = 0,
a > 0.
> 0. N0 > 0 ||x|a 0| < x > N0
1
1
x < N0 . ||x|a 0| < |x| > a , , N0 a ,
1
x > N0 x < N0 |x| > a , , ||x|a 0| < .
7. . (xn ) , , x : N R
N, , , xn x(n). , , + (
) N.
, , x + :
limn+ x(n) = R > 0 x(n) N () +.
, (xn ) : limn+ xn = R
> 0 xn N ().
x(n) N () xn N () , , . 3.1.2 N
83

+ . , ,
, , , ,
.
,
N, (a, +) +,
.
3.2.2

. f : A R, A R.
f > 0 0 > 0
f (x) N () x A N (0 ). : f
> 0 f (x) N () . f (x)
x

f (x) (x ) limx f (x) = .


f : A R, A R. f
> 0 0 > 0 f (x) N ()
x A N+ (0 ). : f > 0
f (x) N () . f (x) f (x) (x +)
x+

limx+ f (x) = .
: f () f (x)
x ()
.
. - limx+ f (x)
f -
limx f (x)
f .

, ,
.



. , f (a, b],
limx+ f (x) [a, b)
limx f (x) (a, b]. ,
f (a, b) (b, +), limx+ f (x)
[a, +) limx f (x)
(a, +) - , b
. , f (, b] {c} (d, e],
b < c < d, limx+ f (x)
(, b) [d, e) limx f (x)
(, b] (d, e].
. 1.

limx

|x|
x

|x|
x

(, ) (, +). -

= 1,

limx+
84

|x|
x

= 1.



 > 0. 0 > 0 |x|
(1) <  x, 0 < x < .
x
|x|


= 0. 0 > 0
, x < , |x|
=
1,

+
1
x
|x| x

x, 0 < x < x + 1 < .


<  x, < x < + 0 . ,
 > 0. 0 > 0 |x|

1
x


x > , |x|
= 1, |x|
1 = 0. 0 > 0
x
|x|x
x, < x < + 0
1 < .
x

2.

limx

1
(x)n

1
(x)n

(, )(, +), n N .

= ,

limx+

1
(x)n

= +,

n N .

1
M > 0. 0 > 0 (x)
n < M x, 0 < x < .
1
1
1

< M n M < x < . 0 < 0


x,
n
(x)n
M
1
1
0 < x <
< x < , , (x)n < M .
n
M
1
M > 0. 0 > 0 (x)
n > M x, < x < + 0 .
1
1
1
> M < x < +
. 0 < 0
x,
n
n
(x)n
M
M
1
1

< x < + 0 < x < + n M , , (x)n > M .

3.2. f : A R R
A. , limx f (x) limx f (x), limx+ f (x)
, , limx f (x) = limx f (x) = limx+ f (x).
. limx f (x) = R. > 0. f (x) N () .
f (x) N () .
limx f (x) = limx+ f (x) = .
, limx f (x) = limx+ f (x) = R. > 0. f (x) N ()
. f (x) N ()
. limx f (x) = .
. 1. limx

|x|
x

, .

2. , n N , limx

1
(x)n

3. n N , limx
1
limx+ (x)
n = +.

1
(x)n

= +. limx

1
(x)n

4. n N, limx (x )n = 0. limx (x )n = limx+ (x )n = 0.


3.3. f : A R R.
1. A. , limx f (x)
limx+ f (x) , , limx f (x) = limx+ f (x).
2. A. , limx f (x)
limx f (x) , , limx f (x) = limx f (x).
. 1. limx+ f (x) = R. > 0. f (x) N ()
. f (x) N () , limx f (x) = .
, limx f (x) = R. > 0. f (x) N () ,
f (x) N () . limx+ f (x) = .
2. .
85

1
1
. 1. a > 0, limx |x|
a = +. limx |x|a =
1
1
limx+ |x|
a = +. limx+ (x)a = +. , a > 0 ,
1
limx (x)
a = 0.

2. a > 0, limx |x |a = 0. limx |x |a = limx+ |x |a = 0. ,


limx+ (x )a = 0, , a > 0 , limx (x )a = 0.
3.2.3

, , .

, R limx f (x) = . , x
, (x, f (x)) f
(, ),
x = , .
R limx f (x) = +. , x
, (x, f (x)) ,
x = ,
. , limx f (x) = . , x
, (x, f (x))
,
x = , .
, R limx f (x) = ,
x = f .
. limx+ f (x)
(x, f (x))
x = limx f (x) (x, f (x))
x = . :
. x =
f limx f (x) = .
R limx+ f (x) = . x ,
(x, f (x)) f
y = . , limx f (x) = . x
, (x, f (x))
y = .
. limx+ f (x) = limx f (x) = , y =
+ , , f .
, limx+ f (x) = +, (x, f (x))
, limx+ f (x) = , (x, f (x))
. , limx f (x) = +, (x, f (x))
, limx+ f (x) = , (x, f (x))
.
f -  0 -
limx f (x) = .
 > 0 0 > 0 f
A (( 0 , ) (, + 0 )) y = 
y = + .
. ,
limx+ f (x) = M > 0 N0 > 0
86

f A (N0 , +)
y = M .
. l y = x + ()
+ f limx (f (x) x ) = 0 limx+ (f (x) x ) = 0,
.
(x, f (x)) f
(x, x + ) l
, . : l
+ .
, ,
= 0.
, , .
.
1. 3.3.

1
, lim
x2 , limx1 log(x2 1), limx1+ 1 x2 ,
x2 x6 x0
1
6
limx0 x 2 , limx (x + 2) 4 , limx1 x 2 ;
[] limx+ sin1x , limx0 sin1 1 , limx+ log sin x, limx0 log sin x1 .
x

2. [] limx1

3. limx2 3x = 6, limx1 ( x1 + 1) = 2, limx1 x2 = 1,


3
x
x3
1
2
limx1 (x1)
2 = +, limx2+ 2x = , limx 2x+1 = 2 , limx (3x + x) = +.
x

4. [] f : N R f (x) = 2x . limx+ f (x)


n
2n + ;
, [],
.
[] A = { n1 | n N} f : A R f (x) = x2 .
limx0 f (x) n12 0
;
5. A B R A, ,
6 3.1, B. g : B R
limx g(x) = R . f : A R g A, f (x) = g(x)
x A. limx f (x) = .
6. .
A B = R
{ A B. f : A R
f (x), x A
g : B R, h : A B R h(x) =
.
g(x), x B
limx h(x) limx f (x), limx g(x) ,
limx h(x), limx h(x) = limx f (x) = limx g(x).
7. :
[] limx f (x) = > 0 f (x)
/ N ()
.
87

[] limx f (x) = > 0 0 > 0


x A N (0 ) f (x)
/ N ().
[] ( ) .
8. .
f : A R R A 0 > 0.
limx f (x) = , 0 < 0 f (x) N () .
9. .
f : A R R A. 0 > 0
> 0 f (x) N () x A N (0 ). ;
10. f : A R A = A (, ], A+ = A [, +) f : A R
f+ : A+ R f A A+ , .
() A. , 12
3.1, A+ (A ).
limx+ f (x) (limx f (x)) limx f+ (x) (limx f (x))
.

3.3

.
2.4
, 3.2.1,
.
3.4. f, g : A R R A. , , f , g
. limx f (x), limx g(x),
.
. limx f (x) = R. > 0. f (x) N () .
, f (x) = g(x) , f (x) N () f (x) = g(x)
. g(x) N () , , limx g(x) = .
{
1
1
|x| 2 , 0 < |x| < 10
. 1. f (x) =

1
x,
x = 0 |x| 10
1
1
|x| 2 . f (x) = |x| 2 x ( 10
, 0) (0, 10
) limx0 |x| 2 = +,
limx0 f (x) = +.
{
x1 , x > 4
2. f (x) =
f (x) = |x|1 (4, +) limx+ |x|1 = 0,
x , x 4
limx+ f (x) = 0. f (x) = |x| x (, 0) limx |x| = +,
limx f (x) = +.
1

3.5, 3.6
.
3.5. f : A R, R A limx f (x) = R.
1. > u, f (x) > u .
2. < l, f (x) < l .
88

. 1. limx f (x) = > u. u > 0, |f (x) | < u


. f (x) > ( u) = u .
limx f (x) = +. M > 0 M u. f (x) > M
, , f (x) > u .
2. .
3.6 - :

, .
3.6. f : A R R A.
1. f (x) l limx f (x) = R, l.
2. f (x) u limx f (x) = R, u.
3. u < l f (x) l f (x) u
, limx f (x).
. 1. < l, f (x) < l ,
f (x) l .
2. .
3. limx f (x) = R, l u , , l u.
. 1. limx f (x) = R f (x) [l, u]
, [l, u].
2. limx+ (1)[x] . , (1)[x] 1
+ , , x N , , (1)[x] 1
+ , , x N.
limx (1)[x] .
3. limx+ sin x. sin x 1 2 + 2n n N,
+, sin x 1 2 + 2n n N,
+.
limx sin x limx cos x. :

lim sin x,

lim cos x.

3.4 , ,
4 3.4.
3.7 .
.
3.7. f : A R R A. limx f (x), ,
.
. limx f (x). a
. f (x) < a f (x) > a .
f (x) < a f (x) > a . .
3.8. f, g : A R R A. f (x) g(x)
limx f (x) = R, limx g(x) = R, .
. < . a < a < . g(x) < a
a < f (x) . g(x) < a a < f (x) . g(x) < f (x)
. .
89

:
.
3.9. f, g : A R R A. , ,
f (x) g(x) .
1. limx f (x) = +, limx g(x) = +.
2. limx g(x) = , limx f (x) = .
. 1. M > 0. f (x) > M , g(x) f (x)
, f (x) > M g(x) f (x) . g(x) > M
, , limx g(x) = +.
2. .
2

. 1. x +x1
xx = x x (1, +) limx+ x =
x
2
+, limx+ x +x1
= +.
x
1
1
2
2
2. x2 + x x2 x2 = x12 x (1, 0) (0, 1) limx0 x12 = +,
limx0 ( x22 + x1 ) = +.
3.10 .
3.10. f, g, h : A R R A
f (x) g(x) h(x) . limx f (x) = limx h(x) = , limx g(x) = .
. > 0. |f (x) | < |h(x) | <
. |f (x) | < |h(x) | < f (x) g(x) h(x) .
< f (x) h(x) < + f (x) g(x) h(x) . ,
< g(x) < + , limx g(x) = .
. 1. x12 f (x) < x1 x 3. limx+ ( x12 ) = 0
limx+ x1 = 0, limx+ f (x) = 0.
(
)
1
1
1
2. |x|
sinxx |x|
x (, 0) (0, +). limx+ |x|
=
1
limx+ |x|
= 0, limx+ sinxx = 0.
limx sinxx = 0 limx cosx x = 0. :
limx

sin x
x

= 0,

limx

cos x
x

= 0,

3.11. f : A R R A. limx f (x)


, f .
. limx f (x) = . |f (x) | < 1 , , |f (x)| < || + 1
, f .
. 1. x1 limx+ x1 = 0. x1
+. x1 ; x1
R \ {0} (0, +). , , (N0 , +) x1
. , 0 x1 1 x (1, +).
5

2. 2x5 x3x+x+12 +8x+1 .


5
limx 2x5 x3x+x+12 +8x+1 = 21 . ,
. , (, N0 )
. ,
!
90

3.12. f : A R R A.
1. limx f (x) = +, f
.
2. limx f (x) = , f
.
. 1. f (x) > 1 , f .
f , u R f (x) u
. limx f (x) = +, + u. .
2. .
. 1. x x1 . limx+ (x x1 ) = +, +. ,
(1, +), , x x1 0 x > 1.
( 1
)
1
1
1

2. x1
= ,
(x1)
(x1)
3 + 1. limx1
3 + 1
x1
1. 0 > 0
(1, 1 + 0 ). ,
0 (1, 1 + 0 ).
f : A R f : A R
(f )(x) = f (x) x A.
3.13. f : A R R A. limx f (x) = R,
limx (f (x)) = .
. limx f (x) = . > 0. |f (x) | < .
|(f (x)) ()| = |f (x) | < . limx (f (x)) = .
lim f (x) = +. M > 0. f (x) > M . f (x) < M
, limx (f (x)) = = (+).
, limx f (x) = , limx (f (x)) = + = ().
f, g : A R f + g : A R
(f + g)(x) = f (x) + g(x) x A.
3.14. f, g : A R R A. limx f (x) = R,
limx g(x) = R + , limx (f (x) + g(x)) = + .
. limx f (x) = , limx g(x) = . > 0. |f (x) | <
|g(x) | < 2 . |f (x) | < 2 |g(x) | <
. ,
|(f (x) + g(x)) ( + )| = |(f (x) ) + (g(x) )| |f (x) | + |g(x) | <

. limx (f (x) + g(x)) = + .


limx f (x) = + limx g(x) = R {+}. g
, l g(x) l . M > 0.
M 0 > 0 M 0 M l. f (x) > M 0 , , f (x) > M l .
f (x)+g(x) > (M l)+l = M , limx (f (x)+g(x)) = + = (+)+.
.
(
)
1
1
. 1. limx1 1 = 1, limx1 |x1|
= +, limx1 1+ |x1|
= 1+(+) = +.
(
)
1
1
2. limx+ (1) = 1, limx+ x = 0 limx+ x = 0, limx+ 1 + x1 + 1x =
1 + 0 + 0 = 1.
91

(
)
. 1. limx0 ( x12 + c) = +, limx0 ( x12 ) = limx0 ( x12 + c) + ( x12 ) =
limx0 c = c.
(2
)
2
1
1
2. limx0 |x|
= +, limx0 1
=

lim
+
= limx0 |x|
= +.
x0
|x|
|x|
|x|
3. limx0 x12 = +, limx0 2
= limx0 ( x12 + 2
) = limx0 1
= .
x2
x2
( 2 x12
)
2
2
1
4. limx0 ( x2 ) = , limx0 ( x2 + x ) = + limx0 ( x2 + x ) + ( x22 ) = limx0
.

1
x

f, g : A R f g : A R
(f g)(x) = f (x) g(x) x A. f g
f g = f + (g).
3.15. f, g : A R R A. limx f (x) = R,
limx g(x) = R , limx (f (x) g(x)) = .
f, g : A R f g : A R
(f g)(x) = f (x)g(x) x A.
3.16. f, g : A R R A. limx f (x) = R,
limx g(x) = R , limx f (x)g(x) = .
. limx f (x) = , limx g(x) = . > 0. |f (x) | <

|g(x) | < min{ 3||+1


, 13 } . |f (x) | <

|g(x) | < min{ 3||+1


, 13 } .

3||+1

3||+1

|f (x)g(x) | = |(f (x) )(g(x) ) + (g(x) ) + (f (x) )|


|f (x) ||g(x) | + |||g(x) | + |||f (x) |

3||+1
+ || 3||+1
+ || 3||+1
< 3 + 3 + 3 =
3
, , limx f (x)g(x) = .
limx f (x) = + limx g(x) = (0, +]. l 0 < l < .
M > 0. f (x) > Ml g(x) > l .
f (x) > Ml g(x) > l . f (x)g(x) > Ml l = M , ,
limx f (x)g(x) = + = (+).
.
. 1. limx+ x = + limx+ (x 1) = +, limx+ (x2 x) =
limx+ x(x 1) = (+)(+) = +.
limx+ (x2 x) .
2. limx0 x12 = + limx0 (2 + x) = 2, limx0 ( x22 + x1 ) = limx0 x12 (2 + x) = (+)2 =
+. limx0 ( x22 + x1 ) limx0 x1 .
.
. 1. limx+ x = +, limx+ xc = 0 limx+ x xc = limx+ c = c.
2. limx0 x14 = +, limx0 x2 = 0 limx0 x14 x2 = limx0 x12 = +.
3. limx0 x14 = +, limx0 (x2 ) = 0 limx0 x14 (x2 ) = limx0 ( x12 ) = .
1
1 2
4. limx0 |x|
= +, limx0 x2 = 0 limx0 |x|
x = limx0 |x| = 0.
5. limx0

1
x2

= +, limx0 x = 0 limx0

1
x
x2

92

= limx0

1
x

3.17. f : A R R A.
1. limx f (x) = R k N, limx f (x)k = k .
2.
k N, k 2. f (x) 0 x A limx f (x) = R ,

k
limx f (x) = k .
. 1. limx f (x)k = limx f (x) f (x) = = k .
2. 0.
= 0. > 0. |f (x) 0| < k
,
f (x) 0

k
k
k
x A,
0

f
(x)
<

|
f
(x)

0|
=
f
(x) <

k
. limx f (x) 0.

= +. M
> 0. f (x) > M k . k f (x) > M
, limx k f (x) = +.

0 < < +. > 0. 0 = min{, k } > 0. ( k 0 )k <

< ( k + 0 )k , ( k 0 )k < f (x) < ( k + 0 )k .

k 0 < k f (x) < k + 0 . | k f (x) k | < 0 ,

, limx k f (x) k .
. 1. k N R. limx x = , limx xk = k .
2. k N. limx+ x = +, limx+ xk = (+)k = +.
limx x = , , k , limx xk = ()k = +
, k , limx xk = ()k = .
f : A R f (x) 6= 0 x A
1
f1 : A R ( f1 )(x) = f (x)
x A.
3.18. f : A R R A. , , f (x) 6= 0
x A. limx f (x) = R 1 - ,
1
6= 0 - limx f (x)
= 1 .
. limx f (x) = > 0. l 0 < l < , f (x) > l
. > 0. |f (x) | < l . f (x) > l
|f (x) | < l . ,
1


1 = |ff(x)|
< l
=
f (x)
(x)
l
1
, limx f (x)
= 1 .
limx f (x) = +. > 0. f (x) > 1 . 0 <
1
1
1
1
0| = f (x)
< . limx f (x)
= 0 = +
.
, , | f (x)
.

1
f (x)

<

1
. 1. limx1 (x + 1) = 2, limx1 x+1
= 12 .
1
1
2. limx+ (x2 + x + 1) = +, limx+ x2 +x+1
= +
= 0.
k
k
3. k N R, 6= 0. limx x = , limx x1k = 1k .
4. 0. ,
limx0 x = 0 limx0 x1 .


0. , ,
, .
93

3.19. f : A R R A. , , f (x) 6= 0
x A.
1
= +.
1. limx f (x) = 0 f (x) > 0 , limx f (x)
1
2. limx f (x) = 0 f (x) < 0 , limx f (x) = .
. 1. M > 0. |f (x) 0| < M1 . f (x) > 0
, |f (x) 0| < M1 f (x) > 0 .
1
1
0 < f (x) < M1 , , f (x)
> M . limx f (x)
= +.
2. .
. limx+ x1 = 0 limx+ x12 = 0, limx+ ( x1
1
x1 x12 > 0 x > 1. limx+ (1/x)(1/x
2 ) = +.

1
)
x2

= 0 0 = 0. ,

f, g : A R, g(x) 6= 0 x A,
(x)
: A R ( fg )(x) = fg(x)
x A. fg = f g1
.
f
g

3.20. f, g : A R R A. , , g(x) 6= 0
x A. limx f (x) = R, limx g(x) = R
, limx

f (x)
g(x)

. 1. limx1 (x2 + x) = 12 + 1 = 2 limx1 (x 2) = 1 2 = 1,


2 +x
2
limx1 xx2
= 1
= 2.
2. limx+ (1 x1 + x12 ) = 10+0 = 1 limx+ (1+2 x1 ) = 1+0 = 1, limx+
limx+ x

1(1/x)+(1/x2 )

1+(2/x)
2 x+1
limx+ x x+2

x2 x+1
x+2

= (+) 11 = +.

.
3. . y = x +
+ f , limx+ (f (x) x ) = 0. limx+ f (x)x
=
x
f (x)
0
= 0 , , = limx+ x . , , ,
+
limx+ f (x)
, +.
x
,
. , = limx+ (f (x) x),
. ,
limx+ (f (x) x) ,
+.
, , .
, x + x1 . = limx+ x1 (x + x1 ) = 1
= limx+ (x + x1 1x) = 0. +
y = 1x + 0 = x. : = limx x1 (x + x1 ) = 1 = limx (x + x1 1x) = 0.
y = 1x + 0 = x.

. 1. limx0 cx = 0, limx0 x = 0 limx0
2. limx0 |x| = 0,
3. limx0 x2 = 0,
4. limx0 |x| = 0,

cx
x

0
0

+
+

= limx0 c =
|x|
1
limx0 x2 = 0 limx0 x2 = limx0 |x|
= +.
2
limx0 x = 0 limx0 xx = limx0 x = 0.
|x|
1
limx0 (x2 ) = 0 limx0 x
2 = limx0 ( |x| ) = .
94

c.

5. limx0 x = 0, limx0 x2 = 0 limx0 xx2 = limx0 x1 .


6. c > 0. limx+ cx = +, limx+ x = + limx+ cx
= limx+ c = c.
x
2

7. limx+ x2 = +, limx+ x = + limx+ xx = limx+ x = +.


8. limx+ x = +, limx+ x2 = + limx+ xx2 = limx+ x1 = 0.
9. (2 + sin x)x x x > 0, limx+ (2 + sin x)x = +. , limx+ x =
x)x
+. , limx+ (2+sin
= limx+ (2 + sin x) , 2 + sin x 1
x
+ 2 + sin x 3 +.
f : A R |f | : A R
|f |(x) = |f (x)| x A.
3.21. f : A R R A. limx f (x) = R,
limx |f (x)| = ||.
. lim f (x) = . > 0. |f (x) | < .
||f (x)| ||| |f (x) | < , , limx |f (x)| = ||.
lim f (x) = + lim f (x) = . M > 0. f (x) > M f (x) < M ,
, . , |f (x)| > M , ,
limx |f (x)| = + = | |.
. 1. limx1 (x 2) = 1 2 = 1, limx1 |x 2| = | 1| = 1.


1
1
2. limx0 ( |x|
x12 ) = () (+) = , limx0 |x|
x12 = | | = +.
x
= limx 1 = 1. ,
3. 3.21. limx |x|
x
limx |x|
.
, , 18.
f : A B g : B R g f : A R
(g f )(x) = g(f (x)) x A. 3.22
.
3.22. f : A B, g : B R, R A R
B. limx f (x) = , f (x) 6= limy g(y) = R,
limx (g f )(x) = .
. limy g(y) = R. > 0. 0 > 0
g(y) N () y B N (0 ). limx f (x) = , f (x) N (0 )
. , , f (x) 6= f (x) B ( )x A,
f (x) B N (0 ) . (g f )(x) = g f (x) N () ,
limx (g f )(x) = .
4.2.
, x y = f (x)
(
)
limx g f (x) = limy g(y).

.
. 1. limx0 (x+1)(8 +(x+1)
x+1)12 +5

limx0 ( x + 1) = 1 x + 1 6=1 x > 0. ,

4
4

x y = x + 1, limx0 (x+1)(8 +(x+1)


= limy1 y8 +yy 12 +5 = 17 .
x+1)12 +5

95

( 1
)
1
2. limx1 x1
(x1)
3 + 1 .
( 1
1
1
limx1 x1
= +, x y = x1
limx1 x1

)
1
6
6
5
6
+ 1 = limy+ (y y + 1) = limy+ y (1 + y + y ) = (+)(1 + 0 + 0) = .
(x1)3
)
(
x1
2
4
3. limx+ ( x2x1
)
+
(
)
.
2
+x+1
x +x+1
x1
1
1
1
1
10
limx+ x2 +x+1 = limx+ x (1 x )/(1 + x + x2 ) = 0 1+0+0
= 0 x2x1
6= 0
+x+1
)
( x1 2
x1
4
)
=
x > 1. x y = x2 +x+1 , limx+ ( x2 +x+1 ) + ( x2x1
+x+1
limy0 (y 2 + y 4 ) = (+) + (+) = +.
4. 3.22
f (x) 6=
{
0, y 6= 0
. f (x) = sinxx g(y) =

1, y = 0
limx+ f (x) = 0 limy0 g(y) = 0. f (x) 6= 0 +,
f (x) = 0
{ + , , x = n
0, y 6= n n Z \ {0}
n N. , (g f )(x) =
,
1, y = n n Z \ {0}
limx+ (g f )(x) , (g f )(x) = 0 x = 2 + n n N
(g f )(x) = 1 n n N.
, 3.23, 4.2.
f : A R, f (x) > 0 x A,
g : A R f g : A R (f g )(x) = f (x)g(x) x A.
3.23. f, g : A R, f (x) > 0 x A R
A. limx f (x) = R, limx g(x) = R ,
limx f (x)g(x) = . , limx f (x) = 0, limx g(x) = , limx f (x)g(x) = +.
.
:
. ()
, limx limx+ (limx ),
()
() . . 3.6(3)
:
f : A R, A, u < l f (x) l
f (x) u
, limx+ f (x).
, 3.14 :
f, g : A R, A, limx f (x) =
R, limx g(x) = R + ,
limx (f (x) + g(x)) = + .
3.22.
. , . () B, ,
f , f (x) > (f (x) < ) .
:
f : A B, g : B R, A
B, limx+ f (x) = , f (x) <
limy g(y) = R, limx+ (g f )(x) = .
96

2.
.
1. 3.5, 3.6, 3.9, 3.12, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16, 3.18,
3.19 3.20.
2. ,
. 3.22.
3.
limx0 f (x),
{
{ limx11f (x), limx f (x) f (x) =
x + 1, x 0
|x 1| 4 , x 0 x > 1

f
(x)
=
1
1
,
x < 0
,
0 < x 1
x
x
4. [] R limx [x]. limx [x];
[ ]
[ ]
[] : limx x1 , limx x x1 .
[] a, b > 0, limx0 xb [ xa ].
( 1
1)
1+x
1x2
1+x1
5. : limx2 1x+x
+ |x| 2 ,
3 , limx1 1x3 , limx0 1+x2 +x3 , limx0 x
(
1 )2
3
2
1
limx0 x2 |x|
, limx1 (x1)1 +|x1| 2 , limx (x+ x3 ), limx xx2 +1
, limx 2xx2+3x
,
+1
+1
limx

(2x+1)3 (3x2 +2)2 (x+4)13


x20

6. n Z ( 6= 0 n 1), limx
(

x2 +1

xn n
x
x2 +1

= n n1 .
)

7. limx0 ( x5 +2 )8 + 3( x5 +2 )4 + 1 , limx1

limx0 3 2( |x| + x1 )3 3( |x| + x1 )2 + 17 .

2x+1
4 2x+1
+1
x1
x1

2x+1
+ 4 2x+1
+1
x1
x1

8. .
f : (1, 0) (0, 1) R.
[] limx0 f (|x|) = l limx0+ f (x) = l.
[] limx0 f (x2 ) = l limx0+ f (x) = l.
[] f : (1, 0) (0, 1) R limx0 f (|x|)
limx0 f (x).
[] limx+ f ( x1 ) = l limx0+ f (x) = l limx f ( x1 ) =
l limx0 f (x) = l. f ( x1 );
(
)
1
9. [] f : (1, 0) (0, 1) R. limx0 f (x) + f (x)
= 2, limx0 f (x).
(
)
1
= 0, limx0 f (x).
[] f : (1, 0) (0, 1) R. limx0 f (x) + |f (x)|
10. :
1
1
[] limx1 f (x), x |x 1| 2 < f (x) x + |x 1| 2 x (0, 1) (1, 23 ).
x+1
x1
[] limx f (x), 2x1
< f (x) < 2x+1
x 7.
[] limx1 f (x), (x 1)f (x) 1 x, 0 < |x 1| < 41 .
11. [] [a] a < [a] + 1, : limx [x],
[ 1 ]
[x2 ]
[ x]
limx [x]
,
lim
,
lim
,
lim
.
x
x+
x1
x
x
x1
( 1x 2
)
n
[] n N, limx0+ x [ x ] + [ x ] + + [ x ] .
[] a, b > 0, limx0 xa [ xb ].
97

12. .
f, g : A R R A.
[] limx f (x) = + g .
limx (f (x) + g(x)) = +.
[] limx f (x) = g .
limx (f (x) + g(x)) = .
[] limx f (x) = 0 g .
limx f (x)g(x) = 0.
[] limx f (x) = + g
. limx f (x)g(x) = + , .
[] limx f (x) = + g
. limx f (x)g(x) = +, .
2

+7x+1
x +1
5
13. , 3x
< 301
+, 4x4 x
2 +2x1 8
x2 5x+1
100
1, x5 7x3 + x2 107
4
3 +25x2 +33
+ 108 < x +13x
< 107 .
x5 +2x+1

14. f, g : A R, R A limx f (x) < limx g(x).


f (x) < g(x) .
15. x13 , x x2x+2
, x1 + 1 ,
2 +1
|x|
{
{
1
1
,
x < 0
x , x < 0
f (x) =

f (x) = x 1
x , x > 0
x,
x > 0
0.
2

16. , , {
- -

x,
x 1
1
x1 , x2 , x , 1x
2 , f (x) =
3x
, x < 1
x1
17. [] - - y = 2x+1
x = y+1
.
x1
y2
[] y = 2x x1 (0, +).

(, +) x =
1
(y + y 2 + 8). - -
4
.
[] ,
f f 1 ;
18. f : A R R A.
[] limx |f (x)| = 0, limx f (x) = 0.
:
limx f (x) = 0

limx |f (x)| = 0.

[] limx |f (x)| = m > 0 limx f (x) = l, l = m l = m.


19. f, g : A R, R A. limx f (x) = R
limx g(x) = R, limx max{f (x), g(x)} = max{, }
limx min{f (x), g(x)} = min{, }.
98

20. [] limx (f (x) + g(x)) limx f (x),


limx g(x).
[] limx f (x)g(x) limx f (x), limx g(x).
21. f : A R, R A, limx f (x) = f (x)
x A, x 6= . sup{f (x) | x A, x 6= } = .
22. f : A R, R A limx f (x) = . ,
> 0, inf{f (x) | x A, 0 < |x| < } sup{f (x) | x A, 0 < |x| < }.
23. [] f : (0, +) R (0, +). limx+
a > 0

limx+ ff(ax)
(x)

f (2x)
f (x)

= 1,

= 1.

: , n N, limx+

f (2n x)
f (x)

= 1.

[] f : (0, 1] R f (2x) = 3f (x) x (0, 12 ]. f


(0, 1], limx0 f (x) = 0.
24. f : A R R A. limx f (x) = R
f (x) 6= ,
{f (x) | x A}. 3.22
.

3.4

3.4. f : A R R A.
(xn ) A : (i) xn 6= n N (ii) xn .
1. limx f (x) = R, (xn ) A (i),
(ii) f (xn ) .
2. , (xn ) A (i), (ii)
(f (xn )) R, limx f (x).
. 1. : limx f (x) = R . (xn ) A
(i) (ii). > 0. 0 > 0 f (x) N ()
x A N (0 ). xn , xn N (0 ). xn A xn 6=
n N, xn A N (0 ). f (xn ) N ().
f (xn ) .
: limx f (x) = R . (xn ) A (i)
(ii). (xn ) x : N A, f x : N R
(f x)(n) = f (x(n)) = f (xn ) n N. 3.22,
n x = x(n) = xn , limn+ f (xn ) = limn+ (f (x(n)) =
limx f (x) = .
2. (xn ) A (i), (ii) (f (xn ))
R. (xn 0 ), (xn 00 ) A (i), (ii),
(f (xn 0 )), (f (xn 00 )) ( ) R.
(x1 0(, x1 00 , x2 0 , x2 00 , x3 0 , x3 00 , . . . ), ) (i), (ii).
f (x1 0 ), f (x1 00 ), f (x2 0 ), f (x2 00 ), f (x3 0 ), f (x3 00 ), . . . R.
(f (xn 0 )), (f (xn 00 )), , .
R (xn ) A (i), (ii) f (xn ) .
- - limx f (x) = . 0 > 0
99

f (x) N (0 ) . f (x)
/ N (0 )
. 3.3, (xn )
A (i), (ii) f (xn )
/ N (0 ) n N.
, f (xn ) .
limx f (x) = .

. 1. limx0 x = 0 1n 0. ( n1 )

x , n1 6= 0 n N n1 0.
1 2n
1 3n
2
3
2
3
2
2. limxe (1+x
3e3 .
( 3x1 )n )= 1+e 3e 1+(1+ n ) 3(1+ n ) 2 1+e
(1 + n ) 1 + x 3x3 ,
(1 + n1 )n 6= e n N (1 + n1 )n e.
3. 3.4 {
xn 6= n N
0, x 6= 0
. f (x) =
(xn ), xn =
1, x = 0
1+(1)n1
n

n N. limx0 f (x) = 0 xn 0. xn 6= 0
n N, xn = 0 n. , f (xn ) = 0 n
f (xn ) = 1 n , , (f (xn )) .
3.4
() , xn 6= xn > (xn < )
limx limx+ (limx ). 1.
3.4 .
, ,
. , limx f (x).
(xn ) f , 6=
(f (xn )) , limx f (x) . ,
(xn 0 ), (xn 00 ) f , 6=
(f (xn 0 )) (f (xn 00 )) , limx f (x)
.
. 1. limx+ (1)[x] .
(n) (1)[x] n +
((1)[n] ) = ((1)n ) . limx+ (1)[x] .
(n) limx (1)[x] .
2. limx+ sin x .
( 2 + n) sin x 2 + n +
(sin( 2 + n)) = ((1)n ) . limx+ sin x.
( 2 n) limx sin x
(n) (n) limx cos x.
.
1. 3.4 () .
1

2. , limx0 (1)[ x ] , limx (x[x]) ,


limx0 sin x1 , limx0 cos x1 .
3. f : A R R A. , , (xn )
A xn =
6 n N xn .
100

[] limx f (x) f (xn ) l n N,


limx f (x) l.
[] limx f (x) f (xn ) u n N,
limx f (x) u.
[] u < l f (xn ) l n N f (xn ) u n N,
limx f (x).
4. .
[] f : R R > 0, f (x + ) = f (x)
x. , limx f (x), f .
: limx+ f (x) = R x0 f (x0 ) 6= .
(x0 + n ), . R
f (x) = x. limx f (x) = R ;
[] limx cos x, limx sin x, limx (x [x]);
5. 3.4 3.1 3.3,
3.3 2.4.

3.5

3.5.1

P (x) = a0 + a1 x + + an xn .
limx P (x) = limx (a0 + a1 x + + an xn ) = a0 + a1 + + an n = P ().
limx P (x) = P ().
1
P 1. P (x) = an xn ( aan0 x1n + + an1
+ 1),
an x
n
limx P (x) = limx an x . , limx P (x) ,
{
an (+), n
limx+ P (x) = an (+),
limx P (x) =
an (), n

. limx+ (5x3 + x2 4x 12) = , limx (5x3 + x2 4x 12) = +,


limx (7x4 + x3 x + 5) = +.
R(x) =
a0
an x n a n
m
b
bm x
0
bm

a
1
1
++ n1
+1
xn
an x
b
m1 1
1
++
+1
xm
bm x

a0 +a1 x++an xn
b0 +b1 x++bm xm

, an , bm 6= 0. R(x) =

, , , limx R(x) -

limx+ R(x) =

n
limx+ bamnxxm

limx R(x) = limx

an x n
bm xm

an

bm (+),
= bamn ,

0,

bmn (+),

an (),
= bamn

bm

0,
101

n > m
n = m
n < m

n m > 0
n m > 0
n=m
n<m

+4
+2
. limx+ x 2xx3 +1+4 = 12 , limx+ x
= , limx+ 3x
= 0, limx
2x2 +1
x4 +1
3
x3 4
x3 1
3x4 2
, limx x4 +2 = 0, limx 2x+1 = , limx 2x+1 = .
2
3

3x2 +4
2x2 1

R, limx R(x) .
+a1 ++an n
b0 + b1 + + bm m 6= 0, limx R(x) = ba00+b
m = R(). ,
1 ++bm
limx R(x) = R().
. limx1

3x2
x4 +2x3 4

312
14 +213 4

= 1.

b0 + b1 + + bm m = 0, x b0 + b1 x + + bm xm . (x )k
x b0 + b1 x + + bm xm ,
b0 + b1 x + + bm xm = (x )k Q(x), Q(x)
x , , Q() 6= 0. , x a0 + a1 x + + an xn
, a0 + a1 x + + an xn = (x )l P (x), l 0 P (x)
x , , P () 6= 0. , ,
P (x)
P (x)
P ()
R(x) = (x )lk Q(x)
, limx Q(x)
= Q()
6= 0,

= 0,

= P () ,
Q()
limx R(x)
P ()

= Q()
(+),

k l > 0

P ()
(),
Q()

P ()
(+),
Q()

l > k
l = k
k l > 0

,
limx R(x) =

limx+ R(x) =

k l > 0.

x+1
. 1. limx1 xx4x
. 1 x4 2x2 + 1,
2x2 +1
x4 2x2 + 1 x 1.
, : x4 2x2 + 1 = (x2 1)2 = (x 1)2 (x + 1)2 . 1
3
2 x+1
x3 x2 x + 1, : x3 x2 x + 1 = (x 1)x2 (x 1) = (x 1)2 (x + 1). xx4x
=
2x2 +1
3

(x1)2 (x+1)
(x1)2 (x+1)2

1
x+1

x 6= 1, 1. , limx1
3

x3 x2 x+1
x4 2x2 +1

= limx1

1
x+1

1
1+1

= 12 .

+x6
2. limx1 xx3+4x
1 x3 x2 x + 1 , :
x2 x+1
3
2
2
x x x + 1 = (x 1) (x + 1). 1 x3 + 4x2 + x 6, : x3 + 4x2 + x 6 =
x3 x2 + 5x2 5x + 6x 6 = (x 1)x2 + (x 1)5x + (x 1)6 = (x 1)(x2 + 5x + 6). x 1
2 +5x+6)
3
2 +x6
1 x2 +5x+6
= (x1)(x
= x1
.
x2 + 5x + 6 1 . xx3+4x
x2 x+1
(x1)2 (x+1)
x+1
3

+x6
: limx1+ xx3+4x
= (+) 1 +51+6
= + limx1
x2 x+1
1+1
x3 +4x2 +x6
, limx1 x3 x2 x+1 .

3.5.2

x3 +4x2 +x6
x3 x2 x+1

= () 1

2 +51+6

1+1

= .

xa (0, +).

limx xa = a ,
> 0.
a > 0. > 0. 0 > 0 |xa a | <
x > 0, 0 < |x | < 0 . 0 = min{, a } > 0, 0 0 a .
102

|xa a | < |xa a | < 0 a 0 < xa < a + 0


1
1
a
0 a1
( a 0 ) a < x < ( a + 0 ) a .

) ,
{
}
a
0 a1
a
0 a1
a
0 a1
( + ) . 0 0 < 0 min ( ) , ( + ) . x,
1
1
0 < |x | < 0 ( a 0 ) a < x < ( a + 0 ) a , , |xa a | < .
a < 0, a > 0 , , limx xa = limx ( x1 )a = ( 1 )a = a .
, a = 0, limx x0 = limx 1 = 1 = 0 .

a > 0
0,
a
limx0+ x = 1,
a = 0

+, a < 0

+, a > 0
a
limx+ x = 1,
a = 0

0,
a < 0

.
limx xa < 0 limx xa
limx0 xa , xa (, 0),
a . limx xa
.

. 1. limx+ x + 1 = limy+ y = +.

2. limx+ ( x + 1 x) = 0. 1
2 b2
,
(+)(+). ab = aa+b

(x+1)x
1
1
limx+ ( x + 1 x) = limx+ x+1+x = limx+ x+1+
= (+)+(+)
= 0.
x

5 y = 5 2 .
3. limx3 5 xx+1
2 +1 = limy 2
5
5

3.5.3

ax . :
limx ax = a .
a > 1. > 0. 0 > 0 |ax a | < x,

0 < |x | < 0 . 0 = min{, a2 } > 0, 0 0 < a .


|ax a | < |ax a | < 0 a 0 < ax < a + 0
loga (a 0 ) < x < loga (a + 0 ). { loga (a} 0 ), loga (a + 0 ).
0 0 < 0 min loga (a 0 ), loga (a + 0 ) , x,
0 < |x | < 0 loga (a 0 ) < x < loga (a + 0 ) , , |ax a | < .
1
1

0 < a < 1, a1 > 1, limx ax = limx (1/a)


x = (1/a) = a .
, a = 1, limx 1x = limx 1 = 1 = 1 .

+ ,
x
limx+ a = 1 ,

0,

a > 1
0 ,
x
limx a = 1 ,
a = 1

+ , 0 < a < 1

a > 1
a = 1
0 < a < 1

, limx+ ax , a > 1. M > 0. N0 > 0


ax > M x > N0 . ax > M x > loga M .
N0 > 0 N0 loga M . x > N0 x > loga M , , ax > M .
103

1
1
0 < a < 1, a1 > 1 , limx+ ax = limx+ (1/a)
x = + = 0.
, a = 1, limx+ 1x = limx+ 1 = 1.
, limx ax , . , a > 1, limx ax = limy+ ay =
1
limy+ a1y = +
= 0. a = 1 0 < a < 1.
loga x. :

limx loga x = loga ,

> 0.

a > 1. > 0. 0 > 0 | loga x loga | < x > 0,


0 < |x | < 0 . | loga x loga | < loga < loga x < loga +


< x < a} . a , a . 0
{ a
0 < 0 min a , a , x > 0, 0 < |x | < 0 a < x < a ,
| loga x loga | < .
0 < a < 1, a1 > 1, limx loga x = limx log1/a x = log1/a = loga .
,
{
+ ,
limx+ loga x =
,

a > 1
0 < a < 1

{
,
limx0 loga x =
+ ,

a > 1
0 < a < 1

limx+ loga x, a > 1. M > 0. N0 > 0


loga x > M x > N0 . loga x > M x > aM . ,
N0 aM , x > N0 x > aM , , loga x > M .
0 < a < 1, a1 > 1, limx+ loga x = limx+ log1/a x = .
, limx0 loga x . a > 1, limx0+ loga x =
limy+ loga y1 = limy+ loga y = (+) = . , 0 < a < 1.
a = e,
:
lim ex = e ,

lim log x = log

> 0,

lim ex = 0,

lim ex = +

x+

lim log x = ,

x0

lim log x = +.

x+

, .
. (1 + x1 )x (, 1) (0, +).
)x
(
limx+ 1 + x1 = e.
1 n
1 n+1
1
(1 + n1 )n e. (1 + n+1
) = (1 + n+1
) /(1 + n+1
) e/1 = e
1 n+1
1 n
1
(1 + n )
= (1 + n ) (1 + n ) e 1 = e.
1 n
) < e + e <
> 0. n0 N e < (1 + n+1
1 n+1
(1 + n )
< e + n N, n n0 . ( ) x > n0
(
(
)[x]
)
1 [x]+1
1
(1 + x1 )x 1 + [x]
< e + .
[x] n0 , e < 1 + [x]+1
1 x
> 0 n0 > 0 e < (1 + x ) < e + , ,
|(1 + x1 )x e| < x > n0 .

12.
104

3.5.4

| sin x| |x| cos x cos = 2 sin x


sin x+
,
2
2

x+



sin
2 sin x 2 x = |x |.
| cos x cos | = 2 sin x
2
2
2
2
, > 0. 0 < 0 , , x, 0 < |x | < 0
| cos x cos | |x | < .
limx cos x = cos .
, sin xsin = 2 sin x
cos x+
| sin xsin |
2
2
|x | , ,
limx sin x = sin .
:
6= 2 + k k Z.
=
6 k k Z.

limx tan x = tan ,


limx cot x = cot ,
, ,

limx+ tan x =
limx+ cot x = +

limx tan x = +,
limx cot x = ,

= 2 + k k Z.
= k k Z.

. :
limx0

sin x
x

= 1,

limx0

1cos x
x2

= 12 .

00 .
| sin x| |x| |x| | tan x|, |x| < 2 ,
cos x sinxx 1 x ( 2 , 0) (0, 2 ). limx0 cos x = cos 0 = 1,
limx0 sinxx = 1.
(
)
x
1 sin(x/2) 2
limx0 1cos
=
lim
= limy0 21 ( siny y )2 = 21 .
x0
2
x
2
x/2
. 1. limx0 sinxx = 1, limx0 cos1 x = 11 = 1 tanx x = sinxx cos1 x . limx0 tanx x =
1 1 = 1.
sin(3x)
= 32 sin(3x)/(3x)
. limx0 sin(3x)
=
2. limx0 sin(3x)
sin(2x)
sin(2x)
sin(2x)/(2x)
3x
limy0

sin y
y

= 1 limx0

sin(2x)
2x

= limy0

sin y
y

= 1. , limx0

sin(3x)
sin(2x)

3
2

1
1

= 23 .

15, 16 17
sin x cos x.
.
2

1. limx (x4 4x3 ), limx x3xx+1


2 +1 , limx
3
2
4
3
2
x x+1
3x +5x2
, limx1 x5 3x4x+6x
limx1 xx4x
3 10x2 +9x3 .
+x3 4x2 +x+1

2. limx1 (x2 1)

, limx0 (2x 3 x 3 ) , limx+


1

105

x4 x+1
3x4 +x2 +1

, limx1

x3 +2x2 x2
x4 x3 +x2 1

3x2 +2x 5 4
6
9
x 5 2x 8 +2

, limx+

x 2 2x 5
4
4x 3 +2

3. a 6= 0. limx1

1
xa 1

, limx1

1
(xa 1)2

, limx1

x3a 1
xa 1

4. limx+ x( x + 1 x), limx+ x3 ( x + 1 2 x + x 1),

3
limx+ x( x2 + 2 x x x), limx+ x2 ( 3 x + 1 3 x).

2
5
5. , limx0 x2 + 1 , limx 3xx27x
1 x1 + x12 ,
,
lim
x0
+1

limx1

x+1
x+1
3 4 x1
+1
x1

x+1
x+1
+7 4 x1
+1
x1

, limx1

6.

3 x+1 3 5 x+1 +1
x1
x1

x+1
x+1
+7 7 x1
+1
2 3 x1

((

2n
4n +1

) (
)
) 34 ) (( n3 +n+1 )2 ) (
2n 4n
4 n5 +n3 +1
5
,
,
.
,
2n2 1
2n6 +n2 +1
2n 3n +2

7. |a1 sin x + a2 sin 2x + + an sin nx| | sin x| x.


|a1 + 2a2 + + nan | 1.

2
8. a > 0. A, B a, b, c limx+
= 0.
( ax + bx + cAxB)
2
4acb
2
A, B limx+ x( ax + bx + cAxB) = 8aa .
1
1
e2x +ex +1
, limx (e x + e 2x ) ,
2e2x +1
log(2x)
(log |x|)7 log |x|
1
2
limx0 (ex 1)
2 , limx+ ((log x) log x), limx0 log(3x) , limx
(log |x|)5 +1
1+2(log x)2
1+2(log x)2
ex
limx0 2+2(log x)3 , limx+ 2+2(log x)3 , limx log x2 .
e +1

9. limx (ex e2x + 1), limx

1
ex 1
limx1 log1 x

limx0
,

,
,

( n3 ) (
) (
) ( (log n2n+1 )2 log n2n+1 +2 )
e2n +1
10. e n+1 , log n+1
,
log
, (log n )2 +4 log n 8 .
2
n
n
e +1
n2 +1

n2 +1

11. f : R R.
[] limx f (x) = l limx0 f (log x) = l limx+ f (x) =
l limx+ f (log x) = l.
[] limx0 f (x) = l limx0 f (sin x) = l.
12. [] limx+ (1 + x1 )x = e limx+ (1 x1 )x = 1e .
[] t > 0, t = 0, t < 0,
limx+ (1 + xt )x = et ,
() (1 + nt )n et .
15 2.9 5 2.7
. t = 1, ,
2 2.5, t Z, t Q , ,
t. , t = 1
limx+ (1 + x1 )x = e t = 1 3.5.3,
limx+ (1 + xt )x = et , , .
13. limx0 x cot x, limx0
limx0

cos(8x)cos(15x)
x2

1cos x
x sin x

, limx0

, limx x sin x1 , limx

sin(3x)
,
sin x

1cos x
(sin x)2

, limx0

limx 2

cos x
x 2

1cos(13x)+x2
tan(3x)
, limx0 x+sin
(sin(7x))2
x
cos( 2 cos x)
limx0 sin(sin x) .

xn
14. xn 0 xn 6= 0 n N. sinxxnn 1 1cos

xn 2

2
: (n sin n ), ( n sin n ), (n (1 cos n )), ( n cot 2n ).

106

1
2

0,
a
15. limx0+ x sin x = 1,

+,

a > 1
a = 1
a < 1

16. a > 0, limx0+ xa sin x1 = 0. a 0 17.


17. - .
[] x sin x .
y = x y = x
sin x = 1 y = x sin x = 1
y = x. x-;
limx x sin x.
[] sin x1 .
y = 1 y = 1.
sin x1 = 1 sin x1 = 1.
(0, +) (, 0) 0
sin x1 . ,
, sin x1 = 1 y = 1
sin x1 = 1 y = 1.
x-; limx0 sin x1 .

2
[]
x
sin
x,
x sin x, x1 sin x1 .

limx x2 sin x, limx+ x sin x limx0 x1 sin x1 .


[] , a 0, limx0+ xa sin x1 .
16.

3.6

3.5 ; 2.1
. 3.5
, , ,
, + .
3.5. 1. R {+}, A (, ), f : A R
A. f , limx f (x) = sup{f (x) | x A}. ,
limx f (x) , f , +, f .
2. 1, f , limx f (x) = inf{f (x) | x A}. ,
limx f (x) , f , , f
.
3. R {}, A (, +), f : A R
A. f , limx f (x) = inf{f (x) | x A}. , limx f (x)
, f , , f .
4. 3, f , limx f (x) = sup{f (x) | x A}. ,
limx f (x) , f , +, f .
. 1. f . - {f (x) | x A}
, = sup{f (x) | x A} . limx f (x) = .
> 0. {f (x) | x A}, x0 A
< f (x0 ). f , x A (x0 , ) f (x) f (x0 ) > .
107

{f (x) | x A}, < f (x) < +


x A (x0 , ). |f (x) | < , limx f (x) = .
f . - {f (x) | x A} ,
sup{f (x) | x A} = +. limx f (x) = +. M > 0. M
{f (x) | x A}, x0 A f (x0 ) > M . f
, x A (x0 , ) f (x) f (x0 ) > M . f (x) > M ,
limx f (x) = +.
2-4. .
. 1 2 3.5, R,
limx f (x) limx f (x). , 3 4, R,
limx+ f (x) limx f (x).
3.5. 1
. = limx f (x)
f , f (x) x A. f
A, , A, x <
x0 A x < x0 < f (x) < f (x0 ) . , f A,
f (x) < x A.
3.5. :
f () A (, ) = limx f (x), f (x) (f (x) )
x A. , , f ( ) A, f (x) <
(f (x) > ) x A.
f () A (, +) = limx f (x), f (x) (f (x) )
x A. , , f ( ) A, f (x) >
(f (x) < ) x A.
. a > 0, limx+ xa = +, limx0+ xa = 0,
xa (0, +).
+ .
- - limx+ xa = . limx+ (2x)a =
limy+ y a = , , = limx+ (2x)a = limx+ 2a xa = 2a limx+ xa = 2a .
= 0. , xa 1a = 1 x 1, = limx+ xa 1.
limx+ xa = +.
xa > 0 x > 0, limx0+ xa 0 , ,
-: limx0+ xa = 0. , limx0+ (2x)a = limy0+ y a = .
= limx0+ (2x)a = limx0+ 2a xa = 2a , , = 0.
1 .
.
1. .
[] a > 1. loga (ax) = 1 + loga x loga x
limx+ loga x, limx0 loga x.
[] a > 1. ax+1 = aax ax limx ax .

2. [] f : [1, +) R [1, +) f ( n) log n


n N. limx+ f (x); , .
[] f : (0, 2) R (0, 2) f ( n1 ) = 1 1n n N.
limx0 f (x); , .
108

[] [], []
f ;
3. f : A R A R
A.
[] = limx f (x), = limx+ f (x),
.
[] y f (x0 ) y f (x00 ) x0 A, x0 <
x00 A, x00 > [, ].
4. .
R {+}, A (, ), f : A R
A. f A = limx f (x) R {+}.
f (x) < x A. B = {f (x) | x A}
(, ). f A,
f 1 : B A B.
[] A B. 24
3.3.
[] limy f 1 (y) = .
f A
A (, +), R {}
A f A.
5. .
.
.
f : A R R A.
[] U 0 = {y | f (x) > y }
U = {y | f (x) y }. U 0 U = U 0 U = R.
U 0 , U , u0 < u u0 U 0 , u U
y R U 0 = (, y], U = (y, +) U 0 = (, y), U = [y, +).
U 0 = , U = R, y = , U 0 = (, y], U = (y, +).
U 0 = R, U = , y = +, U 0 = (, y), U = [y, +).
limx f (x) = y.
[] L = {y | f (x) y } L0 = {y | f (x) <
y }. L L0 = L L0 = R.
L, L0 , l < l0 l L, l0 L0
y R L = (, y], L0 = (y, +) L = (, y), L0 = [y, +).
L = , L0 = R, y = , L = (, y], L0 = (y, +).
L = R, L0 = , y = +, L = (, y), L0 = [y, +).
limx f (x) = y.
. limx f (x) limx f (x), ,
f lim supx f (x) lim infx f (x).
[] limx f (x) = + f
limx f (x) = limx f (x) = .
limx f (x) = f
limx f (x) = + limx f (x) = +.
[] limx f (x) limx f (x).
109

[] y > limx f (x) f (x) < y ,


f (x) < y , y limx f (x). y < limx f (x)
f (x) > y , f (x) > y
, y limx f (x).
[] y < limx f (x) f (x) > y ,
f (x) > y , y limx f (x). y > limx f (x)
f (x) < y , f (x) < y
, y limx f (x).
[] limx f (x) limx f (x) = limx f (x)
limx f (x) = limx f (x) = limx f (x).
[] . R f > 0
f (x) N () .
f (xn )
A xn 6= n N, xn f (xn ) .
[] limx f (x) limx f (x)
f .
[] limx+ f (x) = + limx f (x) = ,
limx f (x) = min{ , + } limx f (x) = max{ , + }.

[] limx0 limx0 [x], x , sin x1 , ( x1 sin x1 )2 .


[] f , 0 0 > 0 f
A N (0 0 ). u : (0, 0 0 ] R
u() = sup{f (x) | x A N ()} (0, 0 0 ]. u
(0, 0 0 ] , , lim0 u(). lim0 u() = limx f (x).
f , > 0
sup{f (x) | x A N ()} = +. limx f (x) = +.
[] f , 0 00 > 0 f
A N (0 00 ). l : (0, 0 00 ] R
l() = inf{f (x) | x A N ()} (0, 0 00 ]. l
(0, 0 00 ] , , lim0 l(). lim0 l() = limx f (x).
f , > 0
inf{f (x) | x A N ()} = . limx f (x) = .
[], [] limx f (x) limx f (x)
[], [].

3.7

Cauchy.

Cauchy. f : A R R A. limx f (x)


> 0 0 > 0 |f (x0 ) f (x00 )| <
x0 , x00 A N (0 ).
. limx f (x) = R. > 0. 0 > 0
|f (x) | < 2 x A N (0 ). x0 , x00 A N (0 )
|f (x0 ) f (x00 )| |f (x0 ) | + |f (x00 ) | <

= .

, > 0 0 > 0 |f (x0 ) f (x00 )| <


x0 , x00 A N (0 ).
110

(xn ) A : (i) xn 6= n N (ii) xn .


> 0. 0 . n0 N xn N (0 ) A
n n0 . n, m N, n, m n0 |f (xn ) f (xm )| < . (f (xn ))
Cauchy, .
(xn ) A (i) (ii) (f (xn ))
R. 3.4, limx f (x) .
> 0 0 > 0 |f (x0 ) f (x00 )| < x0 , x00
A N (0 ) limx0 ,x00 (f (x0 ) f (x00 )) = 0.
Cauchy, Cauchy
,
.
|f (x) | f , |f (x0 ) f (x00 )|
f .
.
1. f : A R, R A 0 > 0, M 0, > 0
|f (x0 )f (x00 )| M |x0 x00 | x0 , x00 A, 0 < |x0 | < 0 , 0 < |x00 | < 0 .
limx f (x) .
2. Cauchy
Cauchy . , , .
3. Cauchy () .
4. . f : A R, R A.
[] f , 0 > 0 f
A N (0 ). 0 sup{f (x0 ) f (x00 ) | x0 , x00 A N ()} < +

0
(0, 0 ]. : (0, 0 ] R+
0 () = sup{f (x )
f (x00 ) | x0 , x00 AN ()} (0, 0 ]. (0, 0 ],
lim0 () 0. (f ; ) = lim0 ().
[] f . > 0
sup{f (x0 ) f (x00 ) | x0 , x00 A N ()} = +. (f ; ) = +.
. , (f ; ) f .
17
4.1 3
6.1.
[] limx f (x) R (f ; ) = 0.
[] limx f (x). limx f (x)
(f ; ) = + limx f (x)
0 (f ; ) < +
(f ; ) = | limx+ f (x) limx f (x)|.
[] 5 3.6
limx f (x), limx f (x) (f ; ) = +
limx f (x), limx f (x) 0 (f ; ) < +
(f ; ) = | limx f (x) limx f (x)|.

[] (f ; 0) [x], x , x1 , x12 , sin x1 (sin x1 )2 .

111

4
.
4.1 .
4.1.1

. f : A R, A. f > 0
0 > 0 |f (x) f ()| < x A, |x | < 0 , ,
f (x) Nf () () x A N (0 ).
: f f (x) f ()
x ,
. , f , : f , x
, (x, f (x)) f
(, f ()).
.
: A.
f . , > 0 0 > 0
|f (x) f ()| < x A, |x | < 0 . , > 0
0 > 0 |f (x) f ()| < x A, 0 < |x | < 0 . ,
limx f (x) = f ().
, limx f (x) = f (). , > 0 0 > 0
|f (x) f ()| < x A, 0 < |x | < 0 . , x = ,
|f (x) f ()| = |f () f ()| = 0 < . > 0 ( ) 0 > 0
|f (x) f ()| < x A, |x | < 0 . f .
: A. , 0 > 0
A ( 0 , + 0 ) = {}. , A.
11 3.1.
, > 0 0 , , x A, |x| < 0
x = , |f (x) f ()| = |f () f ()| = 0 < . f .
:
A, f limx f (x) =
f (). A, f , , .
. - f
, f ().
. f : A R, A.
f > 0 0 > 0
112

|f (x) f ()| < x A, 0 < x .


f > 0 0 > 0
|f (x) f ()| < x A, x < + 0 .
,
() A, f ()
limx+ f (x) = f () (limx f (x) = f ()) ,
() A, f , , ()
.
3.2 3.3 . (i)
A, f
. (ii)
A, f .
(iii) A, f
.
. 1. x2 3, limx3 x2 = 9 = 32 .

2. x 0, limx0 x = 0 = 0 .
3. [x]. 0 (0, 1) 1,
limx1 [x] = limx1 0 = 0 6= [1]. , 1 (1, 2)
1, limx1+ [x] = limx1+ 1 = 1 = [1]. [x]
1, 1. , 0
(0, 32 ) ( 23 , 1), limx 2 [x] = limx 2 0 = 0 = [ 23 ]. [x] 23 .
3
3

2
4. x (x + 1) A = (, 1] {0}. 0
A, 0.
5. c R. , limx c = c.
. f : A R A , ,
A.
. 1. P (x) , , R,
limx P (x) = P ().
P (x)
2. R(x) = Q(x)
. ,
, R Q(x),
limx R(x) = R().
3. cos x, sin x , limx cos x = cos , limx sin x = sin
R. , tan x, cot x .
limx tan x = tan limx cot x = cot .
4. xa ; limx xa = a .
5. a > 0, ax , limx ax = a R.
6. a > 0, a 6= 1, loga x . , (0, +)
limx loga x = loga .

. f : A R B A. f B
f B, g : B R g(x) = f (x) x B B.
{
1, 0 x 1
. f (x) =
R. f
0, x < 0 x > 1
R 0 1. : limx0 f (x) = limx0 0 =
113

0 6= 1 = f (0) limx0+ f (x) = limx0+ 1 = 1 = f (0). f


0. , f 1.
, f [0, 1], g : [0, 1] R,
g(x) = 1. g [0, 1]. f [0, 1].
4.1.2

. f : A R, A. f ,
f . f , f f (
) .
f , ,
A, .
. = limx f (x) 6= f ().
f f .
f , f
{ . ,
f (x), x A, x 6=
g : A R g(x) =
g
,
x =
f f . g(x) = f (x) x A,
x 6= , limx g(x) = limx f (x) = . , g() = ,
limx g(x) = g(), g .
{
x + 1, x 6= 0
. 1. f (x) =
0,
0,
x = 0
limx0 f (x) = limx0 (x + 1) = 1 1 6= 0 = f (0). g(x) =
{
x + 1, x 6= 0
0. g x + 1
1,
x = 0
R, f x + 1 R \ {0}.
{

x, x > 0
2. f (x) =
limx0 f (x) = limx0 x = 0
1,
x = 0
{
x, x > 0
0 6= 1 = f (0). f 0. g(x) =

0,
x = 0

x [0, +). f

x (0, +).
. limx f (x) +
limx+ f (x) limx f (x) . f f .
limx+ f (x) limx f (x), 6= 0, f .
{
1
x 6= 0
2 ,
. 1. f (x) = x
0,
0,
x = 0
{
1 , x < 0
x
limx0 f (x) = +. f (x) =
0,
x = 0
114

x 6= 0
0,
1, x = 0
limx0+ f (x) = + limx0 f (x) = , 0 + () = +.
{
x + 1, x 0
3. f (x) =
0,
x,
x < 0
limx0+ f (x) = 1 limx0 f (x) = 0. 0 1 0 = 1. f
0.
2. f (x) =

1
,
x

. f
limx+ f (x) f
limx f (x),
f f
.
{
sin x1 , x > 0
. 1. f (x) =

x,
x 0
0, limx0+ f (x) = limx0+ sin x1 = limt+ sin t . limx0 f (x) =
limx0 x = 0 = f (0), f 0.
{
sin x1 , x 6= 0
2. f (x) =
0,
1,
x = 0
{ 0.
sin x1 , x > 0
3. f (x) =
0,
1,
x = 0
0.
f ,
f ().
. 8.

f .
4.1. f : A R A A.
1. A.
f . f
, , , .
2. A.
f .
. 1. f A.
f A (, ) ,
f (x) f () x A (, ). 3.5, limx f (x)
, , limx f (x) f (). , f
A (, +), f (x) f () x A (, +). limx+ f (x)
limx+ f (x) f ().
limx f (x), limx+ f (x) limx f (x) f () limx+ f (x).
. limx f (x) = limx+ f (x),
limx f (x) = f () = limx+ f (x) , , f .
limx f (x) < limx+ f (x), f
115

limx+ f (x) limx f (x) > 0.


f A : ,
limx f (x) f () limx+ f (x).
2. f A A.
, limx+ f (x) limx+ f (x) f (). limx f (x)
limx f (x) f ().
. limx f (x) = f () , , f
. limx f (x) > f (),
f .
.
4.1,
f .
4.14. 15.
1. f : A R A, A
A f ,
. = limx f (x) + = limx+ f (x), f
+ > 0. f () + . , f , f (x)
x A (, ) + f (x) x A (, +).
f ( , + ) f (). ,
f () = f () = + , ( , + ) f ,
< f () < + , ( , f ()) (f (), + ) f .
f , + <
+ f () : (+ , )
f (+ , f ()) (f (), ) f .
2. f : A R A, A
A f , .
+ = limx+ f (x), f () < + . f , f (x) f ()
x A (, ) + f (x) x A (, +).
(f (), + ) f .
f , + < f ()
(+ , f ()) f .
f A A
A, = limx f (x) , f , ( , f ()
f , f , (f (), )
f .
:
f : A R A,
A f . f
- f () -
.
.

2 +1
1. x, 2x 3, x2 , x1 , x , xx+1

1.
{
{
{
sin x
1cos x
,

x
=
6
0
,

x
=
6
0
x2 , x 6= 0
x
x2
2. f (x) =
f (x) =
f (x) =
1,
x = 0
1,
x = 0
1 , x = 0
116

{
{
{
0,
x2 + 1,
x < 0
x , x 0
f (x) =
f (x) = 1
f (x) = 1
,
x + 1 , x 0
, x > 0
|x|
x
0;

x = 0

x =
6 0

3. . .



[x], x [x], x [x] 12 , x [x] 12 , [x] + x [x] , [x] + (x [x])[x] .
; .

x
x
4. f (x) = limn+ nnx n
g(x) = limn+ 2n (cos x)2n + (sin x)2n .
+nx
; .
{
{
{
|x|
1
2
, x 6= 0
x
,

x
=
6
0
,

x
=
6
0
|x|
x
5. f (x) =
f (x) =
f (x) =
1,
x = 0
0,
x = 0
1, x = 0
{
{
{
tan x
x, x 0
sin x1 , x > 0
, x 6= 0
x
f (x) =
f (x) =
f (x) = 1
, x > 0
1,
x 0
0,
x = 0
x
0.
f 0 0. .
6. a < < b f : (a, b) R.
[] , f , limh0 (f ( + h) f ( h)) = 0.
{
0, x 6= 0
[] f (x) =
= 0
1, x = 0
[];
7. f : A R, A 0 > 0, M 0 |f (x)| M x A,
|x | < 0 . g : A R, g(x) = (x )f (x). g .
8. f : A R, A A
{
f (x), x A, x 6=
f . R g(x) =

,
x =
, f .
9. .
{
1, x Z
[] f (x) =
x Z
0, x R \ Z
x R \ Z.
{
1, x Q
[] f (x) =
x.
0, x R \ Q
{
0, x Q
[] f (x) =
x 6= 0
x, x R \ Q
0.
{
1
, x = m
m Z, n N, gcd(m, n) = 1
n
n
[] f (x) =
0, x R \ Q
x Q x R \ Q.
[] .

117

10. A B, A, g : B R f : A R g
A. , g , f .
11. , n N, { An Am An = m, n N,
1
, x An n N
m 6= n. f (x) = n

0, x
/ An n N

+
f x R \ +
n=1 An x
n=1 An .
12. , f
(, f ()). .
{
1
x(1)[ x ] , x 6= 0
[] f (x) =
f , 0,
x = 0
1
(1, +) ( n+1
, n1 ] n N
0. f 0
0.
[] []. 9[]
0 x 6= 0.
!
13. [] f : A R, A 0 > 0, M 0, > 0 |f (x) f ()|
M |x | x A, |x | < 0 . f .
. f , Hlder
Hlder . = 1, f Lipschitz
.

[] x, |x|, |x|, x |x| Hlder 0


Hlder. Hlder
6= 0 Hlder.
Hlder = 0
6= 0.
14. . - B. dist(x, B) = inf{|x b| | b B}
x B.
dist(x, B) . dist(x, B)
B {a}, [a, b], (a, +), [a, b] [c, d], [a, b] [c, d] [p, q]
( a < b < c < d < p < q), N, Z, Q.
: f (x) |x y| |x b| |x y| |y b| x, y
b B , , f (x) |x y| f (y) x, y.
|f (x) f (y)| |x y| x, y.
15. ,
. .
4.14 .
I f : I R I.
[] f J, f I.
: 4.1 .
[] , , f : I J I,
f 1 : J I J.
118

16. 12 3.1 10 3.2.


f : A R, A A = A (, ], A+ = A [, +) f : A R
f+ : A+ R f A A+ , .
() A , , A+
(A ). f () f+ (f )
.
17. 4 3.7. f : A R A.
[] f , 0 > 0 f
A N (0 ). 0 sup{f (x0 ) f (x00 ) | x0 , x00 A N ()} < +
0
(0, 0 ]. : (0, 0 ] R+
0 () = sup{f (x )
f (x00 ) | x0 , x00 A N ()} (0, 0 ]. (0, 0 ],
lim0 () 0. (f ; ) = lim0 ().
[] f . > 0
sup{f (x0 ) f (x00 ) | x0 , x00 A N ()} = +. (f ; ) = +.
. , (f ; ) f .
3 6.1.
[] f (f ; ) = 0.
[] > 0 A = { A | (f ; ) }. A
A , A . 18 3.1 ,
A , A , A ,
A .
:
/ A , (f ; ) < . (f ; ) < 1 < . 1 (0, 0 ]
(1 ) < 1 . f (x0 ) f (x00 ) < 1 x0 , x00 A N (1 ). ,
A N ( 21 ), f (x0 ) f (x00 ) < 1 x0 , x00 A N ( 21 ). ,
A N ( 21 ), (f ; ) 1 < . A A .
18. 5 3.6.
A, f : A R.
[] . f > 0 0 > 0
f (x) < f () + x A, |x | < 0 .
, A, f , ,
, A, f
limx f (x) f ().
[] . f > 0 0 > 0
f (x) > f () x A, |x | < 0 .
, A, f , ,
, A, f
limx f (x) f ().
{
0, x 0
[] f (x) =
0,
1, x > 0
{
0, x < 0
f (x) =
0.
1, x 0
[] f
.

119

19. I f : I R I.
[] a, b I a < x1 < < xn < b jk = limxxk + f (x) limxxk f (x)
f xk k = 1, . . . , n, j1 + + jn limxb f (x)
limxa+ f (x).
[] a, b I k N, x (a, b),
f k1 , k(limxb f (x) limxa+ f (x)).
[] , f
I .
(am ), (bm ) I (am )
I, (bm ) I
a1 < b1 . (a1 , b1 ) f 1.
(a2 , b2 ) f 12 ,
. (a3 , b3 )
f 31 , .
, f ,
I, . f I
.

4.2 .
4.2. f, g : A R A A. f () = g()
f , g . f, g ,
.
. f . limx f (x) = f (). f , g
, limx g(x) = limx f (x), limx g(x) = f () = g(). g
.
{
1 + x, x < 1
. f (x) =
log x
log x, 1 x < 4
[1, 4). log x 2, f (x) 2.
(1, 4). , f (x) x + 1
(, 1). x + 1 (, 1), f (x)
.
4.3. f : A R, A A f
.
1. f () > u, f (x) > u .
2. f () < l, f (x) < l .
. 3.5 limx f (x) = f ().
8

1 +1 +1
3
x +x +1
. x5 +3x
4 x2 +1 1 15 +314 12 +1 = 4 .
x8 +x3 +1
7
0 > 0 35 < x5 +3x
4 x2 +1 < 8 x (1 0 , 1 + 0 ).

4.4. f : A R A A.
1. f f (x) l ,
f () l.
2. f f (x) u ,
120

f () u.
3. u < l f (x) l f (x) u
, f .
. 3.6 limx f (x) = f ().
4.5. f, g : A R A A. f, g
f (x) g(x) , f () g().
. 3.8 limx f (x) = f (), limx g(x) = g().
. f : [0, 4 ) R 0 f (x) sin x x (0, 4 ).
f (0) sin 0 = 0.
4.6. f, g, h : A R A A. f, h
, f (x) g(x) h(x) f () = g() = h(),
g .
. 3.10 limx f (x) = f (), limx h(x) = h().
4.7. f : A R A A. f
, .
. 3.11 limx f (x) = f ().
1
. x(x1)
12 ,
(0, 1).

1
2

4.8. f, g : A R, A f , g .
f + g, f g, f g, |f | : A R . , , g(x) 6= 0 x A,
fg : A R .
. A,
. A, 3.14
limx f (x) = f (), limx g(x) = g() f + g .
f g, f g, fg , |f |.
.

x+ex
(x2x2 ) log x

x2 + x
sin x+cos x

4.9. f : A B, g : B R A. f g
= f (), g f : A R .
. > 0. g , 0 0 > 0
|g(y) g()| < y B, |y | < 0 0 . f ,
0 > 0 |f (x) | = |f (x) f ()| < 0 0 x A, |x | < 0 . ,
0
x A, |x | < (0
|f (x) | < 0 , f (x) B,
)
|(g f )(x) (g f )()| = g f (x) g() < . g f .

. sin x , sin x .
4.9 - - 3.22
g f = limx f (x)
g .
121

4.10. f : A B, g : B R A. limx f (x) =


B g , limx (g f )(x) = g().
. > 0. g , 0 0 > 0
|g(y) g()| < y B, |y | < 0 0 . limx f (x) = , 0 > 0
|f (x) | < 0 0 x A, 0 < |x | < 0 . , x A,
0 <
|f (x)| < 0 0 , f (x) B, |(gf )(x)g()| =

( |x|
) < 0
g f (x) g() < . |(g f )(x) g()| < x A, 0 < |x | < 0 ,
, limx (g f )(x) = g().
,
x y = f (x)
(
)
limx g f (x) = limy g(y) = g().
(
)
, limx g f (x) = g() limx f (x) =
(
)
(
)
limx g f (x) = g limx f (x) .
, limx g g
, f .

. 1. limx0 (x+1)(8 +(x+1)


.
x+1)12 +5

4
limx0 ( x + 1) = 1 y8 +yy 12 +5 1. ,

4
4

= 18 +1112 +5 = 17 .
x y = x + 1, limx0 (x+1)(8 +(x+1)
x+1)12 +5

2. limx+

1
x1
) 2 +( 2x1 )2 + 2x1 +1
x2 +x+1
x +x+1
x +x+1
1
3( 2x1 )4 +2( 2x1 ) 2 +1
x +x+1
x +x+1

. limx+

x1
x2 +x+1

= 0

y 2 +y 2 +y+1
1

3y 4 +2y 2 +1

limx+

0. , x y =

1
x1
) 2 +( 2x1 )2 + 2x1 +1
x2 +x+1
x +x+1
x +x+1
1
3( 2x1 )4 +2( 2x1 ) 2 +1
x +x+1
x +x+1

x1
,
x2 +x+1

0 2 +02 +0+1
1

304 +20 2 +1

= 1.

(
)
3. limx+ ( sinxx )3 + sinxx .
limx+ sinxx = 0 y 3 + y ( ) 0. ,
x y = sinxx , limx+ ( sinxx )3 + sinxx = 03 + 0 = 0.
3.22 4.10.
(i) 3.22 f 4.10
f . 4.10
3.22.
(ii) limx f (x) = , 3.22 f (x) 6=
. 4.10 g .
4.10 3.22, y 2 + y 4
0, 3.22
4.10, N0 sinxx 6= 0 x > N0 .
3.22,
g 0 N0 sinxx 6= 0
x > N0 .

122

3.23. h(x) = f (x)g(x) limx f (x) =


limx g(x) = .
0 < < +, < < + limx h(x) = .
4.10, limx log f (x) = log , , limx log h(x) =
limx g(x) log f (x) = log . 4.10, limx h(x) = limx elog h(x) =
e log = .
3.22 4.10.
0 < < 1, = : limx log f (x) = log , limx log h(x) = limx g(x) log f (x) = +,
limx h(x) = limx elog h(x) = + = .
0 < < 1, = +: limx log f (x) = log , limx log h(x) = limx g(x) log f (x) = ,
limx h(x) = limx elog h(x) = 0 = .
> 1, = : limx log f (x) = log , limx log h(x) = limx g(x) log f (x) = ,
limx h(x) = limx elog h(x) = 0 = .
> 1, = +: limx log f (x) = log , limx log h(x) = limx g(x) log f (x) = +,
limx h(x) = limx elog h(x) = + = .
= +, 0 < +: limx log f (x) = +, limx log h(x) = limx g(x) log f (x) = +,
limx h(x) = limx elog h(x) = + = .
= +, < 0: limx log f (x) = +, limx log h(x) = limx g(x) log f (x) = ,
limx h(x) = limx elog h(x) = 0 = .
= 0, = : limx log f (x) = , limx log h(x) = limx g(x) log f (x) = +,
limx h(x) = limx elog h(x) = + .
.
x

x log x+xe
xcot x
1. (sin
, x 4 (log x)2 (sin tan
, log(x2 +2),
xcos x)2
x)2 2 sin x+1

1
[x] , ex11 , sin(log x), 1 cos x , (x2 5x + 6) 2 , log(x2 5x + 6), e sin x , log(sin x),
log(1 cos x).
3

2. [] f, g : A R A f (x) > 0 x A.
f g : A R .
x2

[] xx , (x2 3) x+2 , (log x)log x .


;
1

3. 4.10 : limx+ sin 1x , limx cos sinxx , limx1 e(x1) sin x1 .


3.22;
4. 0 > 0
0 > 0
x (1 0 , 1 + 0 ).

1
2

<

log(1+x)+cos x
1

< 32 x
<
x
2
e +sin x
x 2x
x8 x5 +3
< 32 16 < e7x3
< 14
4x4 1

[0, 0 )

5. f : A R A A. f
f (x) l f (x) l
, f ().
6. f : ( , +) R. limx f (x) = l R limh0
f .

123

f (+h)+f (h)2f ()
h

= m R,

7. f, g : A R max{f, g} : A R max{f, g}(x) =


max{f (x), g(x)} x A min{f, g} : A R min{f, g}(x) =
min{f (x), g(x)} x A. , f , g A,
max{f, g} min{f, g} .
8. f, g, h : A R A. m : A R , x A,
m(x) f (x), g(x), h(x) .
m A.
{
1,
x Q
9. f (x) =
R
1, x R \ Q
|f | R.
{
n, x = m
m Z, n N, gcd(m, n) = 1
n
10. f (x) =
0, x R \ Q
f .
11. .
f : [a, b] R [a, b].
[] f (a) = 0 f (b) 6= 0, f [a, b].
: A = {x [a, b] | f (x) = 0} A -
. = sup A, [a, b]. = a, a
f . a < b, f (x) = 0
. f () = 0, f .
25 4.4
.
[] f (a) 6= 0 f (b) = 0, f [a, b].
12. .
3 4.3.
I f : I R I.
[] f (r) 0 r I, f (x) 0 x I.
: x I, f (r) 0 x.
[] f (r) = 0 r I, f (x) = 0 x I.
[] [], [] .
[]
f : [0, 2] R [0, 2] f (r) = r2 r [0, 2],
f ( 2).
13. .
[] f : R R f (x1 + x2 ) = f (x1 ) + f (x2 ) x1 , x2 .
, f , f (x) = cx
c.
: f (0) = 0 f (m) = f (1)m m N.
f (r) = f (1)r r Q. f (x) = f () + f (x0 )
f (x0 + x) , f x0 , .
12 f (x) f (1)x,
f (x) = f (1)x x.
[] f : R R f (x1 + x2 ) = f (x1 )f (x2 ) x1 , x2 f (0) 6= 0.
124

, f , f (x) = ecx
c.
: f (x) > 0 x [].
[] f : R R f (x1 + x2 x3 ) = f (x1 ) + f (x2 ) f (x3 )
x1 , x2 , x3 . , f ,
f (x) = cx + d c, d.
14. . f : R R R. f ,
f .
[] , f ,
R.
: a < b. f 0 < < b a. k =
[ a ] + 1 Z k f a < k < b.
[] , f R ,
R.
: A f , f ( ) = f (0) A.
, x f ( ) = f (0) x.
{
1, x Q
[] - f (x) =

0, x R \ Q
- .
15. f : A R A. g : A R g(x) = sup{f (t) | t
A, t x} x A.
[] g A f (x) g(x) x A.
h : A R A f (x) h(x)
x A, g(x) h(x) x A.
, g A
f A.
[] , f A, g .
: x1 , x2 A, x1 < x2 , 0 g(x2 ) g(x1 ) sup{f (x) f (x1 ) | x
A, x1 x x2 }.
16. f : R R R limx f (x) = , limx+ f (x) = +.
g : R R g(y) = sup{x | f (x) < y} y.

x + 1, x 1
3
[] f (x) = x, f (x) = x f (x) = 0,
1 x 1

x 1, 1 x
g.
[] f (g(y)) = y y.
[] , , f , g f .
[] g R y. g
y;

125

4.3

4.1 .
3.4 , , .
4.1. f : A R, A. f
(xn ) A xn f (xn ) f ().
. f (xn ) A
xn . > 0. 0 > 0 |f (x) f ()| < x A,
|x | < 0 . xn , |xn | < 0 . |f (xn ) f ()| <
, , f (xn ) f ().
, (xn ) A xn f (xn )
f (). - - f .
0 > 0 > 0 x A, |x | < , |f (x) f ()| 0 .
n N xn A, |xn | < n1 |f (xn ) f ()| 0 .
(xn ) A xn , , f (xn ) f ().
.
. 1. P (x) xn , P (xn ) P ().
P (x)
2. R(x) = Q(x)
, Q() 6= 0 Q(xn ) 6= 0 n N
xn , R(xn ) R().
3. xn , cos xn cos sin xn sin .
4. (xn ) xn , xn a a .
5. a > 0 xn , axn a .
6. (xn ) xn , loga xn loga .
limn+ xn = , limn+ f (xn ) = f ()
(
)
limn+ f (xn ) = f limn+ xn .
limn+ f
f , (xn ).
4.1,
() xn (xn )
n N. 1.
, 4.1 3.4. ,
4.1 -
- 3.4 , ,
6= .
n1

n1

. limn+ sin 1+(1)


. 1+(1)
0 sin
n
n
1+(1)n1
0, sin
sin 0 = 0. 3.4,
n
1+(1)n1
= 0 n N.

n
2.19. zn = xn yn xn x yn y.
0 < x < + < y < + zn xy .
4.1, log xn log x , , log zn = yn log xn y log x.
4.1, zn = elog zn ey log x = xy .
126

3.4 4.1.
0 < x < 1 y = , log xn log x log zn = yn log xn + , ,
zn = elog zn + = xy .
0 < x < 1 y = +, log xn log x log zn = yn log xn , ,
zn = elog zn 0 = xy .
x > 1 y = , log xn log x log zn = yn log xn , ,
zn = elog zn 0 = xy .
x > 1 y = +, log xn log x log zn = yn log xn + , ,
zn = elog zn + = xy .
x = + 0 < y +, log xn + log zn = yn log xn + ,
, zn = elog zn + = xy .
x = + y < 0, log xn + log zn = yn log xn ,
, zn = elog zn 0 = xy .
x = 0 y = , log xn log zn = yn log xn + , ,
zn = elog zn + .
4.3.1


- . , a < 0, ax
x A,
A . , , A
Z - ax x Z -
A Q , , R.
a < 0.
ax x A
ax ay = ax+y x, y A. ,
, A : x + y A x, y A.
r Q. , , m Z, n N gcd(m, n) = 1
r=m
. r .
n
: (i) r = m
r n ,
n
m0
m . (ii) r = n0 , m0 Z n0 N, r = m
r
n
m0
0
n0 . m m n
n0 . , m0 , m , n0 ,
n .
, , r Q r = m
r. ar , n
- (ar )n = (ar ) (ar ) = ar++r = anr = am ,
ar xn = am . , n , m
, (ar )n = am < 0, . , r
, ar . ,

n
n
m
n , x = a
: am ,

m am > 0, n am , m am < 0.
: r ,
ar , r = m
r , ar
n
n
x = am .
A
. A , m Z,

127

m m = m1 1 . Z A. , A
Q, , , 21 A. A
. , r, s A, r + s A. ,
r, s A r = m
s = kl r, s, n, l .
n
ml+kn
r + s = nl nl . , ,
) ,
r + s ( r + s = ml+kn
nl
r
r + s A. , a r A
, ar as = ar+s r, s A.
. , ,
, ar a < 0 r A,
1 1.2.
A : Q. ,
Z ax
Z ,
. : ax
A. ax A
, , A.
r A - - ax r.
km
k
r=m
r. k N tk = 22k n+1
sk = 22km+1
.
n
n+1
k
2 n + 1 , tk , sk
, tk , sk A k N. , tk r sk r.
ax r, atk ar ask ar .
k
k
atk x2 n+1 = a2 m > 0, atk > 0
k N. ar 0.
k
k
ask x2 n+1 = a2 m+1 < 0, ask < 0
k N. ar 0.
, ar = 0. ar ar = ar+(r) = a0 = 1.
( a < 0) ax x A
, , . , ,
, : , x, y A,
x + y A. , : x, y A, x +
y A.
r.
A , r 2 A 2 A,
r = (r 2) + 2 A. A . ,
ax x Q.
, A, ,
ax , ax
x . , , ,
ax x.
.
1. 4.1 .
(
) ( 1+(1)n )
2. : (1+ n1 )8 +4(1+ n1 )5 +7 , e n
, (tan 21n ), (log(1+ n1 )),
4
( 3n4 +n4
)
( n2 +3 3
)
1
2
2 n +n3 +4 sin( 2 n12 ) , (n log(1 + n1 )), ( 4n
2 3 ) log(cos n ) .
3. 23 2.4, 12
4.2.

128

4. 24 2.4 11 2.9
: xn > 0 n N xn x [0, +], n x1 xn x.
.

xn
xn x R, log xn log x, log n x1 xn = log x1 ++log
log x.
n

n
x1 xn x. xn 0 xn + ;
5. f : [a, b] R [a, b]. x [a, b] x0 [a, b]
|f (x0 )| |f (x)|
. [a, b] f () = 0.
2
: x1 [a, b] x2 = x1 0 , x3 = x2 0 .
(xn ) [a, b] |f (xn+1 )| |f (x2n )| n N. f (xn ) 0
Bolzano - Weierstrass.
5 4.4.
6. . f : A A A
0 < 1 |f (x0 ) f (x00 )| |x0 x00 | x0 , x00 A.
13 4.1, A
Lipschitz A, A.
A f A f () = .
: f
A, A.
A = [a, b], A = [a, +), A = (, b]
A = (, +). ,
18 3.1.
: x1 A (xn ) A
xn+1 = f (xn ) n N.
4 2.8 A f () = . ,
.
.
16 4.4.
7. f : A R (xn ) A. lim xn A f A
lim xn , lim f (xn ) = f (lim xn ).
lim xn ; f A;

4.4

.

.
. f : [a, b] R [a, b]. f
[a, b].
. - - f [a, b]. ,
n N xn [a, b] |f (xn )| > n. , , (xn ) [a, b]
|f (xn )| > n n N , , |f (xn )| +.
Bolzano - Weierstrass, (xnk ) (xn )
. xnk . a xnk b k N, a b.
129

[a, b], f , xnk f (xnk ) f ()


, , |f (xnk )| |f ()|. , |f (xnk )| + .
27 28.
{
1
, 0 < x 1
. 1. f (x) = x

0, x = 0
[0, 1].
{
x, 0 < x 1
2. f (x) =
[0, 1].
1, x = 0
3. H

1
x(x1)

(0, 1).

4. x (1, 1).
5. x R.
6. x21+1 R.
7. e9 sin(x )log(e 1)
(0, +), (0, +).
(
)
2
x
8. u log ue9 sin(x )log(e 1) [ 51 , 7]. ,
2
x
e9 sin(x )log(e 1) [ 15 , 7] [ 15 , 7], u
2
x
e9 sin(x )log(e 1) < u x [ 51 , 7].
2

- . f : [a, b] R [a, b].


, [a, b] f () f (x) f () x [a, b].
. , f [a, b],
{f (x) | a x b} . inmum supremum
{f (x) | a x b} . u = sup{f (x) | a x b}.
n N u n1 {f (x) | a x b}, xn [a, b]
u n1 < f (xn ). u {f (x) | a x b}, u n1 < f (xn ) u.
(xn ) [a, b] u n1 < f (xn ) u n N,
f (xn ) u.
Bolzano - Weierstrass, (xnk ) .
xnk . a xnk b k N, a b, f
. xnk f (xnk ) f (). f (xnk ) u,
f () = u , u {f (x) | a x b}, f (x) f ()
x [a, b].
, inmum {f (x) | a x b}, .
- 26
-
29.
, -
. f ()
f () .
, - ,
f
. 5.

130

x + 1 , 1 x < 0
[1, 1]
. 1. f (x) = 0 ,
x = 0

x 1 , 0 < x 1
. , , [1, 1].
{
0 , 1 x < 0
2. f (x) =
[1, 1]
1 , 0 x 1
.
3. H x ( ) (1, 1)
(1, 1).

x + 2 , 2 < x < 1
4. f (x) = x ,
1 x 1 (2, 2)

x 2 , 1 < x < 2
.
5. xx|x|
2 +1 ( ) R
.
{

, |x| > 1
R .
x , |x| 1
7. 8

.
(
)
9 sin(x2 )log(ex 1)
u log u e
[ 15 , 7]. ,
2
x
e9 sin(x )log(e 1) [ 15 , 7], [ 15 , 7] f (x) f ()
x [ 51 , 7]. u f ()
f ().
6. f (x) =

1
x

. f : [a, b] R [a, b]. ,


f (a) f (b) f (b) f (a) [a, b] f () = .
. f (a) f (b).
[a, a+b
], [ a+b
, b] f (a) f ( a+b
)
2
2
2
a+b
f ( a+b
)

f
(b).

a
=
a,
b
=
.

1
1
2
2
a1 = a+b
,
b
=
b.

[a
,
b
]

[a,
b], b1 a1 = ba
1
1
1
2
2
a1 +b1
1
f (a1 ) f (b1 ). , [a1 , a1 +b
],
[
,
b
]

1
2
2
a1 +b1
1
f (a1 ) f ( a1 +b
)

f
(
)

f
(b
).

1
2
2
a1 +b1
1
a2 = a1 , b2 = a1 +b
.

a
=
,
b
2
2 = b1 .
2
2
b1 a1
, [a2 , b2 ] [a1 , b1 ], b2 a2 = 2 f (a2 ) f (b2 ).
. [an , bn ]
n
f (an ) f (bn )
n N [an+1 , bn+1 ] [an , bn ], bn+1 an+1 = bn a
2
bn an
n N. bn+1 an+1 = 2 n N bn an = ba

2n
n N , , bn an 0.
, (an ), (bn )
. an bn . an , bn [a, b] n N, [a, b],
f . , an bn f (an ) f ()
f (bn ) f (). , f (an ) f (bn ) n N, f () = .
f (b) f (a), .
25
13 4.6.

131

. f (a) = f (b), , , = f (a) = f (b), f (x) = : a, b. ,


f (a) 6= f (b) = f (a) = f (b), f (x) = :
a b, . , f (a) < < f (b) f (b) < < f (a),
. , a, b
f (x) = , (a, b) f () = .
:
f : [a, b] R [a, b]. , f (a) < < f (b)
f (b) < < f (a) (a, b) f () = .
. ,
:
.
{
1 , 0 < x 1
. 1. f (x) =
[0, 1].
0 , x = 0
(f (0), f (1)) = (0, 1) f .
{
x,
0 x < 21
2. f (x) =
[0, 1],
x 12 , 12 x 1
(f (0), f (1)) = (0, 21 ) f .
, , .
. 1. cos x = x
[0, 2 ].
cos xx [0, 2 ]. cos 00 = 1, cos 2 2 = 2 2 < 0 < 1.
(0, 2 ) cos = 0.
2. x3 5x2 18x + 7 = 0 ,
.
f (x) = x3 5x2 18x + 7. a, b a < b 0
f (a), f (b). - : f (0) = 7, f (1) = 15.
(0, 1) 3 5 2 18 + 7 = f () = 0.
, . -
! - . limx f (x) = , a < 0 -
- f (a) < 0. , limx+ f (x) = +,
b > 0 f (b) > 0. [a, b] 3 5 2 18 + 7 = f () = 0.
3. n- y > 0. limx+ xn = +,
b > 0 bn > y. ,
b > 1 + y1
, Bernoulli, bn > (1 + y1
)n 1 + n y1
= y.
n
n
n
n
n
n
x [0, b] 0 < y < b . x (0, b)
xn = y. , , 1.2:
y > 0 x > 0 xn = y.
, , .
Bolzano. f : [a, b] R [a, b]. f (a)f (b) < 0,
(a, b) f () = 0.
. f (a)f (b) < 0 f (a) < 0 < f (b) f (b) < 0 < f (a).
(a, b) f () = 0.
132

. I f : I R I. f (x) 6= 0
x I, f (x) > 0 x I f (x) < 0 x I.
. . a, b I f (a) < 0
f (b) > 0. I , [a, b] [b, a] I,
f . [a, b] [b, a] , , I
f () = 0. .
Bolzano . , ,
. , Bolzano
f : [a, b] R [a, b] f (a) f (b) f (b) f (a).
= f (a) = f (b), , , [a, b] f () = : a b, .
, , f (a) < < f (b) f (b) < < f (a).
g : [a, b] R g(x) = f (x) x [a, b]. g
[a, b] g(a)g(b) < 0. (a, b) g() = 0 , ,
f () = . .
, Bolzano .
, ,
. 23.
. .
1. - , . A f : A R
. 18 3.1
9
, A , , ,
f : A R, A, . ,
,
.
2. , .
:
I f : I R I. f ,
f .
, f (a) f (b) a, b I. I ,
[a, b] [b, a] I, f .
[a, b] [b, a] , , I f () = f .
, , . -
A . 1.11, a, b A
a < b
/ A a < < b. f : A R
f (x) = x x A. f A, a, b f , a = f (a)
b = f (b), a, b, o f .
, , , - A , f : A R
.
,

, . 18
3.1 .
-
- .
133

.
1. - .
2. x2 x + 1, sin(x), cot(x), sin(2x)
(0, 1);
3. 17 3.5.
[] sin x1 (0, +)
(0, +).
;
[] x sin x, x1 sin x1
(0, +).
1
[] 1+x
sin x1
(0, +).
4. f, g : [a, b] R [a, b] f (x) > g(x) x [a, b].
> 0 f (x) g(x) + x [a, b].
5. |f | : [a, b] R, 5
4.3.
6. - .
12 4.5
4.13 .
a, b R, a < b f : (a, b) R (a, b). ,
limxa f (x), limxb f (x) x0 (a, b) f (x0 ) > limxa f (x) f (x0 ) >
limxb f (x), f [a, b].
f [a, b].
: : a0 , b0 a < a0 < b0 < b
f (x) < f (x0 ) x (a, a0 ) x (b0 , b).
- [a0 , b0 ], f [a, b].
: u = sup{f (x) | x (a, b)}, u R {+}. (xn )
(a, b) f (xn ) u. 2.26, (xnk )
(xn ) R xnk , [a, b]. (a, b) f () = u.
7. I f : I R I. x I, > 0
x0 (x, x + ) I f (x) f (x0 ). f I.
{
x,
0 x < 1
f (x) =

x 1, 1 x 2
11[] 2.5.
(a)
: a, b I, a < b f (a) > f (b). g(x) = f (x)f (a) f (b)f
(xa) .
ba
g(a) = g(b) = 0. g [a, b].
8. . f : R R R. x
f x0 > x f (x0 ) > f (x). x (a, b)
f a, b f . A f (x) < f (b)
x (a, b) f (a) = f (b).

134

9. - .
18 3.1.
[] , , A f : A R
A. f A.
[] A , x -
A. A ,
/ A,
1
A, x
- A.
[] , A
A , A
A; A
;
[] , , A f : A R.
, f () A, ()
() A.
10. [] x7 3x6 + 5x5 + 13x4 x3 12x2 5x + 1 = 0
[0, 1].
[] ex = x + 2 .
2
1
5
+ x2
+ x3
= 0
[] x3 + x1
(0, 1), (1, 2), (2, 3).
[] tan x = x ( 2 + k, 2 + k)
k Z.
11. f : I R I n N, n 2.
(xn )
x1 , . . . , xn I I f () = f (x1 )++f
.
n
12. a1 < b1 < a2 < b2 < < an < bn .
P (x) = 2(x a1 ) (x an ) + 3(x b1 ) (x bn ) n .
13. [] f : [0, 1] R [0, 1] f (0) = f (1). x [0, 21 )
f (x) = f (x + 21 ).
[] : k N, k 2 x [0, k1
) f (x) =
k
1
f (x + k ).
14. f : (a, +) R (a + ). , b > 0,
(xn ) (a, +) xn + f (xn + b) f (xn ) 0.
15. f : (a, b) R (a, b) f (x) Q x (a, b).
f (a, b).
16. [] f, g : [a, b] R [a, b]. f (a) g(a) f (b) g(b),
[a, b] f () = g().
[] : f : [a, b] [a, b] [a, b],
f [a, b], [a, b] f () = .
11[] 2.5.
6 4.3.
[] f : R R R limx f (x) =
limx+ f (x) = +. R f () = .

135

17. f, g : [a, b] [a, b] [a, b]. g f g = g f .


f, g .
: 16, x1 [a, b] f (x1 ) = x1 .
(xn ) [a, b] xn+1 = g(xn )
n N. (xn ) , (xn ),
f () = g() = .
18. I f, g : I R I f (x) 6= g(x) x I.
[] f (x) < g(x) x I f (x) > g(x)
x I.
[] h : I R I. h(x) = f (x) h(x) = g(x)
x I, h(x) = f (x) x I h(x) = g(x)
x I.
19. [] I f, g : I R I. g(x)2 = f (x)2 > 0
x I, g(x) = f (x) x I g(x) = f (x)
x I.
[] I [0, +) I (, 0] f : I R I.
f (x)2 = x2 x I. f (x) = x x I
f (x) = x x I.
[] f : R R f (x)2 = x2 x;
[] I [1, 1] f : I R
I. x2 +f (x)2 = 1

x I. f (x) = 1 x2 x I
f (x) = 1 x2 x I.
20. 18 .
[] I f1 , . . . , fn : I R I. f1 , . . . , fn
x I n .
;
[] , , h : I R I x I
( x) n , ,
(h(x) f1 (x)) (h(x) fn (x)) = 0 x I.
h f1 , . . . , fn ;
[] I [1, +) I [0, 1] h : I R I.
(h(x) x)(h(x) x2 )(h(x) x3 ) = 0 x I. h(x) = x
x I h(x) = x2 x I h(x) = x3 x I.
I = [0, +), - -
h;
21. . --.
, . .
[] : f : I R -- I, f
I.
: a, b, c I a < b < c f (a) < f (b) f (c) < f (b).
f (a) < < f (b) f (c) < < f (b), . ,
f (b) < f (a) f (b) < f (c).
{
x,
x [0, 1] Q
[] f : [0, 1] [0, 1] f (x) =

1 x, x [0, 1] \ Q
136

f ,
[0, 1].

1
2

22. I ( ) f : I R f (x) =
. f
I. , I = [a, b), I = (a, b), I = [a, b]
f ;
23. .
24. f : [a, b] R [a, b]
, f (a) f (b) f (b) f (a)
[a, b] f () = . f [a, b].
: 4.1 , 15
4.1.
25. ,
.
f : [a, b] R [a, b] f (a) < < f (b). A = {x
[a, b] | f (x) } A - . = sup A,
[a, b]. a < b, f (x)
, f () . < b. a < b,
f (x) > x (, b], f () . a < < b f () = .
11 4.2.
, ,
f () = . A = {x [a, b] | f (x) } = inf A,
f () = .
26. ,
- .
f : [a, b] R [a, b]. f ,
{f (x) | x [a, b]} . u = sup{f (x) | x [a, b]}. (xn )
[a, b] f (xn ) u. f (x) < u x [a, b], g : [a, b] R
g(x) = uf1 (x) , , [a, b]. . [a, b]
f () = u, u f . , .
27. ,
.
f : [a, b] R [a, b]. f [a, b].
] [ a+b
, b]. [a1 , b1 ]
f [a, a+b
2
2
f .
, ([an , bn ]) , n N,
f [an , bn ].
[an+1 , bn+1 ] [an , bn ], bn an = ba
2n
, [a, b] an bn . f ,
. n0 N f [an0 , bn0 ].
.
28. ,
.
f : [a, b] R [a, b]. A x [a, b]
137

: f [a, x]. A -
= sup A, [a, b]. f a, a,
c > a f [a, c]. c A, c > a.
f , , c <
f [c, ]. d A c < d . f
[a, d] [c, ], [a, ]. A. < b. f
, , c > f
[, c]. f [a, ] [, c],
[a, c], c A. . = b f [a, b].
29. , - .
f : [a, b] R [a, b]. u = sup{f (x) | x [a, b]}, u
R {+}. (xn ) [a, b] f (xn ) u. ,
(xnk ) (xn ). xnk , [a, b] f
. f (xnk ) f () , , f () = u. u R u
f [a, b].

4.5

. .

f
, ,
f (x) = .
.
4.11. ,
.
. I f : I R I. A = {f (x) | x I}
f y1 , y2 A y1 < y < y2 . y y1 y2
f , y f , y A. 1.11, A
.
4.11 1.11.
f : I R I l = inf{f (x) | x I} u = sup{f (x) | x I}.
. (i) f (
) ( ), l
u f , , [l, u].
(ii) f , (l, u).
(iii) f , l f ,
, [l, u). (iv) f
, u f , , (l, u].
. 13.

- - .
4.12. f : [a, b] R [a, b]. {f (x) | x [a, b]}
f I.

138

. 4.11 - .

.
. 5 , ,
. ,
.
. 1. x2 [1, 4],
[1, 4] 12 = 1 42 = 16.
[1, 4] [1, 16].
2. x1 [ 12 , 3], [ 21 , 3]
13 2. [ 21 , 3]
[ 13 , 2].
3. f (x) = x2 6x + 5 = (x 3)2 4 [1, 6]. f
[1, 3] [3, 6]. f [1, 6]
f (3) = 4 max{f (1), f (6)} = 12. f
[1, 6] [4, 12].
, ,
. 4.12.
4.13. P (x) = a0 + a1 x + + an xn .
1. P , n = 2k 1, k N, an 6= 0.
P (, +).
2. P , n = 2k, k N, an 6= 0. an > 0, P
, l, [l, +). an < 0, P
, u, (, u].
. 1. an > 0, limx P (x) = limx+ P (x) = +. P
, inmum
supremum +. 4.11, P (, +).
an < 0, limx P (x) = + limx+ P (x) = .
2. an > 0. limx P (x) = limx+ P (x) = +, a < 0
P (x) > P (0) x (, a) b > 0 P (x) > P (0)
x (b, +). P [a, b], , l,
. 0 [a, b], l P (0), l P (x) x (, a)
x (b, +). l P R. ,
limx P (x) = limx+ P (x) = + P .
P l supremum +.
P [l, +).
an < 0, .
4.13 12.
. 1. 2x5 +4x4 3x3 x2 1 (, +).
2. P (x) = x4 4x3 + 4x2 7 = x2 (x 2)2 7. , P (x) 7
x 7 = P (0) = P (2). 7 P
[7, +).

139


. 5

.
4.14 , 3.5,
, ()
.
, , --. ,
f : I J I J,
f 1 : J I J I. ,
f , f 1 , ,
. , 4.14,
f f 1 .
4.14. 1. f : [a, b] R [a, b].
f [A, B], A = f (a), B = f (b). , f 1 : [A, B] [a, b]
[A, B].
2. a, b R , a < b f : (a, b) R (a, b).
f (A, B), A = limxa f (x) R, B = limxb f (x) R. ,
f 1 : (A, B) (a, b) (A, B).
3. a R , a < b f : (a, b] R (a, b].
f (A, B], A = limxa f (x) R, B = f (b). , f 1 : (A, B] (a, b]
(A, B].
4. b R , a < b f : [a, b) R [a, b).
f [A, B), A = f (a), B = limxb f (x) R. , f 1 : [A, B) [a, b)
[A, B).
1 - 4 f
. A, B . ,
1 [B, A] [A, B].
. 1. 4.12, f [A, B], A = f (a),
B = f (b), f 1 : [A, B] [a, b] [A, B]
[a, b]. f 1 [A, B].
A < < B = f 1 (), a < < b.
> 0. x1 , x2 [a, b] x1 < < x2 + .
y1 = f (x1 ), y2 = f (x2 ) [A, B], y1 < < y2 .
= min{ y1 , y2 } > 0. T y, |y | < , y1 <
y < + y2 , x1 = f 1 (y1 ) < f 1 (y) < f 1 (y2 ) = x2 + , ,
|f 1 (y) f 1 ()| = |f 1 (y) | < . f 1 .
= A, = f 1 () = a. > 0. x2 [a, b] a < x2 a + .
y2 = f (x2 ) [A, B], A < y2 . = y2 A > 0. T
y, A y < A + = y2 , a = f 1 (A) f 1 (y) < f 1 (y2 ) = x2 a + ,
, |f 1 (y) f 1 (A)| = |f 1 (y) a| < . f 1 = A.
= B, f 1 .
f 1 [A, B].
2. 3.5 inmum supremum
f A = limxa f (x) B = limxb f (x), ,
A < f (x) < B x (a, b). , 4.11, f
(A, B).
140

f 1 (A, B) , ,
1.
3. 3.5 inmum
f A = limxa f (x) A < f (x) x (a, b). B = f (b)
. , 4.11, f
(A, B].
f 1 (A, B]
1.
4. 3.
, f
.
.
f
I J (
I). , f : I J -- , f 1 : J I
J. f 1 J.
J ,
J. f 1 , ,
4.1, f 1
f 1 . , , , f 1
I. f 1 J.
. 1. f : (1, 3) R f (x) = 2x2 + 1. f
(1, 3) limx1 f (x) = 3, limx3 f (x) = 19. f
(3, 19). f 1 : (3, 19) (1, 3) (3, 19).
f 1 (3, 19),
limy3 f 1 (y) limy19 f 1 (y). (1, 3). limy3 f 1 (y) = 1
limy19 f 1 (y) = 3.

f 1 . : f 1 (y) = y1
. f 1
2
3 19.
x+1
2. f : (1, +) R f (x) = x1
. f
(1, +) limx1 f (x) = +, limx+ f (x) = 1. f (1, +).
f 1 : (1, +) (1, +) (1, +). f 1
(1, +),
limy+ f 1 (y) limy1 f 1 (y). (1, +),
limy+ f 1 (y) = 1 limy1 f 1 (y) = +.
y+1
f 1 f 1 (y) = y1
. f 1
1 +.
3. f : [1, +) R f (x) = log x1 . : f (1) = 0, limx+ f (x) = .
f [1, +), (, 0].
f 1 : (, 0] [1, +) (, 0] ,
, limy f 1 (y) = +.
f 1 f 1 (y) = ey .
f 1 .
f 1 . , f 1
4.14
f 1 .
4. f : R R f (x) = x3 + x R
141

limx f (x) = , limx+ f (x) = +. f R - , f . f 1 : R R


R. , f 1
limy f 1 (y) = limy+ f 1 (y) = +.
f 1 .
5. f : [0, +) R f (x) = xex + 1 [0, +).
f (0) = 1, limx+ f (x) = , f (, 1]
f 1 : (, 1] [0, +) (, 1]. ,
f 1 limy f 1 (y) = +.
f 1 , x xex +1 = y.
.
. 1. . exp : R R
R. limx ex = 0, limx+ ex = +,
ex (0, +). , , log : (0, +) R,
(0, +).
log y (0, +). , ,
log y 4.14. ,
limy0 log y = , limy+ log y = +. , , , 4.14. , log y
(0, +),
limy0 log y limy+ log y. log y, ex ,
R, limy0 log y = limy+ log y = +.
2. n- . n N. pn : [0, +) R
[0, +). 0n = 0, limx+ xn = +, xn [0, +)
p 1 : [0, +) [0, +) [0, +).
n

, y n [0, +), limy+ y n = +.


3. . (i) cos [0, ]. H
cos : [0, ] R [0, ]. cos 0 = 1, cos = 1,
[1, 1]. .
. cos : [0, ] [1, 1] - arccos : [1, 1] [0, ].
, x [0, ], y [1, 1], : x = arccos y cos x = y. arccos :
[1, 1] [0, ] [1, 1] [0, ].
(ii) sin [ 2 , 2 ]. H sin : [ 2 , 2 ] R
[ 2 , 2 ]. sin( 2 ) = 1, sin 2 = 1, [1, 1].
.
. sin : [ 2 , 2 ] [1, 1] - arcsin : [1, 1] [ 2 , 2 ].
, x [ 2 , 2 ], y [1, 1], : x = arcsin y sin x = y. arcsin :
[1, 1] [ 2 , 2 ] [1, 1] [ 2 , 2 ].
(iii) tan ( 2 , 2 ). H tan : ( 2 , 2 ) R
( 2 , 2 ). limx 2 + tan x = limx 2 tan x = +,
(, +). .
142

. tan : ( 2 , 2 ) (, +) -
arctan : (, +) ( 2 , 2 ).
, x ( 2 , 2 ), y (, +), : x = arctan y tan x = y.
arctan : (, +) ( 2 , 2 ) (, +)
( 2 , 2 ).
, ,
limy arctan y = 2 ,

limy+ arctan y =

(iv) , cot (0, ). H cot : (0, ) R


(0, ). limx0+ cot x = + limx cot x = ,
(, +). .
. cot : (0, ) (, +) -
arccot : (, +) (0, ).
, x (0, ), y (, +), : x = arccot y cot x = y.
arccot : (, +) (0, ) (, +)
(0, ).
,
limy arccot y = ,
limy+ arccot y = 0.
4. .
. .
x
x
.
- cosh : R R cosh x = e +e
2
ex ex
- sinh : R R sinh x = 2 .
x
x
- tanh : R R tanh x = eex e
.
+ex
- coth : R \ {0} R coth x =

ex +ex
ex ex

:
(cosh x)2 (sinh x)2 = 1,

tanh x =

cosh(x0 + x00 ) = cosh x0 cosh x00 + sinh x0 sinh x00 ,

sinh x
cosh x

coth x =

cosh x
sinh x

sinh(x0 + x00 ) = cosh x0 sinh x00 + sinh x0 cosh x00 .

.
:
ex = cosh x sinh x

ex = cosh x + sinh x,

eix = cos x i sin x

eix = cos x + i sin x,

.
(i) cosh [0, +). cosh 0 = 1
limx+ cosh x = +, cosh [0, +) [1, +).
cosh , (, 0]
[1, +). , cosh -- R. ,
cosh [0, +).
143

. cosh : [0, +) [1, +) - arccosh : [1, +) [0, +).


arccosh : [1, +) [0, +) [1, +)

[0, +). arccosh y = log(y + y 2 1).
(ii) sinh (, +). , limx sinh x =
limx+ sinh x = +, sinh (, +).
.
. sinh : (, +) (, +) -- arcsinh : (, +) (, +).
arcsinh : (, +) (, +) (,
+)
(, +) arcsinh y = log(y + y 2 + 1).
(iii) tanh (, +).
limx tanh x = 1 limx+ tanh x = 1, tanh
(1, 1). .
. tanh : (, +) (1, 1) - arctanh : (1, 1) (, +).
arctanh : (1, 1) (, +)
(1, 1)
1+y
(, +). arctanh y = 21 log 1y = log 1+y
.
1y
(iv) coth (0, +). limx0+ coth x = + limx+ coth x =
1, coth (0, +) (1, +). coth
, (, 0) (, 1).
coth (, 0) (0, +) --
(, 1) (1, +). .
. coth : (, 0)(0, +) (, 1)(1, +)
-- arccoth : (, 1) (1, +) (, 0)
(0, +).
arccoth : (, 1) (1, +) (, 0) (0, +)
(, 1) (1, +) (, 0)
(0, +). : arccoth (, 1) (1, +)
(, 1) (1, +).
arccoth y = 21 log y+1
= log
y1

y+1
y1

y+1
|
(v) arctanh arccoth x = 21 log | y1
(, 1) (1, 1) (1, +) (, +).

.
1. 2x3 +x2 5x+6, x4 2x2 +7, x6 3x4 +3x2 1 ;
2. sin x cos(5x) [ 4 , 2 ], x +
(, 1], [1, 0), (0, 1], [1, +) ex + x 1+e1 2x R.
2
3. x3 + x1
+
c.

144

1
x2

5
x3

1
x

= c ;

4. x2 + 2x [0, 1], x1 (0, 1] x21+1 [0, +).


. ; ,
.
5. P (x) = a0 + a1 x + + an xn . a0 an < 0,
> 0 P () = 0.
6. 0, 12 ,

2
2

3
2

1.

7. [] arctan y + arccot y = 2 y arccos y + arcsin y = 2 y [1, 1].


[] y y = cos(arccos y) y = sin(arcsin y); y
y = tan(arctan y) y = cot(arccot y);
[] arccos(cos x) = x x [0, ]. ,
arccos(cos x), x [k, (k + 1)] k Z;
arcsin(sin x), arctan(tan x)
arccot (cot x);
8. y+1
x = 12 log | y1
|.
9. f : (0, +) (, +) f (x) = 12 (x x1 ).
[] f (, +)
f 1 : (, +) (0, +).
[] f 1 (y) f 11(y) = 2y y (, +).
[] h (, +), ,
1
h(y) h(y)
= 2y y (, +), h = f 1 .
[] .
10. f1 : (0, 1] R, f2 : [1, +) R f1 (x) = f2 (x) = 12 (x + x1 ).
[] f1 f2
. , ,
f1 1 , f2 1 ;
1
[] , g f1 1 , f2 1 , g(y) + g(y)
= 2y
y .
1
= 2y
[] g : [1, +) R [1, +) g(y) + g(y)
1
1
y [1, +). g = f1 g = f2 .
[] .
11. f1 : (, 1] R, f2 : [1, 1] R, f3 : [1, +) R
f1 (x) = f2 (x) = f3 (x) = x3 3x.
[] f1 , f3 f2
. , ,
f1 1 , f2 1 , f3 1 ;
[] , g f1 1 , f2 1 , f3 1 , g(y)3
3g(y) = y y .
[] I g : I R I g(y)3 3g(y) = y
y I. I = [2, +), g = f3 1 . I = (, 2],
145

g = f1 1 . , , I = [2, 2], g = f1 1 g = f2 1 g = f3 1 .
[] .
12. a, b R , a < b f : (a, b) R (a, b).
limxa f (x) = limxb f (x) = . 6 4.4, f
(a, b). u f ,
f (, u].
limxa f (x) = limxb f (x) = +;
13. a, b R , a < b f : (a, b) R (a, b).
A = limxa f (x) R, B = limxb f (x) R A < B.
[] A < f (x) < B x (a, b), f
(A, B).
[] f (x) < B x (a, b) x0 (a, b) f (x0 ) A,
f (a, b). l ,
f [l, B).
[] A < f (x) x (a, b) x0 (a, b) B f (x0 ),
f (a, b). u ,
f (A, u].
[] x0 0 , x0 00 (a, b) f (x0 0 ) A B f (x0 00 ), f
(a, b). l u ,
f [l, u].
[] A > B A = B;
(a, b] [a, b) (a, b);

4.6 .
f : A R. f A. f
> 0 0 > 0 |f (x)f ()| <
x A, |x | < 0 . 0
. : 0 = 0 (, ). : (i) ,
f , ,
, , 0 , (ii) ,
0 .
0 .
. f : (0, +) R f (x) = x1 .
f (0, +). , (0, +)
> 0 0 > 0 | x1 1 | < x > 0, |x | < 0 .
0 .
- - , > 0,
0 > 0 (0, +) | x1 1 | < x > 0, |x | < 0 . ,
(0, +), x = + 20 x > 0, |x | < 0 , ,
0
| x1 1 | < . , , (2+
< .
0 )
0
: (0, +) (2+
< 0 , .
0 )
0
0
= +.
!! 0, (2+0 ) : , lim0+ (2+
0 )
0
, (2+0 ) < (0, +).
146

, ,
f : A R A , , 0
. :
> 0 0 > 0 A |f (x) f ()| < x A,
|x | < 0 . , 0 :
> 0 0 > 0 |f (x) f ()| <
, 0 , A x A, |x | < 0 .
: > 0 0 > 0 |f (x) f ()| <
x, A, |x | < 0 . , x,
, .
. f : A R. f A > 0
0 > 0 |f (x0 ) f (x00 )| < x0 , x00 A, |x0 x00 | < 0 .
, f : A R A,
A. , .
. 1. f : (0, +) R f (x) = x1 (0, +)
(0, +).
2. f : R R f (x) = 3x 2. > 0. |f (x0 ) f (x00 )| <
|(3x0 2) (3x00 2)| < 3|x0 x00 | < |x0 x00 | < 3 .
: (|f (x0 )f (x00 )| < ) (|(3x0 2)(3x00 2)| < ) (3|x0 x00 | < ) (|x0 x00 | < 3 ).
0 < 0 3 . , x0 , x00 R, |x0 x00 | < 0 |x0 x00 | < 3 , ,
|f (x0 ) f (x00 )| < . f R. : (|x0 x00 | < 0 )
(|x0 x00 | < 3 ) (3|x0 x00 | < ) (|(3x0 2) (3x00 2)| < ) (|f (x0 ) f (x00 )| < ).
4.2. f : [a, b] R [a, b]. f [a, b].
. f [a, b]. 0 > 0
> 0 x0 , x00 [a, b], |x0 x00 | < |f (x0 ) f (x00 )| 0 .
n N xn 0 , xn 00 [a, b] |xn 0 xn 00 | < n1 |f (xn 0 ) f (xn 00 )| 0 .
(xn 0 ) , , Bolzano - Weierstrass,
(xnk 0 ) . xnk 0 .
a xnk 0 b k N, a b. |xnk 0 xnk 00 | < n1k k1
k N, xnk 0 xnk 00 0. xnk 0 xnk 00 .
[a, b], f . xnk 0 xnk 00
f (xnk 0 ) f () f (xnk 00 ) f (). , f (xnk 0 ) f (xnk 00 ) 0. , ,
|f (xnk 0 ) f (xnk 00 )| 0 k N.
4.2 6
. 4.2, -
- 21 5.5. ,
3, 7, 9, 11, 12 14.
.
{
0, x [0, 1)
1. f (x) =

1, x (1, 2]
[0, 1) (1, 2].

147

2. [] x, |x|, x2 + 1 R, x
[0, +) x2 R.
[] f (x) = x sin(log(x + 1)) -
[0, +) limx+ f (x).
[] sin(x2 ) [0, +)
[0, +).
3. f : A R > 0, M 0 |f (x0 ) f (x00 )| M |x0 x00 |
x0 , x00 A. f A.
. f , Hlder A
Hlder . , = 1, f Lipschitz A.
13 4.1. , ,
15[] 5.6.
4. A B, f : B R. f B,
A.
5. f : A B, g : B R. f A g
B, g f : A R A.
6. f, g : A R A.
[] f + g : A R A.
[] , , f, g , f g : A R
A.
[] A f, g : A R A f g
A.
7. a < b < c, f : (a, c) R. f (a, b] [b, c),
(a, c).

8. f : [0, 1] R [0, 1]. n1 nk=1 (1)k f ( nk ) 0.


9. f : A R. f A
(xn 0 ), (xn 00 ) A xn 0 xn 00 0 f (xn 0 )f (xn 00 ) 0.
10. [] f : A R A. (xn ) A Cauchy,
(f (xn )) Cauchy.
[] x2 [];
11. .
b R {+} f : [a, b) R [a, b).
[] , limxb f (x) , f
[a, b).
: limxb f (x) = . > 0. c (a, b) |f (x) | < 2
x [c, b). f [a, c] 0 > 0
2 [a, c].
|f (x0 ) f (x00 )| < x0 , x00 [a, b), |x0 x00 | < 0 .
x0 , x00 [a, c] [c, b).
[] , , , b R f [a, b),
limxb f (x) .
148

: 3.4 10.
[] , , , b R, f [a, b)
g : [a, b] R [a, b] g(x) = f (x) x [a, b).
: g : [a, b] R [a, b] g = f [a, b).
4, g , , f [a, b). ,
f [a, b). [] limxb f (x)
. g = f [a, b) g(b) = limxb f (x) g
[a, b].
[] (a, b] (a, b) [a, b).
12. f : R R R . > 0
f (x + ) = f (x) x. f R.
: f [0, 2 ]. > 0. 0 > 0
[0, 2 ].
x0 , x00 , |x0 x00 | < 0 t0 , t00 [0, 2 ] |t0 t00 | < 0 f (x0 ) = f (t0 ),
f (x00 ) = f (t00 ).
13. , .
f : [a, b] R [a, b] f (a) < < f (b). k N
0 > 0 = k1 .
[a, b] a = x0 < x1 < . . . < xn1 < xn = b
< 0 . nk 1, . . . , n 1 f (xnk ) .
f (xnk ) < f (xnk +1 ). |f (xnk ) | < k1 , , f (xnk ) .
Bolzano - Weierstrass (xnk ) [a, b]
f () = .
14. 18 3.1.
, , A f : A R
A. 4.2, f
A.
15. [] f : [0, +) R [0, +).
a, b 0 |f (x)| ax + b x R.
: 0 > 0 = 1
. x [0, +) n = [ x0 ], |f (x)| < |f (n0 )| +
1 n + |f (0)| + 1 10 x + |f (0)| + 1.
16. f : [0, +) R [0, +).
[] f (x + n) 0 x 0, limx+ f (x) = 0.

[] f ( n) 0, limx+ f (x) = 0.
17. A f : A R A. f
.
: 0 > 0 = 1
. x1 , . . . , xn A : x A
k {1, . . . , n} |x xk | < 0 . M = max{|f (x1 )|, . . . , |f (xn )|}
|f (x)| M + 1 x A.
18. . f : R R R
> 0 L > 0 L a
149

|f (a + x) f (x)| < x.
[] , R,
.
[] .
[] , f, g : R R , f + g, f g
.
[] a , sin x + sin(ax)
.

150

5
.
5.1

5.1.1

. f : A R, A. g : A \ {} R
()
g(x) = f (x)f
. A, > 0
x
x A, 0 < |x | < . , , x 6= ,
> 0 x A \ {}, 0 < |x | < . A \ {}.
()
.
limx g(x), limx f (x)f
x
0
, , f f ().
, f 0 () R. f 0 () R,
f .
. f 0 () , f 0 ()
R. , , f 0 () = ( ) f 0 ()
, f 0 () = R.
df
dy
f 0 () Dx f (), dx
() dx
().
y = f (x) x
y. , ,
df
dy
x, , Dx f (x), dx
(x) dx
(x),
df
dy
Dx f , dx dx , x
.
x
1
. 1. ddx
(1) = limx1 xx1
= limx1 (x+1) = 2. x2
1.

3
3
0
1
3
2. d dxx (0) = limx0 x
= limx0
x 0
3 2 = +.
x0
x
0.
2

()
()
limx f (x)f
limh0 f (+h)f
, x
h
x h = x .
()

limx f (x)f
x
0. , f ,
0 00 .

. f : A R, A. A
()
, () f
limx f (x)f
x
151

f0 ().
()
, A limx+ f (x)f
,
x
0
() f f+ ().
df
dy
Dx f (), dx
() dx
()
.
. (i)
A. f 0 () f0 (), f+0 ()
, , f 0 () = f0 () = f+0 (). (ii)
A. f 0 () f0 ()
, , f 0 () = f0 (). (iii)
A. f 0 () f+0 () ,
, f 0 () = f+0 ().
d |x|
d |x|
. 1. dx+
(0) = limx0+ |x||0|
= limx0+ xx = 1 dx
(0) = limx0 |x||0|
=
x0
x0
x
limx0 x = 1. |x| 0.


d |x|
|x| |0|
|x| |0|
d |x|
1

2. dx+ (0) = limx0+


= limx0+ x = + dx (0) = limx0
=
x0
x0

1
limx0 = , , |x| 0.
|x|

x > 0
x,

x0
3. f (x) = 0 ,
x = 0 f+0 (0) = limx0+ x0 = limx0+ 1x =


x , x < 0

x0
1
+. , f0 (0) = limx0 x0
= limx0 x
= +. f 0
0
0
0
f (0) = f+ (0) = f (0) = +.
{
x sin x1 , x 6= 0
x sin x1 0
, f+0 (0) = limx0+ x0
= limx0+ sin x1
4. f (x) =
0,
x = 0
x sin

x
. f0 (0) = limx0 x0
= limx0 sin x1 , , . f
0.

0
5. x [0, +). ddxx (0) = ddx+x (0) = limx0+ x
= limx0+ 1x = +.
x0

. f : A R B A. B f 0 (), f
B. B f 0 () , f
B.
. f : A R. B = { A | f 0 () R},
f .
f B f 0 : B R.
5.1.2


.
.
. f : A R. = {(x, f (x)) | x A}
f .

152

A, (, f ()) , = {(x, f (x)) | x A, x }


+ = {(x, f (x)) | x A, x }. f
(, f ()) (, f ()) +
f (, f ()) (, f ()).
A f
, , x ,
(x, f (x)) (, f ()). x A, x >
lx,+ (, f ()), (x, f (x)).
(, f ()) ,
()
. .
(, f ()) f (x)f
x
()
(i) f+0 () = limx+ f (x)f
, l+ ,
x
0
(, f ()), f+ () (, f ()). K x
, lx,+
l+ , , lx,+
l+ .
l+ + f . ,
, (x, f (x)) l+
(, f ()) 0 . ,
, x ,
1

(
) 1 (
()
() 2 ) 2
f (x)f
f+0 () 1 + (f+ ())2 2 1 + ( f (x)f
)
,
x
x
(
)
1
|f+0 () f+0 ()| 1 + (f+ ())2
= 0.
()
= +, l+ ,
(ii) f+0 () = limx+ f (x)f
x
(, f ()) (, f ()). K x
, lx,+
, lx,+ l+ , lx,+
l+ .
l+ + . , (x, f (x))
l+ (, f ()) 0 .
, , x ,
1
(
(
) 1
() 2 ) 2
0
2 2
1 + ( f (x)f
)
,

1
+
(f
())
= 0.
+
x
()
(iii) f+0 () = limx+ f (x)f
= , l+ ,
x
(, f ()) (, f ()). K x
, lx,+
, , lx,+ l+ , lx,+
l+ .
l+ + . , (x, f (x))
l+ (, f ()) 0 .
(ii).
()
,
, (i) - (iii) limx+ f (x)f
x
+ .
.
A f
. x A, x < lx,
(, f ()), (x, f (x)),
f (x)f ()
. .
x

(i) f0 () = limx

f (x)f ()
x

, l ,
153

(, f ()), f0 () (, f ()). K x
, lx,
l , , lx,
l .
l f . ,
(x, f (x)) l (, f ())
0 .
(i)
.
()
(ii) f0 () = limx f (x)f
= +, l ,
x
(, f ()) (, f ()). K x
, lx,
, , lx, l , lx,
l .
l . , (x, f (x))
l (, f ()) 0
. (ii).
()
(iii) f0 () = limx f (x)f
= , l ,
x
(, f ()) (, f ()). K x
, lx, , ,
lx, l , lx, l .
H l . , (x, f (x))
l (, f ()) 0
. (iii).
()
, (i) - (iii), limx f (x)f
,
x
.
, , A
f . , ,
, l l+
+ , , , l
f (, f ()).
, , ,
. , ,
, , .
. 1. |x|
d |x|
(0, 0). (0, 0), dx+
(0) = 1 (0, 0).
d |x|
(0, 0), dx (0) = 1 (0, 0).
, f (0, 0).

|x| (0, 0).


2.

d x
dx+ (0) = +, (0, 0) (0, 0).
d |x|
(0) = , (0, 0)
, dx
(0, 0). ,
f (0, 0). , ,
(0, 0).
{
x,
0 x
3. f (x) =

x , x 0
154

(0, 0). f+0 (0) = +, (0, 0)


(0, 0). , f0 (0) = +, (0, 0)
(0, 0).
(0, 0), , , x = 0.

A f , , ,
(, f ()).

d x
(0, 0). dx+ (0) = +, (0, 0)
(0, 0).
f : A R A
f - , 5.3,
. , l
(, f ()) f 0 (),

y = f 0 ()(x ) + f ().
, f f 0 () = + f 0 () = ,
(, f ()) x = .
. 1. x2
2 2
x2
(, 2 ) y = 2(x ) + 2 . , ddx
() = limx xx
= limx (x + ) = 2.
1

2. > 0, x 3
(, 3 ) y = 13 3 (x ) + 3 .
1

dx3
dx

() = limx

x 3 3
x

= limx

1
2
1 1
2
x 3 +x 3 3 + 3

= 31 3 .
2

(, 3 )
2
y = x, , 13 3 = 1, = 127 .
5.1.3

, .

dy
dx
. x = x
y = y = f (x) f ()
()
, f (x)f

x
y
x

f (x)f ()
x

y
f 0 (), x
0 x 6= .

. , ,
- -
- ().
x
0
dx

155

, f , y = f (x)f ()
y
dy
dy. , x
dx
.
, - ,
dy

dx
0 . , ,
dy

dx
.
y
dy
, , x
, f 0 () = dx
,
0
f () R f . x y
dx dy. , ,
x y 0. ,
dx dy, dx = dy = 0. ,
dy
dy
dx
= f 0 () , dx
= 00 . , dy = f 0 ()dx ,
0 = f 0 ()0, 0 = 0, . 0 = f 0 ()0
f 0 (), 00
, . , ,
dy = f 0 ()dx , , 0 = f 0 ()0. , dx dy
, , ,
: dx x dy
y.
dy = f 0 ()dx: y f 0 () x.
: dy f 0 ()
dx y f 0 () x , ,
y
y x f 0 (). ,
x
y
limx x
= f 0 (). :
dy = f 0 ()dx x y ,
dy
0 = 0, dx
= f 0 (),
y
limx x
= f 0 ().

dy =

dy
dx
dx


dy
dx

= f 0 (),

dy = f 0 ()dx.

x,
f (x),
0

dy
dx

= f 0 (x),

dy = f 0 (x)dx.

x y, y = f (x)
.
. l(x) = x .
l(x) = x + .
13 4.2
.

- (0, 0). , ,
156

- .
,
.
. f : A R A A.
()l(x)
l limx f (x)fx
= 0, l f .
5.1. f : A R A A. f
f . , f , ,

f (, f ()).
. f . limx
limx

f (x)f ()f 0 ()(x)


x

f (x)f ()
x

= f 0 () f 0 () R,

= 0.

()l(x)
= f (), l(x) = f 0 ()x, limx f (x)fx
= 0 , ,
l f .
, l(x) = x f ,
()
limx f (x)f ()(x)
= 0. limx f (x)f
= . f
x
x
0
0
f () = , l l(x) = f ()x.
f .

f f 0 ()x ,
, (0, 0). = f 0 ()
= f () f 0 (), f 0 ()x + f () f 0 () = f 0 ()(x ) + f ()
(, f ()).
f (, f ()).
x = x y = y f (),
x x y y.
(0, 0) (, f ())
x- y- x-
y-. y1 = f (x) f y1 = f (x) f () =
f ( +x)f () y2 = f 0 ()(x)+f ()
y2 = y2 f () = f 0 ()(x ) = f 0 ()x.
y1 = f ( + x) f () y2 = f 0 ()x.
, ,
.
5.9.2.
.

1. f (x) = 2, f (x) = 3x2 5x + 3, f (x) = 5 |x| , f (x) = x3


,
x+2
{
{
{
0, x 6= 0
2x ,
x 0
2x2 ,
x 0
f (x) =
f (x) =
f (x) =
f (x) =
2
1, x = 0
3x , x 0
3x , x 0
{
{
{
|x|
x
,

0
x , x 0
2
,

x
=
6
0
x
, f (x) =
f
(x)
=
3
1, x < 0
x,
x 0
0,
x = 0
, f 0 (0), f+0 (0) , f0 (0) .
2. a > 1, M 0 |f (x)| M |x |a x ( , + ). f
.
157

x 0
a, b
x > 0
{
2x2 + x + 1, x < 0
f 0 (0). f (x) =
ax + b,
x 0

3. f (x) =

2x2 + x + 1,
ax + b,

4. .
0
0
g : (a, ] R, h : [, b)
{ R g() = h() g () = h ()
g(x) , a < x
f : (a, b) R f (x) =
f 0 () = g 0 () = h0 ().
h(x) , x < b
{
x sin x1 , x 6= 0
5. [] f (x) =

0,
x = 0
f , 0, 0.
f lx,+
(0, 0) (x, f (x)) x 0+ .
lx,+ (0, 0);
lx, (0, 0)
(x, f (x)) x 0 .
{
x2 sin x1 , x 6= 0
[] f (x) =
f
0,
x = 0
0 f 0 (0) = 0. [], lx,+ lx,
(0, 0) (x, f (x))
x 0+ x 0 , .
(

)2
6. [x], x [x], x [x] 12 , x [x] 12

[x] + x [x] ;
{
1
x2 (1)[ |x| ]1 , x 6= 0
7. [] f (x) =
f 0 (0) = 0. 0,
x = 0
f . f
0.
{
x2 ,
x Q
[] f (x) =
f 0 (0) = 0. f
2
x , x
/Q
x 6= 0. f ;
8.
.
Caratheodory . f : A R A
A. f g : A R
f (x) f () = g(x)(x ) x A.
f
Caratheodory.
:{ f ,
f (x)f ()
, x A, x 6=
x
g(x) =
0
f (),
x =

158

9. f, g : A R A A. f , g
()g(x)
, limx f (x)g()f
.
x
10.
.

.
f : A R, A A, f
(xn 0 ), (xn 00 ) A xn 0 , xn 00 .
0
(xn 00 )
f 0 ().
[] xn 0 < < xn 00 n N, f (xxnn)f
0 x 00
n
0

00

f (xn )f (xn )

[] M | xnx0nx
f 0 ().
00 | M n N,
xn 0 xn 00
{ n
x2 sin x1 , x =
6 0
1
1
00
[] f (x) =
xn 0 = 2n+
= 2n+
, xn
3
2
2
0,
x = 0
0

(xn
n N. f 0 xn 0 0, xn 00 0 f (xxnn)f
0 x 00
n
20 5.5.

11.
[]
[]

00 )

6 f 0 (0).

f : R R k N.
(
)
n f ( + n1 ) + f ( + n2 ) + + f ( + nk ) kf () k(k+1)
f 0 ().
2
)
(
f ( + n12 ) + f ( + n22 ) + + f ( + nn2 ) nf () 12 f 0 ().

(x)
12. f : R R 0 0 < < 1 limx0 f (x)f
= b R.
x
b
f 0 (0) = 1
.


(x)
b
: > 0. 0 > 0 f (x)f

< 2
1
f (k1 x)fxx

k x)
(
b
x, 0 < |x| < 0 . 0 < |x| < 0 . k1 xk x 1 < 2


(n x)
b
k N. 7 1.1 f (x)f

< 2
n
f (x)f (0)x x b 1

1 2 < . ,
n N. f 0,
x

limx0

5.2

f (x)f (0)
x

b
1

, .

f : A R, g : B R ,
f = g, A = B f (x) = g(x) x A = B.
cc
1. c ddxc () = limx x
= limx 0 = 0 .
, 0 :
dc
dx

2. x
1 :

dx
()
dx

= 0.

= limx
dx
dx

x
x

= 1. ,

= 1.

3. , a Q, a 6= 1,
d xa
dx

= axa1 ,

a Q, a 6= 1.

159

x
: ddx
= axa1 a = 1.
dx
= x0 . 1
dx
R x0 R \ {0}.
.
, , a N, a 2. a 1 N, xa xa1
R. , ,
d xa
()
dx

= limx

xa a
x

= limx (xa1 + xa2 + + x a2 + a1 ) = a a1 .


a

x
xa , ddx
R.
d xa
a1
a1
dx ax
R a

, .
a = 0, x0 x1 R \ {0}. 6= 0,
d x0
()
dx

= limx

x0 0
x

= limx

11
x

= limx 0 = 0.

x
R \ {0}, 0x1
ddx
0 6= 0, .
, a Z, a 1. xa xa1 R \ {0}.
b = a N , 6= 0,
0

d xa
()
dx

xb b
x

= limx

xa a
x

= limx

xb1 +xb2 ++x b2 + b1


xb b

= limx

= limx
=

b b1
2b

xb b
xb b (x)

= b b1 = a a1 .

x
R \ {0},
ddx
a1
ax
a a1 6= 0 , , .
a .
xa [0, +), a > 0, (0, +), a < 0.
, , 0 < a < 1, xa [0, +) xa1
(0, +).
a 0a
d xa
1
(0) = limx0 xx0
= limx0 x1a
= +,
dx

xa 0. , a = m
m,
n N m < n.
n

n
> 0

y
=
x . xa = y m

= n , a = m .
d xa
()
dx

= limx
=

m m1
n n1

xa a
x

m1
m2 ++y m2 + m1
y m m
= limy yyn1+y
y n n
+y n2 ++y n2 + n1
( )mn
m n
= a a1 .

= limy

m mn

x
ddx
axa1 (0, +) a a1
> 0 , , .
a > 1, xa xa1 [0, +).
d xa
(0)
dx

= limx0

xa 0a
x0

= limx0 xa1 = 0,

xa 0. , a = m
m, n N m > n.
n
xa
> 0 , , ddx
() = a a1 .
d xa
dx axa1 [0, +) a a1
0, .
160

, a < 0, xa xa1 (0, +). , a = m


n
m Z, n N m < 0.
k
=
m

N.

>
0

x y = n x . xa = y m = y k = n ,
a = m = k .
d xa
()
dx

y k k
y n n

= limx

xa a
x

= limy

y k1 +y k2 ++y k2 + k1
y k k (y n1 +y n2 ++y n2 + n1 )

k k1
2k n n1

= limy

= nk kn =

= limy

m mn

m
n

y k k
y k k (y n n )

(
)mn
n

= a a1 .

x
axa1 (0, +) a a1
ddx
> 0 , , .
a
dx
= axa1 (i) x R, a N, a 2, (ii) x R \ {0}, a Z,
dx
a 0, (iii) x [0, +), a Q \ Z, a > 1, (iv) x (0, +), a Q \ Z, a < 1.
4. sin x, cos x.

sin x

cos x
2
cos0 = d dx
() = limx cos xcos
=

lim
sin x+
= sin
x
x
x
2
2

sin0 =

d sin x
()
dx

= limx

sin xsin
x

= limx

x
2
x
2

sin

cos x+
= cos
2

.
cos0 x =

d cos x
dx

= sin x,

sin0 x =

d sin x
dx

= cos x.

.
1. , , x5 + 3x2 4,
(sin x)2 , (cos x)3 , sin(2x), cos(7x).

x+1
x1

2. []
.
[]
.
[]
.
[], [], [];

5.3

5.2. f, g : A R A A. , , f () = g()
f, g . f 0 (), g 0 (),
f 0 () = g 0 ().
. f, g ,
()
limx f (x)f
x

f (x)f ()
x

g(x)g()
x

limx g(x)g()
.
x

5.2, f, g
, .

. , , .
161

|x|
x

, x 6= 0
1
0,
x = 0
(0, +). f 0 () = 0 (0, +). , f 1
(, 0). f 0 () = 0 (, 0).

d |x|
2. |x| [0, +) x . dx () = ddxx () = 21

d |x|
(0, +) dx+ (0) = ddxx (0) = +.
. 1. f (x) =

5.3. f : A R A A. f
, f 0 () R, f .
()
. f (x) = f (x)f
(x ) + f () x A, x 6= ,
x
0
limx f (x) = f ()0 + f () = f ().

. 1. |x| 0 0.
5.3 .
2. 5.3 {f 0 () R. f 0 () = , f
|x|
, x 6= 0

. f (x) = x
0,
x = 0
10
0. , f+0 (0) = limx0+ x0
= + f0 (0) = limx0 10
= +, f 0 (0) = +.
x0
5.4. f, g : A R A A. f, g
, f + g, f g, f g : A R . , ,
g(x) 6= 0 x A, fg : A R .
: (f g)0 () = f 0 () g 0 (), (f g)0 () = f 0 ()g() + f ()g 0 (), ( fg )0 () =

f 0 ()g()f ()g 0 ()
(g())2

. f + g
(f + g)0 () = limx

(f (x)+g(x))(f ()+g())
x

= limx

( f (x)f ()
x

g(x)g() )
x

= f 0 () + g 0 ().

f g.
f g :
(f g)0 () = limx
,
( f )0
g

f
g

f (x)g(x)f ()g()
x

)
g(x) + f () g(x)g()
= f 0 ()g() + f ()g 0 ().
x

() = limx
=

( f (x)f ()

= limx

f (x)
f ()
g()
g(x)

f 0 ()g()f ()g 0 ()
(g())2

= limx

( f (x)f ()
x

1
g(x)

f () g(x)g() )
g()g(x)
x

1
= f 0 () g()

f ()
g 0 ()
(g())2

y1 = f (x) y2 = g(x), :
d(y1 y2 )
dx

dy1
dx

dy2
dx

d(y1 y2 )
dx

dy1
y
dx 2

2
+ y1 dy
,
dx

d(y1 /y2 )
dx

dy1
dy
y y1 dx2
dx 2
y2 2

dx
d(y1 y2 ) = dy1 dy2 ,

d(y1 y2 ) = y2 dy1 + y1 dy2 ,


162

d( yy21 ) =

1
dy1
y2

y1
dy2
y2 2

. 1. f : A R A A. f
c R, cf : A R
(cf )0 () = cf 0 (). , c , (cf )0 () =
c0 ()f () + c()f 0 () = 0f () + cf 0 () = cf 0 ().
2. P (x) = a0 + a1 x + + an xn . P 0 (x) = a1 + 2a2 x + + nan xn1
x. n 1
n 1.
P (x)
3. R(x) = Q(x)
. , x R,
0

(x)Q (x)
x Q(x) 6= 0, R0 (x) = P (x)Q(x)P
.
(Q(x))2
.
0
xsin x cos0 x
4. tan0 x = sin x cos(cos
= (cos1x)2 x 6= 2 + k k Z.
x)2

, cot0 x =

cos0 x sin xcos x sin0 x


(sin x)2

tan0 x =

d tan x
dx

= (sin1x)2 x 6= k k Z.

1
(cos x)2

cot0 x =

d cot x
dx

= (sin1x)2 .

.
.
. f : A B, g : B R, A A
= f () B B. f g
, g f : A R
(g f )0 () = g 0 ()f 0 () = g 0 (f ())f 0 ().
{
. G : B R G(y) =

g(y)g()
y
0

g () ,

y B, y 6=
y =

limy G(y) = limy g(y)g()


= g 0 () = G().
y
f , , G f : A R
. limx G(f (x)) = G(f ()) = G() = g 0 ().
, g(y) g() = G(y)(y ) y B. , y B, y 6= ,
G(y) , y = ,
0.
,
(g f )0 () = limx

(gf )(x)(gf )()


x

= limx G(f (x)) limx

= limx

g(f (x))g(f ())


x

f (x)f ()
x

= g 0 ()f 0 ().

= limx

G(f (x))(f (x)f ())


x

dz
y = f (x) z = g(y), : dy
= g 0 ()
dy
dz
= f 0 (). , z = g(y) = g(f (x)) = (g f )(x), dx
= (g f )0 (). ,
dx
0
0
0
(g f ) () = g ()f () , ,
dz
dx

dz dy
dy dx


dz
dx, dz = dy
dy.
163

dz
dx

dz dy
dy dx

. ,

. 1. h(x) = sin(x2 + 3). h0 (2).


f (x) = x2 +3 g(y) = sin y. h = gf , , h0 (2) = g 0 (f (2))f 0 (2) =
g 0 (7)f 0 (2) = 4 cos 7.
: h0 (x) = g 0 (f (x))f 0 (x) = cos(f (x))f 0 (x) = 2x cos(x2 + 3) x.
: y = x2 + 3 z = sin(x2 + 3) = sin y
dz dy
dz
= dy
= cos y 2x = 2x cos(x2 + 3).
dx
dx
2. h(x) = (sin x)n , n N, n 2. f (x) = sin x
g(y) = y n . h = g f , h0 (x) = g 0 (f (x))f 0 (x) = n(sin x)n1 cos x x.
dz
dz dy
, y = sin x z = (sin x)n = y n dx
= dy
=
dx
n1
n1
ny
cos x = n(sin x)
cos x.
. f
-- . f --, ,
x 6= , f (x) 6= f (),
(gf )(x)(gf )()
x

g(f (x))g(f ()) f (x)f ()


f (x)f ()
x

g(y)g() f (x)f ()
y
x

, f , limx f (x) = , ,
x y = f (x),
(g f )0 () = limx

(gf )(x)(gf )()


x

= limy

g(y)g()
y

limx

f (x)f ()
x

= g 0 ()f 0 ().

, y = f (x) z = g(y)
g(y)g() f (x)f ()
y
x

(gf )(x)(gf )()


x

z
x

z y
y x

dz
dz dy
, , dx
= dy
.
dx

x, y z
. , ,
, f --, y = y = f (x) f ()
0 x = x 0.
f : A R A A. f
()
A f 0 (). f , f (x)f
0 x A,
x
()
x 6= , , f 0 () = limx f (x)f
0.
x
, f A f 0 (), f 0 () 0.
A (, ] A [, +),
f0 () f+0 ().
.

. I, I, f : I R
I = f (). f , J, ,
, J f 1 : J I
J. f 0 (), (f 1 )0 () (i) (f 1 )0 () = f 01() , 0 < f 0 () < +,
(ii) (f 1 )0 () = 0 , f 0 () = +, (iii) (f 1 )0 () = + , f 0 () = 0.
f , < 0 > 0 +.

164

. f 0 () R, f 0 () > 0. f 1 , limy f 1 (y) = ,


, y x = f 1 (y),
(f 1 )0 () = limy

f 1 (y)f 1 ()
y

= limx

x
f (x)f ()

= limx

1
f (x)f ()
x

1
f 0 ()

1
f 0 () = +, +
= 0, (f 1 )0 () = 0.
()
, f 0 () = 0, , f (x)f
> 0 x I, x 6= ,
x
1 0
+, (f ) () = +.

15 .
(f 1 )0 () = f 01() .
dy
y = f (x) x = f 1 (y). dx
= f 0 () dx
= (f 1 )0 (). ,
dy
(f 1 )0 () =

1
f 0 ()

dy
= 1/( dx
).

dx
dy


y
x
= 1/( x
), .
y
dy
, , dx
= 1/( dx
).
dy
. 1. sin : [ 2 , 2 ] [1, 1] [ 2 , 2 ]
[1, 1]. arcsin : [1, 1] [ 2 , 2 ]
[1, 1] [ 2 , 2 ].
arcsin y.
[ 2 , 2 ], [1, 1], = sin , = arcsin .

1 2 > 0, arcsin0 = sin10 = cos1 = 1 2 = 1 2 .


1(sin )
1

2
cos = 1 (sin ) +
cos 0 [ 2 , 2 ].
1 , 1 < < 1

0
0
1 2
2

1 = 0, arcsin = +. arcsin =

+,
= 1
arcsin0 y (1, 1)
arcsin0 y =

d arcsin y
dy

= 1

1y 2

y (1, 1).

, y = sin x x = arcsin y,
1
cos x

1 2
1(sin x)

1
1y 2

d arcsin y
dy

dx
dy

1
dy
dx

2. cos : [0, ] [1, 1] [0, ] [1, 1]


arccos : [1, 1] [0, ],
[1, 1] [0, ].

1 , 1 < < 1
1 2

, arccos0 =
,
= 1
arccos0 y (1, 1)
arccos0 y =

d arccos y
dy

= 1

1y 2

165

y (1, 1).

, y = cos x x = arccos y,
1
sin x

d arccos y
dy

dx
dy

1
= 1 2 .
1(cos x)2
1y

( 2 , 2 ) R

1
dy
dx

3. tan :
( 2 , 2 ) R.
arctan : R ( 2 , 2 )
R ( 2 , 2 ).
( 2 , 2 ), R, = tan , = arctan . tan0 = (cos1)2 6= 0, +,
1
1
0
arctan0 = tan10 = (cos )2 = 1+(tan
= 1+
2 . arctan y R
)2

y
1
= 1+y
arctan0 y = d arctan
2 .
dy
, y = tan x x = arctan y,
1
1
1
2
dy = (cos x) = 1+(tan x)2 = 1+y 2 .

d arctan y
dy

dx
dy

dx

4. cot : (0, ) R (0, ) R.


arccot : R (0, ) R
(0, ).
1
0
, arccot0 = 1+
2 . arccot y R

y
1
arccot0 y = d arccot
= 1+y
2 .
dy
, y = cot x x = arccot y,

d arccot y
dy

1
1
1+(cot
= 1+y
2 .
x)2

dx
dy

1
dy
dx

= (sin x)2 =

.
1. .

dz
dz dy
= dy
.
dx
dx
.
2.
sin(arcsin x);
{
x sin x1 ,
3. [] f (x) =
0,
{
x2 sin x1 ,
[] f (x) =
0,

sin(sin x), arcsin(cos x), arcsin(sin x), cos(arcsin x),


x 6= 0
f 0 .
x = 0

x 6= 0
f 0 .
x = 0
{
xa sin x1 , x 6= 0

[] . f (x) =
0,
x = 0
a f ; f R; f 0 R;

4. x + x2 + x3 + + xn = x x11 1
x + 2x2 + 3x3 + + nxn , x + 4x2 + 9x3 + + n2 xn .
n+1

5. .
. P , P () = 0.
k N P Q
166

P (x) = (x )k Q(x) x Q() 6= 0. Q() 6= 0


Q x .
P k (x )k P .
P , P () 6= 0, ,
P 0.

.
P .
k N P k 1 P 0 .
13 5.5.
- 13 5.8.
6. f1 , . . . , fn : A R, A A. f1 , . . . , fn
, f1 () fn () 6= 0 g = f1 fn : A R ,
0 ()
0 ()
g 0 ()
= ff11 ()
+ + ffnn ()
.
g()
7. R limx+

xR0 (x)
R(x)

= 0;

8. (a, b) R
R0 (x) = x1 x (a, b).
9. .
.
10. f : A R, A A
f .
[] f () 6= 0, |f | : A R .
[] f () = 0 f 0 () = 0, |f | .
[] f () = 0 f 0 () 6= 0, |f | .
11. [] P , Q, P n 2 n
x1 , . . . , xn Q n 1.

Q(x)
k)
= nk=1 P 0 (xQ(x
P (x)
k )(xxk )

1
x R \ {x1 , . . . , xn }. nk=1 P 0 (x
.
k)
(
)

l
1
= k!1 kl=0 kl (1)
x R \ {0, 1, . . . , k}.
[] x(x+1)(x+2)(x+k)
x+l
12. f : A R A (f (x))2 + 4f (x) = x3 5x2 9x + 41
x A. (2f (x) + 4)f 0 (x) = 3x2 10x 9 x A
f . A,
f A
f 0 .
13. f (x) = x3 + 3x2 + 3x + 7. , , f
R.
{ f ;
1
)0
(
y 6= 6
1
2,
, f 1 ,
f 1 , f 1 (y) = 3(f (y)+1)
+,
y = 6
.
167

14. f1 1 , f2 1 , f3 1
11 4.5;
15. .
f : A B -- A B f 1 : B A.
A A. , f ,
f 0 () 6= 0 f 1 = f ().
[] B f 1
(f 1 )0 () = f 01() .
[] (f 1 )0 () = f 01() .
f 1 (f (x))) = x x A (f 1 )0 ()f 0 () = 1.
(f 1 )0 () (f 1 )0 () = f 01() .
.
(f 1 )0 () , , (f 1 )0 () = f 01() .
16.
.
.
17.
.
;
18. l
.
v ( ),
( ).
, ,
.

5.4

, .

. ,
.
1. a > 0, a 6= 1 loga x.
loga 0 x =

d loga x
dx

1
x log a

x > 0.

(
(
)t
)t
limt+ 1 + 1t = e, limt+ 1 1t =
1
1
= e1
= 1e .
limt+ (1+ 11 )t = limt+ (1+ 1 )t1
1
(1+ t1
)
t1
t1
)t
(
loga x , limt+ loga 1 + 1t = loga e = log1 a . ,
(
)t
limt+ loga 1 1t = loga 1e = loga e = log1 a .
, h t = hx h t = hx , , ,
limh0+

loga (x+h)loga x
h

= limh0+ h1 loga ( x+h


)=
x

1
x

limt+ loga (1 + 1t )t =

1
x log a

= limh0 h1 loga ( x+h


) = x1 limt+ loga (1 1t )t =
x

1
x log a

limh0

loga (x+h)loga x
h

168

loga 0 x = limh0
:

loga (x+h)loga x
h

1
x log a

log0 x =

d log x
dx

1
x

x > 0.

|x|
. log |x| log x (0, +), d log
=
dx
d log x
1
= x (0, +). log |x| log(x) (, 0),
dx
|x|
log y d y
y = x d log
= d log(x)
= d dy
= y1 (1) = x1 (, 0).
dx
dx
dx
d log |x|
dx

1
x

x 6= 0.

2. a > 0, a =
6 1. ax loga y . y = ax
x = loga y :
d ax
dx

1
d loga y
dy

= y log a = ax log a

x. a = 1, 1x
1 0 log 1 = 0. :
d ax
dx

= ax log a,

a > 0.

:
d ex
dx

= ex .

. ,
cosh0 x = sinh x,

sinh0 x = cosh x,

tanh0 x =

1
(cosh x)2

coth0 x = (sinh1x)2

x 6= 0.

, x = arccosh y y = cosh x y > 1 x > 0, arccosh0 y = cosh10 x = sinh1 x =

1 2 = 1 . sinh x = (cosh x)2 1 +


2
(cosh x) 1

y 1

sinh x > 0 x > 0. arcsinh0 y = 12

y +1

arccosh0 y = 12

y 1

arcsinh0 y = 12

y > 1,

y +1

. ,

y.

,
arctanh0 y =

1
1y 2

arccoth0 y =

y, |y| < 1,

1
1y 2

y, |y| > 1.

3. , a R \ Q xa .
d xa
dx

a R \ Q.

= axa1 ,

a Q, a 6= 1.
xa = ea log x x > 0.
a R \ Q, a > 1, xa xa1 [0, +).
x > 0, z = ay y = log x
d xa
dx

d ea log x
dx

d ez d z d y
dz dy dx

169

= ez a x1 = axa1 .

x = 0,
d xa
(0)
dx

= limh0

ha 0
h0

= limh0 ha1 = 0.

x
ddx
axa1 [0, +) axa1
x 0 , , .
a R \ Q, 0 < a < 1, xa [0, +) xa1 (0, +).
xa
x > 0, , , ddx
= axa1 . x = 0,
d xa
(0)
dx

= limh0

ha 0
h0

= limh0

1
h1a

= +.

x
ddx
axa1 (0, +) axa1
x > 0 , , .
, a R \ Q, a < 0, xa xa1 (0, +). x > 0,
xa
xa
, , ddx
= axa1 . ddx
axa1 (0, +)
a1
ax
x > 0 , , .
xa
, , ddx
= axa1 (i) x [0, +), a R\Q, a > 1, (ii) x (0, +),
a R \ Q, a < 1.
xa
- - ddx
= axa1 5.

.
( 2
( 5 ))
1. x log(x log(x log(x log x))), log e3x +4 + sin x 4 ,
( 2 )
2
2x +1 log3 (sin x), 3 sin(log x) , sin e log(x +1) , logx 3.
log x
1
2. [] limx1 x1
, limx0 e x1 , limx1 xx1

.
x
xa xb
xa xb
[] limx1 xlog
a 1 , limx1 x1 , limx1 log x ,
x

limx0

ax bx
,
x

limx0

eax ebx
,
x

limx0

eax eax
.
x(eax +eax )

3. [] f, g : A R, A A f (x) > 0 x A.
f, g , f g : A R
(f g )0 ().
[] xx , (x2 + 1)sin x , |x 1|x2 |x 2|x1 .
4. f : A R, f (x) > 0 x A A A.
1
(
) h1
( f (x) ) log xlog

f , limh0 f (+h)

lim
.
x
f ()
f ()
A (0, +).
a

x
5. , ddx
= axa1 a, a.
xa 1
(1) = a1
 > 0. a1 , a2 Q a 2 < a1 < a < a2 < a + 2 . d dx
a
a
a
x 1 1

x 2 1
dx 2
(1) = a2 , > 0 | x1 a1 | < 2 | x1 a2 | < 2
dx
a1 1
x > 0, 0 < |x 1| < . , x > 0, 0 < |x 1| < , a  < a1 2 < xx1
<
xa2 1

xa 1
xa 1
xa 1
< x1 < a2 + 2 < a + , | x1 a| < . limx1 x1 = a. , > 0,
x1
a 1
a a
a 1
limx xx
= a1 limx (x/)
= a1 limt1 tt1
= a a1 .
(x/)1

170

5.5

. f : A R, A. f
0 > 0 f (x) f () x A, |x| < 0 .
f 0 > 0 f (x) f () x A, |x | < 0 .
f .
, , () , . ,
, ()
, .
Fermat. f : A R A
A. f , f 0 ()
f 0 () = 0.
. f . f (x) f ()
.
f 0 (), f+0 () = f0 () = f 0 ().
()
()
f (x)f
0 , f 0 () = f+0 () = limx+ f (x)f
0.
x
x
()
()
0 , f 0 () = f0 () = limx f (x)f
0.
f (x)f
x
x
0
f () = 0.
, 0
0 .

Fermat , f
,
.
f 0 () f 0 ()
.
, Fermat f A.

.
. 1. 0 |x|
2. 0 x2

d x2
(0)
dx

d |x|
(0).
dx

= 0.

Fermat .
,
: () ,
0.
.
. f : [0, 4] R f (x) = 2x3 9x2 + 12x + 5. f 0 (x) =
6x2 18x + 12 = 6(x 1)(x 2), f
0, 4 [0, 4] 1, 2 f 0 . f
5, 37, 10, 9, .
f [0, 4], .
, , 0
, f 5, 4 ,
171

f 37. 1, 2 .
f [0, 2], [0, 2].
0, 1, 2 -
f 0 . f 5, 10, 9, 1 [0, 2]
, , [0, 4].
, 1, 2, 4 10, 9, 37, , 2
[1, 4] , , [0, 4].
.
Fermat .
5.5. 1. f : A R A A.
f , f+0 () f+0 () 0
f+0 () 0, .
2. f : A R A A.
f , f0 () f0 () 0 f0 () 0,
.
. 1. f , f (x) f () .
()
0 ,
f+0 (). f (x)f
x
()
f+0 () = limx+ f (x)f
0.
x
1 2 .

, f+0 () 0 f+0 () 0, f+0 () =


f+0 () = +, . f0 ().
. 1. f : [0, 2] R f (x) = x 0
f+0 (0) = 1 0. 2 f0 (2) = 1 0.

2. f : [0, 2] R f (x) = x 0 f+0 (0) = + 0.


Rolle. f : [a, b] R [a, b]
(a, b). f (a) = f (b), (a, b) f 0 () = 0.
. f [a, b], f (x) = f (a) = f (b) x (a, b).
f 0 () = 0 (a, b).
f [a, b]. (i) f > f (a) = f (b)
(ii) f < f (a) = f (b). .
(i) - , [a, b]
f . f f (a) = f (b), f () >
f (a) = f (b), (a, b). , f 0 () ,
Fermat, f 0 () = 0.
(ii) - , [a, b]
f . f f (a) = f (b), f () < f (a) =
f (b), (a, b). , f 0 () ,
Fermat, f 0 () = 0.
Rolle , , f (a) = f (b),
(a, b) f (, f ()) .

3
. f : [2, 3] R f (x) = x
+ 2x2 3x 5 [2, 3],
f 0 (x) = 3x2 + 4x 3 x (2, 3) f (2) = f ( 3) = 1.
(2, 3) 32 + 4 3 = 0. 3x2 + 4x 3 = 0.

23 13 (2, 3).
172

Rolle .
f 0 () = 0. , f
(a, b), (a, b) f 0 () = 0.
,
(a, b). .
. 1. f : [1, 1] R f (x) = |x| [1, 1] f (1) =
f (1) = 1. , (1, 1) f 0 () = 0.

0 < x 1
x x,
f (1) = f (1) = 0.
2. f (x) = 0,
x = 0


x x , 1 x < 0
1

0 < x 1

2 x 1,
f 0 (x) = +,
f 0 () = 0 = 41 .
x = 0

1
1 , 1 x < 0
2 x
(Lagrange). f : [a, b] R
[a, b] (a, b). (a, b)
f 0 () =

f (b)f (a)
ba

. h : [a, b] R h(x) = (b a)f (x) (f (b) f (a))x.


h [a, b] h0 (x) = (b a)f 0 (x) (f (b) f (a)) (a, b).
(a)
, h(a) = h(b). (a, b) h0 () = 0 , , f (b)f
= f 0 ().
ba
Lagrange , , (a, b)
f (, f ()) - ,
, - (a, f (a))
(b, f (b)).
(Cauchy). f, g : [a, b] R
[a, b] (a, b). (a, b)
(f (b) f (a))g 0 () = (g(b) g(a))f 0 ().
. h : [a, b] R h(x) = (g(b) g(a))f (x) (f (b) f (a))g(x).
h [a, b] (a, b) h0 (x) = (g(b)g(a))f 0 (x)
(f (b) f (a))g 0 (x). , h(a) = h(b). (a, b) h0 () = 0 , ,
(g(b) g(a))f 0 () (f (b) f (a))g 0 () = 0.
Rolle
Lagrange Lagrange -
g(x) = x - Cauchy. ,
Cauchy Rolle.
.
Cauchy .
, g(a) 6= g(b) f 0 (x) = g 0 (x) = 0 x (a, b),
(a, b)
0 ()
f (b)f (a)
= fg0 ()
.
g(b)g(a)
173

(b)f (a) 0
, (f (b) f (a))g 0 () = (g(b) g(a))f 0 () fg(b)g(a)
g () = f 0 ().
, g 0 () = 0, f 0 () = 0, . g 0 () 6= 0
.
0 ()
(b)f (a)
, fg(b)g(a)
= fg0 ()

f 0 ()
g 0 ()

(b)f (a))/(ba)
= (f
, Cauchy (a, b)
(g(b)g(a))/(ba)
f g (, f ())
(, g())
(a, f (a)) (b, f (b)) (a, g(a)) (b, g(b)).

.
{
x sin x1 , x 6= 0
1. [] f (x) =
0.
0,
x = 0
f 0 ; f .
{
|x|(2 + sin x1 ), x 6= 0
f .
[] f (x) =
0,
x = 0
2. [] f : R R f 0 (0) = 0 0
f .
[] {
[] f .
x2 cos x1 , x 6= 0
f (x) =
0,
x = 0
3. a < b. (a, b)
sin bsin a
= e cos .
eb ea

sin bsin a
ba

= cos (a, b)

4. , c, x3 12x = c
[2, 2]; (, 2]; [2, +);
5. x2 = x sin x + cos x
0.
an
6. n+1
+ an1
+ + a21 + a0 = 0, an xn + an1 xn1 + + a1 x + a0 = 0
n
(0, 1).

7. n N. xn + kx + l = 0 ,
n , , n .
2

8. ex = 1; ex = 1 + x; ex = 1 + x + x2 ;
2
n
: ex = 1 + 1!x + x2! + + xn! ;
2

9. 1 + 1!x + x2! + + xn! = 0 ,


n , , n .
10. [] I, f : I R I
I. f --
[] I, f : I R
I. c 6= 0
-- I.
174

f 0 (x) 6= 0 x
I.
I |f 0 (x)| M x
g : I R g(x) = x + cf (x)

11. f : [a, b] R [a, b] (a, b)


f (a) = f (b) = 0. (a, b) f 0 () = f ().
12.
. 13 7.6.
.


f, g : A R A. W (f, g)() =
f () g()
0
0
0

f () g 0 () = f ()g () f ()g() Wronski f , g .
f, g : I R I W (f, g)(x) 6= 0 x I.
[] 11 4.2 f ,
f (x) = 0, . , f
f , f
, , f ,
f . g.
[] f
g .
: a, b I, a < b f (a) = f (b) = 0. g(x) 6= 0
x (a, b). g(a) = 0 g(b) = 0; , fg : [a, b] R
.
[] [], [] cos, sin : R R;
13. [] Rolle ,
n n .
[] a1 < < an P (x) = (x a1 ) (x an ).
P 0 n 1 . P 0
a1 , . . . , an .
[] 5 5.3.
. P 1 , . . . , m .
k1 , . . . , km N P , P (x) =
(x 1 )k1 (x m )km Q(x) x, Q .
P k = k1 + + km P
k.
P k N,
P 0 k 1. , P n N
P n, P 0 n 1.
14. Tn : [1, 1] R n Z, n 0 :
T0 (x) = 1,

Tn (x) =

1
2n1

cos(n arccos x),

1 x 1, n N.

[] T1 (x) = x 4Tn+2 (x) = 4xTn+1 (x) Tn (x) n Z, n 0


x [1, 1]. n Z, n 0 Tn
[1, 1] R n
1.
. , , Tn Chebyshev n.
T2 , T3 , T4 .
n
1
Tn (1) = (1)
n N.
[] Tn (1) = 2n1
2n1
175

[] n N Tn n :
xk = cos( 2k1
) k = 1, . . . , n. (1, 1).
2n
1
x [1, 1] n N.
[] |Tn (x)| 2n1
0
n N Tn n 1 : tk = cos( nk )
k = 1, . . . , n 1. (1, 1). Tn (tk )
k = 1, . . . , n 1.
[] n N Tn
Tn 0 Tn [1, 1].
[] n N P n
1
1 2n1
= max{|Tn (x)| | 1 x 1} max{|P (x)| | 1 x 1}.
1
1
: max{|P (x)| | 1 x 1} < 2n1
, |P (x)| < 2n1

x [1, 1]. Tn P tk = cos( nk )
k = 0, . . . , n.
15. m > 0,
x
[] |f 0 (x)| m
[] |f 0 (x)| m

I, f : I R I f 0 (x)
I. x1 , x2 I |f (x2 ) f (x1 )| = d.
x I, |x2 x1 | md .
x I, |x2 x1 | md .

16. f : [ h, + h] R [ h, + h] ( h, )
(, + h).
(h)
[] (0, h) f (+h)f
= f 0 ( + ) + f 0 ( ).
h
[] (0, h)

f (+h)2f ()+f (h)


h

= f 0 ( + ) f 0 ( ).

17. f : (0, +) R
(0, +) |f 0 (x)|

limx+ (f (x + x) f (x)) = 0.

1
x

x > 0.

18. f : (0, +) R (0, +) limx+ f 0 (x) = 0.


limx+ (f (x + 1) f (x)) = 0.
19. .
f : [, b) R [, b) (, b).
limx+ f 0 (x), f+0 () .
limx f 0 (x) f0 ();
20. 10 5.1 A , f A
0
(xn 00 )
f 0 , f (xxnn)f
f 0 ().
0 x 00
n
21. . 3, 10
11 4.6.
[] : f : I R I
f I. f Lipschitz I
f 0 I, M 0
|f 0 (x)| M x I.
[] : f : I R
I |f 0 (x)| M x I. f
I.

x [0, 1];
[0, 1]; [1, +);
176

2 4.6.
[] f : I R I |f 0 (x)| M x
I. , (xn ) Cauchy I, (f (xn ))
Cauchy.
[] f : [a, b) R [a, b) |f 0 (x)| M x (a, b).
limxb f (x) .
g : [a, b] R [a, b] g(x) = f (x) x [a, b).
22. Lagrange.
[] f : [a, b] R [a, b] (a, b).
f (a, f (a)) (b, f (b)),
(a)
1 , 2 (a, b) f 0 (1 ) < f (b)f
< f 0 (2 ).
ba
[] f : [a, b] R [a, b] (a, b).
f (a) = f (b) = 0 f (x0 ) = 1 x0 (a, b), (a, b)
2
2
|f 0 ()| ba
. , (a, b) |f 0 ()| > ba
.
23. f : [a, b] R [a, b] f 0
[a, b]. A

f (x)f (y)
0


> 0 0 > 0
f (y) < x, y [a, b],
xy
0 < |x y| < 0 .
24. .
[] f : [a, b] R [a, b] f 0 (a) < 0 < f 0 (b),
f [a, b] (
- ) (a, b).
f 0 (a) > 0 > f 0 (b);
[] Darboux: f : [a, b] R
[a, b] f 0 (a) < < f 0 (b) f 0 (a) > > f 0 (b). (a, b)
f 0 () = .
,
, .
: [] g(x) = f (x) x.
[] I f : I R I. f 0 I,
I.
: 24 4.4 15 4.1.
25. [] Rolle: f : [a, b] R
[a, b], f (a) = f (b) f0 (x), f+0 (x) x (a, b).
(a, b) f0 () 0 f+0 () f+0 () 0 f0 ().
[] Lagrange: f :
[a, b] R [a, b] f0 (x), f+0 (x) x (a, b).
(a)
(a)
(a, b) f0 () f (b)f
f+0 () f+0 () f (b)f
f0 ().
ba
ba

5.6

I . I
- I -
I, I.
177

5.6.1

5.6 :
,
, . ,
-
(-) , ().
5.6. I f : I R I
I.
1. f f 0 (x) = 0 x I.
2. f f 0 (x) 0 x I.
3. f f 0 (x) 0 x I.
. 1. f , f 0 (x) = 0 x I.
, f 0 (x) = 0 x I. x1 , x2 I, x1 < x2 ,
x1 , x2 I. f [x1 , x2 ]
f 0 (x) x (x1 , x2 ). (x1 , x2 ) , , I,
(x1 )
f (xx22)f
= f 0 () = 0. f (x1 ) = f (x2 ). f
x1
, f .
2. f , , ,
f 0 (x) 0 x I.
, f 0 (x) 0 x I. x1 , x2 I, x1 < x2 .
(x1 )
, (x1 , x2 ) , , I, f (xx22)f
= f 0 () 0.
x1
f (x1 ) f (x2 ) , , f .
3. 2.
5.6 .
. f I,
, ,
, 0. , ,
. , .

- -
. .
: (, )
,
.
7
. 5.6 .
5.6. 5.7 ,
() ,
( ).
5.7. I f : I R I
I.
1. f 0 (x) > 0 x I, f .
2. f 0 (x) < 0 x I, f .
. 5.6.
178

5.6, 5.7 5.8 f 0 (x) 0 f 0 (x) > 0


f 0 (x) = +. , f 0 (x) 0 f 0 (x) < 0
f 0 (x) = .
1, 2 5.7. f
, f
, f 0 (x) 0 x I.
f . , 5.6 5.7
. ,
.
. 1. x3 R
x3
x3
x R. , ddx
= 3x2 > 0 x 6= 0 ddx
(0) = 0.

d x3
dx

>0

2. f (x) = |x|
. f 0 (x) = 0 x (, 0) (0, +), f
x
(, 0) (0, +). 1 (, 0)
1 (0, +).
3. d (1/x)
= x12 < 0 x (, 0) (0, +). x1
dx
(, 0) (0, +). (, 0)
(0, +).

.
5.8. f : A R, (a, b) A, a < < b f (a, b).
1. f 0 (x) 0 x (a, ) f 0 (x) 0 x (, b),
f .
2. f 0 (x) 0 x (a, ) f 0 (x) 0 x (, b),
f .
. 1. f (a, ] [, b), f ()
(a, b).
2. .
, 5.8, f ;
.
5.8. f
1 , 2 , . . . , n ()
f 0 . (i)
() , (ii) k
f 0
(iii) k f 0
.
. 1. 5.5. f : [0, 4] R
f (x) = 2x3 9x2 +12x+5 [0, 4] f 0 (x) = 6x2 18x+12 = 6(x1)(x2)
x (0, 4). f 0 (x) > 0 x (0, 1) x (2, 4) f 0 (x) < 0
x (1, 2). f [0, 1], [1, 2]
[2, 4]. , 0, 2 f 1, 4
.
2. f (x) = x4 (x1)4 R. , f 0 (x) = 4x3 (x1)4 +4x4 (x1)3 =
8x3 (x 1)3 (x 21 ) x. f 0 (x) > 0 x (0, 21 ) x (1, +)
179

f 0 (x) < 0 x (, 0) x ( 12 , 1). f


(, 0], [0, 21 ], [ 12 , 1]
[1, +). , 0, 1 21 .
f (0) = f (1) = 0 , f (x) 0 x, 0, 1 . 12
, limx f (x) = +.
3. f (x) = x + x1 . f R \ {0}. , f 0 (x) = 1 x12
x R \ {0}. f 0 (x) > 0 x (, 1) x (1, +) f 0 (x) < 0
x (1, 0) x (0, 1). f (, 1],
[1, 0), (0, 1] [1, +). ,
1 1 . , 1
(, 0) 1
(0, +).

0 x 1
x,
4. f (x) = 2 x, 1 x 2 f [0, 3]

x 2, 2 x 3
f 0 (x) = 1 x (0, 1) x (2, 3) f 0 (x) = 1 x (1, 2). f
[0, 1], [1, 2] [2, 3].
, 0, 2 1, 3 .
f (0) = f (2) = 0, f (1) = f (3) = 1 0 f (x) 1 x [0, 3], 0, 2
1, 3 .
, f 1 2.
5.6.2

, .

5.6
5.7 R.
. 1. cos0 x = sin x sin0 x = cos x (cos x)2 + (sin x)2 = 1 x.
f (x) = (cos x)2 + (sin x)2 . f 0 (x) = 2 cos x sin x + 2 sin x cos x = 0
x. f R, (cos x)2 + (sin x)2 = (cos 0)2 + (sin 0)2 = 1
x.
2. ex > x + 1 x 6= 0.
: f (x) = ex x 1.
x
(0)
x > 0. (0, x) e x1
= f (x)f
= f 0 () = e 1. > 0,
x
x0
e 1 > 0 , , ex x 1 > 0.
x
(x)
= f (0)f
= f 0 () = e 1. < 0,
, x < 0. (x, 0) e x1
x
0x
e 1 < 0, , , ex x 1 > 0.
x 6= 0 ex > x + 1.
: f .
f R f 0 (x) = ex 1 > 0 x > 0 f 0 (x) = ex 1 < 0
x < 0. f [0, +) (, 0].
ex x 1 = f (x) > f (0) = 0 x 6= 0.
.
1.

2
x
2 x
x2 x 1, x3 15x2 + 72x + 7, xx2 2x+3
,
,
x
e , sin x cos x, sin(3x)
cos x,
+2x+3 x+4
3
log x
|x1|
2
x + sin x, x + | sin x|, x , |x|e
, arctan x log(1 + x ) .
180

2. (x 1)|x| [1, 3], |x2 3x + 2|


2
[3, 10], (logxx) [1, 3], x + x1 [ 13 , 3] ex sin x [0, 2].
3. a,

cos x+a
sin x

4. . l M = (x0 , y0 ) .
M l M
l dist(M, l).
[] l x = , dist(M, l) = | x0 |.
[] l y = x + , dist(M, l) = |x0 +y2 0 | .
1+

[] ax + by = c,
0 c|
a, b 6= 0, dist(M, l) = |ax0a+by
.
2 +b2
5. l . ;
6. A1
d1 A2
d2 . () v1
v2
.
A1 A2 .
7. h r.
[]
;
[]
;
8. a b c > a+b.


.
9. a1 < . . . < an . (x a1 )2 + + (x an )2
|x a1 | + + |x an |.
10. (1 + x1 )x (0, +).
11. [] f, g : [0, b] R [0, b] (0, b), f (0) = g(0) = 0
0
f 0 (x), g 0 (x) > 0 x (0, b). fg0 (0, b),
f
(0, b].
g
[]

x
sin x

(1/2)x2
1cos x

(1/6)x3
xsin x

, (0, 2 ).

12. a > 0 xa e2ax


[0, +) .
13. P (x) = x2 + ax + b Q(x) = x2 + cx + d, c2 < 4d.
P (x)
k
Q(x)
2
P (x) kQ(x) = (x ) , .
181

14. .
[] f : A R, A A f 0 () > 0.
f 0 (), f (x) > f ()
f (x) < f () .
f ; f 0 () < 0;
{
x + 2x2 sin x1 , x 6= 0
[] f (x) =
f 0 (0) = 1. 0,
x = 0
a > 0 f (a, a).
[] 5.6.
15. [] 13 4.1. f : A R, A
A f Hlder Hlder > 1.
f 0 () = 0.
[] 3 4.6. I, f : I R f
Hlder I Hlder > 1. f I.
16.
4.4 .
f : I R I. I
f , f I.
17. - .
I, f : I R I f 0 (x) 6= 0 x
I. 10 5.5 f -- I.
[] f I.
: : 21 4.4. :
Fermat , x1 , x2 I, x1 < x2
f [x1 , x2 ] x1 , x2 . :
[] .
[] f 0 (x) > 0 x I f 0 (x) < 0 x
I.
: : []. : 24
5.5.
18. [] f (x) = arccos x + arcsin x. f 0 (x) = 0 x
(1, 1). arccos x + arcsin x = 2 x [1, 1].
[] arctan y + arccot y = 2 x.
[] f (x) = arctan x + arctan x1 . f 0 (x) = 0 x 6= 0.
arctan x + arctan x1 = 2 x > 0 arctan x + arctan x1 = 2
x < 0.
[], [] 7 4.5.
19. f, g : (a, b) R (a, b), a < 0 < b. , , f 0 (x) = g(x),
g 0 (x) = f (x) x (a, b) f (0) = 0, g(0) = 1.
;
[] f (x)2 + g(x)2 = 1 x (a, b).
[] F, G , F (x) = f (x), G(x) = g(x)
x (a, b).
182

: (F (x) f (x))2 + (G(x) g(x))2 .


20. : .
[] sin x x x 0 x sin x x 0.
2

x sin x x,

0 x 2 ,

x sin x

2 x 0.

x,

, 0, sin x
x.
[] x ex 1 x.
x ex 1 (e 1) x,

0 x 1,

x ex 1

e1
e

x,

1 x 0.

, 0, ex 1
x.
[] log x x 1 x > 0.
1
e1

(x1) log x x1,

1 x e,

e
e1

(x1) log x x1,

1
e

x 1.

, 1, log x
x 1.
21. :
3
[] 2x + 2x3 < log 1+x
x (0, 1).
1x
[] log 1+x
< 2x +
1x

2x3
3

x4
2

x (0, 12 ].

[] e x+1 < 1 + x x > 1.


3
[] x x3 < arctan x < x x > 0.
22. f : [a, b] R [a, b] (a, b).
f 0 (x) x (a, b).
[] f (a) + (x a) f (x) f (b) + (x b) x [a, b].
[] , c (a, b] f (a) + (c a) = f (c), f (a) +
(x a) = f (x) x [a, c].
, , c [a, b) f (c) = f (b) + (c b),
f (x) = f (b) + (x b) x [c, b].
[]
f 0 (x) x (a, b).
23. f : [1, 4] R [1, 4], f (1) = 7 f 0 (x) 3 x (1, 4).
[] f (4) 2.
[] k 2 f f (4) = k.
x
24. [] 0 < x < y. a > 1, axa1 < yyx
< ay a1 . 0 < a < 1,
a
a
x
ay a1 < yyx
< axa1 .
Bernoulli. 8[]
1.3.
y ax
< ay log a.
[] x < y, a > 0, a 6= 1. ax log a < ayx
a

1
[] 0 < x < y. y1 < yx
log xy <
[] | arctan x arctan y| |x y|.

183

1
x

25. ex 1 + 1!x , ex 1 + 1!x + x2! , ex 1 + 1!x + x2! + x3! x 0.


; , x 0 ,
, ,
.
3

26. [] sin x 1!x , sin x 1!x x3! , sin x 1!x x3! + x5! x 0
x 0.
2
2
4
2
4
6
[] cos x 1 x2! , cos x 1 x2! + x4! , cos x 1 x2! + x4! x6! x.
[] [], [];
27. k > 0, f : [a, b] R [a, b], f (a) = 0 |f 0 (x)| k|f (x)|
x (a, b). f (x) = 0 x [a, b].
: . f (x0 ) > 0 x0 (a, b]. 11
4.2, [a, x0 ) f () = 0 f (x) > 0 x (, x0 ].
f (x)ekx f (x)ekx [, x0 ].
. a < c < a + k1 . M 0 |f (x)| M x [a, b].
n N x [a, c] |f (x)| k n (c a)n M .
f (x) = 0 x [a, c]. [a, b] < k1 .
28. [] a1 , . . . , an > 0 f : (0, +) R f (x) =
f .
[] Cauchy: a1 , . . . , an > 0,

a1 an

1
n

a1 ++a
n +x
(n+1) n+1 a1 an x

(a1 + + an ).

Cauchy a1 = . . . = an .
Cauchy 29[].
: [] .
n
,
[] Cauchy : A = a1 ++a
n
ak
ak
1
A e A
k = 1, . . . , n.
a1 = . . . = an .
29. .
36 37 5.7
.
a1 , . . . , an , b1 , . . . , bn 0, 1 , . . . , n > 0 1 + + n = 1. , a, b 0
p, q > 1, p1 + 1q = 1.
[] Young:
ab

1
p

ap + 1q bq .

Young ap = bq .
1

: f : [0, +) R f (x) = x p p1 x 1q
p
x = abq . 36 5.7
2 6.3.
[] Hlder:
)1
)1 (
(
a1 b1 + + an bn a1 p + + an p p b1 q + + bn q q .
184

Cauchy:
(
)1 (
)1
a1 b1 + + an bn a1 2 + + an 2 2 b1 2 + + bn 2 2 .
Hlder s, t
0 sak p = tbk q k = 1, . . . , n.
1

: A = (a1 p + + an p ) p B = (b1 q + + bn q ) q . A = 0 B =
0, . A, B 6= 0, Young
aAk , bBk . 37 5.7.

Cauchy

:
(
)
(
)
(
) .
n
n
n
n
2 2
2
2
a
t
+
2
a
b
t
+
b
=
(ta
k + bk ) 0 t.
k=1 k
k=1 k k
k=1 k
k=1
(
( n
)
)
n

2
n
2
: k=1 ak 2 nk=1 bk 2
= 21 ni=1
k=1 ak bk
j=1 (ai bj bi aj ) .
1

[] f : R \ {0} R f (x) = (1 a1 x + + n an x ) x
R \ {0}.
: Hlder.
1
[] limx0 (1 a1 x + + n an x ) x = a1 1 an n .
1
log g(x) g(x)1
.
: g(x) = 1 a1 x + + n an x log(g(x)) x = g(x)1
x
0
[] x < 0 < x ,
0

(1 a1 x + + n an x ) x a1 1 an n (1 a1 x + + n an x ) x0 .
Cauchy 28 .
[] Minkowski:
(

(a1 + b1 )p + + (an + bn )p

) p1

(
)1 (
)1
a1 p + + an p p + b1 p + + bn p p .

Minkowski s, t
0 sak = tbk k = 1, . . . , n.
: (a1 + b1 )p + + (an + bn )p = a1 (a1 + b1 )p1 + + an (an + bn )p1 +
b1 (a1 + b1 )p1 + + bn (an + bn )p1 Hlder
a1 (a1 + b1 )p1 + + an (an + bn )p1 b1 (a1 + b1 )p1 + + bn (an + bn )p1 .

5.7

. f : A R B = {x A | f 0 (x) R}. , f 0 : B R. , , B B
0
0 ()
(f 0 )0 (), limx f (x)f
. (f 0 )0 () ,
x
, f 00 () f .
, , , n- (n 1)-
. f f (1) ()
f (2) (). f 000 (), f (3) ()
f (n) ().
n
dn y
Dxn f , ddxnf dx
n .
, , n- f f (n) () =
(n1) (x)f (n1) ()
limx f
.
x
, f () f (0) ().
185

. 1. n N, xn : dx
= nxn1 ,
dx
2
n
3
n
n1
n
n n
d x
x
= n(n 1)xn2 , ddxx3 = n(n 1)(n 2)xn3 , . . . , ddxn1
= n(n 1) 2x ddxxn =
dx2
n n
n(n 1) 2 1 = n! . ddxxn ,
m n
0, ddxxm = 0 m N, m > n.
2. a
/ N {0}, xa :
, ,
dm xa
= a(a 1) (a m + 1)xam ,
dxm

dxa
dx

= axa1 ,

d2 xa
dx2

= a(a 1)xa2

m N.

xam 6= 0 , ,
0.
2 x
ax
3. a > 0, ax ddx
= ax log a, ddxa2 = ax (log a)2 , ,
d m ax
dxm

= ax (log a)m ,

m N.

m x

: ddxme = ex m N.
4. sin x : sin(1) x = cos x, sin(2) x = sin x, sin(3) x = cos x,
sin(4) x = sin x.
: sin x, cos x, sin x, cos x. , ,
sin(2k) x = (1)k sin x,

sin(2k1) x = (1)k1 cos x,

k N.

cos(2k1) x = (1)k sin x,

k N.

,
cos(2k) x = (1)k cos x,

d y
dx
n .
14 5.8 limh0 f (+2h)2fh2(+h)+f () = f 00 ().
y = f ( + h), = f () x = h, y = y = f ( + h) f (). ,
f ( + h) f () + h ,
f ( + 2h) f ( + h). , g() =
f ( + h) f () = (y)(). g( + h) = f ( + 2h) f ( + h) = (y)( + h)
f ( + 2h) 2f ( + h) + f () = g( + h) g() = (y)( + h) (y)() = (y).
f ( + 2h) 2f ( + h) + f ()
. f
, (y) , , 2 y.
2 y
00
, , limx0 x
2 = f ().
d2 y
y
dy
00
0
0
dx
2 = f (), limx0 x = f () dx = f ().
.

5.7.1

.
5.9. I, f : I R, f I
f 00 () I.
1. f 0 () = 0 f 00 () > 0, f .
2. f 0 () = 0 f 00 () < 0, f .
. 1. I, 0 0 > 0 ( 0 0 , + 0 0 ) I.
0
0 ()
0 (x)
0 (x)
, f 00 () = limx f (x)f
= limx fx
, fx
> 0 ,
x
0 00 > 0

f 0 (x)
x

> 0 x I, 0 < |x | < 0 00 .


186

0 = min{0 0 , 0 00 }. 0 0 0 0 0 00 . ( 0 , + 0 ) I
0 (x)
0 (x)
fx
> 0 x I, 0 < |x | < 0 , , fx
> 0
x ( 0 , ) (, + 0 ).
f 0 (x) < 0 x ( 0 , ) f 0 (x) > 0 x (, + 0 ). f
( 0 , ] [, + 0 ), ( 0 , ]
[, + 0 ). f .
2. .
5.9 12 5.8.
2

2 2

. 1. dx
(0) = 0 ddxx2 (0) = 2. , 0
dx
x2 .
4
2 4
2. dx
(0) = 0 ddxx2 (0) = 0. , 0 x4 .
dx
5.9.
5.7.2

. I f : I R. f I x1 , x2 I,
x1 < x2 t (0, 1)
f ((1 t)x1 + tx2 ) (1 t)f (x1 ) + tf (x2 ).
, f I.
, f I x1 , x2 I, x1 < x2 t (0, 1)
f ((1 t)x1 + tx2 ) (1 t)f (x1 ) + tf (x2 ).
, , f I.
. 1. f (x) = x+ R. ,
f ((1t)x1 +tx2 ) = ((1t)x1 +tx2 )+ = (1t)(x1 +)+t(x2 +) = (1t)f (x1 )+tf (x2 )
x1 , x2 R, x1 < x2 t (0, 1) .
2. f (x) = x2 R. x1 , x2 R, x1 < x2
t (0, 1) f ((1 t)x1 + tx2 ) = ((1 t)x1 + tx2 )2 = (1 t)2 x21 + 2t(1 t)x1 x2 + t2 x22 <
(1 t)2 x21 + t(1 t)(x21 + x22 ) + t2 x22 = (1 t)x21 + tx22 = (1 t)f (x1 ) + tf (x2 ).
3. f (x) = |x| R. x1 , x2 R, x1 < x2
t (0, 1) f ((1 t)x1 + tx2 ) = |(1 t)x1 + tx2 | |(1 t)x1 | + |tx2 | = (1 t)|x1 | + t|x2 | =
(1 t)f (x1 ) + tf (x2 ).
f ((1 t)x1 + tx2 ) (1 t)f (x1 ) + tf (x2 )
- - .
x1 < x2 f ((1 t)x1 + tx2 ) (1 t)f (x1 ) + tf (x2 ) t (0, 1).
x
1
, t (0, 1), 1 t = xx22x
(1 t)x1 + tx2 = x.
x (x1 , x2 ) t = xxx
2 x1
1
x2 x
1
f (x2 ).
f (x) = f ((1 t)x1 + tx2 ) (1 t)f (x1 ) + tf (x2 ) = x2 x1 f (x1 ) + xxx
2 x1
x2 x
xx1
, f (x) x2 x1 f (x1 ) + x2 x1 f (x2 ) x (x1 , x2 ). t (0, 1)
x
1
x = (1 t)x1 + tx2 , x (x1 , x2 ), xx22x
= 1 t xxx
= t.
1
2 x1
x2 x
xx1
f ((1 t)x1 + tx2 ) = f (x) x2 x1 f (x1 ) + x2 x1 f (x2 ) = (1 t)f (x1 ) + tf (x2 ).
, , f : I R I
x1 , x2 I, x1 < x2 x (x1 , x2 )
f (x)

x2 x
f (x1 )
x2 x1

187

xx1
f (x2 ).
x2 x1

f I
.
, f I x1 , x2 I, x1 < x2
x (x1 , x2 )
x
1
f (x1 ) + xxx
f (x2 ).
f (x) xx22x
1
2 x1
f I
.

x
1
. , y = xx22x
f (x1 )+ xxx
f (x2 )
1
2 x1
(x1 , f (x1 )) (x2 , f (x2 )). ,
f () I x1 , x2 I, x1 < x2
f (x1 , f (x1 )) (x2 , f (x2 ))
() . f
() I x1 , x2 I, x1 < x2
f (x1 , f (x1 )) (x2 , f (x2 ))
() .
5.10. I f : I R I. f
I.
. I, a, b I a < < b. f
I.
b
x (a, ). f (x) x
f (a) + xa
f () f () bx
f (x) + x
f (b).
a
a
bx
x
x
bx
xa
b f () + b f (b) f (x) a f (a) + a f () , , limx f (x) = f ().
x
a
x (, b). f (x) bx
f () + x
f (b) f () xa
f (a) + xa
f (x).
b
b
x
x
xa
bx
a f (a) + a f () f (x) b f () + b f (b) , , limx+ f (x) = f ().
limx f (x) = f () f .
f I.
5.11. I f : I R
1. f I, (i) I I
()
f+0 () f+0 () f (x)f
x I, x > (ii)
x
()
I I f0 () f (x)f
f0 () x I, x < .
x
f I, .
, < f0 () f+0 () < + I.
2. f I, (i) I I
()
f+0 () f+0 () f (x)f
x I, x > (ii)
x
()
f0 () x I, x < .
I I f0 () f (x)f
x
f I, .
, < f+0 () f0 () < + I.

. 1. f I.
I. x1 , x2 I, < x1 < x2 . f (x1 )
()
()
x2 x1
f () + xx12
f (x2 ) , , f (xx11)f
f (xx22)f
.
x2

h : {x I | x > } R h(x) =

f (x)f ()
x

, ,

3.5 , limx+ h(x) = limx+


f+0 () < + , , f+0 () h(x) =
188

f (x)f ()
x

f (x)f ()
x

x I, x > .

f I, , , h ,
()
f+0 () < h(x) = f (x)f
x I, x > .
x
I. x1 , x2 I, x1 < x2 < . f (x2 )
()
()
x2
2 x1
f (x1 ) + xx
f (), f (xx11)f
f (xx22)f
.
x1

1
g : {x I | x < } R g(x) =
limx g(x) =

()
limx f (x)f
x

f0 ()

f (x)f ()
x

. ,

> , , f0 () g(x) =

x I, x < .
f I, , , g ,
()
f0 () > g(x) = f (x)f
x I, x < .
x
b
, I. a, b I, a < < b. f () ba
f (a) + a
f (b)
ba
f (a)f ()
f (b)f ()
f (a)f ()
f (b)f ()
0
0
a b . f () = lima a limb+ b = f+ ().
2. .
f (x)f ()
x

5.11. f I
I, f 0 () R, f
.

.
5.12. I f : I R I
I.
1. f () I f 0 () I.
2. f () I f 0 () I.
. 1. f I. x1 , x2 I, x1 < x2 .
(x1 )
f 0 (x2 ), f 0
5.11, f 0 (x1 ) f (xx22)f
x1
I. f ,
, f 0 .
, f 0 I. x1 , x2 I, x1 < x2
(x1 )
x1 < x < x2 . 1 , 2 x1 < 1 < x < 2 < x2 f (x)f
= f 0 (1 )
xx1
f (x2 )f (x)
(x1 )
(x)
= f 0 (2 ). f 0 (1 ) f 0 (2 ), f (x)f
f (xx22)f
.
x2 x
xx1
x
x2 x
xx1
f (x) x2 x1 f (x1 )+ x2 x1 f (x2 ), f I. , f 0
, , f .
2. .
5.12
f I
I. f () I
f -
- () . , f
() I f
()
.
{
{
2x2 , x 0
4x, x 0
. 1. f (x) =
f 0 (x) =
f0
2
x , 0 x
2x, 0 x
R, f R. ,
5.13, f 00 (0).
189

x
2. ddx
= nxn1 R. , n N , xn1 R,
xn R.

,
5.12.
5.13. I f : I R I
I.
1. f I f 00 (x) 0 I. f 00 (x) > 0
I, f I.
2. f I f 00 (x) 0 I. f 00 (x) < 0
I, f I.
. 1. f (x) = x(x 1)(x 2). f 0 (x) = 3x2 6x + 2
f 00 (x) = 6x 6 x. f 00 (x) < 0 x (, 1), f
(, 1]. , f 00 (x) > 0 x (1, +), f
[1, +).
2 n
2. ddxx2 = n(n 1)xn2 R. , n N , xn (, 0]
[0, +).
2 a
3. ddxx2 = a(a 1)xa2 x > 0. xa (0, +),
a < 0, [0, +), 0 < a < 1, [0, +), a > 1.
2 x
4. a > 0, a 6= 1. ax R ddxa2 = ax (log a)2 > 0
x.
1
5. a > 0, a 6= 1. loga 00 x = x2 log
x > 0. loga x
a
(0, +), a > 1, (0, +), 0 < a < 1.
6. x4 R 4x3
R. ,
R : 12x2 > 0 x 6= 0, 12 02 = 0.
5.7.3

. f : A R
A. f f
f (x) f 0 ()(x)+f () x f (x) f 0 ()(x)+f ()
x , , f (x) f 0 ()(x ) + f ()
x f (x) f 0 ()(x ) + f () x
.
,
f . , f
f 0 () = .
, (, f ()) f .
, , (, f ()) f ,
, f (, f ()) , ,
, ,

.
5.14. I, f : I R, I f 0 () R.
a, b I a < < b f (a, ] [, b) , ,
190

(a, ] [, b), f .
,
.
. f (a, ] [, b). 5.11,
()
()
f (x)f
f 0 () x (a, ). , f (x)f
f 0 () x (, b).
x
x
f (x) f 0 ()(x ) + f () x (a, ) f (x) f 0 ()(x ) + f ()
x (, b).

5.14 .
5.15. I, f : I R, I f 0 () R.
f 00 (x) 0 f 00 (x) 0
f 00 (x) 0 f 00 (x) 0 ,
f .
, .
3

x
. ddx
(0) = 0 R. , ddxx2 = 6x < 0 x (, 0)
d2 x3
= 6x > 0 x (0, +). 0 x3 .
dx2

5.7.4

. f : A R A. l
f (, f ()) l
l. , y = x + l,
f () = + f (x) x + x A. , , f (x) > x +
x A, x 6= , .
, l f
(, f ()) l
l. , y = x+ l, f () = + f (x) x+
x A. , , f (x) < x + x A, x 6= ,
.
f () = + l y = x + f () ,
, y = (x ) + f (). l
f (, f ()) y = (x ) + f () f (x) (x ) + f ()
x A.
, l f (, f ())
y = (x ) + f () f (x) (x ) + f () x A.
,
.
5.16. I, f : I R I.
1. f () I, y = (x ) + f ()
() f (, f ())
f+0 (), I, f0 () , I,
f0 () f+0 (), I.
2. f () I, y = (x)+f () ()
f (, f ()) f+0 () ,
I, f0 (), I, f+0 () f0 (),
191

I.
3. , f I I,
, , f
(, f ()) y = f 0 ()(x ) + f (),
f (, f ()).
. 1. f I. 5.11, f+0 ()
I f0 ()
I.
y = (x ) + f ()
f (, f ()). I, f (x)
()
(x ) + f () x I, x > , f (x)f
x
x
()
, , f+0 () = limx+ f (x)f
.
x
, I, f (x) (x ) + f ()
()
x I, x < , f (x)f
x ,
x
()
, f0 () = limx f (x)f
.
x
. I f0 ()
()
f+0 (). 5.11, f+0 () f (x)f
x I, x >
x
f (x)f ()
x

f0 () x I, x < . f (x) f () (x ) x I,

x 6= .
y = (x ) + f ()
f (, f ()).
f I,
.
I f+0 (). 5.11,
()
f+0 () f (x)f
x I, x > . y = (x ) + f ()
x
f (, f ()). f
I,
.
I.
2. .
3. f I I,
f0 () = f+0 () = f 0 ().
y = (x ) + f () , ,
f (, f ()) = f 0 ().
. 1. f (x) = |x| . f0 (0) = 1 f+0 (0) = 1.
f (0, 0)
y = x, 1 1. , f 0 (2) = 1,
f (2, 2) y = (x 2) + 2,
y = x. , f 0 (3) = 1,
f (3, 3) y = (x + 3) + 3, y = x.
2. x2 R. , , y = 2(x ) + 2
x2 (, 2 ). ,
. , x2 > 2(x ) + 2 x 6= .
.
3. ex R. , ex
192

(0, e0 ) = (0, 1) y = x + 1. ,
. , ex > x + 1 x 6= 0.
5.17
.
5.17. I f : I R.
1. f () I I ()
f (, f ()).
2. f () I I ()
f (, f ()).
. 1. f () I, 5.16
I ()
f (, f ()).
, I
f (, f ()). x1 , x2 I, x1 < x2 (x1 , x2 ).
I,
f (, f ()) y = (x ) + f () .
f (x1 ) (x1 ) + f () f (x2 ) (x2 ) + f ().
()
(x1 )

1
f (xx22)f
, , f () xx22x
f (x1 ) + xx
f (x2 ).
f ()f
x1

1
2 x1
f I. ,
, f I.
2. .
16 7.2
() .
5.7.5

.
, ,
.
. 1. e(1t)x1 +tx2 < (1 t)ex1 + tex2 x1 , x2 , x1 < x2
t (0, 1). ex R. , t = 12
x1 +x2
x
x2
e 2 < e 1 +e
.
2
2. ((1 t)x1 + tx2 ) log((1 t)x1 + tx2 ) < (1 t)x1 log x1 + tx2 log x2 x1 , x2 > 0,
x1 < x2 t (0, 1). , f (x) = x log x (0, +),
f 00 (x) = x1 > 0 x > 0.
3

3. x 4 <

3
(x 1) +
4
3
dx4
(1) = 34
dx

[0, +)
3
x 4 < 34 (x 1) + 1 x 0, x 6= 1.

1 x 0, x 6= 1. , x 4
, , 5.16,

.
1. 5.11.
{
xk ,
x 0
2. f (x) =
k N. n N, f (n) .
k
x , x 0
193

3. , n N, n-
sin 5x sin 7x, x21+1 .

x+2
x2 1

x+1
(x1)2

x3
x2 1

4. n N, I, f : I R. f (n) (x) = 0 x I
f n 1.
n 1 )
n n! (
5. [] f (x) = logx x , f (n) (x) = (1)
log
x

n+1
k=1 k n N.
x
n n!ex n
k
(1)
(1)
ex
k
[] f (x) = x , f (n) (x) = xn+1
k=0 k! x n N.
[] f (x) = tan x, f (n) (x) = Pn (tan x) n N, Pn
n + 1.
6. f : [a, b] R [a, b] (a, b).
f (a) = f (b) = 0 f (c) > 0 c (a, b), (a, b)
f 00 () < 0.
7. f : (a, b) R f (x)f 00 (x) 0 x (a, b). (a, b)
f (x)f 0 (x) = 0, f
.
8. f : [1, 1] R [1, 1], (1, 1)
f (1) = f (0) = 0, f (1) = 1, f 0 (0) = 0. (1, 1) f (3) () = 3.
: P P (1) = P (0) = 0, P (1) = 1
P 0 (0) = 0. g = f P .
9. f : [a, b] R [a, b] (a, b). .
(a, f (a)) (b, f (b)) f
, (a, b)
f 00 () = 0.
10. I f : I R I. f (x) 0
x I f (x) = 0 x I,
I f 000 () = 0.
11. 13 5.5. a < b, n N,
P (x) = (x a)n (x b)n . P (n) n,
n (a, b).
12. n N, n 2, I f : I R f (n1) I
f (n) I. f n + 1 I,
f (n) I.
13. .
I, J f : I J f 1 : J I, I = f () J.
[] f f 0 () 6= 0, f 1
00 ()
(f 1 )00 () = (ff0 ())
3 .
[] , f n f 0 () 6= 0,
f 1 n .
14. [] P (x) = a0 +a1 (x)+ +an (x)n . P (k) () = k!ak
k Z, 0 k n P (k) () = 0 k Z, k n + 1.
194

[] y0 , y1 , . . . , yn . P n
P (k) () = yk k Z, 0 k n. ;
[] P n
P (x) = P () +

P 0 ()
(x
1!

) + +

P (n) ()
(x
n!

)n

, x. 5.10.
15. . 4 5.1.
[] g : (a, ] R n (a, ] h : [, b) R n
(k)
[, b) g (k) ()
{ = h () k Z, 0 k n.
g(x), a < x
f : (a, b) R f (x) =
n
h(x), x < b
(a, b) f (k) () = g (k) () = h(k) () k Z, 0 k n.
[] f : [a, b] R n [a, b].
14,

P (x), x a
P Q g(x) = f (x), a x b

Q(x), b x
n R.
[] b < c f : (a, b] R n (a, b]
g : [c, d) R n [c, d). B P

f (x), a < x b
h(x) = P (x), b x c n (a, d).

g(x), c x < d
P ;
16. [] x1 , . . . , xn y1 , . . . , yn . k = 1, . . . , n
m
n 1 Qk (x) = 1mn,m6=k xxx
, m
k xm
1 n k. Qk ;
Q(x) = y1 Q1 (x) + + yn Qn (x)
n 1 : Q(x1 ) = y1 , . . . , Q(xn ) = yn .
[] . x1 , . . . , xn I f : I R.
Q1 , . . . , Qn [], Q(x) = f (x1 )Q1 (x) + + f (xn )Qn (x)
Lagrange f x1 , . . . , xn .
I , f (n1) I f (n)
I, x I I f (x) Q(x) =
f (n) ()
(x x1 ) (x xn ).
n!
: x = xk , . x 6= xk k = 1, . . . , n.
n!(f (x)Q(x))
A
h(t) = f (t) Q(t) n!
(t x1 ) (t xn )
A = (xx
1 )(xxn )
12.
17. Leibniz:
(f g)(n) =

n
k=0

(n )
k

f (k) g (nk) ,

18. f (x) = e x .
1

195

n N.

[] f (n) (x) = x2n Pn (x)e x x > 0,


Pn (x) n 1. : P1 (x) = 1, P2 (x) = 1 2x,
P3 (x) = 1 6x + 6x2 .
.
1
[] f (n) (x) = x2n Pn (x)e x
Pn+1 (x) = x2 Pn 0 (x) + (1 2nx)Pn (x) x > 0.
[] x2 f 0 (x) = f (x) x > 0. n
Leibniz 17, Pn+2 (x) = (12(n+1)x)Pn+1 (x)n(n+1)x2 Pn (x)
x > 0.
[] xn1 Pn (x) (1)n1 n!.
[] x2 Pn 00 (x) (2(n 1)x 1)Pn 0 (x) + n(n 1)Pn (x) = 0 x > 0.
1

19. f (x) = ex .
2
[] f (n) (x) = (1)n Hn (x)ex x,
Hn (x) n. : H1 (x) = 2x, H2 (x) = 4x2 2,
H3 (x) = 8x3 12x .
[] Hn+1 (x) = Hn 0 (x) + 2xHn (x) x.
[] f 0 (x) = 2xf (x) x. n
Leibniz 17 Hn+2 (x) = 2xHn+1 (x) 2(n + 1)Hn (x)
x.
[] Hn+1 0 (x) = 2(n + 1)Hn (x) x.
[] xn Hn (x) 2n .
[] Hn 00 (x) 2xHn 0 (x) + 2nHn (x) = 0 x.
. Hn (x) Hermite n (x) =
2

x2

( 2n n!1 ) 2 Hn (x)e 2 Hermite.


Hermite Fourier.
13 11.4.
1

20. :
1

x3
(x+1)2

, x2 (x 1)2 , x + x1 ,

x
x2 +1

1
x

1
1
+ x1
+ x2
, ex , e x , e x2 ,
2

e x e x

, sin x + cos x, ex sin x, log1 x . ,


,
.
1
1
e x +e x

21. f : (a, b) R (a, b), a < < b. f 0 (x) f 0 ()


x (a, b) f 0 (x) f 0 () x (a, b), f .
{ (
)
1
x2 |x|
+
sin
, x 6= 0
x
x
22. f (x) =
0
0,
x = 0
f . 5.14 5.15;
23. (i) f f
.
(ii) , f ,
.
24. .
[] , 0, I f, g : I R I. f + g :
196

I R max{f, g} : I R I.
[] I, J f : I J I g : J R J. g
J, g f : I R I.
[] I F , f : I R
I. x I F (x) = sup{f (x) | f F}.
F (x) R x I, F : I R I.
[] ;
25. .
I f : I R.
()
[] f I I f (x)f
x
x I \ {}.
0
(a)
(a0 )
[] f I f (bb)f
f (b)f

0 a0
ba
a, a0 , b, b0 I, a0 a, b0 b , , a 6= b a0 6= b0 .
26. a, b R a < b f : (a, b) R (a, b).
. (i) f (a, b), (ii) f
(a, b), (iii) c (a, b) f (a, c]
[c, b), (iv) c (a, b) f (a, c]
[c, b) (v) c, d (a, b) c d f
(a, c], [c, d] [d, b).
27. a, b R
[]
[] , ,
(a, b]
[] , ,
[a, b)

a < b f : (a, b) R (a, b).


limxb f (x), limxa+ f (x).
b R f b, f
limxb f (x) f (b).
a R f a, f
limxa+ f (x) f (a).

x0
1
28. f I x1 , x2 I, x1 < x2 . f (x0 ) = xx22 x
f (x1 )+ xx02 x
f (x2 )
x1
1
x2 x
xx1
x0 (x1 , x2 ), f (x) = x2 x1 f (x1 ) + x2 x1 f (x2 ) x
(x1 , x2 ).

29. Lagrange.
f : (a, b) R (a, b). x1 , x2 (a, b), x1 < x2
(x1 )
(x1 , x2 ) f (xx22)f
= f 0 (), f
x1
(a, b).
30. f : (0, +) R (0, +) limx0 f (x) = 0.
(0, +).

f (x)
x

31. .
[] f : I R I x1 , x2 I, x1 < x2
t (0, 1) f ((1 t)x1 + tx2 ) (1 t)f (x1 ) + tf (x2 ), f
I.
: f : I R I
(x2 )
2
) f (x1 )+f
, f I.
x1 , x2 I, x1 < x2 f ( x1 +x
2
2
197

{
1, x 0
[] f (x) =
f
0, x > 0
[] R. f R;
32. [] , f R, R.
[] I f : I R I. ,
I f , f I.
33. a < 0 a > 1.
[] ((1 t)x1 + tx2 )a < (1 t)x1 a + tx2 a x1 , x2 > 0, x1 < x2
t (0, 1).
[] xa > a a1 (x ) + a x, > 0, x 6= .
0 < a < 1.
34. a > 0.
[] a(1t)x1 +tx2 < (1t)ax1 +tax2 x1 , x2 , x1 < x2 t (0, 1).
[] ax > a log a (x ) + a x, , x 6= .
(
)
35. [] log (1 t)x1 + tx2 > (1 t) log x1 + t log x2 x1 , x2 > 0, x1 < x2
t (0, 1).
[] log x < 1 (x ) + log x, > 0, x 6= .
36. Young 29 5.6 :
log x (0, +) xt
(0, +) 0 < t < 1.
37. , Jensen, . . 19 6.4.
[] I f : I R I. x1 , . . . , xn I w1 , . . . , wn 0,
w1 + + wn = 1,
f (x1 w1 + + xn wn ) f (x1 )w1 + + f (xn )wn .
n = 2,
.
f I. ,
, f () I,
x1 , . . . , xn k wk > 0,
.
1

[] x q (0, +) q > 1
1
q
p
q
p
x1 = ab11 p , . . . , xn = abnn p 1 = aA1p , . . . , n = aAnp , A = (a1 p + +an p ) p ,
Hlder 29 5.6.
[] 29[] 5.6
log x (0, +).
n
38. [] n N, a1 , . . . , an > 0, a = a1 ++a
ana aa11 aann .
n
n
[] n N, 0 < a1 , . . . , an < , a = a1 ++a
sin a1 sin an (sin a)n .
n
n
sina1a1 sinanan ( sinaa )n .
[] n N, 0 < a1 , . . . , an < , a = a1 ++a
n

198

39. f : I R I,
f .
: 19 4.1. f ,
5.11 f+0 I
f+0 I f .

5.8


00
.

l Hopitl.
5.8.1

l Hopitl

0
0

l Hopitl. f, g : (, b) R (, b) g(x), g 0 (x) 6= 0


0 (x)
x (, b). , , limx+ f (x) = limx+ g(x) = 0. limx+ fg0 (x)
,
limx+

f (x)
g(x)

:
limx+

f (x)
g(x)

= limx+

f 0 (x)
g 0 (x)

:
x , x , x + x .
. f , g , f () = g() = 0.
limx+ f (x) = limx+ g(x) = 0, f, g , , [, b).
0 (x)
limx+ fg0 (x)
= .
0

(x)
> 0. T 0 > 0 | fg0 (x)
| < x (, b), < x < +0 .
Cauchy x (, b) (, x)
0 ()
(x)
(x)f ()
fg(x)
= fg(x)g()
= fg0 ()
. , x (, b), < x < + 0 (, b),
f 0 ()

(x)
< < + 0 , g0 () < , , | fg(x)
| < .
f (x)

(x)
g(x) < x (, b), < x < + 0 , limx+ fg(x)
= .
0

(x)
limx+ fg0 (x)
= . ,
x x .
x + x 0+ .
a > 0, f, g : (a, +) R (a, +), g(x), g 0 (x) 6= 0
0 (x)
.
x (a, +) limx+ f (x) = limx+ g(x) = 0. limx+ fg0 (x)
(x)
limx+ fg(x)
.
x t = x1 , F, G : (0, a1 ) R
F (t) = f ( 1t ) = f (x) G(t) = g( 1t ) = g(x) t (0, a1 ).
G(t) = g(x) 6= 0 G0 (t) = t12 g 0 ( 1t ) = x2 g 0 (x) 6= 0 t (0, a1 ). ,
F 0 (t)
x2 f 0 (x)
f 0 (x)
f (x)
F (t)
limt0+ G
0 (t) = limx+ x2 g 0 (x) = limx+ g 0 (x) . limx+ g(x) = limt0+ G(t)
(x)
. limx+ fg(x)
= limx+
, x x 0 .

199

f 0 (x)
g 0 (x)

. limx0 esin1
.
x
0
sin x 6= 0, sin x = cos x 6= 0 x ( 2 , 0) (0, 2 ). , limx0 (ex 1) =
limx0 sin x = 0.
x
: limx0 cose x = 11 = 1.
x
, limx0 esin1
= 1.
x
, ,
, , , .
x e0
x
ex 0 e0 = 1. limx0 e x1 = limx0 ex0
= 1.
, sin x 0 cos 0 = 1
x
x
0
limx0 sin xsin
= limx0 sinxx = 1. limx0 esin1
= limx0 (e(sin1)/x
= 11 = 1.
x0
x
x)/x
x

l Hopitl
, .

l Hopitl. f, g : (, b) R (, b) g(x), g 0 (x) 6=


0 (x)
0 x (, b). , , limx+ g(x) = + . limx+ fg0 (x)
,
limx+

f (x)
g(x)

:
limx+

f (x)
g(x)

= limx+

f 0 (x)
g 0 (x)

:
x , x , x + x .
. limx+

f 0 (x)
g 0 (x)

= .
0

(x)
> 0. 0 0 > 0 | fg0 (x)
| < 6 x (, b), < x < + 0 0 .
x0 (, b), < x0 < + 0 0 . limx+ |g(x)| = +, 0 00 > 0
{
}
|g(x)| > max |g(x0 )|, 3 |f (x0 )|, 3||
|g(x0 )| x (, b), < x < + 0 00 .

0 = min{x0 , 0 00 }. x (, b), < x < + 0 < x <


x0 < + 0 0 < x < + 0 00 . Cauchy,
(x)f (x0 )
f 0 ()
x (x, x0 ) fg(x)g(x
=
. (, b), < < + 0 0 ,
)
g 0 ()
0
0

(x)f (x0 )
()
| fg(x)g(x
| = | fg0 ()
| < 6 . |f (x) f (x0 ) (g(x) g(x0 ))| < 6 |g(x) g(x0 )|.
0)
, |f (x) g(x)| < 6 (|g(x)| + |g(x0 )|) + |f (x0 )| + |||g(x0 )|.
(
) |f (x0 )|
(x)
0 )|
0 )|
| fg(x)
| < 6 1 + |g(x
+ |g(x)| + || |g(x
< 6 (1 + 1) + 3 + 3 = .
|g(x)|
|g(x)|


, , 0 > 0 f (x) < x (, b),
g(x)

(x)
= .
< x < + 0 . limx+ fg(x)
f 0 (x)
limx+ g0 (x) =

x x
. x x 0
.
l Hopitl
limx+ f (x) - - .

l Hopitl,

.
. 1.
limx+

xb
ax

= 0,

a > 1, b > 0.
200

, , a > 1, b = 1. limx+ axx = 0.


limx+ ax = + ax 6= 0 ax log a 6= 0
1
= 0 . limx+ axx = 0.
x. limx+ ax log
a
, a > 1, b > 0. a1/b > 1, limx+
( x )b
limx+ (a1/b
= 0b = 0.
)x
2.
limx+

(log x)b
xa

= 0,

x
(a1/b )x

= 0. limx+

xb
ax

a > 0, b > 0.

x
a > 0, b = 1. limx+ log
= 0.
xa
a
limx+ x = + xa 6= 0 axa1 6= 0 x > 0.
1
x
x
= limx+ ax1a = 0 . limx+ log
= 0.
limx+ axa1
xa
b
(log
x)
log
x
, a > 0, b > 0. ab > 0, limx+ xa/b = 0. limx+ xa =
(
)b
limx+ xloga/bx = 0b = 0.
x
3. limx+ xcos
+
. limx+ x = +.
x
+
, x cos x x 1 x, limx+ (x cos x) = +.

cos x 1
x > 0,
l Hopitl:
x )
x
(
x
cos x
limx+ cosx x = 0, limx+ xcos
=
lim
1

=
1
0 = 1.
x+
x
x
x
, , ! limx+ 1+sin

1
limx+ sin x.
, , l Hopitl. ,
.

, , 00
.

l Hopitl. , , .
1. limx f (x) = 0 limx g(x) = limx f (x)g(x),
f (x)
0(). limx f (x)g(x) = limx 1/g(x)
,
0
0 . , , limx f (x)g(x) =
g(x)
limx 1/f
,
. , (x)

f .
2. limx f (x) = + limx g(x) = limx (f (x)+g(x)),
( 1
+
(+) + (). limx (f (x) + g(x)) = limx g(x)
)
1
f (x)g(x), 0(). f (x)
.
3. limx f (x) = 0, f (x) > 0, limx g(x) = 0 limx f (x)g(x) , 00 . limx f (x)g(x) =
limx eg(x) log f (x) , 0().
4. limx f (x) = +, limx g(x) = 0 limx f (x)g(x) ,
(+)0 . limx f (x)g(x) = limx eg(x) log f (x) , 0(+).
5. , limx f (x) = 1 limx g(x) =
limx f (x)g(x) , 1 . limx f (x)g(x) = limx eg(x) log f (x) ,
()0.

201

. 1. limx0+ x log x, 0().


x
6 0
limx0+ log
, limx0+ x1 = +. x1 6= 0 x12 =
1/x
x (0, +). , limx0+

1/x
1/x2

= limx0+ x = 0. limx0+ x log x = limx0+

log x
1/x

= 0.

x log x

2. limx0+ x 0 . x = e
, x
x log x
. limx0+ x = limx0+ e
= 1.
(
)x
(
)x
x log(1+ x 2 )
x
x
+
1+x
3. limx+ 1 + 1+x2 1 . 1 + 1+x
=e

2
(
)
x
limx+ x log 1 + 1+x2 , (+)0.
)
(
2 ))
x
= log(1+x/(1+x
00 . x1 6= 0 x12 6= 0
x log 1 + 1+x
2
1/x
(x 1)
x (0, +). limx+ (1+xx2 )(1+x+x
=
2
(
)
(
)x)
log(1+x/(1+x2 ))
x
x
1. limx+ x log 1 + 1+x2 = limx+
= 1. limx+ 1 + 1+x2
=
1/x
2

limx+ e
5.8.2

x log(1+

x
)
1+x2

= e.

l Hopitl .
. (an ), (bn ) bn 6= 0 n N limn+ an =
limn+ bn = 0. limn+ abnn , .
l Hopitl, f, g :
[1, +) R f (n) = an g(n) = bn . f, g
[1, +), g(x), g 0 (x) 6= 0 x [1, +)
limx+ f (x) = limx+ g(x) = 0.
0 (x)
f, g limx+ fg0 (x)
,
limx+

f (x)
g(x)

. ,

f
g

3.4 (n), limn+


.

an
bn

= limn+

f (n)
g(n)

. limn+ arctan n1 tan( 2 n1 ).


limn+ arctan n1 = 0 limn+ tan( 2 n1 ) = +,
0(+).
arctan n1 tan( 2 n1 ) = arctan n1 cot n1 = arctan(1/n)
tan(1/n)
00 . f, g : ( 2 , +) f (x) = arctan x1 g(x) = tan x1 . f, g
, limx+

f 0 (x)
g 0 (x)

= limx+

x2 (cos x1 )2
x2 +1

x2

limx+ x2 +1 limx+ (cos x1 )2 = 1.


(n) +, limn+

arctan(1/n)
tan(1/n)

= limx+

arctan(1/x)
tan(1/x)

= 1.

. (an ), (bn ) bn 6= 0 n N
limn+ bn = + . , , limn+ abnn ,
.
l Hopitl,
. f, g : [1, +) R f (n) = an
g(n) = bn . f, g [1, +), g(x), g 0 (x) 6= 0
0 (x)
,
x [1, +) limx+ g(x) = + . , , limx+ fg0 (x)
limx+

limn+ abnn

(n)
limn+ fg(n)

f (x)
g(x)

202

. 1.
nb
an

0,

(log n)b
na

a > 1, b > 0,

0,

a > 0, b > 0.

f, g : [1, +) R f (x) = xb g(x) = ax ,


b
, limx+ axx .
l Hopitl.
.

2. n n 1.

log n
1
n n = n n = e n (+)0 +
: limn+ lognn = 0.
+

log n
limn+ n n = limn+ e n = e0 = 1.
.
x

1. , limx+ xe134 ,
x

1
(1 2
)
7x
e 2 (log x)4
e x2
x
7
limx+ (log x)

+(log
x)
.
,
lim
x , limx+ (e x), limx0+
x0
5 , limx+
5
2
100
x
x
x5
4
x

2
x)
1x+log
x
sin x

, limx0 log(1+x)
, limx2 xx2 3x+2
, limx0 arctan
, limx0 1cos(1cos
,
e2x 1
5x+6
x
x4
1 2x
(
)
x
log(log(log(log
x)))
1
1
limx0 abx 1
(a, b > 0, b 6= 1), limx0 log(1+x)
x1 , limx+ log(log(log x)) ,

2. limx1
limx+

log(log x)
,
log x

1
x

x)
1
limx0 x sin(sin x)(sin
, limx0 e(1+x)
, limx1 xxb 1
, limx1+ log x log(x1), limx0+ sin x log x,
x
( 1 x6 1 )
1
x
limx0 ex 1 sin x , limx 4 (tan x)tan(2x) , limx0 ( x1 cot x), limx0+ xx 1 , limx0 (x + ex ) x ,
1
(
)
x
arcsin xsin x
limx+ x(xlog 1)
, limx0 sin1x x1 , limx0 tan
.
x
xarctan x
a

3. 0 < k < 1 n N. ex (1+ 1!x + + xn! )k.


n
1 + 1!x + + xn! = kex .
xn , (xn ) .
n

4. limx+ e +e

ex
l Hopitl ; ,
l Hopitl ;
)
(
x
+ ax2 + b = 0.
5. a, b limx0 1cos
x4
{
1
, x 6= 0
log |x|
6. f (x) =
13 4.1
0,
x = 0
f Hlder 0.
7. l Hopitl.
f, g : (0, 1) R (0, 1) limx0+ f (x) =
limx0+ g(x) = 0, g(x), g 0 (x) 6= 0 x (0, 1)
0 (x)
(x)
limx0+ fg(x)
limx0+ fg0 (x)
.
ex 1 1 x

ex 1 1 x 1 x2

1!
1!
2!
8. : limx0 e x1 , limx0
, limx0
.
x2
x3
,
l Hopitl . .
x

203

9. l Hopitl 1 2
1
1 3
sin x 1 x
cos x1+ 2!
x
sin x 1!
x+ 3!
x
,
lim
,
limx0 sinxx = 1; : limx0 x3 1! , limx0
x0
4
5
x
x
limx0

1 2
1 4
cos x1+ 2!
x 4!
x
x6

. .
log(1+x)x+ 1 x2

2
10. : limx0 log(1+x)
, limx0 log(1+x)x
, limx0
.
x
x2
x3
,
l Hopitl . .

11. [] : a < < b f : (a, b) R


n 1 (a, b). f (n) (),
(
limx f (x) f ()

f (1) ()
(x
1!

)1

f (n1) ()
(x
(n1)!

)n1

)/

(x )n =

f (n) ()
n!

8, 9, 10 . n = 1,
f 0 (). n = 2, n = 3.
[] f : (1, 1) R (1, 1)
( ( ))x
a2
0 f (0) = 1, f 0 (0) = 0, f 00 (0) = 1, limx+ f ax
= e 2
(
)x
1 2
a. , limx+ cos ax = e 2 a .
n

b (x)k

b0 (x)k

k
k
= limx k=0
R. bk = b0k
[] limx k=0
(x)n
(x)n
k = 0, 1, . . . , n.
[] [], f (n) () R

(k)
Pn (x) = nk=0 f k!() (x )k n
n (x)
limx f (x)P
= 0.
(x)n

12. .
.
[] a < < b f 2m 1 (a, b)
f (2m) (). f (1) () = . . . = f (2m1) () = 0,
f , f (2m) () > 0, f , f (2m) () < 0.
[] a < < b f 2m (a, b)
f (2m+1) (). f (1) () = . . . = f (2m) () = 0 f (2m+1) () 6= 0,
f .
13. . 5 5.3 13
5.5. 9
10.2.
[] P .
P k N P () = = P (k1) () = 0 P (k) () 6= 0.
[] . a < < b, f : (a, b) R f () = 0.
f k N g : (a, b) R
g() 6= 0 f (x) = (x )k g(x) x (a, b). f () 6= 0,
f 0.

.
f , , . , f .
204

[] a < < b f : (a, b) R . f () = 0.


f 1 f
f 0 () 6= 0.
[] []. k N, k 2, a < < b f : (a, b) R
k 1 (a, b). f () = 0.
f k f k
f () = = f (k1) () = 0 f (k) () 6= 0.
14. f : (a, b) R, a < < b.
(h)
[] f 0 (), limh0+ f (+h)f
= f 0 ().
2h
l Hopitl.
(h)
= f 00 ().
[] f 00 (), limh0+ f (+h)2fh()+f
2
[] f 00 (), limh0

f (+2h)2f (+h)+f ()
h2

= f 00 ().

15. f, g : [0, 1) R [0, 1) 0


f 0 (0)g 00 (0) 6= f 00 (0)g 0 (0). Cauchy,
x (0, 1) (0, x) (f (x) f (0))g 0 () = (g(x) g(0)f 0 ().
limx0 x = 12 .
: limx0

f (x)f (0)f 0 (0)x


x2

f 00 (0)
2

lim0

f 0 ()f 0 (0)

= f 00 (0).

16. [] f (a, +) limx+ f 0 (x) = R.


= .
limx+ f (x)
x
[] f (a, +) limx+ (f (x) + f 0 (x)) = .
limx+ f (x) = limx+ f 0 (x) = 0.
17. , ,
.
1
[] limx0+ xm e x = 0 m N.
{ 1
e x , x > 0
h
[] h(x) =
0,
x 0
R , , h(n) (0) = 0 n N.
: 18
{ 5.7.

[] g(x) =

e
0,

2
1x2

1 < x < 1
f
|x| 1

R.
x
[] f : R R f (x) = 1 g(t) dt x.
f R, 0 (, 1], 1
[1, +) [1, 1].
[] > 0 : R R (x) = f (3 + 4x
)f (3 4x
) x.

, R, 0
(, ] [, +), 1 [ 2 , 2 ], [, 2 ]
[ 2 , ].
18. , : limn+
limn+ nen , limn+ n3 en , limn+
19. : limn+

log(log n)
,
log n

n
e5
100
n

, limn+

limn+
205

(log n)13
n2

log(log(log n))
log(log n)

, limn+ (n cot n1 ).

n
(log n)95

5.9

, .

5.9.1

.
f (x)f, g : A R R A f (x), g(x) 6= 0
. limx g(x) = 0, f g
g
f . ,

f
(x)
g(x)
- f , g, limx g(x) = 0 limx f (x) = +.
(x)
u < + , f ,
, l, u 0 < l fg(x)
g .
(x)
, l
= limx fg(x)
0 < l < ( , l = 2 ) u > ( , u = 2)
(x)
< u , f, g .
l < fg(x)
. 1. b > 0, a > 1, xb
b
ax , limx+ axx = 0.
2. c > 0, b > 0, (log x)c +
c
limx+ (logxbx) = 0.
n
n
3. an , bn 6= 0, a 0 + a1 x + + an x
a b0 + b1 x + + bn x
a0 +a1 x++an xn
n


+, limx+ b0 +b1 x++bn xn = bn > 0.
4. an , bm 6= 0 n < m. a0 + a1 x + + an xn
+a1 x++an xn
b0 + b1 x + + bm xm . , limx+ ba00+b
m = 0.
1 x++bm x

+
xb ,

+

5. a > 1, b > 0, a x 0 xb ,
1

limx0+ axbx = limt+ at t = 0.


x
6. 1 cos x x2 0, limx0 1cos
= 12 > 0.
x2
7. sin x x 0, limx0 sinxx = 1 > 0.
x
ex 1 x 0, limx0 e x1 = 1 > 0.
log x
log x x 1 1, limx1 x1
= 1 > 0.
20 5.6.
8. c > 0, b > 0, f (x) = (log x1 )c 0 xb ,
(log

1 c
)

limx0+ xbx = limt+ (logtbt) = 0.


9. limx+ 2x+xx sin x = limx+ (2 + sin x) . , 2x + x sin x x
+. , 1 2x+xx sin x 3 x (0, +).
, , limx+ : , +.
3 n
+. n
, , n +.
4,
+ : .
, n xn . , ,
n
n xn +.
n

+a1 x++an x
. R(x) = ba00+b
m (an , bm 6= 0), n > m,
1 x++bm x

a
= n > 0.
n m +, limx+ xR(x)
nm
bm

206

xb
b > 0
xb +. :
. f b > 0 +
xb +.
, ,
b
limx+ xxb21 = limx+ xb21b1 = 0, 0 < b1 < b2 ,.
, , +
+ +. , f + xb
u , , |f (x)| lxb
b > 0, u, l > 0 l fx(x)
b
b
+. limx+ lx = +, limx+ |f (x)| = +.
. a > 1, ax +.
+ ax a > 1.
a, limx+
( )x
limx+ aa12 = 0 1 < a1 < a2 .

a1 x
a2 x

. c > 0, (log x)c +.


+ (log x)c
c > 0.
c1

(log x)
c, limx+ (log
=
x)c2
1
limx+ (log x)c2 c1 = 0 0 < c1 < c2 .
,
+ + +.
.
1 2 , +,

.
A , , N
+. ,
. , (an ), a > 1, (
)
, (na ), a > 0, (log n)c ,
c > 0, .
+, N + , ,
n +.

. 1. , .
.
2. (1 cos n1 ) ( n12 ).
(
)
3. log(1 + n1 ) ( n1 ).
5.9.2

. .

. f, g : A R R A. g(x) 6= 0 .
(x)
limx fg(x)
= 0,
(
)
f (x) = g(x)
207

f g .
M 0 |f (x)| M |g(x)| ,
(
)
f (x) = g(x)
f g .

(
)
. 1. f g , f (x) = g(x)
. , ,
( b
) f (x) b6= 0
( x ) .
c
, ( (log
a(
) x) = x x =
) + a > 1 b, c > 0.
b1
b2
b2
b1
, x = x
+ x = x
0 0 < b1 < b2 .
2.( )f g , f (x) =
g(x) .
, sin x = (x) 1 cos x = (x2 ) 0.
3. . 5.1.3, f : A R A
A. f f 0 ()

f (x) f () f 0 ()(x ) = (x ) .
, limx

f (x)f ()f 0 ()(x)


x

= 0


= f 0 ().
a(x) = f () + f 0 ()(x ), ,
, f (x) a(x) = (x ) . ,
5.1.3, y1 = f (x), y2 = f 0 ()(x ) + f (), x = x , y1 = f ( + x) f ()
y2 = f 0 ()x. y1 y2 = (x) .
()
limx f (x)f
x

. f, g : A R R A. g(x) 6= 0
(x)
= 1,
. limx fg(x)
f (x) g(x)

f g .
(x)
(x)
limx fg(x)
= 1 fg(x)
6= 0 , ,
f (x) 6= 0 . , f (x) g(x) , f (x), g(x) 6= 0
. , limx fg(x)
= 1, g(x) f (x) .
(x)
.

. 1. sin x x 1 cos x 12 x2 0.
x
2. ex 1 x 0, limx0 e x1 = 1.
log x
3. log x x 1 1, limx1 x1
= 1.
1

tan x
4. tan x x 2 , limx 2 1/(x
= limt0 t tan(t + 2 ) = limt0 t cot t =

)
2
2
limt0 sint t cos t = 1.
:
(
)
c 6= 0. f (x) g(x) = cg(x)
f (x) g(x).
(
)
: f (x) g(x) = cg(x) limx f (x)g(x)
= 0
cg(x)
( f (x)
)
f (x)g(x)
(x)
limx g(x) = 0 limx g(x) 1 = 0 limx fg(x)
= 1
f (x) g(x) .
208

. :
1. sin x x = (x) cos x 1 + 12 x2 = (x2 ) 0.
2. ex 1 x = (x) 0.
3. log(1 + x) x = (x) 0.
(
)
4. tan x x1 = x1 2 .
2

5.18. 1. g1 , . . . , gn g , g1 + +gn
g .
2. f = g + g1 + + gn g1 , . . . , gn g ,
f (x) g(x) .
g1 (x)++gn (x)
n (x)
1 (x)
= limx gg(x)
+ + limx gg(x)
g(x)
)
(
n (x)
limx 1 + g1 (x)++g
= 1 + 0 = 1.
g(x)

. 1. limx
2.

(x)
limx fg(x)

= 0 + + 0 = 0.

. f = g + g1 + + gn g1 , . . . , gn g ,
g .
.
, f = g + g1 + + gn g
limx g(x), limx f (x) . , ,
(x)
f (x) g(x) , limx f (x) = limx fg(x)
g(x) = 1 limx g(x).
: g + g1 + + gn h + h1 + + hm g, h ,
g(x)+g1 (x)++gn (x)
g(x)
g(x)
, , h(x)+h
h(x)
, , limx h(x)
,
1 (x)++hm (x)
limx

g(x)+g1 (x)++gn (x)


h(x)+h1 (x)++hm (x)

. 1. .
xk = (xn ) + k < n, a0 + a1 x + + an xn ,
an 6= 0, an xn +, a0 + a1 x + + an xn an xn +
, , limx+ (a0 + a1 x + + an xn ) = limx+ an xn .
+a1 x++an xn
a0 +a1 x++an xn
an x n
an xn
, ba00+b
m b xm +, limx+ b +b x++b xm = limx+ b xm .
m
m
m
1 x++bm x
0
1
x

2. xe2x x2 +3ex x2 e 2 2e2x +log x x2 ex


x
x
2x
2x x2 +3ex x2 e 2
2x x2 +3ex x2 e 2
xe
= x2 +, limx+ xe2e2x
=
+. xe2e2x
+log xx2 ex
2e2x
+log xx2 ex
x
limx+ 2 = +.
,
, A N +.
.
x

ax

1. [] a > 1. ax , aa , aa +. .
[] log x, log(log x), log(log(log x)) +. .
1

2. [] x, log(ex + x log x), e(1+ x ) log x +.


[] x,
x

x2 +x3 log x
sin x+x2

0.

e2
3. xxee xx
, e 5 + x3 e 6 x, e3 log(2+log x) . +
+sin x
, .
3 x

209

4. . +
+ xb b < 0. ,
+
+ ax a (0, 1) (log x)c c < 0,
.
[]
+ 0 +.
[] +

.
[]
.
+a1 x++an xn
[] ba00+b
m (an , bm 6= 0), n < m,
1 x++bm x
+.
( 1
)
2
1
[] ex + 2ex , log(x+log
, log e x + x12 . x)
+ ,
.
1
1
1
5. 1x
1 = (1), 1x
(1 + x) = (x), 1x
(1 + x + x2 ) = (x2 ) 0
. .
(
)
(
2)
6. ex 1 = (1), ex 1 + 1!x = (x), ex 1 + 1!x + x2! = (x2 ) 0
. .
(
(
(
3)
2
4)
3
5)
7. sin x 1!x x3! = (x3 ), cos x 1 x2! + x4! = (x4 ), sin x 1!x x3! + x5! =
(
2
4
6)
(x5 ), cos x 1 x2! + x4! x6! = (x6 ) 0
. .
(
(
2)
2
3)
8. log(1+x)x = (x), log(1+x) x x2 = (x2 ), log(1+x) x x2 + x3 =
(x3 ) 0 . .
(
(
3)
3
5)
9. arctan xx = (x), arctan x x x3 = (x3 ), arctan x x x3 + x5 = (x5 )
0 . .

10. [] f (x) (a + bx + cx2 + dx3 ) = (x3 ) 0. f (x) (a +


bx + cx2 ) = (x2 ), f (x) (a + bx) = (x) f (x) a = (1) 0.
[] a, b, c, d exx1 (a + bx + cx2 + dx3 ) = (x3 ) 0.
11. 11 5.8 . a < < b
f n 1 (a, b). f (n) ()
,
(
f (x) f () +

f (1) ()
(x
1!

)1 + +

f (n) ()
(x
n!

)
)
(
)n = (x )n

5 - 9 .

2
12. [] e2x log xx5 ex , x log x logx x +x x log(log x),
x2 log x x2 + 3x sin x +;

[] x2 + x1 x 3x , 1 + 2x x x , (sin1x)2 + x3 x1 x
0;
210

13. , , f : [1, +) (0, +) , a > 0


f (x) = (eax ) xa = (f (x)) +.
(
)
(
)
14. [] f (x) =
o
g(x)

f
(x)
=

g(x)

(
)
(
)
(
) .()
: g(x) = g(x) . : g(x) = g(x) .
(
)
(
)
(
)
[] , f1 (x) = g(x) f2 (x)
=

g(x)

f
(x)+f
(x)
=

g(x)
1
2
(
)
(
)
(
)
.
(g(x) )+ ( g(x) ) =

(
) :
(
)
( g(x)
)
( .
)

g(x)
+

g(x)
=

g(x)
,

g
(x)

g
(x)
=

g
(x)g
(x)

1
2
1
2
(
) (
)
(
)
g1 (x) g2 (x) = g1 (x)g2 (x) .

5.10

Taylor, .

5.1. n Z, n 0, f : [, c] R, n [, c] f (n)
[, c] (, c). , , p > 0. , x (, c]
(, x)
f (x) =

n
k=0

f (k) ()
(x
k!

)k +

f (n+1) ()
(x
n!p

)p (x )np+1 .

c < , [c, ].
. F : [, x] R
F (t) = f (x)

n
k=0

f (k) (t)
(x
k!

t)k

t [, x]. F [, x] (, x) , ,
F (x) = 0.
F 0 (t) = f

(n+1) (t)

n!

(x t)n

t (, x).
h : [, x] R h(t) = (x )p F (t) F ()(x t)p t [, x].
h [, x] (, x) h() = h(x) = 0.
Rolle, (, x) h0 () = 0.
(x )p F 0 () = pF ()(x )p1
f (x)

n
k=0

f (k) ()
(x
k!

)k = F () =

f (n+1) ()
(x
n!p

)p (x )np+1 .

(k)
. f n , Pn, (x) = nk=0 f k!() (x )k
Taylor n f .
5.1 Taylor f
f (x) = Pn, (x) + Rn, (x, ),
(n+1)

Rn, (x, ) = f n!p () (x )p (x )np+1 Schlmlich n


p > 0.
p = n + 1 p = 1
(n+1)
(n+1)
Rn, (x, ) = f (n+1)!() (x )n+1 Rn, (x, ) = f n! () (x )n (x ).
Lagrange n
Cauchy n.
211

Taylor 7.4.
n f (x)
Pn, (x) Taylor n .
Taylor Rn, (x, ) , ,
f (x) Pn, (x).
. 1. P n. P
R , , 5.1 , x.

(k)
P (n+1) () = 0 , Rn, (x, ) = 0, P (x) = Pn, (x) = nk=0 P k!() (x )k
, x. P n
Taylor n P .

2. 4 + 105 < 1017


.
5
x = 4 + 10
= 4 4 .
1
f (x) = x [4, 4 + 105 ] f (k) (x) = 21 ( 21 1) ( 12 k + 1)x 2 k .
1
= 4 : f (k) (4) = 12 ( 12 1) ( 12 k + 1)4 2 k , , f 0 (4) = 14
f (k) (4) = (1)k1 13(2k3)
k 2.
23k1
, |f (n+1) (x)| (4, 4 + 105 ).
1
1
= 13(2n1)
|f (n+1) (x)| = | 12 ( 12 1) ( 21 n)x 2 n1 | 13(2n1)
. ,
n+ 1
2n+1
23n+2
4

5(n+1)
.
Lagrange |Rn,4 (4 + 105 , )| 213(2n1)
3n+2 (n+1)! 10
5
17
n = 2, |R2,4 (4 + 10 , )| < 10
, , Taylor


4 + 105 2 1 105 1 (1)21 13(223)
(105 )2 < 1017 .
4
2!
2321

(105 )2 =
2 + 14 105 + 2!1 (1)21 13(223)
2321

4 + 105 < 1017 .

1280001599999
640000000000

.
1. Taylor

1
x2 +1

0.

2. 14 5.7. f n

(k)
Pn (x) = nk=0 f k!() (x )k
n P (k) () = f (k) () k = 0, 1, . . . , n.

3. [] Taylor Lagrange f (x) = x


[, x] = [4, 4 + 105 ]. n N

4 + 105 ;
[] [] sin(1o ) sin(31o )
.

, 31o = 6 + 180
.
: 1o = 0 + 180
4. f : [a, b] R [a, b]
(a, b), f (a) = f (b) = 0 |f 00 (x)| M x (a, b).
2 +(xb)2
x (a, b).
|f 0 (x)| M (xa)2(ba)
5. f : [a, b] R [a, b] (a, b).
2
|f 00 ()|.
f 0 (a) = f 0 (b) = 0, (a, b) |f (b) f (a)| (ba)
4
212

(n+1)

6. Taylor Lagrange f (n+1)!() (x )n+1 , ,

1
x. , f (n+2) () 6= 0, limx+ x
= n+2
.
: Taylor 11 5.8
n + 2.
7. [] f : (a, +) R (a, +), u0 = sup{|f (x)| | x > a},
u1 = sup{|f 0 (x)| | x > a}, u2 = sup{|f 00 (x)| | x > a}. u21 4u0 u2 .
: Taylor Lagrange 2, x > a,
00
h > 0 (x, x + h) f (x + h) = f (x) + f 0 (x)h + f 2() h2 .
|f 0 (x)|h |f (x + h)| + |f (x)| + 21 |f 00 ()|h2 2u0 + 21 u2 h2 , u1 h 2u0 + 21 u2 h2
h > 0. u21 4u0 u2 .
[] f : R R R, u0 = sup{|f (x)| | x R}, u1 =
sup{|f 0 (x)| | x R}, u2 = sup{|f 00 (x)| | x R}. u21 2u0 u2 .
[] f : (0, +) R f 00 (0, +). limx+ f (x) = 0,
limx+ f 0 (x) = 0.
: [] (a, +) a +.
[] f : (0, +) R (0, +). limx+ xf (x) =
limx+ xf 00 (x) = 0, limx+ xf 0 (x) = 0.
: [].
[] f : (a, b) R (a, b). limxb f (x) = 0
(b x)2 f 00 (x) (a, b), limxb (b x)f 0 (x) = 0.
: Taylor [].
8. Cauchy.
n Z, n 0, f, g : [, c] R, n [, c] f (n) , g (n)
[, c] (, c). x (, c]
(, x)
(

f (x)

n
k=0

f (k) ()
(x
k!

)
(

)k g (n+1) () = g(x) nk=0

g (k) ()
(x
k!

)
)k f (n+1) ().

c < ;

(k)
: F (t) = f (x) nk=0 f k!(x) (x t)k G(t) = g(x) nk=0
h(t) = G()F (t) F ()G(t). h() = h(x) = 0.

5.11

g (k) (x)
(x
k!

t)k

f : (a, b) R. (a, b) f () = 0,
. , f (a, b)
(a, b) (a, b),
Bolzano f 0 .
f (a, b).
x1 (a, b)
(x1 , f (x1 )) f . f x1 ,
(x1 , f (x1 )) y = f (x1 ) + f 0 (x1 )(x x1 ).
1)
.
x- x2 = x1 ff0(x
(x1 )
, x1 ,
213

f ()f (x1 )
x1

f (x1 )
x1

f 0 (x1 ), x2 x1 + ( x1 ) = .
x1 , () , x2 ,
2)
. , x3 = x2 ff0(x
x2 ,
(x2 )
x4 = x3

f (x3 )
f 0 (x3 )

x3 . ,
xn+1 = xn

f (xn )
f 0 (xn )

(xn ).
Newton. , (xn ) , ,
xn .
5.19. f : (a, b) R (a, b) 0 < m |f 0 (x)|
m
|f 00 (x)| M x (a, b). [c , c + ] (a, b), < M
.

4M
m
m
=M
+ 1 M
. 0 < < [c , c + ] f () = 0.
m
Newton x1 [c , c + ],
xn [c , c + ] n N xn . , n N
|xn |

( ) n1
2m M 2
M
m

. x1 [c , c + ] x2 = x1
Taylor, x1
0 = f () = f (x1 ) + f 0 (x1 )( x1 ) +
, , x2 = x1 + ( x1 ) +

f 00 ()
(
2f 0 (x1 )

|x2 | =

f 00 ()
(
2

f (x1 )
f 0 (x1 )

x1 )2

x1 )2 , , x2 =

|f 00 ()|
|x
2|f 0 (x1 )| 1

|2

M
|x
2m 1

f 00 ()
(x1
2f 0 (x1 )

)2 .

|2 .

x1 [c , c + ] [c , c + ], |x1 | + , |x2 |
M
M
(+)2 . |x2 c| |x2 |+| c| 2m
(+)2 + = , , x2 [c, c+].
2m
, x2 x3 ,
x3 [c , c + ] , , xn [c , c + ] n N.
,
M
|xn+1 | 2m
|xn |2
n N. |x1 | + 2,
( M )2n1
|xn | 2m
n N. 2n1 + 0 Mm < 1,
M
m
( M )2n1
2m
0 , , xn .
M
m
( )2n1
(xn ) . , Mm
,
n1
, |xn | -, 2
.
Newton, ,
n, .
(a, b) f () = 0 . , 1 , 2 (a, b)
f (1 ) = f (2 ) = 0, f 0 () = 0
0 < m |f 0 ()|.
, 5.19 . (a, b) m
M . a1 , b1 a < a1 < b1 < b f (a1 )f (b1 ) < 0,
214

m
a1 , b1 . < min{ M
, a1 a, b b1 }. c [a1 , b1 ] (

4M
m
m
) [c , c + ] (a, b). = M
+1 M
m
[a1 , b1 ] 2.
, I, f
, I. c I, I [c , c + ],
[c , c + ] [c , c + ] (a, b). ,
Newton x1 [c , c + ].

.
2
1.
Newton x 2 = 0
2 [1, 2].

x1 = 2 x2 , x3 , x4 .
2 .

n xn 2
;

5.12 .
. x, y : I R I.

= (x, y) : I R2
(t) = (x(t), y(t))

= {(x(t), y(t)) | t I} .

I

.
x = x(t) y = y(t) , ,
t .
. 1. x(t) = t + y(t) = t + t (, +),
, 6= 0. x, y (, +),
x = t + y = t + t (, +)


= (x, y). t ,

l ax + by = c, a = , b = , c = .
, l ax + by = c,
a, b 6= 0, = b, = a ,

c = l
= (x, y),
x(t) = t + y(t) = t + t (, +).


(t) = (x(t), y(t)) = (t + , t + ) = (, )t + (, ).
- (, )
t.
t (, +),
( ) .
2. x(t) = r0 cos t + x0 y(t) = r0 sin t + y0 t [t0 , t0 + 2] r0 > 0.


= (x, y) (x0 , y0 )
)2 ( yy0 )2
(
0
+ r0
= 1.
r0 , xx
r0
t x = r0 cos t + x0 y = r0 sin t + y0 .
t [t0 , t0 + 2] ,

(t) = (x(t), y(t)) = (r0 cos t + x0 , r0 sin t + y0 )


215

. t
< 2, ( )
.
3. x(t) = 0 cos t + x0 y(t) = 0 sin t + y0 t [t0 , t0 + 2] 0 , 0 > 0.


= (x, y)
(x0 , y0 ) 20 20 . t
x = 0 cos t + x0 y = 0 sin t + y0 , :
( xx )2 ( yy0 )2
0
+ 0
= 1. t [t0 , t0 + 2]
0

,
(t) = (x(t), y(t)) = (0 cos t + x0 , 0 sin t + y0 )

. t < 2,
( ) .
4. f : I R I. f , {(t, f (t)) | t I},

, ,
= (x, y) : I R2
(t) = (t, f (t)) t I.
x, y x(t) = t y(t) = f (t). ,
t x

x
. t f
y = f (x) x I.
, x = g(y) y J
g : J R J, {(g(t), t) | t J}. ,


= (x, y) : I R2
(t) = (g(t), t) t J
x, y x(t) = g(t) y(t) = t,
y .
. x, y, z : I R I.

= (x, y, z) : I R3
(t) = (x(t), y(t), z(t))
= {(x(t), y(t), z(t)) | t I} .

I

.
x = x(t), y = y(t) z = z(t)
t .
. 1. x(t) = t + , y(t) = t + z(t) = t + t (, +),
, , 6= 0. x, y, z
(, +), x = t+, y = t+ z = t+ t (, +)


= (x, y, z). l .

(t) = (x(t), y(t), z(t)) = (t+, t+, t+) = (, , )t+(, , ).


- (, , )
t. t
(, +), (
) .
h0
t + z0
2. x = x(t) = r0 cos t + x0 , y = y(t) = r0 sin t + y0 z = z(t) = 2
h0
t (, +), r0 , h0 > 0. x = r0 cos t + x0 , y = r0 sin t + y0 z = 2 t + z0

t (, +)
= (x, y, z).
. t
2 , (x(t), y(t)) = (r0 cos t+x0 , r0 sin t+y0 )

xy- (x0 , y0 ) r0 , , z(t)

216

h0 - - .
(x(t), y(t), z(t)) , ,
r0 l xy- (x0 , y0 , 0).
, ,
.


= (x, y) : I R2 x = x(t)
y = y(t) I. , , (x( ), y( ))
I. + h I, h ,
, (x( + h), y( + h)) . l,h

x=

x( +h)x( )
(t
h

) + x( ),

y=

y( +h)y( )
(t
h

) + y( )

t R.

h 0, l,h l
(x( ), y( )),

x = x0 ( )(t ) + x( ),

y = y 0 ( )(t ) + y( )

t R.

. (x0 ( ), y 0 ( )).

()
= (x, y) ,
, .
x = x0 ( )(t ) + x( ) y = y 0 ( )(t ) + y( )
x0 ( ), y 0 ( ) 6= 0. ,
(x, y) = (x( ), y( )).
0
I x0+ ( ), y+
( )
, 0, (x( ), y( ))
0
(x0+ ( ), y+
( )). (x( ), y( ))
t . ,
0
I x0 ( ), y
( ) ,
0, (x( ), y( ))
0
(x0 ( ), y
( )), (x( ), y( ))
t .
x0 ( ), y 0 ( ) , 0,
, , , .
x y ,
< .

,
= (x, y, z) : I R3
x = x(t), y = y(t) z = z(t) I,
(x( ), y( ), z( ))
x = x0 ( )(t ) + x( ),

y = y 0 ( )(t ) + y( ),

z = z 0 ( )(t ) + z( )

t R.

. (x0 ( ), y 0 ( ), z 0 ( ))

()
= (x, y, z) .
, x0 ( ), y 0 ( ), z 0 ( ) 6= 0.
0
0
( ))
( ), z+
, , (x0+ ( ), y+
0
0
0
(x ( ), y ( ), z ( )) (x( ), y( ), z( )).
217

. 1. x = t cos t, y = sin t t (, +)
. x0 (0) = 1 y 0 (0) = 1.
(x(0), y(0)) = (0, 0) x = x0 (0)(t0)+x(0) = t
y = y 0 (0)(t0)+y(0) = t. (
t) y = x. (x0 (0), y 0 (0)) = (1, 1).
2. x = t, y = t2 , z = t3 t (, +)
. (x(1), y(1), z(1)) = (1, 1, 1)
x = x0 (1)(t 1) + x(1) = t, y = y 0 (1)(t 1) + y(1) = 2t 1, z = z 0 (1)(t 1) + z(1) = 3t 2.
(x0 (1), y 0 (1), z 0 (1)) = (1, 2, 3).
3. l
f : I R (, f ()) y = f 0 ()(x ) + f () x (, +).
, , f

= (x, y) : I R2
(t) = (t, f (t)) t I.
l x = 1(t)+ = t y = f 0 ()(t)+f ()
t (, +). t, y = f 0 ()(x)+f ()
x (, +). , .
.
1.
. ;
[] y = x2 .

.
[] y = x3 .
2. []
.
[]
()
h0
x = r0 cos t + x0 , y = r0 sin t + y0 , z = 2
t + z0 t (, +), r0 , h0 > 0.
[]
()
h0
x = r0 t cos t + x0 , y = r0 t sin t + y0 , z = 2
t + z0 t (, +), r0 , h0 > 0.
3. [] x = t3 , y = t4 t (, +)
(t3 , t4 ).
(0, 0).
[]

3 4
x = s, y = s s (, +).
(0, 0);
4. []
y 4 = x3 .
y . , , x
,
3
3
y = x 4 y = x 4 x [0, +)
(0, 0).
218

[] y 2 = x3 .
, , (0, 0);
5. a > 0. ,
xy = a,
x- y- (
). x, y .
6. a > 0.
,

3
x2 + 3 y 2 = a,
3
x- y- a 2 .
.
;
7. y 2 = 4x3 .
( )
( );
x, y.
: x(t), y(t) y 2 = 4x3 .
8. [] a > 0. (x, y) x2 y 2 = a2 .
: 2
2

x = t + a , y = t t (, +)
x = t2 + a2 , y = t t (, +).
x = a cosh s, y = a sinh s
s (, +) x = a cosh s, y = a sinh s
s (, +).
,

. : , .
[] (x, y) xy = b b 6= 0,
: x = t, y = bt
t (0, +) t (, 0).

.
[] []
[] ,
.
9. [] (x, y), (x0 , y 0 ) (x00 , y 00 ) xy-
.

R

(x0 x)2 +(y 0 y)2 (x00 x)2 +(y 00 y)2 (x0 x00 )2 +(y 0 y 00 )2
2|(x0 x)(y 00 y)(x00 x)(y 0 y)|

[] xy- x, y : (a, b) R. t (a, b)


h > 0 (x(t), y(t)), (x(t + h), y(t + h)), (x(t h), y(t h))
.
. Rt,h
Rt = limh0+ Rt,h , Rt
(x(t), y(t)).
219

Rt =

((x0 (t))2 +(y 0 (t))2 ) 2


|x00 (t)y 0 (t)x0 (t)y 00 (t)|

. Rt , (x(t), y(t))

(x(t), y(t)).
[]
x = x0 + r0 cos t, y = y0 + r0 sin t. ;
;
[]
x = x0 + 0 cos t, y = y0 + 0 sin t.
; ;
[] f : I R (x, f (x)),
3
x I, |f 001(x)| (1 + (f 0 (x))2 ) 2 .
[]
y = x2 y = x1 .
[] ;
;

220

6
Riemann.
6.1

Darboux.

. [a, b]
[a, b] a, b. [a, b] , ,
= {x0 , x1 , . . . , xn1 , xn }, n N a = x0 < x1 < . . . < xn1 < xn = b.
n + 1 [a, b] x0 , . . . , xn -. xk
k- -. [a, b] n [x0 , x1 ], . . . , [xn1 , xn ],
-. [xk1 , xk ] k- -.
. 1. [a, b] = {a = x0 , x1 = b}.
-, [x0 , x1 ] = [a, b]. [a, b].
2. [a, b]. , x1 (a, b) {a = x0 , x1 , x2 = b} . ,
, .
3. n + 1 [a, b] n . - n b a,
ba
. , - x0 = a, x1 = a + ba
, x2 = a + 2 ba
n
n
n
: k Z, 0 k n k- - xk = a + k ba
.
n
ba
ba
, [xk1 , xk ] xk xk1 = (a + k ba
)

(a
+
(k

1)
)
=
n
n
n
n- - xn = a + n ba
=
b.
n
4. , n N, n 2, n+1 [a, b]
. , {0, 34 , 97 , 13
, 23 , 1}
15 24
1 2 3 4
6 [0, 1] {0, 5 , 5 , 5 , 5 , 1} 6
[0, 1].
. 0 , 00 [a, b]. 00 0
0 00 , , 0 - 00 - , , 00
0 .
. 1. 00 = {0, 18 , 27 , 37 , 12 , 35 , 43 , 78 , 1}
0 = {0, 72 , 37 , 34 , 1} [0, 1].
2. 0 = {0, 18 , 37 , 12 , 35 , 78 , 1}, 00 = {0, 27 , 73 , 34 , 1} [0, 1]
.
. 0 , 00 [a, b]. = 0 00 [a, b]
0 , 00 . , 0 00 ,
0 00 .
221

. 1 0 , 00 00 ,
2 0 , 00 = {0, 18 , 27 , 73 , 12 , 35 , 43 , 78 , 1}.
6.1 0 , 00 [a, b] ,
[a, b] 0 00 ,
.
6.1. 0 , 00 [a, b]. [a, b]
0 00 0 00 .
. 000 [a, b] 0 00 . ,
0 000 00 000 . 0 00 000 , 000 0 00 .
. f : [a, b] R = {a = x0 , . . . , xn = b}
[a, b]. - [xk1 , xk ] uk = sup{f (x) | xk1 x xk }
lk = inf{f (x) | xk1 x xk }. Darboux f
[a, b]

(f ; a, b; ) = nk=1 uk (xk xk1 ) = u1 (x1 x0 ) + + un (xn xn1 )


Darboux f [a, b]

(f ; a, b; ) = nk=1 lk (xk xk1 ) = l1 (x1 x0 ) + + ln (xn xn1 ).


.
. 1. f : [a, b] R = {a = x0 , . . . , xn = b}
[a, b]. [xk1 , xk ] f f (xk ) f (xk1 ).
uk = f (xk ) lk = f (xk1 ) , ,

(f ; a, b; ) = nk=1 f (xk )(xk xk1 ),


(f ; a, b; ) = nk=1 f (xk1 )(xk xk1 ).
f , uk = f (xk1 ) lk = f (xk ) , ,

(f ; a, b; ) = nk=1 f (xk1 )(xk xk1 ),


(f ; a, b; ) = nk=1 f (xk )(xk xk1 ).
2. f : [a, b] R = {a = x0 , . . . , xn = b} [a, b]. ,
- , [xk1 , xk ] k k
f (k ) f (x) f (k ) x [xk1 , xk ]. uk = f (k ) lk = f (k ),

(f ; a, b; ) = nk=1 f (k )(xk xk1 ).


(f ; a, b; ) = nk=1 f (k )(xk xk1 ),
.
, , .
1. f : [c, d] R. {f (x) | c x d} ,
u = sup{f (x) | c x d} l = inf{f (x) | c x d}, l u.
, [c0 , d0 ] [c, d] u0 = sup{f (x) | c0 x d0 } l0 = inf{f (x) | c0 x d0 }.
x [c0 , d0 ] x [c, d], l f (x) u. l u , ,
{f (x) | c0 x d0 }, l l0 u0 u. :
, supremum inmum
.
222

2. (f ; a, b; ) = nk=1 uk (xk xk1 ) (f ; a, b; ) = nk=1 lk (xk xk1 )


(f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; ) = nk=1 (uk lk )(xk xk1 ).


lk uk k = 1, . . . , n, , -. ,
, -
.
3. , u = sup{f (x) | c x d} l = inf{f (x) | c x d}
f (s) f (t) w s, t [c, d].
s [c, d] f (s) w f (t) t [c, d]. s [c, d]
f (s) w {f (x) | c x d} , , f (s) w l ,
, f (s) w + l. w + l {f (x) | c x d},
u w + l. u l w.
. > 0. x0 [c, d] f (x0 ) > u 2
x00 [c, d] f (x00 ) < l + 2 . u l < f (x0 ) f (x00 ) w.
u l < w > 0 , , u l w.
3.
6.2. f : [a, b] R [a, b]. u l supremum
inmum f [a, b], l(b a) (f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; ) u(b a).
. = {a = x0 , . . . , xn = b}. k = 1, . . . , n [xk1 , xk ] [a, b],
l lk uk u , , l(xk xk1 ) lk (xk xk1 ) uk (xk xk1 ) u(xk xk1 ).

n
n
n
n
k=1 l(xk xk1 )
k=1 lk (xk xk1 )
k=1 uk (xk xk1 )
k=1 u(xk xk1 ).
n

l k=1 (xk xk1 ) = l(b a)

u nk=1 (xk xk1 ) = u(b a).


6.3 . ,
, Darboux Darboux
.
6.3. f : [a, b] R 0 , 00 [a, b]. 00
0 , (f ; a, b; 0 ) (f ; a, b; 00 ) (f ; a, b; 00 ) (f ; a, b; 0 ).
. 0 = {a = x0 , . . . , xn = b}. 00 0 -
. , 0 - [xk1 , xk ] 00 -,
xk1 xk . , , 0 - [xk1 , xk ] 00 -
00k [xk1 , xk ]. , 00 = nk=1 00k .
00k - 00 -
[xk1 , xk ]. , , (f ; xk1 , xk ; 00k )
(f ; a, b; 00 )
00 -
n
00
[xk1 , xk ]. , (f ; a, b; ) = k=1 (f ; xk1 , xk ; 00k ) , ,
(f ; a, b; 00 ) = nk=1 (f ; xk1 , xk ; 00k ) .
6.2 [xk1 , xk ],
lk (xk xk1 ) (f ; xk1 , xk ; 00k ) (f ; xk1 , xk ; 00k ) uk (xk xk1 )
k = 1, . . . , n.
k = 1, . . . , n.
223

6.4 . Darboux
Darboux, Darboux
.
6.4. f : [a, b] R. (f ; a, b; 0 ) (f ; a, b; 00 )
0 , 00 [a, b].
. = 0 00 . 0 ,
(f ; a, b; 0 ) (f ; a, b; ). , 00 , (f ; a, b; )
(f ; a, b; 00 ). , (f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; ). (f ; a, b; 0 ) (f ; a, b; 00 ).
, Darboux
, .
2.
.
1. f : [a, b] R.
[] [a, b] (f ; a, b; ) = (f ; a, b; ), f
[a, b].
: uk = lk - [xk1 , xk ], f
- , , [a, b].
[] 0 , 00 [a, b] (f ; a, b; 0 ) = (f ; a, b; 00 ),
f [a, b].
: = 0 00 .
2. f : [a, b] R. , f [a, b],
[a, b] (f ; a, b; ) = + , f
[a, b], [a, b] (f ; a, b; ) = .
3. 4 3.7.
. f : [c, d] R u = sup{f (x) | c x d} l = inf{f (x) | c x d}.
(f ; c, d) = u l f [c, d].
[] 0 (f ; c, d) + (f ; c, d) < +
f [c, d].
[] (f ; c, d) = sup{f (s)f (t) | s, t [c, d]} = sup{|f (s)f (t)| | s, t [c, d]}.

6.2

. Darboux.

6.2.1

. f : [a, b] R. f [a, b]
b
f = sup{(f ; a, b; ) | [a, b]}
a
f [a, b]
b
a

f = inf{(f ; a, b; ) | [a, b]}.

6.1. f : [a, b] R u l supremum inmum f


b
b
[a, b]. l(b a) a f a f u(b a).
224

. 6.2 (f ; a, b; ) u(b a)
b
b
[a, b]. a f (f ; a, b; ) , a f u(b a).
b
, l(b a) f .
a

0 00 [a, b]. (f ; a, b; 0 ) (f ; a, b; 00 ). (f ; a, b; 0 ) b
{(f ; a, b; ) | [a, b]}, (f ; a, b; 0 ) a f .
b
a f {(f ; a, b; ) | [a, b]} , ,
b
b
f a f.
a
. f : [a, b] R. f , , Riemann
b
b
[a, b] a f = a f . f [a, b],
b
b
a f a f , , Riemann f [a, b]
b
a f . , f [a, b],
b
a

f=

b
a

f=

b
a

f.

Riemann Darboux.
6.5 Riemann Riemann.
b b
b
a f , a f a f
b
b
b
f . , a f (x) dx, a f (x) dx a f (x) dx.
, , ,
b
b
b
f
(t)
dt

f (t) dt, .
f
(t)
dt,
a
a
a
. 1. c : [a, b] R.
= {a = x0 , . . . , xn = b} [a, b]. lk = uk = c , ,
(c; a, b; ) = nk=1 c(xk xk1 ) = c(b a) (c; a, b; ) = nk=1 c(xk xk1 ) = c(b a).
{(c; a, b; )| [a, b]} {(c; a, b; )| [a, b]}
b
b
, c(b a). a c dx = c(b a) a c dx = c(b a)
, , c [a, b]
b

c dx = c(b a).
{
1, x [a, b] Q
2. f : [a, b] R f (x) =
0, x [a, b] \ Q
= {a = x0 , . . . , xn = b} [a, b]. [xk1 , xk ]
, {f(x) | xk1 x xk } {0,1}. , lk = 0 uk = 1.
(f ; a, b; ) = nk=1 0(xk xk1 ) = 0 (f ; a, b; ) = nk=1 1(xk xk1 ) = ba.
b
{(f ; a, b; ) | [a, b]} {0}, a f (x) dx = 0. ,
b
{(f ; a, b; ) | [a, b]} {b a}, a f (x) dx = b a > 0.
b
b
a f (x) dx < a f (x) dx, f [a, b]
b
f (x) dx.
a
a

f : [a, b] R 0 00
[a, b]
b
b
(f ; a, b; 0 ) a f (x) dx a f (x) dx (f ; a, b; 00 )
225

, f [a, b],
(f ; a, b; 0 )

b
a

f (x) dx (f ; a, b; 00 ).

.
.
. f : [a, b] R. f [a, b]
> 0 [a, b] (f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; ) < .
. f [a, b]. > 0.
b
b
0 , 00 [a, b] (f ; a, b; 00 ) < a f (x) dx + 2 a f (x) dx 2 < (f ; a, b; 0 ).
b
b
= 0 00 . (f ; a, b; ) < a f (x) dx + 2 a f (x) dx 2 < (f ; a, b; ).
b
b
f , (f ; a, b; ) < a f (x) dx + 2 a f (x) dx 2 <
(f ; a, b; ). , (f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; ) < 2 + 2 = .
, > 0. [a, b] (f ; a, b; )(f ; a, b; ) <
b
b
b
. a f (x) dx (f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; ) a f (x) dx, a f (x) dx
b
b
b
f
(x)
dx
<
.

>
0,

f
(x)
dx

f (x) dx 0,
a
a
a
b
b
a f (x) dx = a f (x) dx. f [a, b].
. .
{
0, x [a, b], x 6=
. [a, b] f (x) =
1, x =
. [a, b], , .
(i) = a, x1 (a, b) x1 a < = {a = x0 , x1 , x2 = b}. u1 = 1,
l1 = 0 u2 = 0, l2 = 0. , (f ; a, b; ) = u1 (x1 x0 ) + u2 (x2 x1 ) = x1 x0 <
(f ; a, b; ) = l1 (x1 x0 ) + l2 (x2 x1 ) = 0.
(ii) = b, x1 (a, b) bx1 < = {a = x0 , x1 , x2 = b}. u1 = 0,
l1 = 0 u2 = 1, l2 = 0. , (f ; a, b; ) = u1 (x1 x0 ) + u2 (x2 x1 ) = x2 x1 <
(f ; a, b; ) = l1 (x1 x0 ) + l2 (x2 x1 ) = 0.
(iii) a < < b, x1 (a, ), x2 (, b) x2 x1 < = {a =
x0 , x1 , x2 , x3 = b}. u1 = 0, l1 = 0, u2 = 1, l2 = 0 u3 = 0, l3 = 0. ,
(f ; a, b; ) = u1 (x1 x0 ) + u2 (x2 x1 ) + u3 (x3 x2 ) = x2 x1 < (f ; a, b; ) =
l1 (x1 x0 ) + l2 (x2 x1 ) + l3 (x3 x2 ) = 0.
, [a, b] (f ; a, b; ) = 0 (f ; a, b; ) <
, , (f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; ) < . f [a, b].
b
, , 0 = (f ; a, b; ) a f (x) dx (f ; a, b; ) < . ,
b
b
> 0 0 a f (x) dx < , , a f (x) dx = 0.
,
, 6.2 6.15
.
.

226

6.2. f : [a, b] R. f [a, b]


(n ) [a, b] (f ; a, b; n ) (f ; a, b; n ) 0.
,
b
b
(f ; a, b; n ) a f (x) dx,
(f ; a, b; n ) a f (x) dx.
. f [a, b]. ,
n N n [a, b] 0 (f ; a, b; n ) (f ; a, b; n ) < n1 .
(n ) [a, b] (f ; a, b; n ) (f ; a, b; n ) 0.
, (n ) [a, b] (f ; a, b; n )
(f ; a, b; n ) 0. > 0. (f ; a, b; n ) (f ; a, b; n ) < ,
, f [a, b].
b
(f ; a, b; n ) a f (x) dx (f ; a, b; n ) (f ; a, b; n ) (f ; a, b; n ) 0
b
b
, , (f ; a, b; n ) a f (x) dx (f ; a, b; n ) a f (x) dx.
. 6.5
,
. , ,
.
. 1. x [a, b].
n N n = {a = x0 , . . . , xn = b} [a, b] n
. , xk = a + k ba
k = 0, . . . , n.
n
x , uk = xk lk = xk1 .
)

n (
ba
(x; a, b; n ) = nk=1 xk1 (xk xk1 ) = ba
k=1 a + (k 1) n
n
(
)
n1 ) ba (
2
2
ba n(n1)
= ba
na + ba
b a
.
k=1 k = n na + n
n
n
2
2
,
(x; a, b; n ) =
=

n
ba
k=1 xk (xk xk1 ) = n
k=1
(
) ba (
n
ba
ba
na + n
k=1 k = n na
n

a + k ba
n

)
ba n(n+1)
n
2

b2 a2
2

, (x; a, b; n ) (x; a, b; n ) 0, x [a, b]


b
a

x dx =

b2 a2
2

2. 0 < a < b x
[a, b].
n N n = n ab n = {a = x0 , . . . , xn = b},
xk = an k k = 0, . . . , n.
> 0, x , uk = xk lk = xk1 .

(x ; a, b; n ) = nk=1 xk1 (xk xk1 ) = a+1 (n 1) nk=1 (n +1 )k1


( b )+1 1

= a+1 (n 1) (nn +1)11 = a+1 (n 1) an +1 1 =


+1 n

b+1 a+1
+1

227

n 1
(b+1
n +1 1

a+1 )

n 1 limx1
,

x+1 1
x1

(x ; a, b; n ) =
=

= + 1.

+1

(n 1)n
k=1 xk (xk xk1 ) = a
+1 a+1
n 1
n n+1
(b+1 a+1 ) b +1
.
1

k=1 (n

+1 k1

< 0, 6= 1, x
(x ; a, b; n ) (x ; a, b; n ) . .
, (x ; a, b; n ) (x ; a, b; n ) 0, x [a, b]
b
a

x dx =

b+1 a+1
+1

6= 1, 0 < a < b.

> 0, x [0, b] n = n n
n = {0 = x0 , x1 , . . . , xn+1 = b}, xk = nb n k1 k = 1, . . . , n, n + 1.
x [0, b]
b
0

x dx =

b+1
+1

> 0, 0 < b.

, , 7[].
, = 1, . ,
,

( x1 ; a, b; n ) = nk=1 x1k (xk xk1 ) = n(nn1) log ab

( x1 ; a, b; n ) =

1
k=1 xk1 (xk

xk1 ) = n(n 1) log ab .

, ( x1 ; a, b; n ) ( x1 ; a, b; n ) 0,
b

1
a x

dx = log ab ,

1
x

[a, b]
0 < a < b.

Z, x x < 0,
b
+1 a+1
a < 0 b < 0.
x dx = b +1
a
7.2.
3. > 0, 6= 1 x [a, b].
n N n = {a = x0 , . . . , xn = b} [a, b] n
. , xk = a + k ba
k = 0, . . . , n.
n
> 1, x , uk = xk lk = xk1 .

n
a+(k1) ba
n
(x ; a, b; n ) = nk=1 xk1 (xk xk1 ) = ba
k=1
n

b
a
ba
ba
= ba
a nk=1 (k1) n = ba
a ba 1 log ,
n
n

0 limx0
ba
n
,

x 1
x

= log .

xk (xk xk1 ) = ba
n
n
ba
ba a+ ba
(k1)
n
= n n
=
k=1

(x ; a, b; n ) =

k=1

228

n
k=1

a+k

ba
n

ba
ba a+ ba
n ba 1
n
n 1

b a
log

0 < < 1, x
(x ; a, b; n ) (x ; a, b; n ) .
.
, (x ; a, b; n ) (x ; a, b; n ) 0, x [a, b]
b x
b
a
dx = log ,
> 0, 6= 1.
a
6.2.2

E(A) A
. , , , ,
. :
(i) E(A) 0 A .
(ii)
- .
(iii) A1 A2 E(A1 ) E(A2 )
, A1 A2
E(A1 A2 ) = E(A1 ) + E(A2 ).
(iv) A1 , A2 E(A1 ) E(A2 ) A1 A2 , E(A1 ) E(A2 ).
f : [a, b] R f (x) 0 x [a, b].
= {(x, f (x)) | x [a, b]} ,
, x-. , ,
A = {(x, y) | x [a, b], y [0, f (x)]},
(a, 0), (b, 0) (
[a, b] x-), . (a, 0), (a, f (a)),
. (b, 0), (b, f (b)) .
f [a, b] A E(A)

b
E(A) = a f (x) dx.
 > 0. = {x0 , x1 , . . . , xn1 , xn } [a, b]
(f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; ) < .

(f ; a, b; ) = nk=1 uk (xk xk1 ) (f ; a, b; ) = nk=1 lk (xk xk1 ),


uk lk supremum inmum f [xk1 , xk ].
, k = 1, . . . , n Bk
[xk1 , xk ] x- lk . (ii),
Bk E(Bk ) = lk (xk xk1 ). , k = 1, . . . , n
Ck [xk1 , xk ] x-
uk . Ck E(Ck ) = uk (xk xk1 ).
, B = B1
n Bn C=n C1 Cn , ,
(iii),
E(B)
=
k=1 lk (xk xk1 ) = (f ; a, b; )
k=1 E(Bk ) =
n
n
E(C) = k=1 E(Ck ) = k=1 uk (xk xk1 ) = (f ; a, b; ).
, k = 1, . . . , n, lk f (x) uk x [xk1 , xk ],
A B C. , B A C. ,
(iv), (f ; a, b; ) = E(B) E(A) E(C) = (f ; a, b; ).
b
(f ; a, b; ) a f (x) dx (f ; a, b; )
b

a f (x) dx E(A) (f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; ) < .  > 0,
b
b
| a f (x) dx E(A)| = 0 , , E(A) = a f (x) dx.
229

.
1. (i), (ii) (iv)
0;
2. 0 a < b, x2 x3 [a, b]
b 2
b
3
3
4
4
x dx = b a
a x3 dx = b a
, n [a, b] n
3
4
a
n
n
n(n+1)(2n+1)
n2 (n+1)2
3
2
.

,
k=1 k =
k=1 k =
6
4
.
{
x, x [0, 1] Q
3. f : [0, 1] R f (x) =

0, x [0, 1] \ Q
1
1
f
(x)
dx
=
0

f (x) dx = 12 .
0
0
4. f : [a, b] R (n 0 ) (n 00 ) [a, b]
(f ; a, b; n 0 ) (f ; a, b; n 00 ) 0. f [a, b]
b
b
(f ; a, b; n 0 ) a f (x) dx (f ; a, b; n 00 ) a f (x) dx.
5. f : [a, b] R [a, b] f (r) = 0 r [a, b].
b
a f (x) dx = 0. f (x) = 0
x [a, b].
: = {a = x0 < < xn = b} [a, b].
, lk 0 uk . (f ; a, b; ) 0 (f ; a, b; ).
6. f, g, h : [a, b] R f (x) g(x) h(x) x [a, b]. f, h
b
b
[a, b] a f (x) dx = a h(x) dx, g
b
b
b
[a, b] a g(x) dx = a f (x) dx = a h(x) dx.
: [a, b] (h; a, b; )(f ; a, b; ) < .
7. [] f : [a, b] R. f [c, b] c, a <
b
b
c < b, f [a, b] a f (x) dx = limca+ c f (x) dx.
f [a, c]
c, a < c < b.
: |f (x)| M x [a, b]. c (a, b) c a < 4M+1 .
0 [c, b] (f ; c, b; 0 ) (f ; c, b; 0 ) < 2 .
= {a} 0 [a, b].
b
+1
[] > 0, , [], 0 x dx = b+1 .
b
8. f : [a, b] R [a, b]. a f (x) dx > 0,
( ) [c, d] [a, b] f (x) > 0 x [c, d].
: = {x0 , . . . , xn } [a, b] (f ; a, b; ) =

n
k=1 lk (xk xk1 ) > 0. lk 0 k = 1, . . . , n,
(f ; a, b; ) 0.
9. . f .
f : [a, b] R [a, b].
[] [a1 , b1 ] (a, b) 0 < b1 a1 < 1
sup{f (x) | a1 x b1 } inf{f (x) | a1 x b1 } < 1.
230

: = b a. ,
- < 1.
[] ([an , bn ]) 0 < bn an < n1 , [an+1 , bn+1 ]
(an , bn ) sup{f (x) | an x bn } inf{f (x) | an x bn } < n1 n N.
(an , bn ) n N. f
.
[] [a, b]
f . , f
[a, b].

6.3


.
6.1. f : [a, b] R [a, b]. f [a, b].

. > 0. 4.2, 0 > 0 |f (x0 ) f (x00 )| < ba


x0 , x00 [a, b], |x0 x00 | < 0 .
= {a = x0 , . . . , xn = b} [a, b] < 0 , , xk xk1 < 0 k = 1, . . . , n.
f [xk1 , xk ], k , k [xk1 , xk ] f (k ) f (x) f (k )
x [xk1 , xk ] , , uk = f (k ) lk = f (k ).

, |k k | < 0 , uk lk = f (k ) f (k ) < ba
, ,

(f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; ) =

k=1 (uk

lk )(xk xk1 ) <

k=1 ba (xk

xk1 ) = .

> 0 [a, b] (f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; ) < .


f [a, b].
. 1. P (x)
P (x)
R(x) = Q(x)

Q(x).
2. x
.
3. > 0 x .
4. > 0, 6= 1 log x
(0, +).
5. cos x sin x .
6.2. f : [a, b] R [a, b]. f [a, b].
. f [a, b]. > 0 0 = f (b)f (a)+1 .
= {a = x0 , . . . , xn = b} [a, b] < 0 , xk xk1 < 0 k = 1, . . . , n.
f , uk = f (xk ) lk = f (xk1 ).

(f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; ) = nk=1 (uk lk )(xk xk1 ) nk=1 (uk lk )0

= 0 nk=1 (f (xk ) f (xk1 )) = 0 (f (b) f (a)) < .


231

> 0 [a, b] (f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; ) < .


f [a, b].
f .
. [x] ,
.
.
1. x3 x,

exp x31x , log x31x , x3 x .

1
x3 x

2. [] f : [a, b] R [a, b]. f


[f (a), f (b)] f 1 : [f (a), f (b)] [a, b]
[f (a), f (b)].
b
a

f (x) dx +

f (b)

f 1 (y) dy = bf (b) af (a).

f (a)

0 a < b 0 f (a) < f (b), .


: 0 = {a = x0 , . . . , xn = b} [a, b] 00 = {f (a) = y0 , . . . , yn = f (b)} [f (a), f (b)]. , yk = f (xk )
k = 0, . . . , n. (f ; a, b; 0 ) + (f 1 ; f (a), f (b); 00 ) = bf (b) af (a)
(f ; a, b; 0 ) + (f 1 ; f (a), f (b); 00 ) = bf (b) af (a) 6.2.
[] f : [0, +) R [0, +), f (0) = 0
limx+ f (x) = +. f [0, +)
f 1 : [0, +) [0, +) [0, +).
a
b
ab 0 f (x) dx + 0 f 1 (y) dy a, b > 0
f (a) = b.
[] [] xp1
Young 29 5.6.

6.4 .
6.3. f, g : [a, b] R [a, b]. T f + g : [a, b] R
[a, b]
b

(f (x) + g(x)) dx =
a

b
a

f (x) dx +

b
a

g(x) dx.

. f , g , M 0 M 00 |f (x)| M 0
|g(x)| M 00 x [a, b]. |f (x) + g(x)| |f (x)| + |g(x)| M 0 + M 00
x [a, b] , , f + g .
> 0. , 0 , 00 [a, b]
(f ; a, b; 0 ) (f ; a, b; 0 ) < 2 (g; a, b; 00 ) (g; a, b; 00 ) < 2 .
= 0 00 = {a = x0 , . . . , xn = b},
(f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; ) < 2 ,

(g; a, b; ) (g; a, b; ) < 2 .

uk 0 lk 0 supremum inmum f [xk1 , xk ] uk 00 lk 00


g uk lk f + g.
232

x [xk1 , xk ] lk 0 f (x) uk 0 lk 00 g(x) uk 00 , lk 0 + lk 00


f (x) + g(x) uk 0 + uk 00 . lk 0 + lk 00 lk uk uk 0 + uk 00 , ,

(f + g; a, b; ) = nk=1 uk (xk xk1 ) nk=1 uk 0 (xk xk1 ) + nk=1 uk 00 (xk xk1 )


= (f ; a, b; ) + (g; a, b; )

(f + g; a, b; ) = nk=1 lk (xk xk1 ) nk=1 lk 0 (xk xk1 ) + nk=1 lk 00 (xk xk1 )


= (f ; a, b; ) + (g; a, b; ).
(
)
(f + g; a, b; ) (f + g; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; ) +
(
)
(g; a, b; ) (g; a, b; ) < 2 + 2 = . > 0
[a, b] (f + g; a, b; ) (f + g; a, b; ) < , f + g [a, b].
b
, (f + g; a, b; ) a (f (x) + g(x)) dx (f + g; a, b; )
b
(f ; a, b; ) + (g; a, b; ) a (f (x) + g(x)) dx (f ; a, b; ) + (g; a, b; ),
b
b
(f ; a, b; ) a f (x) dx (f ; a, b; ) (g; a, b; ) a g(x) dx
(g; a, b; )
b

(f (x) + g(x)) dx b f (x) dx b g(x) dx (f ; a, b; ) + (g; a, b; )


a
a
a
(f ; a, b; ) (g; a, b; ) < 2 + 2 = .
b
b
b
b
| a (f (x)+g(x)) dx a f (x) dx a g(x) dx| < > 0, a (f (x)+g(x)) dx =
b
b
f
(x)
dx
+
g(x) dx.
a
a
6.4. f : [a, b] R [a, b]. f : [a, b] R
[a, b]
b
b
f (x) dx = a f (x) dx.
a
. f , M |f (x)| M x [a, b].
|f (x)| ||M x [a, b], f .
= 0, 0f 0, [a, b]
b
b
b
0f (x) dx = a 0 dx = 0 = 0 a f (x) dx.
a
6= 0. > 0. = {a = x0 , . . . , xn = b} [a, b]
(f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; ) <

||

uk 0 lk 0 supremum inmum f [xk1 , xk ] uk lk


f .
> 0. x [xk1 , xk ] f (x) uk 0 , f (x) uk 0 , ,
uk uk 0 . , x [xk1 , xk ] f (x) uk , f (x) 1 uk , ,
uk 0 1 uk . uk = uk 0 , , lk = lk 0 . ,

(f ; a, b; ) = nk=1 uk (xk xk1 ) = nk=1 uk 0 (xk xk1 ) = (f ; a, b; ),

(f ; a, b; ) = nk=1 lk (xk xk1 ) = nk=1 lk 0 (xk xk1 ) = (f ; a, b; )


(
)
, , (f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; ) = (f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; ) < = .
< 0. x [xk1 , xk ] f (x) uk 0 , uk 0 f (x) , ,
233

uk 0 lk . , x [xk1 , xk ] lk f (x), f (x) 1 lk , ,


uk 0 1 lk . lk = uk 0 , , uk = lk 0 . ,

(f ; a, b; ) = nk=1 uk (xk xk1 ) = nk=1 lk 0 (xk xk1 ) = (f ; a, b; ),

(f ; a, b; ) = nk=1 lk (xk xk1 ) = nk=1 uk 0 (xk xk1 ) = (f ; a, b; )


(
)

, , (f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; ) = (f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; ) <
= .
, > 0 [a, b] (f ; a, b; )
(f ; a, b; ) < , f [a, b].
> 0,
b
(f ; a, b; ) = (f ; a, b; ) a f (x) dx (f ; a, b; ) = (f ; a, b; )
b
(f ; a, b; ) a f (x) dx (f ; a, b; )
b

)
(

f (x) dx b f (x) dx (f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; ) < .


a
a
b
b
> 0, a f (x) dx = a f (x) dx.
b
b
a f (x) dx = a f (x) dx < 0.
6.3 6.4
b
b
b
(f
(x)
+
g(x))
dx
=

f
(x)
dx
+

g(x) dx.
a
a
a
:
b n
a

k=1

k fk (x) dx =

n
k=1

b
a

fk (x) dx ,

f1 , . . . , fn [a, b].

, ,
6.5.
. f : [a, b] R, [a, b]
b
. f [a, b] a f (x) dx = 0.
, 1 , . . . , m [a, b] f x [a, b]\{1 , . . . , m }
f (j ) = cj 6= 0 j = 1, . . . , m. f
{
0, x [a, b] x 6= j j = 1, . . . , m
f (x) =
cj , x = j j = 1, . . . , m
{
0, x [a, b], x 6= j
fj (x) =
1, x = j
x
[a, b] x 6=
j j = 1, . . . , m, f (x) = 0 fj (x) = 0 j = 1, . . . , m.
m
j=1 cj fj (x) = m
j=1 cj 0 = 0 = f (x).
x {1 , . . . , m }, x = j0 j0
= 1, . . . , m, f (x) = cj0 fj0 (x) = 1
fj (x) = 0 j
= 1, . . . , m, j 6= j0 . m
j=1 cj fj (x) = cj0 = f (x).

c
f
(x)
=
f
(x)

x [a, b] , , f = m
m
j=1 cj fj .
j=1 j j
b
fj [a, b] a fj (x) dx = 0, f
b
b
m

[a, b] a f (x) dx = m
j=1 cj 0 = 0.
j=1 cj a fj (x) dx =
234

6.5. f, g : [a, b] R [a, b]


. f [a, b], g
b
b
[a, b] a g(x) dx = a f (x) dx.
. h = g f : [a, b] R [a, b]
. , h
b
[a, b] a h(x) dx = 0. g = f + h f [a, b], g
b
b
b
b
[a, b] a g(x) dx = a (f (x) + h(x)) dx = a f (x) dx + a h(x) dx =
b
f (x) dx.
a
6.5 :

,
.
6.6. f, g : [a, b] R [a, b]. f g
[a, b].
. f , g , M 0 , M 00 |f (x)| M 0
|g(x)| M 00 x [a, b]. |f (x)g(x)| = |f (x)||g(x)| M 0 M 00
x [a, b], f g [a, b].

> 0. 0 , 00 [a, b] (f ; a, b; 0 )(f ; a, b; 0 ) < M 0 +M


00 +1

00
00
0
00
(g; a, b; ) (g; a, b; ) < M 0 +M 00 +1 . = =
{a = x0 , . . . , xn = b},
(f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; ) <

M 0 +M 00 +1

(g; a, b; ) (g; a, b; ) <

M 0 +M 00 +1

uk 0 lk 0 supremum inmum f [xk1 , xk ] uk 00 lk 00


g uk lk f g.
s, t [xk1 , xk ] lk 0 uk 0 f (s) f (t) uk 0 lk 0 , , |f (s) f (t)|
uk 0 lk 0 . , s, t [xk1 , xk ] |g(s) g(t)| uk 00 lk 00 .
s, t [xk1 , xk ]
|f (s)g(s) f (t)g(t)| |f (s) f (t)||g(s)| + |f (t)||g(s) g(t)| M 00 (uk 0 lk 0 ) + M 0 (uk 00 lk 00 ).
6.2, uk lk M 00 (uk 0 lk 0 ) + M 0 (uk 00 lk 00 ).
,

(f g; a, b; ) (f g; a, b; ) = nk=1 (uk lk )(xk xk1 )

M 00 nk=1 (uk 0 lk 0 )(xk xk1 )

+ M 0 nk=1 (uk 00 lk 00 )(xk xk1 )


0

M 00 M 0 +M
00 +1 + M M 0 +M 00 +1 < .
> 0 [a, b] (f g; a, b; ) (f g; a, b; ) < ,
f g [a, b].
, ,

b
b
b
. , a f (x)g(x) dx = a f (x) dx a g(x) dx.
235

b
b
b
b
. a 1 1 dx = a 1 dx = b a a 1 dx a 1 dx = (b a)(b a) = (b a)2 .
b a = (b a)2 !
6.7. f : [a, b] R [a, b]. m > 0
|f (x)| m x [a, b], f1 : [a, b] R [a, b].
1
1 x [a, b], 1 .
. f (x)
m
f
> 0. = {a = x0 , . . . , xn = b} [a, b]
(f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; ) < m2 .
uk 0 lk 0 supremum inmum f [xk1 , xk ] uk lk
f1 .
s, t [xk1 , xk ] lk 0 uk 0 f (s)
f (t) uk 0 lk 0 , , |f (s) f (t)|

0
0
uk 0 lk 0 . s, t [xk1 , xk ] 1 1 = |f (s)f (t)| uk l2 k , ,
f (s)

uk 0 lk 0
m2

|f (s)||f (t)|

f (t)

uk lk
.
(
)
(
)

f1 ; a, b; f1 ; a, b; = nk=1 (uk lk )(xk xk1 ) m12 nk=1 (uk 0 lk 0 )(xk xk1 )


(
)
= m12 (f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; ) < .
(
)
(
)
> 0 [a, b] f1 ; a, b; f1 ; a, b; < ,
f1 [a, b].
, . ,
b 1
1
a f (x)
dx = b f (x)
.
dx
.
!

1
a 1

dx =

b
a

1 dx = b a

b
a

1
1 dx

1
ba

. b a =

1
ba

6.8. a < c < b f : [a, b] R [a, c] [c, b]. f


[a, b]
b
a

f (x) dx =

c
a

f (x) dx +

b
c

f (x) dx.

. f [a, c] [c, b], M 0 M 00


|f (x)| M 0 x [a, c] |f (x)| M 00 x [c, b]. M = max{M 0 , M 00 },
|f (x)| M x [a, b] , , f [a, b].
> 0. 0 = {a = x0 0 , . . . , xn 0 = c} [a, c] 00 = {c =
x0 00 , . . . , xm 00 = b} [c, b]
(f ; a, c; 0 ) (f ; a, c; 0 ) < 2 ,

(f ; c, b; 00 ) (f ; c, b; 00 ) < 2 .

= {a = x0 0 , . . . , xn1 0 , xn 0 = c = x0 00 , . . . , xm 00 = b} [a, b]

(f ; a, b; ) = (f ; a, c; 0 ) + (f ; c, b; 00 ),

(f ; a, b; ) = (f ; a, c; 0 ) + (f ; c, b; 00 ).

(
) (
)
(f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; ) = (f ; a, c; 0 ) (f ; a, c; 0 ) + (f ; c, b; 00 ) (f ; c, b; 00 )
< 2 + 2 = .
236

> 0 [a, b] (f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; ) < ,


f [a, b].
c
b
(f ; a, c; 0 ) a f (x) dx (f ; a, c; 0 ) (f ; c, b; 00 ) c f (x) dx (f ; c, b; 00 )

(f ; a, b; ) = (f ; a, c; 0 ) + (f ; c, b; 00 )
c
b
a f (x) dx + c f (x) dx (f ; a, c; 0 ) + (f ; c, b; 00 ) = (f ; a, b; ).
(f ; a, b; )

b
a

f (x) dx (f ; a, b; )

f (x) dx c f (x) dx b f (x) dx (f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; ) < .


a

b

c
b
b
, a f (x) dx a f (x) dx c f (x) dx < > 0, a f (x) dx =
c
b
f
(x)
dx
+
f (x) dx.
a
c
6.9. a c < d b f : [a, b] R [a, b]. f
[c, d].
. f [a, b], [c, d].
> 0. 0 [a, b] (f ; a, b; 0 ) (f ; a, b; 0 ) < .
00 = 0 {c, d}, 0 , ,
(f ; a, b; 00 ) (f ; a, b; 00 ) < .
00 - [c, d] ( c,
d ), [c, d]. Darboux
(f ; c, d; ) (f ; c, d; ) (f ; c, d; 00 ) (f ; c, d; 00 )
00 -
-. , (f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; )
(f ; a, b; 00 ) (f ; a, b; 00 )
00 - -.
6.2,
(f ; c, d; ) (f ; c, d; ) (f ; a, b; 00 ) (f ; a, b; 00 ) < .
> 0 [c, d] (f ; c, d; ) (f ; c, d; ) < ,
, f [c, d].
. f : [a, b] R [a, b] 0 , . . . , m
a = 0 < < m = b c1 , . . . , cm f (x) = ck x (k1 , k )
k = 1, . . . , m. , f
(0 , 1 ), . . . , (m1 , m ). f 0 , . . . , m .
. f : [a, b] R [a, b],
. [k1 , k ] f ck
: k1 , k . ck
k
[k1 , k ] k1
ck dx = ck (k k1 ), f [k1 , k ]
k
b
k1 f (x) dx = ck (k k1 ). f [a, b] a f (x) dx =
m k
k=1 k1 f (x) dx.
b

f (x) dx = m
k=1 ck (k k1 ).
a
237

, , ,
.
.
. f : [a, b] R [a, b] 0 , . . . , m
a = 0 < < m = b, f
(0 , 1 ), . . . , (m1 , m ) limxk + f (x) R k = 0, . . . , m 1
limxk f (x) R k = 1, . . . , m.
6.10. f : [a, b] R [a, b] [a, b].
. f : [a, b] R
[a, b], .

k1 < x < k
f (x),
gk (x) = limxk f (x),
gk
x = k

limxk1 + f (x), x = k1
[k1 , k ] f [k1 , k ]: k1 , k .
gk [k1 , k ], f
[k1 , k ]. f [a, b].
. f : [a, b] R [a, b] 0 , . . . , m
a = 0 < < m = b f
(0 , 1 ), . . . , (m1 , m ).
6.11. f : [a, b] R [a, b]
[a, b].
. f : [a, b] R [a, b], .
f , limxk f (x), limxk1 + f (x)
.
, gk 6.10. gk
[k1 , k ] , , [k1 , k ]. f
gk [k1 , k ]: k1 , k . f
[k1 , k ] , , [a, b].

, ,
.
6.5. f : [a, b] R [a, b] f (x) 0 x [a, b].
b
1. a f (x) dx 0.
b
b
2. a f (x) dx = 0, f . , a f (x) dx = 0
f [a, b], f 0 [a, b].
. 1. 0 {f (x) | a x b}. l =
b
b
inf{f (x) | a x b}, 0 l . 6.1, a f (x) dx = a f (x) dx
l(b a) 0.
b
2. a f (x) dx = 0 [a, b] f -
- f () > 0.
l 0 < l < f (). f (x) l ,
[c, d] [a, b] d c > 0, [c, d] f (x) l x [c, d].
238

d
f (x) l 0 x [c, d], c (f (x) l) dx 0.
d
d
d
f
(x)
dx

l
dx

0
,
,
f (x) dx l(d c).
c
c
c
.
c
a < c < d < b. f (x) 0 x [a, c], a f (x) dx 0.
b
b
c
d
b
, d f (x) dx 0. a f (x) dx = a f (x) dx+ c f (x) dx+ d f (x) dx 0+l(dc)+0 =
l(d c) > 0.
c
b
c
a < c < d = b. , a f (x) dx 0 , , a f (x) dx = a f (x) dx +
d
f (x) dx 0 + l(d c) = l(d c) > 0.
c
b
b
d
a = c < d < b. , d f (x) dx 0 , , a f (x) dx = c f (x) dx +
b
f (x) dx l(d c) + 0 = l(d c) > 0.
d
b
d
, c = a d = b, a f (x) dx = c f (x) dx l(d c) > 0.
b
, a f (x) dx > 0 .
: .
6.12. f : [a, b] R [a, b].
b
1. f (x) u x [a, b], a f (x) dx u(b a).
b
, , a f (x) dx = u(b a), f (x) = u x f .
b
2. f (x) l x [a, b], a f (x) dx l(b a).
b
, , a f (x) dx = l(b a), f (x) = l x f .
b

3. |f (x)| M x [a, b], a f (x) dx M (b a).
b

, , a f (x) dx = M (b a), f (x) = M
x f f (x) = M x f .
. 1. 6.5 u f .
2. , f l.
3. 1, 2, M
b f (x) M x [a, b], M (b a)
b
f (x) dx M (b a), a f (x) dx M (b a).
a

b
b
b
a f (x) dx = M (b a), a f (x) dx = M (b a) a f (x) dx = M (b a).
, , f (x) = M x f
f (x) = M x f .
. f : [1, 4] R f (x) =

4
, 1 x2x+2 dx 42 (4 1) = 3 4 2 .

x
x2 +2

2
( 2)2 +2

2
4

6.13. f, g : [a, b] R [a, b] f (x) g(x)


x [a, b].
b
b
1. a f (x) dx a g(x) dx.
b
b
2. a f (x) dx = a g(x) dx, f (x) = g(x) x f, g.
b
b
, a f (x) dx = a g(x) dx f , g [a, b], f , g
[a, b].
. 6.5 g f .
. f : [0, 1] R f (x) = log(1 + x). f
[0, 1], [0, 1]. ,
239

, x log 2 log(1 + x) x x [0, 1].


1
1
1
log(1 + x) dx 0 xdx. log2 2 0 log(1 + x) dx 12 .
0

1
0

x log 2 dx

6.14. f : [a, b] R [a, b]. |f |


[a, b]
b

f (x) dx b |f (x)| dx.
a
a
b
b
a f (x) dx = a |f (x)| dx, f (x) 0 x f
f (x) 0 x f .
. f [a, b], M |f (x)| M
x [a, b]. , , |f | [a, b].
> 0. = {a = x0 , . . . , xn = b} [a, b]
(f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; ) < .
uk 0 lk 0 supremum inmum f [xk1 , xk ] uk lk
|f |.
s, t [xk1 , xk ] lk 0 uk 0 f (s) f (t) uk 0 lk 0 , |f (s) f (t)| uk 0 lk 0 .
s, t [xk1 , xk ] ||f (s)| |f (t)|| |f (s) f (t)| uk 0 lk 0 .
6.2, uk lk uk 0 lk 0 . ,

(|f |; a, b; ) (|f |; a, b; ) = nk=1 (uk lk )(xk xk1 ) nk=1 (uk 0 lk 0 )(xk xk1 )
= (f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; ) < .
> 0 [a, b] (|f |; a, b; ) (|f |; a, b; ) < .
|f | [a, b].
b
b
, |f (x)| f (x) |f (x)| x [a, b], a |f (x)| dx = a (|f (x)|) dx
b
b
b
b
f (x) dx a |f (x)| dx. a f (x) dx a |f (x)| dx.
a

b
b
b
b
b
a f (x) dx = a |f (x)| dx, a f (x) dx = a |f (x)| dx a f (x) dx =
b
a |f (x)| dx. , , f (x) = |f (x)| , , f (x) 0
x f f (x) = |f (x)| , , f (x) 0
x f .
x

x
.
x > 0. | sin t| 1 t, 0 sin t dt 0 | sin t| dt
x
x sin t dt x | sin t| dt
1 dt = x. , | sin t| |t| t,
0
0
0
{ 2
x


{
}
x
x

0
<
x

2
2
2
x
|t| dt = 0 t dt = x2 . 0 sin t dt min x, x2 = 2
0
x,
x 2
. f : [a, b] R
[a, b], g : [a, b] R [a, b] g(x) 0 x [a, b].
b
b
[a, b] a f (x)g(x) dx = f () a g(x) dx.
b
b
. h : [a, b] R h(t) = f (t) a g(x) dx a f (x)g(x) dx
t [a, b]. , h [a, b]. f ,
, [a, b] f () f (x) f (), f ()g(x) f (x)g(x) f ()g(x)
x [a, b].
b
b
b
b
b
f () a g(x) dx = a f ()g(x) dx a f (x)g(x) dx a f ()g(x) dx = f () a g(x) dx.
b
h() 0 h(), [a, b] h() = 0 , , a f (x)g(x) dx =
b
f () a g(x) dx.
240

1
. f : [a, b] R [a, b]. ba

b
1
f [a, b] E(f ; a, b) = ba
f (x) dx .
a

b
a

f (x) dx

b
1
E(f ; a, b) = ba
f (x) dx
a
.
6.12 6.1 f
[a, b] [l, u], u l supremum
inmum f [a, b]. ,
g = 1,
f [a, b] .
b
b
f [a, b] , a f (x) dx = (b a) = a dx.
, f [a, b]
[a, b] f .
{
1, 1 x < 0
. f (x) =
[1, 1]
1,
0 x 1
1
1
f (x) dx = 0, [1, 1] 0.
1(1) 1
, f [a, b],
[a, b] .
19[] .
.
7
5
4
2
1. [] 2
([x] + x2 ) dx, 1 (2 3x + 4x2 ) dx, 2 (3x 2x ) dx,

3 2
( x2 + x 2 + 3ex ) dx.
1 x

1 x < 0
1
+
3x,

1
<
x
<
2
3x,

g(x) = 2x,
[] f (x) = 0,
0 x 2
x = 1

x + 2, 2 < x 5
2,
x = 2
2
5
1 f (x) dx, 1 g(x) dx.
2. .
f : [a, b] R [a, b] f (x) 0 x [a, b].
d
b
[] 0 c f (x) dx a f (x) dx [c, d] [a, b].
[] , [c1 , d1 ], . . . , [cn , dn ] ( )
d
d
b
[a, b], c11 f (x) dx + + cnn f (x) dx a f (x) dx.
, , ,
[], f (x) 0 x [a, b].
3. f, g : [a, b] R [a, b]. max{f, g}, min{f, g} :
b
b
[a, b] R [a, b] a max{f (x), g(x)} dx+ a min{f (x), g(x)} dx =
b
b
f (x) dx + a g(x) dx.
a
: 2 1.5.

4. 0 (sin x)n+1 dx 0 (sin x)n dx 04 (tan x)n+1 dx 04 (tan x)n dx


n N, .

241

5. , xe2x
2
3e2 1 xex dx 32 e1 .

2x
x

et dt xex x > 0

4x
4
x
x
6. [] 0 1x+x
x [0, 1] 0 1x+x
2 3
2 3x
x [1, +).
x t
2x2
[] , 0 0 1t+t
x [0, 1].
2 dt
3
x t
2
[] , 0 0 1t+t2 dt 3 + 43 log x
x [1, +).
x+x t
1+x t
1+x t
1
7. limx+ x
dt, limx0+ 1x 1+t
2 dt, limx0+ 2x 1x 1+t2 dt 1+t2
.
b
b
8. f, g : [a, b] R [a, b]. a f (x) dx = a g(x) dx,
[a, b] f () = g().

9. a > 0 f : [ln a, ln(a + 1)] R [ln a, ln(a + 1)].


ln(a+1) x
[ln a, ln(a + 1)] ln a
e f (x) dx = f ().
10. [] x [x] 12 .
)
k+1 (
k+ 1
[] k Z. k
x [x] 12 dx = 0, k 2 (x [x] 12 ) dx = 18
)
k+1 (
x [x] 21 dx = 18 .
k+ 21
)
b(
[] 81 a x [x] 12 dx 18 a, b, a < b.
11. 20
7.3 8.2 11.2.
n+1
p+1
p+1
[] p > 0, np n xp dx (n+1)p , np (n+1) p+1n
(n+1)p
n N.

p+1
(xn ), xn = nk=1 k p np+1 n N, .
n+1 1
(n+1)1p n1p
1
1
[] 0 < p < 1, (n+1)
dx n1p , (n+1)

p
p
xp
1p
n
1
n N.
np

1p
(xn ), xn = nk=1 k1p n1p n N,
.

1
np1 nk=1 k1p 1p
.
( 1
n+1 1
1
1
1
1
dx

,
,

[] p > 1, (n+1)
p
p
p
p
x
n
(n+1)
p1 np1
n
)
1
1
np n N.
(n+1)p1

(xn ), xn = nk=1 k1p n N, .


n+1
1
1
n x1 dx n1 , n+1
log n+1
n1 n N.
[] n+1
n

(xn ), xn = nk=1 k1 log n n N,


. Euler
= limn+

1
log n

[]

( n

1
k=1 k

)
log n .

1
k=1 k 1.

1
log m+1
m
k=n k
n

1
n

+ log m
n, m N, n m.
n
242

p N,
1
n

1
n+1

+ +

1
pn1

1
pn

log p.

1 6.5.
[] (yn ), yn = 1 21 + 13
+ (1)n1 n1
n N. 2.7 (yn ) . xn = nk=1 k1 log n
n N, y2n = x2n xn + log 2 n N , , y2n log 2.

1 12 + 13 + (1)n1 n1 log 2.
10.2.
12. f : [a, b] R |f (x0 ) f (x00 )| M |x0 x00 | x0 , x00 [a, b].
3 4.6, f Lipschitz [a, b].
d

2
[] c f (x) dx f (d)(d c) M (dc)
[c, d] [a, b].
2
b

n
M (ba)2
ba
[] a f (x) dx ba
n N.
k=1 f (a + k n )
n
2n
ba
: [] [a + (k 1) n , a + k ba
] k = 1, . . . , n.
n

b
n
ba
[] ba
k=1 f (a + k n ) a f (x) dx.
n
1 6.5 6.15
[] f [a, b]. , f Lipschitz
[a, b], [].
13. 7.2
.
x
f : [a, b] R [a, b]. : limx+ f = 0 [a, b)

limx x f = 0 (a, b].


x
: M |f (x)| M x [a, b]. f M (x ),

a < x b, f M ( x), a x < b.
x

14. : .
[] : f : [a, b] R [a, b]
g : [a + c, b + c] R g(x) = f (x c) x [a + c, b + c]. g
b+c
b
[a + c, b + c] a+c g(x) dx = a f (x) dx , ,
b+c
a+c

f (x c) dx =

b
a

f (x) dx.

: 0 = {a = x0 0 , . . . , xn 0 = b} [a, b]
[a+c, b+c] 0 xk = xk 0 +c. uk 0 , lk 0 f
[xk1 0 , xk 0 ] uk , lk g [xk1 , xk ] uk = uk 0 lk = lk 0 .
Darboux f, g.
.
b+c
(g; a + c, b + c; ) a+c g(x) dx (g; a + c, b + c; )
f .
[] f : R R > 0, f (x + ) = f (x) x.
f [, + ].
f [a, b] a, b, a < b.
243

: [] [ + n, + (n + 1) ] n Z.
b+
a+
b+
b
a f (x) dx = a+ f (x) dx a f (x) dx = b f (x) dx a, b,
a < b.
[] : f : [a, b] R [a, b], > 0
g : [a, b] R g(x) = f ( x ) x [a, b]. g
b
b
[a, b] a g(x) dx = a f (x) dx , ,
b ( x )
b
f dx = a f (x) dx,
a

> 0.

, < 0, :
a ( x )
b
f dx = a f (x) dx,
b

< 0.

: > 0, 0 = {a = x0 0 , . . . , xn 0 = b} [a, b]
[a, b] 0 xk = xk 0 .
uk 0 , lk 0 f [xk1 0 , xk 0 ] uk , lk g [xk1 , xk ] uk =
uk 0 lk = lk 0 .
Darboux f, g. .

b
(g; a, b; ) a g(x) dx (g; a, b; )
f .
[] f : [b, b] R [0, b].
f (x) = f (x) x [b, b], f [b, b]
b
b
b f (x) dx = 2 0 f (x) dx.
f (x) = f (x) x [b, b], f [b, b]
b
b f (x) dx = 0.
b
0
: [] b f (x) dx = b f (x) dx+
b
f (x) dx.
0
15. .
b
[] f : [a, b] R [a, b]. a f (x)g(x) dx = 0
g : [a, b] R [a, b], f (x) = 0 x [a, b].
: g = f .
b
[] f : [a, b] R [a, b]. a f (x)g(x) dx = 0
g : [a, b] R [a, b] g(a) = g(b) = 0, f
. , f [a, b], f = 0 [a, b].
: f [a, b] f () > 0. [c, d] [a, b]
d c > 0, [c, d] f (x) f ()
x [c, d].
2

g [a, c] [d, b], 1 c+d
2
b
c+d
c+d
[c, 2 ] [ 2 , d]. a f (x)g(x) dx > 0.
16. f : [a, b] R [a, b] f (x) > 0 x [a, b].
b
a f (x) dx > 0.
: 9 6.2.
17. .
f, g : [a, b] R [a, b].
244

)
b(b
b
[] 12 a a (f (s) f (t))(g(s) g(t)) ds dt = (b a) a f (x)g(x) dx
b
b
f
(x)
dx
g(x) dx.
a
a
[] f, g [a, b], b
b
b
a f (x) dx a g(x) dx (ba) a f (x)g(x) dx , , E(f ; a, b)E(g; a, b)
E(f g; a, b).
b
b
[] f g [a, b], a f (x) dx a g(x) dx
b
(b a) a f (x)g(x) dx , , E(f ; a, b)E(g; a, b) E(f g; a, b).
18. 29 5.6.
27.
f, g : [a, b] [0, +) [a, b] p, q > 1, p1 + 1q = 1.
[] Hlder :
b
a

f (x)g(x) dx

(b

(f (x))p dx
a

) p1 ( b

(g(x))q dx
a

) 1q

Schwarz, Buniakowsky:
b
a

f (x)g(x) dx

(b

(f (x))2 dx
a

) 21 ( b

) 21
2
(g(x))
dx
.
a

Hlder s, t
0 s(f (x))p = t(g(x))q x [a, b].
b
b
1
1
: A = ( a (f (x))p dx) p B = ( a (g(x))q dx) q . A = 0 B = 0,
. A, B 6= 0, Young
29 5.6 f (x)
, g(x)
. Schwarz,
A
B
(b
)
Buniakowsky . : a (f (x))2 dx t2 +
( b
)
(b
)
b
2 a f (x)g(x) dx t + a (g(x))2 dx = a (tf (x) + g(x))2 dx 0 t.
(b
)2 1 b ( b
b
b
2
2
:

(f
(x))
dx
(g(x))
dx
f
(x)g(x)
dx
= 2 a a (f (t)g(s)
a
a
a
)
g(t)f (s))2 ds dt.
[] Minkowski :
(b

(f (x) + g(x))p dx
a

) p1

(b

) p1 ( b
) p1
p
p
+
.
(f
(x))
dx
(g(x))
dx
a
a

Minkowski s, t
0 sf (x) = tg(x) x [a, b].
b
b
b
: a (f (x) + g(x))p dx = a f (x)(f (x) + g(x))p1 dx + a g(x)(f (x) +
b
g(x))p1 dx Hlder a f (x)(f (x) +
b
g(x))p1 dx a g(x)(f (x) + g(x))p1 dx.
19. [] Jensen
37 5.7.
f : [a, b] ( [c, d]
[a, b] g : [c, d] R [c, d].
)
g E(f ; a, b) E(g f ; a, b) , ,
g

1
ba

b
a

)
f (x) dx

1
ba

b
a

g(f (x)) dx.

g [c, d], .
245

g , , () [a, b], Jensen


f [a, b].
Jensen
27.
b
1
: = E(f ; a, b) = ba
f (x) dx. [c, d]. c < < d,
a
g(y) (y ) + g() y [c, d]. y
f (x) [a, b]. = c = d, f [a, b].
[] f : [a, b] R [a, b]. :
( 1 b
)n
b
1
(i) n N , ba
f
(x)
dx

(f (x))n dx.
ba a
a
( 1 b
)
b
1
(ii) > 1, f (x) 0 x [a, b], ba

f
(x)
dx
(f (x)) dx.
ba
a
a
( 1 b
)
b
1
(iii) 0 < < 1, f (x) 0 x [a, b], ba
f (x) dx ba
(f (x)) dx.
a
a
( 1 b
)
b
1
(iv) < 0, f (x) > 0 x [a, b], ba
f (x) dx ba
(f (x)) dx.
a
a
b
b f (x)
1
1
e
dx.
(v) e ba a f (x) dx ba
a
( 1 b
)
b
1
(vi) f (x) > 0 x [a, b], log ba
f
(x)
dx

log(f (x)) dx.


ba a
a
f
[a, b].
[] . f : [a, b] R w : [a, b] [0, +) [a, b]
b
b
w(x)
dx
=
1.

f (x)w(x) dx f w
a
a
b
[a, b] Ew (f ; a, b) = a f (x)w(x) dx. ,
w .
w E(f ; a, b) =
b
1
f (x) dx ;
ba a
Jensen. f : [a, b] [c, d]
[a, b] g : [c, d] R [c, d]. , , w :
(
)
b
[a, b] [0, +) [a, b] a w(x) dx = 1. g Ew (f ; a, b)
Ew (g f ; a, b) , ,
g

(b
a

) b
f (x)w(x) dx a g(f (x))w(x) dx.

g [c, d], .
g , , () [c, d], Jensen
f {x [a, b] | w(x) > 0}.
20. f : [a, b] R
[a, b] f (x) 0 x [a, b]. A u =
b
n
max{f (x) | a x b}
(f (x))n dx u.
a
: u = 0, . f () = u > 0 0 < 2u.
[c, d] [a, b] d c > 0, [c, d] u 2 < f (x) x [c, d].

n0 N 1 2u
< n d c n N, n n0 . u <

d
b
n

n
(f (x)) dx n a (f (x))n dx u n N, n n0 .
(u 2 )(1 2u )
c
x
21. f : [a, b] R [a, b] |f (x)| a |f (t)| dt x [a, b].
f (x) = 0 x [a, b].
: M |f (x)| M x [a, b].
n
n
n
n
x (a, b] n N. , (xa)
0.
|f (x)| M (xa)
n!
n!
246

22.
1 fn : [0, 1] R [0, 1] 0,
f (x ) dx f (0).
0
: M |f (x)| M x [0, 1] 0 > 0 |f (x)f (0)| 2
n
x [0, 0 ]. n0 N (1 4M
) 0 n N, n n0 .
1
1
n
n N, n n0 | 0 f (x )dx f (0)| 0 |f (xn ) f (0)|dx =
1
1
4M
|f (xn ) f (0)|dx + 1 |f (xn ) f (0)|dx 2 + 2 .
0
4M

b
b
23. [] f, g : [a, b] R [a, b]. a f (x) dx + a g(x) dx
b
b
b
b
(f (x) + g(x)) dx a (f (x) + g(x)) dx a f (x) dx + a g(x) dx.
a
: (f ; a, b; )+(g; a, b; ) (f +g; a, b; ) (f +g; a, b; )
(f ; a, b; ) + (g; a, b; ) 6.3.
[] f : [a, b] R [a, b]. :
b
b
b
b
(i) > 0, a f (x) dx = a f (x) dx a f (x) dx = a f (x) dx.
b
b
b
b
(ii) < 0, a f (x) dx = a f (x) dx a f (x) dx = a f (x) dx.
b
[] a < c < b f : [a, b] R [a, b]. a f (x) dx =
c
b
c
b
b
f (x) dx + c f (x) dx a f (x) dx = a f (x) dx + c f (x) dx.
a
[] f, g : [a, b] R [a, b] f (x) g(x) x [a, b].
b
b
b
b
a f (x) dx a g(x) dx a f (x) dx a g(x) dx.
24. f : [a, b] R 0 , . . . , m a = 0 < < m = b f
(k1 , k ) k = 1, . . . , m. f
[a, b]. : k .
: 7 6.2.
{
1
(1)[ x ]1 , 0 < x 1
25. f : [0, 1] R, f (x) =
f
0,
x = 0
1
[0, 1] 0 f (x) dx.
: 7 6.2.
26.

.
[] : f : [a, b] R [a, b]
> 0 g, h : [a, b] R g(x) f (x) h(x)
b
b
x [a, b] a h(x) dx a g(x) dx < .
: .
Darboux .
[] f : [a, b] R .  > 0
g, h : [a, b] R [a, b] g(x) f (x) h(x) x [a, b]
b
b
a h(x) dx a g(x) dx < .
: g, h
f .
[] : f : [a, b] R [a, b]
247

> 0 g, h : [a, b] R [a, b] g(x) f (x) h(x)


b
b
x [a, b] a h(x) dx a g(x) dx < .
: [] [].
27. [] , .
f : [a, b] [c, d] [a, b] g : [c, d] R [c, d].
g f : [a, b] R [a, b].
> 0. g [c, d], 0 0 > 0

|g(y 0 ) g(y 00 )| < 4(ba)


y 0 , y 00 [c, d], |y 0 y 00 | < 0 0 . , g
[c, d], M |g(y)| M y [c, d].

0 = min{0 0 , 8M
}. = {a = x0 , . . . , xn = b} [a, b]
(f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; ) < 0 2 . uk 0 lk 0 supremum inmum f
[xk1 , xk ] uk lk g f .
k = 1, . . . , n . A k = 1, . . . , n
uk 0 lk 0 < 0 B k = 1, . . . , n,
uk 0 lk 0 0 .
(i) k A, x0 , x00 [xk1 , xk ] lk 0 uk 0 f (x0 ) f (x00 ) uk 0 lk 0 ,

.
|f (x0 ) f (x00 )| uk 0 lk 0 < 0 0 0 , , |g(f (x0 )) g(f (x00 ))| < 4(ba)

uk lk 4(ba)
.
(ii) k B, x0 , x00 [xk1 , xk ] |g(f (x0 )) g(f (x00 ))| |g(f (x0 ))| +
|g(f (x00 ))| 2M , , (i), uk lk 2M . ,

0 2 > kB (uk 0 lk 0 )(xk xk1 ) 0 kB (xk xk1 ),

kB (xk xk1 ) < 0 .


,

((g f ); a, b; ) ((g f ); a, b; ) = nk=1 (uk lk )(xk xk1 )

= kA (uk lk )(xk xk1 ) + kB (uk lk )(xk xk1 )

4(ba)
kA (xk xk1 ) + 2M
kB (xk xk1 )

(b
4(ba)

a) + 2M 0

< .

> 0 ((g f ); a, b; ) ((g f ); a, b; ) <


[a, b] , , g f [a, b].
[] [], , f : [a, b] R [a, b],
f 2 : [a, b] R [a, b]. , f g = 41 (f +g)2 41 (f g)2
6.3 6.4, 6.6.
[] , n N,
{ An [a, b] Am An = m, n N,
1
, x An n N
n
m 6= n. f (x) =
f
0, x [a, b] x
/ An n N
b
[a, b] a f (x) dx = 0.
: n0 N n01+1 < 2 . A = A1 An0 N
A. N

< 2N
A ,
A a b
. a, b
248

[a, b]. (f ; a, b; ) = 0 (f ; a, b; ) < .


[] An = { 2k1
| k N, 1 k 2n1 } n N. An [0, 1]
2n
n N Am An
= m, n N, m 6= n.
+
+
c, d [0, 1], c < d x n=1 An c < x < d. , n=1 An
[0, 1].
[] .
f : [0, 1] [0, 1] []
{ An
1, 0 < x 1
[]. g : [0, 1] R, g(x) =
f , g
0, x = 0
, g f : [0, 1] R [0, 1].
[] Hlder, Schwarz, Buniakowsky
Minkowski 18 f , g
, , [a, b].
[] Jensen 19[]
f , , [a, b]. ,
Jensen []
f w , , [a, b].

6.5

. Riemann.

. [a, b] = {a = x0 , . . . , xn = b} [a, b].


= {1 , . . . , n } k [xk1 , xk ] k = 1, . . . , n.
. k -.
, [a, b].
. f : [a, b] R = {a = x0 , . . . , xn = b} [a, b].
= {1 , . . . , n } .

(f ; a, b; , ) = nk=1 f (k )(xk xk1 ) = f (1 )(x1 x0 ) + + f (n )(xn xn1 )


Riemann f
.
6.6. f : [a, b] R [a, b]. :
1. (f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; , ) (f ; a, b; )
.
2. (f ; a, b; ) = sup{(f ; a, b; , ) | }.
3. (f ; a, b; ) = inf{(f ; a, b; , ) | }.
. 1. = {a = x0 , . . . , xn = b} [a, b] = {1 , . . . , n }
.
lk uk inmum supremum f [xk1 , xk ]. lk f (k ) uk ,
n
n
n
k=1 uk (xk xk1 ).
k=1 f (k )(xk xk1 )
k=1 lk (xk xk1 )
, (f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; , ) (f ; a, b; ).
2, 3
W = {(f ; a, b; , ) | }.
249

2. 1 (f ; a, b; ) W .
> 0. uk supremum f [xk1 , xk ], k [xk1 , xk ]

. = {1 , . . . , n }
f (k ) > uk ba
:

(f ; a, b; , ) = nk=1 f (k )(xk xk1 ) > nk=1 (uk ba


)(xk xk1 )
n
n

= k=1 uk (xk xk1 ) k=1 ba (xk xk1 ) = (f ; a, b; ) .


> 0 W > (f ; a, b; ) , ,
(f ; a, b; ) W .
3. 1 (f ; a, b; ) W .
> 0. lk inmum f [xk1 , xk ], k [xk1 , xk ]

f (k ) < lk + ba
. = {1 , . . . , n }
( 2) :

(f ; a, b; , ) = nk=1 f (k )(xk xk1 ) < nk=1 (lk + ba


)(xk xk1 )
n
n

= k=1 lk (xk xk1 ) + k=1 ba


(xk xk1 ) = (f ; a, b; ) + .
> 0 W < (f ; a, b; ) + . ,
(f ; a, b; ) W .
. = {a = x0 , . . . , xn = b} [a, b].
-, w() = max{xk xk1 | k N, 1 k n}.
. 6.3 , , !
6.3. f : [a, b] R.
1. I . > 0 0 > 0

[a, b]


w() < 0
b
(f ; a, b; , ) I < . f [a, b]
f (x) dx = I.
a
2. , f [a, b]. > 0 0 > 0

b] w()
< 0
[a,

b


(f ; a, b; , ) a f (x) dx < .
. 1. W = {(f ; a, b; , ) | },
6.6.
> 0. , 0 > 0 [a,
b]
w() < 0 (f ; a, b; , ) I < 4 .
w() < 0 ,
I 4 < (f ; a, b; , ) < I+ 4 . I 4 I+ 4
, , W . 6.6 I 4 (f ; a, b; )
(f ; a, b; ) I + 4 . (f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; ) 2 < .
, , > 0 [a, b] (f ; a, b; )
(f ; a, b; ) < , f [a, b].
I 4 (f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; ) I + 4 (f ; a, b; )
b

b
f (x) dx I < .
f
(x)
dx

(f
;
a,
b;
)

4
a
a
b
> 0, a f (x) dx = I.
2. f [a, b], M |f (x)| M x [a, b].
> 0. , 0 [a, b]
250

(f ; a, b; 0 ) (f ; a, b; 0 ) < 2 .

n0 2 0 -. 0 = 4n0 (M
.
+1)
= {a = x0 , . . . , xn = b} [a, b] w() < 0 lk uk inmum supremum
f [xk1 , xk ].
k = 1, . . . , n . A
k [xk1 , xk ] 0 -
. B k, k
[xk1 , xk ] 0 - .

(f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; ) = kA (uk lk )(xk xk1 ) + kB (uk lk )(xk xk1 ).


A n0 . ,
k A M lk uk M , , uk lk 2M . k A
(uk lk )(xk xk1 ) 2M w() 2M 0 <

kA (uk

lk )(xk xk1 ) <

kA 2n0

2n0

n0 2n 0 = 2 .

0 = 0 , k B, -
[xk1 , xk ] 0 -. , 6.2,

0
0
kB (uk lk )(xk xk1 ) (f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; )
(f ; a, b; 0 ) (f ; a, b; 0 ) < 2 .
, , (f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; ) < 2 + 2 =
[a, b] w() < 0 . ,
(f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; , ) (f ; a, b; ).
b
(f ; a, b; ) a f (x) dx (f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; )(f ; a, b; ) < ,


b
(f ; a, b; , ) a f (x) dx < w() < 0
.
Riemann Riemann.
. f : [a, b] R. f , , Riemann
[a, b] I . > 0 0 > 0

[a, b] w() < 0


(f ; a, b; , ) I < . f [a, b], I
, , Riemann f [a, b]
b
f (x) dx = I.
a
6.3
Darboux Riemann . ,
,
.
6.15. f : [a, b] R [a, b].
(n ) [a, b] w(n ) 0. n N
n n .
b
(f ; a, b; n , n ) a f (x) dx.
251

. > 0. 0 > 0
[a, b] w() < 0

b


(f ; a, b; , )
a f (x) dx < .
w(n ) 0, w(n ) < 0 , , (f ; a, b; n , n )

b
b
f (x) dx < . (f ; a, b; n , n ) a f (x) dx.
a
6.15
.
f [a, b], Riemann f
0.
:
limw()0 (f ; a, b; , ) =

b
a

f (x) dx.

6.15, f : [a, b] R
, (n )
[a, b] w(n ) 0 , n , n
. (f ; a, b; n , n ) , ,
b
, (f ; a, b; n , n ) a f (x) dx.
n n (f ; a, b; n , n ).
. 1. 6.2
.
, , 6.1, .
, , (n ) .
, n n
Riemann (f ; a, b; n , n ). ,
. 6.2 ,
n , n . (f ; a, b; n , n ) Darboux
(f ; a, b; n ) (f ; a, b; n , n ) Darboux
(f ; a, b; n ). 6.2
Darboux. , ,
b
limn+ (f ; a, b; n , n ), a f (x) dx.
2. cos x sin x , , [a, b].
b
b
a cos x dx a sin x dx.

(n+1)q
(n+1)q
nq
q n
cos
,
sin
.
sin 2q nk=1 cos(kq) = sin nq
k=1 sin(kq) = sin 2 sin
2
2
2
2
sin 2q cos(kq) = 21 sin(kq + 2q ) 12 sin(kq 2q )
k = 1, . . . , n.
sin 2q sin(kq) = 12 cos(kq + 2q ) + 12 cos(kq 2q ).
n N n = {x0 = a, . . . , xn = b} xk = a + k ba

n
k = 0, . . . , n. , n = {1 , . . . , n } k = xk k = 0, . . . , n.
, w(n ) 0.
n , , w(n ) = ba
n

ba
(cos x; a, b; n , n ) = nk=1 cos k (xk xk1 ) = ba
k=1 cos(a + k n ).
n

252

q =

ba
n

(cos x; a, b; n , n ) = q cos a nk=1 cos(kq) q sin a nk=1 sin(kq)


=

q
sin 2q

cos a sin nq
cos (n+1)q

2
2

q
sin 2q

sin nq
cos(a +
2

(n+1)q
)
2

q
sin 2q

sin a sin nq
sin (n+1)q
2
2

ba
n
ba
2n

sin

sin ba
cos(a +
2

(n+1)(ba)
)
2n

2 sin ba
cos b+a
= sin b sin a.
2
2

b
b
a cos x dx = sin b sin a. a sin x dx = cos a cos b.
,
b
b
cos x dx = sin b sin a,
sin x dx = cos a cos b.
a
a
. , 6.15, 6.2, . 7
, . ,
, Riemann
, .
, ,
Riemann
. 7.7.
,
. 1.
b
1
E(f ; a, b) = ba
f (x) dx
a
.
y1 , y2 , . . . , yn , yk
k , ,

1 y1 ++n yn
1 ++n

1
1 ++n

y1 + +

n
1 ++n

yn = 1 y1 + + n yn ,

k
k = 1 ++
yk ,
n
yk y1 , . . . , yn . , ,
y1 , . . . , yn
y1 , . . . , yn .
, f : [a, b] R [a, b]. =
{x0 = a, x1 , . . . , xn1 , xn = b} [a, b] = {1 , . . . , n }
. f (1 ), . . . , f (n ). w()
, - [xk1 , xk ] ,
x [xk1 , xk ] k ,
f (k ) f (x) x [xk1 , xk ] , , f (1 ), . . . , f (n )
. , , [xk1 , xk ]
[xl1 , xl ], f (k )
f (l ). , ,
f (x) f (k )
k1

k = xk x
ba
[xk1 , xk ] b a. ,
f ,
x1 x0
f (1 )
ba

+ +
253

xn xn1
f (n )
ba

f (1 ), . . . , f (n )
w() . , , ,

1
(f ; a, b; ; ).
ba
b
1
f (x) dx w()
, , ba
a
.
.
1. [] f : [a, b] R [a, b].
ba
n

)
(
b
ba

f (x) dx.
f
a
+
k
k=1
n
a

12 6.4.
, ,
)
(
)
b
b
n1 (
n
ba
ba
ba
1 ba
f
a
+
k

f
(x)
dx,
f
a
+
(k

f (x) dx.
k=0
k=1
n
n
n
2 n
a
a

.
[] Riemann . , ,
. o
Riemann ,
.
.
.
1

1
nk=1 nk+1 0 x dx = +1
> 0.

pn
p 1
1
k=n+1 k 1 x dx = log p p N, p 2.
11 6.4.
1 1

n
nk=1 n2 +k
2 0 1+x2 dx.

nk=1 nn+k
1 x dx = 4 322 .
n
1 1

nk=1 n21+k2 0 1+x


2 dx.
1
n 1 2
k=1 n2 n (k 1)2 0 1 x2 dx.
2. f : [a, b] R [a, b] (n )
b
[a, b] w(n ) 0. (f ; a, b; n ) a f (x) dx (f ; a, b; n )
b
f (x) dx.
a
: 6.6, n n
n (f ; a, b; n ) n1 < (f ; a, b; n ; n ) (f ; a, b; n ).
b
b
(f ; a, b; n ; n ) a f (x) dx, (f ; a, b; n ) a f (x) dx.
3. Cauchy Riemann.
f : [a, b] R. f [a, b]
> 0 > 0 1 , 2 [a, b] w(1 ) < , w(2 ) <
1 , 2 |(f ; a, b; 1 ; 1 )
(f ; a, b; 2 ; 2 )| < .

254

4. f : [a, b] R. > 0
(f ; a, b; ) = sup{(f ; a, b; ) | [a, b], w() < }

(f ; a, b; ) = inf{(f ; a, b; ) | [a, b], w() < }.


b
[] 0 < 1 < 2 , a f (x) dx (f ; a, b; 1 ) (f ; a, b; 2 ).
b
[] 0 < 1 < 2 , (f ; a, b; 2 ) (f ; a, b; 1 ) a f (x) dx.
b
b
[] lim0+ (f ; a, b; ) = a f (x) dx lim0+ (f ; a, b; ) = a f (x) dx.
(
)
[] lim0+ (f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; ) = 0 f [a, b].
5. , Jensen
19[] 6.4 f [a, b].
= {a = x0 , . . . , xn = b} [a, b] = {1 , . . . , n }
k1
. k = xk x
k = 1, . . . , n, 1 , . . . , n > 0
ba
1 + + n = 1. 37 5.7,
( x
)
x0
n1
n1
0
g x1ba
f (1 ) + + xn x
f (n ) x1ba
g(f (1 )) + + xn x
g(f (n ))
ba
ba
( (f ;a,b;,) )

. c

f (x) dx d, g
a
b ba

f (x) dx. , 27[] 6.4, g f
a
[a, b]. , (k ) [a, b]
w(k ) 0 , k N, k k .
b
1
k ,k )
k ,k )

f (x) dx (gf ;a,b;

6.15, (f ;a,b;
ba
ba a
ba
(
)

b
b
b
1
1
1
g(f (x)) dx. g ba
f (x) dx ba
g(f (x)) dx.
ba a
a
a
, , g

(gf ;a,b;,)
ba

1
ba

255

1
ba

256

7
.
7.1

, .

7.1.1

. I f : I R. F : I R F 0 (x) = f (x)
x I, F
f I.
1
. 1. +1
x+1 x (i) R, N, (ii)
(, 0) (0, +), Z, 2, (iii) [0, +), R \ Z, > 0
(iv) (0, +), R \ Z, < 0.
= 1 = 0.
x 1 R.
log |x| x1 (, 0) (0, +).
2. > 0, 6= 1, log1 x x R.
3. sin x cos x cos x sin x R.
4. tan x (cos1x)2 ( 2 + k, 2 + k) k Z. cot x
(sin1x)2 (k, + k) k Z.

5. arcsin x

1
(1, 1).
1x2
1
R.
1+x2

6. arctan x
{
0, x 6= 0
7. f (x) =
R.
1, x = 0
, F : R R F 0 (x) = f (x) x. F 0 (x) = 0
x (, 0) F (, 0], c1 F (x) = c1
x (, 0]. , F 0 (x) = 0 x (0, +) F
[0, +), c2 F (x) = c2 x [0, +). c1 = F (0) = c2
, c = c1 = c2 , F (x) = c x. , F 0 (x) = 0
x , F 0 (0) = f (0) = 1.
f . F ,
, Darboux 24 5.5, f = F 0
. , , : ,
f (0) = 1, f (1) = 0 (0, 1) f () = 21 .
7.1. I f, F1 , F2 : I R. F2 F1
I F1 , F2 f I,
257

f I. , F1 , F2 f I, F2 F1
I.
. F2 (x)F1 (x) = c F1 0 (x) = f (x) x I. F2 0 (x) = (F1 +c)0 (x) =
f (x) + 0 = f (x) x I.
, F1 0 (x) = f (x) F2 0 (x) = f (x) x I. h = F2 F1 :
I R h0 (x) = F1 0 (x) F2 0 (x) = f (x) f (x) = 0 x I. h
I.
7.1 . F
f I. f
I F + c, c ,
. , f
I, f I :
.
2

. x R x2 + c, c
.
, , c . ,
cos R sin +c, c
.
. g 0
- , g
. , , 5.6,
5.7. , , 7.1
.
. log |x| + c, c ,
x1 (, 0) (0, +)
(, 0){ (0, +). x1 (, 0) (0, +)
log |x| + c1 , x < 0
F (x) =
c1 , c2 (, 0)
log |x| + c2 , x > 0
(0, +), , .
7.1.2

. a < b f : [a, b] R [a, b],


b
a
f
(x)
dx.

:
f (x) dx =
a
b
b
a f (x) dx.
, f a, , ,
a
[a, a] = {a} : a f (x) dx = 0.

. ,
b
a f (x) dx a, b f
[a, b], a < b, [b, a], b < a, , , a, a = b.
b
c
b
a f (x) dx = a f (x) dx + c f (x) dx, a < c < b,
a, b, c, f
258

.
,
.
, b < c <
a
c
a
a
a,

f
(x)
dx
=

f
(x)
dx

f
(x)
dx
, , b f (x) dx =
b
c
b
c
a
f (x) dx + c f (x) dx
b
c
c . , a = b < c,
0 = a f (x) dx a f (x) dx , , .
.
. f

b [a, b],
a < b, [b, a], b < a, |f (x)| M x ,
a f (x) dx M |b a|. , a < b, |b a| = b a,
b
a
a

. b < a, a f (x) dx = b f (x) dx = b f (x) dx M (ab) = M |ba|.
b

, a = b, a f (x) dx M |b a| 0 = 0.
. I f : I R
I. a I, x I
x
x a f (t) dt.
x. ,
c,
x
F : I R F (x) = a f (t) dt + c x I.
f I a
.
7.2. I f : I R
I. f I I.
x
. a I, c F (x) = a f (t) dt + c x I.
I I. b I, b > . f [, b]
[, b], M |f (x)| M x [, b]. ,
) (
)
x
x
x [, b] |F (x) F ()| = ( a f (t) dt + c a f (t) dt + c = f (t) dt M (x ).
[, x] [, b], |f (t)| M t [, x].
limx+ (F (x) F ()) = 0, limx+ F (x) = F ().
I I. . b I, b < . f [b, ] [b, ],
M |f (x)| M x [b, ]. x [b, ]
) (
)
x

|F (x) F ()| = ( a f (t) dt + c a f (t) dt + c = x f (t) dt M ( x).


[x, ] [b, ], |f (t)| M t [x, ].
limx (F (x) F ()) = 0, limx F (x) = F ().
F I.
a I a0 I
x
x
a0
, : F (x) = a f (t) dt + c = a0 f (t) dt + a f (t) dt + c =
x
a0
f (t) dt + c0 , c0 = a f (t) dt + c. , a
a0
a0 , , c c0 .

a
x
a f (t) dt .
.
x R, a = 0
x
2
2
2
0 t dt = x2 02 = x2 .
2
x x2 + c, c . , ,
x
a , a = 4, 4 t dt
x
2
2
2
4 t dt = x2 42 = x2 8 c = 8.
259

7.1 7.3.
7.3. I f, F1 , F2 : I R. f
I. F2 F1 I
F1 , F2 f I,
f I. , F1 , F2 f I, F2 F1
I.
x
. F2 (x) F1 (x) = c x I F1 (x) = a1 f (t) dt + c1
x
x
x I, a1 I. F2 (x) = F1 (x) + c = a1 f (t) dt + (c1 + c) = a2 f (t) dt + c2
x I, a2 = a1 , c2= c1 + c.
x
x
, F1 (x) = a1 f (t) dt + c1 F2 (x) = a2 f (t) dt + c2 x I,
x
x
a
a1 , a2 I. F2 (x) F1 (x) = a2 f (t) dt + c2 a1 f (t) dt c1 = a21 f (t) dt + c2 c1
x I, F2 F1 I.
. F
f I. f I
F + c, c , .
, f I,
f I :
.
a I, , , f
x
I a f (t) dt + c, c .
x

. ,
f (t) dt f (x) dx
f I. ,
x
x

x
f (t) dt = a f (t) dt + c
f (x) dx = a f (t) dt + c
x I
x

x
:
f (t) dt f (x) dx a f (t) dt + c, c
. !
x
.

x:

f (t) dt

x
f (x) dx.
f (t) dt,
x
x
: a f (u) du + c, a f (s) ds + c .
x
x

x
x2
x2
.
x
t dt = 0 t dt + c = 2 + c , , x dx = 0 t dt + c = 2 + c.
:
t dt x dx x R,
x2
2 + c, c .

x R .
.
.
:
)
x
x
x
(

(f (t) + g(t)) dt =
f (t) dt + g(t) dt
f (x) + g(x) dx = f (x) dx + g(x) dx.

x
x

x .
x F (x) = a f (t) dt, G(x) = a g(t) dt.
,
f (t) dt = F (x) + c1
g(t) dt = G(x) + c2 , c1 , c2
260

x
x
.
,
f (t) dt + g(t) dt = F (x) + c1 + G(x) + c2 = F (x) + G(x) + (c1 + c2 ) =
x
(f (t) + g(t)) dt + (c1 + c2 ). c1 , c2 , c1 + c2
a

x . , c1 + c2 . ,

a (f (t) +g(t)) dt
f + g,
x
x
x
x
x
(f (t) + g(t)) dt = a (f (t) + g(t)) dt + (c1 + c2 ).
f (t) dt + g(t) dt = (f (t) + g(t)) dt.
:
x
x

f (t) dt = f (t) dt

f (x) dx = f (x) dx,


6= 0.
x
x
, , F (x) = a f (t) dt,
f (t) dt =
x
F
x(x) + c, c . f (t) dt = F (x) + c =
f (t) dt + c. c , , 6= 0, c
a

. , c
x
x .
x ,
a f (t) dt
f ,
f (t) dt = a f (t) dt + c
x
x
, , f (t) dt =
f (t) dt.
x
x
,
f (t) dt,
g(t) dt
. ,
x

f (t) dt 6= 0
.

2
3
. 1. (x + x2 ) dx = x dx + x2 dx = x2 + x3 + c.

2
3
(x + x2 ) dx = x dx + x2 dx = x2 + c1 + x3 + c2 .

2
2. 7x dx = 7 x dx = 7 x2 + c. 7x dx = 7 x dx =
2
7 x2 + 7c.

2
3. (x + g(x)) dx = x dx + g(x) dx = x2 + g(x) dx.

2
(x + g(x)) dx = x dx + g(x) dx = x2 + c + g(x) dx
c g(x) dx
.

4. ! x dx x dx = c = 0. x dx x dx = (xx) dx =

2
2
0 dx = c , , x dx x dx = x2 + c1 x2 c2 = c1 c2 = c.

5.
!

0
f
(x)
dx
=
6
0f
(x)
dx.
:
0
f
(x)
dx
=
0

0f (x) dx =

0 dx = c.
.
1. 2x+sin x R. 2x+sin x
R 1 2. ;
2. [] F (x) F 0 (x2 ) = x1 x (0, +) F (1) = 1.
[] F (x) F 0 (log x) = 1 x (0, 1] F 0 (log x) = x
x [1, +) F (1) = 1.
3. r(x) (a, b) r0 (x) =
r(x) = . . . (a, b). ;

1
x

x (a, b),

4. 1 x R.
1 x R 2 1.
;
261

5. I f : I R
I. a I . f I
a;

2
f
(x)
dx
=
g(x)
dx
+
x

3.

f (x) dx
6.

g(x) dx;
7. f : [a, b] R [a, b]. [a, b]

b
f (x) dx = f (x) dx.
a
x
b
: F (x) = a f (t) dt x f (t) dt.
8. f (x) = x [x] 12 . 10
6.4.
[] f R 1.
x
[] F (x) = 0 f (t) dt
R 1 [0, 1]. F R
[x].
x
1
[] G(x) = 0 (F (t)+ 12
) dt
R 1 [0, 1].
[] f ; F
f ;
[] f f
F . ;
9. f : R R > 0 [0, ].
14 6.4, f
.
x
0 (f (t) ) dt
. ; [], []
.
10. f : R R
f .
f ,
;

7.2 .
.
- - :
.
.
. I f : I R
x I. a I
F (x) = a f (t) dt x I. f I, F
F 0 () = f ().
, f I, F I F 0 (x) = f (x)
x I.
262

. > 0. 0 > 0 |f (x) f ()| < x I,


|x | < 0 . , , x I, 0 < |x | < 0 . t [, x] t [x, ]
x
|t | < 0 , |f (t) f ()| < . (f (t) f ()) dt |x |.
x f (t) dtf ()(x) x f (t) dt x f () dt
F (x)F ()
x f (t) dt f (t) dt


a

= a

f
()

f
()
=
=

x
x
x
x
=
limx

F (x)F ()
x

(f (t)f ()) dt|


|x|

|x|
|x|

= .

= f (), F 0 () = f ().

, , f
I, , ,
I.
12
.
.
7.4. I f : I R I.
f I I . ,
f I I.
x
. , F (x) = a f (t) dt f
I I. F f I,
f I F + c, c
I. , F f I, f
I F + c, c I.
7.5 .
7.5. I, f : I R I F : I R f I.
1. f I F +c, c
I.
x

f (t) dt = F (x) + c

f (x) dx = F (x) + c
x I.
2. f [a, b] I F
[a, b].
b
a

f (x) dx = F (b) F (a)

a, b I.

. 1. f I F + c, c
I, , 7.4,
f I I.
x
2.
, a f (t) dt
x
x
f I. a f (t) dt F (x) I. a f (t) dt F (x) =
a
b
f
(t)
dt

F
(a)
=
F
(a)

I
,
,
f (t) dt F (b) = F (a).
a
a
7.6. I F : I R I F 0 : I R
I. ,
b
a

F 0 (x) dx = F (b) F (a)


263

a, b I.

. 2 7.5 f = F 0 , F ,
, f I.
15 7.6 .
, ,
d
dx

f (x) dx = f (x),

dF
dx

dx = F (x) + c.

f
: .
f = dF
, F
dx
f , : ( f )
.

7.5.
. 1. R a, b :

2. 6= 1,

1 dx = x + c,

x dx =

x+1
+1

+ c,

1 dx = b a.

x dx =

b+1 a+1
+1

(i) R, N, (ii) (, 0) (0, +), Z,


2, (iii) [0, +), R \ Z, > 0, (iv) (0, +), R \ Z, < 0.
a, b ( )
. , Z, 2, a, b < 0
a, b > 0, a < 0 < b b < 0 < a.
3. (, 0) (0, +) a, b < 0
a, b > 0 :

1
x

dx = log |x| + c,

1
a x

dx = log |b| log |a| = log ab .

4. > 0, 6= 1, R a, b:

x dx =

x
log

+ c,

x dx =

b a
log

5. R a, b :

cos x dx = sin x + c,
sin x dx = cos x + c,
b
a

cos x dx = sin b sin a,

sin x dx = cos a cos b.

6. ( 2 + k, 2 + k) k Z (k, + k)
k Z. a, b (
) .

1
(cos x)2

dx = tan x + c,

264

1
(sin x)2

dx = cot x + c,

1
a (cos x)2

dx = tan b tan a,

1
a (sin x)2

dx = cot a cot b.

7. (1, 1) a, b (1, 1) :

1
1x2

dx = arcsin x + c,

b
a

1
1x2

dx = arcsin b arcsin a.

8. R a, b :

1
1+x2

dx = arctan x + c,

1
a 1+x2

dx = arctan b arctan a.


.

, f , g [a, b].
b
b
[a, b] a f (t)g(t) dt = f () a g(t) dt.
x
x
b
b
F (x) = a f (t)g(t) dt G(x) = a g(t) dt a f (t)g(t) dt = f () a g(t) dt
b
b
g() a f (t)g(t) dt = f ()g() a g(t) dt G0 ()(F (b) F (a)) = F 0 ()(G(b)
G(a)). Cauchy.
.

f (x) dx = F (x) + c F 0 (x) = f (x).

cos(ax) dx = a1 sin(ax) + c, sin(ax) dx = a1 cos(ax) + c.

log x dx = x log x x + c (0, +).


1
dx = log(log x) + c (1, +).
x log
x

1
[] x log x log(log
dx = log(log(log x)) + c (e, +).
x)
(
n x
n)
2
[] x e dx = n!ex ex 1 x x2! xn! + c.
(

2
n)
[] xn ex dx = (1)n1 n!ex ex 1 + x x2! + + (1)n1 xn! + c.

x
2. [] f : R R R a a f (t) dt = sin x 23 x.
;
x
[]
f : R R R 0 f (t) dt = ex x;
x
0 f (t) dt = ex 1.
1.
[]
[]
[]

3. I f : I R I. f (x) 6= 0 x I,
b 0 (x)
(b)
dx = log ff (a)
a, b I.
a ff (x)
f (x) 6= 0 x I f I.
4. f : I R I a, b I.
x
[] a f (t) dt I, f 0 I.
x
b
[] a f (t) dt = x f (t) dt x I, f 0 I.
5. I f : I R
I.
[] g, h : A I A, F : A R
g(x)
F (x) = h(x) f (t) dt x A .
265

[] g, h : A I A f
g(), h(). F []
F 0 () = g 0 ()f (g()) h0 ()f (h()).
x2 t
2+x t
x2 x t2 2t
dt,
dt, x et dt, 2x sin
[] 1
et +2t2
t
x+cos x t
te dt.
sin x
x2
2
[] f : [0, +) R [0, +) 0 f (t) dt = 1 2x x 0.
x
2 x
2
6. [] limx+ ex 0 et dt, limx+ x1 0 etx (2t + 1) dt.
x t2
1

[] a > 0 b limx0+ bxsin


dt = 1.
x 0
a+t
2
7. [] 0 sin(kx) dx = 0 k Z.
2
0 cos(kx) dx = 0 k Z, k 6= 0.
2
0 sin(nx) cos(mx) dx = 0 n, m Z.
2
0 sin(nx) sin(mx) dx = 0 n, m Z, n 6= m.
2
0 cos(nx) cos(mx) dx = 0 n, m Z, n 6= m.
2
2
0 (sin(nx))2 dx = 0 (cos(nx))2 dx = n Z, n 6= 0.
[] .

f (x) = a0 + 2 nk=1 (ak cos(kx) + bk sin(kx))


. an 2 + bn 2 > 0, n
.
2.

f (x) = a0 + 2 nk=1 (ak cos(kx) + bk sin(kx)) ,


2
2
1
1
f (x) cos(kx) dx,
bk = 2
f (x) sin(kx) dx.
ak = 2
0
0
n

f (x) = a0 +2 k=1 (ak cos(kx)+bk sin(kx)) g(x) = c0 +2 nk=1 (ck cos(kx)+dk sin(kx))
,
2

1
f (x)g(x) dx = a0 c0 + 2 nk=1 (ak ck + bk dk ).
2 0
2
1
, 2
f (x t)g(t) dt , x,
0

1
f (x t)g(t) dt = f (x) = a0 c0 + 2 nk=1 (ak ck cos(kx) + bk dk sin(kx)).
2 0
2
1
. 2
f (x t)g(t) dt f (x) g(x)
0
(f g)(x).
x
8. a 6= b, limx x1 0 sin(at) sin(bt) dt = 0.
9. [] 2 6.5.
x
: F : [a, b] R F (x) = a f (t) dt
[a, b] , , [a, b].
b
[] f : [a, b] R [a, b]. a (f (t))2 dt = 0, f
.
x00
[] f : [a, b] R [a, b]. x0 f (t) dt 0 x0 , x00 [a, b],
x0 < x00 , f (x) 0 x f .
266

2
10.
x f : [0, +) R [0, +), f (x) 6= 0 x > 0 (f (x)) =
2 0 f (t) dt x 0.
[] f (x) > 0 x > 0.
[] f (0, +).
[] f (x) = x x 0.

11. f : [0, a] R f 0 : [0, a] R [0, a] f (0) = 0.


{
(f (x))2
, 0 < x a
x

[] g(x) =
0,
x = 0
[0, a].
x
[] g(x) 0 (f 0 (t))2 dt.
x
[] (f (x))2 x 0 (f 0 (t))2 dt x [0, a].
a
[] (f (a))2 = a 0 (f 0 (t))2 dt, f (x)
(0, a].
x
a 0
2
2
0
[] (f (a)) = a 0 (f (t)) dt f (0) = 2, f (x) = 2x x [0, a].
12.
.
I f : I R
x
I. a, I F (x) = a f (t) dt x I.
limx+ f (x) R , F+0 () R F+0 () =
limx+ f (x). , f , F
F+0 () = f ().
limx f (x) R , F0 () R F0 () =
limx f (x). , f , F
F0 () = f ().
13. (Pn ) Bernoulli
1 :
0
P0 (x) = 1 x, Pn (x) = nPn1 (x) x n N 0 Pn (x) dx = 0
n N.
[] Pn (x) n = 1, 2, 3, 4.
[] Pn (x) n
xn .
[] Pn (0) = Pn (1) n N, n 2.
[] Pn (x + 1) Pn (x) = nxn1 x n N.
m+1
m n
n+1 (0)
k
=
Pn (x) dx = Pn+1 (m+1)P
[]

k=1
n+1
0
m
m 3 m2 (m+1)2
m(m+1) m
m(m+1)(2m+1)
2
k=1 k =
, k=1 k =
k=1 k =
.
2
6
4
n
[] Pn (1 x) = (1) Pn (x) x n N.
[] P2n+1 (0) = 0, P2n1 ( 21 ) = 0 n N.
x
1
14. f : [a, b] R [a, b]. fn (x) = (n1)!
(x t)n1 f (t) dt
a
x [a, b], n N.
[] f1 0 (x) = f (x) fn+1 0 (x) = fn (x) x [a, b], n N.
[] fn (n) (x) = f (x) x [a, b], n N.
x
[] fn+1 (x) = a fn (t) dt x [a, b], n N.
[] Fekete: n N,
267

f [a, b]
(n + 1)- (f (b), f1 (b), . . . , fn (b)).
: .
[] Fejer: n N,
f [a, b]
)
(
b
b
(n + 1)- f (a), a f (t) dt, . . . , a (t a)n1 f (t) dt .
15. 7.6. , :
.
, .
, : I
F : I R I F 0 : I R
b
I. a F 0 (x) dx = F (b) F (a) a, b I.
. a < b > 0. = {a = x0 , . . . , xn = b}
(F 0 ; a, b; ) (F 0 ; a, b; ) < . uk lk supremum inmum
F 0 [xk1 , xk ]. k (xk1 , xk ) F (xk ) F (xk1 ) = F 0 (k )(xk xk1 ),
lk (xk xk1 ) F (xk ) F (xk1 ) uk (xk xk1 ). (F 0 ; a, b; ) =

n
n
n
0
k=1 lk (xk xk1 )
k=1 (F (xk ) F (xk1 ))
k=1 uk (xk xk1 ) = (F ; a, b; ) ,
, (F 0 ; a, b; ) F (b) F (a) (F 0 ; a, b; ).


b 0
b 0
0
0

(F ; a, b; ) a F (x) dx (F ; a, b; ) F (b) F (a) a F (x) dx


b
(F 0 ; a, b; ) (F 0 ; a, b; ) < . F (b) F (a) a F 0 (x) dx < ,
b 0
F (x) dx = F (b) F (a). b < a a = b .
a
. a < b > 0. 0 > 0
[a, b] w() < 0
b
|(F 0 ; a, b; , ) a F 0 (x) dx| < . = {a = x0 , . . . , xn = b} w() < 0 .
k = 1, . . . , n
k (xk1 , xk )
F (xk ) F (xk1 ) = F 0 (k )(xk xk1 ).

(F 0 ; a, b; , ) = nk=1 F 0 (k )(xk xk1 ) = nk=1 F (xk ) F (xk1 ) = F (b) F (a) ,




b
b
w() < 0 , F (b) F (a) a F 0 (x) dx = |(F 0 ; a, b; , ) a F 0 (x) dx| < .
b
a F 0 (x) dx = F (b) F (a).
16. , f I, x
I f0 (x) f+0 (x),
f0 (x) f+0 (x). f I, .
[] : I f : I R I. g : I R x I
g(x) f+0 (x) f0 (x). g
b
I a g(x) dx = f (b) f (a) a, b I.
f I. x1 , x2 I, x1 < x2 , g(x1 ) f+0 (x1 )
f (x2 )f (x1 )
f0 (x2 ) g(x2 ), g I. g
x2 x1
I. [a, b] I > 0.
= {a = x0 , . . . , xn = b} [a, b] (g; a, b; ) (g; a, b; ) < .
uk lk supremum inmum g [xk1 , xk ]. g ,

268

f (xk )f (xk1 )
xk xk1

uk = g(xk ) lk = g(xk1 ), lk = g(xk1 )


(g; a, b; ) =

k=1 lk (xk xk1 )


n
k=1 uk (xk xk1 ) =

n
k=1

g(xk ) = uk .

f (xk )f (xk1 )
(xk
xk xk1

xk1 )

(g; a, b; ).

, (g; a, b; ) f (b) f (a) (g; a, b; ).





b
b
(g; a, b; ) a g(x) dx (g; a, b; ) f (b) f (a) a g(x) dx


b
(g; a, b; ) (g; a, b; ) < . f (b) f (a) a g(x) dx < > 0,
b
g(x) dx = f (b) f (a). b < a a = b .
a
f .
[] I f : I R I.
b 0
b 0
(x)
dx
=
f
(b)

f
(a)

f (x) dx = f (b) f (a) a, b I.


f

a
a +
[] I f : I R I. f I, [] [],
b 0
f (x) dx = f (b) f (a) a, b I.
a
[] ,
: I f : I R.
f I , ,
I.
f I. g : I R []
x
I ,
x , f (x) f (a) = a g(t) dt a, x I.
f (x) = a g(t) dt + f (a) x I. , g : I R
I , ,
I
x
f (x) = a g(t) dt + c x I, a I.
x x1 , x2 I, x1 < x2
x (x1 , x2 ). g , f (x) f (x1 ) = x1 g(t) dt g(x)(x x1 ) ,
x
, f (x2 ) f (x) = x 2 g(t) dt g(x)(x2 x).
(
) xx (
)
x2 x
xx1
x2 x
1
f
(x
)
+
f
(x
)

f
(x)

g(x)(x

x
)
+
f
(x)
+
g(x)(x

x)
= f (x)
1
2
1
2
x2 x1
x2 x1
x2 x1
x2 x1
, , f I. .
[] [] . g : I R
() () f g I,
x I g(x) f+0 (x) f0 (x).
[].

7.3

7.3.1

7.7. I, J. : I J 0 : I R I
f : J R J.
x

f ((t))0 (t) dt =

(x)

f (s) ds,

f ((x))0 (x) dx =

(b)
(a)

f (y) dy,

x I a, b I.
. (f )0
y I.
F : J R f J.
f (s) ds = F (y) + c
269

(x)
y J, c .
f (s) ds = F ((x))+c = (F )(x)+c
x I, c I.
, (F )0 (x) = F 0 ((x))0 (x) = f ((x))0 (x) x I, F : I R
x
f ((x))0 (x) I.
f ((t))0 (t) dt = F ((x)) + c
x I,

xc
(x) I.
0
,
f ((t)) (t) dt =
f (s) ds x I.
x

G(x) = a f ((t))0 (t) dt x I F (y) =


y
f (s) ds y J.
(a)
G0 (x) = f ((x))0 (x) x I F 0 (y) = f (y) y J.
F 0 ((x))0 (x) = f ((x))0 (x) = G0 (x) x I. F ((x)) G(x)
I , , F ((x)) G(x) = F ((a)) G(a) = 0 x I.
(b)
b
F ((b)) G(b) = 0 , , (a) f (s) ds = a f ((t))0 (t) dt.
7.7

f ((x))0 (x) dx =


f (y) dy y=(x) .

, , . f ((x))0 (x) dx

f ((x))0 (x), , ,

x I. f (y) dy f (y),
y J. y (x)
.
7.7,
x y = (x)
0 (x) dx dy.
dy
dx
= 0 (x) dy = 0 (x) dx x y.

. 1. n N, (sin x)n cos x dx.



( n+1
)

x y = sin x, (sin x)n cos x dx = y n dy y=sin x = yn+1 + c y=sin x =


(sin x)n+1
n+1

+ c.
2x
2.
dx
x y = x2 + 1,
x2 +1

2x
1
dx = y dy y=x2 +1 = (log |y| + c) y=x2 +1 = log(x2 + 1) + c.
x2 +1
b 1
dx x y = log x
3. a x log
x
log b
b 1
log b 1
.
a x log x dx = log a y dy = log log
a
a, b log x,
a, b,
y1 , (, 0) (0, +). log x
log a, log b. log a, log b > 0 , , a, b > 1,
log a, log b < 0 , , 0 < a, b < 1. , log a, log b ,
b 1
log b
dx = log log
.
a x log
x
a
7.3.2

7.8. I f, g : I R f 0 , g 0 : I R I.

x
x
f (t)g 0 (t) dt = f (x)g(x) f 0 (t)g(t) dt,
b
b 0
0
f
(x)g
(x)
dx
=
f
(b)g(b)

f
(a)g(a)

f (x)g(x) dx,
a
a
270

x I a, b I.

x 0
. F : I R f 0 g I.
f (t)g(t) dt =
F (x) c x I, c . G =
f g F : I R. G0 (x) = f 0 (x)g(x)+ f (x)g 0 (x) F 0 (x) = f (x)g 0 (x) I, G
x

f g 0 I.
f (t)g 0 (t) dt = G(x) + c = f (x)g(x) F (x) + c =
x 0
f (x)g(x) f (t)g(t) dt x I.
x
x
, F (x) = a f 0 (t)g(t) dt G(x) = a f (t)g 0 (t) dt
x I. F 0 (x) + G0 (x) = f 0 (x)g(x) + f (x)g 0 (x) = (f g)0 (x) x I.
F + G f g I, F (x) + G(x) f (x)g(x) =
F (a) + G(a) f (a)g(a) = f (a)g(a) x I. F (b) + G(b) = f (b)g(b) f (a)g(a)
b
b
, , a f 0 (t)g(t) dt + a f (t)g 0 (t) dt = f (b)g(b) f (a)g(a).
7.8

f (x)g 0 (x) dx = f (x)g(x)

f 0 (x)g(x) dx.

f 0 g 0 , ,
25. 26.

log x
.
1. log x dx = ddxx log x dx = x log x x d dx
dx = x log x x x1 dx =

x log x 1 dx = x log x x + c (0, +).


2
2
2
2 ex
2. 0 xex dx = 0 x ddx
dx = 2e2 0e0 0 ddxx ex dx = 2e2 0 ex dx = 2e2 (e2 e0 ) = e2 + 1.

cos x
dx = cos + 0 cos 0 + 0 ddxx cos x dx = + 0 cos x dx =
3. 0 x sin x dx = 0 x d dx
+ (sin sin 0) = .
4. a 6= 0,
ax

e sin(bx) dx = a1 eax sin(bx) ab eax cos(bx) dx.


,

ax
2
e sin(bx) dx = a1 eax sin(bx) ab2 eax cos(bx) ab 2 eax sin(bx) dx.

1+

b2
a2

eax sin(bx) dx =

1 ax
e
a2

)
a sin(bx) b cos(bx) + c,

c , ,

eax sin(bx) dx = eax

a
a2 +b2

sin(bx)

b
a2 +b2

)
cos(bx) + c.


a = 0, b 6= 0,

sin(bx) dx = 1b cos(bx) + c. a2 + b2 6= 0,
a, b .
,

eax cos(bx) dx = eax

a
a2 +b2

cos(bx) +

271

b
a2 +b2

)
sin(bx) + c.

7.3.3

R(x) dx =

am xm +am1 xm1 ++a1 x+a0


bn xn +bn1 xn1 ++b1 x+b0

dx,

m1

++a1 x+a0
m1 x
R(x) = ambnxxn+a
.
+bn1 xn1 ++b1 x+b0
.
. m < n , . m n,
P (x), Q(x) Q(x)
< n am xm + + a0 = P (x)(bn xn + + b0 ) + Q(x) x.

R(x) = P (x) + bn xn +bn1 xQ(x)


P (x) dx ,
n1 ++b x+b .
1
0
m < n.
. . - -
. ,
, .
bn xn + bn1 xn1 + + b1 x + b0

bn xn + + b0 = bn (x ) (x ) ((x )2 + 2 ) ((x )2 + 2 ) ,
, . . . , , , . . . , + + + 2 + + 2 = n
, . . . , > 0.
, x , . . . , x
, . . . ,
, . . . , . ,
(x)2 + 2 , . . . , (x)2 + 2 i, . . . , i
, . . . ,
.
.
, . . . ,
: , . . . ,
.
. :
(A
)
(
)

A
1
1
R(x) = x
+ + (x)
+ + x
+ + (x)

( 1 (x)+N1
( 1 (x)+1
)
M (x)+N )
E (x)+
+ + ((x)
+ M(x)
+ + E(x)
2 + 2
2 + 2 )
2 + 2 + + ((x)2 + 2 ) .
x , . . . , x
1 , . . . , , ,
. (x )2 + 2 , . . . , (x )2 + 2
1
, . . . , , , . A1 , A2 , . . . , E , ,
, .
, ,
bn xn + + b1 x + b0 .
, n n A1 , A2 , . . . , E ,
.
272

. , ,
:
1

x
1
dx,
dx,
dx
k N.
(x)k
((x)2 + 2 )k
((x)2 + 2 )k
.
1
(i) (x)
k dx, (, ) (, +),
1
1
y = x (x)
dy y=x .
k dx =
yk
(
)
1
1
1
1
1
k 2, (x)k dx = k1
+ c y=x = k1
+ c.
y k1
(x)k1

1
k = 1, x dx = (log |y| + c) y=x = log |x | + c.
,
{
1
1
1
k1
+ c, k 2
(x)k1
dx =
(x)k
log |x | + c,
k = 1

x
2
2
(ii) ((x)
2 + 2 )k dx y = (x) +

x
1
1
((x)
dy y=(x)2 + 2 .
2
2 k dx = 2
yk
(
)
+ ) x
1
1
1
1

k 2, ((x)2 + 2 )k dx = 21 k1
+
c
k1
2 + 2 = 2(k1) ((x)2 + 2 )k1 + c.
y
y=(x)

x
1
1
2
2

k = 1, (x)
2 + 2 dx = 2 (log |y| + c) y=(x)2 + 2 = 2 log((x ) + ) + c.

{
1
1

2(k1)
+ c, k 2
x
((x)2 + 2 )k1
dx = 1
((x)2 + 2 )k
2
2
log((x ) + ) + c, k = 1
2

(iii) , ((x)12 + 2 )k dx y = x
,

1
1
1

((x)2 + 2 )k dx = 2k1 (y2 +1)k dy y=(x)/ .

1
k N.
Ik = (y2 +1)
k dy
.
, k = 1,

I1 = y21+1 dy = arctan y + c.
k > 1,

Ik =

= Ik1 +

2
y 2 +1
dy (y2y+1)k dy
(y 2 +1)k

y
1
1
1

2
k1
2(k1) (y +1)
2(k1)
(y 2 +1)k1

(y 2 +1)k

dy =

1
(y 2 +1)k1

dy =

dy

y
1
2k2 (y 2 +1)k1

y
y (y2 +1)
k dy

2k3
2k2

Ik1 .

y
1
+ 2k3
Ik = 2k2
I , 2k2 k1
(y 2 +1)k1
Ik Ik1 , , I1 . :

Ik =

y
1
2k2 (y 2 +1)k1

2k3
2k2

y
1
2k2 (y 2 +1)k1

y
2k3
(2k2)(2k4) (y 2 +1)k2

y
1
2k2 (y 2 +1)k1

y
2k3
(2k2)(2k4) (y 2 +1)k2

+ +

(2k3)(2k5)3 y
(2k2)(2k4)2 y 2 +1

(2k3)(2k5)1
(2k2)(2k4)2

arctan y + c.

+ +

(2k3)(2k5)3 y
(2k2)(2k4)2 y 2 +1

(2k3)(2k5)1
(2k2)(2k4)2

arctan y + c.

Ik1
(2k3)(2k5)
(2k2)(2k4)

Ik2

, k 2
Ik =

y
1
2k2 (y 2 +1)k1

y
2k3
(2k2)(2k4) (y 2 +1)k2

273


R(x)
A1 log |x |

log((x )2 + 2 )

, ,

N1
(x)2 + 2

A2
x

A2
(x)2

M2
2((x)2 + 2 )

N2
((x)2 + 2 )2

N10 arctan x
+

M1 (x)
(x)2 + 2

R(x) dx,

M1
2

A1
x

A
(x)

A
(k1)(x)1

M2 (x)
((x)2 + 2 )2

+ +

N20 (x)
(x)2 + 2

+ +

M (x)
((x)2 + 2 )

M
2(1)((x)2 + 2 )1

N
((x)2 + 2 )

+ +

+ +

N0 (x)
,
((x)2 + 2 )1

N10 , . . . , N0 N1 , . . . , N .
2
. 1. x3
dx = 2 log |x 3| + c (, 3) (3, +).
5
5
1
2. (x+2)3 dx = 2 (x+2)2 + c (, 2) (2, +).

3. (x+1)1 2 +9 dx = 13 y21+1 dy y=(x+1)/3 = 13 arctan x+1


+c (, +).
3

x2

4. (x2)2 +4 dx = 12 y1 dy y=(x2)2 +4 = 12 log((x 2)2 + 4) + c (, +).

1
x2
1
5. ((x2)
dy y=(x2)2 +4 = 61 ((x2)12 +4)3 + c (, +).
2 +4)4 dx = 2
y4
3 2 +2
dx.
6. xx22x
3x+2
3
2
2
2

2x
+
2

x3 2x
+ 2 = (x2 3x + 2)(x + 1) + x.
x3 2x2 +2

3x + x2

dx = (x + 1) dx + x2 3x+2 dx = 12 x2 + x + x2 3x+2
dx.
x2 3x+2
x
x
x2 3x+2 dx x2 3x+2 .
x
x2 3x + 2 1 2, x2 3x + 2 = (x 1)(x 2). x2 3x+2
x
a
b
x2 3x+2
= x1
+ x2
, a, b .
(x 1)(x 2) x = a(x 2) + b(x 1)
, , x = (a + b)x + (2a b).
a + b = 1 2a b = 0.
x
1
2
a = 1, b = 2. x2 3x+2
= x1
+ x2
.

1
1
x
, x2 3x+2 dx = x1 dx + 2 x2 dx = log |x 1| + 2 log |x 2| + c , ,
x3 2x2 +2
dx = 12 x2 +xlog |x1|+2 log |x2|+c (, 1), (1, 2) (2, +).
x2 3x+2
2x2 +1
7. x3 +x
2 x1 dx.
x3 +x2 x1 : x3 +x2 x1 = x2 (x+1)(x+1) = (x2 1)(x+1) =
(x 1)(x + 1)2 . , x3 + x2 x 1 1 1.
2x2 +1
a
b
c
2x2 +1
x3 +x
2 x1 x3 +x2 x1 = x1 + x+1 + (x+1)2 ,
a, b, c. (x 1)(x + 1)2 2x2 + 1 =
a(x + 1)2 + b(x 1)(x + 1) + c(x 1) , , 2x2 + 1 = (a + b)x2 + (2a + c)x + (a b c).
a + b = 2, 2a + c = 0 a b c = 1.
2x2 +1
3 1
5 1
3
1
a = 43 , b = 54 , c = 32 . x3 +x
2 x1 = 4 x1 + 4 x+1 2 (x+1)2 .
2x2 +1
1
1
1
3
3
5
3 1
x3 +x
dx+ 54 x+1
dx 32 (x+1)
2 x1 dx = 4
2 dx = 4 log |x1|+ 4 log |x+1|+ 2 x+1 +c
x1
(, 1), (1, 1) (1, +).

8. x4 x2x2x+2 dx.
: x4 x2 2x+2 = x2 (x2 1)2(x1) = x2 (x1)(x+1)2(x1) = (x1)(x3 +x2 2) =
(x1)(x3 x2 +2x2 2) = (x1)(x2 (x1)+2(x1)(x+1)) = (x1)2 (x2 +2x+2). ,
x4 x2 2x+2 1 , x2 +2x+2 = (x+1)2 +1.
274

c(x+1)+d
a
b
x4 x2x2x+2 x4 x2x2x+2 = x1
+ (x1)
2 + (x+1)2 +1 .
(x1)2 ((x+1)2 +1) x = (a+c)x3 +(a+bc+d)x2 +(2bc2d)x+(2a+2b+c+d).
a + c = 0, a + b c + d = 0, 2b c 2d = 1
1
1
7
2a + 2b + c + d = 0. a = 25
, b = 15 , c = 25
, d = 25
.
1 1
1
1
1
x+1
7
1
x
=
+

.
2 +1
2 +1
x4 x2 2x+2 25 x1
5 (x1)2
25
25 (x+1)
(x+1)
x+1

1
1
1
1
1
7
1
, x4 x2x2x+2 dx = 25
dx
+
dx 25
dx 25
dx =
x1
5
(x1)2
(x+1)2 +1
(x+1)2 +1
1
1 1
1
7
log |x 1| 5 x1 50 log((x + 1)2 + 1) 25 arctan(x + 1) + c (, 1) (1, +).
25

7 +6x6 x
9. x5 x4x+2x
3 2x2 +x1 dx.
7
+6x6 x
7x4 +3x3 +4x2 +x+5
2
, x5 x4x+2x
3 2x2 +x1 = x + 7x + 5 + x5 x4 +2x3 2x2 +x1 .

7x4 +3x3 +4x2 +x+5


7 +6x6 x
1 3
7 2
x5 x4x+2x
dx.
3 2x2 +x1 dx = 3 x + 2 x + 5x +
x5 x4 +2x3 2x2 +x1
5
4
3
2
4
2
: x x + 2x 2x + x 1 = x (x 1) + 2x (x 1) + (x 1) = (x4 + 2x2 +
1)(x 1) = (x2 + 1)2 (x 1). x5 x4 + 2x3 2x2 + x 1 1
4 +3x3 +4x2 +x+5
a
bx+c
dx+e
, x7x
5 x4 +2x3 2x2 +x1 = x1 + x2 +1 + (x2 +1)2 .
7x4 +3x3 +4x2 +x+5 = (a+b)x4 +(b+c)x3 +(2a+bc+d)x2 +(b+cd+e)x+(ace)
a + b = 7, b + c = 3, 2a + b c + d = 4, b + c d + e = 1 a c e = 5.
a = 32 , b = 17
, c = 11
, d = 4 e = 2.
2
7x4 +3x3 +4x2 +x+5
12

2x+1
3
, x5 x4 +2x3 2x2 +x1 dx = 2 x1 dx 21 17x+11
dx
+
2
dx = 32 log |x 1|
2
x +1
(x2 +1)2

1
17
log(x2 + 1) 11
arctan x x22+1 + 2 (x2 +1)
2 dx.
4
2
:

2 +1
x2

1
x
dx = (xx2 +1)
dx = x21+1 dx x (x2 +1)
2 dx
2 dx
(x2 +1)2
(x2 +1)2

= arctan x + 2(x2x+1) 21 x21+1 dx = 21 arctan x + 2(x2x+1) + c.

7 +6x6 x
1 3
7 2
x2
3
17
9
2
: x5 x4x+2x
3 2x2 +x1 dx = 3 x + 2 x +5x+ x2 +1 + 2 log |x1| 4 log(x +1) 2 arctan x+c
(, 1) (1, +).
7.3.4

f (x) dx = r(cos x, sin x) dx,


r(s, t) s, t. , f (x) = r(cos x, sin x) =

f1 (x)
, f1 (x), f2 (x) nj=1 aj (cos x)kj (sin x)lj ,
f2 (x)
aj R kj , lj Z, kj , lj 0 j = 1, . . . , n.
(
x)3 (sin x)2 cos x )
dx
.
2 sin x cos x sin x+(cos
sin x+(cos x)2
x) (sin x) cos x
cos x(sin x) (cos x) sin x
f (x) = 2 sin x cos x sin x+(cos
= 2(cos x) sin x+3(cos
= ff12 (x)
, f1 (x) =
sin x+(cos x)2
x)2 +sin x
(x)
3
2
3
2
2(cos x) sin x + 3 cos x(sin x) (cos x) sin x, f2 (x) = (cos x) + sin x
3
2 s3 t
.
r(s, t) = 2s t+3st
s2 +t
3

f1 f2 R, f
f2 0 , ,
f , f . f
2.
.
1. H f (, +).
275

, f . , ,
f + k2 k Z.
, f 2, f ,
(, ) 2.
, f (, ), (, ),
(, ), (, ).
f (, )
u = tan x2

x = 2 arctan u.
u = tan x2 (, )
(, +). x = 2 arctan u
(, +) (, ). , x
(, ), u (, +) .
1(tan x )2
2 tan x2
1u2
2u
, cos x = 1+(tan x2 )2 = 1+u
2 sin x = 1+(tan x )2 = 1+u2 , f (x) =
2
2
r(cos x, sin x) (, )
( 2 2u )
R(u) = r 1u
,
1+u2 1+u2
(, +). u.
cos x(sin x) (cos x) sin x
. f (x) = 2(cos x) sin x+3(cos
(, ) x)2 +sin x
, u = tan x2 , R(u) =
( 2 )3
(
)2 ( 2 )3
2
2u
2u
2 1u2
+3 1u2
1u2 2u 2
2 18u3 +6u5 14u6 +2u7 +u8
1+u
1+u2
1+u
1+u2
1+u
1+u
( 2 )2
= 1+2u+14u
(, +).
1+2u+6u3 2u4 +6u5 +2u7 +u8
3

1u
1+u2

2u
1+u2


f (x) = R(u) = R(tan x2 ),

R(u) = f (x) = f (2 arctan u)

, , f (x) R(u)
. , f (x) x (, ), R(u)
u (, +) . , f (x)
x (, ), R(u) u (, +) .
, f (x) (, )
R(u) (, +),
. R(u) , , (, +),
f (x) (, ). R(u) u1 , . . . , un ,
u1 < < un , (, u1 ), (u1 , u2 ), . . . , (un1 , un ), (un , +),
f (x) x1 , . . . , xn , < x1 < < xn <
(, x1 ), (x1 , x2 ), . . . , (xn1 , xn ), (xn , ). xi ui
ui = tan x2i xi = 2 arctan ui .
, r(sin x, cos x) dx
(, ),


( 1u2 2u ) 2

2

r 1+u2 , 1+u2 1+u2 du u=tan(x/2)
r(sin x, cos x)dx = f (x)dx = R(u) 1+u
2 du u=tan(x/2) =
276

f (x) = r(cos x, sin x) (, )


u
R.
, ,

2
R(u) 1+u
2 du = G(u) + c,
G(u) u -
2
R(u) 1+u
2 - R. ,

F (x) = G(tan x2 ),

r(cos x, sin x) dx =

f (x) dx = G(tan x2 ) + c = F (x) + c

(, ). , F (x)
f (x) (, ).
, f (x) 2, F (x) = G(tan x2 ) , ,
F 0 (x) 2. , F (x + 2) = G(tan x+2
) = G(tan x2 ) = F (x).
2
, F (x) f (x)
(, ), f (x)

( +k2, +k2) k Z. , f (x) dx =


F (x) + c (a, b) (, ) f (x) . ,
, F 0 (x) = f (x) .
(a + k2, b + k2) ( + k2, + k2), x (a + k2, b + k2)

x k2 (a, b) , , F 0 (x) = F 0 (x k2) = f (x k2) = f (x).

f (x) dx = F (x) + c (a + k2, b + k2).

, , r(cos x, sin x) dx
( + k2, + k2) k Z f (x) = r(cos x, sin x)
. , , G(u).

. sin1x dx.
1 sin1x
. (, ).
u = tan x2 sin1x (, )
2
2
1+u
(, +). 1+u
u = 0 (, +) sin1x
2u
2u
x = 0 (, ). , (, 0) (0, )




1

2
2
dx = 1+u
du u=tan(x/2) = u1 du u=tan(x/2) = (log |u| + c)|u=tan(x/2) = log tan x2 + c.
sin x
2u 1+u2


, , G(u) = log |u| F (x) = log tan x2 .

sin1x log tan x2 2, sin1x dx =



log tan x2 +c (+k2, k2) (k2, +k2)
( + k2,

k Z.
1 + k2)
x

, : sin x dx = log tan 2 + c (k, + k) k Z.
, , , f
x0 , 6= . f x0 + 2
x0 + k2 k Z.
, z = x x0 x- x0 + k2
z- + k2. f (z) = f (z + x0 + ).
277

f (x) x- x0 + k2, f (z)


z- + k2. ,

f (x) dx = f (z + x0 + ) dz z=xx0 = f (z) dz z=xx0 ,

f (z) dz,
.

. (cos1x)2 dx.
.
(cos1x)2 2 ( ).
1
1
z = x ( 2 ) = x 2 (cos1x)2 (cos(z+
2 =
))
(sin z)2
2

1
1

.

2 dx =
2 dz
(cos x)

(sin z)

z=x(/2)

(sin1z)2 (, ).
u = tan z2 (sin1z)2 (, )
(1+u2 )2
4u2

2 2

)
(, +). (1+u
0 (, +) (sin1z)2
4u2
0 (, ). , (, 0) (0, ),


1

2 )2
2
2
dz = (1+u
du u=tan(z/2) = 1+u
du u=tan(z/2)
(sin z)2
4u2 1+u2
2u2
(
)
= 1 +u
+ c = 1 cot z + 1 tan z + c = cot z + c
2u

u=tan(z/2)

z (, 0) (0, ), x = z + 2
( 2 , 2 ) ( 2 , 3
).
2

1
1

dx
=
dz
= cot(x 2 ) + c = tan x + c.
2
2
(cos x)
(sin z)
z=x(/2)

(cos1x)2 tan x 2, (cos1x)2 dx = tan x + c


( 2 + k2, 2 + k2) ( 2 + k2, 3
+ k2)
2

3
( 2 + k2,
2 + k2) k Z.
, : (cos1x)2 dx = tan x + c ( 2 + k, 2 + k) k Z.
2. f (, +).

, , f
(,
+).

f (x) dx

(, +), f (x) dx = F (x) + c, F


F 0 (x) = f (x) x (, +). , ,
F .
1, , , (, )
u = tan x2 x = 2 arctan u.
( 1u2 2u )
f (x) = r(cos x, sin x) (, ) R(u) = r 1+u
R.
2 , 1+u2

2
, R(u) 1+u2 du = G(u) + c, G(u)
2
x
R(u) 1+u
2 . , G(tan 2 )

x
x
f (x) dx = G(tan 2 ) + c (, ), G(tan 2 )
f (, ). F , f
(, +), c F (x) = G(tan x2 ) + c x (, ).
, , F c f (, +),
F F (x) = G(tan x2 ) x (, ).
, F . F
(, +) F 0 (x) = f (x) x. , F
278

(, ), F (x) = G(tan x2 ) x (, ), G .
F . F () =
limx+ F (x) = limx+ G(tan x2 ) F () = limx F (x) = limx G(tan x2 ).
A = limx+ G(tan x2 ) B = limx G(tan x2 ),
F () F (), .
G(tan x2 ) (, +) + k2
k Z. , 2. , k Z,
+ k2 A
B. , k Z, G(tan x2 ) + k2,
A . , ,
{
G(tan x2 ), x 6= + k2 k Z
F (x) =
A,
x = + k2 k Z
F (, +), 2,
( + k2, + k2) k Z A + k2
k Z. F
B.
: F F
(, +) F (x) = F (x) x [, ). f
F 0 (x + 2) F 0 (x) = f (x + 2) f (x) = 0 x, F (x + 2) F (x)
(, +). F (x + 2) F (x) = F () [F ()
] = B A x.
x+
= B A h(x) = F (x) 2 .
[
]
[
]
[
]
h(x + 2) = F (x + 2) (x+2)+
= F (x) + x+
+ 1 = F (x) x+
= h(x).
2
2
2
h 2. , x [, ) h(x) = F (x) = F (x).
h F [ 2
] [, ). ,
x+
(, +). F (x) = F (x) 2 x , ,
F (, +):
[
]
F (x) = F (x) + x+
.
2
1
. 2+sin x dx.
1
2+sin
R.
x
(, )
1

x
1
u = tan 2 , 2+sin x dx = u2 +u+1 du u=tan(x/2) .

1
1

, u2 +u+1
du =
du = 23 arctan 2u+1
+ c R. ,
1 2
3 2
3
(u+ 2 ) +(

G(u) G(u) = 23 arctan 2u+1


, ,
3
)
(2
2
1
x
x
G(tan 2 ) = 3 arctan 3 tan 2 + 3 . , ,
)
(
1
dx = 23 arctan 23 tan x2 + 13 + c
2+sin x

(, ).
1
2+sin
(, +),
x
x

x
2
A = limx+ G(tan 2 ) = 3 B = limx G(tan 2 ) = 3 = B A =
.
3
,
{
)
(
2 arctan 2 tan x + 1 ,
x 6= + k2 k Z
2
3
3
3
F (x) =
3 ,
x = + k2 k Z

1
2+sin x

(, +)
[
]
2 x+
F (x) = F (x) +
.
3 2
279

7.3.5


)
)
(
(
r x, 1 x2 dx,
r x, x2 1 dx,

)
(
r x, x2 + 1 dx.

r(s, t) s, t.
(i) [1, 1]


x
=
sin
t

[
,
].

1 x2 = cos t
2 2

r(sin t, cos t) cos t dt, , 7.3.4,


u = tan 2t . x u
u = 1+x1x2 . , ,

u = 1+x1x2 .
[1, 1] , ,
[1, 1].
x=
,

1 x2 =

1u2
1+u2

r(x,

2u
1+u2

, ,

( 2u 1u2 ) 2(1u2 )

1 x2 ) dx = r 1+u
2 , 1+u2 (1+u2 )2 dy u=x/(1+ 1x2 ) .

u [1, 1]
7.3.3.

, r(x, 1 x2 )
x [1, 1]. , ,
.

1
.
dx [1, 12 ) ( 12 , 1]
x+ 1x2
[1,
1]. [1, 1] ,

x + 1 x2 6= 0 x 6= 12 . u = 1+x1x2 [1, 1 2)

1u2

(1 2, 1], , x+11x2 dx = 2 (1+2uu


2 )(1+u2 ) du u=x/(1+ 1x2 ) .

1u2
2 (1+2uu
2 )(1+u2 ) du

2
|
21 log |1+2uu
+ arctan u + c. x+11x2 dx = 12 log |x + 1 x2 | + arctan 1+x1x2 + c.
1+u2
(ii) [1, +) (, 1].
[1, +) x = sin1 t t

t
t cos t
(0, 2 ]. x2 1 = cos
r( sin1 t , cos
)
dt,
sin t
sin t (sin t)2
t
, 7.3.4, u = tan 2 .

x u u = x + x2 1 ,
t. , ,

u = x + x2 1 .

[1, +). limx+ (x+ x2 1) =


+, [1, +).

2
x = u 2u+1
280

, ,

x2 1 = u 2u1 .

) 2

( 2
2

r(x, x2 1) dx = r u 2u+1 , u 2u1 u2u1


du
2
u=x+ x2 1
2

u [1, +).
(, 1],

2
u = x x2 1 ,
x = u 2u+1
u (, 1].
.
, (, 1] [1, +),
r(x, x2 1).

. x+1x2 1 dx [1, +).


1
, x + x2 1 6= 0 [1, +). x+1x2 1 dx = ( 2u
2u1 3 ) du u=x+x2 1 .

, ( 2u
2u1 3 ) du = 12 log |u| + 4u1 2 + c, x+1x2 1 dx = 12 log |x + x2 1| +
1
+ c.
4(x+ x2 1)2
(iii) R
x
cot t t (0, ). x2 + 1 = sin1 t
=
t 1
r( cos
, ) 1 dt, , 7.3.4, sin t sin t (sin t)2
u = tan 2t . ,

u = x + x2 + 1,

u
=
x
+
x2 + 1

2
2
. limx
(x + x + 1) = 0 limx+ (x + x + 1) = +,
u = x + x2 + 1 (0, +).
x=
,

x2 + 1 =

u2 1
2u

u2 +1
2u

) 2

( 2
2

r(x, x2 + 1) dx = r u 2u1 , u 2u+1 u2u+1


2 du u=x+ x2 +1

u (0, +).

. xx12 +1 dx (, 0) (0, +).

x , u = x + x2 + 1 , , (0, 1) (1, +). xx12 +1 dx =


2 u211 du u=x+x2 +1 2 u211 du (0, 1) (1, +) log |u 1| log(u + 1) + c.

, xx12 +1 dx = log 1+|x|x2 +1 + c.


,
)
(
r x, x2 + x + dx,
, , 6= 0 r(s, t) s, t. ,

(
2)
2
) + 4
,
x2 + x + = (x + 2
42
281

.
1. > 0 4 2 > 0.
u = 2 2 (x +

)
2

42
2

(
r

42
2

42 2

u
2

u,

+ 1 du = r (u, u2 + 1) du,

r (s, t) s, t.
2. > 0 4 2 < 0.

u = 22 (x + 2
)
4

2 4
2

(
r

2 4
2

u,

2 4 2

u
2

1 du = r (u, u2 1) du,

r (s, t) s, t.
3. < 0 4 2 < 0.

u = 2
(x + 2
)
2
4

2 4
2

(
r

2 4
2

u,

2 4

1
2

u2 du = r (u, 1 u2 ) du,

r (s, t) s, t.
2
< 0 4 > 0
x2 + x + . , 4 2
0, .

.
r(x, x2 + x + ) dx, 6= 0,

r(x, (x)) dx, (x) x.


Abel . (x) =

x4 + x3 + x2 + x + , , 6= 0,
, .
9 7.7.
.
,
, , .
n x .
, ,
,

2
x
.
, 4 x + 3 x +1+
x1
.
. P0 (x) + P1 (x)y + + Pn (x)y n = 0
y, P0 (x), P1 (x), . . . , Pn (x) , n 1 Pn (x)
. , , I (
), I,
P0 (x) + P1 (x)(x) + + Pn (x)(x)n = 0 x I.
I.

282

. 1. P (x) R. , P (x) P (x) + 1y = 0, P (x), 1


.
P (x)
2. Q(x)
, P (x), Q(x) ,
P (x)
. Q(x)
P (x) + Q(x)y = 0,
P (x), Q(x) .

P (x)
, n N P (x), Q(x) ,
3. n Q(x)
. P (x) + Q(x)y n = 0,

P (x), Q(x) . , (x) = x4 + x3 + x2 + x +
.

. , , ,
. 28
.
.



1. : x3 cos(x4 ) dx, (cos x)2 sin x dx, sinxx dx, x 3 x 1 dx,
x
ex

1
1

dx, 1+e
tan x dx, 4x
dx, x(x41+1) dx, (sin x)3 dx, 1+e
2x dx,
x dx,
2 dx,
x2 +2
x+1
arctan x
x5
1

2
x
arcsin x
1
dx,

dx, (sin x)3 dx, (sin x)4 dx, 1x


dx, 2+(cos
dx,
6 dx,
(x2 +4)4
x)2
x
1x2
(1+x)
1
dx.
1+cos x

2
2.
: x3 ex dx, (x2 +3x) sin xdx,

x+1

e
dx, x2 (log x)4 dx, arcsin x dx, arctan x dx, (sin x)3 sin(5x) dx, (sin x)4 dx,

x)
2
dx, (x2x+1)2 dx, arctan(e
dx, log(x + 1 + x2 ) dx.
(cos x)2
ex
x+2
2 +1

dx, x2 4x+4
dx, 3x
dx,
3. : x25x+3
+2x1
x3 1
2x2 +5x1
x2 +1
1

1
8x3 +7
dx,
dx,
dx,
dx,
dx,
3
2
3 dx,
2
2
x4 1
x4 +1
x4 +2x3 2x1
x +xx4 2x
(x1) 1
(x1 4x+4)(x
x+1)

1
1
dx, (x1)2 (x+2)3 (x2 +1)2 dx, x5 +1 dx, x6 +1 dx, x4 +x2 +1 dx.
x4 +5x2 +4

4. sin x, cos x : (sin1x)4 dx, 1+21sin x dx,


(sin x)2

1
sin x
dx,
dx,
dx.
2
2+cos x
1+(sin x)
1+sin x+cos x

1
dx,
1 x2 dx, x2 3x+2

dx, x1+1 x+1 dx.


x2 +x+1

5. :

1
x2 +x+1

dx,

1
(x+1) 1+2xx2

dx,

1
(x1)(x2)

dx,

6.
6.5,
n 11[]
n 1
n
n

k=1 n2 +k2 4 , k=1 n2 +k2 log( 2+1), k=1 n2 n2 (k 1)2 4 .

7. f : [0, 1] R [0, 1], 02 f (sin x) dx = 02 f (cos x) dx.

2 +2bx+c
8. a, b, c, A, B, C (Axax2 +2Bx+C)
2 dx
x.

283


9. [] In (x) = xn ex dx n Z, n 0.
In+1 (x) = xn+1 ex (n + 1)In (x) n Z, n 0. In (x) n Z,
n 0 1 7.2.
n
n
x
sin
x
dx,
x cos x dx,
[]

[],

1
xn

x (log x)n dx, (tan x)n dx, xn a2 x2 dx, (a+b cos


dx.
dx,
x)n
ax2 +bx+c

10. Jn (x) = (cos x)n dx In (x) = (sin x)n dx n Z, n 0.


[] Jn+2 (x) =
cos x(sin x)n+1

sin x(cos x)n+1


n+2

n+1
J (x)
n+2 n

In+2 (x) =

+ n+1
I (x) n Z, n 0.
n+2
n+2 n
[] Jn (x), In (x).
11. 20
Stirling.

In = 02 (sin x)n dx n Z, n 0.
n+1
[] In+2 = n+2
In
n Z, n 0.

[] I0 = 2 , I1 = 1. I2n = (2n1)(2n3)31
I2n+1 =
2n(2n2)42 2
2n(2n2)42
(2n+1)(2n1)53

n N.

[]

(246(2n))2
I2n
(35(2n1))2 (2n+1) I2n+1

(n + 1)In In+1 =

[] I2n+1 I2n I2n1 =


I2n
I2n
1
1 I2n+1
1 + 2n
, , I2n+1
1.
[] Wallis:

2n+1
I
2n 2n+1

( 246(2n2)(2n) )2
1
2n+1 135(2n3)(2n1)

(2n) n
n

4n

(2n)! n
(n!)2 4n

n N.

2
2
12. [] n N , xn ex dx = Pn1 (x)ex + c, Pn1 (x)
n 1.

2
2
2
[] n N , xn ex dx = Pn1 (x)ex + ex dx,
Pn1 (x) n 1.
13. ,
1 m1
x
(1 x)n1 dx = (m1)!(n1)!
m, n N.
(m+n1)!
0
8 11.5.
2)(n1)(n3)(1 2) m, n N, m, n 2. .
14. m,n = (m1)(m3)(1
(m+n)(m+n2)(1 2)

Am,n = 02 (cos x)m (sin x)n dx m, n Z, m, n 0.


, Am,n = m,n 2 , m, n 2
, Am,n = m,n , m, n 2
.
15. f : [0, ] R [0, ] f 00
)
(
n1 f ()
n N.
[0, ], 0 f (x) + n12 f 00 (x) sin(nx) dx = f (0)+(1)
n
284

16. [] :
f : [a, b] R [a, b] g : [a, b] R
[a, b]. [a, b]
b

b
f
(x)g(x)
dx
=
f
(a)
g(x)
dx
+
f
(b)
g(x) dx.
a
a

27.
x
b
b
: G(x) = a g(t) dt. a f (x)g(x) dx = a f (x)G0 (x) dx.
[] : [a, b] R

m > 0 0 (x) m x [a, b].


b [a, b]

sin((x)) dx 4 .
m
a
b
b
: a sin((x)) dx = a 01(x) 0 (x) sin((x)) dx.
b

[] a sin(x2 ) dx a2 a, b, 0 < a < b.
17. a < b Qn (x) = (x a)n (b x)n n N.
1
(n)
P0 (x) = 1 Pn (x) = n!(ba)
(x) n N.
n Qn
[] Pn (x) n.
b
[] a P (x)Pn (x) dx = 0 n 1 P (x)
< n.
b
b
ba
[] a Pn (x)Pm (x) dx = 0, m 6= n, a (Pn (x))2 dx = 2n+1
.
[] , , ,
n
P (x) n c0 , . . . , cn P (x) = k=0 ck Pk (x) x.
b
[] c0 , . . . , cn [] ck = 2k+1
P (x)Pk (x) dx.
ba a
b
[] P (x) n 1 : a Q(x)P (x) dx = 0
Q(x) < n. c P (x) = cPn (x) x.
18. Heisenberg: f : [a, b] R
b
b
[a, b], f (a) = f (b) = 0 a (f (x))2 dx = 1. a xf (x)f 0 (x) dx = 12

b 2
b 0
2
x
(f
(x))
dx
(f (x))2 dx > 41 .
a
a
: Schwarz, Buniakowsky 18 6.4.
n
n

19. [] 1 log x dx nk=2 log k 2 log x dx + log n n N.

[]

n!
n

1e . 3 2.5.

20. . 11 6.4
, , 8.2 11.2.
[] m, n Z, m n am , . . . , an .
[x]
A : [m, n] R A(x) = k=m ak x [m, n].
A. A ;
f : [m, n] R [m, n]. , x [m, n],
x
[x]
0
k=m ak f (k) = A(x)f (x) m A(t)f (t) dt.
[] [] m = 1, ak = 1 k f (x) =
n

1
nk=1 k1 = n1
+ 1 x[x]
+1 dx n N .
285

1
x


[] xn = nk=1 k1 n N, , [],
(xn ) , > 1, +, 1.
n

dx n N
[] [], nk=1 k1 = n1 1
1 x[x]
x+1
6= 1.

1
xn = nk=1 k1 n1 n N 0 < < 1, (xn )
.
n

[] [], nk=1 k1 = log n + 1 1 x[x]


dx n N.
x2
n 1
xn = k=1 k log n n N, (xn )
. Euler 11
6.4.
[] [], Euler,
: m, n Z, m n f : [m, n] R
[m, n].
n
k=m

f (k) =

f (x) dx +
m

(
)
1
0
f
(x)
x

[x]

dx +
2
m

f (m)+f (n)
2

[] m, n Z, m n f : [m, n] R [m, n].


x
(x) = m (t [t] 12 ) dt x [m, n]. , [],
n
k=m

f (k) =

n
m

f (x) dx

n
m

f 00 (x)(x) dx +

f (m)+f (n)
2

x
[] (x) = 1 (t [t] 12 ) dt x [1, +). [] m = 1
f (x) = log x, , n N,
log(n!) = (n + 21 ) log n n + 1 +

n
1

(x)
x2

dx.

[] 10 6.4 (x) [].


xn = en nn!n n n N, , [], (xn )
. .

246(2n2)(2n)
xn 2
x2n = 135(2n3)(2n1) n2 n N , Wallis

2
11, xxn2n 2 .
, Stirling:
n!
en nn n

2 .

21. . : = ml , m, l N.
[] P (x) = n!1 xn (1 x)n .
0 P (x) 2n1n! x [0, 1].
, k N, P (k) (0), P (k) (1) .

[] Q(x) = l2n nk=0 (1)k P (2k) (x) 2n2k .


Q(0), Q(1) .
d
2 m2n P (x) sin(x) = dx
(Q0 (x) sin(x) Q(x) cos(x)).
1
Q(1) + Q(0) = m2n 0 P (x) sin(x) dx.
, n , 0 < Q(0) + Q(1) < 1
.
286

22. [] , Riemann - Lebesgue:


f : [a, b] R [a, b].
lim
>

.
ba

b
a

b
a

f (x) cos(x) dx = 0,

f (x) cos(x) dx =

b
a

b
a

f (x) sin(x) dx = 0.

lim

f (x) cos(x) dx +

a+

f (x) cos(x) dx =

f (x) cos(x) dx
b
f (x ) cos(x) dx + b f (x) cos(x) dx.
b

f (x) cos(x) dx +

a+

a+

f (x) cos(x) dx.

b
a

f (x) cos(x) dx =

)
f (x) f (x ) cos(x) dx
b
a+
+ 21 b f (x) cos(x) dx + 21 a f (x) cos(x) dx.

1
2

a+

f [a, b], M 0 |f (x)| M x


[a, b]. > 0. f [a, b], 0 > 0

|f (x0 ) f (x00 )| < (ba)


x0 , x00 [a, b], |x0 x00 | < 0 . , > max{ 0 , 2M },

< 0 , |f (x) f (x )| < (ba)


x [a + , b]
b

f (x) cos(x) dx 1 b
2

a+


f (x) f (x ) dx + 1 b |f (x)| dx + 1 a+ |f (x)| dx

2 b
2 a

1
(b
2 (ba)

a) + 12 M + 12 M =

< .

b
b
lim+ a f (x) cos(x) dx = 0. lim a f (x) cos(x) dx = 0 , b
, lim a f (x) sin(x) dx = 0
.
[] Riemann - Lebesgue f : [a, b] R
[a, b].
: a = 0 < < m = b c0 , . . . , cm f (x) = ck x (k1 , k )
k = 1, . . . , m. , 6= 0,
k
b
m

sin(k )sin(k )
f (x) cos(x) dx = m
.
k=1 ck
k=1 ck k1 cos(x) dx =

a
b

b
m
2
|c
|,

lim
f (x) cos(x) dx = 0.
a f (x) cos(x) dx ||
k

k=1
a
[] Riemann - Lebesgue ,
f : [a, b] R [a, b].
: f : [a, b] R [a, b] > 0.
26 6.4, g, h : [a, b] R g(x) f (x)
b
b
b
h(x) x [a, b] a h(x) dx a g(x) dx < 2 . a |f (x) g(x)| dx =
b
b
(f (x) g(x)) dx a (h(x) g(x)) dx < 2 . [],
a

b
0 > 0 | a g(x) cos(x) dx < 2 > 0 . > 0



b
b
b
b
| a f (x) cos(x) dx | a (f (x) g(x)) cos(x) dx + | a g(x) cos(x) dx a |f (x)

b
g(x)| dx + | a g(x) cos(x) dx < 2 + 2 = . 26
287

6.4, g, h,
[].
[] , eit = cos t i sin t, cos t = 12 eit + 12 eit sin t = 2i1 eit 2i1 eit
Riemann - Lebesgue
lim

b
a

f (x)eix dx = 0.

23. [] f : [a, b] R [a, b] f 0 [a, b].


M 0
b
b


f (x) cos(x) dx M min{1, 1 },
f (x) sin(x) dx M min{1, 1 }.
||
||
a
a
f 0 [a, b].
25.
b
b
: a f (x) cos(x) dx = f (b) sin(b) f (a) sin(a) a f 0 (x) sin(x) dx,
b

b

b
|| a f (x) cos(x) dx |f (b)| + |f (a)| + a |f 0 (x)| dx. , a f (x) cos(x) dx
b
|f (x)| dx.
a
[] , [], f (a) = f (b) = 0,
lim

b
a

f (x) cos(x) dx = 0,

lim

b
a

f (x) sin(x) dx = 0.

, f 0 [a, b].
: Riemann - Lebesgue .
[] f : [a, b] R m [a, b] f (m)
[a, b]. M 0
b
b


f (x) sin(x) dx M min{1, 1m }.
f (x) cos(x) dx M min{1, 1m },
||
||
a
a
, , f (k) (a) = f (k) (b) = 0 k = 0, 1, . . . , m 1,
lim m

b
a

f (x) cos(x) dx = 0,

lim m

b
a

f (x) sin(x) dx = 0.

24. [] : f : [a, a] R [a, a]


0 : R R (x) 0 x,

lim+ (x) dx = 1.
lim0+

a
a

( x )f (x) dx = f (0).

: f
[a, a], M 0 |f (x)| M
x [a, b]. , (x) dx , > 0, ,

(x) dx 1 > 0. > 0. 0 > 0 1 (x) dx <

0 . , 0 > 0 |f (x)f (0)| < 4 x [a, a],


4M +1
|x| < 0 . 0 < < min{ 00 , a0 }
1

( x )f (x) dx f (0) =
a
=

(x)f (x) dx f (0)


(x)(f (x) f (0)) dx + f (0)
288

(x) dx f (0),


1 a
a
(
)
a
x

a (x)|f (x) f (0)| dx + |f (0)| 1 a (x) dx .
)f
(x)
dx

f
(0)
(

(
)
a
a 0 , |f (0)| 1 a (x) dx < M 4M+1 < 4 .

,
a
0

(x)|f (x) f (0)| dx + a 0 (x)|f (x) f (0)| dx
a (x)|f (x) f (0)| dx =

+ 0 (x)|f (x) f (0)| dx.


0 < 0 , |f (x) f (0)| <
a

(x)|f (x) f (0)| dx

x [0 , 0 ].

a

(x) dx + 2M a 0 (x) dx + 2M 0 (x) dx

( a
)

+ 2M a (x) dx 0 0 (x) dx
( 0
)
+ 2M 1 0 (x) dx 4 + 2M 4M+1 < 3
.
4
0

a

1 a ( x )f (x) dx f (0) < 3
+ 4 = .
4
[] [] : f : [a, b] R [a, b]
(a, b) : R R (x)
0 x,
lim+ (x) dx = 1.
lim0+

b
a

)f (x) dx = f ().
( x

[] [], f ,
:
lim0+

f (x) dx
a (x)2 +2

lim0+

= f ()
b
1

lim0+
e(

x 2
)

1
2

b
a

|x|

f (x) dx = f ()

f (x) dx = f ()

2
lim+ ex dx = ,
11.4.2.
[] , [] : f : [a, b] R [a, b]
f (+) = limx+ f (x) f () = limx f (x).
: R R (x)

0 x,
0
lim+ 0 (x) dx = t+ lim+ (x) dx = t , t + t+ = 1.

b
)f (x) dx = t f () + t+ f (+).
lim0+ 1 a ( x

25. 7.8
: I f, g : I R I f 0 , g 0 : I R
I.
b
b 0
0
f
(x)g
(x)
dx
=
f
(b)g(b)

f
(a)g(a)

f (x)g(x) dx
a
a
a, b I.
: 15 7.2.
289

26. 7.8 .
[] .
x
x
[] v, w : [a, b] R [a, b] f (x) = a v(t) dt, g(x) = a w(t) dt
b
x [a, b]. a (v(x)g(x) + f (x)w(x)) dx = f (b)g(b).
: (i) v(x), w(x) 0 x [a, b]. f , g
[a, b]. = {a = x0 , . . . , xn = b} [a, b] n xk
. g(xk1 )(f (xk ) f (xk1 )) xk1
v(x)g(x) dx g(xk )(f (xk ) f (xk1 ))
xk
f (xk1 )(g(xk ) g(xk1 )) xk1 f (x)w(x) dx f (xk )(g(xk ) g(xk1 )). ) b
(
, nk=1g(xk1
)(f
(x
)

f
(x
))
+
f
(x
)(g(x
)

g(x
))
) a (v(x)g(x) +
k
k1
k1
k
k1
(
n
f (x)w(x)) dx
g(x
)(f
(x
)

f
(x
))
+
f
(x
)(g(x
)

g(x
))
.
k
k
k1
k
k1
k=1
b k
n
f (b)g(b) k=1 (f (xk ) f (xk1 ))(g(xk ) g(xk1 )) a (v(x)g(x) + f (x)w(x)) dx
b
n
f (b)g(b) +
k=1 (f (xk ) f (xk1 ))(g(xk ) g(xk1 )). | a (v(x)g(x) + f (x)w(x)) dx
f (b)g(b)| nk=1 (f (xk ) f (xk1 ))(g(xk ) g(xk1 )). v, w [a, b],
u 0 v(x), w(x) u x [a, b]. 0 f (xk ) f (xk1 )
b
, , 0 g(xk ) g(xk1 ) u(ba)
. | a (v(x)g(x) +
u(xk xk1 ) = u(ba)
n
n
b
2
2
(v(x)g(x) + f (x)w(x)) dx = f (b)g(b).
f (x)w(x)) dx f (b)g(b)| u (ba)
.

n
a
b
b
(ii) w = 1 a v(x)(x a) dx + a f (x) dx =
f (b)(b a). , , v(x) 0 x [a, b]. v , ,
[a, b], l v(x) l x [a, b].
v (x) = v(x) l f (x) = f (x) l(x a). v (x) 0
b
b
x [a, b], a v (x)(x a) dx + a f (x) dx = f (b)(b a)
b
b
v(x)(x a) dx + a f (x) dx = f (b)(b a).
a
(iii) l v(x), w(x) l x [a, b]. v (x) = v(x) l, w (x) = w(x) l f (x) = f (x) l(x a)
g (x) = g(x) l(x a). v (x), w (x) 0 x [a, b], b
(i) a (v (x)g (x) + f (x)w (x)) dx = f (b)g (b).
b
(v(x)g(x) + f (x)w(x)) dx = f (b)g(b).
a
[] : I, v, w : I R I f, g : I R v, w, ,
I.
b
(v(x)g(x) + f (x)w(x)) dx = f (b)g(b) f (a)g(a)
a, b I.
a
x
x
: a, b I, a < b f (x) = a v(t) dt + c, g(x) = a w(t) dt + d
x I. [] f (x) c, g(x) d.
27. []
16 . []
.
Diriclet Abel
.
Abel 8.4.2.
[] a1 , . . . , an , b1 , . . . , bn R, b1 bn 0. sk = a1 + + ak
k = 1, . . . , n.
b1 min{sk | 1 k n} b1 a1 + + bn an b1 max{sk | 1 k n}.
290

: b1 a1 + + bn an = b1 s1 + b2 (s2 s1 ) + + bn (sn sn1 ) = (b1 b2 )s1 +


+ (bn1 bn )sn1 + bn sn . l = min{sk | 1 k n} u = max{sk | 1 k
n}, b1 a1 + + bn an (b1 b2 )u + + (bn1 bn )u + bn u = b1 u
b1 a1 + + bn an (b1 b2 )l + + (bn1 bn )l + bn l = b1 l.
[] : f :
[a, b] R [a, b] g : [a, b] R [a, b].
[a, b]
b

b
f (x)g(x) dx = f (a) a g(x) dx + f (b) g(x) dx.
a
b
: (i) , , f , f (a) > f (b) = 0, a f (x)g(x) dx 0.
 > 0. = {a = x0 , . . . , xn = b} (g; a, b; )
(g; a, b; ) < . uk lk supremum inmum g [xk1 , xk ].
xk
b
n
n x k
a f (x)g(x) dx =
k=1 uk xk1 f (x) dx. ak =
k=1 xk1 f (x)g(x) dx
x
k
b
f (x) dx

x
uk (xk xk1 ), bk = xk1
0, a f (x)g(x) dx nk=1 bk ak . f
k xk1
x

xk+1

f (xk ) dx

f (x ) dx

, bk k1
= f (xk ) = xkxk+1 xkk bk+1 .
xk xk1
b

0
[], a f (x)g(x) dx nk=1 bk ak b1 kk=1
uk (xk xk1 ) k0 . ,
k 0
n
.
k=1 (uk lk )(xk xk1 ) (k=1 (uk lk )(xk xk1 ) )= (g;(a, b; ) (g; a, b; ) <
)
k 0
k0 xk
b
, a f (x)g(x) dx b1
k=1 lk (xk xk1 ) +  b1
k=1 xk1 g(x) dx +  =
( xk
)
x
b1 a 0 g(x) dx +  . , G(x) = a g(t) dt x [a, b]. G
b
[a, b], [a, b] G(x) G() x [a, b]. a f (x)g(x) dx
x

x1

f (x) dx

x1

f (a) dx

a x1 a
= f (a) G() G(a) =
b1 (G() + ). b1 = a x1 a
b
b
1
0, a f (x)g(x) dx f (a)(G() + ). f (a)
f (x)g(x) dx G() + .
b a
1
 > 0, 0 f (a) a f (x)g(x) dx G(). ,
b
1
G(a) = 0, G(a) f (a)
f (x)g(x) dx G(). [a, b] G() =
a

b
1
f (x)g(x) dx , , a f (x)g(x) dx = f (a) a g(x) dx = f (a) a g(x) dx +
f (a) a
b
f (b) g(x) dx.
b
(ii) , f , f (a) > f (b) = 0, a f (x)g(x) dx < 0.
b
b
g = g a f (x)g (x) dx = a f (x)g(x) dx > 0. [a, b]
b

b
b
a f (x)g (x) dx = f (a) a g (x) dx + f (b) g (x) dx , , a f (x)g(x) dx =

b
f (a) a g(x) dx + f (b) g(x) dx.
(iii) , f f (a) = f (b) = 0. f = 0 [a, b]
b

b
a f (x)g(x) dx = f (a) a g(x) dx + f (b) g(x) dx , , [a, b].
, , f f (b) = 0.
(iv) f f (b) 6= 0. f = f f (b). f
[a, b] f (b) = f (b) f (b) = 0. , [a, b]
b

b
f (x)g(x) dx = f (a) a g(x) dx + f (b) g(x) dx
a
b

b
f
(x)g(x)
dx
=
f
(a)
g(x)
dx
+
f
(b)
g(x) dx.
a
a

(v) , f . f = f ,
b

b
[a, b]. [a, b] a f (x)g(x) dx = f (a) a g(x) dx + f (b) g(x) dx ,
b

b
, a f (x)g(x) dx = f (a) a g(x) dx + f (b) g(x) dx.
28. .
291

[] ex .
: P0 (x) + P1 (x)ex + + Pn (x)enx = 0 x (a, b), P0 (x),
P1 (x), . . . , Pn (x) , n 1 Pn (x)
n n N Pn (x)
.
n- .
[] log x .
: P0 (x) + P1 (x) log x + + Pn (x)(log x)n = 0 x (a, b),
0 a < b, P0 (x), P1 (x), . . . , Pn (x) , n 1 Pn (x)
. x = et et
(log a, log b).
[] arctan x .
: P0 (x) + P1 (x) arctan x + + Pn (x)(arctan x)n = 0 x (a, b),
P0 (x), P1 (x), . . . , Pn (x) , n 1 Pn (x)
n n N Pn (x)
. , ,
Pn (x) = xk + ak1 xk1 + . ,
x2 + 1
kx ak1 .
[] tan x .
: tan x (a, b) ( 2 , 2 )
[] arctan t.
[] , [], sin x, cos x
.
[] a. xa
.
: P0 (x) + P1 (x)xa + + Pn (x)xna = 0 x (a, b), P0 (x),
P1 (x), . . . , Pn (x) , n 1 Pn (x)
n n N Pn (x)
. , , Pn (x) =
xk + ak1 xk1 + . ,
x
k + na.

7.4 Taylor, .
Taylor.
5.1. Taylor .
7.1. n Z, n 0, f : [, c] R n + 1 [, c]
f (n+1) [, c]. , x (, c]
x

(k)
f (x) = nk=0 f k!() (x )k + n!1 f (n+1) (t)(x t)n dt.
c < , [c, ].
. g : [, x] R

g(t) = nk=0 k!1 f (k) (t)(x t)k


292

t [, x].

g 0 (t) =

1 (n+1)
f
(t)(x
n!

t)n

t [, x], g 0 [, x].
x (n+1)
x 0
n 1 (k)
1
n
f
(t)(x

t)
dt
=
g
(t)
dt
=
g(x)

g()
=
f
(x)

()(x )k .
k=0 k! f
n!

f (x) =

n
k=0

f (k) ()
(x
k!

)k +

1
n!

f (n+1) (t)(x t)n dt.

. 7.1 Taylor f
f (x) = Pn, (x) + Rn, (x),
x
Pn, Taylor n f Rn, (x) = n!1 f (n+1) (t)(xt)n dt
n.
. P n, P (n+1) (t) = 0

(k)
t, : P (x) = Pn, (x) = nk=0 P k!() (x )k , x.
.
1. 5.1, 7.1, , f (n+1) [, c],
7.1 5.1.

7.5

Riemann.

.
f : [a, b] R [a, b]. [a, b] n
xk = a + k ba
k = 0, . . . , n. , [xk1 , xk ]
n
ba
xk xk1 = n . [xk1 , xk ]
, k . , k = xk12+xk = a + (k 12 ) ba
.
n
, ,
x0 , 1 , x1 , . . . , xk1 , k , xk , . . . , xn1 , n , xn
yk = f (xk ) k = f (k ) f :
y0 , 1 , y1 , . . . , yk1 , k , yk , . . . , yn1 , n , yn .
b
a f (x) dx
f , , .
f
[xk1 , xk ]
xk
xk1 f (x) dx
. ,
: ,
, ,
Simpson .
n [a, b]
b
a f (x) dx,
293

.

m+2

|| c (ba)nm+1Mm+1 = c(b a)Mm+1 hn m+1 ,


hn = ba
, c ,
n
m Mm+1
f (m+1) [a, b].
0 n , , hn = ba
0. , ,
n
,
Simpson . ,
( ) f
.
. ,
- , ,
- [xk1 , xk ] ,
[a, b] [xk1 , xk ]. ,
.
7.5.1

7.1. f : [a, b] R [a, b] |f 0 (x)| M1 x [a, b].


= a+b
,
2
b

f (x) dx f ()(b a) (ba)2 M1 .
4

. f ( 0)
P (x) = f (). .
x [a, b] x f (x)P (x) = f (x)f () = f 0 ()(x).
|f (x) P (x)| M1 |x | x [a, b].

b

b
b
a P (x) dx = f ()(b a), a f (x) dx f ()(b a) = a (f (x) P (x)) dx
b
2
M1 a |x | dx = (ba)4 M1 .
7.9. f : [a, b] R [a, b] |f 0 (x)| M1 x [a, b].

b

f (x) dx (1 + + n ) ba 1 (ba)2 M1 .
n
4
n
a
xk
. 7.1 [xk1 , xk ], xk1
f (x) dx

2M
b
x
x
(ba)
n
1
1

k ba
. a f (x) dx = x0 f (x) dx + + xn1 f (x) dx
n
4n2
b

f (x) dx (1 + + n ) ba
2

M1
=
n (ba)
4n2

7.5.2

(ba)2 M1
4n

7.2. f : [a, b] R [a, b] |f 00 (x)| M2


x [a, b].

b
f (x) dx f (a)+f (b) (b a) (ba)3 M2 .
a

12

. f 1,
(a)
f a b . P (x) = f (a) + f (b)f
(x a)
ba
294

.
x (a, b) c f (x) P (x) = c(x a)(x b).
g(t) = f (t) P (t) c(t a)(t b) t [a, b]. g(a) = g(x) = g(b) = 0,
Rolle (a, b) g 00 () = 0. ,
00
g 00 (t) = f 00 (t)2c, c = f 2() . , , x (a, b) (a, b)
00
f (x) P (x) = f 2() (x a)(x b). x (a, b) |f (x) P (x)| M22 (x a)(b x).
, , x = a x = b.


b

(b)
b f (x) dx f (a)+f (b) (b a) = b (f (x) P (x)) dx
a P (x) dx = f (a)+f
(b

a).

2
2
a
a

(ba)3 M2
M2 b
(x

a)(b

x)
dx
=
.
2
12
a
7.10. f : [a, b] R [a, b] |f 00 (x)| M2
x [a, b].
b
(
f (x) dx y0 + y1 + + yn1 +
2
a

yn
2

) ba

n

1 (ba)3 M2
12
n2

xk


. 7.2 [xk1 , xk ], xk1
f (x) dx yk12+yk ba
n
(ba)3 M2
12n3

.
b
(
)

, a f (x) dx y20 +y1 + +yn1 + y2n ba
n
(ba)3 M2
(ba)3 M2
n 12n3 = 12n2 .
7.5.3

7.3. f : [a, b] R [a, b] |f 00 (x)| M2


x [a, b]. = a+b

2
b

f (x) dx f ()(b a) (ba)3 M2 .
24
a
. f 1,
f f .
P (x) = f () + f 0 ()(x ) Taylor .
00
x [a, b] x f (x) = f ()+f 0 ()(x)+ f 2() (x)2
, , |f (x) P (x)| M22 (x )2 .
b

b

b
a P (x) dx = f ()(b a), a f (x) dx f ()(b a) = a (f (x) P (x)) dx

3M
M2 b
2
(x )2 dx = (ba)
.
2
24
a
7.11. f : [a, b] R [a, b] |f 00 (x)| M2
x [a, b].
b

f (x) dx (1 + + n ) ba 1 (ba)23 M2 .
n

24


xk

. 7.3 [xk1 , xk ] xk1
f (x) dxk ba
n
b

(ba)3 M2
. , f (x) dx (1 + + n ) ba
3
24n

M2
n (ba)
=
24n3

7.5.4

(ba)3 M2
24n2

Simpson.

7.4. f : [a, b] R [a, b] |f (4) (x)| M4


x [a, b]. = a+b

2
b

f (x) dx (f (a) + 4f () + f (b)) ba (ba)5 M4 .
6
2880
a
295

. ,
f a, b f .
P (x) = c0 + c1 (x a) + c2 (x a)(x ) + c3 (x a)(x )(x b),
c0 , c1 , c2 , c3 c0 = f (a), c0 + c1 ( a) = f (),
c0 + c1 (b a) + c2 (b a)(b ) = f (b) c1 + c2 ( a) + c3 ( a)( b) = f 0 ().
f P .
x (a, b), x 6= . c f (x) P (x) = c(x a)(x )2 (x b).
g(t) = f (t) P (t) c(t a)(t )2 (t b) t [a, b]. g(a) = g() =
g(x) = g(b) = 0 g 0 () = 0. Rolle
(a, b) g (4) () = 0. , g (4) () = f (4) () 24c
(4)
, , c = f 24() . x (a, b), x 6= (a, b)
(4)

4
f (x) P (x) = f 24() (x a)(x )2 (x b), |f (x) P (x)| M
(x a)(x )2 (b x).
24
x = a, x = x = b.
b

b
a P (x) dx = f (a)+4f6()+f (b) (b a) , a f (x) dx f (a)+4f6()+f (b) (b a) =
b

(f (x) P (x)) dx M4 b (x a)(x )2 (b x) dx = (ba)5 M4 .


24 a
2880
a

7.12. f : [a, b] R [a, b] |f (4) (x)| M4


x [a, b].

b
(
)
f (x) dx y0 + yn + 2(y1 + + yn1 ) + 4(1 + + n ) ba
6n

1 (ba)5 M4
2880
n4

xk
. 7.4 [xk1 , xk ] xk1
f (x) dx

5M
(ba)
4

, ,
(yk1 + 4k + yk ) ba
5
b 6n
( 2880n
)
5
5

f (x) dx (y0 +41 +y1 )+ +(yn1 +4n +yn ) ba n (ba) M5 4 = (ba) M4 4 .


6n

2880n

2880n

.
1. P 3 a, b, ,
(
)
b
a < b = a+b
, a P (x) dx = P (a) + 4P () + P (b) ba
.
2
6
2. log 2
2
log 2 = 1 x1 dx Simpson.
3.
1 1
= 4 0 x2 +1 dx Simpson.

7.6

. F (x, y, y 0 , y 00 , . . . ) = 0,
F (x, y, y 0 , y 00 , . . . ) x, y 0 , y 00 , . . .
x I, y y = f (x)
00
00
x y 0 , y 00 , . . . y 0 = f 0 (x),
( y = f0 (x), .00. . .
)
f : I R F x, f (x), f (x), f (x), . . . = 0 x I,
F (x, y, y 0 , y 00 , . . . ) = 0 I.
. 1. y 0 + 2xy = 0 f (x) = ex
2
2
(, +), f 0 (x) + 2xf (x) = 2xex + 2xex = 0 x (, +).
2. y 00 + y = 0 f (x) = sin x (, +),
f 00 (x) + f (x) = sin x + sin x = 0 x (, +).
2

296

. .

.
, y 0 q(x) = 0
y 0 = q(x),
q I. I
f I
f 0 (x) = q(x)

x I,

q I. q I, ,
, , q I,
q I. , y 0 = q(x)
I

x
f (x) = q(x) dx = x0 q(t) dt + c
x I,
x0 I c .

y0 y0 x0 ,

f (x0 ) = y0 .
, x = x0
x
y0 = f (x0 ) = x00 q(t) dt + c = c. ,
f (x) =

x
x0

q(t) dt + y0

x I.

;
.
.
7.6.1

. g(y)y 0 = h(x).
.
7.13. h : I R I g : J R J.
H h I G g J.
1. f : I J I , c,
- G(y) = H(x) + c I, f
g(y)y 0 = h(x) I.
2. , f : I J I
g(y)y 0 = h(x) I, f , c, -
G(y) = H(x) + c I.
. 1. f : I J I , c,
- G(y) = H(x) + c I. , G(f (x)) = H(x) + c
x I , , G0 (f (x))f 0 (x) = H 0 (x) x I. G0 (y) = g(y) y J
297

H 0 (x) = h(x) x I, g(f (x))f 0 (x) = h(x) x I. f


g(y)y 0 = h(x) I.
2. f : I J I g(y)y 0 = h(x)
I. , g(f (x))f 0 (x) = h(x) x I. , G0 (f (x))f 0 (x) = H 0 (x)
x I, c G(f (x)) = H(x) + c x I.
f , c, - G(y) = H(x) + c I.
, , g(y)y 0 = h(x) I
I - G(y) = H(x) + c
c.
. 1. yy 0 = x .
21 y 2 y (, +) 12 x2 x
(, +). yy 0 = x I
I 12 y 2 = 21 x2 + c, c,
. 21 y 2 = 12 x2 + c, c, y 2 = x2 + c,
c.

. c > 0, x2 + c x2 + c
(, +).
c = 0, x
x
2 + c x2 + c
x
(, +). ,

c
<
0,

(, |c|) ( |c|, +).


2. 3y 2 y 0 = 2x .
y 3 3y 2 (, +) x2 2x
(, +). 3y 2 y 0 = 2x I I

y 3 = x2 + c, c, .

3
3
c > 0, x2 + c (, +). c =0, x2
3
(,
0) (0,
+). c < 0,
x2 + c
3
2
(,
|c|)
( |c|, +) x c
( |c|, |c|). :
.
3. .
y 0 + p(x)y = 0,
p : I R I.
1 0
y = p(x) y 6= 0, . ,
y
y1 y 0 = p(x)
I. ,
y 0 + p(x)y = 0 I.
log |y| y1 (, 0) (0, +)
x
x0 p(t) dt p(x) I, x0 I.
y1 y 0 = p(x) I I
x
- I log |y| = x0 p(t) dt + c, c, .

p(t) dt+c

|y| = e x0
.

x
x p(t) dt
c x0 p(t) dt
I, I e e
ec e x0
.
c
I. c e ,
y 0 + p(x)y = 0 I
I

x p(t) dt
f (x) = ce x0
x I,
298

c 6= 0.
c = 0, 0
I. , I
I.
7.14 .
7.6.2


y 0 + p(x)y = q(x),
p, q : I R I.
7.14. p, q : I R I x0 I.
y 0 + p(x)y = q(x) I

x
1
1
c
f (x) = (x)
q(t)(t) dt = (x)
x I,
q(t)(t) dt + (x)
x0
x

c (x) = e
x

x0

p(t) dt

x I.

= p(x)(x) x I. (x) 6= 0
. 0 (x) = p(x)e x0
x I, I:
p(t) dt

f 0 (x) + p(x)f (x) = q(x)


(x)f 0 (x) + p(x)(x)f (x) = q(x)(x)
(x)f 0 (x) + 0 (x)f (x) = q(x)(x)
((x)f (x))0 = q(x)(x)

(x)f (x) = q(t)(t) dt

1
f (x) = (x)
q(t)(t) dt.


x0 f (x0 ) = y0 ,
1
x = x0 y0 = f (x0 ) = (x0 ) x0 q(t)(t) dt +
c
(x0 )

p(t) dt

= c, (x0 ) = e x0
= 1.
x
y0
1
f (x) = (x)
q(t)(t) dt + (x)
x I.
x0

y 0 + p(x)y = q(x).
, ,
.
. 1. y 0 2xy = 0.
x
p(x) = 2x q(x) = 0 (, +) (x) = e 0 (2t) dt =
2
ex (, +). (, +):
f 0 (x) 2xf (x) = 0
ex f 0 (x) 2xex f (x) = 0
( x2
)0
e f (x) = 0
2

ex f (x) = c,
2

299

c . y 0 2xy = 0 (, +)
2
f (x) = cex c.
f (0) = 2, x = 0
2
2
f (x) = cex . 2 = f (0) = c f (x) = 2ex .
{ 1
e |x| , x 6= 0
2 0
2. x y + y =
0,
x = 0
y 0 + x12 y = x12 e |x| x 6= 0. p(x) = x12 q(x) = x12 e |x|
(, 0) (0, +).
x 1
1
(0, +) (x) = e 1 t2 dt = e1 x
(0, +). (0, +):
1

f 0 (x) +
e1 x f 0 (x) +
1

1
f (x)
x2
1
1 x

1
e
x2
( 1 1
x

f (x) =
)0
f (x) =
1

e1 x f (x) =

1 x1
e
x2
1 1 x2
e
x2
1 1 x2
e
x2
x 1 1 2
e t
1 t2

dt + c = 2e e x + c,
2

c . x2 y 0 + y = e |x| (0, +)
1
1
f (x) = 12 e x + ce x c.
(, 0) x0 = 1,
1
1
1
x2 y 0 + y = e |x| (, 0) f (x) = {
x1 e x + c0 e x c0 .
1

e |x| , x 6= 0
, x y + y =
(, +).
0,
x = 0
f (x) , , ,
1
1
(, 0) (0, +). f (x) = 12 e x + ce x (0, +)
1
1
c f (x) = x1 e x + c0 e x (, 0) c0 . f
0,

( 1 11 ) limx0+ f (x) = f (0) = limx0( f (x).


1)
1 x1
x
x
limx0+ f (x) = limx0+ 2 e + ce = c(+) limx0 f (x) = limx0 x e + c0 e x = 0,
c = 0 f (0) = 0. ,
(, +)

1 x1

x > 0
2e ,
f (x) = 0,
x = 0

1 x1
0 x1
x e + c e , x < 0
(0)
f (x)f (0)
1 x1
, limx0+ x0 = limx0+ 2x e
= 0, f+0 (0) = 0. , limx0 f (x)f
=
x0
)
( 1 1
1
1
0
0
0
limx0 x2 e x + c x e x = 0. f (0) = 0. f 0 f (0) = 0
, , 0.
. (, 0) (0, +).
, (, +), , ,
[0, +).
1

2 0

3.
y 0 + p(x)y = q(x).
y 0 + ky = q(x),
k q : I R I.

300

(x) = e

x0

k dt

= ek(xx0 ) I. I:
f 0 (x) + kf (x) = q(x)
( k(xx0 )
)0
e
f (x) = q(x)ek(xx0 )
x
ek(xx0 ) f (x) = x0 q(t)ek(tx0 ) dt + c,

c .
x
f (x) = ekx x0 q(t)ekt dt + cek(xx0 )
x I,
c . y0 x0 ,
f (x0 ) = y0 , x = x0 c = y0 .
7.6.3

,
y 00 + ky 0 + ly = r(x),
k l . r : I R I.
, ,
, 13 14.
()
t2 + kt + l = 0.
1. t2 +kt+l = 0 () , 1 2 , k = 1 2
l = 1 2 . y = f (x) y 00 + ky 0 + ly = r(x) I,

f 00 (x) + kf 0 (x) + lf (x) = r(x)
x I,
, x0 I ,
f 00 (x) (1 + 2 )f 0 (x) + 1 2 f (x) = r(x)
( 0
)0
(
)
f (x) 1 f (x) 2 f 0 (x) 1 f (x) = r(x)
f 0 (x) 1 f (x) = e2 x

x0

r(t)e2 t dt + c1 e2 (xx0 )

)
2 s
2 (tx0 )
r(s)e
ds
+
c
e
e1 t dt + c2 e1 (xx0 )
1
x0
x0
x
t
x
= e1 x x0 e(2 1 )t x0 r(s)e2 s ds dt + c1 e2 x0 +1 x x0 e(2 1 )t dt + c2 e1 (xx0 )

f (x) = e1 x

x (

e2 t

, ,
x ( )t
( )x x
f (x) = e1 x e 22 11 x0 r(s)e2 s ds e1 x x0 e 2211 r(t)e2 t dt
( )x

( )x

2
1 0
+ c1 e2 x0 +1 x e 2 1 2e
+ c2 e1 (xx0 )
1
x (xt) 1 (xt)
(xx ) e1 (xx0 )
= x0 e 2 2 e
r(t) dt + c1 e 2 02
+ c2 e1 (xx0 ) ,
1
1

c1 c2 .

x0 :
f (x0 ) = y0 , f 0 (x0 ) = y0 0 .
301

x = x0 c2 = y0 .
x = x0 c1 + 1 c2 = y0 0
, , c1 = 1 y0 + y0 0 .
2. t2 + kt + l = 0 , , k = 2 l = 2 .
y = f (x) y 00 + ky 0 + ly = r(x) I, ,
,
f 00 (x) 2f 0 (x) + 2 f (x) = r(x)
( 0
)0
(
)
f (x) f (x) f 0 (x) f (x) = r(x)
x
f 0 (x) f (x) = ex x0 r(t)et dt + c1 e(xx0 )
)
x ( t
f (x) = ex x0 et x0 r(s)es ds + c1 e(tx0 ) et dt + c2 e(xx0 )
x
t
x
= ex x0 (t x0 )0 x0 r(s)es ds dt + c1 e(xx0 ) x0 dt + c2 e(xx0 )
x
x
= ex (x x0 ) x0 r(s)es ds ex x0 (t x0 )r(t)et dt
+ c1 (x x0 )e(xx0 ) + c2 e(xx0 )
x
= x0 (x t)e(xt) r(t) dt + c1 (x x0 )e(xx0 ) + c2 e(xx0 ) ,
c1 c2 . f
x0 , f (x0 ) = y0 f 0 (x0 ) = y0 0 , c2 = y0
c1 = y0 + y0 0 .
3. t2 + kt + l = 0 , + i i > 0,
k = 2 l = 2 + 2 . y = f (x) y 00 + ky 0 + ly = r(x)
I, f 00 (x) 2f 0 (x) + (2 + 2 )f (x) = r(x) x I.
ex g(x) = ex f (x),

g 00 (x) + 2 g(x) = ex r(x).


sin(x) cos(x)
( 0
)0
g (x) sin(x) g(x) cos(x) = ex r(x) sin(x),
( 0
)0
g (x) cos(x) + g(x) sin(x) = ex r(x) cos(x)
, ,
g 0 (x) sin(x) g(x) cos(x) =
g 0 (x) cos(x) + g(x) sin(x) =

x
x0

et r(t) sin(t) dt + c1 ,

x0

et r(t) cos(t) dt + c2

c1 c2 . 1 cos(x)
1
sin(x) ,

x
2 sin(x)
g(x) = x0 et sin((xt))
r(t) dt + c1 cos(x)+c

, ,
f (x) =

r(t) dt +
e(xt) sin((xt))

x0
0

c1 ex cos(x)+c2 ex sin(x)

f (x0 ) = y0 , f (x0 ) = y0 , c1 = ( sin(x0 )


cos(x0 ))ex0 y0 +sin(x0 )ex0 y0 0 c2 = ( sin(x0 ) cos(x0 ))ex0 y0 +cos(x0 )ex0 y0 0 .
:
.
302

. 1. y 00 5y 0 + 6y = x (, +) x
.
t2 5t + 6 = 0 2 3, , y = f (x)
y 00 5y 0 + 6y = x (, +), (
)
(

f 00 (x) (2 + 3)f 0 (x) + 2 3f (x) = x


)0
(
)
f 0 (x) 2f (x) 3 f 0 (x) 2f (x) = x
x
f 0 (x) 2f (x) = e3x 0 te3t dt + c1 e3x = x3 19 + c1 e3x
x
f (x) = e2x 0 e2t ( 3t 19 + c1 e3t ) dt + c2 e2x
5
f (x) = x6 + 36
+ c2 e2x + c1 e3x

c1 c2 .
2. y 00 2y 0 + y = 4 (, +).
t2 2t + 1 = 0 1, , y = f (x)
y 00 2y 0 + y = 4 (, +), (
)
f 00 (x) 2f 0 (x) + f (x) = 4
( 0
)0 (
)
f (x) f (x) f 0 (x) f (x) = 4
x
f 0 (x) f (x) = ex 0 4et dt + c1 ex = 4 + c1 ex
(
)
x
f (x) = ex 0 et 4 + c1 et dt + c2 ex = 4 + c1 xex + c2 ex
c1 c2 .
3. y 00 + 2y 0 + 2 = sin x (, +) sin x .
t2 + 2t + 2 = 0 , 1 + i 1 i. y = f (x)
y 00 + 2y 0 + 2y = sin x (, +), f 00 (x) + 2f 0 (x) + 2f (x) = sin x
x (, +). ex g(x) = ex f (x),
g 00 (x) + g(x) = ex sin x.
sin x cos x
( 0
)0
g (x) sin x g(x) cos x = ex (sin x)2 ,
(

)0
g 0 (x) cos x + g(x) sin x = ex sin x cos x.

,
g 0 (x) sin x g(x) cos x =

g 0 (x) cos x + g(x) sin x =

et (sin t)2 dt + c1 =

x
0

ex
2

et sin t cos t dt + c2 =

ex
5

ex
10

sin(2x)

sin(2x)

ex
10

ex
5

cos(2x) + c1 ,

cos(2x) + c2 .

cos x sin x,

x
x
g(x) = e5 sin x 2e5 cos x c1 cos x + c2 sin x
, ,

f (x) = 51 sin x 25 cos x c1 ex cos x + c2 ex sin x

c1 c2 .
303

.
1. : t ( k > 0
) q .
, q(t) , t,
t, q 0 (t) = kq(t) t.
q 0 (t) 0. q(t) = cekt
c. q0
0, q(t) = q0 ekt .
2. [] :
. :
. y 0 = ey , y 2 y 0 = 1, (1 + x2 )yy 0 = 1 + y 2 ,
yy 0 1 x2 = x, xyy 0 = (1+x2 )(1+y 2 ), x+yy 0 = x(xy 0 y)y, (1+x2 )y 0 = 1+y 2 , y 0 = y 2 ,
y 0 = (y 1)(y 2), (x 1)y 0 = xy, (x2 4)y 0 = y, (x + 1)y 0 + y 2 = 0, y 2 + (y 0 )2 = 1.
[] :
. y 0 + y = xe2x , xy 0 y = 1, xy 0 y = x,
y 0 + xy = x3 , x(x 1)y 0 + 3y = x(x 2), y 0 + y tan x = cos x, y 0 + y cot x = cos x.
[] : y 00 4y 0 + 3y = ex , y 00 + 6y 0 + 9y = xe3x ,
y 00 2y 0 + 5y = sin(2x).
3. . y 0 x cot y =
yy 0 + (1 + x2 )y 2 = ex , 1 + ey + 2xey y 0 = 0.

x+1
sin y

4. Bernoulli. 6= 1, y 0 + p(x)y = q(x)y


z = y 1 .

: y 0 + y = ex y , y y 0 = xy 2 , xy 0 y = x y , xy 0 + y = xy 2 log x.
5. Riccati. [] f (x) y 0 + p(x)y + r(x)y 2 = q(x)
g(x) (;) ,
1
f (x) + g(x)
y 0 + p(x)y + r(x)y 2 = q(x).
[] y 0 + 3y y 2 = 2.
, [], y 0 + 3y y 2 = 2.
,
.
6. , c, x tan(x + c) ,
, xy 0 x2 y 2 y = 0.
x
7. [] f (x) = 1 + x1 1 f (t) dt (0, +).
: ,
.
x
[] f (x) = 1 x 1 f (t) dt (0, +).
8. [] f (x) x+y 3 +cxy 3 = 0 I, c
, f (x) y 4 + 3x2 y 0 = 0 I.
[] f (x) x(x + y) = cey I, c
, f (x) x(x + y 1)y 0 = 2x + y I.
304

9. [] y 0 + ky = 0 (, +);
[] k > 0 f (x) y 0 +ky = 0 (, +)
limx+ f (x) = 0.
[] m f (x) y 0 + 3y = emx (, +)
limx+ f (x) = 0;
10. f (x) (x2 + 1)y 0 = 1 (, +) limx f (x)
. , limx+ f (x) limx f (x).
11. [] y 00 + ky 0 + ly = 0 (, +)
k 2 4l > 0, k 2 4l = 0 k 2 4l < 0;
[] k l y 00 + ky 0 + ly = 0 (i) ex + 3e2x , (ii)
(1 + 2x)ex , (iii) e2x sin(3x).
;
12. [] k > 0 l > 0 f (x) y 00 + ky 0 + ly = 0
(, +) limx+ f (x) = 0.
[] f (x) y 00 + ky 0 + ly = 0 limx+ f (x) = limx f (x) = 0;
[] m f (x) y 00 +4y 0 +3y = emx limx+ f (x) = 0;
y 00 + 6y 0 + 9y = emx y 00 + 2y 0 + 5y = emx .
m;
13. y1 (x) y2 (x) y 00 + p(x)y 0 + q(x)y = 0
I. Wronski W (y1 , y2 ) 12
5.5.
[] y(x) = 1 y1 (x) + 2 y2 (x)
I. ,
.
[] W (y1 , y2 ) y 0 + p(x)y = 0.
[] (i) W (y1 , y2 )(x) = 0 x I (ii) W (y1 , y2 )(x) 6= 0
x I.
[] (i)
I.
(ii)
.
[] (ii). y(x) ()
x0 I.
1 y1 (x0 ) + 2 y2 (x0 ) = y(x0 )
1 y1 0 (x0 ) + 2 y2 0 (x0 ) = y 0 (x0 )
1 2 . , W (y, 1 y1 + 2 y2 ) = 0
x I y(x) = 1 y1 (x) + 2 y2 (x) x I.
1 y1 (x) + 2 y2 (x) .
. y1 (x) y2 (x)
. , , ,
.
, 2.
305

[] y 00 + ky 0 + ly = 0, p(x) = k q(x) = l
.
t2 +kt+l = 0 () , 1 2 , y1 (x) = e1 x
y2 (x) = e2 x W (y1 , y2 )(x) 6= 0 x.
t2 + kt + l = 0 , , y1 (x) = ex y2 (x) = xex
W (y1 , y2 )(x) 6= 0 x.
t2 + kt + l = 0 , + i i > 0,
y1 (x) = ex cos(x) y2 (x) = ex sin(x)
W (y1 , y2 )(x) 6= 0 x.
, ;
14. y 00 + p(x)y 0 + q(x)y = r(x) I yn (x)
- I.
[] y(x) - y 00 + p(x)y 0 + q(x)y = r(x)
I y(x) = yh (x) + yn (x), yh (x)
y 00 + p(x)y 0 + q(x)y = 0 I.
[] . y1 (x) y2 (x) y 00 + p(x)y 0 +
q(x)y = 0 I W (y1 , y2 )(x) 6= 0 x I. y(x)
- y 00 + p(x)y 0 + q(x)y = r(x) I y(x) =
1 y1 (x) + 2 y2 (x) + yn (x), 1 , 2 R.
[] [] yn (x) = 1 (x)y1 (x) + 2 (x)y2 (x), 1 (x), 2 (x)
I. , 1 (x), 2 (x)
y1 (x)1 0 (x)+y2 (x)2 0 (x) = 0 y1 0 (x)1 0 (x)+y2 0 (x)2 0 (x) = r(x), yn (x) =
1 (x)y1 (x) + 2 (x)y2 (x) - y 00 + p(x)y 0 + q(x)y = r(x)
x
x r(t)y1 (t)
2 (t)
I. , 1 (x) = x0 Wr(t)y
dt

(x)
=
dt,
2
(y1 ,y2 )(t)
x0 W (y1 ,y2 )(t)
x0 I, .
, , - ,
y1 (x) y2 (x);
[] , [] ,
y 00 + ky 0 + ly = r(x).
7.6.3.
15. [] Euler. x2 y 00 + kxy 0 + ly = r(x)
I x = et I (0, +)
x = et I (, 0). 0 I
0
/ I.
x2 y 00 3xy 0 +3y = x, x2 y 00 +7xy 0 +9y = x3 log |x|, x2 y 00 xy 0 +5y = sin(2 log |x|).
2[].
[] x2 y 00 + xp(x)y 0 + q(x)y = r(x)
I, [] 13
14. 0 I 0
/ I.

7.7

Riemann.

7.7.1

- - d = ml , m l .
306

, d = ml
.
,

. , ,
.
m
.
x-,
[a, b]. d(x) x [a, b]
d(x) [a, b].
= {x0 = a, x1 , . . . , xn1 , xn = b} [a, b]
. mk [xk1 , xk ], m = m1 + +mn .
d(x) , [xk1 , xk ]. ,
d(x) [xk1 , xk ]. ,
k [xk1 , xk ], d(x) d(k ), mk
m
fk = d(k )(xk xk1 ) [xk1 , xk ]
d(k ). m = m1 + +mn
m
e =m
f1 + + m
fn = d(1 )(x1 x0 ) + + d(n )(xn xn1 ).
Riemann (d(x); a, b; , ) = d(1 )(x1 x0 ) + + d(n )(xn xn1 )
m 0,
m=

b
a

d(x) dx.

,
.
7.7.2

A , E. ,
.
1. . x- l
A. x l lx
( ), A(x) A lx
A l. A , A(x)
l(x) ,
. A ,
[a, b] l , x
/ [a, b], A(x) , l(x) = 0.
E l(x) [a, b]
l(x) [a, b].
= {x0 = a, x1 , . . . , xn1 , xn = b} [a, b]
. Ak A lxk1 lxk Ek
Ak . , A A1 , . . . , An , E = E1 + + En .
k [xk1 , xk ] A(k )
.
lxk1 lxk
. [xk1 , xk ] , Ak
fk
A
307

A(k ) .
xk xk1 l(k ),
fk A
fk l(k )(xk xk1 ). Ek Ak
E
fk = l(k )(xk xk1 ) , E = E1 + + En
E
e=E
f1 + + E
fn = l(1 )(x1 x0 ) + + l(n )(xn xn1 ). Riemann
E
(l(x); a, b; , ) = l(1 )(x1 x0 ) + + l(n )(xn xn1 ) E
0,
b
E = a l(x) dx.
:

.
. 1. h a b. x-
l , 0 l
a h l
b . x
/ [0, h],
x + a.
x [0, h] l(x) = ba
h
h
h ba
ba h2
b+a
E = 0 l(x) dx = 0 ( h x + a) dx = h 2 + ah = 2 h.
.
2. r > 0. x- l
0 l ,
l(x)
l x 2 r2 x2
x [r, r]
r
0 x
/ [r, r]. E = 2 r r2 x2 dx.
x = r sin t E = r2 .
. f (x) g(x) [a, b]
A ,
(a, f (a)) (a, g(a)) (b, f (b)) (b, g(b)).
x [a, b] A(x) (x, f (x)) (x, g(x)),
l(x) = |g(x) f (x)|, x
/ [a, b] A(x) .
A
b
E = a |g(x) f (x)| dx.
. x x2 ,
(1, 1) (1, 1)
3
.
(3, 3) (3, 9) 1 |x2 x| dx = 19
3
2. .
, .
s0 , [0, 2], s
s0 . , s2
s0 , 0 2, s ,
, s0 s2 .
[a, b] [0, 2] A() s
r(). r() [a, b] , , r() 0 .
A() A
sa sb . [a, b] A() ,
A s , A .
308

A
r() A.
= {0 = a, 1 , . . . , n1 , n = b} [a, b]
. [k1 , k ] Ak A
sk1 sk , A A1 , . . . , An , Ek
fk
Ak , E = E1 + + En . k [k1 , k ] A
, sk1 sk
sk r(k ) . [k1 , k ] ,
fk , Ek Ak
Ak A
(
)
fk A
fk . E
fk 1 (r(k ))2 tan(k k ) + tan(k k1 ) .
E
2
k k k (k1 ) tan x x 0,
fk 1 (r(k ))2 (k k ) + (k k1 ) = 1 (r(k ))2 (k k1 ). E
E
2
2
1
1
2
2

(r(
))
(

)
+

+
(r(
))
(

). Riemann
1
1
0
n
n
n1
2
2
(1
)
2
2 (r()) ; a, b; ; E A 0,
E=

1
2

b
a

(r())2 d.

:

.
. 1. r > 0
.
r() = r [0, 2].

1 2 2
2 0 r d = r2 .
2. , r > 0 ( [0, 2])
. r() = r [0, ]

r() = 0 [0, ]. 12 0 r2 d = 21 r2 .
3. r1 0 r2 ( r2 > r1 )
. , ,
r2 2 r1 2 = (r2 2 r1 2 ).
, r1 , r2
, 12 r2 2 12 r1 2 =
1
(r 2 r1 2 ).
2 2
3. . A
. r 0 Cr r.
A(r) Cr A A.
A(r) Cr ,
l(r). A , [a, b] [0, +)
, r
/ [a, b], A(r) , l(r) = 0. l(r)
[a, b].
= {r0 = a, r1 , . . . , rn1 , rn = b} [a, b]
Ak A
rk1 rk . Ek Ak , , , E = E1 + + En .
k [rk1 , rk ] A(k ) .
rk1
rk , .
21 (rk 2 rk1 2 ), .
309

, 12 (rk 2 rk1 2 ) = rk +r2k1 (rk rk1 ) k (rk rk1 ),


rk rk1 k . , l
k ,
fk
l (rk rk1 ). A
fk A
fk
A(k ) , E
(k )
A
rk rk1 ,
fk ,
l(k )(rk rk1 ). [rk1 , rk ] , Ak A
Ek Ak l(k )(rk rk1 ). , E
l(1 )(r1 r0 ) + + l(n )(rn rn1 ). Riemann (l(r); a, b; ; )
E 0,
E=

b
a

l(r) dr.

.

( ).
7.7.3

B
V . .
1. . .
A E L
L,
A, h
L. B
A h.
V B
V = Eh.
l L x l lx
L l x. A ,
[a, b] l x
/ [a, b] lx A .
= {x0 = a, x1 , . . . , xn1 , xn = b} [a, b]
Ak A lxk1 lxk . Ek Ak ,
, , E = E1 + + En . Bk
Ak , B A, B
B1 , . . . , Bn , Vk Bk , V = V1 + + Vn . [xk1 , xk ]
fk
, Ak A
fk
, Bk B
. ,
fk L A
fk h. E
fk
B
fk Vek B
fk , Vk Vek ,
A
fk Vek = E
fk h.
Ek E
.
e
f
f
f
V

) V1 + + Vn , E E1 + + En
(
e
f
f
f
V1 + + Vn = E1 + + En h. , 0,
fn V Eh. V = Eh.
Ve1 + + V
310

2. .
B.
l x l
Lx l x B (x) Lx
B. B B
l. B , [a, b] l
x
/ [a, b] B (x) B . x [a, b] E(x)
B (x) . = {x0 = a, x1 , . . . , xn1 , xn = b}
[a, b] Bk B Lxk1
Lxk . B B1 , . . . , Bn , , Vk Bk ,
fk
V = V1 + + Vn . k [xk1 , xk ] B
Lxk1 Lxk Lk , ,
B (k ) B. [xk1 , xk ] , Bk
fk , Vk Bk Vek B
fk .
B
, Vek = E(k )(xk xk1 ), Vk E(k )(xk xk1 ). V
E(1 )(x1 x0 ) + + E(n )(xn xn1 ). ,
0, Riemann (E(x); a, b; ; ) = E(1 )(x1 x0 ) + + E(n )(xn xn1 )
V , ,
b
V = a E(x) dx.
:

.
3. . l , x, [a, b] l. x [a, b]
l x x r(x). r(x) [a, b]
r(x) 0 x [a, b]. B
.
B. L, l,
l0 , y-, L l 0 l
A L r(x) [a, b].
B A 2
l.
x [a, b] B l x
r(x) x. E(x) = (r(x))2 ,
B
b
V = a (r(x))2 dx.
:

.
. 1. R > 0. l
0 l .
l x [R, R]

R
R3 .
x r = R2 x2 . R (R2 x2 ) dx = 4
3
2. B = {(x, y, z) : x2 + y 2 z 1} . ,
l z-, , z < 0 z > 1, B (z) B ,
311

0 z 1, B (z)
1 (0, 0, z), l

r(z) = z . B 0 z dz = 2 .
B A =
{(x, z) : x2 z 1} xz-, z-.
3. B h > 0 R > 0. l
. 0 l
h . x
/ [0, h] B (x)
(x)
x [0, h] B l, x
r(x) = Rh x.
h 2
0 Rh2 x2 dx = 3 R2 h.
4. . xy-
(x, y) a x b c y d.
, f (x, y) g(x, y),
(x, y) . ,
(x, y, f (x, y)), ,
(x, y, g(x, y)). B
. f (x, y) g(x, y)
x y. , , x y
f (x, y) g(x, y). B.
l x- x Lx
l x. Lx (x, y, z) x. x [a, b]
B (x) B l x
Lx z = f (x, y) z = g(x, y)
x y [c, d].
d
E(x) = c |g(x, y) f (x, y)| dy. x
/ [a, b], B (x) . V B
b
E(x) dx,
a
)
b(d
V = a c |g(x, y) f (x, y)| dy dx.
l y-, B
V =

d(b
c

)
|g(x, y) f (x, y)| dx dy.

. B
z = 2x + y z = x + 2y
1 x 1 1( y 1.
)
)
1 (1
1
1
1 1 |x + 2y 2x y| dy dx = 1 1 |y x| dy dx = 38 .
7.7.4

. (x0 , y 0 ) (x00 , y 00 ) (x00 x0 )2 + (y 00 y 0 )2 .


, ,
, .
l .
:
.
x = x(t) y = y(t) t [a, b]
[a, b].
312

. = {t0 = a, t1 , . . . , tn1 , tn = b}
[a, b] k = 0, 1, . . . , n Tk (x(tk ), y(tk ))
. T0 Tn . lk
Tk1 Tk , l = l1 + + ln .
T0 , T1 , . . . , Tn1 , Tn , [tk1 , tk ]
,
Tk1 T
k . lk
, (x(tk ) x(tk1 ))2 + (y(tk ) y(tk1 ))2 .
, tk ] x(tk ) x(tk1 ) = x0 (k )(tk tk1 )
Lagrange k , k [tk1
y(tk ) y(tk1 ) = y 0 (k )(tk tk1 ).
(x(tk ) x(tk1 ))2 + (y(tk ) y(tk1 ))2 =

(x0 (k ))2 + (y 0 (k ))2 (tk tk1 ). y 0 (t) [tk1 , tk ] ,


y 0 (k ), y 0 (
(x(tk ) x(tk1 ))2 + (y(tk ) y(tk1 ))2
k ) ,

(x0 (k ))2 + (y 0 (k ))2 (tk tk1 ).
, l
0
2
0
2
(x (1 )) + (y (1 ))
(t t0 ) + + (x0 (n ))2 + (y 0 (n ))2 (tn tn1 )
( 1
)
Riemann (x0 (t))2 + (y 0 (t)2 ; a, b; ; l
0.
b
l = a (x0 (t))2 + (y 0 (t))2 dt.
.
x = x(t), y = y(t), z = z(t) t [a, b]

b
l = a (x0 (t))2 + (y 0 (t))2 + (z 0 (t))2 dt.
:

.
. 1.
,
x
= t + y = t + t [a, b]. .
b
2
2
+ dt = 2 + 2 (b a). (a + , a + )
a

(b + , b + ) (b + a )2 + (b + a )2 = 2 + 2 (b a).
2. (x0 , y0 ) r0
x = r0 cos t + x0
2
y = r0 sin t+y0 t [0, 2]. 0
(r0 sin t)2 + (r0 cos t)2 dt = 2r0 .
3.
2 x = 0 cos t + x0 y = 0 sin t + y0 t [0, 2]
0
(0 sin t)2 + (0 cos t)2 dt.
4. , ,
f [a, b]. f [a, b],

b
l = a 1 + (f 0 (x))2 dx.
5. x
= r0 cos t + x0 , y = r0 sin t + y0 , z =
2
h0
h0 2
t + z0 t [0, 2]. 0
(r0 sin t)2 + (r0 cos t)2 + ( 2
) dt =
2

4 2 r0 2 + h0 2 .

313

7.7.5

, F ,
A B, W


W = F AB cos = F AB ,

[0, ] F AB .
W
A B
.
, (x(t), y(t))

t [a, b]. F (t) = (Fx (t), Fy (t))


(x(t), y(t)) t [a, b]. Fx (t)
Fy (t) x(t) y(t) [a, b] ,
, .
= {t0 = a, t1 , . . . , tn1 , tn = b} [a, b]
. Wk
[tk1 , tk ].
,
W = W1 + + Wn . [tk1 , tk ] , (Fx (t), Fy (t))

. k [tk1 , tk ], Wk

F (k ) = (Fx (k ), Fy (k ))

fk =
(Ak1 = (x(tk1)), y(tk1 ))( Ak = (x(t)k ), y(tk )), W
F (k ) Ak1 Ak =
Fx (k ) x(tk )x(tk1 ) +Fy (k ) y(tk )y(tk1 ) . , k , k [tk1 , tk ]
x(tk ) x(tk1 ) = x0 (k )(tk tk1 ) y(tk ) y(tk1 ) = y 0 (k )(tk tk1 ). x0 (t) y 0 (t)
, x0 (k ) y 0 (k ) x0 (k ) y 0 (k ),
Wk
Fx (k )x0 (k))(tk tk1 ) + F(y (k )y 0 (k )(tk tk1 ). ) W
(
Fx (1 )x0 (1 )+Fy (1 )y 0 (1 ) (t1 t0 )+ + Fx (n )x0 (n )+Fy (n )y 0 (n ) (tn tn1 ).
, , Riemann (Fx (t)x0 (t) + Fy (t)y 0 (t); a, b; ; )
W 0,
W =

b(
a

)
Fx (t)x0 (t) + Fy (t)y 0 (t) dt.

,
W =

b(
a

)
Fx (t)x0 (t) + Fy (t)y 0 (t) + Fz (t)z 0 (t) dt.

:


.
. ,
0.
, (x(t), y(t))
(x0 (t), y 0 (t)). Fx (t)x0 (t) + Fy (t)y 0 (t) = 0 t
)
b(
, , W = a Fx (t)x0 (t) + Fy (t)y 0 (t) dt = 0.
314

.
1. ,

2
x x [0, 1].
2. ,
0 2
0 2
( xx
) + ( yy
) = 1.
0
0

3. [] a > 0, x = a cos(2) cos


y = a cos(2) sin [ 4 , 4 ] [ 3
, 5
]. ,
4
4
(0, 0). .
, .

[] a >
0,

x
=
a
cos(3) cos


y = a cos(3) sin [ 6 , 6 ] , [ 2 , 5
]
6
7 3
[ 6 , 2 ] . .
,
.
[] n . n .
4.

2
2
x2
+ yb2 + zc2 = 1. , a, b, c ,
a2
.
5. x2 + y 2 = 4 z = 0 x + y + z = 0.
: y = x
xy-.
6. y = ax2 .
7. > 0. 2 (e + e ) = cosh x .

.
.
x

8. x = r() cos y =
r() sin , [a, b], r() [a, b]
r() 0 [a, b]. l
l=

b
a

(r())2 + (r0 ())2 d.

c, > 0, x = ce cos y = ce sin ,


(, +), .
.
315

> 0, x = cos y = sin ,


[0, +), .
.
> 0, x = cos y = sin ,
(0, +), .
.
0 2
0 2
9. [] ( xx
) +( yy
) = 1
0
0
.
[] y = xa .

10.

b
(x(b) x(a))2 + (y(b) y(a))2 a (x0 (t))2 + (y 0 (t))2 dt ;
, .
b

b

(x(b) x(a))2 + (y(b) y(a))2 = |x(b) x(a)| a x0 (t) dt + |y(b) y(a)| a y 0 (t) dt
)
b(
a |x(b) x(a)||x0 (t)| + |y(b) y(a)||y 0 (t)| dt

b
a (x(b) x(a))2 + (y(b) y(a))2 (x0 (t))2 + (y 0 (t))2 dt.

11. Newton F = (Fx , Fy , Fz )


(x, y, z) =
6 (0, 0, 0) m
(Fx , Fy , Fz ) =

cm
3

(x2 +y 2 +z 2 ) 2

(x, y, z) = cm
(x, y, z) ,
r3

r = x2 + y 2 + z 2 > 0 c -
- .
x(t), y(t) z(t), t [a, b],

cm
2

d (r(t))2
1
dt
a (r(t))3

dt = cm

r0 (t)
a (r(t))2

dt = cm

1
r(b)

1
r(a)

r(t) = (x(t))2 + (y(t))2 + (z(t))2 > 0 , ,


(0, 0, 0).


;
;

12. Hooke F = Fx x
x- 0 Fx = cx, c
- - .
x(t), t [a, b],
.
13. [] x(t) [a, b], y(t)
[a, b] y(t) 0 t [a, b].
316

x = x(t)
y = y(t), t [a, b], x- x = x(a) x = x(b)
E=

b
a

y(t)x0 (t) dt.

)
b
b (
: a y(t)x0 (t) dt = a y x1 (x(t)) x0 (t) dt.
[] C x = x(t) y = y(t), t [a, b],
, : (x(b), y(b)) = (x(a), y(a)).
, t , (x(t), y(t)) C

C . x(t) y(t)
[a, b], , [], E
C
E=

b
a

y(t)x0 (t) dt =

b
a

x(t)y 0 (t) dt =

1
2

b(
a

)
x(t)y 0 (t) y(t)x0 (t) dt.

: t1 , t2 , t3 , t4 [a, b] x(t1 ) x(t) x(t3 ) y(t2 )


y(t) y(t4 ) t [a, b]. t1 , t2 , t3 , t4
x(t) y(t) [a, b].
[] [] x = r0 cos t + x0 y = r0 sin t + y0
(x0 , y0 ) r0 > 0.
x = 0 cos t + x0 y = 0 sin t + y0 .

317

8
.
8.1

. (xn ).
+

x1 + x2 + + xn + .
n=1 xn

, , +
n=1 xn
.
s1 = x1 , s2 = x1 + x2 , s3 = x1 + x2 + x3 , ,
sn = x1 + + xn n N.
+
sn n-
n=1 xn (sn )


+ . (sn ) ,
+
n=1 xn . sn s R , n=1 xn
s
+

x1 + x2 + + xn + = s.
n=1 xn = s

, s R, s , s = + s = ,
+ , .

xn n- +
n=1 xn .
+
,
n=1 xn ,
, . , ,
+
. :
n=1 xn xn
. , .
, ,

+ .

+
x
,
x
,
: +
j=1 xj
k=1 k
n=1 n
.

. 1. +
n=1 1 1 + 1 + 1 + + 1 + .
s1 = 1, s2 = 1 + 1 = 2, s3 = 1 + 1 + 1 = 3 , , sn =
+ + 1 = n.
1+
sn = n +, + n=1 1 = +.
+
2.
n=1 0 0 + 0 + 0 + + 0 + .
. s1 = 0, s2 = 0 + 0 = 0, s3 = 0 + 0 + 0 = 0 ,
, sn = 0 +
+ 0 = 0. sn = 0 0, 0
+
n=1 0 = 0.

n1
1 + a + a2 + + an1 + .
3. a +
n=1 a
s1 = 1, s2 = 1 + a, s3 = 1 + a + a2 , , sn = 1 + a + + an1 .
318

. a0
1. a 6= 0, a = 0,
00 . , , a0 = 1
a,
0
a = 0, a ,
. ,
N
n
a0 + a1 x + + aN xN
n=0 an x ,
x0 = 1 x, x = 0.
,
(1 + a + + an1 ), , , . ,
:

= +,
a 1
+ n1
1
1 < a < 1
= 1a ,
n=1 a

, a 1.

n1
+
1 + (1) + 1 + (1) + 1 + (1) + .
n=1 (1)
.

1
1
1
1
1
1
4. +
n=1 np 1 + 2p + 3p + + np + sn = 1 + 2p + + np
n N.

1
p = 1 +
n=1 n , .
1
sn = 1 + 2 + + n1 n N 2.5,
6 2.7 2 2.8, sn +.

+ 1
n=1 n = +.

1
1
, p = 2 +
n=1 n2 sn = 1 + 22 +
+ n12 n N. 2.5 2.8 (sn ) ,
. ,

1
+
n=1 n2 .

1
+
n=1 np . ,
11 6.4 20 7.3.

1
1
1
1
5. +
n=1 n! sn = 1! + 2! + + n! n N.
2.5 sn e 1, e 1

1
1 + +
n=1 n! = e.

n1
(1)n1
6. +
sn = 1 12 + 13 14 + + (1)n
n N.
n=1
n
2.7 3 2.8 (sn ) .
. ,

(1)n1
+
.
n=1
n
, 11[] 6.4
. 10.2.

8.1. +
n=1 xn , xn 0.

. sn = x1 + +xn n N. +
n=1 xn = s R,
sn s. xn = sn sn1 n N, n 2, xn s s = 0.
319


n
n
. 1. +
n=1 n+1 n+1 1 6= 0.

1
1
2. +
n=1 n . , n 0.
8.1.
8.2. (xn ) (yn ) .
+
+
n=1 xn
n=1 yn , ,
.
. k0 , m0 N xk0 +l = ym0 +l l N.
sn = x1 + + xn tn = y1 + + yn n N.
l N sk0 +l sk0 = xk0 +1 + + xk0 +l = ym0 +1 + + ym0 +l = tm0 +l tm0 .

+ (sn sk0 ) (tn tm0 ) .
n=1 xn = s R . sn
s,+ sn sk0 s sk0 . tn tm0 s sk0 ,
, tn s sk0 + tm0 . n=1 yn = s sk0 + tm0 .
s R s = + s = , , , s sk0 + tm0 R s sk0 + tm0 = +
s sk0 + tm0 = .
. m Z.
+

xm + xm+1 + + xm+n1 +
n=m xn
: t1 = xm , t2 = xm + xm+1 , , tn =
x
+ + xm+n1
m+
+ n N.
+ 8.2
n
n=m x
n=1 xn ,
n=m xn
+
x
,
,

. ,
n=1 n
.
m 2, sn = x1 + + xn , tn = xm + + xm+n1
+= x1 + +
xm+n1 (x1 + + xm1 ) = sm+n1 (x1 + + xm1 )
n N. n=1 xn = s R,
sn s, tn s (x1 + + xm1 ) , , +
n=m xn = s (x1 + + xm1 ).

+
+
m 2.
n=1 xn = x1 + + xm1 +
n=m xn
m 0, tn = xm + + xm+n1 = x
m + + x0 + x1 + + xm+n1 =
xm + + x0 + sm+n1 n N,
n 2 m. +
n=1 xn = s R, sn s,
+
tn xm + + x0 + s , , n=m xn = xm + + x0 + s.
+
+
x
=
x
+

+
x
+
m 0.
n
m
0
n=m
n=1 xn
, , m, k Z, m < k,
+
n=m

xn = xm + + xk1 +

+
n=k

xn

m < k.


. +
,
n=m xn . k = n m + 1 ,
n m, m + 1, m + 2, . . . , k 1, 2, 3, . . . .
+
+
k=1 xk+m1 .
n=m xn =
, xm + xm+1 + xm+2 + .
+
+
x

r
=
8.3.
n
n
m=n xm n N.
n=1
rn 0.
320


. sn = x1 + + xn n N. +
n=1 xn = s R, sn s.
s = sn1 + rn n N, rn s s = 0.

+
8.4. +
yn +
n=1 xn
n=1
n=1 xn +
n=1 yn
+
, n=1 (xn + yn )
+

n=1 (xn

+ yn ) =

+
n=1

xn +

+
n=1

yn .

+
+
.
sn = x1 + + xn
n=1 xn = s R
n=1 yn = t R.
+
tn = y1 + + yn n N.
n=1 (xn + yn )
un = (x1 + y1 ) + + (x
+ yn ) = (x1 + + xn
) + (y1 +
+ yn ) = sn + tn . ,
n+
+
un = sn + tn s + t. n=1 (xn + yn ) = s + t = n=1 xn + +
n=1 yn .
+
+
8.5.
n=1 xn n=1 xn ,
+
n=1 xn
+
n=1

xn =

+
n=1

xn .

. +
xn = s R . sn = x1 + + xn n N.
n=1
+
+ + xn = (x1 + + xn ) = sn .
n wn = x1
n=1 x
+
wn = sn s , , n=1 xn = s = +
n=1 xn .
:
+

n=1 (xn

+ yn ) =

+
n=1

xn +

+
n=1

yn .

.
8.6.
xn yn n N.
+
+

+
yn .
x

1. +
n
n=1
n=1
n=1 yn ,
n=1 xn
+
+
, ,

n0
n=1 xn
n=1 yn ,
+
+n0 N xn0 <y+
+
n=1 xn < n=1 yn . , n=1 xn = n=1 yn ,
x
n = yn n N.
+
2. +
n=1 xn = +, n=1 yn = +.
+
3. +
n=1 xn = .
n=1 yn = ,
+

. 1. n=1 xn = s R +
n=1 yn = t R. sn = x1 + + xn
tn = y1 + + yn n N.
sn = x1 + + xn y1 + + yn = tn n N, s t.
xn0 < yn0 s, t R. n N, n n0 tn sn = (yn xn )+ +(y1 x1 )
yn0 xn0 . t s yn0 xn0 > 0.
2. , sn tn n N. , sn +, tn +.
3. 2.
.

2
( 12 ), +
n, +
1. +
(1)n , +
n=1 n ,
n=1
n=1
n=1
)
+ ( 1

+
+
n1 2
n1
1
n (
n,
,
n=1
n=1 (1)
n=1 (1)
n
n+1
).

321

2.
+
1
n=1 n log(1 + n ).

n
n=1 2n+1

n n
n=1 ( n+1 )

1
n
n , +
n=1
n=1 n sin n ,

2 n+2
3. , +
,
n=1 ( 3 )
+ 4 n3 +

n1
n+1
+
+
+
+
2 n
2
2
+3
5n
n4
n
,
,
,
n=1 (1)
n=3 ( 3 ) ,
n=4 (3) ,
n=1 3n1 ,
n=1 ( 3 )
n=1
6n
n
+
1+2 2
( ).
n=1 2n

+
+ 1x2n
x
x2n
4. x +
n=1 (1+x)n1 ,
n=1 (1+x2 )n1 ,
n=1 1+x2n ;

5. . +
n=1 (bn bn+1 ) .

[] +
n=1 (bn bn+1 ) ,
, limn+ bn
limn+ bn .
limn+ bn :
+

n=1 (bn

bn+1 ) = b1 limn+ bn .

[]
( + 1
+
+
+ n+1n +
1
1
n

):
,
2 +n
n=1 n(n+1) ,
n=1 (2n1)(2n+1) ,
n=1 n(n+1)(n+2) ,
n=1
n=1 log n+1 ,
n
(
)

n1 2n+1
n
n n+1 n + 1 , +
.
n=1
n=1 (1)
n(n+1)
+
1
1
6. , ,
n=1 xn , x2k1 = k x2k = k
k N.

+
7. x 6= y. +
k=1 (a2k +xa2k1 )
k=1 (a2k +ya2k1 ) ,
+
n=1 an .
{
x
+ x2n1
, |x| < 1
8. [] n=1 1x2n = 1x
1
, |x| > 1
1x
+ 2n1
1
[] x > 1 n=1 x2n1 +1 = x1
.
{
1

, n N, n 6= k
n2 k2
9. k N, xn =
+
n=1 xn .
0,
n N, n = k
10. :
s. ,
,
12 . , ( )
, 48
. ,
.
11.
v. , d,
vd . , ,
:
, ,
. , ,
322

. .
, , ( )
, .

.

8.2 - .
+
8.1. xn 0
n N,
n=1 xn
+
0 +. , 0 n=1 xn +.
, sn = x1 + + xn n N .
, (sn ) , +, (sn )
.
. sn+1 = x1 + +xn +xn+1 = sn +xn+1 sn n N. (sn )

+ , , +. sn s R {+}.
n=1 xn = s.
sn = x1 + + xn 0 n N, s 0.
(sn ) , s R, , (sn ) , s = +.
+


n=1 xn -
+

+.
,


n=1 xn
+
-
+
n=1 xn < + n=1 xn = +.

+
8.7. 1.
0 xn yn n N.
+
n=1 xn
n=1 yn .
+
0+
, , n=1 yn , n=1 xn .
2. xn 0, yn > 0 n N ( xynn ) , ,

+
. +
y
,

n
n=1
n=1 xn .

. 1. 8.1,
+
xn +
,
n=1
n=1 yn

+
+
+

8.6

y
.

n=1 n
n=1 n
n=1 yn ,
+
+
+
n=1 yn < +, n=1 xn < + , , n=1 xn .
2. ( xynn ) , u xynn u , , xn uyn

+
n N. +
n=1 yn ,
n=1 uyn .
+
n=1 xn .
.
1. 2
8.7 , , :
+
+
x

+,

n=1 yn +.
n=1 n
2. 2 8.7 . xn , yn > 0
n N xynn , , 0 < < +,
+

+
n=1 yn :
n=1 xn
+. , xynn ,
+
+
xn .
,
n=1
n=1 yn ,
yn
1
1
xn , , +
n=1 xn ,
+
n=1 yn .
xn , yn > 0 n N xynn 0, , 2
+
+
8.7,
n=1 xn .
n=1 yn ,
, , .
323

1/(n2 )
1/n

0,

1
n=1 n2

< +

1
n=1 n

= +.

, xn , yn > 0 n N xynn +, +
n=1 xn
+
yn
, n=1 yn . xn 0
2 8.7.
3. 8.7. ,

.

. (, ,
) . ,
, 5.9.

2n +3
. 1. +
n=1 3n1 +n .
2n +3
3n1
2n
+n
n
n
n
2 +3
2
1+32
= 3n1
3n1 , . 3n1
n N
+n
1+n3n+1

+ 2 n1
n
n
2 +3
2
2n
( 3n1 +n )/( 3n1 ) 1. +
.
n=1 3n1 = 2
n=1 ( 3 )
, .

2n3 +3n+5
2. +
n=1 n4 +5n2 +n+7 .
3
3
4
, n42n+5n+3n+5
2 +n+7 2n n , 3

1+ 3 n2 + 5 n3

2n
2n +3n+5
2n
2
2
. n42n+5n+3n+5
2 +n+7 = n4 1+5n2 +n3 +7n4 , , ( n4 +5n2 +n+7 )/( n4 ) 1.

+
3
+ 2n3 +3n+5
1
= 2 +
1 n=1 2n
n=1 n = +,
n=1 n4 +5n2 +n+7 = +.
n4
+
1
3. n=1 sin n .
limx0 sinxx = 0 , , sin x x 0.

sin(1/n)
1
+
1, 1
n=1 n .
1/n
+ 1
+
n=1 n +, n=1 sin n1 .

n3
4. +
n=1 2n .
(n3 )
(2n ) ) .
(
( 2)n ,
n3

3
3
2 < 2. (n2)n 0 (22)n n = (n2)n 0.
2n
+ (2)n + 1 n

n3

, n=1 2n = n=1 ( 2 ) , +
n=1 2n
.

5. xn 0 n N, x1 + + xm +
n=1 xn m N.
x
=
s

: +
R
.

s
=
x
+

+
x
n
1
n n N, sn s.
n=1 n
(sn ) ,
sm s m N.
+
xn , 1 n m,
:
n=1 an , an =
+
+
an = 0,
n m + 1. 0
an xn n N,
+ n=1 an n=1 xn .
+
+
, n=1 an = a1 + + am + n=m+1 an = x1 + + xm + n=m+1 0 = x1 + + xm .

:
8.8. e .

1
. e = 1 + +
n=1 n! .
- - e Q , , e =
324

l
k

, l, k N.


(k 1)!l = k!e = k! +

k!
1!

+ +

k!
k!

+ k!

1
n=k+1 n!

.
+

, . . . , k!
, k! n=k+1 n!1 = +
(k 1)!l, k!, k!
n=k+1
1!
k!
. ,
+ k! +

+ 1
1
1
1
1
1
0 < n=k+1
= n=k+1 (k+1)n
< +
n=k+1 (k+1)nk =
n=1 (k+1)n = k+1 1 1 = k 1
n!

k!
n!

k+1

.
.
, 11
6.4 20 7.3.
. (xn ) xn 0 n N.
f : [1, +) R [1, +) f (n) = xn n N.
t
limt+ 1 f (u) du, 0 +
t
+
(i) n=1 xn < + limt+ 1 f (u) du < +,
t

(ii) +
n=1 xn = + limt+ 1 f (u) du = +.
,
n+1
n
f
(u)
du

x
+

+
x

x
+
f (u) du
n N
1
n
1
1
1

limt+

t
1

f (u) du

n=1 xn x1 + limt+

t
1

f (u) du.

+
. +
x

-
,

n
n=1
n=1 xn = s.
sn = x1 + + xn n N, sn s.
f ,
t
[1, +), F (t) = 1 f (u) du t [1, +).
t 1 n N, n t. f (t) f (n) = xn 0. f (t) 0
t00
t0
t00
t 1. , 1 t0 < t00 , F (t00 ) = 1 f (u) du = 1 f (u) du + t0 f (u) du
t0
f (u) du = F (t0 ). F [1, +),
1
t
l = limt+ F (t) = limt+ 1 f (u) du +. ,
t
F (t) = 1 f (u) du 0 t 1, l 0.
k+1
k N, u [k, k+1] f (k+1) f (u) f (k), f (k+1) k f (u) du f (k)
, ,
k+1
xk+1 k f (u) du xk .

k =
1, . . . , n 1 k = 1, . . . , n
n
n+1
x2 + + xn 1 f (u) du 1 f (u) du x1 + + xn , .
n+1
n
f
(u)
du

x
+
f (u) du , , l s x1 + l.
n
1
1
1
(i), (ii) .
+ 1
. 1.
n=1 np .
.
11

6.4 20 7.3.
+ 1
- , -
n=1
np
+.
325


+
1
p 0, n1p 1 n N, +
n=1 np
n=1 1 = +.
1
p > 0. ( np ) .
f : [1, +) R f (u) = u1p , [1, +) , ,
f (n) = n1p n N.
t
t
1p
1 u1p du = t 1p1 , p 6= 1, 1 u1 du = log t.
t
t
1
, limt+ 1 u1p du = +, 0 < p 1, limt+ 1 u1p du = p1
< +, p > 1.

{
+ 1
< +, p > 1
n=1 np
= + , p 1

, , +
n=1
. ,
+ 1
1
1

n=1 np 1 + p1
p1
log(n + 1) 1 + 12 + +
(n+1)1p 1

1
2p

+ +

1
n=1 n2

p > 1,

1 + log n

1
np

1+

n N,

n1p 1
1p

0 p < 1, n N.
+ 1
, 8.1, p, 0 < p 1,
n=1 np

0.
+
n
n=1 n
+ 2n1
2. n=1 n2 +3n+1 n22n1
=
+ 1 +3n+1
1
2n1
2n1
1
. ( n2 +3n+1 )/( n ) 2 2 . n=1 n = +,
n 1+3n1 +n2
2n1
+
n=1 n2 +3n+1 = +.

n+1
n+1
1 1+n 2
3. +
,

=
,
2
2
2
3/2
n=1 2n +3
2n +3 n
2+3n

+ 1

+
n+1
n+1
1
1
( 2n2 +3 )/( n3/2 ) 2 . n=1 n3/2 , n=1 2n2 +3 .

1
4. +
n=1 log(1 + n3/2 ).
1
+ 1
log(1+ 3/2
)
n
,
,


1,
1
n=1 n3/2
1p

1+

1
n

1
n

n3/2

log(1 + x) x 0 , , limx0

1
+
n=1 log(1 + n3/2 ) .

log(1+x)
x

= 1,

Cauchy. (xn ) xn 0 n N.

+ k
(i) +
k=0 2 x2k < +,
n=1 xn < +
+
k
(ii) n=1 xn = + +
k=0 2 x2k = +.
+ k

.
+
k=0 2 x2k , -
n=1 xn

+ k
x
=
s

. +
k=0 2 x2k = t.
n=1 n
sn = x1 + + xn n N tk = x1 + 2x2 + 4x4 +
+ 2k1 x2k1 k N. sn s tk t , , sn s tk t
n, k N.
n N. k0 Z, k0 0 2k0 n < 2k0 +1 . (xn ) ,
sn = x1 + + xn
= x1 + (x2 + x3 ) + (x4 + x5 + x6 + x7 ) + + (x2k0 1 + + x2k0 1 ) + (x2k0 + + xn )
x1 + 2x2 + 4x4 + + 2k0 1 x2k0 1 + 2k0 x2k0 = tk0 +1 t.
326

n N sn t , , s t.
,
tk = x1 + 2x2 + 4x4 + + 2k1 x2k1
2x1 + 2x2 + 2(x3 + x4 ) + + 2(x2k2 +1 + + x2k1 )
= 2(x1 + x2 + + x2k1 ) = 2s2k1 2s.
k N tk 2s , , t 2s.
s t 2s, s t +.

1
. +
.
np
+ 1
n=1
+
, p 0, n=1 np n=1 1 = +.
p > 0, ( n1p ) - .
+ k 1
+ 1 k
1
k=0 2 (2k )p =
k=0 ( 2p1 ) . 2p1 ,
1
1
< 1, +, 2p1
1.
2p1
+ 1
n=1 np , p > 1, +, p 1.
.

1
1. 5 8.1 +
n=1 n(n+1)
+
1. , n=1 n12 .

n2 +3n+1
2. , +
,
n=1
n4 n2 +4
+ nn+2n+1 + 1
+
+
+
1
1
2

,
,
n=1
n=1 n n n ,
n=1
n=1 ( 1 + n n),
n=1 log(1 + n2 ),
2n2 +1
n(n+1)(n+2)

)
+ n+1 n + 1

+
+ (
1
1
2n+1
n
, n=1 n sin n1 , +
n=1
n=1 (e 1),
n=1 n(1 cos n ),
n=1 1 n log 2n1 .
n
)
+ a ( 1
1
3. [] a
n

n=1
n
n+1

+ a

n 1) .
n=1 n ( n + 1 2 n +
[]

+
+ 1 a, b, a > b > 0,
1
n=2 na nb
n=1 an bn .

an
[] a, b, c > 0 +
n=1 bn +cn .
4.

135(2n1)
n=1 258(3n1) .
135(2n1)
( 23 )n
258(3n1)

n N.

+ n +
1
1 ,
5. +
,
2
n=1 n +1
n=1 n2 +1 ,
n=1
n(n+1)
+
+ n + en
+ 1
+
+
1
1
1
,
,
n=1 1+e2n ,
n=1 ne
n=2 n log n ,
n=2 n(log n)2 ,
n=3 n log n log(log n) ,
(n+1) n
n=1
+
1
n=3 n log n(log(log n))2 . .
+ . , .

+
1
1
6. +
n=2 n(log n)p ,
n=3 n log n(log(log n))p , p > 1, +, p 1.
7. .
+
1
[]
n=2 na (log n)b a = 1, b > 1 a > 1
+ .
327


1
[] a > 0. +
n=1 an nb a = 1, b > 1 a > 1
+ .

1
[] a > 0. +
n=2 an (log n)b a > 1
+ .
8. , pk
p 3, 2k 2.
9. p > 1.
[]
[]
[]

1
1
1
1
+
n=k np kp + (p1)kp1
(p1)kp1

1
1
k p1 +
n=k np p1 .

1
limp1+ (p 1) +
n=k np = 1

10. [] x > 0. 2 arctan x1

x
[] limx+ +
n=1 n2 +x2 = 2 .

k N.
k N.

x
n=1 n2 +x2

11. xn
> 0
n N a 1.
+
+
xn a
a
n=1 xn , n=1 1+x
a .
n

+
n=1

x
1+x2

arctan x1 .

xn ,

12. xn 0 n N.

+ xn
[] +
x
,

n=1 n
n=1 n .
+
+

[] n=1 xn , n=1 xn xn+1 . ,


, (xn ) ,
+ .


n=1 xn +
+
x
x

.
n n+1
n=1
13. . 28 8.4.
[] xn , yn > 0 n N xxn+1
yn+1
.
yn
n
+
+
n=1 yn ,
n=1 xn .
xn
: ( yn ) , , .
[] 0 < a < 1 xn > 0 n N xxn+1
a.
n
+
n=1 xn .
a > 1 xn > 0 n N xxn+1
a.
n
+
n=1 xn .
: [] yn = an n N.
xn yn .
(1 n1 )a .
[] a > 1 xn > 0 n N xxn+1
n
+
n=1 xn .
a 1 xn > 0 n N xxn+1
(1 n1 )a .
n
+
n=1 xn .
+
14. [] (xn ) xn 0 n N.
n=1 xn < +,
nxn 0.
: 0 n2 xn x[ n2 ] + + xn .

1
[] [], +
n=1 np = + 0 p 1.
[] 8 2.5. (xn ) xn 0.
328


+
n(x 2xn+1 + xn+2 ) = x1 .
n=1
+ n
: n=1 (xn xn+1 )
- .
+
sn
n=1 n(xn 2xn+1 + xn+2 ), sn =
x1 xn+1 n(xn+1 xn+2 ).
15.
xn
0 n N. (xnk ) (xn ),
+
+
x

k=1 nk
n=1 xn .
+
+
16. xn yn zn n N.
n=1 xn
n=1 zn ,
+
n=1 yn .
17. m1 , m2 , m3 , . . .

+
3 . n=1 m1n .

+
18. xn > 0 n N +
n=1 xn . rn =
k=n xk
n N.
rn+1
xn
1
m+1
[] p 1, rxm+1
p ++ r p r
p1 r
p m, n N, m < n
n
m+1
m+1
+ xn
n=1 rn p .
: (rn ) rn 0.
1
(rn 1p rn+1 1p ) n N
[] 0 < p < 1, rxnnp 1p
+ xn
n=1 rn p .

xn
+
n=1 rn p p 0.
n

19. xn > 0 n N +
k=1 xk
n=1 xn . sn =
n N.

xn
[] +
n=1 1+xn .

xn
xn
: +
n=1 1+xn , 1+xn 0.
xn
1
sm
m+1
[] p 1, sxm+1
p + + s p s p1 s p m, n N, m < n
n
n
n
+ xn
n=1 sn p .
: (sn ) sn +.
( 1
)
1
1
[] p > 1, sxnnp p1
sn p1
n N, n 2
sn1 p1
+ xn
n=1 sn p .
: xn = sn sn1 .
+
20. [] xn > 0 n N
+ n=1 xn .
(yn ) yn + n=1 xn yn .

[] xn > 0 n N
+
n=1 xn .
x
y
(yn ) yn 0 +
n=1 n n .
[] (yn )
yn +.
(xn )
+
x

xn > 0 n N +
n=1 xn yn
n=1 n
.
[] (yn )
(xn )
+
yn 0.
x

xn > 0 n N +
n=1 xn yn
n=1 n
.

21. an , bn 0 n N p, q > 1,

329

1
p

1
q

= 1.


+ q
p
[] Hlder . +
n=1 an < +,
n=1 bn < +,

( + p ) p1 ( + q ) 1q
+
.
n=1 an bn
n=1 an
n=1 bn
p = q = 2 Cauchy :
+
n=1

a n bn

( +
n=1

an 2

) 12 ( +

n=1 bn

) 12

Hlder s, t
0 san p = tbn q n.
: : n + Hlder
( + p ) p1
29 5.6. : A =
B =
n=1 an
( + q ) 1q
. A = 0 B = 0, . A, B 6= 0,
n=1 bn
Young aAn , bBn .
( + 2 ) 2 ( +
) ( + 2 ) +
Cauchy:
= n=1 (tan +bn )2 0
n=1 an t + 2
n=1 an bn t+
n=1 bn
t.

+ p
p
[] Minkowski . +
a
<
+,
n
n=1
n=1 bn <
+,
( +
) 1 ( + p ) p1 ( + p ) p1
p p

+
.
n=1 (an + bn )
n=1 an
n=1 bn
Minkowski s, t
0 san = tbn n.

22. [] f : [1, +) [0, +) [1, +) +


n=1 f (n) = +
t
limt+ 1 f (u) du .

[] f : [1, +) [0, +) [1, +) +


n=1 f (n) < +
t
limt+ 1 f (u) du = +.

8.3

p- .

p N, p 2. 2.5 x [0, 1)
p- (xn ) x, xn = [pn x] p[pn1 x] n N. xn Z
0 xn p 1 n N (xn ) p 1.
, sn = xp1 + + xpnn tn = sn + p1n = xp1 + + xpnn + p1n n N,
sn x < tn n N. , (sn ) , (tn ) sn x
tn x. sn x
+ xn
n=1 pn = x.
. , (xn ) p- xn Z,
0 xn p 1 n N (xn ) p 1.
8.9. p Z, p 2.
+ xn
1. p- (xn ).
n=1 pn
[0, 1).

xn
2. x [0, 1) p- (xn ) +
n=1 pn = x.

330


+ xn
xn
. 1. +
n=1 pn - , . x =
n=1 pn .
+ p1
0 xn p 1 n N, 0 x n=1 pn = 1.

p1
xn < p 1 n N, 0 x < +
n=1 pn = 1.

xn
2. 0 x < 1. p- (xn ) +
n=1 pn = x.
.

xn
p- (xn ) +
n=1 pn = x.

m1
xn
mn1
mn1
m N. pm1 x = m1
+ +
n=1 xn p
n=m pnm+1 . k =
n=1 xn p
k . ,

+ p1
xn
0 +

nm+1
n=m p
n=m pnm+1 = 1.
, xn < p 1 n N, n m, 0

+
xn
m1
x < k + 1, [pm1 x] = k. ,
n=m pnm+1 < 1. k p
[pm1 x] =

m1

xn pmn1 .

mn
m N, [pm x] = m
.
n=1 xn p

mn
mn1
mn
mn
[pm x] p[pm1 x] = m
p m1
= m
m1
= xm .
n=1 xn p
n=1 xn p
n=1 xn p
n=1 xn p
n=1

, xn = [pn x] p[pn1 x] n N (xn )


p- x.

xn
. (xn ) p- x [0, 1), +
n=1 pn p- x h0, x1 x2 x3 . . . ip ,

x = h0, x1 x2 x3 . . . ip .
p = 10 , , x = 0, x1 x2 x3 . . .
x = h0, x1 x2 x3 . . . i10 .
8.9
[0, 1) p- , , p-
h0, x1 x2 x3 . . . ip .
. p- h0, x1 x2 x3 . . . ip m0 , k0 N
xn+k0 = xn n N, n m0 .
xm0 xm0 +1 . . . xm0 +k0 1 p-
. , p-
h0, x1 . . . xm0 1 xm0 . . . xm0 +k0 1 xm0 . . . xm0 +k0 1 xm0 . . . xm0 +k0 1 . . . ip .
h0, x1 . . . xm0 1 xm0 . . . xm0 +k0 1 ip .
8.10 p = 10, ,
- , !
, [0, 1), p-
. ,
, 1 .
8.10. p N, p 2 x [0, 1). x p-
.
331

. x = h0, x1 . . . xm0 1 xm0 . . . xm0 +k0 1 ip .

( xm
xm0 +k0 1 )(
xm0 1
0
x = xp1 + + pm
+ pm
+ + pm
1 + pk10 +
0
0 1
0 +k0 1
( xm
xm0 +k0 1 )
xm0 1
1
0
= xp1 + + pm
+ pm
+ + pm
0
0 1
0 +k0 1 1(1/pk0 )
=

x1 pm0 2 ++xm0 1
pm0 1

xm0 pk0 1 ++xm0 +k0 1


pm0 1 (pk0 1)

1
p2k0

x .
, x [0, 1) , x = ab a, b Z, 0 a < b.
p = p1 n1 pr nr , p1 , . . . , pr p n1 , . . . , nr N.
, b = p1 l1 pr lr b0 , l1 , . . . , lr Z, l1 , . . . , lr 0 ( pj
b, lj 0) b0 N p.
m0 N (m0 1)nj lj j = 1, . . . , r.
vj = (m0 1)nj lj , vj Z, vj 0.
x=

a
b

a
p1 l1 pr lr b0

ap1 v1 pr vr
(p1 n1 pr nr )m0 1 b0

a0
pm0 1 b0

a0 Z, a0 0.
, p, p2 , p3 , . . . b0 . ,
0, . . . , b0 1, ,
b0 . , t, s N, t < s
pt = qt b0 + z ps = qs b0 + z, qt , qs Z z {0, . . . , b0 1}.
pt (pst 1) = ps pt = (qs qt )b0 , b0 pt (pst 1). b0 , p
, b0 pst 1, b00 N b0 b00 = pst 1.
k0 = s t N b0 b00 = pk0 1 , ,
x=

a0 b00
pm0 1 b0 b00

a00
pm0 1 (pk0 1)

a00 = a0 b00 Z 0 a00 < pm0 1 (pk0 1). 0 x < 1.


, a00 pk0 1,
a00 = w(pk0 1) + u,
w Z, 0 w < pm0 1 u {0, . . . , pk0 2}.
, p- ( 1) w, u
w = x1 pm0 2 + + xm0 1 ,

u = xm0 pk0 1 + + xm0 +k0 1

xm0 , . . . , xm0 +k0 1 p 1,


u = (p 1)pk0 1 + + (p 1)p + (p 1) = pk0 1.
x=
=
=

x1 pm0 2 ++xm0 1
w(pk0 1)+u
u
= pmw0 1 + pm0 1 (p
k0 1) =
pm0 1
pm0 1 (pk0 1)
( xm
xm0 +k0 1 ) 1
xm0 1
x1
0
+ + pm0 1 + pm0 + + pm0 +k0 1 1 1
p
k
x1
p

+ +

xm0 1
pm0 1

( xm

0
pm0

+ +

xm0 +k0 1 )(
1
pm0 +k0 1

= hx1 . . . xm0 1 xm0 . . . xm0 +k0 1 ip .


x p- .
.
332

xm0 pk0 1 ++xm0 +k0 1


pm0 1 (pk0 1)

p 0

1
pk0

p2k0

1. [] p N, p 2. x N n0 Z, n0 0
x0 , x1 , . . . , xn0 Z, 0 x0 , x1 , . . . , xn0 p 1 x = x0 + x1 p + + xn0 pn0 .
. x0 + x1 p + + xn0 pn0 p- x
hxn0 . . . x1 x0 ip . x0 , x1 , . . . , xn0 p- x.
: n0 Z, n0 0 pn0 x < pn0 +1 .
x
x0 = x p[ xp ], x1 = [ xp ] p[ px2 ] , , xn = [ pxn ] p[ pn+1
] n N.
[] 2, 16, 354, 10385; ,
.
2. ,

7
16

31
32

3. 0, 34239 , h0, 01201 i3 , h0, 101 i2 . , 13


150
.
4. p N, p 2 x, y [0, 1). n N n- p-
x, y , |x y| < p1n .
5. p N, p 2 x [0, 1). sn n- p- x,
p- x sn , pn (x sn );
6. p N, p 2 x, y [0, 1).
[] x+y < 1, x+y
x, y n- p- < p2n .
[] xy <

2
pn

1
p2n

7. p N, p 2 p- k.
[0, 1) n- p- k
pn1 [a, b).
; ;
: n = 1, 2, 3, 4.

8. 2 1 .
9. p N, p 2 x [0, 1). p- x 0
x = m
, m Z, n N, 0 m < n, gcd(m, n) = 1
n
n p.
10. p- . (pn ) N pn 2
n N.
[] (an ) Z 0 an
pn 1an n N
an = pn 1. +
n=1 p1 pn
[0, 1).
[] x [0, 1) (an ) Z 0
a
n pn 1 n N, an = pn 1 x =

+
an
n=1 p1 pn . , (an )
an = [p1 pn x] pn [p1 pn1 x] n N.

333

8.4 .
+
Cauchy.

n=1 xn > 0 n0 N
n




k=m+1 xk = |xm+1 + + xn | < m, n N, n > m n0 .

. sn = x1 + + xn n N. +
n=1 xn
(sn ) , , (sn ) Cauchy.
(sn ) Cauchy > 0 n0 N
|xm+1 + + xn | = |(x1 + + xn ) (x1 + + xm )| = |sn sm | <
n, m N, n > m n0 .

+

Cauchy :
n=1 xn
n
limm,n+ k=m+1 xk = 0.

1
. +
n=1 n .
1
, m, n N, m < n, m+1 + + n1 n1 + + n1 = nm
.
n
+ 1
1
n=1 n . n0 N | m+1 + + n1 | < 12
1
1
m, n N, n > m n0 . | m+1
+ + 2m
| < 12 m N, m n0 .
1
1
1
1
+ + 2m
| = m+1
+ + 2m
2mm
= 12 .
, | m+1
2m
+ 1
n=1 n , , - , +.

2.5 2 2.8.
8.4.1

+
.

( - )
n=1 xn
+
+
|x
|

,
,

n
n=1
n=1 |xn | < +.
. x x+ = |x|+x
x =
2

x x - x.

|x|x
2

. x+ -

, 3+ = 3 3 = 0, (3)+ = 0 (3) = 3 0+ = 0
0 = 0.
:
x+ + x = |x|,

x+ x = x, 0 x+ |x|, 0 x |x|.

. +
n=1 xn ,
+ +

|xn |.
xn
n=1

n=1

+
.
n=1 |xn | . > 0. Cauchy, n0 N |xm+1 | + + |xn | < , ,
|x
+ + xn | |xm+1 | + + |xn | < m, n N, n > m n0 .
m+1
+
n=1 xn .
+
+
|x
|

|x
|

|x
|

N,

n
n
n
n
n=1 xn
n=1
+ +
+


|x
|.

x
|x
|
,
,
n
n
n=1 n
n=1
+ +
n=1
+

|x
.
n | .
n=1 xn
n=1
334

xn .
n=1
+
n=1
xn
+
n=1

xn =

xn = xn + xn n N,
+

n=1 (xn

xn ) =

+
n=1

xn +

+
n=1

xn .

,
+ + + + + + +



+

n=1 xn =
n=1 xn
n=1 xn
n=1 xn
n=1 xn
+ + + +

= n=1 xn + n=1 xn = n=1 (xn + + xn ) = +


n=1 |xn |.


+

+
n=1 xn
n=1 |xn | |x1 + x2 | |x1 | + |x2 |,
|x1 + x2 + x3 | |x1 | + |x2 | + |x3 | ,
.

(1)n1
. ,
. 1. +
n=1
n2
+ (1)n1 + 1
2 =
n=1
n=1 n2 .
n

(1)n1

2. . +
n=1
n
+ (1)n1
+ 1
, n=1 | n | = n=1 n = +.
+

8.11.
1.

|x
|

yn ,

n
n
n=1
+
+
+


x

,
,
.
,

n=1 n
n=1 yn .
( |xn | ) n=1 n
2. yn > 0 n N yn , ,

+
. +
n=1 yn ,
n=1 xn , ,
.

+
. 1.
+

n=1 yn ,
n=1 |xn | ,


+
+
+
+


n=1 xn
n=1 xn
n=1 |xn |
n=1 yn .
2. 8.7 .

8.7 ,
+
+
n=1 |xn |
n=1 xn . ,
+
n=1 xn .
(2)n

(2)n
n n = n2n n = ( 2 )n 1 n ,
. +

n
n
n=1 3 +2
3 +2
3 +2
3
1+(2/3)
+ 2 n

+ (2)n
(2)n
2 n
| 3n +2n |/( 3 ) 1. n=1 ( 3 ) , n=1 3n +2n
, , .
8.4.2

. +
n=1 xn .

(1)n1

. , , +
n=1
n
, , .
. .
- .
.
,
() :
335


. 8.1 , ,
0. ,

0+1
1
. , n=1 n2 +
n=1 n
0, .
.
2)
0. ,
: 1/(n
1/n

.
8.7. , ,
.
-
: - .

. , , 0 , ,
. ,

(1)n1
1
. , +
+
n=1
n=1 n .
n
. , ,
.

.
.
( ) ,
, . ,
:
, ,
, .
-
,
. ,
8.7
8.11 ,
.
- (, ,
- ). ,
, : Dirichlet Abel ,
, .
Abel. (an ), (bn ) sn = a1 + +an .
n, m N, n > m
n
n
k=m+1 sk (bk bk+1 ) + sn bn+1 sm bm+1 .
k=m+1 ak bk =
.
n
k=m+1

ak bk =
=
=
=

n
n
k=m+1 sk1 bk
k=m+1 sk bk
k=m+1 (sk sk1 )bk =
n1
n
sk bk k=m sk bk+1
n
k=m+1
n
k=m+1 sk bk+1 + sn bn+1 sm bm+1
k=m+1 sk bk
n
k=m+1 sk (bk bk+1 ) + sn bn+1 sm bm+1 .
n

336

Abel
n
n
k=m+1 ak bk
k=m+1 sk (bk bk+1 )+sn bn+1 sm bm+1 . ak
sk bk bk bk+1 .
sn bn+1 , sm bm+1 .
Dirichlet. (an ), (bn ) sn = a1 + + an

n N. (bn ) , bn 0 (sn ) ,
+
n=1 an bn .
. M |sn | M n N. , (bn )
0, bn 0 n N.
> 0. n0 N bn 2M+1 n N, n n0 . ,
n, m N, n > m n0
n
n


=

a
b
s
(b

b
)
+
s
b

s
b
k
k
k
k
k+1
n
n+1
m
m+1
k=m+1
n k=m+1
k=m+1 |sk |(bk bk+1 ) + |sn |bn+1 + |sm |bm+1

M nk=m+1 (bk bk+1 ) + M bn+1 + M bm+1


= M (bm+1 bn+1 ) + M bn+1 + M bm+1 = 2M bm+1

+
n=1

2M
2M +1

< .

an bn .

Abel. (an ), (bn )


sn = a1 + + an
+
n
N. (bn ) n=1 an ,
+
n=1 an bn .
.
(bn ) , bn b. Dirichlet,
+
a
(b
n=1 n n b) . an bn = an (bn b) + an b n N,
+
+
+
+
+
n=1 an .
n=1 an (bn b) + b
n=1 an b =
n=1 an (bn b) +
n=1 an bn =

. (bn ) bn 0,
+
n1
bn = b1 b2 + b3 b4 + .
n=1 (1)
{
n
0, n
. k=1 (1)k1 =
, Dirichlet,
1, n

n1
bn .
+
n=1 (1)
+ (1)n1
. n=1
, 0 < p 1.
np
.

(1)n1
(1)n1

= 1 21 + 13 14 + +
=
+
n=1
n=1
n
n
1
1
1
1 2 + 3 4 + . .

337

8.4.3

,
, - : , ,
, . ,
( ),
. ,
.

d Alembert.
xn 6= 0 n N.
< 1, + xn .
1. lim xxn+1
n
xn+1
n=1


2. lim xn > 1, +
x .
xn+1
xn+1 n=1 n





3. lim xn 1 lim xn , +
n=1 xn .


< a < 1.
. 1. a lim xxn+1
xnn+1
n0 N xn | a n N, n n0 . |xn0 +1 | a|xn0 |,
|x

|xn0 +2 | a|xn0 +1 | a2 |xn0 | , , |xn | ann0 |xn0 | = ann00 an n N, n n0 .

0 a < 1, +
an , +
n=n
n=n0 |xn | .
0
+
n=1 |xn | .


1 n N, n n0 . ,
2. n0 N xxn+1
n
|xn | |x
n1 | |xn0 | > 0 n N, n n0 . , xn 0 , ,
+
n=1 xn .
1/(n+1)

+ 1
+ 1
2

1 1/(n+1)
1. H
3.
n=1 n2
n=1 n
1/n
1/n2
.


Cauchy. 1. lim n |xn | < 1, +
n=1 xn .

+
n
2. lim |xn | > 1, n=1 xn .

3. lim n |xn | = 1, +
n=1 xn .

. 1. a lim n
|xn | < a < 1.
n
n0 N
|xn | a , , |xn |
an n N, n n0 .

+
0 a < 1, n=n0 an , +
n=n0 |xn | .
+
n=1
|xn | .

n
2. |xn | > 1 , , |xn | > 1 n N. , xn 0,
+
n=1 xn .

+ 1

1
1
n
n

3. +
|
| n12 | 1.
n=1 n2
n=1 n
n
.
+
.

n=1 xn ,

xn+1
n

limn+ xn , limn+ |xn | . , 3 , lim = lim = lim.

an
. 1. +
n=1 n .
. a = 0, , , . a 6= 0,
n+1

= |a| n |a|. , 0 < |a| < 1, , |a| > 1,
a an/(n+1)
/n
n+1
.

n
|a|
. n | an | =
n n |a|. , |a| < 1,
, |a| > 1, .
338


1
|a| = 1, . a = 1, +
n=1 n ,
+ (1)n
. a = 1, n=1 n , .

an
+
n=1 n 1 a < 1
1 < a < 1.

an
2. +
n=1 n2 .
. a = 0, , , . a 6= 0,
n+1
2
= |a| n2 2 |a|. , 0 < |a| < 1, ,
a an/(n+1)
2
/n
(n+1)
|a| > 1 .

|a|
. n | an2 | = (
n n)2 |a|. , |a| < 1,
, |a| > 1, .

1
|a| = 1, . a = 1, +
n=1 n2 ,
+ (1)n
. a = 1, n=1 n2 , , ,

an
. +
n=1 n2 |a| 1 |a| > 1.

an
. a = 0, .
3. +
n=0
n!
an+1 /(n+1)!
|a|
a 6= 0, an /n! = n+1
0 < 1. a.

n
|a|
. n | an! | =

n
n!

n
n! +.
n

3 2.5.
n
n
. n N , n! = 1 n2 ( n2 + 1) n ( n2 + 1) n ( n2 + 1) 2 ( n+1
)2 ,
2

n+1
n+1
n n! n+1
. n N , n! = 1 n1
n n+1
n ( n+1
) 2
2
2
2
2
2

n
n
n
n
n+1
n+1
2 ,
n!

n!

n! +.
( n+1
)
.

N,

2
2
2

+ an
n
n n! +, n | an! | 0 < 1,
n=0 n!

.
+ an

n=0 n! 8.5.2 ,
, 10. a = 1
e.

, ,
+
n=1 xn , xn 6= 0 n N.
. ,
, - 27 -

. , , ,
.
.
1. .
+ 3 n + n! + 3n + 2n n! + 3n n! + en (n+1)! + 258(3n1)
, n=1 159(4n3) ,
n=1 3n ,
n=1 n e ,
n=1 n! ,
n=1 nn ,
n=1 nn ,
n=1
nn
+ (n!)2 + 4n (n!)2 + 9n n!(3n)! + 10n n!(3n)!
, n=1 (4n)! .
n=1 (2n)! ,
n=1 (2n)! ,
n=1
(4n)!
2.




+n+1
+
+
+ 2n
+ 3 n
+ n
n1 2n
n3
n
n
( 2n1 ) ,
.
n=1 nn ,
n=1 ( n+1 ) ,
n=1 en ,
n=1 n 2 ,
n=1 ( n 1) ,
+ n=1

n
2
+
+ n n n
n
n2
n=1 ( n n+1)n ,
n=1 ( n n+1)n ,
n=1 e ( n+1 ) .
339

3. 21 + 13 + 212 + 312 + 213 + 313 + 214 + 314 +


1
+ 215 + 214 + 217 + 216 + , .
22

1
2

+ 1 + 213 +

(1)n
4. . +
n=2 n log n ,
+ (1) n(n1)
+
+
+ (1)n + (1) n(n1)
2
2
n1
n1
,
,
,
sin n1 ,
tan n1 ,
n=2 n(log n)2
n=1
n=1
n=1 (1)
n=1 (1)
2n
n

(1)n1
n1
n1

(1 cos n1 ) , +
( n2 + 1 n), +
n=1 an2 +bn+c , n=1 (1)
n=1 (1)
a, b, c > 0.

+ (1)n1
(1)n1
5. +
n=1 3n+(1)n n ,
n=1 3n+6(1)n n
.
(
)

(1)n1
n1
n1 n

6. +
e (1 + n1 )n , +
( n 1), +
n=1 (1)
n=1 (1)
n=1 n n n
.

1
7. +
n=1 1+xn |x| > 1.

+
+
8. [] +
n=1 |xn | < +,
n=1 xn cos(nx),
n=1 xn sin(nx) .
[] 0 r < 1,
1+2

+
n=1

rn cos(nx) =

1r2
12r cos x+r2

+
n=1

rn sin(nx) =

2r sin x
12r cos x+r2

: 12r cos x+r2 cos a cos b =


1
cos(a + b) + 12 cos(a b) sin a cos b = 12 sin(a + b) + 21 sin(a b).
2
+
[] (xn ) xn 0,

n=1 xn cos(nx)

x 6= m2 m Z +
x
sin(nx)

x.
n=1 n
: 6.5 b
b

1
a cos x dx a sin x dx | nk=1 cos(kx)| sin(x/2)

n
1
| k=1 sin(kx)| sin(x/2) n N x 6= m2 m Z.
+ sin(nx) + log n
+
1
1 sin(nx)
[]
n=1 n log n ,
n=1 n sin(nx),
n=1 (1 + 2 + + n ) n
x.
9. .
n+1 1

1
[] 12 + 14 + + 2n
1 2x
dx = log n + 1 n N. ,
1
1 + x ex , 12 34 56 2n1
n+1
n N.
2n
+
n=1 (1)n1 135(2n1)
.
246(2n)
, 10.2, ,
Newton, 1 12 .
n 1

1
1 + 1 2x1
dx = 1 + log 2n 1 n N.
[] 1 + 13 + + 2n1
1
, 1 + x ex , 135(2n1)
e2n1
n N.
246(2n)
+
135(2n1)
n=1 (1)n1 246(2n) .
(
(
) +
)3

n1 135(2n1) 2
[] +
, n=1 (1)n1 135(2n1)
n=1 (1)
246(2n)
246(2n)
;
+
10.
n=1 an (bn ) ,
+
n=1 an bn .
340


n1
11. (bn ) bn 0. s = +
bn
n=1 (1)
n1
sn = b1 b2 + + (1) bn n N. 0 (1)n (s sn ) bn+1
n N.
+ an
12. .
n=1 np
p.
+ an
+ an
[]
n=1 np .
n=1 np0 ,
0
0
p > p, , p > p + 1.

an
. p1 , p2
[] +
n=1 np0
+ an
p1 p0 p2 , p2 p1 1 n=1 np , p < p1 ,
, p1 < p < p2 , , p > p2 .

u1 ++un
13. un u > 0 |x| < 1. +
.
n=1 x
14. .

(bn ) bn l. sn = nk=1 (1)k1 bk


n N, lim sn lim sn = |l|.

< 1. + xn
15. xn 6= 0 n N lim xxn+4
n=1
n
. 4 m N, m 2.
m = 1 .
+
+
16. yn > 0 n N
n=1 xn
n=1 yn
. lim xynn 0 lim xynn .
17.
(bn ) bn > 0 n N, bn 0
+
n1
(1)
b

.
n
n=1
+
18.
(bn ) bn 0 bn 0
n=1 an
n N +
n=1 an bn .

+ 2
19. +
n=1 xn
n=1 xn .
20. [] (an ) . , p N an+p = an
n N. , , (bn ) bn 0.

a1 + + ap = 0, +
n=1 an bn .

a1 + + ap 6= 0,
n=1 an bn
+
n=1 bn .
[] p1 2q + p3 4q + p5 6q + p = q.
p1 2q + 3r + p4 5q + 6r + p + r = q.
21. (xn ) yn = n(xn xn+1 ) n N.
+

[] nxn a a 6= 0, +
n=1 yn .
n=1 xn
+
+
+
y
,

nx

[]

n
n
n
n=1 xn =
n=1
n=1
+
n=1 yn .

+
1
1
[] +
n=1 n2 = 2
n=1 n(n+1)2 .

22. +
n=1 xn > 0
n0 N |xn1 + + xnk | < n1 , . . . , nk N,
n1 , . . . , nk n0 .
341


+
p
q
23. [] p, q > 1, p1 + 1q = 1. , +
n=1 |an | < +
n=1 |bn | < +,
+
n=1 an bn Hlder :
+
( +
) 1 ( +
)1
p p
q q


a
b
|a
|
|b
|
.
n
n
n
n
n=1
n=1
n=1
p = q = 2 Cauchy :
+
( +
) 1 ( +
)1
2 2
2 2


a
b
|a
|
|b
|
.
n
n
n
n
n=1
n=1
n=1
Hlder s, t
0 s|an |p = t|bn |q n an bn 0 n
an bn 0 n.
+
+
p
p
[] ,
n=1 |an | < +
n=1 |bn | < +,
Minkowski :
( +
n=1

|an + bn |p

) p1

( +
n=1

|an |p

) p1

( +
n=1

|bn |p

) p1

Minkowski s, t
0 s|an | = t|bn | n an bn 0 n
an bn 0 n.
: 21 8.2.
24.
Jensen . wn 0 n N
+
= 1. g : I R I an I n N
n=1 wn
+
n=1 an wn ,
g

( +
n=1

)
an wn +
n=1 g(an )wn .

g I, .
, , g () I, Jensen
a1 , a2 , a3 , . . . , k
wk > 0, .
25. 11[] 2.9, ,
, .
26. ;

. f : N N N. +
n=1 xn
+
+ xf (1) yn = xf (n1)+1 + + xf (n)

n=1 yn : y1 = x1 +
+
n N, n 2. +
n=1 xn
n=1 yn

+
+
x


n=1 yn
n=1 n
.
+
+
[] ,
n=1 yn
n=1 xn ,
.
[]
[], f : N N
n1
.
f (k) = 2k +
n=1 (1)
[]
M f (k + 1) f (k) M
k N xn 0.

+
y

, +
n=1 xn .
n=1 n
342

[] , , y10 = |x1 | + + |xf (1) | yn0 = |xf (n1)+1 | + + |xf (n) |

n N, n 2. , yn0 0 +
n=1 yn ,

+
n=1 xn .

27. . (bn ) +
n=1 |bn bn+1 | < +.
[] , (bn ) , .
(an ), (bn ) sn = a1 + + an n N.
[] Dedekind:
+ (bn ) , bn 0
(sn ) , n=1 an bn .
[]
DuBois-Reymond:
(bn )

+
+
a
,

n=1 n
n=1 an bn .
Dedekind Dirichlet
DuBois-Reymond Abel.
[] (bn ) . (bn ) .
[] (bn ) . (bn )
.
+
+
+
:

(b
b
)
.
,

n
n+1
n=1
n=1 (bn bn+1 )
+
n=1 (bn bn+1 ) ,
.
28.
d Alembert . 13 8.2.

yn+1

[] yn > 0 xn 6= 0 n N xxn+1
.
yn
n
+
+
n=1 yn , n=1 xn .
[]
xn 6= 0 n N

) Gauss:
(
1 + 0. + xn , > 1,
n xxn+1
n=1
n
n
, < 1.
: [] yn = n1p , 1 < p < < p < 1.

(
)
1+ 1 +
= 1 < 1 n log n xxn+1
0,
n
n
log
n
n
+
n=1 xn .
1
: [] yn = n log
.
n
+ nn
[] n=1 en n! . Stirling
20 7.3.
29.
.
: |xn,m | yn n, m N
+

lim
x
=
x

N.

n
n=1 yn < +, m N
+
+ m+ n,m
n=1 xn , , , ,
n=1 xn,m ,
limm+

+
n=1

xn,m =

+
n=1

xn =

+
n=1

limm+ xn,m .

n
+
n
n
:
n N
k=1 |xk |
k=1 yk k=1 yk ,
k=1 |xk,m |

+
+
+
+
n=1 xn .
k=1 yk < +.
k=1 |xk |
k=1 yk .

y
<
, > 0. n0 N +
.

,
k=n0 +1 k 3
+
n 0
+
n0

y
<
.
,

lim
x
=
k
m+
k,m
k=n
+1
k=n0 +1 |xk |
k=1
k=1 xk . 3
0

n 0

n
0
m0 N k=1 xk,m k=1 xk < 3 m N, m m0 . ,
343

0
m N, m m0 +
xk,m +
xk nk=1
xk,m nk=1
xk + +
k=1
k=1
k=n0 +1 |xk,m |+
+

k=n0 +1 |xk | < 3 + 3 + 3 = .

8.5

8.5.1

. x : N N R. , (m, n)
x x(m, n). x ,
, xm,n x(m, n). xm,n = x(m, n).
x (xm,n ), (xm,n )+
m,n=1 .
.
, .
. ,

. ,
, .
.
+

(m,n)NN xm,n .
m,n=1 xm,n ,
. .
+
, , m N ,
+ , sm = n=1 xm,n
, , , , m=1 sm ,
)
+ ( +
m=1
n=1 xm,n .
a + ,
a + , ,
.
.
+
, , n N ,
+ , tn = m=1 xm,n ,
, , , n=1 tn ,
)
+ ( +
x
.
m,n
n=1
m=1
a + ,
a + , ,
.

k .
, , k
N uk = l=1 xkl+1,l , ,
, , +
k=1 uk ,
+ ( k
k=1

l=1

)
xkl+1,l .

a + ,
a + , ,
.
344

, , , .
. , :
)
) N ( M
M ( N
n=1
m=1 xm,n
m=1
n=1 xm,n =

. , , .

m n = 1
1,

. xm,n = 1, m n = 1 , +
n=1 x1,n = 1

0,
m n 6= 1
)
+
+ ( +

xm,n = 0 m N, m 2.
xm,n = 1. ,
n=1
m=1
n=1
( +
)
+
+

2. +
xm,n = 1. ,
m=1 xm,1 = 1
m=1 xm,n = 0 n N, n
n=1
m=1
)
k
+ ( k

l=1 xkl+1,l = 0 k N,
k=1
l=1 xkl+1,l = 0. ,
.
-
, xm,n 0 m, n N.

, m N, sm = +
x
n=1 m,n 0 +.
,
sm m N. , ,
+

m=1 sm 0 +.

m0 N sm0 = +.
+

m=1 sm ,
,
[0, +]. , , k N, k m0 s1 + + sk = +

+ sm0 . , +,

+.
m=1 sm
)
+ (
+
+
0 +.
m=1
n=1 xm,n
m=1 sm ,
)
+ ( +
n=1
x
,
m,n
m=1
0 +.
,
k .
k N
x
, , 0 , ,
) l=1 kl+1,l
+ ( k
k=1
l=1 xkl+1,l 0 +.
, , .
8.2.
8.2. xm,n 0 m, n N.
)
) + ( k
) + ( +
.
x
=
x
=
x
kl+1,l
m,n
m,n
k=1
l=1
n=1
m=1
n=1

+ ( +
m=1

, - ,
0 +.
. m N
)
+ ( +
+
+

x
.
(x
+

+
x
)

x
=
x
+

+
s1 + + sm = +
m,n
1,n
m,n
m,n
1,n
n=1
m=1
n=1
n=1
n=1
)
( +

s1 + +sm
x
+
m,n
n=1
)
) +
+ ( +
+ (m=1
+
x
.
s

x
=
m N, m=1
m,n
m
m,n
m=1
n=1
)
+ ( +n=1 ) m=1+ ( +
x

n=1
m,n
m,n
m=1
n=1
m=1
345

( +
) + ( +
)

+
m=1
n=1 xm,n =
n=1
m=1 xm,n .
,
{
xm,nm+1 , m n
ym,n =
0,
m > n

ym,n 0 m, n N,
)

)
+ (
+
+
+ ( +
ym,n = n=1
ym,n . , ,
m,n=1 ym,n . , m=1
)
)
+ ( +
+ ( + n=1 )
+ ( +m=1 )
+ ( k
ym,n =
xm,n
ym,n =
xkl+1,l .
m=1
n=1
m=1
n=1
n=1
m=1
k=1
l=1
( +
) + ( k
)

+
m=1
n=1 xm,n =
k=1
l=1 xkl+1,l .
)
)
)
+ ( +
+ ( +
+ ( k
.
|x
|
=
|x
|
=
|x
|
< +,
m,n
m,n
kl+1,l
m=1
n=1
n=1
m=1
k=1
l=1
+
m,n=1 xm,n .
+

xm,n
)
m,n=1
+ ( +
, m=1
|xm,n | ,
n=1
)
)
+ ( +
+ ( k
n=1
m=1 |xm,n |
k=1
l=1 |xkl+1,l | ( +), , 8.2, .

8.3. +
m,n=1 xm,n ,
) + ( +
) + ( k
)
+ ( +
m=1
n=1 xm,n =
n=1
m=1 xm,n =
k=1
l=1 xkl+1,l
.
)
+ ( +
.
|xm,n | < + m N
m=1
n=1
+
+

xm,n sm = +
m,n
n=1 |xm,n | < +,
n=1
n=1
x+
+
. , n N m=1 xm,n tn = m=1 xm,n
.

, m N |sm | = +
xm,n +
|xm,n | , , +
n=1
n=1
m=1 |sm |
)
+ ( +
+
m=1
n=1 |xm,n | < +.
m=1 sm
( +
)
+

s = m=1 sm = +
m=1
n=1 xm,n
.
+
, n N n=1
tn
( +
)
+

t = n=1 tn = +
x
m,n
n=1
m=1
.
, s =t.
+
+
|x
|.
,

T
=
m N
S
=
m,n
n
m
m=1 |xm,n |.
n=1
(
)
(
)
+ +
+ +
, U = m=1
m=1 |xm,n | .
n=1 |xm,n | = n=1

+
+
> 0. m=1 Sm n=1 Tn , m0 , n0 N
( +
) +
( +
) +
+
+

m=m0 +1 Sm < 4 ,
m=m0 +1
n=1 |xm,n | =
n=n0 +1 Tn < 4 .
n=n0 +1
m=1 |xm,n | =

) m0 ( n0
)
) + ( +
m0 ( n0
s m=1
m=1
m=1
n=1 xm,n
n=1 xm,n
n=1 xm,n =
) m0 ( n0
)
( +
) +
0 ( +
= m
m=1
m=m0 +1
n=1 xm,n
n=1 xm,n
m=1
n=1 xm,n +
)
) +
( +
0 ( +
n0
= m
m=m0 +1
n=1 xm,n
m=1
n=1 xm,n
n=1 xm,n +
)
( +
) +
0 ( +
x
+
= m
x
m,n
m,n
m=m +1
n=1
m=1
n=n +1
)
( m0 0
) + 0 ( +
+
= n=n0 +1
m=m0 +1
n=1 xm,n ,
m=1 xm,n +
346


( m0
) +
( +
)
( n 0
) +

+

s m0

m=1
n=1 xm,n
n=n0 +1
m=1 xm,n
m=m0 +1
n=1 xm,n



+ xm,n
m0 xm,n + +
+
n=n0 +1
m=1
m=m0 +1
n=1
( m0
) +
( +
)
+
n=n0 +1
|x
|
+
|x
|
m,n
m,n
n=1
m=1
m=m +1
( +
) + 0 ( +
)
+
n=n0 +1
m=1 |xm,n | +
m=m0 +1
n=1 |xm,n |
<

= 2 .


( m0
)

t n0
< .

n=1
m=1 xm,n
2
(
)
(
)

m0
n0
n0
m0
m=1
x
=
x
,

m,n
m,n
n=1
n=1
m=1


(
)
(
)

n0
m0
0
+ t n0
< + = .
|s t| s m
m=1
n=1 xm,n
n=1
m=1 xm,n
2
2
|s t| < > 0, s = t.

{
xm,nm+1 , m n
, 8.2, ym,n =

0,
m > n
)
+ ( +
,
|y
|
=
m,n
m=1
n=1
)
+ ( +
|xm,n | < +.
m=1
n=1
( +
) + ( +
)
+

m,n=1 ym,n . , +
y
=
y
.
m,n
m,n
m=1
n=1
n=1
)m=1 + ( +
)
+ ( +
8.2,
y
=
x

m,n
m,n
m=1 ( n=1
m=1 ( n=1
) + ( k
)
)
)
+ ( +

+
+
+ k
n=1
m=1 ym,n =
k=1
l=1 xkl+1,l .
m=1
n=1 xm,n =
k=1
l=1 xkl+1,l .
.

1. 0 xm,n ym,n m, n N. , +
m,n=1 ym,n
(, ,
)

+
, m,n=1 xm,n . sx
+

m,n=1 xm,n sy
+
m,n=1 ym,n , sx sy .

1
2. +
m,n=1 (m+n)! .
3.
4.

1
m,n=1 mp nq

p, q > 1.

1
m,n=1 (m+n)p

p > 2.

5.
1
m n
1
xm,n = m+1
( m+1
) m+2
( m+1
)n m, n N.
m+2

+
m,n=1

xm,n ,

+ xk
6.
k=1 1+x2k
+ xk
+ (1)k1
x2k1
x (1, 1).
2k1
k=1 1+x2k =
k=1
1x
+ xn

nxn
7. +
n=1 (1xn )2 x (1, 1).
n=1 1xn =
+
+
m
n
x (R, R).
8.
f (x) =
m=1 bm x
n=1 an x g(x) =
+
+
m
n
m=1 bm f (x ) x (R1 , R1 ), R1 = min{R, 1}.
n=1 an g(x ) =
347

8.5.2

Cauchy .

+
+
. +
m=0 am
n=0 bn .
k=0 ck
k
: c0 = a0 b0 , c1 = a1 b0 + a0 b1 , c2 = a2 b0 + a1 b1 + a0 b2 , , ck = l=0 akl bl =
ak b0 + ak1
b1 + +
1 bk1
( +k a0 bk ) k Z, k 0.
+
a+
+
+
k=0 ck = k=0
l=0 akl bl o Cauchy
m=0 am
n=0 bn .

,
+
m

10. m x .
m=0 a
+
m
n
+
a
x

,
m=0 m
n=0 bn x

+
x, k=0 ck xk ,
cn .
+
+

8.4.

m
m=0
n=0 bn , Cauchy
+
k=0 ck
+

k=0 ck =

m=0 am

n=0 bn

+
.
m,n=0 xm,n , xm,n = am bn m, n Z,
m, n 0.
) +
( +
) +
+ ( +
+
m=0
n=0 |xm,n | =
m=0 |am |
n=0 |bn | =
m=0 |am |
n=0 |bn | < +.
)
( +
)
( k
8.3 +
xkl,l = +
xm,n . k=0
l=0
m=0
n=0
) +

+ ( k
+
+
c
=
a
b
= m=0 am
k
kl
l
k=0
k=0
l=0
n=0 bn . , 8.2
+
m,n=0 |xm,n | , :
+
k=0

|ck | =
+

+ ( k
) +
+ k
+


k=0
l=0 akl bl
k=0
l=0 |akl ||bl | =
m=0 |am |
n=0 |bn | < +,

k=0 ck


4
, ,
+
+
+

c
=
a
m
k=0 k
m=0
n=0 bn , , :
+
+
m=0 am , n=0 bn , ,
. Mertens. ,
, , , Cauchy .
20 10.2.

n
. 1. Cauchy +
n=0 a .
k
k
1 1 = 1 a
+ ak1 a + + aak1 + 1ak = (k + 1)a
k N .
+
1+
k
n
a

Cauchy

n=0
+ k=0 (k + k1)a . |a| < 1,
+ n
k=0 (k + 1)a
n=0 a , ,
+ m + n
+
1
k
|a| < 1.
n=0 a = (1a)2 ,
m=0 a
k=0 (k + 1)a =

+ bn
am
2. +
m=0 m!
n=0 n! a, b.
1 1 = 1 , Newton,
ak
1
k!

ak1 b1
(k1)! 1!

+ +

a1 bk1
1! (k1)!

348

+ 1 bk! =

(a+b)k
k!

k N. Cauchy
+ (a+b)k
, ,
k=0
k!
+
k=0

(a+b)k
k!

am
m=0 m!

am
m=0 m!

bn
n=0 n!

bn
n=0 n!

.
3. 10.
.
1.

+
k=0

(k+1)(k+2) k
a
2

1
(1a)3

a (1, 1).

+ (1)n
1
2. 1 + +
k=1 x(x+1)(x+k) = e
n=0 n!(x+n) x 6= 0, 1, 2, . . . , 11[] 5.3.

xn
3. x f (x) = +
n=0 n! . f (a+b) = f (a)f (b)
a, b. , f (0) = 1 f (1) = e.
[] f : R R 0.

+ |x|n
|x|n
2|x|
: |f (x) f (0)| +
n=1 n!
n=1 2n1 2|x| x, |x| < 2.
[]
13 4.2, f (x) = ex x,
+
xn
x
n=0 n! = e x. 10.

+
4. [] Mertens: +
m=0 am
n=0 bn
+

Cauchy
c

k=0 k

+
+
+
c
=
a
b
.
k
m
n
k=0
n=0
m=0
: T = +
|b
|
<
+.
sn = a0 +
+ an , tn = b0 +
+ bn
n
n=0
+
+
un =
c0 + + cn n N. , s =
a
,
t
=
m=0 m
n=0 bn
+
u =
k=0 ck . un = b0 sn + b1 sn1 + + bn1 s1 + bn s0 , un st =
b0 (sn s)+b1 (sn1 s)+ +bn1 (s1 s)+bn (s0 s)+(tn t)s. > 0. n0 N
|sn s| < T n N, n n0 . , M |sn s| M
n N. |un st| |b0 ||sn s|+|b1 ||sn1 s|+ +|bn1 ||s1 s|+|bn ||s0 s|+|tn t||s|,
|un st| (|b0 | + + |bnn0 1 |) T + (|bnn0 | + + |bn |)M + |tn t||s| +
(|bnn0 | + + |bn |)M + |tn t||s|. 2.32, lim |un st| ,
lim |un st| = 0. un st , , u = st.

(1)n1

[] +
. Cauchy
n=1
n
.
k1 1

: Cauchy +

l=1
k=2 ck , ck = (1)
l kl

k N, k 2. 2 l k l l +(k l) = k
|ck | 2(k1)
, , ck 0.
k
+ (1)n1
[]
. Cauchy
n=1
n

2
k1
zk , zk = k+1
(1 + 12 + + k1 )
+
k=1 (1)
k N, .

+ 1
(1)n1
[] +

n=1
m=0 4m ,
n
Mertens, Cauchy .

349

8.5.3

. -- : N N.
(1), (2), (3), . . . , , .
, (xn ). x0n = x(n) (x0n )
+
0
(xn ). , +
n=1 xn
n=1 xn .
n
n
0
0

s
=
x

s
=
n
k
n
k=1
k=1 xk , n N,
+
+ 0
0
n=1 xn
n=1 xn , sn , sn . sn
0
x1 , x2 , . . . , xn sn x(1) , x(2) , . . . , x(n) . ,
+
+ 0
- , , - limn+ sn = limn+ s0n , ,
n=1 xn =
n=1 xn .

.
+ (1)n1
.
= 1 12 + 13 14 + . ,
n=1
n
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1 + 3 2 + 5 + 7 4 + 9 + 11 6 + .
,
)(. )
(
1

, s3n = 1 + 3 12 + 15 + 17 14 + +
)
( 1sn 1
1
1
1
1
+ 4n1 2n . s3(n+1) s3n = 4n+1 + 4n+3
2n+2
> 0 , , (s3n )
4n3
(
)
(
) 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
. , s3n = 1+ 3 2 5 7 2n2 4n3
4n1
2n < 1+ 31 = 43 ,
. (s3n ) , ,
1
1
1
s. , s3n+1 = s3n + 4n+1
s+0 = s s3n+2 = s3n + 4n+1
+ 4n+3
s+0+0 = s.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
sn s , ,
( 1 + 3 ) 2 +
( 5 + 7 4) + 9 + 1113 6 + = s.
13
s3n 1 + 13 21 + 15 + 71 14 = 56 + 140
n 2, s 65 + 140
.
1 1
1
, , t = 1 2 + 3 4 +
(tn

( 1 .
)
)
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
, t2n1 = 1 2 + 2n2 + 2n1 = 1 2 + 3 4 5 2n2 2n1 1 21 + 31 = 56
n N. t 65 .
t < s.
+


.

n=1 xn
+ 0 8.5.
+
+ 0
+
n=1 xn
n=1 xn , ,
n=1 xn =
n=1 xn .
. : N N -- . , x0n{= x(n) n N.
xn = x(m) = x0m , n = (m)
xm,n =
m, n N.
0,
n 6= (m)
( +
)

+
|xm,n | = +
, +
n=1 |xn | < +.
n=1
m=1
m,n=1 xm,n ,
)
) + ( +

+
+ ( +
xm,n , m=1 x0m = +
xm,n = n=1
8.3, m=1
n=1 xn .
m=1
n=1
+
+
x

|x
|
=
S,

S
<
+.

n
n=1 n
n=1
+
n=1

nxn = s.
sn = k=1 xk Sn = nk=1 |xk | n N, sn s Sn S.
Sn0 = nk=1 |x0k | n N, Sn0 S, |x01 |, . . . , |x0n |,
|x(1) |, . . . , |x(n) |, |x1 |, |x2 |, . . . ( ).

0
(Sn0 ) , +
n=1 |xn | .

n
0
0
0
sn = k=1 xk n N, s0n s, +
n=1 xn = s.
+
> 0.
n=1 |xn | sn s, n0 N
+

n=n0 +1 |xn | < 2 |sn s| < 2 n N, n n0 . n1 N


(1), (2), . . . , (n1 ) 1, 2, . . . , n0 .
350

n1 n0 . n N, n n1 ( n0 ), s0n sn x1 , x2 , . . . , xn0 ,

sn s0n . ,
+

0
n N, n n1 , |sn sn |
n=n0 +1 |xn | < 2 . , n N, n n1
|s0n s| |s0n sn | + |sn s| < 2 + 2 = . s0n s.

. , .
+
Riemann.

n=1 xn . a, b R,
+ 0
a b n=1
xn , s0n = x01 + + x0n
,
lim s0n = a,

lim s0n = b.

+
+
.
n .
n=1 xn
+ n=1 x
+
n=1 |xn | = +. s = n=1 xn .
sn = x1 + + xn Sn = |x1 | + + |xn | n N.
xn y1 0, y2 0,
y3 0 . , xn z1
< 0, z2 < 0, z3 < 0
.

+
+
n=1 zn = .
n=1 yn = +,
tn = y1 + + yn un = z1 + + zn n N.

k|
n
sn +S
= nk=1 xk +|x
-
2
2
sn +Sn
n
x1 , . . . , xn , , 2 tn . sn +S
s+
= +, tn +.
2
2
+
n=1 yn = +.

xk |xk |
n
, sn S
=
x1 , . . . , xn ,
k=1
2
2
+
sn Sn
sn Sn
=
,

2 un . 2 s
n
n=1 zn = .
2
(an ), (bn )
an a,

bn b

. an = a, a R, an = n, a = , an = n, a = +.

b. an bn .
1. +
n=1 yn = +, n1 y1 + + yn1 > b1 n1
, y1 + + yn1 1 b1 . ,
b1 < y1 + + yn1 b1 + yn1 .

+
n=1 zn = , n1 z1 + + zn1 < a1 (y1 + + yn1 )
n1 , z1 + + zn1 1 a1 (y1 + + yn1 ).
,
a1 + zn1 y1 + + yn1 + z1 + + zn1 < a1 .
+
2. n=n1 +1 yn = +, n2 > n1 yn1 +1 + + yn2 > b2 (y1 + +
yn1 + z1 + + zn1 ) n2 ,
yn1 +1 + + yn2 1 b2 (y1 + + yn1 + z1 + + zn1 ). ,
b2 < y1 + + yn1 + z1 + + zn1 + yn1 +1 + + yn2 b2 + yn2 .
351

+
n=n1 +1 zn = , n2 > n1 zn1 +1 + + zn2 < a1 (y1 + + yn1 +
z1 + + zn1 + yn1 +1 + + yn2 ) n2 ,
zn1 +1 + + zn2 1 a1 (y1 + + yn1 + z1 + + zn1 + yn1 +1 + + yn2 ) .
,
a2 + zn2 y1 + + yn1 + z1 + + zn1 + yn1 +1 + + yn2 + zn1 +1 + + zn2 < a2 .
, y1 , . . . , yn1 , z1 , . . . , zn1 , yn1 +1 , . . . , yn2 ,
zn1 +1 , . . . , zn2 , . . . , ,
xn . , , s0n .
b1 < s0n1 b1 + yn1 , a1 + zn1 s0n1 +n1 < a1 , b2 < s0n1 +n1 +n2 b2 + yn2 ,
a2 + zn2 s0n1 +n1 +n2 +n2 < a2 , ,
bk < s0n1 +n1 ++nk bk + ynk , ak + znk s0n1 +n1 ++nk +nk < ak .

+
n=1 xn , xn 0 , , (yn ) (zn )
(xn ), ynk 0 znk 0. s0n1 +n1 ++nk +nk a s0n1 +n1 ++nk b
, , lim s0n a b lim s0n .
n n1 k n1 + n1 + + nk n <
n1 + n1 + + nk + nk n1 + n1 + + nk + nk n < n1 + n1 + + nk + nk + nk+1 .
,
s0n1 +n1 ++nk +nk s0n s0n1 +n1 ++nk

s0n1 +n1 ++nk +nk s0n s0n1 +n1 ++nk +nk +nk+1 ,
, ,
ak + znk s0n bk + ynk

ak + znk s0n bk+1 + ynk+1 .

a = limk+ (ak + znk ) lim s0n lim s0n limk+ (bk + ynk ) = b.
lim s0n = a lim s0n = b.
.
1. 1 +
1
+ 2114 + 2113 + 2112 + 2111 + .
215

1
2

1
23

1
22

1
26

1
25

1
24

1
210

1
29

1
28

1
27

2. 1 21 + 13 14 + 15 61 + .
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
+ 13
+ 15
18 + 17
+ 19
+ 21
+ 23
+ 25
+ 27
+ 29
+ 31
10
+ .
1 12 + 13 14 + 15 + 17 16 + 19 + 11
+.
+
3.
n=1 xn .
x
(n ) |n | = 1 n N +
n=1 n xn = x.

(1)n1
4. 0 < p < +. +

n=1
n
:
(i)
,
(ii) n kn ln
( kn , ln Z, kn , ln 0 kn + ln = n), klnn p.

352

1
2

log(4p).

5. . fk : N N k N.
k N fk --, fk (N) fk0 (N) = k, k 0 N,
k 6= k 0 +
fk (N) = N.
k=1
+
n=1 xn :

[] k N +
m=1 xfk (m) .

+
[] sk = m=1 xfk (m) , +
k=1 sk .
+
+
[] s = n=1 xn , k=1 sk = s. ,
) +
+ ( +
k=1
m=1 xfk (m) =
n=1 xn .

: +
k,m=1 xk,m xk,m = xfk (m) k, m N.
26 8.4


+
n=1 xn .

353

354

9
.
9.1

f : A R fn : A R n N. fn
(fn ).
. (fn ) f A
..

fn f

..

limn+ fn = f

x A (fn (x)) f (x), fn (x) f (x)


..
x A. , fn f A x A > 0 n0 N
|fn (x) f (x)| n N, n n0 .
,
.
: f fn
n N n.
. 1. f, fn : A R fn (x) = f (x) + n1 x A, n N.
..
fn (x) = f (x) + n1 f (x) x A. fn f A.
x
2. fn : [0, ) R fn (x) = 1+nx
x 0, n N. fn (0) = 0 0.
..
x
x > 0, fn (x) = 1+nx 0. fn 0 [0, ), 0 0.
{
1
, n1 < x 1
3. fn : [0, 1] R fn (x) = 1+nx
n N. ,
nx
1
,

2
n
1
fn (0) = 0 0. 0 < x 1, fn (x) = 1+nx
n [ x1 ] + 1 > x1 , ,
..
fn (x) 0. fn 0 [0, 1].
1
4. fn : (0, 1] R fn (x) = 1+nx
x (0, 1], n N. x (0, 1]
..
fn (x) 0. , fn 0 (0, 1].
5. fn : R R fn (x) = nx x n N. fn (x) 0
..
x. fn 0 R.
x
6. fn : (1, +) R fn (x) = x+n
x > 1, n N. fn (x) 0
..
x > 1. fn 0 (1, +).
n
7. fn : [0, +) R fn (x) = x+n
2 x 0, n N. fn (x) 0
..
x 0 , , fn 0 [0, +).
355

8. fn : [0, 1] R fn (x) = xn x [0, 1], n N. fn (1) = 1 1


..
n
, 0 x < 1, fn (x)
{ = x 0. fn f [0, 1], f : [0, 1] R
0, 0 x < 1
f (x) =
1, x = 1
{
1
, n1 < x 1
(n+1)x1
n N.
9. fn : [0, 1] R fn (x) =
n2 x,
0 x n1
1
n [ x1 ] + 1 > x1 ,
fn (0) = 0 0. , 0 < x 1, fn (x) = (n+1)x1
..

fn (x) 0. fn 0 [0, 1].


x [0, 2], n N.
10. fn : [0, 2] R fn (x) = sin(nx)
n
..
1
x [0, 2] |fn (x)| n n N, fn (x) 0. fn 0 [0, 2].
11. fn : [0, 2] R fn (x) = cos(nx) x [0, 2], n N.
fn () = (1)n , (fn ()) . (fn )
[0, 2].
..

..

9.1. , fn f gn g A. :
..
1. fn + gn f + g A.
..
2. fn gn f g A.
..
3. g(x), gn (x) 6= 0 x A, n N, fgnn fg A.
. 1. x A fn (x) f (x) gn (x) g(x), fn (x) + gn (x)
..
f (x) + g(x). fn + gn f + g A.
2, 3. .
.
..

E 1: fn f A , n N, fn A.
f ;
: .
8, n N, fn 1 f 1.
..

E 2: fn f [a, b] , n N, fn
b
b
[a, b]. f [a, b] , , a fn (x) dx a f (x) dx ;
: .
1
1
1
log n
9 0 fn (x) dx = 21 + 2n+1
12 n N. , 0 f (x) dx = 0 0 = 0.
{
1
,
n1 < x 1
, fn : [0, 1] R fn (x) = x 2
n N. ,
n x, 0 x n1
fn (0) = 0 0. 0 < x 1, fn (x) = x1 n [ x1 ] + 1 > x1 ,
..
1
,
{ fn (x) x . fn f [0, 1], f : [0, 1] R
1
, 0 < x 1
f (x) = x
, n N, fn , ,
0, x = 0
[0, 1] f [0, 1] [0, 1].
..

E 3: fn f A , n N, fn
..
A. f A , , fn 0 f 0 A ;
: .
..
2, fn 0 [0, +). H 0 .
356

fn 0 (x) =

1
(1+nx)2

x [0, +), n N, fn 0 (0) = 1 1 , x > 0,

fn0 (x) { 0. , fn 0 g [0, +), g : [0, +) R


0, x > 0
..
g(x) =
fn 0 00 = 0 [0, +).
1, x = 0
8, n N, fn 1 f
1.
10 fn 0 (x) = cos(nx) x [0, 2], n N ,
11, (fn0 ) [0, 2].
..

,
. , , .
.
2

nx
n x
1. fn (x) = 1+n
2 x2 , gn (x) = 1+n2 x2 x n N. (fn ),
(gn ) f , g R. f , g.

2. fn (x) = nx [ nx ] x 6= 0, n N. (fn ) f
R \ {0}. f .
3. fn (x) = nx [ nx ] x 6= 0, n N.
..

[] fn 0 (0, +).
[] , A R \ {0} , (fn )
A.
{
min{nx, 1},
x 0
4. fn (x) =
n N. (fn )
max{nx, 1}, x < 0
f R \ {0}. f .
{
1, x [a, b] Q
5. f : [a, b] R, f (x) =
.
0, x [a, b] \ Q
[a,{b] Q = {rn | n N} [a, b] Q , n N, fn : [a, b] R
1, x = rk k = 1, . . . , n
fn (x) =
0, x = rk k = n + 1, n + 2, . . . x [a, b] \ Q
..

fn f [a, b]. , n N, fn [a, b];

9.2

. f, g : A R. f , g A,
kf gkA , kf gkA = sup{|f (x) g(x)| | x A}.
{|f (x) g(x)| | x A} -. ,
kf gkA , , , kf gkA = +. ,
kf gkA 0 |f (x) g(x)| 0 x A. 0 kf gkA +.
. 1. f, g : [0, 1] R f (x) = x, g(x) = x2 x [0, 1].
|f (x) g(x)| = |x x2 | = x x2 x [0, 1]
357

x x2 [0, 1]

1
4

. kf gk[0,1] = sup{x x2 | x [0, 1]} = 41 .


2

x
x
2. f, g : R R f (x) = 1+x
2 , g(x) = 0 x. |f (x) g(x)| = 1+x2
2
2
x
x
x. 1+x
2 < 1 x, 1 { 1+x2 | x R}.
x2
x2
limx 1+x
2 = 1, , u < 1, 1+x2 > u .
x2
x2
u < 1 { 1+x
2 | x R} kf gkR = sup{ 1+x2 | x R} = 1.
3. f, g : R R f (x) = x, g(x) = 1 x. |f (x) g(x)| = |x 1|
x. limx |x 1| = +, , u, |x 1| > u
. u {|x 1| | x R} , ,
kf gkR = sup{|x 1| | x R} = +.

. .
1. xn x. , > 0 n0 N |xn x| <
n N, n n0 . > 0 n0 N |xn x|
n N, n n0 . , > 0 n0 N
|xn x| n N, n n0 . > 0 n0 N
|xn x| 2 n N, n n0 . > 0 n0 N
|xn x| < n N, n n0 , , xn x.
xn x , , |xn x| <
|xn x| . 9 2.2.
2. sup B u. u B, b u
b B. , b u b B. u B ,
sup B B, sup B u. sup B u
b u b B. 11 1.5.
f : A R
0 : A R, kf kA = sup{|f (x)| | x A}.
9.2. f, g : A R R. :
1. kf kA = 0 f A.
2. kf + gkA kf kA + kgkA .
3. kf kA = ||kf kA .
4. kf gkA kf kA kgkA .
. 1. f = 0 A, |f (x)| = 0 x A, kf kA = 0. ,
kf kA = 0. |f (x)| 0 , , f (x) = 0 x A.
2. x A |f (x) + g(x)| |f (x)| + |g(x)| kf kA + kgkA . kf + gkA
kf kA + kgkA .
3. = 0, , 1, kf kA = ||kf kA 0. ,
, 6= 0.
x A |f (x)| = |||f (x)| ||kf kA . kf kA ||kf kA .
1
1
1
|f (x)| ||
kf kA . kf kA ||
kf kA ,
, x A |f (x)| = ||
, ||kf kA kf kA .
kf kA = ||kf kA .
4. x A |f (x)g(x)| = |f (x)||g(x)| kf kA kgkA . kf gkA kf kA kgkA .
9.2 kf gkA = 0 f, g
A. ,
kf gkA kf hkA + kh gkA ,
358

kf gkA = ||kf gkA

f, g, h : A R, R.
. fn : A R n N f : A R. (fn ) f

fn f

lim fn = f

n+

..

kfn f kA 0. , fn f A > 0 n0 N
sup{|fn (x) f (x)| | x A} = kfn f kA n N, n n0 .
sup{|fn (x) f (x)| | x A} |fn (x) f (x)|

x A, : fn f A > 0
n0 N |fn (x) f (x)| x A, n N, n n0 .

. (i) fn f A > 0 n0 N,
, |fn (x) f (x)| x A, n N, n n0 .
..
(ii) fn f A > 0 x A n0 N,
x, |fn (x) f (x)| n N, n n0 .
n0 N > 0
x A : > 0 , , n0 N x A.
, , > 0, x A
n0 N.
1
. 4 , fn (x) = 1+nx

..
x (0, 1] fn 0 (0, 1]. fn 0 (0, 1].

- - fn 0 (0, 1]. 0 < < 1.


1
1
= | 1+nx
0| x (0, 1], n N, n n0 .
n0 N 1+nx
1
1+n0 x x (0, 1] , , 1 = limx0+ 1+n1 0 x ,
.
1
, kfn 0k(0,1] = kfn k(0,1] . x (0, 1] | 1+nx
|=
1
1
1
< 1, 1 {| 1+nx | | x (0, 1]}. limx0+ 1+nx = 1,
1+nx
1
, u < 1, 1+nx
> u 0. u < 1
1
1
| | x (0, 1]} = 1.
{| 1+nx | | x (0, 1]} , , kfn k(0,1] = sup{| 1+nx
kfn k(0,1] 0.

kf gkA |f (x) g(x)| x A


g(x) f (x) g(x) + x A f
g g + , ,
g 2.

fn f A > 0 fn
n N , 2
f .
..

. 4 , fn 0
(0, 1]. fn , , > 0,
0 < < 1,

0 2. fn 0 (0, 1].
.
359

. 1. kfn f kA =

1
n

2. kfn k[0,+) =

1
n

3. kfn k[0,1] =

n N. fn 6 0 [0, 1].

1
2

n N. fn f A.

n N. fn 0 [0, +).

4. kfn k(0,1] = 1 n N. fn 6 0 (0, 1].

5. kfn kR = + n N. fn 6 0 R.

6. kfn k(1,+) = 1 n N. fn 6 0 (1, +).


7. kfn k[0,+) =

1
n

n N. fn 0 [0, +).

8. kfn f k[0,1] = 1 n N. fn 6 f [0, 1].

9. kfn k[0,1] = n n N. fn 6 0 [0, 1].

10. kfn k[0,2] = n1 n N. fn 0 [0, 2].


11. 9.3, (fn ) R.

..

9.3. fn f A, fn f A. ,
.
. x A |fn (x) f (x)| kfn f kA n N. ,
x A, |fn (x) f (x)| 0 , , fn (x) f (x).
9.3,
, , (fn ) A.
..
f fn f A. , x A
(fn (x)). , , x A ,
, (fn (x)), f (x)

f A. fn f A,
kfn f kA n N.
. fn : A R n N. (fn )
A M kfn kA M n N ,
, M |fn (x)| M x A, n N.

9.4. , fn f gn g A.

1. B A, fn f B.

2. fn + gn f + g A.

3. (fn ), ((gn )) A, fn gn f g A.

4. (fn ), g1n A, fgnn fg A.


. 1. kfn f kB = sup{|fn (x) f (x)| | x B} sup{|fn (x) f (x)| | x A} =
kfn f kA , , kfn f kB 0.
2. n N k(fn + gn ) (f + g)kA ||kfn f kA + ||kgn gkA .
k(fn + gn ) (f + g)kA 0.
3. M kfn kA , kgn kA M n N.
|fn (x)|, |gn (x)| M x A, n N. 9.3 fn (x) f (x)
gn (x) g(x) , , |f (x)|, |g(x)| M x A. kf kA , kgkA M .
, n N fn gn f g = (fn f )(gn g) + f (gn g) + g(fn f ) , ,
kfn gn f gkA kfn f kA kgn gkA + kf kA kgn gkA + kgkA kfn f kA
kfn f kA kgn gkA + M kgn gkA + M kfn f kA .
360

, , kfn gn f gkA 0.


4. 3. . M gn1(x) M
n N, x A. , , gn (x) 6= 0 n N, x A , ,
fgnn : A R. , |gn (x)| M1 > 0 n N,
x A gn (x) g(x) x A, |g(x)| M1 > 0 x A.
fg : A R.
Cauchy. (fn ) A
> 0 n0 N kfn fm kA n, m N, n, m n0 .

. fn f A. > 0. n0 N kfn f kA 2
n N, n n0 . , ( ) kfm f kA 2
m N, m n0 . , n, m N, n, m n0 |fn fm kA kfn f kA +kfm f kA

+ 2 = .
2
, > 0 n0 N kfn fm kA
n, m N, n, m n0 .
x A. > 0 n0 N |fn (x)fm (x)| kfn fm kA
n, m N, n, m n0 . (fn (x)) Cauchy ,
, .
f (x) = limn+ fn (x), f : A R :
..
fn f A.
> 0 n0 N |fn (x) fm (x)|
x A, n, m N, n, m n0 . limm+ ,
> 0 n0 N |fn (x) f (x)| x A, n N, n n0 .
> 0 n0 N kfn f kA n N, n n0 .

fn f A.

9.1 .

9.1. fn f A A. , n N, fn ,
f . , , n N, fn A, f
A.
. > 0. n0 N kfn f kA < 3 n N,
n n0 , , kfn0 f kA < 3 . fn0 , 0 > 0
|fn0 (x) fn0 ()| < 3 x A, |x | < 0 .
|f (x) f ()| |f (x) fn0 (x)| + |fn0 (x) fn0 ()| + |fn0 () f ()|
kfn0 f kA + |fn0 (x) fn0 ()| + kfn0 f kA < 3 + 3 +

x A, |x | < 0 . f .
. 8, kfn f k[0,1] ,
fn f [0, 1], , n N, fn 1
f 1.

9.2. fn f [a, b]. , n N, fn [a, b],


f [a, b]
b
a

fn (x) dx
361

b
a

f (x) dx.


. > 0. 0 = 1+2(ba)
> 0 . n0 N
0
kfn f k[a,b] n N, n n0 , , kfn0 f k[a,b] 0 .
fn0 [a, b], = {a = x0 < < xn = b}
[a, b] (fn0 ; a, b; ) (fn0 ; a, b; ) < 0 .
uk lk supremum inmum f [xk1 , xk ] uk 0 lk 0
fn0 .
x [xk1 , xk ] f (x) |f (x) fn0 (x)| + fn0 (x) kfn0 f k[a,b] + uk 0 0 + uk 0 .
uk 0 + uk 0 . , f (x) |f (x) fn0 (x)| + fn0 (x) kfn0 f k[a,b] + lk 0 0 + lk 0
, , lk 0 + lk 0 . uk lk uk 0 lk 0 + 20 .

(f ; a, b; ) (f ; a, b; ) = nk=1 (uk lk )(xk xk1 )

nk=1 (uk 0 lk 0 )(xk xk1 ) + nk=1 20 (xk xk1 )

= (fn0 ; a, b; ) (fn0 ; a, b; ) + 20 (b a)
< (1 + 2(b a))0 = .
f
[a, b].
b
b
b
b

, n N, a fn (x) dx a f (x) dx = a (fn (x)f (x)) dx a |fn (x)f (x)| dx
b

b
kfn f k[a,b] (b a) , , a fn (x) dx a f (x) dx 0.
, 9.2, f
[a, b]. , , n N, fn [a, b], ,
9.1, f [a, b].
f [a, b].
, 9.2 -
b
a f (x) dx -
b
b
a fn (x) dx a f (x) dx.
1
1
. 9 0 fn (x) dx 21 0 f (x) dx = 0. ,

kfn f k[0,1] , fn f [0, 1].


10 11,

. , fn f A fn 0 f 0 A. , ,
.
9.3. I, g : I R , n N, fn : I R

I fn 0 I. fn 0 g I (fn ())
I, (fn ) f I
I, f I f 0 (x) = g(x) x I.
. fn () l R.

, n N, fn 0 I fn 0 g I, g
I. g
x I,
f (x) = g(t) dt + l x I.
x
, fn (x) = fn 0 (t) dt + fn () x I, n N.
x
x

fn 0 g I , , [, x] [x, ], fn 0 (t) dt g(t) dt.


..

fn (x) f (x), fn f I.
f g I, f 0 (x) = g(x) x I.

362

, (fn ) f [a, b] I.
n N x [a, b]
|fn (x) f (x)| |(fn (x) f (x)) (fn (a) f (a))| + |fn (a) f (a)|
x
x
= | a fn 0 (t) dt a g(t) dt| + |fn (a) f (a)|
x
a |fn 0 (t) g(t)| dt + |fn (a) f (a)| kfn 0 gk[a,x] (x a) + |fn (a) f (a)|
kfn 0 gkI (b a) + |fn (a) f (a)|.
n N kfn f k[a,b] kfn 0 gkI (b a) + |fn (a) f (a)|. kfn f k[a,b] 0,
(fn ) f [a, b].
, , . 9.4
9.3 9.4 fn 0
I. , 9.3
fn 0 I.
9.4 ,
.
9.4. I, g : I R , n N, fn : I R

I. fn 0 g I (fn ()) I, (fn )


f I I, f
I f 0 (x) = g(x) x I.

. x I. > 0. n0 N kfn 0 fm 0 kI 2|x|+1


|fn () fm ()| 2 n, m N, n, m n0 . , n, m N, n, m n0
x,

|fn (x) fm (x)| |(fn (x) fm (x)) (fn () fm ())| + |fn () fm ()|
= |fn 0 () fm 0 ()||x | + |fn () fm ()|

kfn 0 fm 0 kI |x | + |fn () fm ()| 2|x|+1


|x | +

< .

(fn (x)) Cauchy , , . , x I


..
f (x) = limn+ fn (x), f : I R fn f I.
x I. f 0 (x) = g(x).
> 0. n0 N kfn 0 gkI 4 n N, n n0 .

kfn 0 fn0 0 kI kfn 0 gkI + kfn0 0 gkI 4 + 4 = 2


n N, n n0 .
, 0 > 0

fn (y)fn (x)
0
0

0

f
(x)
n
0
yx

y I, 0 < |y x| < 0 .
y I, 0 < |y x| < 0 n N, n n0 .
fn (y)fn (x)
(fn (y)fn (y))(fn (x)fn (x)) fn (y)fn (x)

0
0
0
0


+ 0
+ |fn0 0 (x) g(x)|.

g(x)

f
(x)
n
0
yx
yx
yx
, |fn0 0 (x) g(x)| kfn0 0 gkI 4 .
, x, y
(fn (y)fn (y))(fn (x)fn (x))
0
0

= |fn 0 () fn0 0 ()| kfn 0 fn0 0 kI .
yx
2
363

fn (y)fn (x)


g(x)
yx

+ 4 +

= .

n N, n n0 y I, 0 < |y x| < 0 .
n +,
f (y)f (x)


g(x)
yx

(x)
y I, 0 < |y x| < 0 . limyx f (y)f
= g(x) , ,
yx
0
f (x) = g(x).
, (fn ) f [a, b] I.
n N x [a, b] x, a

|fn (x) f (x)| |(fn (x) f (x)) (fn (a) f (a))| + |fn (a) f (a)|
= |fn 0 () f 0 ()||x a| + |fn (a) f (a)|
kfn 0 gkI (b a) + |fn (a) f (a)|.
n N kfn f k[a,b] kfn 0 gkI (b a) + |fn (a) f (a)|. kfn f k[a,b] 0,
(fn ) f [a, b].
9.3 9.4 (fn 0 )
(fn ). , (fn )
.
.
1. fn : [0, +) R fn (x) = xenx x 0, n N.
(fn ) f [0, +). f ;
.
2. fn : [0, 1] R fn (x) = xn (1 xn ) x [0, 1], n N.
(fn ) 0 , , [0, 1].
.
1
3. [] fn : [0, +) R fn (x) = 1+nx
x 0, n N.
(fn ) f , , [0, +). f ;

, a > 0, fn f [a, +).


.
[] fn : [0, +) R fn (x) = enx fn (x) = nxenx
x 0, n N.
2n

x
4. fn : R R fn (x) = 1+x
2n x n N. (fn )
f , , R. f ;
(0, 1] (fn ) f (, 1],
[1 + , 1 ], [1 + , +). .

5. fn : (0, +) R fn (x) = sinnxnx x > 0, n N.


(fn ) 0 , , (0, +).
a > 0 (fn ) 0 [a, +).
.

364

6. f, g, fn , gn : (0, +) R fn (x) =

1
x

1
n

, gn (x) =

1
n

, f (x) =

1
x

g(x) = 0 x > 0, n N. fn f , gn g fn gn 6 f g
(0, +). .
{
1
0,
x < n+1
n1 < x
7. fn : R R fn (x) =
n N.
1
(sin x )2 , n+1
x n1
(fn ) f R f

R. f ; fn f R; .
8. [] fn : [0, 1] R fn (x) = np x(1x2 )n x [0, 1], n N.
(fn ) f [0, 1]. p
1
1
; p 0 fn (x) dx 0 f (x) dx ;
.
: limn+ np an 0 a 1.
nx
[] fn : [0, 1] R fn (x) = 1+n
2 xp x [0, 1], n N.
x
9. fn : R R fn (x) = 1+nx
2 x n N. (fn )
f R. f R
fn 0 (x) f 0 (x), x 6= 0, fn 0 (0) 6 f 0 (0). .

10. fn : R R fn (x) = n1 en x x n N.

..
fn 0 fn 0 0 R. , a > 0, fn 0 0
(, a], [a, +) [a, a]. .

11. fn : [1, 1] R fn (x) = |x| n |x| x [1, 1], n N.


(fn ) f [1, 1]. f ; ,
n N, fn 0 f 0.
.

12. fn : [0, 2] R fn (x) = n 1 + xn x [0, 2], n N.


(fn ) f [0, 2]. f ; ,
n N, fn 1 f 1.
.
2 2

13. A = B C fn f B C. fn f A.

14. fn f A g : A R A, fn g f g A.
9.4;

15. , n N, fn : A [a, b] fn f A.
[] f : A [a, b].

[] , , g : [a, b] R [a, b], g fn g f A.


: g [a, b].

16. fn f A , n N, fn A, (fn )
A.
: Cauchy = 1.

17. fn f A. , n N, fn A,
f A.
365

18. f : R R fn : R R fn (x) = f (x + n1 ) x n N.

, f R, fn f R.
19. f : R R (
R f 0 R.
)

gn (x) = n f (x + n1 ) f (x) x n N, gn f 0
R.

20. fn f A, (xn ) A, A xn . f
, fn (xn ) f ().
: |fn (xn ) f ()| |fn (xn ) f (xn )| + |f (xn ) f ()|.

21. : fn f A, A yn =
limx fn (x) n N. (yn ) limx f (x) = limn+ yn .
,
limx limn+ fn (x) = limn+ limx fn (x).
: > 0. n0 N kfn fm kA 2 n, m N,
n, m n0 . n, m N, n, m n0 . x A |fn (x) fm (x)| 2 ,
|yn ym | = limx |fn (x)fm (x)| 2 < . (yn ) Cauchy. yn y.
> 0. n0 N kfn f kA < 3 |yn y| < 3 n N, n n0 .
x A , |f (x)y| |f (x)fn0 (x)|+|fn0 (x)yn0 |+|yn0 y| <

+ 3 + 3 = . limx f (x) = y.
3
22. g : [0, 1] R [0, 1] fn (x) = xn g(x) x [0, 1], n N.

fn 0 [0, 1] g(1) = 0.

23. Pn f R. , n N, Pn ,
f .
..

24. fn : [a, b] R n N fn f [a, b].


[] , n N, fn [a, b], f
[a, b].

[] , , f [a, b], fn f [a, b].


25. Dini: , n N, fn : [a, b] R [a, b]
..
f : [a, b] R [a, b]. fn f [a, b] fn+1 (x) fn (x)

x [a, b], n N, fn f [a, b].

: fn 6 f [a, b]. 0 > 0, (fnk ) (fn )


(xk ) [a, b] xk [a, b] |fnk (xk ) f (xk )| 0
k N. , k0 N |fnk () f ()| < 0 k N, k k0 .
fnk0 f , 0 > 0 |fnk0 (x) f (x)| < 0
x [a, b], |x | < 0 . |fnk (x) f (x)| < 0 x [a, b], |x | < 0
k N, k k0 . , |xk | < 0 .

9.3

Weierstrass.

n (n) k
x (1 x)nk = 1.

) k k=0 knk
n 9.1.(n1.
= nx.
2. k=0 k (k )x (1 x)
3. nk=0 k 2 nk xk (1 x)nk = (n2 n)x2 + nx.
366

( )
. nk=0 nk tk snk = (t + s)n .
1. t = x s = 1 x.
2. t,
t t = x s = 1 x.
3. t, t t = x s = 1x.
.
Weierstrass. f : [a, b] R [a, b]. > 0
P (x) |P (x)f (x)| x [a, b] , , kP f k[a,b] .
. [0, 1].
f : [0, 1] R [0, 1]. > 0. f [0, 1],
0 > 0 |f (x0 ) f (x00 )| < 2 x0 , x00 [0, 1], |x0 x00 | < 0 .
, f [0, 1], M |f (x)| M
x [0, 1].
n N, n max{ 014 , ( M )2 }
( )
P (x) = nk=0 nk f ( nk )xk (1 x)nk .
|P (x) f (x)| x [0, 1].
x [0, 1]. 9.1,
( )
( )

f (x) = f (x) 1 = f (x) nk=0 nk xk (1 x)nk = nk=0 nk f (x)xk (1 x)nk .

P (x) f (x) =

n
k=0

(n)(
k

)
f ( nk ) f (x) xk (1 x)nk .

0, 1, . . . , n . A
1
k = 0, 1, . . . , n : |x nk | <
4 n . B
1
k = 0, 1, . . . , n, : |x nk |
4n .


k A, |x nk | < 0 , f ( nk ) f (x) < 2 . ,

(n) k
(n ) k

( )
nk
f ( ) f (x) xk (1 x)nk
2 nk=0 nk xk (1 x)nk = 2 .
kA k
kA k x (1 x)
n
2

k
k 9.1.


k B, f ( n ) f (x) f ( n ) + |f (x)| 2M 2M n( nk x)2 ,
k
( )
(n) k


nk


2M n kB ( nk x)2 nk xk (1 x)nk
kB k f ( n ) f (x) x (1 x)
( )

2M n nk=0 ( nk x)2 nk xk (1 x)nk
=

2M x(1x)

2 n

2 .

, , 9.1.
,

( )
|P (x) f (x)| nk=0 nk f ( nk ) f (x) xk (1 x)nk


( )
( )

= kA nk f ( nk ) f (x) xk (1 x)nk + kB nk f ( nk ) f (x) xk (1 x)nk


2 + 2 = .
|P (x) f (x)| x [0, 1].
, , [a, b].
367

f : [a, b] R [a, b]. : [0, 1] [a, b] (t) = (b a)t + a


: [a, b] [0, 1] (x) = xa
. ,
ba
g = f : [0, 1] R g(t) = f ((b a)t + a). g, ,
[0, 1].
Q(t) |Q(t) g(t)| t [0, 1].
). Q(t)
, P = Q : [a, b] R P (x) = Q( xa
ba
, P (x) , , Q.
g = f f = g . , |P (x) f (x)| = |Q((x)) g((x))|
x [a, b].

. f : [0, 1] R f (x) = x .

Weierstrass,

4
P (x) | x
P
(x)| 10 1 4 x [0, 01]. 00
| x0 x00 | 2 10 x , x [0, 1], |x0 x00 | 14 108 .


| x0 x00 | |x0 x00 | . ,
0 x 1 x [0, 1].
n max{44 1032 , 108 } = 44 1032 .
44 1032 (44 1032 )
4 32
k
P (x) = k=0
xk (1 x)4 10 k .
k
44 1032
44 1032 .
Weierstrass n N Pn (x)

kPn f k[a,b] n1 . (Pn ) Pn f [a, b].

, (Pn ) Pn f [a, b] , ,
kPn f k[a,b] 0. > 0 n N kPn f k[a,b] .
Weierstrass :

f : [a, b] R [a, b], (Pn ) Pn f


[a, b].
Weierstrass.
S. Bernstein. 4.
.


1
1. [] P (x) P (x) |x| 100
x [100, 100].
1
[] P (x) P (0) = 0 |P (x)sin x| 100
x [100, 100].
2. : f : [a, b] R [a, b] :
b n
x f (x) dx = 0 n Z, n 0. f = 0.
a
: P (x) |P (x) f (x)| x [a, b].
b
b
b
, a f (x)P (x) dx = 0. 0 a (f (x))2 dx = a f (x)(f (x)P (x)) dx
b
b
|f (x)||f (x) P (x)| dx a |f (x)| dx.
a
3. [] f : [1, +) R [1, +) limx+ f (x)
. > 0 P (x) |P ( x1 ) f (x)|
x 1.
: l = limx+ f (x). g : (0, 1] R g(t) = f ( 1t )
t (0, 1]. g (0, 1]. g(0) = l.
[] f : [0, +) R [0, +) limx+ f (x)
. > 0 P (x) |P (ex ) f (x)|
x 0.
368

: [].
[] f : R R R limx f (x) .
1
> 0 P (x) |P ( 1+e
x ) f (x)| x.
4. Weierstrass.
[] , n Z, n 0, Wn : R R :
(
)
W0 (x) = 0,
Wn (x) = Wn1 (x) + 12 x2 (Wn1 (x))2
x n N. n N, Wn (x)

2n Wn (x) |x| [1, 1].


{
0,
a x
[] [a, b] (x) = (x )+ =

x , x b

(Tn ) Tn [a, b].


: = max{ a, b }. Tn (x) = 12 x
+ 12 Wn ( x
).

[] . g : [a, b] R 0 , . . . , m
a = 0 < < m = b g
(0 , 1 ), . . . , (m1 , m ).
g : [a, b] R [a, b]
g(x) = k (x k1 ) + g(k1 ) g [k1 , k ]. , 1 = 1
k = k k1 k = 2, . . . , m.
g(x) = g(a) + 1 0 (x) + + m m1 (x) x [a, b].

(Qn ) Qn g [a, b].


[] f : [a, b] R [a, b] > 0. g : [a, b] R
[a, b] |g(x) f (x)| x [a, b].
: f [a, b].
[] Weierstrass.
: [], g : [a, b] R [a, b]
|g(x) f (x)| 2 x [a, b]. [], P (x)
|P (x) g(x)| 2 x [a, b].

369

370

10
.
10.1

. .

. fn : A R n N. ,
s1 = f1 : A R, s2 = f1 +f2 : A R , , sn = f1 +f2 + +fn : A R
n N. , sn (x) = f1 (x) + + fn (x) x A, n N.

..
s : A R sn s A, +
n=1 fn
s A
+
..
A.
n=1 fn = s
+

A sn s A,
n=1 fn s
A
+

A.
n=1 fn = s

sn n- +
n=1 fn .
s , ,
+
n=1 fn A.
,


+
..
.. +
: s = f1 + f2 + s = k=0 fk s = n=m fn .

..
+
x A sn (x) s(x)
k=1 fk = s A
x A +
n=1 fn (x) s(x).
,
+
+
..
x A.
A

n=1 fn (x) = s(x)


n=1 fn = s
10.1.

+
k=1

fk = s A,

k=1

..

fk = s A.

. sn = f1 + + fn n N,
9.3.
+ n
.

n=0 x .
+ n
1
n=0 x = 1x x (1, 1). (1, 1)

1
n .. 1
s : (1, 1) R s(x) = 1x
. , +
n=0 x = 1x (1, 1).
(1, 1); x (1, 1), n N sn (x) = 1 +
n
|x|n
|x|n
x + x2 + + xn1 = 1x
, |sn (x) s(x)| = 1x
. limx1 1x
= +,
1x
+ n
1
ksn sk(1,1) = +. n=0 x 1x (1, 1).
371


+
+

10.2. , +
n=1 fn = s,
n=1 gn = t A.
n=1 (fn +gn ) =
s + t A. .
. sn = f1 + + fn tn = g1 + + gn n N
9.1 9.4.

Cauchy. +
n=1 fn A
> 0 n0 N |fm+1 (x) + + fn (x)| x A
n, m N, n > m n0 .
. Cauchy 9 sn = f1 + + fn
n N.

.
Weierstrass. fn : A R n N kfn kA
Mn n N ,

+
, |fn (x)| Mn x A, n N. n=1 Mn ,
+
n=1 fn A.
. > 0. n0 N Mm+1 + + Mn <
m, n N, n > m n0 .
|fm+1 (x) + + fn (x)| |fm+1 (x)| + + |fn (x)| Mm+1 + + Mn <
+
x A m, n N, n > m n0 .
n=1 fn
A.

+ . x A. |fn (x)| Mn n N,
+
n=1 fn (x) , , . s(x) =
n=1 fn (x).
x A, s : A R , ,

..
+
n=1 fn = s A.
, sn = f1 + + fn n N

+
+

|sn (x) s(x)| = +
k=n+1 |fk (x)|
k=n+1 Mk
k=n+1 fn (x)

x A. ksn skA +
k=n+1 Mk n N. 8.3
+

ksn skA 0. n=1 fn = s A.


xn
+ xn
2 12
.

. 1.
2
n
n
n
+ n=1

xn
x [1, 1], n N n=1 n12 , +
n=1 n2
[1, 1].
sin(nx)

sin(nx)
2 12 x n N
.

2. +
2
n=1 n
n
n
+
+ sin(nx)
1

,


2
n=1 n
n=1 n2
R.
1 10.1
Dirichlet 2
Abel. , ,
Abel.

372

10.1. fn , gn : A R sn = f1 + + fn n N.

1. (gn (x))
x A, gn 0 (sn )
+
A. n=1 fn gn A.
2.
(gn (x)) x A, (gn )
A
+
+
n=1 fn A. n=1 fn gn
A.
. 1. M |sn (x)| M x A, n N. ,
x A (gn (x)) 0, gn (x) 0
x A, n N.
> 0. n0 N gn (x) 2M+1 x A, n N, n n0 .
x A, n, m N, n > m n0
n
n




k=m+1 fk (x)gk (x) =
k=m+1 sk (x)(gk (x) gk+1 (x)) + sn (x)gn+1 (x) sm (x)gm+1 (x)
n
k=m+1 |sk (x)|(gk (x) gk+1 (x)) + |sn (x)|gn+1 (x) + |sm (x)|gm+1 (x)

nk=m+1 M (gk (x) gk+1 (x)) + M gn+1 (x) + M gm+1 (x)


+

= 2M gm+1 (x)

2M
2M +1

< .

n=1 fn gn A.

2. s : A R +
n=1 fn = s A , , sn s A.
s(x) = 0 gn (x) 0 x A.
M 0 gn (x) M x A, n N.
> 0. n0 N |sn (x)| 2M+1 x A, n N,
n n0 . , x A, n, m N, n > m n0
n
n




k=m+1 fk (x)gk (x) =
k=m+1 sk (x)(gk (x) gk+1 (x)) + sn (x)gn+1 (x) sm (x)gm+1 (x)
n
k=m+1 |sk (x)|(gk (x) gk+1 (x)) + |sn (x)|gn+1 (x) + |sm (x)|gm+1 (x)

nk=m+1 2M+1 (gk (x) gk+1 (x)) + 2M+1 gn+1 (x) + 2M+1 gm+1 (x)
=

2
g
(x)
2M +1 m+1

2
M
2M +1

< .

+
n=1
fn gn A.
, l gn (x) l x A, n N.
+


f
=
f
s,

f
+
1
1
1
n=2 fn = 0. , ,

f1 (g1 l) + +
l)
A.
n=2 fn (gn
+
+
+
n=1 fn l = l n=1 fn ,
n=1 fn gn =
+
fn (gn l) + +
f
l
+
s(g

l)

f1 (g1 l) + n=2
1
n=1 n
A.

(1)n1
. +
[a, +),
n=1
nx
n1
a > 0. fn (x) = (1)
gn (x) = n1x x a, n N.
fn .
sn = f1 + + fn n N, (sn ) [a, +),
sn (x) = 1 + (1) + + (1)n1
) 1 0 x a, n N. ,
( 1=
x [a, +) (gn (x)) = nx . , gn 0 [a, +),

(1)n1
kgn k[a,+) = sup{| n1x | | x [a, +)} = n1a 0. +

n=1
nx
[a, +).

10.2. +
n=1 fn = s A, A. , n N, fn ,
s . , , n N, fn A, s
A.
373

. 9.1 sn = f1 + + fn n N.

10.3. +
n=1 fn = s [a, b]. , n N, fn

b
b
[a, b], s [a, b] +
n=1 a fn (x) dx = a s(x) dx.
. 9.2 sn = f1 + + fn n N.
b
b

+
n=1 a fn (x) dx = a s(x) dx
n=1 fn = s ,
:
+ b
n=1

fn (x) dx =

b +
a

n=1

fn (x) dx.

10.4. I, t :
I R , n N, fn : I R
I
+
0
0
fn I. n=1 fn = t I
+
n=1 fn ()
+
I,
f


n=1 n
s I I, s
I s0 (x) = t(x) x I.
. 9.3 sn = f1 + + fn n N.
10.4
( +
n=1

fn

)0

+
n=1

fn 0

.
, 9.4.
10.5.
I, t : I R , n N, fn : I R
+
+
0
I.
f
=
t I

n=1 n
n=1 fn ()
+
I, n=1 fn s I
I, s I
s0 (x) = t(x) x I.
. 9.4 sn = f1 + + fn n N.
+ nx
.
.
n=1 e
+ nx
+
, x 0, n=1 e
n=1 1 = +,

x 0. , x > 0 ex .
+ nx
e
s(x)
(0, +).
n=1
+ nx
+
na
nx
na
< +.
a > 0, sup{|e | | x [a, +)} = e

n=1 e
n=1 e
s(x) [a, +). s(x)
(0, +). , n N, enx [a, +), ,
, s(x) [a, +). , , a > 0.
, (0, +), a 0 < a < ,
s(x) [a, +),
.

nx
ne
.
, +
n=1
x > 0, t(x)

+
na
nx
na
<
(0, +).
,

a
>
0,

sup{|ne
|
|
x

[a,
+)}
=
ne

n=1 ne
+ nx
t(x) [a, +). s(x)
+. n=1 ne
[a, +) [a, +) t(x).
s(x) (0, +). ,
374

(0, +), a 0 < a < , s(x)


[a, +), , , s0 () = t().
s0 (x) = t(x) x (0, +).

2 nx
+
.
n=1 n e
t(x) (0, +), s(x)
(0, +). , , s(x)
(0, +).
, s(x) = ex11
x (0, +).
.

x sin(n2 x)
1. +
s(x)
n=1
n2
R , a > 0, [a, a]. s(x)
R.

x
2. +
n=1 (nx+1)2 .
s(x) [0, +).
, a > 0, s(x) [a, +);
s(x) (0, +).
s(x) 0 limx+ s(x) = 0.

x
3. p > 0 +
n=1 np (1+nx2 ) .
[]
[]
[]
[]

[] s(x) R.
[] , a > 0, s(x)
(, a] [a, +).
[] s(x) R \ {0}.
[] limx s(x) = 0.
[] p > 21 . A s(x) R
s(x) 0.
, s(x) m
[] m N. , p > m+1
2
0.
[] 0 < p < 21 , limx0+ s(x) = +. p = 21 , s(x)
R, 0.

1
4. +
n=1 n2 +x2 .
[] s(x) R.
[] s(x) R.
s(x);
[] limx s(x) = 0.

x
5. +
n=1 (1 cos n ).
[] s(x) R.
[] , a > 0, s(x) [a, a].
[] s(x) R.

n1 x2 +n
6. +
.
n=1 (1)
n2
[] x.
375

[] s(x) R.
s(x);
[] , a > 0, s(x) [a, a].

(1)n1

7. +
sin(1 + nx ) .
n=1
n

8.
9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

[] s(x) R.
[] s(x) R.
[] , a > 0, s(x) [a, a].
2
: sin(x + y) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y, | sin x| |x| 0 1 cos x x2 .
( x2n1 xn )

+
n=1 2n1 2n
[0, 1].

1
+
n=1 1+n2 x . , , x = 0.
[] s(x) (0, +).
[] a > 0, s(x) [a, +).
[] s(x) (0, +).
s(x) (0, +).
[] limx0+ s(x) = +, s(x) (0, +).
[] limx+ s(x) = 0.
[] s(x) (0, +).

xa
+
n=1 1+n2 x2 .
[] [0, 1] a > 1.
[] [0, +) 1 < a 2.

1 nx
+
.
n=1 n2 e
[] s(x) [0, +).
[] s(x) [0, +)
(0, +). s(x) [0, +).
[] s0 (0) = +.

(1)n1
+
n=1 n+x .
[] x [0, +).
[] s(x) [0, +).
[] s(x) [0, +).
[] limx0+ s(x) = log 2 limx+ s(x) = 0.
[] s(x) [0, +).

n1
log(1 + nx ).
+
n=1 (1)
[] t(x) [0, +).
[] , a > 0, t(x) [0, a].
[] t(x) [0, +).
t(x) s(x) ;

14.
Weierstrass.
376


1
1

0 x 2n+1
2n1
x1
0,
1
1
[] fn : [0, 1] R fn (x) = (4n + 2)x 2, 2n+1 x 2n

1
1
2 (4n 2)x, 2n
x 2n1
n N. Mn = kfn k[0,1] n N

+
+
n=1 fn [0, 1]
n=1 Mn .
n

[] fn (x) = (1x)x
x [0, 1], n N. Mn = kfn k[0,1]
log(n+1)

n
N +
n=1 fn [0, 1]
M
.
+
n
n=1

1
15. (xn ) +
n=1 xn , xn
+ 1
+. n=1 xxn .
[] s(x)
A = R \ {xn | n N}.
[] , a, s(x) A (, a].
[] , n N, limxxn s(x) = limxxn + s(x) = +.
, limx s(x) = 0.
[] s(x) (, x1 ) (xn , xn+1 )
n N. , s(x)
.

16. +
xn cos(nx) +
n=1
n=1 xn sin(nx).
+
[]
n=1 |xn | < +.
c(x) s(x) R. c(x) s(x)
R 2.
+ cos(nx)
+ sin(nx)

p > 1
p
n=1
n=1 np
n
+ n
+ n
n=1 r cos(nx) n=1 r sin(nx) 0 r < 1.
(xn ) , xn 0, xn 0
n N, +
n=1 xn = +.
+
c(x)
[] n=1 xn cos(nx)
(m2, (m + 1)2) m Z +
n=1 xn sin(nx) s(x) R. , , 8[]
8.4.

+
[] , (0, ], +
n=1 xn cos(nx)
n=1 xn sin(nx)
c(x) s(x) [m2 + , (m + 1)2 ] m Z.
c(x) s(x) (m2, (m + 1)2) m Z.
: 8[] 8.4.

[] +
n=1 xn sin(nx) R nxn 0.
[] [], [], []
1
).
( n1 ) ( n log
n
+ rn
+ rn
[] 0 r < 1.
n=1 n cos(nx)
n=1 n sin(nx) R.
8[] 8.4,
+

rn
n=1 n

1
cos(nx) = 12 log 12r cos
,
x+r2

: .
377

rn
n=1 n

r sin x
sin(nx) = arctan 1r
.
cos x


[] +
n=1
r [0, 1],
+

1
n=1 n

rn
n

cos(nx)

cos(nx) = log(sin x2 ),

1
n=1 n

{
sin(nx) =

x
2

0,

rn
n=1 n

sin(nx)

x (m2, (m + 1)2) m Z

x (m2, (m + 1)2) m Z
x = m2 m Z

1
n
17. +
n=1 n sin(x ).
[] s(x) [0, 1]
, a [0, 1), s(x) [0, a].
[] s(x) [0, 1).

+ sin(n2 x) sin(nx)

(1)n1
(1)n1 arctan(nx2 )

18. +
+
.
n=1 n+1+cos x ,
n=1
n=1
n+x2
n+x2
R.

nx
19. +
cos nx.
n=1 e
[] s(x) (0, +).
[] , a > 0, s(x) [a, +).
[] s(x) (0, +).
[] s(x) (0, +).
20. fn : A R n N |fn (x) fn+1 (x)| Mn x A, n N.
, +
n=1 Mn < +, (fn )
A.

21. [] : +
A,
n=1 fn =
s+
+ A
yn = limx fn (x) n N. n=1 yn limx n=1 fn (x) =

+
n=1 yn . ,

+
limx +
n=1 fn (x) =
n=1 limx fn (x).
: sn = f1 + + fn tn = y1 + + yn
n N 21 9.2.
[] : A
+ A fn : A R
n N. n=1 fn
+
s : A \ {} R
A \ {}.
n=1 fn ()
+
, s() = n=1 fn (), s : A R .
22. Q = {rn | n{
N} Q. , n N, fn : R R

0, x = rn
1
+
fn (x) =
n=1 1+n2 fn (x) .
1, x 6= rn
R
(a, b).
{
0, x 0
23. I : R R, I(x) =
(xn ) xn 6= xm
1, x > 0

n, m N, n 6= m +
n=1 |cn | < +.
378


[] +
n=1 cn I(x xn )
s(x) R.
[] s(x) x, x 6= xn n N.
[] , n N, s(x) xn cn xn .

: s(x) = n1
ck I(x xk ) + cn I(x xn ) + +
k=1
k=n+1 ck I(x xk ).
n1
+
k=1 ck I(x xk ) k=n+1 ck I(x xk ) xn .
[] s(x) cn = 21n n N
(i) xn = n n N (ii) xn = 1 n1 n N.

nx[nx]
.
24. +
n=1
n2
[] A s(x) R.
s(x) 1.
[] A s(x).
[] s(x).

nx[nx]
: 21 9.2, limx+ +
=
n=1
n2
+
nx[nx]
. limx .
n=1 limx+
n2
[] x x = kl , k Z, l N, gcd(k, l) = 1,

1
s(x) x la2 , a = +
m=1 m2 .
[]
1 A a s(x)
s(x) dx = 2 .
0

+ an
an
25. +
.

x
0
n=1 n
n=1 nx .
[] s(x) [x0 , +).
[]

+ an
an
limxx0 + +
n=1 nx =
n=1 nx0 .
[] s(x) (x0 , +).

1
26. +
n=1 nx . x > 1
+ x 1.
. : (1, +) R - Riemann
:
(x) =

x (1, +).

1
n=1 nx

.
[] a > 1 (x) [a, +).
[] (x) (1, +)
(m) (x) = (1)m

+
n=1

(log n)m
nx

x (1, +), m N.

[] limx0+ (x) = + limx+ (x) = 1.


: 9 8.2.
[] (x) (1, +).
- 7 11.3, 2
11.4 4 11.5.

379

27. Dini: ,
n N, fn : [a, b] R [a, b]
..
s : [a, b] R [a, b]. +
fn = s [a, b] fn (x) 0
n=1

x [a, b], n N, +
n=1 fn = s [a, b].
: 25 9.2.

10.2 .
.
+
n
2
n
n=0 an (x ) = a0 + a1 (x ) + a2 (x ) + + an (x ) +
a0 , a1 , a2 , . . . . a0 () an (x )n n N.

n
. 1. +
n=0 0(x) 0

+
+ x 0. ,
n
n=0 0(x ) =
n=0 0 = 0 x.
+
n
2.
n=0 1(x ) 1
1 < x
< 1 , , 1 < x < + 1

+
1
1
n
.
,
n=0 (x ) = 1(x) x ( 1, + 1).
1(x)

+
n
n
.

a
(x

)
.

=
lim
|an |, 0 +,
n
n=0
{
1
,
0 < +
R=
.
+, = 0
, [0, ].

n
10.6. +
n=0 an (x ) R . x ( R, + R) x
/ [ R, + R].
, x = R , , R = 0,
x = .
. 0 < R + , , 0 < +. |x | < R,

lim n |an (x )n | = |x | lim n |an | = |x | < 1,

n
, , +
n=0 an (x ) .
0 R < + , , 0 < +. |x | > R,

lim n |an (x )n | = |x | lim n |an | = |x | > 1,


.

+
n
n
(x


n=0
+ |1| n 1, = 1 R = 1. x = 1,
+ n
n=0 1 n=0
(1) .
+ (x)n

n | n12 | 1, = 1 R = 1. x = 1,
n=1
n2

+ (1)n
1
+
.
n=1 n2
n=1
n2
+ (x)n

n | n1 | 1, = 1 R = 1. x = + 1,
n=1
n
+ 1
+ (1)n

n=1 n , x = 1,
n=1
n
380

n=1 (1)n (x)


n
+ (1)n

n=1
n

| (1)
| 1, = 1 R = 1. x = + 1,
n
+ 1
, x = 1,
n=1 n

n
, , +
n=0 an (x )
R [0, +] : (i) R = +,
x (, +), (ii) R = 0, x =
x 6= (iii) 0 < R < +,
x ( R, + R) x
/ [ R, + R].
(iii) : x I,
I ( R, + R)
R. , I = ( R, + R) I = ( R, + R] I = [ R, + R)
I = [ R, + R], . I = (,
+)
+
(i) I = {} (ii), n=0 an (x)n
x I.

n
. x I s(x) = +
n=0 an (x ) , ,
s : I R. s : I R
s : I R , , s
I. I .
+
n
. 1.

n=0 (x )
I = ( 1, + 1). s : ( 1, + 1) R
1
s(x) = 1(x)
.
, s
I . , ,
f : A R, I A, I 6= A, f (x) = s(x) x I.
1
, f : R \ { + 1} R f (x) = 1(x)

s. , s f ,
( 1, + 1) R \ { + 1}.

(x)n
2. +
I = [ 1, + 1].
n=1
n2
+ (x)
n
3. n=1 n I = [ 1, + 1).

n
n (x)
4. +
I = ( 1, + 1].
n=1 (1)
n

+ n
5. n=1 n (x )n . n |nn | = n +,
1
= 0 {}.
R = +

1
n
n
6. +
(x

)
.

| n1n | = n1 0,
n
n=1 n
R = + (, +).
an+1
+
n


a
(x

a
=
6
0

N.

=
lim
.
n
n
1
n=0
an
{
1
an+1
,
0 < 1 +
1


2 = lim an , 0 1 2 +, R1 =

+, 1 = 0
{
1
,
0 < 2 +
R2 = 2
+, 2 = 0
+
n
10.3.
n=0 an (x ) an 6= 0 n N, R
R1 , R2 . R2 R R1 .
381

. - - R < R2 . R2 > 0, 2 < +.


x R < |x | < R2 .


an+1
(x)n+1

= |x |2 < 1,
lim an+1
=
|x

|
lim
n
an (x)
an

n
, , +
n=0 an (x ) . .
- - R1 < R. R1 < +, 0 < 1 .
x R1 < |x | < R.




(x)n+1
= |x |1 > 1,
lim an+1
= |x | lim an+1
an (x)n
an
. .
11[] 2.9 10.3.
10.3

,
: , limn+ an+1
an
R1 = R2 , R = R1 = R2 .
10.7 10.6.
+
n
10.7.
s
n=0 an (x )
I. s
I.
. a, b I, a b.
, , |a | |b |.
, n N, fn (x) = an (b )n +
n
gn (x) = (x)
10.1(2).
n=1 fn (x) =
(b)n
+
n
n=1 an (b ) s(b) a0 [a, b], (gn (x))
x [a, b] |gn (x)| 1 x [a, b], n N.
, ,
+
+
n
n=0 an (x ) = a0 +
n=1 fn (x)gn (x)
s [a, b].
, |a | |b |, : ,
n
.
n N, fn (x) = an (a )n gn (x) = (x)
(a)n
10.7
, I. , ,
I.

1
n
. 1. +
n=0 x 1x
(1, 1). ,
1
[a, b], 1 < a b < 1.
1x

xn
2. +
n=1 n s
, [1, 1). , s [a, b],
1 a b < 1.
. ,
10.7, s
I. 10.7
382

1,
(1, 1) . ,
2. [1, 1)
10.7
[1, b], 1 b < 1
[a, b], 1 < a b < 1.
- - 10.1.
10.7 Abel
, ,
( ).

.

n
10.8. +
n=0 an (x ) I. s
I I.
. I. a, b I a < < b.
s [a, b] , , n N, an (x )n
[a, b], s [a, b]. [a, b], s
. : [a, b], s
.
I I. s
[, ] , , n N, an (x )n [, ], s
[, ] , , . ,
I I, s .
s I.

n
10.9. +
n=0 an (x) I. s
I, a, b I
(
)
b

an
n+1
s(x) dx = +
(a )n+1 .
n=0 n+1 (b )
a
. a, b I, a < b, s [a, b],
10.3.
a = b b < a a < b.
10.9
)
b
b ( +

n
n
dx = +
n=0 an a (x ) dx.
n=0 an (x )
a
.
+

n1
n
.
10.10. +
n=1 nan (x )
n=0 an (x )
1. , R.
2. I, I 0 , , , I 0 I. ,
I 0
I.
, R > 0, s I
I 0 I 0
. ,

n1
x I 0 .
s0 (x) = +
n=1 nan (x )
383

. 1. = lim n |an | 0 = lim n |nan | .


= +, , , 0 . 0 < +.
x
> ,

, y < y < x.
n |an | < y , , n n 1,

n n < xy . n |an | < y n n < xy , ,


n
|nan | = n n n |an | < xy y = x. 0 x. x > ,
0 . 0 .
0 = +,
, , 0 .
0 0 < +.
x > 0 .

n |nan | < x , n n > 1, n |an | < x. x.


x > 0 ,
0 .
0 .

+
+
0 = , n=1 nan (x )n n=0 an (x )n
, R.
n1
+
x,
n=1 nan (x)

+
n
n=1 nan (x ) . x,
, R.
2. R = 0, , , I 0 = I = {}. R > 0.
R, I, I 0
.
I 0 , ,
I. a, b
+
n1
I 0 I a < < b.

+n=1 nan (xn )
[a, b] n=0 an (x ) s

10.4, s [a, b] s0 (x) =


+[a, b].
n1
x [a, b]. [a, b], s
n=1 nan (x )
n1
. : [a, b],
s0 () = +
n=1 nan ( )
s .

n1
I 0 I 0 .
+
n=1 nan (x )
+

[, ] n=0 an (x )n x = .
+
n
10.4,
n=0 an (x )
[, ].
, x = , ,
n
I. +

n=0 an (x ) s [, ].
, ,n1
na
(x

)
10.4, s [, ] s0 (x) = +
n
n=1
x [, ]. , s s0 () = +
na
( )n1 .
n
n=1
0
I .
I, I 0 10.10
: I , I 0
, I ,
I 0 , .
n1

s0 (x) = +
n=1 nan (x )
d
dx

+
n=0

an (x )n =

+
n=1

d
an dx
(x )n

.
, , .

n
. 1. : +
n=0 x .
(1, 1), ,
10.8, s(x) (1, 1) (1, 1).
1
, s(x) = 1x
x (1, 1).
(1, 1) 10.10.
384


n1
+
10.10.
n=1 nx
, , R = 1 , , (1, 1). ,

1
n1
= s0 (x) = +
n=1 nx
(1x)2
x (1, 1). ,
Cauchy . ,
,
m!
(1x)m+1

+
n=m

n(n 1) (n m + 1)xnm ,

x (1, 1), m N.

10.9,

1
1 n
n+1
log(1 x) = +
= +
x (1, 1)
n=0 n+1 x
n=1 n x
, ,
log x =

+
n=1

(1)n1
(x
n

1)n

x (0, 2).

(1)n1
2. : +
(x 1)n .
n=1
n
, ,

.
n

n1

| (1)n

|=

nn

1, R =

1
1

= 1

1
1 1 = 0, 1 + 1 = 2. x = 0 +
n=1 n .
+ (1)n1
.
x = 2
n=1
n
(0, 2].

(1)n1
s(x) = +
(x 1)n
x (0, 2]
n=1
n

. s(x) (0, 2].



+ (1)n1

n1
(x 1)n1 = +
(x 1)n1
n=1 n
n=1 (1)
n
10.10.
+ R =n11
(0, 2) (0, 2]. x = 2

n=1 (1)
, (0, 2). s(x)
(0, 2)

1
n1
(x 1)n1 = 1(1x)
s0 (x) = +
= x1 = log0 x
n=1 (1)
x (0, 2), s(x) log x (0, 2).
s(x) log x = s(1) log 1 = 0 , , s(x) = log x x (0, 2). s(x)
(0, 2],
+
n=1

(1)n1
n

,
log x =

= s(2) = limx2 s(x) = limx2 log x = log 2.

+
n=1

(1)n1
(x
n

1)n

x (0, 2].

, ,
x = 2.
log 2 =

+
n=1

(1)n1
n

= 1 12 + 31 14 + 15 ,
385

. 11
6.4.

1 n
3. : +
n=0 n! x .

1
n n!1 =
0, R = +
n
n!
(, +).

1 n
s(x) = +
x
n=0 n! x
. s(x) R

1 n
1 n1
= +
s0 (x) = +
n=0 n! x = s(x)
n=1 n n! x
x. , f (x) = ex s(x) f 0 (x) = ex s(x) +
ex s0 (x) = 0 x. ex s(x) R, ex s(x) =
e0 s(0) = 1 , , s(x) = ex x. ,
ex =

1 n
n=0 n! x

x.

, , 3 8.5.2 .

+ (1)k1 2k1
(1)k 2k
4. , +
.
k=0 (2k)! x , ,
k=1 (2k1)! x
: a2k1 = 0 a2k =

(1)k
1
2k1
2k
n

|a
|
=
0

|a
|
=

0
,
,
|an | 0,
2k1
2k
2k
(2k)!
(2k)!

R = + R.
. , ,
c(x) =

(1)k 2k
k=0 (2k)! x

s(x) =

(1)k1 2k1
k=1 (2k1)! x

. c(x), s(x) R
c0 (x) =

+
k=0

s0 (x) =

x2k1 = s(x),
2k (1)
(2k)!

k=1 (2k

k1

1) (1)
x2k2 = c(x)
(2k1)!

x. f (x) = (c(x) cos x)2 + (s(x) sin x)2


f 0 (x) = 2(c(x) cos x)(s(x) + sin x) + 2(s(x) sin x)(c(x) cos x) = 0 x. f (x)
R, (c(x)cos x)2 +(s(x)sin x)2 = (c(0)cos 0)2 +(s(0)sin 0)2 = 0
x. c(x) = cos x s(x) = sin x x. ,
cos x =

(1)k 2k
k=0 (2k)! x

sin x =

5. -:

(1)k1 2k1
k=1 (2k1)! x

x.

(1)k1 2k1
x
.
2k1
(1)k1
a2k1 = 2k1

a2k = 0. 2k1 |a2k1 | =


:

n
2k
1
|a
|
=
0

0.

lim
|an | = 1, R = 11 = 1

2k
2k1
2k1

(1)k1
1, 1. x = 1 +
k=1 2k1
+ (1)k1
.
. x = 1
k=1 2k1
[1, 1].
s(x) =

+
k=1

k=1

(1)k1 2k1
x
2k1

386

x [1, 1]

. s(x) [1, 1].



+

k1

(1)
2k2
=
k=1 (2k 1) 2k1 x

k=0 (1)

k 2k


, , R = 1.
+ 10.10.
k
x = 1 k=0 (1) .
(1, 1). s(x) (1, 1)

1
0
k 2k
2 k
s0 (x) = +
= +
k=0 (1) x
k=0 (x ) = 1+x2 = arctan x
x (1, 1). , s(x) arctan x (1, 1),
s(x) arctan x = s(0) arctan 0 = 0 x (1, 1). s(x) = arctan x
x (1, 1) , s(x) [1, 1],
s(1) = lim s(x) = lim arctan x = arctan 1,
x1

s(1) =
,

lim s(x) =

x1+

arctan x =

x1

lim arctan x = arctan(1).

x1+

(1)k1 2k1
x
2k1

k=1

x [1, 1].

6. :

+ ()
n=0

()

k=1

(1)k1
2k1

= 1 13 + 15 17 + .

xn ,
()

()
n

n N.
( )
n m
, (
n
)
n, m Z, 0 n m. , - , n = 0
n + 1,
( )
( )
( ) 1 ()
1 + 1 x + 2 x2 + + 1
x
+ x = (1 + x) ,
Z, 0, x R,
0

= 1,
()

(1)(n+1)
n!

Newton. , -
x (
(, +).
) ()

/ n = | n
| 1,
- , n+1
n+1
1. : (1, 1),
(1, 1], [1, 1), [1, 1]. (i) 1,
(1, 1), (ii) 1 < < 0, (1, 1] (iii) 0
- , [1, 1].
.
11 6.4 20
7.3. , , 9 8.4,
.
10.1. , > 1, c1 , c2 > 0,
, ,
c2 n
n N.
c1 n (+1)(+2)(+n)
(+1)(+2)(+n)
387

.
(+1)(+2)(+n)
(+1)(+2)(+n)

= (1 +
)(1 +
) (1 + +n
) e +1 + +2 ++ +n = e()( +1 + +2 ++ +n ) .
+1
+2

, ,
(+1)(+2)(+n)
(+1)(+2)(+n)

e()( +1 +

1
1 +x

dx)

= e +1 ( +n
)
+1

, + n ( + 2)n, (+1)(+2)(+n)
e +1 ( +2
) n .
(+1)(+2)(+n)
+1
,

1
(+1)(+2)(+n)
() 1n+1 +x
dx

e
= ( +n+1
)
(+1)(+2)(+n)
+1
(+1)(+2)(+n)
(+1)1 n .
(+1)(+2)(+n)
(+1)(+2)(+n)
c2 n , c2
(+1)(+2)(+n)

, + n + 1 n,

+2
,
e +1 ( +1
)
1
(+1) 1 < 1 < , .
, , . ,
, c1 = c12 .
() n

+
x x = 1.
n=0
n
()

(i) x = 1, +
.
n=0 n
()
n ||(||+1)(||+n1)
n N.
< 0, n ( =) (1)
n!
1, | n | 1 n N, .
1 < < 0, ||(||+1)(||+n1)
n ||(||+1)(||+n1)
c2 n||1
n!
n!
n N, ||(||+1)(||+n1)
0. , 1 < < 0, .
(n!
)
||(||+1)(||+n1)
, | n | =
c1 n||1 n N,
n!
.
0, - , m < < m + 1, m = []
- . n N, n m + 1
( )
(m+1)(n1)
1
| n | = (m)(m+1)(n1)
= (m)
c2 (m)
.
n!
1(m+1)
(m+2)n
1(m+1) n1+

.
: 1
+ (I,) n > 1, I, 1.
(ii) x = 1, n=0 n (1) .
( )
1
< 0, n (1)n = ||(||+1)(||+n1)
c1 n1||
n N, .
n!
0, m < < m + 1, m = [] - . n N,
n m + 1
( )
(m+1)(n1)
1
= (m)
c2 (m)
,
| n (1)n | = (m)(m+1)(n1)
n!
1(m+1)
(m+2)n
1(m+1) n1+
.
: 1 I, 0, I, < 0.
s(x) I.
s(x) I .
+ (1) n
+ () n1
x
n
x
=

n=0
n=1
n
n
10.10.
(1, 1), s(x) (1, 1)
(1) n

x
s0 (x) = +
n=0
n
388

x (1, 1). ,
(1 + x)s0 (x) = s(x)
x (1, 1). f (x) = (1 + x) s(x) (1, 1)
f 0 (x) = (1 + x)1 s(x) + (1 + x) s0 (x) = 0 x (1, 1). f (x)
(1, 1), (1 + x) s(x) = (1 + 0) s(0) = 1 , ,
s(x) = (1 + x) x (1, 1).
I 1. > 1, 1 I
, s(x) I,
s(1) = lim s(x) = lim (1 + x) = 2 .
x1

x1

0 - , 1 I , ,
s(1) =

lim s(x) =

x1+

:
(1 + x) =

lim (1 + x) = 0.

x1+

+ ()
n=0

xn

(i) x (1, 1), 1, (ii) x (1, 1], 1 < < 0, (iii)


x [1, 1], 0 - .
Newton.
:

n1 13(2n1) xn
1 + x = 1 + +
x [1, 1].
n=1 (1)
24(2n) 2n1
1
1+x

=1+

n=1 (1)

n 13(2n1) n
x
24(2n)

x (1, 1].

n
1. [] +
n=0 (1x)x
, [0, 1]. ;
+
2 n
[]

n=0 (1 x) x ,

+
+ n
n
n
n
n=0 (1) (1 x)x
n=0 x (1 x ) [0, 1];

+ 2 n + 3 n
n
2. +
n=1 nx ,
n=1 n x ,
n=1 n x .
+ 1 n
+ n n + 1 n +
n
2
x
,
n!x
,
3.
x
,
n
nx ,
n=0 2
n=0
+ (1)n1 n n + ( n 3n ) n n=0
+
+n=1 nn2
n
+
1
1
n
n
n

x ,
n=1
n=1 2 + n x ,
n=0 2n +3n +5n x ,
n=1 (n+1)n x ,
n=0 (n+1)n x ,
n3 +1
+ nn
+ 1 2n1 + 1 2n + 2n 3n + 3n2 n2 + 1 n
n
, n=1 n+1 x , n=1 n+3 x , n=1 n x , n=0 2n x ,
n=1 (n+1)n+1 x ,
n=1 n+1 x

+
+
sin an n
a
n
n=1 n x . .
n=1 (sin n )x ,
+
n

4. []
n=0 an (x )
1
(an ) ; ( an ) ;

an (an ) ,
[] +
n=0
+
n=0 an (x )n 1.
+
,
[]
+ n=0 an
n
n=0 an (x ) 1.
389

5. (an )+
n=0 , a0 > 0 an 0 n N.

[] +
a xn 1.
n=0


+n
[] x (1, 1) a0 (1 x) n=0 an xn < a0 .
+
n
n=0 an x 6= 0 x (1, 1).

n
6. R > 0 +
n=0 an (x ) s(x)
( R, + R).
s(m) (x) = m!

+ ( n )
n=m m

an (x )nm

x ( R, + R), m Z, m 0

s(m) () = m!am

m Z, m 0.

n
7. R > 0 s(x) = +
n=0 an x x (R, R).
[] s(x) (R, R) an = 0
n N.
[] s(x) (R, R) an = 0
n Z, n 0.
: .
+ 0
n
0
8.

n=0 an (x ) R ,
+
+
00
n
00
0
00
n
n=0 an (x ) R
n=0 (an + an )(x ) R.
, R0 6= R00 R = min{R0 , R00 } , R0 = R00 , R R0 = R00 .
R0 = R00
R > R0 = R00 .
9. . 5 5.3,
13 5.5 , , 13 5.8.
+
n
R > 0 s(x) =
n=0 an (x ) x ( R, + R).
f , s() = 0 , , a0 = 0. s(x) = 0
x ( R, + R) r 0 < r R s(x) 6= 0
x ( r, + r), x 6= . ,
s(x) ;
: s ( R, + R).
k N
k .
+ s(x) =n
ak 6= 0
n
a
(x

R,

+
R).

(x )k +
n=0 ak+n (x )
n=0 k+n
t(x) ( R, + R) t() = ak 6= 0.

p n
10. p, +
n=1 n x ,
s ,
s .

13(2n1) n + 13(2n1) n
11. +
n=1 14(3n2) x ,
n=1 24(2n) x ,
+ ( 13(2n1) )2 n + ( 13(2n1) )3 n
x , n=1 24(2n) x .
n=1
24(2n)
: 10.1.
9 8.4.

390

12. .
1+

ab
x
1c

a(a+1)b(b+1) 2
x
12c(c+1)

a(a+1)(a+2)b(b+1)(b+2) 3
x
123c(c+1)(c+2)

+ .


F (a, b, c; x).
a, b, c. 10.1.
x 1
+
1
k1 x2k1
x (1, 1), 1+t
13. 0 1+t
2 dt =
2
k=1 (1)
2k1
. , x = 1.
x 1
+ 135(2k1)
2k1
14. [] 0 1t
x (1, 1).
2 dt =
k=1 2k1 (k1)!(2k1)2 x
: Newton a = 12 t2
x.
[]
arcsin x =

135(2k1)
k=1 2k1 (k1)!(2k1)2

x2k1

1 x 1.

15. Newton a = 12 x2
x,

(
)
135(2k1)
k1
arcsinh x = log x + 1 + x2 = +
x2k1
1 x 1.
k=1 (1)
2k1 (k1)!(2k1)2

+ k
n
n
16. k N. +
n=0 an (x )
n=0 n an (x )
.

n
17. +
n=0 an (x ) R .
n
P = {r 0 | +
n=0 |an |r < +} P -
[0, R] [0, R).
+
n
18. []
x (1, 1). bn = a0 + a1 + + an
n=0 an x = s(x)
+
s(x)
n Z, n 0, n=0 bn xn = 1x
x (1, 1).
[]

[], Newton (1 + x) =
() n
+
n=0 n x .
+
n
19. p, q, 0,
n=0 an x .
an+2 + pan+1 + qan = 0 n Z, n 0. x
+(a1 +pa0 )x
a01+px+qx

2
p, q.
20. 8.4 Mertens 4
8.5.2.



Cauchy +
+
k=0 ck
n=0 bn
m=0 am
+
+
+
, k=0 ck = m=0 am
n=0 bn .
+
+
n
m
: m=0 am x n=0 bn x

k
c
x


(1, 1]. Cauchy +
k=0 k
(1, 1].

+
+
+
n
m
k
(1, 1), 8.4
n=0 bn x
m=0 am x
k=0 ck x =
x (1, 1). 10.8.
391

21. .

n
+
n=0 an (x ) R 0 < R +
(
R, + R), | | < R. m (Z, )m 0
+ ( n )
n
nm
nm
, bm = +
n=m m an ( )
n=m m an ( )

m
(i) +
R | |
m=0 bm (x )
(ii) x |x | < R | | :
+
+
n
m
n=0 an (x ) =
m=0 bm (x ) .
(n)
+
nm
:
, cm,n = m
0
m,n=0 cm,n an ( )
m n cm,n = 0 0 n < m, 8.2 8.3.

n
22. . +
R
n=0 an (x)
+
0 < R + a0 6= 0. m=0 bm (x )m
R 0 < R +
+
+
m
n
m=0 bm (x )
n=0 an (x ) = 1
x, |x | < min{R, R }.

+
n
23. ,
R,
n=0 an x
n0 N an = 0 n n0 (, ).

x2n1
24. [] 1 + +
n=1 135(2n1)
s(x)
y 0 xy = 1 . s(x).

x3n
[] +
n=0 (3n)!
s(x) y 00 + y 0 + y = ex
. s(x).

2n
25. s(x) = +
x (1, 1). M |s0 (x)|
n=0 x
M
x (1, 1).
1|x|
: Cauchy.

n
26. Tauber: +
n=0 an x
1 s(x) (1, 1).
nan 0 limx1 s(x) = p, +
n=0 an = p.

n
27. +
n=0 an x 1 s(x)

(1, 1). an > 0 n N,

a
+
n=0 n limx1 s(x) .

10.3

Taylor.

n
+
n=0 an (x )
,
. .

392

. f : A R A. I A
,
+
n
n
,
) f (x) = +
n=0 an (x )
+ n=0 an (x
n
x I, n=0 an (x ) Taylor f .
1
. 1x
(, 1) (1, +). (1, 1)
+ n

n=0 x
+ n
+ n
1
1
x
=

(1,
1).
,

Taylor 1x
0.
n=0
n=0
1x

Taylor f , , . ,
6 10.2 ( 10.10)
(n)
Taylor f a0 = f () an = f n!()
n N.
10.11. f : A R, A, I A ,
, f I. x I,
n N
f (x) = f () +

f 0 ()
(x
1!

) + +

f (n) ()
(x
n!

)n + Rn, (x, ) Rn, (x),

Rn, (x, ) Schlmlich n Rn, (x)


n. Schlmlich n Lagrange
Cauchy n.
x I limn+ Rn, (x, ) = 0 limn+ Rn, (x) = 0, Taylor

f (n) ()
f +
(x )n . ,
n=0
n!
f (x) =

+
n=0

f (n) ()
(x
n!

)n

x I.

. 5.1 (7.1.

f 0 ()
: limn+ Rn, (x, ) 0 x I, limn+ f () + 1! (x ) +
)

(n)
f (n) ()
+ f n!() (x )n = f (x) , , +
(x )n = f (x) x I.
n=0
n!
Taylor .
10.2,
.
, , , ,
Taylor. 7 8.
. 1. P (x) = a0 + a1 x + + am xm
m .
x n N, n m P (n+1) (x) = 0. Lagrange Rn, (x, ) =
P (n+1) ()
(x )n+1 = 0, limn+ Rn, (x, ) = 0. Taylor P
(n+1)!
+ P (n) ()
P 0 ()
P (m) ()
n
(x

)
=
P
()
+
(x

)
+

+
(x )m . ,
n=0
n!
1!
m!
P (x) = P () +

P 0 ()
(x
1!

) + +

P (m) ()
(x
m!

)m

x.

x . ,
0
(m)
= 0, x P (x) = P (0) + P 1!(0) x + + P m!(0) xm .
n x
2. ex R , , ddxen = ex
393

n x

n N. , ddxen (0) = 1 n N, Taylor

1 n
ex 0 +
n=0 n! x .
e
Lagrange n ex 0 Rn,0 (x, ) = (n+1)!
xn+1 , [0, x]
e
|x|n+1
(n+1)!

[x, 0]. x 0, |Rn,0 (x, )| =

ex
|x|n+1
(n+1)!

0 , x 0,

1
|Rn,0 (x; )| = (n+1)! |x|n+1 (n+1)!
|x|n+1 0.
n
a
0 2.4 ( ).
n!

1 n
Taylor ex 0 +
n=0 n! x . ,

ex =

1 n
n=0 n! x

x.
n

3. cos x R d dxcosn x = cos x sin x n N.


n
, d dxcosn x (0) = 1 0 1 0 , , n = 4k + 0 4k + 1
4k + 2 4k + 3 k Z, k 0. Taylor cos x 0
+ (1)k 2k
k=0 (2k)! x .
cos n+1
sin n+1
Lagrange n cos x 0 Rn,0 (x, ) = (n+1)!
x
(n+1)!
x
,
[0, x] [x, 0]. |Rn,0 (x, )|

(1)k 2k
+
k=0 (2k)! x .
cos x =

|x|n+1
(n+1)!

0. , Taylor cos x 0

(1)k 2k
k=0 (2k)! x

x.

Taylor sin x 0:
sin x =

(1)k1 2k1
k=1 (2k1)! x

x.

4. log(1 + x) (1, +)
n
(1)n1 (n1)!
=
n N. , n-
n- d log(1+x)
n
dx
(1+x)n
n

0 d log(1+x)
(0) = (1)n1 (n 1)! n N , ,
dxn
+ (1)n1 n

(1)n1 (n1)! n
x
=
x .
Taylor log(1 + x) 0 +
n=1
n=1
n!
n
(1)n n!
(1)n
n+1
Lagrange 0 Rn,0 (x, ) = (1+)n+1 (n+1)! x
= (1+)n+1 (n+1) xn+1 ,
n+1

1
[0, x] [x, 0]. 0 < x 1, |Rn,0 (x, )| = (1+)xn+1 (n+1) n+1
0.

n
n
x (1) n!
n
n x (xt)
0 Rn,0 (x) = n!1 0 (1+t)
dt.
n+1 (x t) dt = (1)
0 (1+t)n+1
0 (tx)n
0 (tx)n
)n |x|n
1 < x 0, |Rn,0 (x)| = x (1+t)n+1 dt = x (1+t)n+1 dt. ( tx
1+t

0 1
1
t [x, 0], |Rn,0 (x)| |x|n x 1+t
dt = |x|n log 1+x
0.
+ (1)n1 n
Taylor log(1 + x) 0 n=1 n x . ,

log(1 + x) =

+
n=1

(1)n1 n
x
n

x (1, 1].

,
log x =

+
n=1

(1)n1
(x
n

1)n

x (0, 2]

.
Taylor log(1 + x) 0 ,
10.11. ,
10.11.
394


t 6= 1,
1
1+t

1(t)n
1+t

= 1 + (t) + + (t)n1 ,
n

t
= 1 t + + (1)n1 tn1 + (1)n 1+t
.

,
x

1
0 1+t

dt =

x
0

1 dt

x
0

t dt + + (1)n1

x
0

tn1 dt + (1)n

tn
0 1+t

dt

x > 1,
log(1 + x) = x 12 x2 + +

(1)n1 n
x
n

+ (1)n

tn
0 1+t

dt

x > 1.

x tn
x tn
x
n+1
1
0 x 1, (1)n 0 1+t
dt = 0 1+t
dt 0 tn dt = xn+1 n+1
, ,

n x tn
(1) 0 1+t dt 0.

x tn
0 n
0 |t|n
|x|n+1
1
1
1 < x 0, (1)n 0 1+t
dt = x 1+t
dt 1+x
|t| dt = (n+1)(1+x)
(n+1)(1+x)
x

n
x t
(1)n 0 1+t
dt 0.

n1
x
tn
(1)n 0 1+t
dt 0 , , x 12 x2 + + (1)n xn log(1 + x)

(1)n1 n
x (1, 1]. log(1 + x) = +
x x (1, 1].
n=1
n
+ (1)n1 2n1

5. Taylor arctan x 0
n=1 2n1 x
[1, 1]. ,
arctan x =

+
n=1

(1)n1 2n1
x
2n1

x [1, 1].

arctan x x21+1
10.11.
.
2 )n
1(t
= 1 t2 + + (1)n1 t2n2 ,
1+t2
1
1+t2

2n

t
= 1 t2 + + (1)n1 t2n2 + (1)n 1+t
2

t. ,
x 1
x
x 2

n1 x 2n2
n x
dt
=
1
dt

t
dt
+

+
(1)
t
dt
+
(1)
2
0 1+t
0
0
0
0

t2n
1+t2

dt.


arctan x = x 13 x3 + +

(1)n1 2n1
x
2n1

+ (1)n

t2n
0 1+t2

dt.


x t2n
|x| t2n
|x|
2n+1
1

|x| 1, (1)n 0 1+t
dt 0 t2n dt = |x|2n+1 2n+1
, 2 dt =
0 1+t2

n1
2n
x
(1)
t
1
1
, (1)n
dt 0. x 3 x3 + 5 x5 + 2n1 x2n1 arctan x , ,
1+t2
+ (1)n1 02n1
= arctan x x [1, 1].
n=1 2n1 x
n

6. (1+x) n- d (1+x)
= (1) (n+1)(1+x)n
dxn
n

n N. , 0 d (1+x)
(0) = ( 1) ( n + 1) n N.
dxn

+ () n
(1)(n+1) n

, Taylor (1+x) 0 +
x
=
n=0
n=0 n x .
n!

395

- , (1 + x) ( ) (
, ,
) 1 (
)

1 + 1 x + + 1
x
+ x .
( )
( ) 1 ()
(1 + x) = 1 + 1 x + + 1
x
+ x ,
Z, 0
Newton , , ,
, Taylor (1 + x) 0 R.

, Taylor (1 + x)
-
+ () n
0 n=0 n x . ,
() n

(1 + x) = +
n=0 n x
(i) x (1, 1), 1, (ii) x (1, 1], 1 < < 0, (iii)
x [1, 1], 0 - .
( )
n1
xn+1 = n+1
(1 + )n1 xn+1
Lagrange Rn,0 (x, ) = (1)(n)(1+)
(n+1)!
[0, x] [x, 0].
( )
(1 + ) ( x )n+1 .
x [0, 1], x 1 1 + 2 , , |Rn,0 (x, )| = n+1
1+
, a > 0,

10.1,

n
>
[]
( )
|Rn,0 (x, )| c2 []+1
(n [])1 2 , Rn,0 (x, ) 0. 1 < < 0, ,
10.1, |Rn,0 (x, )| c2 (n + 1)1 , R (n,0 (x,
) ) 0.
n+1

x [0, 1) 1, |Rn,0 (x, )| n+1 x
c2 (n + 1)1 xn+1 ,
Rn,0 (x, ) 0.
x
x (1, 0], Rn,0 (x) = (1)(n)
(1 + t)n1 (x t)n dt ,
(1)(n) 0 n! n10
(1)(n) n 0
n
(1 + t)

|x|
|Rn,0 (x)| =
(t

x)
dt

(1 + t)1 dt =
n!
n!
x
x
( ) n 1(1+x)
(1)(n) n 1(1+x)

|x|

= (n + 1) n+1 |x|
. > 0 n > [],
n!
(

1
n 1(1+x)
|Rn,0 (x)| c2 (n + 1) []+1 (n [])
|x|
, Rn,0 (x) 0. < 0,

1
, Rn,0 (x) 0.
|Rn,0 (x)| c2 (n + 1) |x|n (1+x)
||
() n

: (1 + x) = +
n=0 n x .
x = 1 > 0. , , 10.11, .
1 < x 0

( )
( )
(
)
(1 + x) 1 x xn = |Rn,0 (x)| c2 (n + 1) (n [])1 |x|n 1(1+x) .
1
n
[]+1

x 1+


(
)
( )
( )
0 1 (1) (1)n c2 (n + 1) (n [])1 1 .
[]+1
1
n

() n
( )
( )

1 + 1 (1) + + n (1)n 0, +
n=0 n x =
(1 + x) .
.
1.

Taylor ) n
+ (
+ 1 2n1 + 1 2n + n1 n + (1)n 2n
n

,
x ,
n=1 1 (2) x ,
n=1 2n1 x
n=1 n! x ,
n=0 n! x ,
2n
+ 1
+ 1 2nn=1
+ (n+1)
2
+ (log a)n n +
1
x1 2n1
n
2n1
x ,
,
x ,
,
n=1 (2n1)! x
n=1 (2n)! x ,
n=0
n=1 2n1 ( x+1 )
n=1
n!
n!
+ (1)n1 x1 2n1 + (2n)! n +

n1
2n1
(1)
2
, n=1 2n (n!)2 x , n=1 (1)n 147(3n2)
xn , +
x2n .
n=1 2n1 ( x+1 )
n=1
369(3n)
(2n)!
396

2. Taylor sin x, cos x , sin x =


sin cos(x ) + cos sin(x ), cos x = cos cos(x ) sin sin(x ),
.
3. Taylor 0 cosh x =

ex +ex
2

sinh x =

4. Taylor 0 tan x,

ex ex
2
1
cos x

, arcsin x, arccos x.

1+x
5. Taylor 0 sin(x3 ), (sin x)3 , sin x sin(3x), (sin x)6 + (cos x)6 , log 1x
,

x
1
e
1
2
2
2
log(1 + x + x ), 15x+6x2 , 1x , x arctan x 2 log(1 + x ), x arcsin x + 1 x .

6.

(1)n1
n=1 (2n)2 1

(1)n1
n=1 (2n+1)2 1

{ 1
e x , x > 0
7. [] 18 5.8 h(x) =

0,
x 0

h(n) (0) n
R h(n) (0) = 0 n N. +
x
n=0
n!
Taylor h 0; ;
{ 1
e x2 , x 6= 0
[] h(x) =
0,
x = 0

k
8. f (x) = +
cos(k 2 x). k=1 e
+ f (n) (0) n
R n=0 n! x x = 0.
9. . f : I R I. f
- I I r > 0

f (n) ()
( r, + r) I f (x) = +
(x )n x ( r, + r). , f
n=0
n!
- I I f Taylor .
[] : f : I R
I. f - I I
J I J M 0, > 0 |f (n) (x)| M n!n
x J n Z, n 0.
[] Bernstein: f : I R
I f (n) (x) 0 x I n Z, n 0.
f - I.
[] f : I R I
(1)n f (n) (x) 0 x I n Z, n 0. f
- I.
[] 7 - (, 0)
(0, +) -
0. 8;

(1)k1 xk
10. [] x 1, +
= .
k=1
k
+ (1)k1 xk
[] x > 1, k=1
.
k
11. - .
[]
( ) < 0 x 1 > 0, [] x < 1,
+

k
k=0 k x = +.
397

() k
[] > 0, [] x < 1, +
k=0 k x = .
( )
+
[] x > 1 x = 1 1, k=0 k xk .

10.4 .
10.4.1 .

.
3.2, ,
, .

+
k x2k
k1 x2k1
+
,
k=0 (1) (2k)! ,
k=1 (1)
(2k1)!
10.2 R. ,
,
cos x
sin x. , , cos x, sin x ,
.
. cos : R R
sin : R R
. , :

k x2k
k1 x2k1
cos x = +
sin x = +
x R.
k=0 (1) (2k)! ,
k=1 (1)
(2k1)!
10.10 cos x, sin x R cos0 x =
+
+
+
x2k2
x2k1
k x2k1
0
k1
k
(2k 1) (2k1)!
=
k=1 (1) (2k1)! = sin x sin x =
k=1 (1)
k=1 (1) 2k (2k)! =
+
2k
k x
k=0 (1) (2k)! = cos x x R. ,
cos0 x = sin x,

sin0 x = cos x.

f (x) = (sin x)2 + (cos x)2 . f 0 (x) = 2 sin x sin0 x + 2 cos x cos0 x =
2 sin x cos x 2 cos x sin x = 0 x, f R.
f (0) = (sin 0)2 + (cos 0)2 = 1,
(sin x)2 + (cos x)2 = 1
, ,
| sin x| 1,

| cos x| 1.

, ,
cos(x + y) = cos x cos y sin x sin y ,

sin(x + y) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y

x, y. Cauchy ,
. . y,
f (x) = cos(y x) cos x sin(y x) sin x, f 0 (x) = sin(y x) cos x
cos(y x) sin x + cos(y x) sin x sin(y x) cos x = 0 x. f
R, cos(y x) cos x sin(y x) sin x = cos(y 0) cos 0 sin(y 0) sin 0 = cos y.
x, y, y y + x
cos(x + y) = cos x cos y sin x sin y.
x.
, , cos x, sin x , ,
.
398

10.4. cos x = 0.

k
k 22k
m 22m
. cos 0 = 1. , cos 2 = +
k=0 (1) (2k)! ,
m=0 (1) (2m)! cos 2.
k 4,
( 26 28 )
( 22k2
)
k
22
24
22k
22
24
1
m 22m
m=0 (1) (2m)! = 1 2! + 4! 6! 8! (2k2)! (2k)! < 1 2! + 4! = 3 .
cos 2 31 < 0. cos x cos 2 < 0 < cos 0,
(0, 2) cos = 0. , 11 4.2,
cos x = 0.
. cos x = 0.
,
cos x > 0 x [0, 2 ).
[ )
0
[
sin
x
=
cos
x
>
0

0, 2 sin x
]
2
0, 2 . (sin 2 )2[+ (cos
)
=
1

sin 2 = 1 , [sin 0 ]= 0 sin x


2
]
0, 2 , sin 2 = 1. , sin : 0, 2 [0, 1]
0
-- (
) ( ). , cos
x] = sin x < 0
(
]
[

0,

cos
x

0,
. ,
2
2
[ ]
cos : 0, 2 [0, 1] -- .
]
[
10.5. a, b [0, 1], a2 + b2 = 1 x 0, 2 sin x = a
cos x = b.
[
]
[
]
. sin : 0, 2 [0, 1] -- , x 0, 2
sin x = a. (sin x)2 + (cos x)2 = 1 cos x = b , cos x 0,
cos x = b.
cos 2 = 0

cos(x + y) = cos x cos y sin x sin y sin(x + y) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y
cos x sin x , 3
2 , ,
2

)
(
)
(
= sin x, cos(x + 2) = cos x
cos x + 2 = sin x, cos(x + ) = cos x, cos x + 3
2
[
]
x.

cos x 0, 2 ,
[
] [
]
[
]
cos x 2 , , , 3
3
, 2 , [0, 2].
2
2
, cos x 2.
sin x.
10.6. 1. sin x, cos x
[ 2.
2
2
2. a, b [1, 1], a + b = 1 x 0, 2) sin x = a cos x = b.
10.6, .
.
10.5
10.5 : a 0, b 0 a 0, b < 0 a < 0, b 0 a < 0, b < 0.
.

. , , ,
. .
, ,
. , sin x, cos x,
: cos0 x = sin x, sin0 x = cos x x R
cos 0 = 1, sin 0 = 0.
399

10.7. f1 , g1 : R R f2 , g2 : R R (i)
f1 0 = g1 g1 0 = f1 , (ii) f2 0 = g2 g2 0 = f2 (iii) f1 (0) = f2 (0) g1 (0) = g2 (0).
. , f1 (x) = f2 (x) g1 (x) = g2 (x) x.
. f (x) = ((f1 (x) f2 (x))2 + (g1 (x) g2 (x))2 f 0 (x) =
2(f1 (x) f2 (x))(g1 (x) + g2 (x)) + 2(g1 (x) g2 (x))(f1 (x) f2 (x)) = 0 x. f
R, (f1 (x) f2 (x))2 + (g1 (x) g2 (x))2 = (f1 (0) f2 (0))2 + (g1 (0) g2 (0))2 = 0
x. f1 (x) = f2 (x) g1 (x) = g2 (x) x.
. 4 5
.
,
| sin x| |x| x

|x| | tan x|

|x| < 2 .

, , , , .
, ,
( ),
. .
f (x) = x sin x, R. f 0 (x) =
1 cos x 0 x, f . , x sin x = f (x) f (0) = 0
x 0 x sin x = f (x) f (0) = 0 x 0. | sin x| |x| x.
g(x) = x cos xsin x 2 < x < 2 . g 0 (x) = x sin x 0
x ( 2 , 2 ), g ( 2 , 2 ). x cos xsin x = g(x) g(0) = 0
x [0, 2 ) x cos x sin x = g(x) g(0) = 0 x ( 2 , 0].
|x| | tan x| x ( 2 , 2 ).
10.4.2 .
. : arctan y,
, tan x, , sin x cos x. .
.
y
arctan y = 0

1
1+s2

ds

y.

, arctan : R R
1
R. 1+y
2 R, arctan y R

1
1+y 2

arctan0 y =

1
1+y 2

, arctan 0 = 0 , , arctan y
R. arctan y R. ,
y 1
y 1
arctan(y) = 0 1+s
2 ds = 0 1+(s)2 ds = arctan y
y R.
y 1
1
y 1
arctan y = 0 1+s
2 ds = 0

1
1+s2

ds +

1
1 1+s2

ds

1
0

1 ds +

1
1 s2

ds = 1 + 1

1
y

2.

arctan y R , , limy+ arctan y


.
400

.
= 2 limy+ arctan y.
arctan y ,
limy arctan y = limy+ arctan(y) = limy+ arctan y = 2 .
arctan y ( 2 , 2 ).
. ,
tan : ( 2 , 2 ) R
tan : ( 2 , 2 ) R ( 2 , 2 ) R.

limx 2 + tan x = ,
limx 2 tan x = +.
, k Z, k 6= 0. x ( 2 + k, 2 + k) x k ( 2 , 2 ),
tan(x k). , tan x = tan(x k).
tan x ( 2 + k, 2 + k) k Z.
x ( 2 + k, 2 + k), x k ( 2 , 2 )
tan x ( 2 , 2 ) ( 2 + k, 2 + k).
, tan x ( 2 + k, 2 + k)
R :
tan : ( 2 + k, 2 + k) R
, limx( 2 +k)+ tan x = limx( 2 +k)
tan x = +.
, , tan x kZ ( 2 + k, 2 + k) , ,
R \ { 2 + k | k Z} tan x
.
, tan x
( 2 , 2 ). x ( 2 , 2 ) y = tan x R
tan0 x =

1
arctan0 y

1
1/(1+y 2 )

= 1 + y 2 = 1 + (tan x)2 .

, ( 2 + k, 2 + k) k Z. ,
tan0 x = 1 + (tan x)2 ,

x 6=

+ k k Z.

. , cos, sin : R R :

(1)k 1
, 2 + k < x < 2 + k k Z
1+(tan x)2
cos x =
0,
x = 2 + k k Z

(1)k tan x
, 2 + k < x < 2 + k k Z
1+(tan x)2
sin x =
(1)k ,
x = 2 + k k Z
, , cos x, sin x. ,
(cos x)2 + (sin x)2 = 1 x, cos x, sin x ( 2 + k, 2 + k) k Z cos0 x = sin x
sin0 x = cos x . , ,
2 + k k Z cos0 x = sin x
sin0 x = cos x , , R. ,
.
401

.
1. 10.6.
2. cos x sin x
,
.
3. (, )
6 , 4 3 .
4.
(i) cos y = cos x y = x + k2 y = x + k2 k Z.
(ii) sin y = sin x y = x + k2 y = x + k2 k Z.
(iii) tan y = tan x y = x + k k Z.
(iv) cot y = cot x y = x + k k Z.
5. : cos x =

tan x = 3 , cot x = 3 .

1
2

, sin x = 12 , cos x = 12 , sin x =

6. |a cos x + b sin x|

3
2

, tan x = 0, cot x = 1,

a2 + b2 .

7. a, b 0. p > 0
q a cos x + b sin x = p cos(x q) x.

(
)
: a cos x + b sin x = a2 + b2 a2a+b2 cos x + a2b+b2 sin x .

402

403

11
.
11.1

6
Riemann . . ,
:
- - .
1. b R {+} f : [a, b) R. f
[a, b) , , [a, x] x [a, b).
b
. a f (x) dx
x f [a, b)
, , . limxb a f (t) dt,
b
x
a f (x) dx . limxb a f (t) dt R,
b
a f (x) dx
b
a

f (x) dx = limxb

x
a

f (t) dt.

x
b
limxb a f (t) dt , a f (x) dx
x
b
, limxb a f (t) dt = , a f (x) dx
.
b
a f (x) dx .
f [a, b), . ,
,
.
+ 1
x 1
. 1. 1
dx
=
lim
dt = limx+ (1 x1 ) = 1. ,
x+
2
1 t2
+ 1 x
1
dx 1.
x2
+ 1
x 1
2. 1
dx = limx+ 1 t dt = limx+ log x = +. , + 1 x
1
dx + +.
1x 1
x 1
3. 0 x1 dx = limx1 0 t1
dt = limx1 log(1 x) = . ,
1 1
0 x1 dx .
1 1
x 1

4. 0 1x
dx = limx1 0 1t
dt = limx1 (2 2 1 x) = 2 , , 1 1
0 1x
dx 2.
404

x
5. limx+ 0 cos t dt = limx+ sin x .
+
cos x dx .
0
11.1 .
11.1. f : [a, b] R [a, b].
b
b
b
f
(x)
dx

f
(x)
dx
=
f (x) dx.
a
a
a
. f [a, b], M |f (x)| M
x [a, b]. , f

x
b [a, b] , ,
b

[a, x] x [a, b). , a f (t) dt a f (t) dt = x f (t) dt M (b x)
x
b
x [a, b), limxb a f (t) dt = a f (t) dt.
2. a R {} f : (a, b] R. f
(a, b] , , [x, b] x (a, b].
b
. a f (x) dx f (a, b]
b
, , . limxa+ x f (t) dt,
b
b
a f (x) dx . limxa+ x f (t) dt R,
b
a f (x) dx
b

f (x) dx = limxa+
a

b
x

f (t) dt.

b
b
limxa+ x f (t) dt , a f (x) dx
b
b
, limxa+ x f (t) dt = , a f (x) dx
.

2
2

. 1. 0 1x dx = limx0+ x 1t dt = limx0+ (2 2 2 x) = 2 2 . ,

2
0 1x dx 2 2 .
2
2
2. 0 x1 dx = limx0+ x 1t dt = limx0+ (log 2 log x) = +. ,
2
0 x1 dx + +.
0
0 1
1
1
3. (x1)
2 dx = limx x (t1)2 dt = limx (1 1x ) = 1. ,
0
1
(x1)
2 dx 1.
, , 11.1, .
11.2. f : [a, b] R [a, b].
b
b
b
f
(x)
dx

f
(x)
dx
=
f (x) dx.
a
a
a
. f [a, b], M |f (x)| M
x [a, b]. , f

b
x [a,
b] , ,
b



[x, b] x (a, b]. , x f (t) dt a f (t) dt = a f (t) dt M (x a)
b
b
x (a, b], limxa+ x f (t) dt = a f (t) dt.
3. a R {}, b R {+} f : (a, b) R
(a, b).

405

b
. a f (x) dx f (a, b)
, , . d, a < d < b.
d
b
a f (x) dx d f (x) dx ,
b
d
a f (x) dx . , a f (x) dx,
b
d
b
f (x) dx a f (x) dx + d f (x) dx
d
b
, a f (x) dx . ,
d
b
d
b
a f (x) dx, d f (x) dx a f (x) dx + d f (x) dx
b
, a f (x) dx

b
d
b
f (x) dx = a f (x) dx + d f (x) dx.
a
b
a f (x) dx ,
b
a f (x) dx , , ,
.
11.1 , d,
b
a f (x) dx.
11.1. a R {}, b R {+} f : (a, b) R
(a, b). a < d < d0 < b.
d
b
d0
b
f
(x)
dx
+
f
(x)
dx,

f
(x)
dx
+
f (x) dx
a
d
a
d0
.
x
x
d
d
. d0 f (t) dt = d f (t) dt + d0 f (t)
dt

(a,
b)

f (t) dt
d0 x
x
. , limxb d f (t) dt, limxb d0 f (t) dt
x
x
d
limxb d0 f (t) dt = limxb d f (t) dt + d0 f (t) dt. ,
b
d0

f (x) dx =

b
d

f (x) dx +

d
d0

f (x) dx.

d0
d
d
, x f (t) dt = x f (t) dt d0 f (t) dt x (a, b). , d
d0
d0
limxa+ x f (t) dt, limxa+ x f (t) dt limxa+ x f (t) dt =
d
d
limxa+ x f (t) dt d0 f (t) dt. ,
d0

f (x) dx =
a

d
d0

f (x) dx
a

d
d0

f (x) dx.

f (x) dx , , ,
d0

f (x) dx +
a

b
d0

f (x) dx =

f (x) dx +
a

b
d

f (x) dx.

11.3 11.1, 11.2.


11.3. f : [a, b] R [a, b].
b
b
b
f (x) dx a f (x) dx = a f (x) dx.
a
. a < d < b. f [a, d] [d, b].
d
b
b
d
11.1, 11.2 a f (x) dx = a f (x) dx d f (x) dx = d f (x) dx , b
b
, a f (x) dx = a f (x) dx.
406

+ x
x t
1
2
. 1. 0
2 +1 dx = limx+ 0 t2 +1 dt = limx+ 2 log(x + 1) = +
x
0

0 t
x2x+1 dx = limx x t2 +1
dt = limx 12 log(x2 + 1) = .
+
x2x+1 dx .
x 1
+ 1
0

1
2. 0
dx
=
lim
dt
=
lim
arctan
x
=

dx =
x+
x+
2
2
2
0 t +1
x2 +1
0 1 x +1

limx x t2 +1 dt = limx arctan x = 2 .


+

1
x2 +1

dx = .

b
b
b
, a f (x) dx, a f (x) dx, a f (x) dx,
,
b
f (x) dx.
a
, ,
11.1 - 11.3, - , - . ,
, ,
, .
4. . a
R {}, b R {+} f (a, b) , , . , 1 , . . . , n1
f : (a, 1 ) (1 , 2 ) (n2 , n1 ) (n1 , b) R.

n1
b
. . a 1 f (x) dx, 12 f (x) dx, . . . , n2
f (x) dx, n1 f (x) dx
, f (a, b)
b
1
2
n1
b
f
(x)
dx
=
f
(x)
dx
+
f
(x)
dx
+

+
f
(x)
dx
+
f (x) dx.
a
a
1
n2
n1

+ , f (a, b)
b
+ a f (x) dx = +. ,

+, f (a, b)
b
f (x) dx = . , f (a, b)
a
.
. b
b
. , a f (x) dx a f (x) dx.
f : [a, b) R [a, b)
b
b
x
a f (x) dx = a f (x) dx = limxb a f (t) dt, .
.
b
11.4. a < c < b. . a f (x) dx
b
b
c
b
. c f (x) dx a f (x) dx = a f (x) dx + c f (x) dx.
x
c
x
c
. a f (t) dt = a f (t) dt + c f (t) dt x [a,
b). a f (t) dt

x
x
, limxb a f (t) dt limxb c f (t) dt ,
x
b
x
c
, a f (x) dx = limxb a f (t) dt = a f (t) dt + limxb c f (t) dt =
c
b
f (x) dx + c f (x) dx.
a
407

b
11.5. f, g b, . a f (x) dx
b
. a g(x) dx . , .
+ .
. c [a, b) f (x) = g(x) x [c, b). ,
b
b
, . c f (x) dx . c g(x) dx
b
b
c f (x) dx = c g(x) dx. 11.4.
b
b
b
11.6. . a f (x) dx, a g(x) dx a f (x) dx +
b
b
g(x) dx , . a (f (x) + g(x)) dx
a
b
b
b
(f (x) + g(x)) dx = a f (x) dx + a g(x) dx.
a
x
x
x
. a (f (t) + g(t)) dt = a f (t) dt + a g(t) dt x [a, b) , ,
b
x
x
x
(f
(x)
+
g(x))
dx
=
lim
(f
(t)
+
g(t))
dt
=
lim
f
(t)
dt
+
lim
g(t) dt =
xb
xb
xb
a
a
a
ab
b
f (x) dx + a g(x) dx.
a
b
b
11.7. a f (x) dx a f (x) dx ,
b
b
b
a f (x) dx a f (x) dx = a f (x) dx.
x
x
b
. a f (t) dt = a f (t) dt x [a, b) , , a f (x) dx =
x
x
b
limxb a f (t) dt = limxb a f (t) dt = a f (x) dx.
11.8. f (x) g(x) x [a, b).
b
b
b
b
1. . a f (x) dx, a g(x) dx , a f (x) dx a g(x) dx.
b
b
2. a f (x) dx = +, a g(x) dx = +.
b
b
3. a g(x) dx = , a f (x) dx = .
x
x
b
. 1. a f (t) dt a g(t) dt x [a, b) , , a f (x) dx =
x
x
b
limxb a f (t) dt limxb a g(t)
dt
=
g(x) dx.
a
x
x
x
2. , a f (t) dt a g(t) dt x [a, b). limxb a f (t) dt = +,
x
limxb a g(t) dt = +.
3. 2.
11.9 .
:
.
11.9. 1. f , g [a, b). . b
a f 0 (x)g(x) dx , limxb f (x)g(x) limxb f (x)g(x)
b 0
b
f
(x)g(x)
dx

f (x)g 0 (x) dx
a
a
:
b
b 0
0
f
(x)g
(x)
dx
=
lim
f
(x)g(x)

f
(a)g(a)

f (x)g(x) dx.
xb
a
a
2. : [a, b) [A, B) [a, b), (a) = A, limxb (x) = B
B
f [A, B). . A f (y) dy
b
. a f ((x))0 (x) dx , ,
B
A

f (y) dy =

b
a

f ((x))0 (x) dx.

408

x
x
. 1. x [a, b) a f (t)g 0 (t) dt = f (x)g(x) f (a)g(a) a f 0 (t)g(t) dt.

b
x
0
f
(x)g
(x)
dx
=
lim
f (t)g 0 (t) dt
xb
a
a
x
= limxb f (x)g(x) f (a)g(a) limxb a f 0 (t)g(t) dt
b
= limxb f (x)g(x) f (a)g(a) a f 0 (x)g(x) dx.
2. x [a, b)
b
a

x
a

f ((t))0 (t) dt =

f ((x))0 (x) dx = limxb

(x)
(a)

f (s) ds =

(x)
A

f (s) ds.

f ((t))0 (t) dt = limxb


y
B
= limyB A f (s) ds = A f (y) dy.
a

(x)
A

f (s) ds

. f : [a, c) (c, b] R [a, c)


b
(c, b]. a f (x) dx ,
( c
)
b
b
, lim0+ a f (x) dx + c+ f (x) dx P.V. a f (x) dx. ,
P.V.

b
a

f (x) dx = lim0+

c
a

)
f (x) dx + c+ f (x) dx .
b


.
1
. 1 x1 dx .
1
1
0
x
, 0 x1 dx = limx0+ x 1t dt = limx0+ ( log x) = + 1 x1 dx = limx0 1 1t dt =
limx0 log |x|= .
0
1
, 1 x1 dx + 0 x1 dx = () + (+) .
(
)
1 1
1
, P.V. 1 x dx = lim0+ 1 x1 dx + x1 dx = lim0+ 0 = 0.
11.10. f : [a, c) (c, b] R [a, c)
b
(c, b]. . a f (x) dx ,
b
b
P.V. a f (x) dx . a f (x) dx.
b
. . a f (x) dx , . c
b
c
c
a f (x) dx, c f (x) dx . , lim0+ a f (x) dx = a f (x) dx
b
b
lim0+ c+ f (x) dx = c f (x) dx.
c
b
b
a f (x) dx + c f (x) dx , P.V. a f (x) dx =
( c
) c
b
b
b
lim0+ a f (x) dx + c+ f (x) dx = a f (x) dx + c f (x) dx = a f (x) dx.
.
1. ;
( x )
+ 1
+ 1
7
+
dx,
dx,
log
dx,
log x dx.
x1
1
x
2
0
x

1
1 x

dx,

7
1

x2 3x+2

dx,

2
1 x2

dx,

1
1
5 log x
1
2. 0 x log x dx, 0 sinxx dx, 1 x1
dx, 0 log x log(1 + x) dx .
() ;
409

3.
1 1
dx;
0 sin(1/x)
+
+
4. . 1 x2 (x12 +1) dx, 1
+
+
b
x
1

1
dx,
dx,
3
2
2
2
x +x +x+1
0
2 (x 1) x +1
a

1
sin x

dx,

+
0

log | cos x| dx,

+ 1
+ x
dx, 0 x2 +a
2 dx,
2
2 dx,
+ arctan x
+ 0 xx2 +a
dx, 0
dx, 0 xe
dx.
1+x2

1
x(x+1)

(xa)(bx)

+
+
+
1
5. . 0 eax cos bx dx, 0 eax sin bx dx, eax +e
ax dx.
+
6. 0 xn ex dx = n! n Z, n 0.
+
7. 0 x2 +2x1cos +1 dx = sin (0, ).
1
+ p
1
1
8. 0 xp log x dx = (p+1)
x log x dx = (p+1)
2 , p > 1,
2 , p < 1.
1
9.

+
0

xn1
(1+x)n+m

dx =

10. .

(n1)!(m1)!
(n+m1)!

+
0

log x
(x+1)2

n, m N.

dx.

11. .

+
0

(1)[x] dx.

12. f (0, +)
0 < A B < +.
x
[] g(x) = x1 1 f (t) dt 0 < x < + L =
limx+ g(x) .
B
B
(i) A f (x)
dx = g(B) g(A) + A g(x)
dx,
x
x
BT f (x)
(ii) limT + AT x dx = L log B
,
A
+ f (Ax)f (Bx)
B f (x)
B
(iii) 1
dx
=
L
log
+
dx .
x
x
A
1 f (t) A
[] h(x) = x x t2 dt 0 < x < + l = limx0+ h(x)
.
B
B
dx = h(A) h(B) + A h(x)
dx ,
(i) A f (x)
x
x
Bt f (x)
(ii) limt0+ At x dx = l log B
,
A
1 f (Ax)f (Bx)
B
(iii) 0
dx = l log B
A f (x)
dx.
x
A
x
+
(Bx)
A
[] [], [], 0 f (Ax)f
dx = (L l) log B
.
x
+ eAx eBx
+ cos(Ax)cos(Bx)
B
B
dx = log A 0
dx = log A .
[] 0
x
x

11.2 - .
b
11.1. f (x) 0 x [a, b), . a f (x) dx
b
0 +. , 0 a f (x) dx +.
b
x
, . a f (x) dx , a f (x) dx , x,
, +, .
x
x
x
x
. a x1 < x2 < b, a 2 f (t) dt = a 1 f (t) dt + x12 f (t) dt a 1 f (t) dt.
x
x
a f (t) dt , x,
x [a, b). , limxb a f (t) dt
+. , a f (t) dt 0 x [a, b),
410

x
x
x
limxb a f (t) dt 0. , a f (t) dt
x , limxb a f (t) dt
, , limxb a f (t) dt +.
, , - ,
0 +. , ,
b
a f (x) dx < +
b
f (x) dx = +.
a
b
b
11.11. 1. 0 f (x) g(x) x [a, b). 0 a f (x) dx a g(x) dx.
b
b
, , . a g(x) dx , . a f (x) dx
.
(x)
2. f (x) 0, g(x) > 0 x [a, b) limxb fg(x)

(x)
, , fg(x)
b. .
b
b
g(x)
dx
,

f (x) dx .
a
a
b
b
b
. 1. . a f (x) dx, a g(x) dx , 0 a f (x) dx
b
b
b
g(x)
dx.

g(x)
dx
,

g(x) dx < +,
a
a
ab
b
f (x) dx < + , , . a f (x) dx .
a
(x)
M x [c, b). .
2. M c [a, b) 0 fg(x)
b
b
b
g(x) dx , . c g(x) dx . c f (x) dx
a
b
b
b
M g(x) dx = M c g(x) dx < +. . c f (x) dx , ,
c
b
. a f (x) dx .

, ,
11.11 , , 11.12.
+
. 1. . 1 x1p dx.
+
x
+
1p
p 6= 1, 1 x1p dx = limx+ 1 t1p dt = limx+ x 1p1 . 1 x1p dx = +,
+
1
p < 1, 1 x1p dx = p1
, p > 1.
+ 1
x 1
, 1 x dx = limx+ 1 t dt = limx+ log x = +.
:
{
1
+ 1
, p > 1
p1
dx =
xp
1
+, p 1
1
2. , . 0 x1p dx.
1
1
1
1p
. 0
p 6= 1, 0 x1p dx = limx0+ x t1p dt = limx0+ 1x
1p
1 1
dx = +, p > 1.
0 xp
1
1
, 0 x1 dx = limx0+ x 1t dt = limx0+ log x = +.
:
{
1
1 1
, p < 1
1p
dx =
0 xp
+, p 1
1 2 , p,
+ 1
dx = +.
xp
0
411

1
xp

dx =

1
1p

, p < 1,

+
q
3. c, q > 0. . 1 xp ecx dx.
n
n N, n > p+1
. x 0 ex xn! . x cxq
q
n
q
q
1
ecx cn! xqn . 0 < xp ecx cn!n xqnp
x > 0. qn p > 1, .
+ 1
+
q
1 xqnp dx . . 1 xp ecx dx :
0

+
1

xp ecx dx < +,
q

c, q > 0.

. .
,
8.2.
b
1. 2 11.11 , , : . a f (x) dx
b
+, . a g(x) dx +.
2. f (x), g(x) > 0 x [a, b) limxb

f (x)
g(x)

= ,
b
, 0 < < +, . a f (x) dx
b
g(x) dx : .
a
(x)
+. , limxb fg(x)
= , ,
b
b
. a g(x) dx , . a f (x) dx .
= 1 1 , , .
limxb fg(x)
(x)
b
b
f (x) dx , . a g(x) dx .
a
(x)
f (x), g(x) > 0 x [a, b) limxb fg(x)
= 0, , 2
b
11.11, . a g(x) dx , .
b
f (x) dx . .
a
+
+
2)
. limx+ 1/(x
= 0, 1 x12 dx < + 1 x1 dx = +.
1/x
(x)
, f (x), g(x) > 0 x [a, b) limxb fg(x)
= +,
b
b
. a f (x) dx , . a g(x) dx .
= 0 2 11.11.
limxb fg(x)
(x)
3.
. 11.11.
, .

. .
. , , 5.9.
+ 2x +3ex +1
dx.
. 1. . 1 e e3x
+x2
e2x +3ex +1
e3x +x2 e2x e3x , 2x
2x +3ex +1
x +e2x
= ee3x 1+3e
x [1, +)
. e e3x
+x2
1+x2 e3x
e2x
e2x +3ex +1
limx+ ( e3x +x2 )/( e3x ) = 1. . . + 2x
+
1 ee3x dx = 1 ex dx. . ,
.
+ 3 +3
2. . 1 2xx4 +x+1
dx.
3 +3
x3 2x4 , .
2xx4 +x+1
3 +3
3 +3
x3
x3
1+3x3
2xx4 +x+1
= 2x
limx+ ( 2xx4 +x+1
)/( 2x
4
4 ) = 1. 1
1+ 1 x3 + 1 x4
2

412

+ 3 +3
dx = +, 1 2xx4 +x+1
= +.
+ 1
3. . 1 sin x dx.
sin t t 0, limx+ (sin x1 )/( x1 ) = 1 ,
, sin x1 x1 +. 1 .
+
+
1 x1 dx +, . 1 sin x1 dx .

+
1

x3
2x4

dx =

1
2

+
1

1
x

. ,
. .
. (xn ) xn 0 n N.
f : [1, +) R [1, +) f (n) = xn n N.
+
. 1 f (t) dt , 0 +
+

(i) +
f (t) dt < +,
n=1 xn < +
1
+
+
(ii) n=1 xn = + 1 f (t) dt = +.
,
n+1
1

f (u) du x1 + + xn x1 +
+
1

f (t) dt

+
n=1

n
1

n N

f (u) du

xn x1 +

f (t) dt.

.
+

(sin x1 )2 dx 1
1
1
2. . 0
1.

3. .

6. .
(ii) p = 1, q > 1.

(sin x)2
x2

1
xp (1x)q

+
0

+
0

+
2

7. [] .
[] .
+.

dx 2.

dx p, q < 1.

1
xp (xq +1)

4. .
5. .

dx 1 q < p < 1.

e(x+x

1 )

dx,

+
1

log x
x x2 1

dx .

xx ex dx p > 0.
p

1
xp (log x)q

+
0
+
0

dt (i) p > 1

x2 ex

8 (sin x)2

x3 ex

8 (sin x)2

dx,
dx,

1
dx .
1+x4 (sin x)2
+
1
dx
1+x2 (sin x)2
1
1

8. . .
f : [1, +) [0, +) .
[]
+
f (x) dx limx+ f (x).
1
: . 7[].
.
[]
+ f : [1, +) R. limx+ f (x) .
f (x) dx, limx+ f (x) = 0.
1

413

9. f, g : [a, +) [0, +) [a, +) p, q > 1,


[] Hlder . .
+
(g(x))q dx < +,
a
+
a

f (x)g(x) dx

( +
a

(f (x))p dx

) p1 ( +
a

1
p

1
= 1.
q
+
(f (x))p
a

(g(x))q dx

) 1q

dx < +,

Schwarz, Buniakowsky . :
+
a

f (x)g(x) dx

( +
a

) 1 ( +
)1
(f (x))2 dx 2 a (g(x))2 dx 2 .

Hlder s, t
0 s(f (x))p = t(g(x))q x [a, +).
+
[] Minkowski . . a (f (x))p dx <
+
+, a (g(x))p dx < +,
( +
a

) 1 ( +
) 1 ( +
)1
(f (x) + g(x))p dx p a (f (x))p dx p + a (g(x))p dx p .

Minkowski s, t
0 sf (x) = tg(x) x [a, +).
: 18 6.4.

11.3

b
Cauchy. . a f (x) dx > 0
x00

c0 [a, b) x0 f (t) dt < x0 , x00 (c0 , b).
x
. F (x) = a f (t) dt x [a, b). F (x00 )F (x0 ) =
x00
f (t) dt , , F
x0
Cauchy .
11.3.1 .

b
. . a f (x) dx .
b
b
|f
(x)|
dx

,
,
|f (x)| dx < +.
a
a
b
. . a f (x) dx ,
b

f (x) dx b |f (x)| dx.
a

. . a |f (x)| dx . > 0. , x00


Cauchy, c0 [a, b) x0 |f (t)| dt < , ,
x00

00

0 f (t) dt x0 |f (t)| dt < x0 , x00 (c0 , b). . b f (x) dx


x
x
a
.
b
, x [a, b) |f (x)| f (x) |f (x)|, a |f (x)| dx =
b

b
b
b
f (x) dx b |f (x)| dx.
(|f
(x)|)
dx

f
(x)
dx

|f
(x)|
dx.

a
a
a
a
a
. f + , f : [a, b) R f + (x) = (f (x))+
414

f (x) = (f (x)) .
0 f + (x) |f (x)|, 0 f (x) |f (x)|, f + (x)+f (x) = |f (x)| f + (x)f (x) = f (x)
x [a, b).
b
b
b
a |f (x)| dx < +, . a f + (x) dx , a f (x) dx
b
b
. f = f + f , . a f (x) dx a f (x) dx =
b


b +
b +
b

f (x) dx = b f + (x) dx
(f
(x)

f
(x))
dx
=
f
(x)
dx

f
(x)
dx.
,
a
a
a
a



ab
b f + (x) dx + b f (x) dx = b f + (x) dx + b f (x) dx = b (f + (x) +
f
(x)
dx
a
a
a
a
a
a
b

f (x)) dx = a |f (x)| dx.


b
11.12. 1. |f (x)| g(x) x [a, b) . a g(x) dx b

b
, . a f (x) dx , . , a f (x) dx
b
g(x) dx.
a
(x)|
2. g(x) > 0 x [a, b) limxb |fg(x)
,
b
(x)|
, |fg(x)
b. . a g(x) dx
b
, . a f (x) dx , , .
b
. 1. . a g(x) dx , .
b

b
b
f (x) dx
|f
(x)|
dx
,

f
(x)
dx

a
a
ab
b
|f
(x)|
dx

g(x)
dx.
a
a
2. 11.11 .
11.11 ,
b
b
. a |f (x)| dx a f (x) dx. ,
b
a f (x) dx.
+
. 1. . 1 sinx2x dx , | sinx2x | x12
+
x [1, +) . 1 x12 dx .
+
+
2. | sinxx | dx = | sinx x| dx = +, .
+ sin x
dx .
x

(k+1) | sin x|
(k+1)
1
2
dx

| sin x| dx = (k+1)
x
(k+1) k
k
k N. , n N,
n

| sin x|
x

dx =

n1 (k+1)
k=1

| sin x|
x

dx

n1

1
k=1 k+1

n
+

nk=2 k1 +, | sinx x| dx +,
+
. sinxx dx .
11.3.2 .
. .
.

b
a

| sin x|
x

1
k=2 k

dx = +.

f (x) dx ,

x
11.2. f, g : [a, b) R F (x) = a f (t) dt x [a, b)
f [a, b) g [a, b).
1. g [a, b), limxb g(x) = 0 F
415

b
[a, b). . a f (x)g(x) dx .
b
2. g [a, b) . a f (x) dx
b
. . a f (x)g(x) dx .
. 1. M |F (x)| M x [a, b). f ,
F 0 (x) =
b). , g 0 (x)
xf (x) xx [a,
x0 x [a, b).
0
a f (t)g(t) dt = a F (t)g(t) dt = F (x)g(x) a F (t)g 0 (t) dt x [a, b). .
b
a F (x)g 0 (x) dx ,
x
b
b
b
|F (x)g 0 (x)| dx M a |g 0 (x)| dx = M a g 0 (x) dx = M limxb a g 0 (t) dt
a
= M limxb (g(x) g(a)) = M g(a) < +.
b
x
. a F (x)g 0 (x) dx , limxb a F (t)g 0 (t) dt
.
M g(x) x [a, b), limxb F (x)g(x) = 0.
x |F (x)g(x)|
x
x
a f (t)g(t) dt = F (x)g(x) a F (t)g 0 (t) dt limxb a f (t)g(t) dt =
x

b
limxb a F (t)g 0 (t) dt , . a f (x)g(x) dx
.
2. To l = limxb g(x) . 1, .
b
b
b
b
f
(x)(g(x)

l)
dx
.

f
(x)g(x)
dx
=
f
(x)(g(x)

l)
dx
+
f (x)l dx =
a
a
a
ab
b
b
f (x)(g(x) l) dx + l a f (x) dx, . a f (x)g(x) dx .
a
+
. 1. . sinxx dx ,
.
1
x1
limx+ x = 0.
x [, +)
sin x [, +) sin t dt = | cos cos x| 2
+
x . . sinxx dx .

2. . 0 sinxx dx { .
sin x
, 0 < x
x
g : [0, ] R g(x) =
,
1,
x = 0

, [0, ].
0 sinxx dx = 0 g(x) dx

0 g(x) dx.
3. , .
+ sin x

+
dx = 0 sinxx dx + sinxx dx
x
0
+
. . 0 sinxx dx
12 11.4.
.
,
+ sin x
+ (1cos x)0
+ 1cos x
1cos x
1cos x
dx
=
dx
=
lim

lim
+
dx
x+
x0+
x
x
x
x2
0
0
0+ 1cosx x
dx.
= 0
x2

+
0

sin x
x

dx =

1cos x
x2

dx +

74

1cos x
x2

dx +

+
7
4

1cos x
x2

dx

74

1 cos x 1 cos 4 x [ 4 , 7
],
4
+
0

sin x
x

dx (1 cos 4 )

74

416

1
x2

dx =

12(2 2)
7

> 0.

1cos x
x2

dx.

.
8.4.2 . .
b
. a f (x) dx - f :
[a,
x b) [0, +). .
f (t) dt : a
. limxb f (x) = 0
. ,
. ,
+ 1
+ 1
. 1 x2 dx 1 x dx 0 +,
. .
1/(x2 )
1
1

.
:
lim
= 0. ,
x+
2
x
x
1/x
1
x2 .
x1 .
. 11.11.
, . , .
.
.
- .
. . . ,
. ,
+
. , . sinxx dx
+ | sin x|
dx. . ,
x

. ,
. .
.
. . .
,
, . .
. - .
.
11.11 11.12 . , .
.
- . . . , ,
11.2.
.
n1

1. f : [0, +) R f (x) = (1)n


x [n 1, n) n N.
+
. 0 f (x) dx .
+ cos x
+ x
+
2. . 0 1+x
e cos x dx, 1 x1 sin x1 dx 2 dx,
0
.
+
3. , p > 1, . sinxpx dx ,
0 < p 1, . .
417

+ sin x
+ sin x
+
+
2)
4. . 1 x1+x
dx, 2 x cos(x
dx, 1
2 dx,
log x
log x
2
+ sin x
+
+
x sin x
dx,
dx,
cos x sin x1 dx .
x+sin x
(x+1)(x+sin x)
0
0
0

cos x
x+1

dx,

P (x)
5. R(x) = Q(x)
, P (x) Q(x)
.
+
[] . R(x) dx Q(x)
deg Q(x) deg P (x) + 2.
+
[] . R(x) sin x dx
Q(x) {k | k Z} 1
deg Q(x) deg P (x) + 1.

6. 16 7.3.
[] : [a, +) R

+
0
[a, +) limx+ (x) = +. . a sin((x)) dx
.
+
+
[] . 1 sin(xa ) dx, 1 cos(xa ) dx ,
+
|a| > 1, , |a| 1. , . 0 sin(x2 ) dx,
+
cos(x2 ) dx . .
0
Fresnel.

1
7. 1 < x < + (x) = +
n=1 nx . 26 10.1 20
7.3.
+ [t]
+ [t]
1
[] (x) = x 1 tx+1
dt x > 1 x1
x 1 tx+1
dt
x
1
x > 1, x1
x1

+ 1
x
n=1 nx x1 .
+
x
[] (x) = x1
x 1 t[t]
dt x > 1. .
tx+1
x > 0. 0 (x)
0 (x) (0, 1) (1, +)
(x) (1, +). , (x) ,
, (0, 1).
[] (x) [] 20 7.3 , 9
7.1, ,
n N, n (x) 1 (x) = (x)
x
2
n+1 (x) = 1 (n (t) n ) dt, n = 1 n (t) dt, n N. ,
n N, n (x) 1, R n (1) = 0. ,
n (x) R. , [],

(x) =

1 x 2 x(x + 1) n1 x(x + 1) (x + n 2)
+ n (t)
x(x + 1) (x + n) 1 tx+n+1
dt

x+1
x1

x > 1 n N. .
x > n. n (x)
n (x) (n, 1) (1, +)
(x) (1, +). , (x) ,
, (n, 1).
, , n, m N, n < m, n (x) m (x)
(n, 1) (1, +), .
418

(, 1) (1, +) , n N,
n (x) (n, 1) (1, +).
. , , -
Riemann : (, 1)(1, +) R : (1, +) R,
26 10.1.
2 11.4 4 11.5.
8. .
{
1
, 0 x n
n N. (fn )
[] fn (x) = n
0, x > n
+
+
0 [0, +) 0 fn (x) dx 6 0 0 dx.
[] : f, fn : [a, +) R n N g : [a, +)
[0, +). |fn (x)| g(x) x [a, +), c > a (fn )
+
f [a, c] . a g(x) dx .
+
+
+
. a f (x) dx a fn (x) dx a f (x) dx.
9. f : [0, 1] R [0, 1], f (0) = 0 f
3
1
0. . 0 f (x)x 2 dx .
1 1
: . 0 x 2 dx.
+ p1 xq1
+
p)
10. p, q 0 x x1
dx, 0 sin(x
dx
xq
;
+ x[x] 21
11. 1
dx p > 0.
xp
12. 2 6.5, :
sin((n+ 12 )x)
[] 0
dx = n N,
sin x
sin(nx) 2
[] 0 sin x dx = 0, n N , ,
)2
(
dx = n n N.
[] 0 sin(nx)
sin x
{
1
x2 , 0 < x
sin x2
f (x)
[] f (x) =
0,
x = 0
[0, ]. 22[]
2 7.3

1
limn+ 0 f (x) sin((n + 2 )x) dx = 0. limn+ 0 x sin((n + 21 )x) dx =
sin((n+ 21 )x)
dx = .
limn+ 0
sin x
2

+
0

sin x
x

dx =


11.4 4 .
13. f, g : [a, +) R [a, +) p, q > 1, p1 + 1q = 1.
+
+
+
[] a |f (x)|p dx < + a |g(x)|q dx < +, a f (x)g(x) dx
Hlder :
+
( +
) 1q
) p1 ( +
q
p


|g(x)|
dx
.
f
(x)g(x)
dx
|f
(x)|
dx
a
a
a
419

Schwarz, Buniakowsky:
+
( +
) 21 ( +
) 21
2
2


f
(x)g(x)
dx
|f
(x)|
dx
|g(x)|
dx
.
a
a
a
Hlder s, t
0 s|f (x)|p = t|g(x)|q x [a, +) f (x)g(x) 0
x [a, +) f (x)g(x) 0 x [a, +).
+
+
[] a |f (x)|p dx < + a |g(x)|p dx < +,
Minkowski :
( +
a

|f (x) + g(x)|p dx

) p1

( +
a

|f (x)|p dx

) p1

( +
a

)1
|g(x)|p dx p .

Minkowski s, t
0 s|f (x)| = t|g(x)| x [a, +) f (x)g(x) 0
x [a, +) f (x)g(x) 0 x [a, +).
: 10 11.2.
b
14. . f : [a, b) R w : [a, b) [0, +) a w(x) dx = 1
b
. a f (x)w(x) dx. f
b
w [a, b) Ew (f ; a, b) = a f (x)w(x) dx. ,
w .
Jensen. f : [a, b) (c, d) R [a, b)
g : (c, d) R (c, d). , , w : [a, b) [0, +)
b
b
[a,
( b) a) w(x) dx = 1. Ew (f ; a, b) = a f (x)w(x) dx ,
g Ew (f ; a, b) Ew (g f ; a, b) , ,
g

(b
a

) b
f (x)w(x) dx a g(f (x))w(x) dx.

g (c, d), .
g , , () (c, d), Jensen
f {x [a, b) | w(x) > 0}.

11.4 .
11.4.1 .
, ,
.
.
R2 = {(x, y) | x, y R}. R2
B C = {(x, y) | x B, y C}, B, C
R. , , f : A R A R2
R.
|(x1 , y1 ) (x2 , y2 )| (x1 , y1 )
(x2 , y2 ). ,

|(x1 , y1 ) (x2 , y2 )| = (x1 x2 )2 + (y1 y2 )2 .

420

. A R2 , f : A R (, ) A. f
(, ) > 0 0 > 0 |f (x, y) f (, )| < (x, y) A,
|(x, y) (, )| < 0 .
f : A R A R2 , f A.
. 1. c : R2 R c(x, y) = c
R2 .
, (, ) R2 > 0. 0 > 0, 0 = 1,
, , (x, y) R2 , |(x, y)(, )| < 0 |c(x, y)c(, )| = |cc| = 0 < .
c (, ).
2. 1 , 2 : R2 R 1 (x, y) = x 2 (x, y) = y.
1 x- 2 y-.
R2 .
, (, ) R2 > 0. 0 = , , (x, y) R2 ,
|(x, y) (, )| < 0 |1 (x, y) 1 (, )| = |x | |(x, y) (, )| < 0 = .
1 (, ) , , 2 (, ).
11.13. A R2 f : A R (, ) A. f (x, ),
x {x | (x, ) A} R, . , f (, y),
y {y | (, y) A} R, .
. > 0. 0 > 0 |f (x, y) f (, )| <
(x, y) A, |(x, y) (, )| < 0 . x, (x, ) A, |x | < 0
|(x, ) (, )| = |x | < 0 , , |f (x, ) f (, )| < .
f (x, ) .
.
11.14 4.8.
11.14. A R2 f, g : A R (, ) A. f g, f g, |f | :
A R (, ). , , g(x, y) 6= 0 (x, y) A,
f
: A R (, ).
g
. > 0. 0 > 0 |f (x, y)f (, )| < 2 |g(x, y)g(, )| < 2
(x, y) A, |(x, y) (, )| < 0 . , (x, y) A, |(x, y) (, )| < 0



(f (x, y) + g(x, y)) (f (, ) + g(, )) |f (x, y) f (, )| + |g(x, y) g(, )| < + = .
2
2
f + g (, ).
.
11.15 4.9.
11.15. A R2 , B R, f : A B g : B R. f
(, ) A g = f (, ) B, g f : A R
(, ).
. > 0. 0 0 > 0 |g(z) g()| < z B,
|z | < 0 0 . , 0 > 0 |f (x, y) | = |f (x, y) f (, )| < 0 0
(x, y) A, |(x, y) (, )| < 0 . (x, y) A, |(x, y) (, )| < 0
|(g f )(x, y) (g f )(, )| = |g(f (x, y)) g()| < . g f (, ).
421

11.13 - 11.15 ,
.
. 1. n, m Z, n, m 0, cxn y m
R2 , cxn y m
cxn y m = c(1 (x, y))n (2 (x, y))m = c1 (x, y) 1 (x, y)2 (x, y) 2 (x, y).
, , , ,
3 + 2x3 y 2 4xy 5 2x3 y 8 , R2 .
, , , ,
3 +4x2 y 5
2

, xxy2xy
2 y3x2 y 3 +2x5 y , R
.
2
2. exy sin(xy + y 2 ) R2 .
, xy 2 R2 R. , ez
2
R. exy
R2 . sin(xy + y 2 ) R2 .
2
exy sin(xy + y 2 ) R2 .
11.16 4.1.
11.16. A R2 f : A R (, ) A. (xn ),
(yn ) (xn , yn ) A n N xn yn . f (xn , yn ) f (, ).
. > 0. 0 > 0 |f (x, y) f (, )| <
(x, y) A, |(x, y) (, )| < 0 . , n0 N |xn | < 02
|yn | < 02 n N, n n0 . n N, n n0 |(xn , yn ) (, )| < 0
, , |f (xn , yn ) f (, )| < . f (xn , yn ) f (, ).
, 11.3 4.2.
11.3. f : [a, b] [c, d] R [a, b] [c, d]. > 0
0 > 0 |f (x0 , y 0 ) f (x00 , y 00 )| < (x0 , y 0 ), (x00 , y 00 ) [a, b] [c, d],
|(x0 , y 0 ) (x00 , y 00 )| < 0 .
. - - 0 > 0 > 0
(x0 , y 0 ), (x00 , y 00 ) [a, b] [c, d], |(x0 , y 0 ) (x00 , y 00 )| < |f (x0 , y 0 ) f (x00 , y 00 )| 0 .
n N (xn 0 , yn 0 ), (xn 00 , yn 00 ) [a, b] [c, d], |(xn 0 , yn 0 ) (xn 00 , yn 00 )| < n1
|f (xn 0 , yn 0 ) f (xn 00 , yn 00 )| 0 .
|(xn 0 , yn 0 ) (xn 00 , yn 00 )| < n1 |xn 0 xn 00 | < n1 |yn 0 yn 00 | < n1 .
(xn 0 ) [a, b] (xnk 0 ) ,
. |xnk 0 xnk 00 | < n1k k1 k N, (xnk 00 )
. , xnk 0 xnk 00 . (yn 0 ) , ,
(ynk 0 ) [c, d]. (ynkl 0 ) , .
|ynkl 0 ynkl 00 | < n1k k1l 1l l N, (ynkl 00 ) .
l
, ynkl 0 ynkl 00 . , , xnkl 0 xnkl 00 .
(xnkl 0 ) [a, b], [a, b] , (ynkl 0 ) [c, d],
[c, d]. (, ) [a, b] [c, d], f (, ).
f (xnkl 0 , ynkl 0 ) f (, ), f (xnkl 00 , ynkl 00 ) f (, ), f (xnkl 0 , ynkl 0 ) f (xnkl 00 , ynkl 00 ) 0.


f (xnkl 0 , ynkl 0 ) f (xnkl 00 , ynkl 00 ) 0 l N.
422

11.4.2 .
. I f : I [c, d] R. x I
f (x, y), y [c, d], [c, d],
d
f (x, y) dy. x I, g : I R
c
g(x) =

d
c

f (x, y) dy

x I.

d
c f (x, y) dy x I.
, f I [c, d], x I f (x, y),
y [c, d], [c, d] , , [c, d].
11.4, 11.5 , , g , , I.
11.4. I f : I [c, d] R. f I [c, d],
d
g : I R g(x) = c f (x, y) dy I.
. I. [a, b] I :
I, , , [a, b] ,
I, , , [a, b]. g
g [a, b] .
> 0. f [a, b][c, d], 0 > 0 |f (x0 , y 0 )f (x00 , y 00 )| <

(x0 , y 0 ), (x00 , y 00 ) [a, b] [c, d], |(x0 , y 0 ) (x00 , y 00 )| < 0 .


dc+1
x [a, b], |x | < 0 y [c, d] (x, y), (, y) [a, b] [c, d],

|(x, y) (, y)| = |x | < 0 , , |f (x, y) f (, y)| < dc+1


.
x [a, b], |x | < 0
d

|g(x) g()| = c (f (x, y) f (, y)) dy dc+1


(d c) < .
g [a, b] .
. limx

f (x,)f (,)
x

, , x f

(,)
(, ). , limy f (,y)f
, ,
y
y f (, ).

f10 , ) = limx

f (x,)f (,)
x

f20 (, ) = limy

f (,y)f (,)
y

11.5. I f : I [c, d] R. f
d
I [c, d] f10 , , I [c, d]. g : I R g(x) = c f (x, y) dy
x I I
g 0 (x) =

d
c

f10 (x, y) dy

x I.

. I. 11.4, [a, b] I
, I, ,
I. , g [a, b]
d
g 0 () = c f10 (, y) dy.
> 0. f10 [a, b] [c, d], 0 > 0 |f10 (x0 , y 0 )

f10 (x00 , y 00 )| < dc+1


(x0 , y 0 ), (x00 , y 00 ) [a, b] [c, d], |(x0 , y 0 ) (x00 , y 00 )| < 0 .
423

x [a, b], y [c, d], |x | < 0 . x,


f10 (, y) , | | |x | < 0 ,
f (x,y)f (,y)

0

= |f10 (, y) f10 (, y)| < .

f
(,
y)
1
x
dc+1
x [a, b], |x | < 0
g(x)g() d 0
d ( f (x,y)f (,y)
)
0


f
(,
y)
dy
=

f
(,
y)
dy
1
x
x
c 1
c
limx

g(x)g()
x
0

g () =

d
cd
c

(d
dc+1

f (x,y)f (,y)
x

c) < .

f10 (, y) dy , , g [a, b]
f10 (, y) dy.

(x
)2
1 x2 (y2 +1)
2
. f (x) = 0 es ds g(x) = 0 e y2 +1 dy.
2 x
2
, , f 0 (x) = 2ex 0 es ds x.
x2 (y 2 +1)

x e y2 +1 , 2xex (y +1) , R[0, 1],



1
2 2
2 1
2 2
2 x
2
g 0 (x) = 2x 0 ex (y +1) dy = 2xex 0 ex y dy = 2ex 0 es ds
2

x. f 0 (x) + g 0 (x) = 0

1 x.1 f + g

R, f (x) + g(x) = f (0) + g(0) = 0 + 0 y2 +1 dy = arctan 1 arctan 0 = 4 x.



1 ex2
x2
0 g(x) 0 1+y
2 dy = 4 e
x , , limx+ g(x) = 0. limx+ f (x) =
+
0

ex dx =
2

ex dx =
2

0
2
2
, ex , ex dx =
Gauss:
+

limx+ g(x) =

. , ,

11.4.3 .
. d R {+}, I f : I [c, d) R. x I
f (x, y), y [c, d),
d
[c, d) c f (x, y) dy . x I,
, , g : I R
d
g(x) = c f (x, y) dy
x I
x I
d
c f (x, y) dy g(x) I.
g I.
+
. 1. {. 0 exy dy x.
xy
y xt
e x 1 , x 6= 0
y 0 0 e dt =
, limy+ ,
y,
x = 0
424

{
+
+, x 0
0 exy dy = 1
. 0 exy dy ,
x > 0
x
1
x (0, +).
+
0 exy dy = x1 , ,
(0, +).
+
2. . 0 sin(xy)
dy x.
y
, x = 0, . 0.
+ sin y
+
dy
=
dy.
, , x > 0. 0 sin(xy)
y
y
0
+ sin y
. 0
dy A .
y
+ sin(xy)
dy = A x > 0.
y
0
+
+
+
x < 0, 0 sin(xy)
dy = 0 sin(|x|y)
dy = 0 sin(|x|y)
dy = A.
y
y
y

x > 0
A,
+ sin(xy)
. 0
dy g(x) = 0,
x = 0
y

A, x < 0
R. , , A > 0 , , g 0
, , (, 0) (0, +).
d
. . c f (x, y) dy g(x)
I

{
}
y
limyd sup g(x) c f (x, t) dt | x I = 0


y
, , > 0 c0 [c, d) g(x) c f (x, t) dt
x I, y (c0 , d).
+


. ,
d
c

..

f (x, y) dy = g(x) I

f (x, y) dy = g(x)

. ,
d
,

f (x, y) dy = g(x) x I , ,
c
y
limyd c f (x, t) dt = g(x) x I.
, y [c, d) gy : I R
y
gy (x) = c f (x, t) dt
x I.


}
{
y
sup g(x) c f (x, t) dt | x I = sup{|g(x) gy (x)| | x I} = kgy gkI .
: .
g(x) I

d
c

f (x, y) dy

lim kgy gkI = 0.

yd

d
11.17. . c f (x, y) dy g(x)
I, g(x) I.

425



y
. I. > 0.
c0 [c, d) g(x) c f (x, t) dt

y
x I, y (c0 , d). g() c f (, t) dt y (c0 , d).
y
d
limyd c f (, t) dt = g(), c f (, y) dy = g(). , I,
d
. c f (x, y) dy g(x)
I.
+
. . 0 exy dy
1
(0, +).
x
+
0

exy dy =

.. 1
x

(0, +).

,
(0, +).
1 ,
y xt
exy


x 0 e dt = x x > 0 y 0.

{
}
y
xy
sup x1 0 ext dt | x (0, +) = sup{ e x | x > 0} = +

{
}
y
y 0. limy+ sup x1 0 ext dt | x (0, +) = 0,
+
. 0 exy dy x1 (0, +).

, a > 0, .
+
xy
e
dy x1 [a, +). ,
0
+
0

1
x

exy dy =

[a, +) a > 0.


{
}
y
xy
sup x1 0 ext dt | x [a, +) = sup{ e x | x a} =

y > 0 , ,

{
}
y
limy+ sup x1 0 ext dt | x [a, +) = limy+

eay
a

eay
a

= 0.

(yn ) [c, d) yn d. gyn : I R



y
gyn (x) = c n f (x, t) dt
x I, n N.
d
, , . c f (x, y) dy

..
g(x) I, , , gyn g gyn g I.

g,
.
11.6. d R {+}, I f : I [c, d) R. f
d
I [c, d) . c f (x, y) dy g(x) I,
g : I R I.
. (yn ) [c, d) yn d. ,

y
gyn : I R gyn (x) = c n f (x, t) dt. gyn g I. f
I [c, yn ], I [c, d), , 11.4,
n N, gyn I. g I.

426

11.7. d R {+}, I f : I [c, d) R. f , f10


d
I [c, d), . c f10 (x, y) dy h(x)
d
I . c f (, y) dy I.
d
. c f (x, y) dy g(x) I
I, g I
g 0 (x) = h(x) x I.
.
y (yn ) [c, d) yn d gyn : I R gyn (x) = c n f (x,
yt)n dt.0
0
11.5, gyn (x) = c f1 (x, t) dt x I. ,

gyn 0 h I. , , (gyn ()) .


9.3 (gyn ) g
I I, g
I g 0 (x) = h(x) x I. ,
y
d
g(x) = limn+ gyn (x) = limn+ c n f (x, t) dt = c f (x, y) dy
d
x I. . c f (x, y) dy g(x)
I.
d
. c f (x, y) dy g(x) [a, b] I.
F : [c, d) R F (y) = kgy gk[a,b] .
d
, . c f (x, y) dy g(x) [a, b] limyd F (y) = 0. , (yn )
y
[c, d) yn d gyn (x) = c n f (x, t) dt x I.
(gyn ) g [a, b], F (yn ) = kgyn gk[a,b] 0.
3.4, limyd F (y) = 0.
11.6 11.7
. , ,
, Weierstrass
.
11.8. I, f : I [c, d) R F : [c, d) R
d
|f (x, y)| F (y) y [c, d), x I. . c F (y) dy ,
d
. c f (x, y) dy I.
d
. 11.12, x I . c f (x, y) dy .
d
g : I R g(x) = c f (x, y) dy. , , gy : I R
y
gy (x) = c f (x, t) dt.
d
. c f (x, y) dy g(x)
I , , limyd kgy gkI = 0.
y [c, d), x I
d
d
d
y
d
|g(x) gy (x)| = c f (x, t) dt c f (x, t) dt = y f (x, t) dt y |f (x, t)| dt y F (t) dt,

d
d
y
kgy gkI y F (t) dt = c F (t) dt c F (t) dt.
y
d
limyd c F (t) dt = c F (t) dt, limyd kgy gkI = 0.
427

+
. 1. . 0 ey sin(xy) dy x.
+
|ey sin(xy)| ey y [0, +), x R . 0 ey dy
+
: 0 ey dy < +.
+
, 11.8, . 0 ey sin(xy) dy
+

g(x) R. , 0 ey sin(xy) dy = g(x) R.


+ y
+
..
, 0 e sin(xy) dy = g(x) R , , g(x) = 0 ey sin(xy) dy
x.
ey sin(xy) R [0, +). , 11.6, g
R.
x ey sin(xy) yey cos(xy),
R [0, +).
|yey
cos(xy)| yey y [0, +), x R
+ ,
+
y
. 0 ye dy : 0 yey dy < +.
+
. 0 yey cos(xy) dy h(x)
+
+

R. , 0 yey cos(xy) dy = h(x) R. , . 0 ey sin(xy) dy


g(x) R, 11.7
+
g 0 (x) = h(x) = 0 yey cos(xy) dy
x.
+
, g(x) = 0 ey sin(xy) dy
:
+
+ y
+ ey
sin(xy) dy = limy+ ey sin(xy) + x 0 ey cos(xy) dy
e sin(xy) dy = 0 d dy
0
+ ey
cos(xy) dy
= x 0 d dy
+
= x limy+ ey cos(xy) + x x2 0 ey sin(xy)dy
+
= x x2 0 ey sin(xy)dy.
limy+ ey sin(xy) = limy+ ey cos(xy) = 0,
|ey sin(xy)| ey |ey cos(xy)| ey .

+ y
x
e sin(xy) dy = 1+x
2 .
0
, ,
7.3.2.
+
2. . 0 exy siny y dy x > 0.


+
exy siny y exy y (0, +), x (0, +). . 0 exy dy
+
: 0 exy dy < +.
+
, 11.12, . 0 exy siny y dy
x (0, +)
+
x (0, +).
g(x) = 0 exy siny y dy,
+
..
0 exy siny y dy = g(x) (0, +).
xy sin y
exy eay y (0, +) x [a, +).
a > 0. e
y
+
. 0 eay dy , , 11.8, . +
0 exy siny y dy g(x) [a, +).
428

, 0 exy siny y dy = g(x) [a, +) a > 0.


exy siny y [a, +) (0, +). , 11.6,
g [a, +). a > 0, g
(0, +).
x exy siny y exy sin y,
[a, +) (0, +). , | exy sin y| exy eay y
+
(0, +), x [a, +) . 0 eay dy . .
+
0 exy sin y dy h(x) [a, +).
+

, 0 exy sin y dy = h(x) [a, +) a > 0.


+
11.7 g 0 (x) = h(x) = 0 exy sin y dy x [a, +).
+
, g 0 (x) = x1 0 ey sin( xy ) dy, , ,
g 0 (x) = x21+1
x [a, +).
a > 0, g 0 (x) = x21+1 x > 0.
g 0 (x) = arctan0 x x > 0, c
g(x) = arctan x + c
x > 0.
,
|g(x)|

+
0

exy | siny y | dy

exy dy =

1
x

x > 0, limx+ g(x) = 0. 0 = limx+ arctan x + c, c =


+
0

exy siny y dy =

arctan x

x > 0.

y
F (y) = 0 sint t dt.
+
11.3.2, A = limy+ F (y) = 0
+
. limx0+ 0 exy siny y dy = A.
, F 0 (y) = siny y y > 0.

+
+
+
A 0 exy siny y dy = 0 (1 exy ) siny y dy = 0 (1 exy ) d (F (y)A)
dy
dy
+ xy
= x 0 e (F (y) A) dy,

sin t
t

dt

A + exy sin y dy x + exy |F (y) A| dy.


0

F [0, +) limy+ F (y) = A


. M 0 |F (y) A| M y 0.
> 0. y0 > 0 |F (y) A| < 4 y y0 .
limx0+ exy0 = 1, > 0 1 exy0 < 4M+1 x (0, ). ,
x (0, )

A + exy sin y dy x y0 exy |F (y) A| dy + x + exy |F (y) A| dy


y
0
0
y0
y0 xy
+ xy

Mx 0 e
dy + 4 x y0 e
dy
= M (1 exy0 ) + 4 exy0
429

<

+
, , limx0+ 0 exy siny y dy = A.
A = limx0+ ( 2 arctan x) = 2 ,
+
0

sin y
y

dy =

12 11.3
4 . , ,
5. ,
12 Dirichlet Abel.
.
+
2
1. 0 ey cos(2xy) dy x.
[]
+ y2 g(x) R. , 0 e cos(2xy) dy = g(x) R.
[] g(x)
R g 0 (x) + 2xg(x) = 0

2
x. , g(x) = 2 ex x.
2

: ex g(x) .
Gauss.
2. 7 11.3.
+ n (t)
[] , n N, . 1 tx+n+1
dt x
(n, +) , a > n,
[a, +).
[] (x) (, 1)(1, +)
(x 1)(x) (, +).
+
+
+
2
3. 0 sinxx dx = 2 , 0 sin xxcos x dx = 4 , 0 (sinxx)
dx = 2 ,
2
+ (sin x)4

4
+
dx = 4 , 0 (sinxx)
dx = 3 .
4
x2
0
+ 2
4. . 0 x2x+y2 siny y dy x 0.
[]
. g(x)
+
2
..
[0, +). , 0 x2x+y2 siny y dy = g(x) [0, +).
[] ,
a > 0, . g(x)
+
2

[0, a]. , 0 x2x+y2 siny y dy = g(x) [0, a] a > 0.


[] g(x) [0, +)
g 00 (x) g(x) = 2 x 0. g(x) = 2 (1 ex ) x 0.
+
[] 0 siny y dy = limx+ g(x) = 2 .
y
+ 2
+
y
: F (y) = 0 sint t dt, g(x) = 0 x2x+y2 F 0 (y) dy = 2x2 0 (x2 +y
2 )2 F (y) dy.

+ sin y
y
2 +
2x 0 (x2 +y2 )2 dy = 1. , 0
dy = A, |g(x) A|
y

+
+
y
0
y
y
y
2
2x2 0 (x2 +y
|F (y) A| dy + 2x2 y0 (x2 +y
2 )2 |F (y) A| dy = 2x
2 )2 |F (y)
0 (x2 +y 2 )2
A| dy. |F (y) A| M
M . y0 |F (y) A| 4

y
0
y

y y0 x 2x2 0 (x2 +y
2 )2 dy 4M +1 . |g(x) A| 4 + 4 < .
5. [] f : [0, +) R [0, +) limx+ f (x) = l.
+
limx+ x 0 exy f (y) dy = l.
430

+
+
y
: |x 0 exy f (y) dy l| x 0 exy |f (y)l| dy = x 0 0 exy |f (y)l| dy +
+
x y0 exy |f (y) l| dy 4[].
[] f : (0, 1] R (0, 1] limx0+ f (x) = l.
1
limx0+ x 0 y x1 f (y) dy = l.
+
6. . 0 1+xx2 y2 dy x.
[] . g(x) ,
, R.
[] , a > 0, g(x)
(, a] [a, +).
[] g(x);
+ cos y
7. [] 2 y+sin
dy x
x
R.
+ sin y
[] . 0 x+y
dy x 0
[0, +).
+
[] . 0 exy sin xy dy x > 0
(0, +).
{
1
0 x y 1
2 ,
8. [] f : [0, 1] [0, 1] R f (x, y) = y 1

x2 , 0 y < x 1
)
)
1 ( 1
1 ( 1
0 0 f (x, y) dy dx 6= 0 0 f (x, y) dx dy.
d
[] f : [a, b] [c, d] R [a, b] [c, d].

f (x, y) dy
c
)
b ( d
, x, [a, b]. a c f (x, y) dy dx. b
,

f (x,
a
) y) dx , y, [c, d].
d ( b
f (x, y) dx dy.
a
c
b(d
a

)
)
d(b
f (x, y) dy dx = c
f (x, y) dx dy.
a

[] d R{+}, f : [a, b][c, d) R [a, b][c, d) .


d
d
c f (x, y) dy [a, b].

f (x, y) dy
c
)
b ( d
, x, [a, b]. a c f (x, y) dy dx. b
, a f (x, y)( dx , ) y, [c, d).
d b
. c
f (x, y) dx dy
a
b ( d
a

)
f (x, y) dy dx =

d ( b
c

)
f (x, y) dx dy.

)
+ ( b xy )
b ( +
e
dx dy.
[] 0 < a < b, a 0 exy dy dx = 0
a
+ eay eby
0
dy.
y
)
)
1 ( +
+ ( 1
1
1
[] 0
dy
dx
=
dx
dy.
2
2
2
2
1+x +y
0
0 1+x +y
0

arctan(sin t)
02 sin t dt = 2 log(1 + 2).

431


9. . 02 cos(x sin y) dy x
g(x) R, g(x)
R Bessel 0,
xg 00 (x) + g 0 (x) + xg(x) = 0 x.
+
2
10. 0 ey cosh(xy) dy x.
[] . g(x)
R , a > 0, [a, a].
[] g R 2g 0 (x)xg(x) =
0 x.
[] g(x).
+
11. . 2 0 arctan(xt)t2arctan(yt) dt x, y > 0.
[] . g(x, y)
(0, +) (0, +).
[]

g(x, y) 1
2 +
1
0 0
(g1 )2 (x, y) = 0 (1+x2 t2 )(1+y2 t2 ) dt = x+y x, y > 0.
[] g(x, y) = (x + y) log(x + y) x log x y log y x, y > 0.
12. [] .
y
I, f, g : I [c, d) R F (x, y) = c f (x, t) dt x I, y [c, d)
f I [c, d) g20 I [c, d).
1. , x I, g(x, y) [c, d), y,
limyd g(x, y) = 0 I F I [c, d). .
d
c f (x, y)g(x, y) dy I.
2. , x I, g(x, y) [c, d), y,
d
I [c, d) . c f (x, y) dy
d
I. . c f (x, y)g(x, y) dy I.
: 11.2.
+
+
[] 0 siny y dy = 2 limx0+ 0 exy siny y dy =
+
A, A = 0 siny y dy. 2, f (x, y) = siny y g(x, y) = exy [0, +) [0, +).
13. Hermite 19
5.7.
1
x2
, , n (x) = Hn (x)e 2 = (2n n! ) 2 n (x).
[] [], [] 19 5.7
(i)

n+1 (x) = xn (x) n 0 (x),

(ii)

n 00 (x) = (x2 2n 2)n (x)

x n Z, n 0.
(
)
d
[] (ii) dx
m (x)n 0 (x) m 0 (x)n (x) = 2(m n)m (x)n (x)
+
x m, n Z, m, n 0. 2(m n) m (x)n (x) dx = 0
m, n Z, m, n 0 , ,
+

m, n Z, m, n 0, m 6= n.

m (x)n (x) dx = 0,
432

+
+
[] , 2 xn (x)n 0 (x) dx = (n (x))2 dx
n Z, n 0.
+
[] (i), (ii), [] (n+1 (x))2 dx =
+
2(n + 1) (n (x))2 dx n Z, n 0
+

(n+1 (x))2 dx =

(n (x))2 dx

+ n 2 Z, n 0. , Gauss
(0 (x)) dx = 1,

11.5

(n (x))2 dx = 1,

n Z, n 0.


+
0

y x1 ey dy

x (0, +). Euler.


Euler 8.
x > 1, y x1 ey
y [0, +).
11.2
+ x1
1 x1
y
. 1 y e dy . , 0 y ey dy
+
. , 0 y x1 ey dy
.
x 1, y x1 ey
y (0, +).
+ x1
1
y
x1 y
. 1 y e dy . 0 y e dy , , .
1
1
(- ) 0 y x1 ey dy 0 y x1 dy < +
+
0 < x 1. , 0 < x 1, . 0 y x1 ey dy
.
+
, , x > 0, . 0 y x1 ey dy .
+
, , n N, . 0 y x1 (log y)n ey dy. ,
y x1 (log y)n ey y (0, +) .
+
+
. . 1 y x1 (log y)n ey dy 1 y x+n1 ey dy < +.
1 x1

+ n s
1
+
1
, 0 y | log y|n ey dy 0 y x1 | log y|n dy = 0 tn ext dt = xn+1
s e ds < +
+ x1
01 x1
n y
x > 0. . 1 y (log y) e dy 0 y (log y)n ey dy
+
x > 0, 0 y x1 (log y)n ey dy .
+
+
11.2. x > 0, n N, . 0 y x1 ey dy 0 y x1 (log y)n ey dy
. , [a, b] (0, +).
. . x > 0.
, .

+
n = 0. , , . 0 y x1 (log y)n ey dy
+
..
g(x) (0, +). , 0 y x1 (log y)n ey dy = g(x) (0, +).
a, b 0 < a b < + x [a, b].
+
y 1, |y x1 (log y)n ey | y n+x1 ey y n+b1 ey , 1 y n+b1 ey dy < +,
+
. 1 y x1 (log y)n ey dy h(x)
433

[a, b]. , 1 y x1 (log y)n ey dy = h(x) [a, b].


1
0 < y 1, |y x1 (log y)n ey | y a1 | log y|n , 0 y a1 | log y|n dy < +, .
1
0 y x1 (log y)n ey dy q(x) [a, b].
1

, 0 y x1 (log y)n ey dy = q(x) [a, b].


+ x1
. 0 y (log y)n ey dy q(x)+h(x)
+

[a, b]. , 0 y x1 (log y)n ey dy = q(x) + h(x) [a, b].


+
..
0 y x1 (log y)n ey dy = q(x) + h(x) [a, b], q(x) + h(x) = g(x)
+

x [a, b]. 0 y x1 (log y)n ey dy = g(x) [a, b].


+
. 0 y x1 ey dy : (0, +) R
. ,
(x) =

+
0

y x1 ey dy

x (0, +).

.
11.18. (0, +)
+
(n) (x) = 0 y x1 (log y)n ey dy
x (0, +), n N.
. (0, +). a, b 0 < a < < b < +
y x1 ey
x, y x1 (log
y)ey ,
+

+
[a, b] (0, +). , . 0 y x1 ey dy 0 y x1 (log y)ey dy

- (x) - [a, b].
+ 1
0
11.7, () = 0 y (log y)ey dy.
y x1 (log y)ey x,

y x1 (log y)2 ey, [a, b] (0, +). .


+ x1
+
y (log y)ey dy 0 y x1 (log y)2 ey dy
0
+
[a, b]. 11.7, 00 () = 0 y 1 (log y)2 ey dy.
.
11.19. :
1. (x) > 0 x (0, +).
2. limx+ (x) = + limx0+ (x) = +.
3. (x + 1) = x(x) x (0, +).
4. (1) = 1 (n) = (n 1)! n N.
5. log (0, +).
+
. 1. y x1 ey > 0 y > 0, (x) = 0 y x1 ey dy 0.
, y x1 ey y = 1 1e > 0, ,
1
y [c, d].
, c, d, 0 < c < 1 < d < + y x1 ey 2e
d 1
dc
(x) c 2e dy = 2e > 0.
1
1
1
. limx0+ (x) = +.
2. x > 0 (x) 0 y x1 ey dy e1 0 y x1 dy = ex
+ x1 y

x1 + y
, x 1 (x) 2 y e dy 2
e dy = 2x1 e2 .
2
limx+ (x) = +.
3. , x (0, +)
+
+
(x + 1) = 0 y x ey dy = x 0 y x1 ey dy = x(x).
434

+
4. (1) = 0 ey dy = 1. (x + 1) = x(x), ,
(2) = 1(1) = 1, (3) = 2(2) = 2 1 = 2!, (4) = 3(3) = 3 2! = 3! , ,
(n) = (n 1)!.
5. x (0, +) t
+
t2 00 (x) + 2t0 (x) + (x) = 0 y x1 (t log y + 1)2 ey dy 0.
00 (x)(x) (0 (x))2 , , (log )00 (x) 0 x > 0.
(0, +)
N .
. , 9
1 Rn .
.
1.

1
0

(log y1 )x1 dy = (x) x > 0.

2. 11.19 00 (x)(x) (0 (x))2


log (x).
Schwarz, Buniakowsky 13 11.3.

+ x2

3.
Gauss,
e
dx
=
,
2
(1) 0
2 = .
(n + 12 ) =

(2n)!

4n n!

n Z, n 0.

4. x > 1.
+ ny x1
[] , a > 0, ( y)
y

n=1 e
y x1
ey 1 [a, +).
: n N, n x1
, y x1 eny y [a, +).
a
n

x1 eny
x1 ena
y x1
ky x1

, n N, n x1
,

e
y

= y ey 1
a ea 1

y
k=1
a
e 1
y [a, +).
b x1
b ny x1
+ ny x1

[] a eyy 1 dy = +
y
dy +
e y
dy , 0 < a <
n=1 a e
n=1 0
+ yx1
+ + ny x1
dy.
b < +. 0 ey 1 dy n=1 0 e y
+ x1
n + ky x1
e y
dy 0 eyy 1 dy .
[] n N
k=1 0
+ ny x1
+ x1

e y
dy 0 eyy 1 dy.
+
n=1 0

x1
: nk=1 eky y x1 eyy 1 .
[], []
+ +
n=1

eny y x1 dy =

+
0

y x1
ey 1

dy

x > 1.

+
.
[] n N 0 eny y x1 dy = (x)
nx
[] 2 11.4 7 11.3.
(x)(x) =

+
0

y x1
ey 1

435

dy

x > 1.

5. [] (1 ny )n ey n N 0 y n.
[] (1 ny )n ey [0, d] , ,
d x1
d x1 y
y n
y
(1

)
dy

y e dy d 0 x > 0.
n
0
0
+
[] > 0. d > 0 d y x1 ey dy < 3 . , n N d n,
n
+
n
d y x1 (1 ny )n dy d y x1 ey dy d y x1 ey dy < 3 .
[],

d x1

d
n0 N , n N, n n0 , 0 y (1 ny )n dy 0 y x1 ey dy < 3 .

+ x1 y
n x1
y n
, n N, n n0 , 0 y (1 n ) dy 0 y e dy < .
,
n x1
y (1 ny )n dy (x)
x > 0.
0
n
nx n!
[] 0 y x1 (1 ny )n dy = x(x+1)(x+n)
, , Gauss:
nx n!
x(x+1)(x+n)

(x)

x > 0.

Gauss x = 12 Wallis
11 7.3.
[] :
(x)(x + 12 ) =

12x
2
(2x)

x > 0.

[] Gauss,
log (x) = x log x +
= limn+ (1 + 12 + +
6.4.

1
n

+ ( x
n=1

)
log(1 + nx )

x > 0

log n) Euler 11

6. f : (0, +) R : (i) f (x) > 0 x (0, +), (ii)


f (1) = 1, (iii) f (x + 1) = xf (x) x (0, +) (iv) log f
(0, +).
nx n!
x(x+1)(x+n)
f (x) x (0, +).
f ,
, f =
Gauss .
: 0 < x 1. (ii), (iii) f (n) = (n 1)! n N.
n N, n 2, 1 + n < n < x + n 1 + n, (iv)
(log f )(1+n)(log f )(n)
1

(log f )(x+n)(log f )(n)


x

(log f )(1+n)(log f )(n)


.
1

, (n 1)x (n 1)! f (x + n) nx (n 1)! , (iii)


(n1)x (n1)!
x(x+1)(x+n1)

f (x)

nx (n1)!
x(x+1)(x+n1)

n n!
x(x+1)(x+n)
f (x) x (0, 1]. (iii)
x (1, 2], x (2, 3] .

436

7.
0 (x)
(x)

1
x

x
n=1 n(n+x)

x > 0

= limn+ (1 + 12 + + n1 log n) Euler 11


6.4.
: . 5[]
. . 0 < x 1 n N, n 2.
n < x + n 1 + n log (0 + ),
(log )(n)(log )(x+n)
x

(log )0 (x + n)

,
1
x

log (x+n)

(n1)!

0 (x+n)
(x+n)

(log )(1+n)(log )(x+n)


1x

1
1x

n!
log (x+n)
,

1
x

log (x)x(x+1)(x+n1)

(n1)!

0 (x)
(x)

1
x

1
x+1

+ +

1
x+n1

1
1x

n!
log (x)x(x+1)(x+n1)

Gauss 5,
log n ( x1 +

1
x+1

+ +

1
)
x+n

0 (x)
(x)

(log n 1 12 n1 )

1
x

+ (1

1
)
x+1

+ ( 21

x
n=1 n(n+x)

x
x+1

0 (x)
(x)

x
2(x+2)

+ +

x
n(x+n)

1
)
x+2

0 (x)
(x)

+ + ( n1

1
)
x+n

0 (x)
(x)

+ + x1 .

+ + x1 . x (1, 2], x (2, 3] .

8.
1
B(x, y) = 0 tx1 (1 t)y1 dt

x, y > 0.

Euler
.
[] B(x, y) = B(y, x) x, y > 0 B(x, 1) = x1 B(1, y) = y1
x, y > 0.
x
[] B(x + 1, y) = x+y
B(x, y) x, y > 0
.
[]
y > 0
x,
1 ,
1 x1
0
x1
y1
00
y1
B (x, y) = 0 t (1 t) log t dt B (x, y) = 0 t (1 t) (log t)2 dt. ,
log log B(x, y) ,
x ( y) (0, +).
1
B(x, y)(x + y) x (0, +).
[] y > 0, f (x) = (y)
f : (i) f (x) > 0 x (0, +), (ii)
f (1) = 1, (iii) f (x + 1) = xf (x) x (0, +) (iv) log f
(0, +). 6, f = ,
B(x, y) =

(x)(y)
(x+y)

13 7.3.
437

x, y > 0.

9. Vn 1 n- Rn .
: V1 = 2, V2 = , V3 = 4
.
3
[] k N, k 2. , Rk r > 0,
rk Vk . x1 [1, 1] Rk
0 1 x1 - x1

k1
Rk1 1 x1 2 , (1 x1 2 ) 2 Vk1 .
Vk = Vk1

1
1

(1 x1 2 )

k1
2

dx1 = Vk1

[] 7 , , ( 12 ) =
Vk = Vk1 B( k+1
, 12 ) = Vk1
2

1
0

(1 t)

k1
2

t 2 dt.
1

3,

( k+1
)( 12 )
2
( k2 +1)

Vk1

( k1
+1)
2
( k2 +1)

[] [] k = 2, . . . , n Vn =

n

Vn =

438

2
( n
+1)
2

n1
2

( 1 +1)

V1 ( n2 +1) .
2

439

II
.

440

441

12
.
12.1

Peano.

, N
. , , N ,
, Peano,
( ) N.
1. N , 1.
2. n N n0 N,
n.
3. n N n0 6= 1.
, 1 .
4. n, m N n0 = m0 , n = m.
, n, m N n 6= m, n0 6= m0 .
. K N : (i) 1 K
(ii) n K, n0 K. K = N.
2 n 7 n0 N
N. , 3 1
4 --.
12.1.1 .
12.1. n N n0 6= n.
. K n N n0 6= n. 1
3 1 K. n K. n N n0 6= n. 4
(n0 )0 6= n0 , , n0 K. K = N.
12.2. m N, m 6= 1 n N n0 = m.
. K 1 m N n N
n0 = m. , , 1 K. m K. m0 N n N
(: m) n0 = m0 . m0 K.
K = N. m N K, , m 6= 1, n N n0 = m.
4 n N n0 = m .
442

12.2 n 7 n0 N \ {1},
, ,
N N \ {1}.
12.1. : N N N : (i)
n N (n, 1) = n0 (ii) n, m N (n, m0 ) = ((n, m))0 .
. K n N : fn : N N
(i) fn (1) = n0 (ii) m N fn (m0 ) = (fn (m))0 .
, 1 K. , f1 : N N f1 (m) = m0 . (i)
f1 (1) = 10 (ii) m N f1 (m0 ) = (m0 )0 = (f1 (m))0 .
, n K. , fn : N N (i) fn (1) = n0
(ii) m N fn (m0 ) = (fn (m))0 . n0 K.
fn0 : N N fn0 (m) = (fn (m))0 . (i) fn0 (1) = (fn (1))0 = (n0 )0 (ii)
m N fn0 (m0 ) = (fn (m0 ))0 = ((fn (m))0 )0 = (fn0 (m))0 . n0 K.
K = N. n N fn : N N (i) fn (1) = n0
(ii) m N fn (m0 ) = (fn (m))0 .
, : N N N (n, m) = fn (m). : (i) (n, 1) =
fn (1) = n0 (ii) n, m N (n, m0 ) = fn (m0 ) = (fn (m))0 = ((n, m))0 .
(i), (ii) .
: N N N : (i) n N (n, 1) = n0 (ii)
n, m N (n, m0 ) = ((n, m))0 . n N K
m N : (n, m) = (n, m). 1 K, (n, 1) = n0 = (n, 1).
, m K, (n, m) = (n, m). (n, m0 ) = ((n, m))0 = ((n, m))0 =
(n, m0 ) , , m0 K. K = N. m N (n, m) = (n, m) ,
n N, (n, m) = (n, m) n, m N.
, .
. (n, m) N , 12.1, n, m
N n, m
n + m.
, n+m = (n, m). n, m N
N.
12.1 , :
n + 1 = (n, 1) = n0 , 1 + n = (1, n) = f1 (n) = n0 , n + m0 = (n, m0 ) = ((n, m))0 = (n + m)0
n0 + m = (n0 , m) = fn0 (m) = (fn (m))0 = ((n, m))0 = (n + m)0 . :
n + 1 = n0 = 1 + n,

n + m0 = (n + m)0 = n0 + m.

12.3. n, m N n + m = m + n.
. n N K m N : n + m = m + n.
n + 1 = n0 = 1 + n. 1 K. , m K, n + m = m + n.
n + m0 = (n + m)0 = (m + n)0 = m0 + n, m0 K.
K = N.
12.4. n, m, k N (n + m) + k = n + (m + k).

443

. n, m N K k N : (n + m) + k =
n + (m + k).
(n + m) + 1 = (n + m)0 = n + m0 = n + (m + 1). 1 K. , k K,
(n + m) + k = n + (m + k). (n + m) + k 0 = ((n + m) + k)0 = (n + (m + k))0 = n + (m + k)0 =
n + (m + k 0 ), k 0 K.
K = N.
,
12.3 12.4, ,
. : (m + n) +
(k + l) = ((n + l) + m) + k, (m + n) + (k + l) = (n + m) + (l + k) = ((n + m) + l) + k =
(n + (m + l)) + k = (n + (l + m)) + k = ((n + l) + m) + k. ,

. :
(m + n) + (k + l), ((n + l) + m) + k n + m + k + l ( n + l + k + m k + m + l + n
).
12.5. n, m N m 6= n + m.
. n N K m N : m 6= n + m.
1 6= n0 = n + 1, 1 K. , m K, m 6= n + m. m0 6= (n + m)0 =
n + m0 , m0 K.
K = N.
12.6. n, m, k N. m 6= k, n + m 6= n + k.
. m, k N, m 6= k K n N : n+m 6= n+k.
1 + m = m0 6= k 0 = 1 + k, 1 K. , n K, n + m 6= n + k.
n0 + m = (n + m)0 6= (n + k)0 = n0 + k, n0 K.
K = N.
12.7. n, m N : (i) n = m, (ii)
k N n = m + k (iii) k N m = n + k. k (ii), (iii)
.
. n N K m N
(i) (iii).
, 1 K. , n = 1, (i) 1. , n 6= 1,
k N n = k 0 = 1 + k, (ii) 1.
m K, (i) (iii) m. (i)
m, n = m, n + 1 = n0 = m0 , , (iii) m0 .
(ii) m, k N n = m + k. k = 1,
n = m + 1 = m0 , (i) m0 . k 6= 1, l N k = l0 ,
n = m + l0 = (m + l)0 = m0 + l , , (ii) m0 . ,
(iii) m, k N m = n + k. m0 = (n + k)0 = n + k 0 ,
(iii) m0 . , , m0
(i) (iii) , , m0 K.
K = N.
k (ii), (iii) 12.6.
(i), (ii) 12.5. , (i),
(iii) . (ii), (iii), n = m + k
m = n + l k, l Z, n = m + k = n + l + k = (l + k) + n,
12.5. (i) (iii).
444

12.1.2 .
. n, m N. k N n = m + k, n
m n > m , , m n
m < n.
n, m N. n > m, k N n = m + k
n, m
n m.
n, m N, n > m n m N.
12.8. n, m N : n = m, n > m,
n < m.
. 12.7.
. n, m N. n > m n = m , , m < n m = n, n
m n m , , m
n m n.
12.9. m, n, k N.
1. n < m m < k, n < k.
2. n m m < k n < m m k, n < k.
3. n m m k, n k.
. 1. n < m m < k. p, q N m = n + p k = m + q.
k = m + q = n + p + q = n + (p + q), n < k.
2 3. , 1.
12.10. n, m N n + m > n.
. .
12.11. m, n, k N. n < m n + k < m + k. ,
n = m n + k = m + k.
. n < m. l N m = n + l. m + k = n + l + k = (n + k) + l
, , n + k < m + k.
n + k < m + k. n = m, n + k = m + k , m < n, m + k < n + k.
. n < m.
, n = m, n + k = m + k. n + k = m + k. n < m, n + k < m + k
, m < n, m + k < n + k. .
n = m.
12.12.
1. n < m
2. n m
3. n m

m, n, k, l N.
k < l, n + k < m + l.
k < l n < m k l, n + k < m + l.
k l, n + k m + l.

. 1. n < m k < l. , 12.11, n+k < m+k < m+l.


2 3. , 1.
12.13. n N n 1.
445

. n = 1, n 1. n 6= 1, m N n = m0 = m + 1 > 1.
12.14. m, n N.
1. n > m, n m + 1.
2. n < m + 1, n m.
. 1. n > m, k N n = m + k. k 1, n m + 1.
2. , 1.
. - N .
. - M N m0 M . K n N
m m M .
, 1 K. m0 + 1 > m0 m0 M , m0 + 1 K. K
N, , , n0 K
n0 + 1 = n0 0
/ K.
, (i) n0 m m M . , n0 K. ,
n0
/ M . m M n0 < m , , n0 + 1 m. n0 + 1 K
. (ii) n0 M .
(i), (ii) n0 M .
12.1.3 .
12.2. : N N N : (i)
n N (n, 1) = n (ii) n, m N (n, m0 ) = (n, m) + n.
. K n N : fn : N N
(i) fn (1) = n (ii) m N fn (m0 ) = fn (m) + n.
, 1 K. , f1 : N N f1 (m) = m. (i)
f1 (1) = 1 (ii) m N f1 (m0 ) = m0 = m + 1 = f1 (m) + 1.
, n K. , fn : N N (i) fn (1) = n
(ii) m N fn (m0 ) = fn (m) + n. n0 K.
fn0 : N N fn0 (m) = fn (m) + m. (i) fn0 (1) = fn (1) + 1 = n + 1 = n0 (ii)
m N fn0 (m0 ) = fn (m0 ) + m0 = fn (m) + n + m0 = fn (m) + n0 + m = fn0 (m) + n0 .
n0 K.
K = N. n N fn : N N (i) fn (1) = n
(ii) m N fn (m0 ) = fn (m) + n.
, : N N N (n, m) = fn (m). : (i) (n, 1) =
fn (1) = n (ii) n, m N (n, m0 ) = fn (m0 ) = fn (m) + n = (n, m) + n.
(i), (ii) .
: N N N : (i) n N (n, 1) = n (ii)
n, m N (n, m0 ) = (n, m)+n. n N K
m N : (n, m) = (n, m). 1 K, (n, 1) = n = (n, 1). ,
m K, (n, m) = (n, m). (n, m0 ) = (n, m) + n = (n, m) + n = (n, m0 )
, , m0 K. K = N. m N (n, m) = (n, m) ,
n N, (n, m) = (n, m) n, m N.
, .
. (n, m) N , 12.2, n, m
N n, m
n m.
446

, n m = (n, m). n, m N
N.
12.2 , :
n 1 = (n, 1) = n, 1 n = (1, n) = f1 (n) = n, n m0 = (n, m0 ) = (n, m) + n = n m + n
n0 m = (n0 , m) = fn0 (m) = fn (m) + m = (n, m) + m = n m + m. :
n 1 = n = 1 n,

n m0 = n m + n,

n0 m = n m + m.

n m nm
n1 = n = 1n,

nm0 = nm + n,

n0 m = nm + m.

12.15. n, m N nm = mn.
. n N K m N : nm = mn.
n1 = n = 1n. 1 K. , m K, nm = mn. nm0 = nm + n =
mn + n = m0 n, m0 K.
K = N.
12.16. n, m, k N n(m + k) = nm + nk.
. n, m N K k N : n(m+k) = nm+nk.
n(m + 1) = nm0 = nm + n = nm + n1. 1 K. , k K,
n(m + k) = nm + nk. n(m + k 0 ) = n(m + k)0 = n(m + k) + n = nm + nk + n = nm + nk 0 ,
k 0 K.
K = N.
12.17. n, m, k N (nm)k = n(mk).
. n, m N K k N : (nm)k = n(mk).
(nm)1 = nm = n(m1). 1 K. , k K, (nm)k = n(mk).
(nm)k 0 = (nm)k + nm = n(mk) + nm = n(mk + m) = n(mk 0 ), k 0 K.
K = N.
, ,
12.15 12.17, ,
.
12.18. m, n, k N. n < m nk < mk. , n = m
nk = mk.
. n < m. l N m = n + l. mk = nk + lk , ,
nk < mk.
nk < mk. n = m, nk = mk , m < n, mk < nk.
. n < m.
, n = m, nk = mk. nk = mk. n < m, nk < mk , m < n,
mk < nk. . n = m.
12.19.
1. n < m
2. n m
3. n m

m, n, k, l N.
k < l, nk < ml.
k < l n < m k l, nk < ml.
k l, nk ml.

. 1. n < m k < l. , 12.18, nk < mk < ml.


2 3. , 1.
447

12.2

(n1 , n2 ), N N.
(n1 , n2 ), (m1 , m2 )
(n1 , n2 ) (m1 , m2 )
n1 m2 = m1 n2 .
12.20. (n1 , n2 ), (m1 , m2 ), (k1 , k2 ) N N.
1. (n1 , n2 ) (n1 , n2 ).
2. (n1 , n2 ) (m1 , m2 ), (m1 , m2 ) (n1 , n2 ).
3. (n1 , n2 ) (m1 , m2 ) (m1 , m2 ) (k1 , k2 ), (n1 , n2 ) (k1 , k2 ).
. 1. n1 n2 = n1 n2 , (n1 , n2 ) (n1 , n2 ).
2. (n1 , n2 ) (m1 , m2 ), n1 m2 = m1 n2 . m1 n2 = n1 m2 ,
(m1 , m2 ) (n1 , n2 ).
3. (n1 , n2 ) (m1 , m2 ) (m1 , m2 ) (k1 , k2 ), n1 m2 = m1 n2 m1 k2 = k1 m2 .
n1 m2 m1 k2 = m1 n2 k1 m2 , n1 k2 = k1 n2 . (n1 , n2 ) (k1 , k2 ).
. , ,
N N : ,
, ,
, .
Q+ . r
(, ), r
r. ,
- .
12.2.1 .
. (n1 , n2 ), (m1 , m2 ) NN. (n1 , n2 ) (m1 , m2 )
(n1 , n2 )  (m1 , m2 ) , , (m1 , m2 ) (n1 , n2 )
(m1 , m2 ) (n1 , n2 ) n1 m2 > m1 n2 , , m1 n2 < n1 m2 .
12.21. (n1 , n2 ), (m1 , m2 ), (k1 , k2 ), (l1 , l2 ) N N. (n1 , n2 )  (m1 , m2 ),
(n1 , n2 ) (k1 , k2 ), (m1 , m2 ) (l1 , l2 ), (k1 , k2 )  (l1 , l2 ).
. (n1 , n2 )  (m1 , m2 ), (n1 , n2 ) (k1 , k2 ) (m1 , m2 ) (l1 , l2 ). n1 m2 >
m1 n2 , n1 k2 = k1 n2 m1 l2 = l1 m2 . k1 n2 m1 l2 = l1 m2 n1 k2 > l1 k2 n2 m1 . k1 l2 > l1 k2
, , (k1 , k2 )  (l1 , l2 ).
12.21 r
s, r
s. , , .
. r, s Q+ . r s r > s ,
, s r s < r (n1 , n2 )  (m1 , m2 )
(, , ) (n1 , n2 ) r (,
, ) (m1 , m2 ) s.
12.22. r, s Q+ : r = s, r > s,
r < s.
448

. (n1 , n2 ), (m1 , m2 ) r, s, .
, r = s, r > s, r < s
(n1 , n2 ) (m1 , m2 ), (n1 , n2 )  (m1 , m2 ), (n1 , n2 ) (m1 , m2 )
n1 m2 = m1 n2 , n1 m2 > m1 n2 , n1 m2 < m1 n2 .
. , r s r s ,
, s r s r r > s r = s
, , s < r s = r.
12.23. r, s, t Q+ .
1. r < s s < t, r < t.
2. r s s < t r < s s t, r < t.
3. r s s t, r t.
. 1. r < s s < t. (n1 , n2 ), (m1 , m2 ), (k1 , k2 )
r, s, t, . (n1 , n2 ) (m1 , m2 ) (m1 , m2 ) (k1 , k2 ), n1 m2 <
m1 n2 m1 k2 < k1 m2 . n1 m2 m1 k2 < m1 n2 k1 m2 , , n1 k2 < k1 n2 .
(n1 , n2 ) (k1 , k2 ), r < t.
2 3. , 1.
12.24. 1. r Q+ s Q+ s > r.
2. r Q+ s Q+ s < r.
3. r, s Q+ , r < s t Q+ r < t < s.
. 1. r Q+ (n1 , n2 ) r.
(n1 +n1 , n2 ) s Q+ , (n1 +n1 , n2 ) . (n1 +n1 , n2 ) 
(n1 , n2 ) (n1 + n1 )n2 = n1 n2 + n1 n2 > n1 n2 . s > r.
2. r Q+ (n1 , n2 ) r. (n1 , n2 +n2 )
s Q+ , (n1 , n2 + n2 ) . (n1 , n2 + n2 ) (n1 , n2 )
n1 (n2 + n2 ) = n1 n2 + n1 n2 > n1 n2 . s < r.
3. r, s Q+ , r < s (n1 , n2 ) (m1 , m2 ) r, s,
. , (n1 , n2 ) (m1 , m2 ), n1 m2 < m1 n2 .
(n1 + m1 , n2 + m2 ) t Q+ , (n1 + m1 , n2 + m2 ) .
n1 m2 < m1 n2 n1 n2 + n1 m2 < n1 n2 + m1 n2 , n1 (n2 + m2 ) <
(n1 + m1 )n2 . (n1 , n2 ) (n1 + m1 , n2 + m2 ) , , r < t.
n1 m2 < m1 n2 n1 m2 + m1 m2 < m1 n2 + m1 m2 , (n1 + m1 )m2 <
m1 (n2 + m2 ). (n1 + m1 , n2 + m2 ) (m1 , m2 ) , , t < s.
12.2.2 .
. (n1 , n2 ), (m1 , m2 ) N N.
(n1 , n2 ) + (m1 , m2 ) (n1 m2 + m1 n2 , n2 m2 ).
12.25. (n1 , n2 ), (m1 , m2 ), (k1 , k2 ), (l1 , l2 ) N N. (n1 , n2 ) (k1 , k2 )
(m1 , m2 ) (l1 , l2 ), (n1 , n2 ) + (m1 , m2 ) (k1 , k2 ) + (l1 , l2 ).
. (n1 , n2 ) (k1 , k2 ) (m1 , m2 ) (l1 , l2 ). n1 k2 = k1 n2 m1 l2 = l1 m2 .
(n1 , n2 )+(m1 , m2 ) (k1 , k2 )+(l1 , l2 ) , , (n1 m2 +m1 n2 , n2 m2 )
(k1 l2 + l1 k2 , k2 l2 ), (n1 m2 + m1 n2 )k2 l2 = (k1 l2 + l1 k2 )n2 m2 . , ,
n1 k2 = k1 n2 m1 l2 = l1 m2 .

449

12.25 . r
s .
t.
r s,
, t. , ,
.
. r, s Q+ . r, s
r+s
(n1 , n2 ) + (m1 , m2 ) (,
, ) (n1 , n2 ) r (, , )
(m1 , m2 ) s. r, s Q+ r + s
Q+ .
12.26. r, s Q+ r + s = s + r.
. (n1 , n2 ), (m1 , m2 ) r, s, . (n1 , n2 ) +
(m1 , m2 ) = (n1 m2 + m1 n2 , n2 m2 ) r + s (m1 , m2 ) + (n1 , n2 ) =
(m1 n2 + n1 m2 , m2 n2 ) s + r. (n1 m2 +
m1 n2 , n2 m2 ) (m1 n2 + n1 m2 , m2 n2 ). , , ,
.
12.27. r, s, t Q+ (r + s) + t = r + (s + t).
. (n1 , n2 ), (m1 , m2 ) (k1 , k2 ) r, s t, .
((n1 , n2 ) + (m1 , m2 )) + (k1 , k2 ) = (n1 m2 + m1 n2 , n2 m2 ) + (k1 , k2 ) = (n1 m2 k2 + m1 n2 k2 +
k1 n2 m2 , n2 m2 k2 ) (r + s) + t (n1 , n2 ) + ((m1 , m2 ) + (k1 , k2 )) =
(n1 , n2 ) + (m1 k2 + k1 m2 , m2 k2 ) = (n1 m2 k2 + m1 k2 n2 + k1 m2 n2 , n2 m2 k2 )
r + (s + t). (n1 m2 k2 + m1 n2 k2 + k1 n2 m2 , n2 m2 k2 ) (n1 m2 k2 +
m1 k2 n2 + k1 m2 n2 , n2 m2 k2 ). , , , .
, 12.26
12.27, ,
.
12.28. r, s Q+ r + s > r.
. (n1 , n2 ), (m1 , m2 ) r, s, . (n1 , n2 ) +
(m1 , m2 ) = (n1 m2 + m1 n2 , n2 m2 ) r + s, ,
r + s > r, (n1 m2 + m1 n2 , n2 m2 )  (n1 , n2 ) , , n1 m2 n2 +
m1 n2 n2 > n1 n2 m2 , .
12.29. r, s, t Q+ . r < s r + t < s + t. , r = s
r + t = s + t.
. r < s (n1 , n2 ), (m1 , m2 ), (k1 , k2 ) r, s, t, .
(n1 , n2 ) (m1 , m2 ) , , n1 m2 < m1 n2 . (n1 , n2 )+(k1 , k2 ) = (n1 k2 +k1 n2 , n2 k2 ),
(m1 , m2 ) + (k1 , k2 ) = (m1 k2 + k1 m2 , m2 k2 ) r + t, s + t, .
, r + t < s + t (n1 k2 + k1 n2 , n2 k2 )
(m1 k2 + k1 m2 , m2 k2 ) , , n1 k2 m2 k2 + k1 n2 m2 k2 < m1 k2 n2 k2 + k1 m2 n2 k2 . ,
450

, n1 m2 < m1 n2 .
r + t < s + t. r = s, r + t = s + t , s < r, s + t < r + t.
. r < s.
, r = s, r + t = s + t. r + t = s + t. r < s, r + t < s + t ,
s < r, s + t < r + t. . r = s.
12.30. r, s, t, u Q+ .
1. r < s t < u, r + t < s + u.
2. r s t < u r < s t u, r + t < s + u.
3. r s t u, r + t s + u.
. 1. r < s t < u. , r + t < s + t < s + u.
2 3. , 1.
12.31. r, s Q+ . r < s, t Q+ r + t = s.
, r s, t Q+ r + t = s.
. r < s (n1 , n2 ), (m1 , m2 ) r, s, .
(n1 , n2 ) (m1 , m2 ) , , n1 m2 < m1 n2 . k N
n1 m2 + k = m1 n2 . t Q+ (k, n2 m2 ).
r + t (n1 , n2 ) + (k, n2 m2 ) = (n1 n2 m2 + kn2 , n2 n2 m2 ) ,
r + t = s, (n1 n2 m2 + kn2 , n2 n2 m2 ) (m1 , m2 ) ,
, n1 n2 m2 m2 + kn2 m2 = m1 n2 n2 m2 . , , n1 m2 + k =
m1 n 2 .
t 12.29.
r + t = s s > r. , r s, t Q+
r + t = s.
. r, s Q+ , r < s, t Q+ r + t = s
s, r
s r.
r, s Q+ , r < s s r Q+ .
12.2.3 .
. (n1 , n2 ), (m1 , m2 ) N N.
(n1 , n2 ) (m1 , m2 ) (n1 m1 , n2 m2 ).
12.32. (n1 , n2 ), (m1 , m2 ), (k1 , k2 ), (l1 , l2 ) N N. (n1 , n2 ) (k1 , k2 )
(m1 , m2 ) (l1 , l2 ), (n1 , n2 ) (m1 , m2 ) (k1 , k2 ) (l1 , l2 ).
. (n1 , n2 ) (k1 , k2 ) (m1 , m2 ) (l1 , l2 ). n1 k2 = k1 n2 m1 l2 =
l1 m2 . n1 k2 m1 l2 = k1 n2 l1 m2 , , (n1 m1 , n2 m2 ) (k1 l1 , k2 l2 ),
(n1 , n2 ) (m1 , m2 ) (k1 , k2 ) (l1 , l2 ).
12.32 .
r s .
t.
r s,
t. , , .

451

. r, s Q+ . r, s
rs
(n1 , n2 )(m1 , m2 ) (, ,
) (n1 , n2 ) r (, , ) (m1 , m2 )
s. r, s Q+ r s
Q+ .
, rs r s.
12.33. r, s Q+ rs = sr.
. (n1 , n2 ), (m1 , m2 ) r, s, . (n1 , n2 )(m1 , m2 ) =
(n1 m1 , n2 m2 ) rs (m1 , m2 )(n1 , n2 ) = (m1 n1 , m2 n2 ) sr. (n1 m1 , n2 m2 ) (m1 n1 , m2 n2 ). , ,
, .
12.34. r, s, t Q+ (rs)t = r(st).
. (n1 , n2 ), (m1 , m2 ), (k1 , k2 ), , r, s, t.
((n1 , n2 )(m1 , m2 ))(k1 , k2 ) = (n1 m1 , n2 m2 )(k1 , k2 ) = (n1 m1 k1 , n2 m2 k2 )
(rs)t (n1 , n2 )((m1 , m2 )(k1 , k2 )) = (n1 , n2 )(m1 k1 , m2 k2 ) = (n1 m1 k1 , n2 m2 k2 ) r(st). (n1 m1 k1 , n2 m2 k2 ) (n1 m1 k1 , n2 m2 k2 ). ,
, , .
12.33
12.34, , .
12.35. r, s, t Q+ r(s + t) = rs + rt.
. (n1 , n2 ), (m1 , m2 ), (k1 , k2 ) , , r, s, t.
(n1 , n2 )((m1 , m2 ) + (k1 , k2 )) = (n1 m1 k2 + n1 k1 m2 , n2 m2 k2 ) r(s + t)
(n1 , n2 )(m1 , m2 ) + (n1 , n2 )(k1 , k2 ) = (n1 m1 n2 k2 + n1 k1 n2 m2 , n2 m2 n2 k2 ) rs + rt. , r(s + t) = rs + rt,
(n1 m1 k2 + n1 k1 m2 , n2 m2 k2 ) (n1 m1 n2 k2 + n1 k1 n2 m2 , n2 m2 n2 k2 ).
(n1 m1 k2 + n1 k1 m2 )n2 m2 n2 k2 = (n1 m1 n2 k2 + n1 k1 n2 m2 )n2 m2 k2 , .
12.36. r, s, t Q+ . r < s rt < st. , r = s
rt = st.
. r < s (n1 , n2 ), (m1 , m2 ), (k1 , k2 ) r, s, t, .
(n1 , n2 ) (m1 , m2 ) , , n1 m2 < m1 n2 . (n1 , n2 )(k1 , k2 ) = (n1 k1 , n2 k2 ),
(m1 , m2 )(k1 , k2 ) = (m1 k1 , m2 k2 ) rt, st, . rt < st (n1 k1 , n2 k2 ) (m1 k1 , m2 k2 ) , ,
n1 k1 m2 k2 < m1 k1 n2 k2 . , , n1 m2 < m1 n2 .
rt < st. r = s, rt = st , s < r, st < rt.
. r < s.
, r = s, rt = st. rt = st. r < s, rt < st , s < r,
st < rt. . r = s.
452

12.37. r, s, t, u Q+ .
1. r < s t < u, rt < su.
2. r s t < u r < s t u, rt < su.
3. r s t u, rt su.
. 1. r < s t < u. rt < st < su.
2 3. , 1.
12.38. r, s Q+ . T t Q+ rt = s.
. (n1 , n2 ), (m1 , m2 ), , r, s. t
Q+ , (m1 n2 , n1 m2 ). (n1 , n2 )(m1 n2 , n1 m2 ) =
(n1 m1 n2 , n2 n1 m2 ) rt. , rt = s,
(n1 m1 n2 , n2 n1 m2 ) (m1 , m2 ) , , n1 m1 n2 m2 = m1 n2 n1 m2 ,
.
t 12.36.
. r, s Q+ , t Q+ rt = s
s, r
s
.
r
r, s Q+ rs Q+ .
12.2.4 .
. n N (n, 1)
n . r Q+ , r = n n N
. Z+ . , Z+ = {n | n N}
Z+ Q+ .
12.39. n, m N. n < m n < m . , n = m
n = m .
. n m (n, 1) (m, 1), . n < m
(n, 1) (m, 1) n1 < m1. , n = m
(n, 1) (m, 1) n1 = m1.
12.39 r Z+
n N r = n .
12.40. r, s Q+ . n N nr > s.
. t = rs Q+ , tr = s. (n1 , n2 )
t n = n1 + 1. n2 1, nn2 n > n1 = n1 1,
(n, 1)  (n1 , n2 ). n > t , , nr > tr = s.
12.41. r Q+ . n1 , n2 N r =
(n1 , n2 ) r r = nn12 .

n1
n2

. ,

. (n1 , n2 ) r Q+ . (n1 , 1) (n2 , 1)


n1 n2 , . (n2 , 1)(n1 , n2 ) = (n2 n1 , n2 )
n2 r , , (n2 n1 , n2 ) (n1 , 1), n2 r = n1 . r = nn12 .
, n1 , n2 N r = nn12 , n2 r = n1 . (m1 , m2 ) r, o (n2 , 1)(m1 , m2 ) = (n2 m1 , m2 ) n2 r,
(n2 m1 , m2 ) (n1 , 1) , , n2 m1 = n1 m2 , , (n1 , n2 ) (m1 , m2 ).
(n1 , n2 ) r.
453

12.42. n, m, k N.
1. n + m = k n + m = k .
2. nm = k n m = k .
. 1. (n, 1), (m, 1), (k, 1) n , m , k . (n, 1) + (m, 1) =
(n1 + m1, 11) = (n + m, 1) n + m . n + m = k
(n + m, 1) (k, 1) (n + m)1 = k1 n + m = k.
2. (n, 1)(m, 1) = (nm, 11) = (nm, 1) n m . n m = k
(nm, 1) (k, 1) nm1 = k1 nm = k.
12.42 :
. , n + m n , m
k , k = n + m. , n + m = n + m . ,
n m n , m k , k = nm. ,
n m = nm .
12.39 12.42 .
n N n Z+ , ,
n Z+ n N.
N
Z+ . : (i) n < m
n < m n = m n = m , (ii) n + m = k
n + m = k (iii) nm = k n m = k .
N Z+ , , Z+
N ,
.
: n n .
. , n
n , , N Z+ . , ,
n N,
n n Z+ . ,
N, Z+ Z+
Z+ . , ,
N, Z+ , N
Q+ .
, 12.40 n n
: r, s n nr > s. ,
, :
r, s n nr > s.
. 12.41 : r nn21
, ,
r nn12 .
, 12.41
.

12.3

. x Q+ ,
: (i) x Q+ , (ii) x
454

Q+ x (iii) x
, x x.
R+ .
: ( ) .
. (i) (iii), , , , Dedekind.
.
12.43. x R+ .
1. r, s Q+ : r
/ x s > r, s
/ x.
2. r, s Q+ : r x s < r, s x.
3. r x s x, s > r.
. 1, 2 (ii) x. 3
(iii) x.
. x R+ . (ii) x, x
x x x.
Q+ ,
(i) (iii), : (i)
, (ii)
,
(iii) ,
.
12.3.1 .
. x, y R+ , y x y > x , ,
x y x < y y x , , x y.
:
.
12.44. x, y R+ . x < y r Q+ r y
r
/ x.
. x < y, x y. r Q+ r y r
/ x.
r Q+ r y r
/ x. s x. s < r , , s y.
x y , r, x y.
12.45. x, y R+ : x = y, x > y,
x < y.
. x = y, x > y, x < y , , x = y, x y, x y,
.
x 6= y. (i) r Q+ r y r
/ x (ii) r Q+
r x r
/ y. (i) , 12.44, x < y
(ii) , , x > y.

455

. x, y R+ , y x y x
, , x y x y y > x
y = x , , x < y x = y. , y x , , x y
y x , , x y.
12.46. x, y, z R+ .
1. x < y y < z, x < z.
2. x y y < z x < y y z, x < z.
3. x y y z, x z.
. 1. x < y y < z. x y y z , , x z. x < z.
2 3. .
12.3.2 .
12.3. x, y R+ . z = {r + s | r x, s y}
, R+ . , t, u Q+ , t
/ x, u
/ y t + u
/ z.
. r x, s y , , r + s z. z . ,
t, u Q+ , t
/ x, u
/ y. , r x, s y r < t, s < u,
r + s < t + u. z 6= t + u, t + u
/ z. z
(i) .
, , t, u Q+ , t
/ x, u
/ y t + u
/ z.
z. r + s, r x, s y.
t
t
t Q+ , t < r + s. r+s
(r + s) = t < r + s = 1(r + s), r+s
< 1.
t
t
t
t
r r+s < r1 = r s r+s < s1 = s. r r+s x s r+s y , ,
t
t
t
t
t
r r+s
+ s r+s
z. , r r+s
+ s r+s
= (r + s) r+s
= t, t z. z
(ii) .
, z. r + s, r x, s y.
t x, u y r < t, s < u. r + s < t + u t + u z.
z (iii) .
z R+ .
. x, y R+ . z R+ 12.3
x, y
x + y.
, x + y = {r + s | r x, s y}. x, y R+
x + y R+ .
12.47. x, y R+ x + y = y + x.
. x + y = {r + s | r x, s y} = {s + r | s y, r x} = y + x.
12.48. x, y, z R+ (x + y) + z = x + (y + z).
. x + y = {r + s | r x, s y} y + z = {s + t | s y, t z}. (x + y) + z =
{(r + s) + t | r x, s y, t z} = {r + (s + t) | r x, s y, t z} = x + (y + z).


.
456

12.49. t Q+ x R+ . r x, s Q+ , s
/ x s r = t.
. r1 x s1 Q+ , s1
/ x. s1 > r1 , s1 r1 Q+ .
12.40, n N nt > s1 r1 , r1 + nt > s1 .
{n N | r1 + nt
/ x} , n0 .
n0 = 1, r = r1 , s = r1 + n0 t = r1 + t, r x, s Q+ , s
/ x
s r = t. n0 > 1, r = r1 + (n0 1)t x, s = r1 + n0 t
/ x, r x,
s Q+ , s
/ x s r = t.
12.50. x, y R+ x + y > x.
. t y. 12.49, r x, s Q+ , s
/ x
s r = t. , r + t = s
/ x r + t x + y. , 12.44,
x < x + y.
12.51. x, y, z R+ . x < y x + z < y + z. , x = y
x + z = y + z.
. x < y. t1
/ x, t1 y. , t2 y, t2 > t1 ,
t2 t1 Q+ . 12.49, r z, s Q+ , s
/ z s r = t2 t1 .
t = t1 + s = t2 + r. t2 y, r z, t y + z. t1
/ x, s
/ z,
t
/ x + z. x + z < y + z.
x + z < y + z. x = y, x + z = y + z , y < x, y + z < x + z.
. x < y.
, x = y, x + z = y + z. x + z = y + z. x < y, x + z < y + z ,
y < x, y + z < x + z. . x = y.
12.52. x, y, z, w R+ .
1. x < y z < w, x + z < y + w.
2. x y z < w x < y z w, x + z < y + w.
3. x y z w, x + z y + w.
. 1. x < y z < w. x + z < y + z < y + w.
2 3. , 1.
12.53. x, y R+ . x < y, z R+ x + z = y. ,
x y, z R+ x + z = y.
. , x + z > x. , z
12.51.
x < y. z = {s r | s y, r
/ x, s > r} z R+
x + z = y.
t1
/ x, t1 y. , t2 y, t2 > t1 . t2 t1 z. , t Q+ ,
t
/ y. s y, r
/ x, s > r, s r < (s r) + r = s < t. t
/ z. z
(i) .
s r z, s y, r
/ x, s > r. t Q+ , t < s r. t + r <
(s r) + r = s, t + r y. , t + r > r. t = (t + r) r z. z
(ii) .
, s r z, s y, r
/ x, s > r. t y, t > s, t > r.
t r = (t s) + (s r) > s r t r z. z (iii)
.
z R+ .
457

, x + z y. r1 + (s r) x + z,
r1 x, s y, r
/ x, s > r. (r1 + (s r)) + (r r1 ) = s r > r1 ,
r1 + (s r) < s. r1 + (s r) y.
, y x + z. (i) s y, s
/ x. s1 y, s1 > s. ,
r x, s2 Q+ , s2
/ x s2 r = s1 s. s = r + (s1 s2 ), r x,
s1 y, s2
/ x s1 > s2 ( s1 = s2 + (s r) s > r). s x + z. (ii) s y,
s x. s1 y, s1
/ x s < s1 . (i) s1 x + z. s x + z.
x + z y y x + z x + z = y.
. x, y R+ , x < y, z R+ x + z = y
y, x
y x.
x, y R+ , x < y y x R+ .
12.3.3 .
12.4. x, y R+ . z = {rs | r x, s y} ,
R+ . , t, u Q+ , t
/ x, u
/ y tu
/ z.
. r x, s y , , rs z. z . ,
t, u Q+ , t
/ x, u
/ y. , r x, s y r < t, s < u, rs < tu.
z 6= tu, tu
/ z. z (i)
.
, , t, u Q+ , t
/ x, u
/ y tu
/ z.
z. rs, r x, s y.
t Q+ , t < rs. r rt = t < rs, rt < s. rt y , , t = r rt z.
z (ii) .
, z. rs, r x, s y. t x,
u y r < t, s < u. rs < tu tu z. z
(iii) .
z R+ .
. x, y R+ . z R+ 12.4
x, y
x y.
, x y = {rs | r x, s y}. x, y R+
x y R+ .
x y, , xy.
12.54. x, y R+ xy = yx.
. xy = {rs | r x, s y} = {sr | s y, r x} = yx.
12.55. x, y, z R+ (xy)z = x(yz).
. xy = {rs | r x, s y} yz = {st | s y, t z}. (xy)z = {(rs)t | r
x, s y, t z} = {r(st) | r x, s y, t z} = x(yz).


.
458

12.56. x, y, z R+ x(y + z) = xy + xz.


. x(y + z) r(s + t), r x, s y, t z.
, r(s + t) = rs + rt xy + xz. x(y + z) xy + xz.
xy + xz r1 s + r2 t, r1 , r2 x, s y, t z.
r r1 , r2 . r x rs r1 s, rt r2 t,
r(s + t) r1 s + r2 t. r(s + t) x(y + z), r1 s + r2 t x(y + z).
xy + xz x(y + z).
x(y + z) = xy + xz.
12.57. x, y, z R+ . x < y xz < yz. , x = y
xz = yz.
. x < y. 12.53, w R+ x + w = y.
yz = (x + w)z = xz + wz > xz.
xz < yz. x = y, xz = yz , y < x, yz < xz.
. x < y.
, x = y, xz = yz. xz = yz. x < y, xz < yz , y < x,
yz < xz. . x = y.
12.58. x, y, z, w R+ .
1. x < y z < w, xz < yw.
2. x y z < w x < y z w, xz < yw.
3. x y z w, xz yw.
. 1. x < y z < w. xz < yz < yw.
2 3. , 1.
12.59. r Q+ . r = {s Q+ | s < r} ,
R+ .
. s Q+ , s < r , , r r . r
(i) .
s r t Q+ , t < s. s < r, t < r , , t r . r
(ii) .
s r . s Q+ , s < r. s1 Q+ s < s1 < r. s1 r
s1 > s. r (iii) .
12.60. x R+ x1 = x.
. x1 . rs, r x, s Q+ , s < 1.
rs Q+ rs < r1 = r, rs x. x1 x.
r x. r1 x, r1 > r. rr1 r1 = r < r1 = 1r1 , rr1 < 1 , ,
r
1 . r = r1 rr1 x1 . x x1 .
r1
x1 = x.
12.61. x R+ y R+ xy = 1 .
. y 12.57.
s Q+ , s
/ x, y = { 1s | s Q+ , s
/ x}.
/ x, s 6= s0 }.
s Q+ , s
/ x s0 , y = { 1s | s Q+ , s
s Q+ , s
/ x. s + s Q+ , s + s > s, s + s
/ x s + s
459

1
s0 ( ). s+s
y. , r x.
1
s Q+ , s
/ x s 6= r , s s = 1 = r 1r , 1r 6= 1s . 1r
y. y (i) .
1s y, s Q+ , s
/ x. r < 1s . r 1r = 1 = 1s s,
s < 1r . 1r Q+ , 1r
/ x 1r s0 ( ).
1
r = 1/r y. y (ii) .
1s y, s Q+ , s
/ x s
s0 ( ). s1 Q+ , s1
/ x, s1 < s , , s2 Q+ ,
s1 < s2 < s. , , s2
/ x s2 s0 ( ). s12 y
1s < s12 . y (iii) .
y R+ .
, xy 1 . r 1s xy, r x,
s Q+ s
/ x. s > r, r 1s < s 1s = 1 r 1s Q+ . r 1s 1 .
, 1 xy. t Q+ , t < 1. r x , ,
r1 x, s1 Q+ , s1
/ x s1 r1 = (1t)r. rt1 Q+ rt1 > s1 ( (1t)s1 > (1t)r,
r1 = s1 (1 t)r > ts1 ). rt1
/ x s0 ( ).
1
1

y.
,

t
=
r

xy.
1 r1 /t
r1 /t
xy 1 1 xy xy = 1 .

. y 12.61 x
x1 .
12.62. x, y R+ . z R+ xz = y.
. z 12.57.
x, y R+ . z = x1 y R+ , xz = xx1 y = 1 y = y.
. x, y R+ , z R+ xz = y, x1 y,
y, x
y
.
x
x, y R+

y
x

R+ .

12.3.4 R+ .
12.5. - A, B R+ a b a A, b B.
R+ a b a A, b B.

. = {a | a A} = {r Q+ | r a a A}. ,
a (a A).
a0 A r0 Q+ , r0 a0 . r0 . ,
b0 B s0 Q+ , s0
/ b0 . r . a A
r a. a b0 ( a b0 ), r b0 , r 6= s0 . r 6= s0
r , s0
/ . (i) .
r r1 Q+ , r1 < r. a A r a, r1 a. r1 .
(ii) .
r . a A r a. , r1 a, r1 > r.
r1 , r1 > r. (iii) .
460

R+ .
: a a A. , a
a A. , b B. a b a A, a b a A ,
, b. b b B.
12.3.5 .
. r Q+ , r R+ n Z+ (= N), n R+
. () Q+ R+
r (r Q+ ) () Z+ R+
n (n Z+ (= N)). , Q+ = {r | r Q+ }
Z+ = {r | r Z+ (= N)}.
12.63. r, s Q+ . r < s r < s . , r = s
r = s .
. r < s. r s r
/ r . r < s .
r < s . r = s, r = s , s < r, s < r .
, r < s.
r = s, , , r = s . r = s . r < s, r < s , s < r,
s < r . , r = s.
12.64. r, s, t Q+ .
1. r + s = t r + s = t .
2. r s = t r s = t .
3. rs = t r s = t .

4. rs = t rs = t .
. 1. r + s = t. r1 + s1 r + s ,
r1 , s1 Q+ , r1 < r, s1 < s. r1 + s1 Q+ r1 + s1 < r + s = t, r1 + s1 t .
r + s t .
t1
t1
t1 t , t1 Q+ , t1 < t = r + s. r+s
< 1, r+s
r<r
t1
t1
t1
t1
t1

r+s s < s , , r+s r r r+s s s . t1 = r+s r + r+s s r + s .


t r + s .
r + s = t .
, r + s = t r + s = u. u = r + s = t , , u = t.
2. 1.
3. rs = t. r1 s1 r s , r1 , s1 Q+ , r1 < r,
s1 < s. r1 s1 Q+ r1 s1 < rs = t, r1 s1 t . r s t .
t1 t , t1 Q+ , t1 < t = rs. t2 Q+ t1 < t2 < rs.
ts2 < r tt12 s < s , , ts2 r tt12 s s . t1 = ts2 tt12 s r s .
t r s .
r s = t .
, r s = t rs = u. u = r s = t , , u = t.
4. 3.
12.65. x R+ . x Q+ s Q+
s
/ x. , r s Q+ s
/ x, x = r .
. x Q+ . , x = r , r Q+ . , x = {t Q+ | t < r},
r s Q+ s
/ x. ,
461

s Q+ s
/ x s r. t x
t < r ( r
/ x) , , t Q+ , t < r, t x.
x = {t Q+ | t < r} = r .
12.66. x R+ , r Q+ . (i) r x r < x (ii)
r
/ x r x.
. (i) r x. r
/ r , r < x. , r < x.
r1 x, r1
/ r . r1 x r1 r, r x.
(ii) (i).
12.67. x, y R+ , x < y. r Q+ x < r < y.
. x < y. s y, s
/ x. , r y, r > s. r y

r
/ r , r < y. , s r s
/ x, x < r .
12.68. x, y R+ t Q+ xy < t . r, s Q+
rs = t x < r , y < s .

t xy
t xy

. z 1 x+y+1
z x+y+1
. , , z 1
.


, r1 , s1 Q+ x < r1 < x + z y < s1 < y + z. r1 s1 <
(x + z)(y + z) = xy + xz + zy + zz xy + xz + zy + z = xy + (x + y + 1 )z xy + (t xy) = t
, , r1 s1 < t. r = st1 Q+ s = s1 Q+ . rs = t, s = s1 > y

r = ( st1 ) = st1 > r1 .

12.69. y R+ x R+ xx = y.
. x 12.58.
x = {r Q+ | rr y}.
, r Q+ r < 1, r y. , rr < r, rr y. r x. ,
s Q+ , s > 1, s
/ y. ss > s, ss
/ y. s
/ x. x
(i) .
r x r1 Q+ , r1 < r. r1 r1 < rr , rr y, r1 r1 y. r1 x.
, x (ii) .
r x, r Q+ rr y. s y, s > rr t Q+
srr
srr
1, r+r+1
. t < 1, t < r+r+1
. (r + t)(r + t) = rr + rt + tr + tt <
rr +rt+tr +t = rr +(r +r +1)t < rr +(srr) = s. s y, (r +t)(r +t) y,
r + t x. r + t > r, x (iii) .
x R+ .
xx > y. s Q+ xx > s > y. s xx, r1 , r2 x
r1 r2 = s. r r1 , r2 , r x rr s. r x,
rr y , rr s, s y. s > y.
xx < y. s Q+ xx < s < y. 12.68,
t1 , t2 Q+ t1 t2 = s x < t1 , x < t2 . t t1 , t2 ,
x < t tt s. s < y, s y , tt s, tt y. t x
x < t .
xx = y.
12.69 .
. x R+
.
462

1 + 1 .
12.70. .
. x R+ xx = (1 + 1) .
x . r Q+ x = r ,
.
rr = 1 + 1. 12.41, n, m N r = m
n
mm = (1 + 1)nn.
n0 N m0 N
m0 m0 = (1 + 1)n0 n0 .
, n0 n0 < (1 + 1)n0 n0 = m0 m0 = ((1 + 1)n0 )n0 < (1 + 1)n0 (1 + 1)n0 , ,
n0 < m0 < (1 + 1)n0 .
n1 = m0 n0 N.
n1 < n0 m1 = n0 n1 N.
m1 m1 = (1 + 1)n1 n1 . , n1 < n0 .
12.63 12.64 .
r Q+ r Q+ .
r Q+
r Q+ .
Q+ r Q+ R+
r .
. , r
r , , Q+
Q+ R+ . , , r Q+ ,
r
r Q+ . , o Q+ Q+

Q+ . , , Q+ , Q+ ,
Q+ R+ .
, (, ) n
n , Z+ Z+
R+ . , n n
Z+ . , o Z+ , , N Z+

Z+ . , Z+ , Z+ ,
Z+ = N R+ .
,
.
12.67 :
.
12.66 ()
()
: ()
()
()
() .

463

, 12.65 :
,
, .
12.60 :
x1 = x x .
12.61 :
x y xy = 1.

12.4 .
. , R+ ,
0. 0
x R+ . , x R+ ,
x x x. x (x R+ )
0 y R+ . , , x, y R+ ,
x, y .
x (x R+ ) R . ,
R = {x | x R+ }. ,
R . , R = R {0} R+ .
r (r Q+ ) Q . ,
Q = {r | r Q+ }. ,
Q . , Q = Q {0} Q+ .
, n (n Z+ = N) Z .
, Z = {n | n Z+ }. ,
Z . , Z = Z {0} Z+ .
12.4.1 .
. x R |x|

x,
|x| = 0,

y,

x
x R+
x = 0
x = y, y R+

, x , |x| .
. x, y R. x > y y < x
x, y . , x, y .
x y x > y , , y
x y < x (i) x, y |x| < |y|
(ii) x y (iii) x y = 0 (iv) x = 0
y .
12.71 .
12.71. x R. x x > 0. , x
x < 0.
12.72 12.73, ,

464

.
.
12.72. x, y R : x = y, x > y,
x < y.
. x, y R, x y
x y , , y x y x x > y
x = y , , y < x y = x.
12.73. x, y, z R.
1. x < y y < z, x < z.
2. x y y < z x < y y z, x < z.
3. x y y z, x z.
12.4.2 .
. x, y R. x + y x, y .
, x, y . x, y
x+y
(i) (|x| + |y|) x < 0, y < 0, (ii) |x| |y| x > 0, y < 0, |x| > |y|, (iii)
(|y| |x|) x > 0, y < 0, |x| < |y|, (iv) 0 x > 0, y < 0, |x| = |y|, (v) |y| |x|
x < 0, y > 0, |y| > |x|, (vi) (|x| |y|) x < 0, y > 0, |y| < |x|, (vii) 0 x < 0, y > 0,
|x| = |y|, (viii) x y = 0 (ix) y x = 0.
, R.

. - .
12.74. x, y R x + y = y + x.
12.75. x, y, z R (x + y) + z = x + (y + z).
. x R. x x . , , x
, x
x
(i) 0 x = 0 (ii) |x| x < 0.
12.76. x R x > 0 x = 0 x < 0 , , x < 0
x = 0 x > 0.
12.77. x R (x) = x, | x| = |x| x + (x) = 0.
12.78. x, y R (x + y) = x + (y).
. x, y R x, y
xy
x + (y). , R.
465

12.79. x, y R (x y) = y x.
12.80. x, y R x > y x y > 0 y x < 0.
12.81. x, y R x > y x < y. , x = y
x = y.
12.82. x, y, z R. x < y x + z < y + z. , x = y
x + z = y + z.
12.83. x, y, z, w R.
1. x < y z < w, x + z < y + w.
2. x y z < w x < y z w, x + z < y + w.
3. x y z w, x + z y + w.
12.84. x, y R z R x + z = y.
z 12.84 y + (x) = y x.
12.4.3 .
. x, y R. xy x, y . ,
x, y . x, y
xy
, , xy (i) |x||y| x < 0, y < 0, (ii) (|x||y|) x < 0, y > 0 x > 0,
y < 0 (iii) 0 x = 0 y = 0.
, R.
12.85. x, y R. xy = 0 x, y
.
12.86. x, y R |xy| = |x||y|.
12.87. x, y R xy = yx.
12.88. x, y, z R (xy)z = x(yz).
12.89. x R x1 = x.
12.90. x, y R (x)y = x(y) = xy, (x)(y) = xy.
12.91. x, y, z R x(y + z) = xy + xz.
12.92. x, y, z R. z > 0, x > y xz > yz. z < 0,
x > y xz < yz.
. x R, x 6= 0. x , . ,
x ,
x1
x |x|1 .
12.93. x R, x 6= 0 xx1 = x1 x = 1.
12.94. x, y R, x 6= 0. z R xz = y.
. z xz = y , , x1 y.
y, x
y
.
x
, R.
466

12.4.4 .
12.6. - A, B R a b a A, b B. R
a b a A, b B.
. A a R+ . A1 = A R+ -
a b a A1 , b B. 12.5, R+
a b a A1 , b B. a b a A, b B.
B b R . C = {c | c A}
D = {d | d B}. d c d D c C. , D
d R+ . , R+
d c d D c C. = , a b
a A b B.
, A a R+ B b R . ,
, a 0 b a A b B.
12.4.5 R.
R 12.7 .

R. , ,
. , ,
R , Peano
N .
.
12.7. . . x, y R
R x + y :
(i) x + y = y + x x, y R,
(ii) (x + y) + z = x + (y + z) x, y, z R,
(iii) R 0 x + 0 = x x R,
(iv) x R R x x + (x) = 0.
. . x, y R R
xy :
(i) xy = yx x, y R,
(ii) (xy)z = x(yz) x, y, z R,
(iii) R 1, 0, x1 = x
x R,
(iv) x R, x 6= 0 R x1
xx1 = 1.
. . x(y + z) = xy + xz x, y, z R.
. . R R+
(i) x + y R+ x, y R+ ,
(ii) xy R+ x, y R+ ,
(iii) x R x = 0, x R+ , x R+ .
. . - A, B R, a b
a A, b B, R a b a A, b B.
R , ,
. R ,
467

. , R ,
.

12.5

12.3
( 12.2
12.1).
Dedekind.
.
.
: , ,
( ) . :
. ,
:
.
,
: , , ,
, , .
,
12.4.
, , ,
, , . ,
.
12.5.1 Cauchy.
(rn ) Q+ Cauchy Q+
n0 N |rn rm | < n, m N, n, m n0 .
Cauchy (rn ) (sn ) Q+ (rn ) (sn )
limn+ (rn sn ) = 0. Q+ n0 N
|rn sn | < n N, n n0 .
Cauchy
Q+ . Cauchy Q+ :
Cauchy Q+
Cauchy Q+
.
, , R+ .
Cauchy (rn ) (sn ) Q+ . (rn )
(sn ) , , (sn ) (rn ) (rn )  (sn ) ,
, (sn ) (rn ) Q+ n0 N rn sn >
n N, n n0 . , (rn ), (sn ), (tn ), (un ) Cauchy Q+
(rn )  (sn ), (rn ) (tn ), (sn ) (un ), (tn )  (un ).
. x, y R+ (rn ) x
(sn ) y. x y ,
, y x x > y , , y < x
(rn )  (sn ) , , (sn ) (rn ).
Cauchy (rn ) (sn ) Q+ . (rn + sn ) Q+
468

Cauchy. , , , (rn ), (sn ), (tn ), (un )


Cauchy Q+ (rn ) (tn ), (sn ) (un ), (rn + sn ) (tn + un ).
. x, y R+ (rn ) x
(sn ) y. x + y R+
(rn + sn ).
, Cauchy (rn ) (sn ) Q+ . (rn sn ) Q+
Cauchy , , , (rn ), (sn ), (tn ), (un ) Cauchy Q+
(rn ) (tn ), (sn ) (un ), (rn sn ) (tn un ). .
x, y R+ (rn ) x
(sn ) y. xy R+ (rn sn ).
, R+ ,
R+ 3,
.
, Cantor,
Cauchy Q+ ,
Q+ .
12.5.2

([rn , rn 0 ])
Q+ (rn ) Q+ (rn 0 ) Q+
limn+ (rn 0 rn ) = 0.
([rn , rn 0 ]) ([sn , sn 0 ])
Q+ ([rn , rn 0 ]) ([sn , sn 0 ]) limn+ (rn sn ) = 0 , ,
limn+ (rn 0 sn 0 ) = 0.
Q+ . Q+ .
,
, R+ .
([rn , rn 0 ]) ([sn , sn 0 ]) Q+ .
([rn , rn 0 ]) ([sn , sn 0 ]) , , ([sn , sn 0 ])
([rn , rn 0 ]) ([rn , rn 0 ])  ([sn , sn 0 ]) , , ([sn , sn 0 ])
([rn , rn 0 ]) Q+ n0 N rn sn > n N,
n n0 . , ([rn , rn 0 ]), ([sn , sn 0 ]), ([tn , tn 0 ]), ([un , un 0 ]) Q+ ([rn , rn 0 ])  ([sn , sn 0 ]), ([rn , rn 0 ]) ([tn , tn 0 ]),
([sn , sn 0 ]) ([un , un 0 ]), ([tn , tn 0 ])  ([un , un 0 ]).
. x, y R+ ([rn , rn 0 ]) x
([sn , sn 0 ]) y. x y ,
, y x x > y , , y < x
([rn , rn 0 ])  ([sn , sn 0 ]) , , ([sn , sn 0 ]) ([rn , rn 0 ]).
([rn , rn 0 ]) ([sn , sn 0 ]) Q+ .
([rn + sn , rn 0 + sn 0 ])
Q+ . , , , ([rn , rn 0 ]), ([sn , sn 0 ]), ([tn , tn 0 ]), ([un , un 0 ])
Q+ ([rn , rn 0 ]) ([tn , tn 0 ]), ([sn , sn 0 ]) ([un , un 0 ]),
([rn + sn , rn 0 + sn 0 ]) ([tn + un , tn 0 + un 0 ]). , , .
x, y R+ ([rn , rn 0 ]) x
([sn , sn 0 ]) y. x + y R+ ([rn +
sn , rn 0 + sn 0 ]).
469

, ([rn , rn 0 ]) ([sn , sn 0 ]) Q+ .
([rn sn , rn 0 sn 0 ]) Q+ .
, , , ([rn , rn 0 ]), ([sn , sn 0 ]), ([tn , tn 0 ]), ([un , un 0 ])
Q+ ([rn , rn 0 ]) ([tn , tn 0 ]), ([sn , sn 0 ]) ([un , un 0 ]),
([rn sn , rn 0 sn 0 ]) ([tn un , tn 0 un 0 ]). . x, y R+
([rn , rn 0 ]) x ([sn , sn 0 ])
y. xy R+ ([rn sn , rn 0 sn 0 ]).
, R+
3, .

12.6 : R N.
12.6.1 R.
, R
. R ,
, (
) R.
. . x, y R R
x + y :
(i) x + y = y + x x, y R,
(ii) (x + y) + z = x + (y + z) x, y, z R,
(iii) R 0 x + 0 = x x R,
(iv) x R R x x+(x) = 0.
. . x, y R R
xy :
(i) xy = yx x, y R,
(ii) (xy)z = x(yz) x, y, z R,
(iii) R 1, 0, x1 = x
x R,
(iv) x R, x 6= 0 R x1
xx1 = 1.
. . x(y + z) = xy + xz x, y, z R.
. . R R+
(i) x + y R+ x, y R+ ,
(ii) xy R+ x, y R+ ,
(iii) x R x = 0, x R+ , x R+ .
. . - A, B R, a b
a A, b B, R a b a A, b B.
. x + y x, y x, y
x + y R. xy x, y
x, y xy R. 0
1
.
, 0 + x = x (x) + x = 0 x R. , 1x = x
x R x1 x = 1 x R, x 6= 0.
470



.
, ,
R.
.
, , .
1 - 11.
12.6.2 R.
12.95. x, y R z R z + x = y.
. z = y + (x) z + x = y + (x) + x = y + 0 = y.
z R z + x = y. z = z + 0 = z + x + (x) = y + (x).
. z = y + (x) z + x = y y x y, x.
x, y R y x R.
12.96. x, y R, x 6= 0, z R zx = y.
. z = yx1 zx = yx1 x = y1 = y.
z R zx = y. z = z1 = zxx1 = yx1 .
. z = yx1 zx = y xy y, x.
x, y R, x 6= 0 xy R.
12.97. 1. .
2. .
3. x R .
4. x R, x 6= 0 .
. 1. 0, 00 . 0 = 0 + 00 = 00 .
2. 1, 10 . 1 = 110 = 10 .
3. x R y, y 0 x. y = y + 0 = y + x + y 0 = 0 + y 0 = y 0 .
4. x R, x 6= 0 y, y 0 x. y = y1 = yxy 0 = 1y 0 = y 0 .
12.98. 1. 0 = 0, 11 = 1.
2. x R (x) = x.
3. x, y R (x + y) = x y (x y) = x + y.
4. x, y R xy = 0 x = 0 y = 0.
5. x, y R (x)y = x(y) = xy (x)(y) = xy.
6. x R, x 6= 0 x1 6= 0 (x1 )1 = x.
. 1. 0 = (0) + 0 = (0) + 0 + 0 = 0 + 0 = 0. , 11 = 11 1 = 11 11 = 11 = 1.
2. (x) = ((x)) + 0 = ((x)) + (x) + x = 0 + x = x.
3. (x + y) = ((x + y)) + 0 = ((x + y)) + 0 + 0 = ((x + y)) + x + (x) + y + (y) =
((x + y)) + (x + y) + (x) + (y) = 0 + (x) + (y) = x y. , (x y) =
(x + (y)) = x (y) = x + y.
4. 0y + 0y = (0 + 0)y = 0y. 0y = 0y + 0y + (0y) = 0y + (0y) = 0. , 0x = 0.
, xy = 0. x 6= 0, y = 1y = x1 xy = x1 0 = 0.
471

5. (x)y = (x)y + xy + (xy) = ((x) + x)y + (xy) = 0y + (xy) = 0 + (xy) = xy.


, x(y) = xy. , (x)(y) = x(y) = (xy) = xy.
6. x 6= 0. xx1 = 1 6= 0, x1 6= 0. , (x1 )1 = (x1 )1 1 = (x1 )1 x1 x =
1x = x.
. x R+ , x . x R+ , x .
R : R = {x | x R+ }.
R , {0} R+ - , , 0
- R = R {0} R+ .
12.99. 1. x R, x 6= 0 xx R+ .
2. 1 R+ 1 R .
. 1. x 6= 0. x R+ , xx R+ . x R , x R+ ,
xx = (x)(x) R+ . , , xx R+ .
2. 1 6= 0, 1 = 11 R+ . , (1) = 1 R+ , 1 R .
. x, y R. x y , , y
x x > y , , y < x x y R+ , ,
y x R .
x, y R. x y , , y
x x y , , y x x > y x = y ,
, y < x y = x.
12.100. x R. x x R+ x > 0.
, x x R x < 0.
. .
12.101. x, y R : x = y, x > y,
x < y.
. x = y, x > y, x < y , , x y = 0, x y R+ ,
(x y) R+ .
12.102. x, y, z R.
1. x < y y < z, x < z.
2. x y y < z x < y y z, x < z.
3. x y y z, x z.
. 1. x < y y < z, yx R+ z y R+ , z x = (z y)+(yx)
R+ , , x < z.
2 3. 1..
12.103. x, y, z R. x < y x + z < y + z. , x = y
x + z = y + z.
. x < y, y x R+ , (y + z) (x + z) = y x R+ , ,
x + z < y + z. , x + z < y + z, x = x + z + (z) < y + z + (z) = y.
x = y, , , x + z = y + z. , x + z = y + z, x = x + z + (z) =
y + z + (z) = y.

472

12.104. x, y, z, w R.
1. x < y z < w, x + z < y + w.
2. x y z < w x < y z w, x + z < y + w.
3. x y z w, x + z y + w.
. 1. x < y z < w, x + z < y + z < y + w.
2 3. 1.
12.105. x, y R. x, y > 0 x, y < 0, xy > 0. x > 0, y < 0 x < 0,
y > 0, xy < 0.
. x, y > 0, x, y R+ , xy R+ , , xy > 0. ,
x, y < 0, x, y > 0, xy = (x)(y) > 0. , x > 0, y < 0, x > 0,
y > 0, xy = x(y) > 0 , , xy < 0. , x < 0, y > 0,
xy < 0.
12.106. x > 0, x1 > 0. , x < 0, x1 < 0.
. x > 0. x1 < 0, 1 = xx1 < 0 . x1 > 0.
.
12.107. x, y, z R. z > 0, x > y xz > yz. z < 0,
x > y xz < yz.
. z > 0. x > y, x y > 0, xz yz = (x y)z > 0 , ,
xz > yz. , xz > yz, , z 1 > 0, x = xzz 1 > yzz 1 = y.
.
12.108. x, y R x > y > 0 x < y < 0 , ,
y 1 > x1 > 0 y 1 < x1 < 0.
. y 1 x1 = (x y)x1 y 1 .
. x R x |x|

x > 0
x,
|x| = 0,
x = 0

x, x < 0
12.109. x, y R.
1. |x| 0.
2. |x| > 0
x x|x|6= 0. , |x| = 0 x = 0.
3. |xy| = |x||y| y = |y| .
4. ||x| |y|| |x y| |x| + |y|.
. 1, 2 .
3. : (i) x, y 0, (ii) x, y < 0, (iii) x 0, y < 0 (iv) x < 0
y 0.
4. x, y 0, x + y 0, |x + y| = x + y = |x| + |y|. x, y < 0,
x + y < 0, |x + y| = (x + y) = x + (y) = |x| + |y|. x 0, y < 0
x + y 0, |x + y| = x + y = |x| |y| |x| + |y|. x 0, y < 0 x + y < 0,
|x + y| = (x + y) = |x| + |y| |x| + |y|. x < 0, y 0 .
|x + y| |x| + |y|. , |x y| = |x + (y)| |x| + | y| = |x| + |y|.
, |x| = |x + y + (y)| |x + y| + | y| = |x + y| + |y|, |x| |y| |x + y|.
|y||x| |x+y|. ||x||y|| |x+y|. , ||x||y|| = ||x||y|| |x+(y)| = |xy|.
473

12.6.3 , , .
. A R : (i) 1 A
(ii) x A, x + 1 A.
. 1. R , , (i), (ii).
2. A = {x R | x 1} . , 1 A , x A, x 1,
x + 1 1 , , x + 1 A.
3. A = {x R | x = 1 x 1 + 1} . , 1 A , x A,
x 1, x + 1 1 + 1 , , x + 1 A.
4. A = {x R | x 1 + 1} , 1
/ A.
5. A = {x R | x 1} . A (i), 1 A. ,
(ii), x A x + 1 A. ,
1 A 1 + 1 > 1, 1 + 1
/ A.
. n R .
N.
N = {n | n } = {n | n }.
12.110. N .
. 1 N, 1 . , n N. n
, n + 1 .
n + 1 N.
N (i), (ii) , .
, N .
12.110 : N .
12.111. n N n 1.
. {x R | x 1} . N {x R | x 1}
, , n N n 1.
12.112. n N, n 6= 1 n 1 N.
. A = {x R | x = 1 x 1 N}.
1 A.
, x A. x = 1, x + 1 = 1 + 1, (x + 1) 1 = 1 N , ,
x + 1 A. x 6= 1, x 1 N, (x + 1) 1 = x = (x 1) + 1 N , ,
x + 1 A. , , x + 1 A.
A , N A. n N n 6= 1 n1 N.
. n N n + 1 n n N, n 6= 1
n 1 n.
, 1 N.
. A N : (i) 1 A (ii) x A, x + 1 A.
A = N.
. A (i), (ii) . N A. A N,
A = N.
474

, , . (n)
n N
n N (n) .
(n) : (i) (1) (ii) (n)
, (n + 1) . (n),
A = {n N | (n) }. : (i) 1 A (ii)
n A, n + 1 A. , , A = N,
(n) N , , (n) n N.
12.113. n, m N. m > n, m n + 1.
. n N (n): m N, m > n, m n + 1.
(1) m N, m > 1, m 1 + 1 . m N,
m > 1. m 1 N, m 1 1 , , m 1 + 1. (1) .
, , (n) . , m N, m > n, m n + 1.
(n + 1) m N, m > n + 1, m (n + 1) + 1 .
m N, m > n + 1. m 6= 1, m 1 N. , m 1 > n.
(n), m 1 > n + 1 , , m > (n + 1) + 1. (n + 1)
.
, (n) n N. n, m N,
m > n m n + 1.
12.113 : n N n,
n + 1.
12.114. n, m N n + m, nm N. , , n < m,
m n N.
. 1. m N. n N (n): n + m N.
(1) 1 + m N m N.
(n) . , n + m N.
(n+1) (n+1)+m N. n+m N, (n+1)+m =
(n + m) + 1 N , , (n + 1) .
(n) n N. , n N n + m N.
2. m N. n N (n): nm N.
(1) 1m N m N.
(n) . , nm N.
(n + 1) (n + 1)m N. nm N, (1)
(n + 1)m = nm + n N , , (n + 1) .
(n) n N. , n N nm N.
3. n N (n): m N, m > n, m n N.
(1) m N, m > 1, m 1 N .
, , (n) . , m N, m > n, m n N.
(n + 1) m N, m > n + 1, m (n + 1) N .
m N, m > n + 1. m 6= 1, m 1 N. , m 1 > n.
(n), (m 1) n N , , m (n + 1) = (m 1) n N.
(n + 1) .
, (n) n N. , n N,
m N, m > n m n N.
. - N .
475

. - A N.
n N (n): m A, m n.
(1) m A, m 1 A N.
A , m0 A. (m0 + 1) .
n0 N (n0 ) (n0 + 1) .
m A, m n0 . m A
m < n0 + 1. m n0 . , n0 A m A, m n0 .
n0 A.
. n R n n n = 0.
Z .
n .
(,
) ,
12.113 12.114. .
12.115. n, m Z. m > n, m n + 1.
12.116. n, m Z n + m, n m, nm Z.
. r R x = m
, m, n Z, n 6= 0.
n
Q. x R .
12.117. r, s Q r + s, r s, rs Q. , , s 6= 0,
. r =

m
n

s =

k
l

, r + s =

ml+kn
nl

476

, rs=

mlkn
nl

, rs =

mk
nl

r
s

ml
nk

r
s

Q.

477


N, Z, Q, R, R, 3
, 22
, 51, 379, 381
, , 22
e, 45
, 22
p- , p- , 48, 318, , 340
320
, 340
p- , 319, 320
, , ,
, 319
341
, 341
inmum , 16, 17
, 341
, 51
, 341
, 345
maximum , 16
, 344
minimum , 16
, , ,
345
supremum , 16, 17

, 350
, 51
, 346
Darboux, , 220
, 347, 348
Riemann, 245
, 346
, 113
Cauchy, 346

, 217
, 22
,
, 15
264
, , 3

, 6
Bernoulli, 8
, 21
Cauchy, 182, 317, 328
Cauchy, 58
Hlder, 182, 242, 317, 328, 395, 399
Fibonnaci, 25
Jensen, 243, 282
, 34
Minkowski, 183, 242, 318, 328
, 22
Young, 182
, 24, 25
Schwarz, Buniakowsky, 242, 395, 400
, 33
, 251
, 36
, 257
, 37

, , 22
, 61
, 34
, 107
, 34
R, 450
, 330
Peano, 422
, 39
, 153
, 22
, 3
, 37
, 3, 34, 90
, , 22
, 4, 36, 92
478

, 4, 36, 91
, 3
, 7, 12, 39, 40, 46
, 4, 37, 93
n N , 23

, 25, 26
, 80, 82

, 9
, , , , 3
Heisenberg, 277
, 422, 454
, 426, 455
, 251
, 205, 206

, 85
, 85
, 85, 92
, 253
, 257
, 253
, 384386, 388
, 389
, 384386, 388
, 395
, 390
, 389, 392, 395, 396
, 388
, 390

, 395
Abel, 397
Cauchy, 395
Dirichlet, 397
- , 392
, 389
, 390
, 384386, 388
, 397
, 384386, 388
, 405
, 405
, 408
, 406
, 407
, 407

n N, 23
, 127
, 150
, 183
- , 187
() , 184
, 188
, 219
-, -, 219
, 245
, 219
, 219
, 246
, 155
, 361
, 362
, 362, 366
, 362
, 369
, 367
, , 361
, 365
, 363
, 365
, 364
, 366
, 361
, 362
-, 368
, , 367
, 372
, 13
Newton, 13

, 125
, 11
, 7
, 10
, 47
, 16, 17
, 16

, 226
, 454
R, 3
, 189
- , 189, 190
()
479

, 151153

, 129
, 256
- , 128
(Cauchy),
171
(Lagrange),
171, 175
, 238
, 276
, 127, 133
Bolzano, 130
Cesro, 42, 66
Darboux, 175
Fejer, 261
Fekete, 261
Fermat, 169
Mertens, 335
Riemann, 337
Rolle, 170, 175
Weierstrass, 351
Bolzano - Weierstrass, 54, 77, 78
, 127

inmum, 18
supremum, 17
, 5
, 59
, 131
, 5, 440, 447, 450

, 22
, 15
, 212
, 161
l Hopitl
, 198
, 200
, 197

, 62
, 107
, 73
Cauchy, 58, 108, 321, 346, 356,
395
- , 185
, 186

, 191
, 280
, 187
, 189, 190
, 186, 187
, 188
, 206
, 14
, 45
, 16, 17
, 16
, 238, 249
, 205
, 76, 111
, 205

, 222
Abel, 274
, 230
, 271
, 233
, 237
, 233
, 232
, 274
, 232
, 222
Darboux, 224
Riemann, 247
, 236, 237
, 234
, 226
, 235
, 224
, 261
, 262
, 229
Darboux, 223
Riemann, 247
, 257, 279
, 231
, 263
, 223
, 229
, 281
, 236

480

, 235
, 236
Gauss, 405
, 267
, 403
, 404
, 403
, 342
, 145, 402
, 174
, 107

, 9
, 6
- , 9, 130
, 73
Taylor, 374
, 376
, 374
, 375
, 374
, , 375
-, 376
, 251
, 307
, 149, 150
, 307
, 160
, 309
, 163
, 336
, 162, 166
, 307
, 160
, 322
, 160
, 308

, 307
, 167
Cauchy, 334
, 157

, 167
, 330
(), 151153
, 330
- , 178
, 330
- , 187
, 330
, 175, 176
, 325
, 174
, 310, 312, 322
() , 169, 170,
, 328
177

, 160
, 322
, 166
, 324
, 160
d Alembert, 324
, 404
, 313, 394
, 161
Cauchy, 324
, 157
(Cauchy), 315
, 161
Abel, 324
, 159, 161
Cauchy, 321
, 150
Dirichlet, 323
, 13
, 307
, 71
- , 312
, +, , 30
, 307
, 69
, 310

, 307
Bernoulli, 261
, 309
Chebyshev, 173
n- , 308
, 3
, 323
, 400
, 311
, 251
481

, 307
, 355
, 355
, 355
, 356

Abel, 357
Cauchy, 356
Dirichlet, 357
Weierstrass, 356
, 355
, 355
, 356
, 358
, 358
, 357
, 355
() , 168
, 184
, 169, 170, 177
, 113
, 113
, , 114
, 114
, , 113
, 188
, 188
- , 188
, 113
, 69, 72
, 71
Euler, 240
, 127

- Riemann, 360
Hlder , 117, 146
Lipschitz , 117, 146
, 418
, 414
, 89
, 118
, 274
, 89
, 140, 381
, 141
, 91
, 93
, 154

, 90
, 154
, 90
, 79
, 91, 94
, 79
, 118
- , 185
, 79
, 92
, 223, 247
, 145
, , 149, 150
, 79
, 111, 112
, 400
, 147
, 93
, 236
, 235
, 236
, 79, 378, 381, 382
, 274
, 141
, 372
, 111, 112
, 119, 401
, 138
, 119, 401
, 119, 401
, 119, 401
, 119
, 136138
, 119
, 124, 402
, 119, 401
, 145, 402
, 120, 401

, 25
, 80, 82
, 3
, 20
, 15
-, 51
, 78
, 20
, 51
482

, 20
, 15
, 77
, 78, 131
, 78, 132
, 51
, 15

, 447
, 447
, 203
, 205
, 205
, 204
, 109, 222
, 23
Dedekind, 435
, 4, 322

Euler, 277
Abel, 323
Newton, 13, 370
Leibniz, 193
Stirling, 278
Taylor
, 278
Lagrange Cauchy, 208
Wallis, 276
, 52
, 64

, 34, 89
, 25, 26
inmum , 51
supremum , 51
l Hopitl, 200
, 71, 72
, 124, 402
, 82, 97
, 107
, 33, 89
, 36, 91, 92
, 37, 93
, 27
, 35
, 34, 90
, 34, 90
, 27, 35, 38, 39, 45, 81, 83, 84, 91,
483

94, 101, 121


, 101
, 3133, 87, 88
, 43, 106
, 33, 88
, 33, 89
Cauchy, 58, 108
, 27, 102
, 37, 92
, 32, 88
n, 35
, 99
n, 37
, 100
, 26
, 81
, 80, 82
, 82, 97
, 93, 120
, 87, 88, 98, 103
, 64