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How to Halt Ageing ?? My Opinion

How to Halt Ageing ?? My Opinion

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Author - Mr. Pushparaj Ghodke
Author - Mr. Pushparaj Ghodke

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Mr. Pushparaj Ghodke on May 09, 2009
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How to halt ageing ??

- My opinion
Author - Mr. Pushparaj Ghodke praj_gh@yahoo.co.in

Today , hundreds of theories ( popularly known as hypothesis ) exist which provide explanation of ageing mechanism of living organism . In this article , I have discussed leading ageing mechanism theories and expressed my comments and opinion about these theories. I am presenting here generalized accounts of gerontological researches in a form that will put them within the grasp of a broader circle of international readers .

Greying of hairs - correct biological explanation needed
When I was around 23 years old , while looking my face in the mirror , I saw first white hair on my head and number of white hairs grew every year. Around 30th year , I saw there was a first white hair in my moustache then , in 32nd year I saw a white hair in my beard . Greying ( Whitening ) of hairs is the external indicator of ageing . I have made some important observations regarding greying of hairs . First , greying of hair is accompanied by reduction in the concentration of water in the tissue . I was puzzled by the change in facial anatomy with increase in age . If you observe your photo taken ten years back - then you will notice that , in comparison , your present facial anatomy has changed noticeably . This change in facial anatomy is because of - reduction in the concentration of water in the tissue with age . Secondly , greying hairs first affects hairs of head then facial hairs ( hairs of mustache and beard ). I am 37 years old now but , still my chest hairs , abdominal hairs and genital hairs has retained their original black colour . Thirdly , rate of growth of hairs of head and face is much greater than hairs of other part of body . And more importantly , not all hairs of head and face turn into grey . Some hairs do keep their original colour even in old age . In some people the greying of hairs occurs sooner than in others . I have read a lot of scientific literature and noted some of the researches which will help to understand the biological reason behind the greying of hairs .

At the end of the 1930's it was demonstrated that a direct relationship existed between the colour of the eyes of mutant species of the fruit fly Drosophila and the biochemical synthesis of the pigment that imparts a given colour to their eyes . Since this biochemical synthesis was initiated and directed by a definite protein molecule ( called an enzyme ) , the conclusion was drawn that mutation , i.e. , variation in the gene , results in the loss of the ability to form the appropriate enzyme . So , from the above research , we can conclude that the loss of the ability to form the appropriate enzyme ( which controls biochemical synthesis of hair colour pigment ) is the reason behind greying of hairs also . I have noted another important lines from scientific literature about greying of hairs . "The colour of hair depends on the pigment as well as on the content of air in the hair . When the amount of air in the hair increases with the simultaneous disappearance of pigment , the hair turns grey ." Anyway , I have searched internet literature to know reasons behind greying of hair . A multitude of theories exists and it would be difficult and even unnecessary to delve into all of them . But , We can take note of anatomy of hair follicle . A cell that manufactures hair colour pigment melanin is called as melanocyte . A certain number of melanocytes supply melanin to one hair shaft . Hair turns grey because , melanocytes abruptly switch off melanin supply to the hair shaft . So far , reason for such abrupt switch off of melanin by melanocytes is unknown . In recent years , a number of authors claim that age-related damage to cytoplasmic microstructure - " mitochondria " is the reason for greying of hairs . According to this claim , free radicals are the inevitable by-products of metabolism ( cellular respiration ) . The manufacturing site of free radicals is " mitochondria " . These free radicals damage mitochondrial DNA ( mtDNA ) . In the opinion of these authors , hair bulb melanocytes are especially susceptible to free radical-induced aging . With age, free radicals builds up in larger amounts in the hair follicle and ultimately inhibits the synthesis of the color pigment melanin and colour of the hair turns grey . Only thorough scientific research with the help of modern diagnostic tools will help to unlock the mystery behind greying of hairs . Greying of hair is accompanied by reduction in the concentration of extra-cellular water in the tissue . Hence , we can expect that unlocking the mechanism behind greying of hairs will help to understand in general ageing of organism as well . It is obvious that corresponding research should be carried on to discern the correct biological reason at molecular level for the subtle mechanism of greying of hairs .

Ageing and dietary substances

In 1980's , free radical theory of ageing gained popularity . Free radicals are the molecules with abnormal number of electrons . These substances are chemically very active . Entering into complex crossbonds with the bio-molecules of DNA , they , so to speak , function as catalysts of ageing . Scientists recommended the consumption of antioxidants ( " traps " for free radicals ) to slow down ageing process . I often read in newspapers about so-called anti-oxidants . True , consumption of antioxidants have prolonged lifespan of rodents by 50% or even more . Flies , nematodes , rodents , worms , molluscs are the lower organisms on the elementary stage of evolution . Human organism and other mammals ( higher organisms on the advanced stage of evolution ) obey different laws of physiology and metabolism than lower organisms . Lower organisms ( due to their shorter lifespan ) show exaggerated experimental results . For example the addition of lactic acid to a fruit fly's food improves its metabolism and prolongs its lifespan . In rats , a reduction of the daily diet by 1 Kcal increased their lifespan by about 4 days . The lifespan of laboratory animals can be doubled by a rational combination of cold and hunger . Reducing food intake or limited( low calorie ) diet has been found to prolong the lives of experimental animals by 50% to 100 % . A number of authors are of opinion that antioxidants cause slowing down ageing-related pathological changes in humans . Among all antioxidants , ascorbic acid ( Vitamin C ) is a forerunner as regards slowing down ageing-related pathological changes . Some authors have found that ascorbic acid was effective in reducing serum cholesterol levels in patients with pathologically increased cholesterol levels . Numerous research conclusions have established that ascorbic acid plays important role in immunity . When a person is affected with infectious disease , the body begins to make intensive use of the ascorbic acid contained in its reserves . A speed recovery can be brought about by the immediate filling of the "gap " i.e. Scientists advice that - saturation of the patient's organism with large doses of ascorbic acid is necessary in all infectious diseases . Few authors have noted the anti-carcinogenic properties of ascorbic acid . Research made by some authors has established that ascorbic acid suppresses the development of tumours , especially hemoblastoses . Nevertheless , the very fact of inevitable ageing in quite healthy members of species suggests that there is some basic or " primary " process leads to ageing . On the other hand , individual systems which ensure the body's vital activity suffer from disturbances , injuries and disruption of coordination between them . The ageing proceeds more rapidly - what experts call " secondary ageing " or premature ageing . Presumable fact here is that - antioxidants slow down the process of secondary ageing . It seems that , no matter

how well the organism is fed - it will not affect inevitable process of primary ageing . Everybody knows that vitamins , essential amino acids and minerals are required for the normal functioning of human body . Researchers add to this one more food factor - essential fatty acids . In sufferers from myocardial ischemia caused by coronary atherosclerosis - the blood plasma usually has a low content of lecithin – one of the substances which ensure normal cholesterol metabolism ( Lecithin - a substance which prevents cholesterol from depositing in the walls of blood vessels ) . In lecithin , in its turn , the linolic acid content is below normal . And the body itself does not develop this fatty acid , receiving it only with vegetable oils . Research has shown that the blood lecithin level is determined not by genetic factors , but by diet . Vegetable oil contains certain fatty acids vital for the formation of lecithin . While our body can produce some olic acid , it cannot produce linolic acid . Its deficiency in children , for instance , can cause dermatitis , or skin disease . Researchers also conclude that absence of these essential fatty acids in the regular diet , causes higher vulnerability to myocardial infarction . Therefore , a seemingly innocuous culinary ignorance may have undesirable consequences . Researchers also insist to use vegetable oils with higher content of essential fatty acids for cooking . It is shown that the shift to a diet low in saturated ( animal ) fat , cholesterol , sugar , salt , and a higher content of starch and indigestible fibers ( cellulose etc. ) led to a decrease in the frequency of premature myocardial infarction , stroke , hypertension , diabetes and cancer . Researchers also note that - the elimination of food fibers i.e. ballast substances like cellulose , lignin or pectin from the diet inevitably affects man's state of health - his cholesterol metabolism becomes upset , stones may develop in his gall bladder , stomach and intestinal diseases may flare up . Dietary fibers ( present in vegetables , cereals etc . ) acts as enterosorbets to remove excess cholesterol from the gastro-intestinal tract .

Ageing and body temperature
Gerontologists pin great hopes on the invention of means of prolonged control of the body temperature and , consequently , the intensity of metabolic processes .In cold blooded animals ( e.g. fishes , snakes , turtles , frogs etc. ) it has been found possible by reducing the body temperature to increase lifespan tens and even hundreds of times . For example - Cold blooded animal such as , the echydna and platypus , reducing body temperature may increase the longevity by a factor of tens . Thus , drosophilae flies whose incubation temperature was lowered from 35°C to 25°C lived 50 times

longer on the average . The reduction in the body temperature means the reduction in metabolic intensity which slows down age-related changes and prevents the operation of disturbing factors . On the other hand , simple estimations show that the body temperature raised by 1°C leads to a 20% increase in the reaction rate of enzyme-catalyzed biochemical reactions . Biologists and physiologists have established that hypothermy ( cooling ) of a warm-blooded organism ( e.g. birds ,rodents ,cattle , humans etc.) drastically slows down metabolism . According to some estimates , a reduction of the body temperature of warm-blooded animals , including humans , by 2°C to 3.5°C could almost double lifespan and a reduction by 10°C , increases it 15 folds without adversely affecting the capacity of work . The question is how can this "mild" cooling be achieved ?? Unfortunately , reducing the temperature of warm-blooded-animals proved to be a difficult task . Thus far their temperature cannot stay reduced for more than several days . Ironically , a reduction in body temperature of warm-blooded-animals will activate the generation of heat in the body to keep body temperature constant . This will raise the metabolic intensity , which leads to a reduction in lifespan . No differences in the human body temperature under various climatic conditions have been found as yet . In the opinion of some authors , starvation may be viewed as a good physiological way to reduce the body temperature so as to slow down the metabolic processes . But , on the flip side , starvation causes reduced immunity level and speedy involution of thymus gland etc .

Leading biological ageing theories
Today , there are known to be around 300 theories of ageing mechanism of human organism which now and again break into two categories . According to the first of the two , ageing and death are genetically programmed , according to the second , they are due to the emergence of genetic damage that accumulates since the organism cannot promptly repair it . Let's discus the first category The question is - whether ageing and death are genetically programmed ?? or in other words , the relationship between DNA sequence and the lifespan of living organism . Lifespan of dog is longer than the mouse . And lifespan of humans is considerably longer than dogs . Naturally , diversity of lifespan among different animal species has touched off a curious scientific debate . So far no direct or indirect proof or scientifically substantiated explanation has been obtained yet about the relationship between DNA sequence and the lifespan . As regards second category , a number of scientists see the key

reason for ageing in genetic mistakes . Each of the body's more than 60 trillion cells in the process of division bears some imprecision .The accumulation of these imprecisions with increase in age - leads to the body's ageing . Due to accumulation of genetic errors with age , the cell stop dividing at some point of time and the tissue loses its self-renovating ability . DNA replication and cell fission occurs a definite rate characteristic of each species . The specific lifetime depends on how many divisions the cells can make . For example - those of a hamster or a pig divide not more than 15 times . Normal cells of humans divide 50 times on the average in a lifetime . The shorter life is recorded by organisms which either display few cell divisions or a short interval between them . In fact , one research observation supports this theory . Research has revealed that , in healthy tissues , some cells are usually observed at different stages of division ( mitosis ). The above-mentioned theory can be put more precisely in following manner . During cell division , there occurs damage to chromosomes and DNA . The cell has a complement of enzymes whose function is to repair damage inflicted on DNA . But , during ageing of living organism , the activity of enzymes slows down . Hence , the damage remains un-repaired and number of cells with chromosomal errors increase with age . A slow down in protein synthesis is believed to be one of the causes of ageing . The tissues of the elderly people suffer from a deficiency of nucleic acids which control protein synthesis . a lack of effective protein impairs the self renovating capacity of tissues and cells . Therefore some researchers believe that ageing can be halted by the elimination of the ill-effects of slow protein synthesis . Another theory of ageing worthy of mention here is With increase in age , number of negatively charged cells in living organism turn into positively charged cells . Younger organism has abundant negatively charged cells as compared to old ones . Actually , this has been proved by research . More younger the cell , more is its negative charge .

Consequences of ageing
The concise encyclopedia defines old age as “ the sum of changes in an organism occurring with years . In animals and humans , these are atrophic muscles , fragile bones , flaccid skin , hardened blood vessels ( sclerosis ) , and weakened nervous activity . “ Let's discus some very important consequences of ageing . As we age , concentration of water in the tissues decreases . To be more precise , the extra-cellular water in the tissues decreases , but the intra-cellular water in the tissues remain practically the same . A higher content of total water in the newborns is observed primarily due to the extracellular water ; with maturation , the total water

decreases , i.e. as if the organism has become somewhat drier . the water loss is effected at the expense of extracellular fluids . Contents and distribution of water in human organism depending on the age ( % of total mass )
Age Total water Intracellular water Outside cell Extra-cellular water Newborns Under 1 year From 1 to 10 years From 10 to 50 years Over 50 years 75 70 6065 5560 5055 35 35 35-40 40-45 35-40 35 30 20-25 15 10 Plasm a 5 5 5 5 5

As we age , the thymus gland undergoes involution . Unlike the liver , kidney and heart , for instance , the thymus is at its largest in children . The thymus reaches maximum weight ( 20 to 37 grams ) by the time of puberty. It remains active only until puberty. Then with growing age , it starts to shrink . In old people , the thymus gland is scarcely distinguishable from surrounding fatty tissue . As man ages the thymus slowly shrinks , eventually degenerating into tiny islands of fatty tissue . By the age of 75 years , the thymus gland weighs only 6 grams . In children the thymus is grayish-pink in colour and in adults it is yellow . Any infectious disease and various stresses speed up its wear . Involution of thymus also occurs under the effect of external influences ( infections , starvation , burns etc. ) The thymus's function also changes as a person gets older . Initially it acts as a " teacher " Most of the immune cells , which occur within the marrow , cannot at first combat the body's enemies , but when they get into the thymus , influenced by specific substances , they become a regular army trained to fight viruses and tumors . Scientists call them " TLymphocytes " As the person ages , the thymus too gets older ; it can" train " fewer and fewer " T- lymphocytes " Hence , the body's own protective powers become increasingly diminished . In some people the thymus " wears out " sooner than in others ( The thymus gland is an important organ in antitumor immunity . It ensures the elimination of cancer cells due to its ability to suppress the synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins .The thymus participates in lymphopoiesis ( the formation of lymphocytes ) and immunological

defense reactions of the organism . The early loss of thymus function leads to the impairment of the immunological system . In thymus special lymphocytes called T-lymphocytes acquire certain properties which enable them to react defensively against cells that , for various reasons , have become foreign to the organism . In addition , the thymus intensively synthesizes DNA . ) During the ageing process , normal values of blood pressure changes . systolic and diastolic the

Normal values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and relative age group
Age group Diastolic blood pressure ( In mm Hg ) 34 70 65-80 65- 80 or slightly less Systolic blood pressure ( In mm Hg ) 70 105 100-110 120

Newborns Children with age - 9 to12 Adults with age - 20 to 40 years Elderly people with age 50 to 60 or more

to 125

to 140

Note – The above measurements are taken during complete physical and mental rest . The heart-beat is faster in children than in adults , but the arterial pressure is low . The volume of blood in children is relatively larger than that in adults .According to different authors , it varies from 80 to 150 ml/kg ( 60 ml/kg in adults ). The blood flow rate in young children is about twice that in adults . The bone system undergoes great changes at old age . The number of bone lamellae ( parallel membranes of bony tissue ) reduces , and rarefaction of bone ( osteoporosis ) occurs . In addition , their is excessive formation of bone in the form of bone outgrowths ( osteophytes ) and calcification of the articular cartilage, ligaments ,and tendons at the site of attachment to the bone (excessive deposition of calcium in connective tissue and cartilagious structures adjoining the bone ). A one-third of the weight of the bone consists of organic matter ( mainly ossein and osseomucoid ) and remaining two-third is inorganic , chiefly , various calcium salts , calcium phosphate in particular ( 51.04%). The bones of young children , which , which contain comparatively greater amount of ossein , are marked by greater pliability , and their fractures are consequently rare . The resilience of bone depends on the presence of organic substances , while the hardness of bone depends on the presence of inorganic

compounds . In contrast to young children , in old age, when the proportion of the organic and inorganic materials changes in favour of the latter ( the organic substances ( in %) decrease with age and the mineral salts increase ), bones become less elastic and more fragile .

Ageing and atherosclerosis , cardiovascular diseases
Atherosclerosis is a wide spread pathology . The most dangerous forms of atherosclerosis are myocardial ischemia and that which affects cerebral circulation . Atherosclerotic changes in coronary vessels are man's fate already at an early age . Every second person in the world dies of sclerotic injuries to the vessel walls , in other words , of ischemic heart diseases ( i.e. myocardial infarction etc.) or brain stroke . Atherosclerosis is hardening of the arterial walls with deposition of substances normally not found in them - calcium , cholesterol , and hyaline ( a substance of protein nature ) In atherosclerosis , numerous deposits of yellowish plaques containing plenty of fatty substances , mainly cholesterol and its esters accumulate on the inner surface of the vessels . This leads to the calcification of the impaired site of a blood vessel . This causes the arterial lumen to narrow , interfering with the blood flow and the plaques may develop into the blood clots known as thrombi . The arterial walls become inelastic and compact . Narrowing of the blood vessels results in a poor blood supply to the heart , brain , liver and kidneys . Atherosclerosis commonly affects coronary arteries , cerebral arteries and peripheral arteries especially lower limb arteries of elderly people . Atherosclerotic changes and their different types i.e. fibrous plaques , lipoid patches and other complicated affections , calcinosis ( the deposition of calcium salts in the arteries ) increased with age . Practically everyone will have atherosclerosis but the rate of its progress will vary considerably with the years . Spasms in the vessels or grave blood-clot condition , which often happen against the background of atherosclerosis . The clogging of blood vessels , or thrombosis , poses a grave threat to the body . Particular sensitivity to this is shown by the human brain , in which even the partial narrowing of just on vessel , can lead to a stroke or infarction . It is the cardiovascular system that is affected the most in atherosclerosis . The heart makes an annual average of 40 million contractions , reacts sensitively to the body's blood requirement and changes rhythm under different physical and psychological loads .Therefore , the cardiovascular system is more vulnerable to atherosclerosis . In the lighter cases the disease manifests itself in short but vary intense pains in the region of the heart ( angina pectoris ) , while in

severe cases there occurs necrosis of part of the heart muscle myocardial infarction . Infarction is the most common form of cardiovascular pathology . We all know that the heart is a pump which supplies blood to all the organs of body . Heart supplies itself with blood with the help of what is known as coronary arteries . They are called that because they surround the heart muscle by what looks like a crown . It has been demonstrated that in 90% of heart attacks , the vessels which feed the heart muscle become clogged up by a thrombus . The blood clot upsets the flow of blood to a section of the heart . And if the collateral vessels fails to make up for disturbance in blood circulation this particular area of myocardium ( the heart's muscular tissue ) dies . Atherosclerotic changes in the aorta were found in 56% of healthy males in the 4th decade of life . The frequency of discovery of atherosclerosis progressed with age . At the age of 60 to 69 practically 100% people ( both healthy and ill ) have atherosclerosis of the aorta . Some authors have noted that atherosclerotic changes in aorta start happening from childhood itself . Atherosclerotic changes in the coronary vessels , in particular the anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery , are found more often than in aorta even in particularly healthy people . At the age of 30 to 39 - 71% of healthy people have atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries ; at the age of 70 to 80 the incidence of coronary sclerosis rises to 97% . The incidence of calcinosis also rise with age . Comparison amongst atherosclerotic changes in coronary arteries have shown that , the atherosclerotic changes are largest at any age in the anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery ; in the right coronary artery these changes are somewhat less strongly pronounced , but the difference is statistically not always reliable . The circumflex branch of the left coronary artery is involved in the process the least . Based on extensive research data, some authors arrived at following conclusion . " In women the affection of coronary arteries "lags " 10-15 years behind that in men , and myocardial infarction correspondingly occurs 10-15 years later. Only after 70 years of age , when coronary atherosclerosis reaches about the same level in both sexes, does the incidence of myocardial infarction even up ." Observations made by some authors show that , in elderly people whose food has been short on calories for a long time the pathological changes in the cardiovascular system and in the lipid( fat ) metabolism are less pronounced . First half of last century saw a prevailing scientific notion that atherosclerosis develops under the influence of cholesterol in the blood . Total cholesterol content of more than 220 mg % ( 220 mg per 100 ml ) in the blood was considered as sign of danger . But in

1980s , it was discovered that cholesterol circulating in the blood is not pure , but forms part of intricate protein-fat complexes known as lipoproteins, the carriers of cholesterol . These lipoproteins are classified as either low ( LDL) or high density (HDL) LDLs can penetrate into the vessel wall and stimulate the accumulation of cholesterol i.e. LDLs transport cholesterol from the blood to the membranes of various cells , including those of the vascular wall , whereas HDLs , on the contrary , extract its surplus from the vessels and cell membranes . If a person's blood contains may HDLs he does not run the risk of contracting atherosclerosis . They carry cholesterol into the liver , whence , the organism tries to get rid of excessive cholesterol by oxidation and following oxidation , in the form of bile it all goes into the intestine . This amounts to a balance of cholesterol's entry into and exit from the body . However , the balance is frequently upset a danger which markedly increases in old age . Thus , in itself , the cholesterol content of blood does not provoke the development of atherosclerosis - a major role is played by the correlation of lipoproteins which exercise different functions . The correlation was shown to have a genetic basis and role of many factors , including sex hormones , in its change was demonstrated . Some authors have studied physical parameters of the blood concerning the cardiovascular diseases . Studies of these authors have revealed that , in patients with cardiovascular pathologies , the viscosity of blood is often higher than normal causing a great strain on the heart and resulting in a slower passage of blood through vessels , especially , fine ones . In recent years , important information has been obtained on the origin of vascular thrombosis and on the complex mechanism of atherosclerotic development .Scientists have discovered that ischemic heart disease increases the activity of some enzymes which control the metabolism of fatty substances . These enzymes are contained in the blood thrombocytes . If their activity is above normal , the individual’s cardiovascular system functions with disturbances . This fact has been made the basis of a new diagnostic procedure . The role played by blood triglycerides in the development of atherosclerosis , including IHD ( ischemic heart diseases ) , is being widely discussed of late .Some researchers hold that the content of triglycerides plays an even more important diagnostic and prognostic role than that of cholesterol . It is found that regular consumption of food containing higher amounts of dietary carbohydrates , blood concentrations of triglycerides rise. It has been shown that in all species of mammals with ageing increases the amount of total fat ( triglycerides and cholesterol )

Ageing and cholesterol
Cholesterol , a fatty substance which is contained in every cell of animal organism . As for plants , only unripe beet contains cholesterol . Cholesterol is manufactured by the liver . Cholesterol is found - partly in ester form - nearly all the organs of the human body ; it is present in especially large quantities in the brain , nerve tissue , skin fat and bile . The brain tissue contains up to 7% ( on the dry basis ) of cholesterol . Cholesterol enters into the composition of animal oils and fats .Cholesterol , mostly esterified , is utilized in the build up of cell bio-membranes . Besides cholesterol is a precursor to biologically important steroid compounds - bile acids ( in liver ) , steroid hormones ( in adrenal cortex , male and female sexual glands , and placenta ) , and vitamin D-3 , or cholecalciferol ( in skin ) . Some cholesterol enters the organism when food is eaten .( especially much of it is contained in fats and the egg yolk ) But , it has been now been ascertained that about 80 % of cholesterol is synthesized in the organism .Numerous research papers published in 1980s demonstrated that the human body itself forms more cholesterol than any person can absorb as part of his food . So, whatever the diet , the blood will still contain enough cholesterol . Therefore , cholesterol is deposited on the walls of blood vessels in atherosclerosis mainly because its metabolism in the organism is upset , and not because too much of it enters the organism together with food . As is aforementioned , 7 % of cholesterol is circulated in the blood with lipoproteins , which serve as a miniature vehicle transporting it from cell to cell . Low density lipoproteins ( LDLs - promoting atherosclerosis ) take it from the liver to the periphery - HDLs carry it in the opposite direction . Under normal conditions a steady balance is maintained between the two kinds of lipoproteins - and hence the inflow and outflow of cholesterol are also balanced . Atherosclerosis-resistant individuals will accumulate excess food cholesterol in the fatty tissue under the skin , and will have no substantial rise in the blood cholesterol level after eating . In people predisposed to the disease - cholesterol takes longer time to pass from the blood into the subcutaneous fatty tissue and hence , more of the substance enters the liver . High cholesterol content in the liver cells stimulates production of LDLs , their share in the blood rises whereas that of HDLs falls . A vicious circle ensues high content liver cholesterol will inadvertently begin relocating into especially the cardiovascular system , and facilitate development of plaques . It was established that accumulation of LDLs in blood can be blocked by bringing down the excess cholesterol level in liver dells . Today , physicians are unanimous in that the treatment of lipodogenous forms of atherosclerosis should be centred on

correcting the LDL-HDL flow . Cholesterol forms a part of biological membranes , and it seems to increase or decrease their plasticity , viscosity , permeability etc. Researchers agree that cholesterol and its ethers are vital for the normal functioning of cell membranes . The cell bio-membrane is a double layer of fat-like organic lipid compounds and proteins immersed in it . Figuratively speaking , the membrane is a sea of lipids with protein icebergs floating in it . Biological membrane - their importance in cell metabolism - the membrane controls the entry of substances into the cell and exit of waste i.e. membranes "allow" or "forbid" specific molecules to enter and leave a cell , regulates the DNA and RNA synthesis , the activity of enzymes , and many other things . In short , they actually determine the cell's entire life . Alteration in the lipid bi-layer state , such as its becoming more dense or more fluid over the norm , leads to the membrane malfunction . For example , the membrane of a tumoral cell is more fluid . On the other hand , the replacement of unsaturated phospholipids by saturated ones , as is observed in certain pathologies , results in an increased formation of denser crystalline structures , which reduces the membrane permeability by a few orders of magnitude . In the opinion of a group of researchers , it is the very "cholesterol" that is responsible for ageing and ageing related diseases . This group of researchers studied in detail the effect of cholesterol has on the properties of the lipid( fatty ) layer of the cell membranes, origins , transport and conversion of cholesterol in the organism and the role it played in cell biology . Their conclusion is as follows Some 3 tons of fat and almost 30 kg of cholesterol are pumped through the vessels during a lifespan of 70 years . While storing cholesterol during its life time the human organism gradually undergoes a change , characterized by a heightened cholesterol level which leads to an upset of the permeability of cell membranes . This phenomenon is mainly responsible for the onset of atherosclerosis , many cardiovascular diseases affecting the processes of the immune system , cell division , and contributing to malignant growth , hypertension and ageing . I will not be surprised if - after reading above-described information about cholesterol - somebody may forward a hypothesis that " cholesterol " is responsible for ageing of organism . Human body synthesizes fats ( lipids ) from carbohydrates . Hence , the disturbances or primary changes in the carbohydrate metabolism leads to disturbance in fat metabolism and protein metabolism also . Researchers have shown that in atherosclerosis carbohydrate and protein metabolism are also disturbed . In recent years , the interdependence between hormonal disturbances and atherosclerosis has been established .For example - Research performed by scientists has indicated a clear connection between the cholesterol level of HDLs and the content of sex hormones . Scientists suggest a

potential for employing these hormones to prevent heart attacks and the development of atherosclerosis . Surely , more research regarding atherosclerosis and cholesterol will help to reveal enigma of ageing mechanism .

Ageing and hypertension
There are two broad categories of hypertension - primary and secondary hypertension. Primary hypertension develops without any evident causes and is not related to any other particular disease or damaged organ . Secondary or renal hypertension is caused by an excessive amount of sodium chloride consumed with food over many years . Salt retains water in the body , promoting the development of puffiness and high blood pressure . Secondary hypertension is rather uncommon and accounts for not more than 5% of all cases . Let us discus the research work of some authors conducted to find the origin of primary hypertension . Based on research data, some authors have concluded that cellular membranous malfunctions ( which allows excessive calcium ion accumulation in the cell ) were largely responsible for the origin of primary hypertension . Researchers have attributed the cause of primary hypertension to primary changes of cellular membranes which upset the transport of sodium and calcium ions increase their concentration in the cell . In cells the membranes regulate the concentration of salts , sugars , amino acids and other metabolic products , which , among other things , maintain the low concentration of calcium ions within the cells . These ions determine the contractive properties of the vessel's smooth muscles . The elimination of superfluous ions is the job of " membranous pumps "- large protein molecules . It was discovered that in hypertonics these " membranous pumps " function less efficiently than in healthy individuals. As a consequence , the cell accumulate ions of calcium , the vessels become compressed and the arterial pressure rises . Hypertension sets in . Researchers suggest that malfunctions of cellular membranes can be easily detected by a diagnostic membranous test - checking the permeability of the erythrocyte membrane for sodium , which is 1.5 2 times higher in hypertensive prone patients . Hypertension is characterized by high vascular tension . With the condition , the heart , as it pumps blood through itself , has to handle an increased volume , which gives rise to an overstrain that causes the heart itself to enlarge - a state known as cardiac hypertrophy . Hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy can lead to an intensive wearing of the heart . A heart of normal healthy man weighs less than 400 grams and that of a healthy woman - less

than 350 grams . All authors unanimously agree that , atherosclerotic changes in the blood vessels are more pronounced in hypertensive patients than in healthy individuals . On the basis of pathological data , studies have clearly revealed that coronary atherosclerosis in all age groups of both men and women is more strongly pronounced in persons with hypertensive vascular diseases and symptomatic hypertension .

Ageing and

cancer ( malignant tumors )

In terms of incidence , cancer is second only to cardiovascular diseases amongst the ailments affecting humans . Cancer is not one specific disease , it embraces a large group of tumor-forming processes - approximately 200 different malignant diseases . Malignant tumors in young people occur relatively rarely . It is revealed that malignant tumors occur mainly in elderly people. among men over the age of 60 the cancer incidence is more than 20 times greater than among 30-years-olds . Among women of the identical age groups the difference is 10 times . In the main , cancer strikes the elderly . Statisticians have found out that the incidence of cancer increases with age at a rate of 25 to 26. In recent years , scientists have concentrated research efforts on studying properties of malignant tumor cells . Let's have some look on difference between normal cells and tumor cells .Tumor cells can divide innumerable times . Unlike normal cells , tumor cells has no limit on number of cell divisions . Not only cancer cells capable of unlimited division , they also lower the body’s resistance and inhibit protein synthesis in the tissues , thus speeding up disintegration processes . A malignant tumor is like a shrapnel time-bomb which unless quickly rendered harmless , will explode ( metastasize ) and kill the patient . At a temperature of 42°C tumor cells die while normal ones can endure such heat for several hours. The human body constantly radiates heat . And a tumor radiates more heat than healthy tissues . Based on this fact , a diagnostic test named infrared thermography has been devised to diagnose the presence and location of malignant tumors . This instrument is capable of measuring minute amounts of thermal energy which help accurately to detect the regions of metabolic disturbances due to malignancy . As has already been said , the bio-membrane of a tumoral cell is more fluid than normal cell . Malignant tumors act as a peculiar trap for glucose . Tumor cells have a fantastic appetite for glucose , absorbing it 16 times as

rapidly as normal ones . Tumor absorbs less oxygen and produce more lactic acid than healthy tissues . In ordinary tissue the cells are practically identical in shape and size ; in malignant tumors two absolutely identical specimens are rarely to be found . The nuclei of cancerous cells are often brightly coloured and not in their strictly allotted place , but in any " sector " of the cellular area . At times one can see not just one , but two or more nuclei of different size . We are living in 21st century . But still there is no proven or established theory of the origin and development of malignant tumors . In the mid - 20th century , there was heated and controversial debate among two schools of thoughts of scientists about the origin of cancer . One - viral theory of the origin of cancer and two - carcinogen theory . According to viral theory , infection by so-called " oncogenic" viruses stimulate the malignant degeneration of normal cell . And according to carcinogenic theory - long term contact with certain chemical elements ( known as carcinogens ) actually promotes the development of malignant tumor . It is now commonly agreed that , the malignant transformation of the cell may occur for many reasons - the effect of physical or chemical carcinogen , infection by so called " oncogenic " virus and so on . It has now been established that up to 70% of malignant tumors in humans are induced by chemical carcinogens . The malignant degeneration of a normal cell is a multistage and complex process . The possibility of transforming the normal tissue into malignant when cultivating it outside the organism has been proved . But , still , researchers are yet unable to decipher the mechanism of malignant degeneration at molecular level .When a normal cell is converted into malignant cell - some parts of genetic codes migrate from one chromosome to another . In some cases , change in the shape of chromosomes is observed . Some authors take note that , the tumoral formation of the cell is , in principle , reversible i.e. tumoral cell is capable of converting into normal cell . Many authors support this observation . In concluding this section , we can hope that , in-depth research of malignant tumors will help gerontology .

Ageing and regenerative capabilities
I want to draw attention of the reader also to regenerative capabilities of some organs of humans . Regeneration is inherent in animals . Humans can grow new skin , muscles , cornea , certain segments of the liver ( 80-85% of an excised human liver can regenerate totally in 6 to 12 months ) , let alone hair and nails . A mysterious mechanism of cell growth so far unknown to us causes new bone tissue to form . Tailed amphibians such as salamanders , tritons can partly

regenerate eyes and even the heart , grow new limbs and tails .Starfishes are capable of regenerating even one arm into a whole new body. In lower animals the organism sometimes sacrifices its parts to save the hole ; If the hunting animal manages to grab the lizard by its tail , the lizard breaks off a part of its tail to save its life , the tail grows again , it regenerates ; the crab will give up its claws , and the holothurian its internal organs . Similar processes also occur in humans , such as carnification of the epidermis , the constant renewal of cells and blood elements . Biological methods have been developed which restore the regenerative ability in some organs and tissues such as injured scull bones in mammals and humans . Stimulated regeneration also speeds up the mending of cardiac muscle defect . The shaping of an embryonal limb that will eventually regenerate into a full-size limb is theoretically a matter of time . The feasibility of this process has already been proven experimentally with frogs . The key to the problem of tissue growth is the mechanism of cell differentiation and joining . In recent years , some breakthrough has occurred regarding so-called stem cells - a cell with particular function taken from a patient may serve as the embryo of an organ of his , in other words , a body cell can in principle be grown into any organ , with each cell carrying the necessary genetic information . Experiments in the transplantation of an embryo from one animal species to another have already been performed successfully . An embryo of a cross between a yak and a cow was implanted in a cow which gave birth to a living calf . In lower vertebrates , teeth wear away , they are shed and replaced by new ones; this occurs repeatedly many times . But in humans , this occurs only twice 1) deciduous teeth 2) permanent teeth . But , sometimes the teeth are replaced for third time ( replacement of the teeth for the third time was encountered in a 100-year-oldman ) Surgical transplantation of organs were always hampered by the body's rejection of alien proteins and tissues ( total compatibility of tissue cells is only possible between mono-zygotic( uniovular) twins and between purebred animals produced by inbreeding. Mono-zygotic twins have identical sets of genes and each one is a carbon copy of the other ). The problem of tissue rejection and finding a suitable donor are the main hurdles for surgical transplantation of organs . More and more experiments had been carried out , and gradually the laws of biological compatibility for various organs and tissues were discovered . One remarkable experiment , among others , is that – scientists have demonstrated that while the cornea , freshly extracted from a deceased person’s eye , was not amenable to transplantation at all , it is only necessary to keep that cornea frozen for a certain length of time for all question of its biological

incompatibility to be entirely eliminated . Another example is Transplantation of bone marrow and spleen cells to irradiated animals restored the number of monocytes in the blood . We have already learnt to transplant skin , bones, cornea , kidneys , blood vessels and the heart itself taken from other persons ( donors ) . Fairly recently , substances ( called as immunosuppressants ) were found that suppressed the immunological reaction of the recipient to transplants , and their appropriate use created the necessary prerequisites for successful transplants surgery in clinical practice . With modern drugs and technical devices - the barrier of tissue incompatibility may be overcome , and we are currently witnessing tremendous success in transplant surgery , although many theoretical concepts still require additional research . For instance , geneticists are still unable to analyze directly the loci ( positions of a definite group of genes known as histocompatibility genes in a chromosome ), which are responsible for human tissue incompatibility , because of the incredible structural complexity of chromosomes and the absence of suitable techniques . Medical specialists are attracted by the possibility of preserving organs , tissues and cells using cryobiology - the science of life at low temperatures . Reliable conservation techniques have been introduced for the skin , the cornea , the sensitive bone marrow , blood and tissue lymphocytes for hospital uses .

Some other biological and non-biological ageing-retarding factors and theories
Many authors believe that ageing-retarding factors may include nonbiological factors e.g. electrical and magnetic fields , ions of various metals . This is because , researches have shown that physiological processes of living organism can be greatly influenced by such factors . For example Stimulation by electric and magnetic fields has shown favourable impact on physiological processes e.g. removing spasm of muscle , improving blood supply to tissues by increasing permeability of blood vessels and blood pressure stabilization , anti-inflammatory and anesthetising effect , rapid healing of wounds and bone fractures etc . I want to mention here few lines from scientific literature about the effect of electromagnetic field of human physiology . " Many people have noticed , no doubt , that before abrupt weather changes , when it suddenly turns cold or vice versa , hypertensive patients complain about spasms and headache . A medical test confirms a jump in their blood pressure . Researchers suggested an

original method of reducing arterial pressure in cases of hypertension . Abrupt changes in atmospheric pressure ( weather ) are accompanied by changes in the intensity of the external electromagnetic fields, aggravating their adverse influence on the nervous , cardiovascular and other systems . To avoid the ill-effects of the external electromagnetic fields , the patients brain is temporarily screened , in other words , protected from the tension of electromagnetic fields by having a net-like metal cap made to a special formula placed on his head . The cap's function can be likened to that of a lightening rod . Research has shown that , patient's suffering from hypertension ( and even healthy people ) benefit from the screen-cap -- their cortical inhibition intensifies , more blood flows to the heart , which returns to normal functioning , and the level of arterial pressure registers a drop . " Breathing air containing abundant negative ions ( artificial aeroionization ) has reported to show beneficial impact on health .Many authors have noted that artificial electromagnetic field influences the arterial blood pressure .There is one device designed by some authors called - negative ion emitter - which claims to cure high blood pressure . According to the designers of this device , negative ions emitted by this device penetrate into skin and minimize elevated blood pressure within few minutes . Another device called " electrosleep " - a sleep inducing apparatus - a kind of head-ware with flaps , in which electric are pulses send out at a certain frequency to the brain through applied electrodes . Patient falls asleep within few minutes . Electrosleep is also used to treat arterial hypertension . The discovery of action potential , which could be amplified , created new hopes . a bio-electric stimulator was developed in the Ukraine in order to control the functioning of the nervous system , muscle and organs . The inventors claimed that the instrument could effectively control biochemical reactions in old people so that they would parallel the metabolism of the young . Scientists have established that , study of animals and plants by electrical resistance of their tissues on the fixed frequencies of the current make it possible to assess the intensity of growth process and deviations from the normal physiological state . In 1970s and 1980s , some authors believed that ageing is consequence of age-related weakened functioning of the endocrinal ( and especially neuro-endocrinal ) glands which produce vital hormones. However , this belief failed to gain further scientific substantiation in the subsequent period . Human growth hormone has no role in the ageing process . Scientists thoroughly studied the mechanism of action of all the other hormones .

Here , I would like to mention two words – “ cause “ and “ consequence “ . It is easy to confuse with these two words . I want to mention here the passage from a book on cancer research which explains the difference between cause and consequence . “Biochemists have established that the development of experimental tumours in the blood is accompanied by an increased concentration of one of the pituitary hormones , namely , somatotropin ( which promotes growth ) Researchers believed the solution to be as simple as could be : to retard tumour growth , or to achieve regression , they proposed developing a drug that could suppress the production of growth hormone by the pituitary body . Significant effort was spent in producing an anti-somatotropic serum , but unfortunately , it did not affect the fate of cancer patients . Moreover , as it later became clear , the tumours themselves proved capable of synthesizing ( their own ) growth hormone . it is quite possible that its surplus in the blood is not the cause but , a consequence of tumour development " Similarly , the most probable fact is that - the hormonal disturbance occurs in the older age is not the “ cause” of ageing of organism , but , the “consequence” of disturbance in the metabolism at the cellular level . Nevertheless , neuro-endocrine theory promotes a new fundamental question - whether one single organ is responsible for ageing of whole organism ??.The rate of metabolism in the brain is much higher . It consumes more glucose and blood . Also , the neuroendocrine cells do not divide . According to neuro-endocrine theory , brain ( or more precisely hypothalamus , pituitary ) is responsible for ageing of whole organism . Age-related drop in neuro-endocrinal hormones ( secreted by hypothalamus , pituitary etc. ) is observed in the blood . But , injection of neuro-endocrinal hormones into adult humans didn't caused any rejuvenation . Neuro-endocrine theory fails to furnish a convincing explanation of this fact . A part of hypothalamus of young rat is transplanted into hypothalamus of older rat . Or , tissue extract of hypothalamus of younger mouse is injected into older mouse . This caused rejuvenation in the older ones . These experimental results may bring cheers for the supporters of neuro-endocrine theory .But , hardly we can expect that such experimentation will work for humans or closer-to-human species . Let's return to a fundamental question - whether one single organ is responsible for ageing of whole organism ?? The favourite organ would be then the Liver . Liver manufactures two important chemicals glucose and cholesterol - which are vital of every cell of the body . The other favourite organs would be the gastro-intestinal tract and blood formation system . The function of heart is more of a

mechanical type rather than biochemical . Whether there is a vicious cycle of ageing exists in which one single organ is a first link or the origin of vicious cycle ?? Or , everything boils down to microscopic level i.e. disturbance in the metabolism at cellular level . Surely , a fresh outlook is needed using modern diagnostic tools to unlock the ageing mechanism . Cytomedicines - tissue or cell extracts do deserve consideration here . Some authors have reported that , T-activin injection - which is a mixture of numerous immunologically active peptides isolated from tissue extract of calf thymus has shown to have a rejuvenating effect on human thymus and stimulated immunity . The liver cell extract of newborn pups was introduced into the body of a dog struck by acute liver insufficiency . This stimulated the restoration of all functions of the dog's diseased liver .It was discovered that rats could be treated by extraction obtained from the liver of a rabbit or dog . The liver cells of rats exercised a positive effect when injected into rabbits .

Study of long-lived people and centenarians
Old age is often attended by a variety of serious diseases of cardiovascular , respiratory or endocrine systems . As is known , the main causes of death in old age are cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases , in particular, ischemic heart disease , pneumonia and disorders of cerebral circulation . But , some people manage to elude senile diseases and reach 8090 or even 100 years . In the opinion of some researchers , genetic pool centenarians should be thoroughly studied and apart from genetic factor - it should also be thoroughly studied - whether centenarian's living conditions ( i.e. chemical composition of soil , water and the radiation background ) plays a role in longer life span ??. Scientists undertook an integral study of various geographic locales and different communities ,ethnic groups having the higher proportion of long-living people and centenarians . In the opinion of authors , there is a psychological factor behind the extended lifespan in old age . Any family drama , any acute situation at work , even a casual quarrel can create emotional turmoil and heavy psychological loads causing various neurasthenic states known as neuroses . Age-related pathological changes start to happen more intensively against the background of neuroses . The death or grave illness of close relatives , fright , fear , conflicts and prolonged excessive overstrain figure most often amongst psychic traumas . There exist a number of hypotheses purporting to explain longevity among the particular ethnic groups. Among these is food hypothesis , according to which the key factor behind the long duration of life is the food composition of the

mountain people , with its predominance of sour milk and vegetable products. Then there is a hypothesis of retarded biological development , which attributes long life to late maturation . A natural-ecological hypothesis and a labour-economic hypothesis were also advanced . They all are correct in part , but the socio-psychological hypothesis has been found to be the most valid . It explains longevity by the social atmosphere congenial to elderly people , in other words , by traditional emphatic respect for this category . Researchers studied what could be called the centenarian's psychological health finding them to be active people with a quick change of emotions .Their interests are concentrated on what goes around them rather than within them. They are highly outgoing . Most importantly , old people in such communities wield real authority , playing an important role both in family and in society .The atmosphere of pronounced respect no doubt contributes to the retention of vigour and an interest in life and consequently , to longevity . Such psychological " comfort " largely precludes stressful situations . In other words , these old people live a life free from neuroses . Some authors attribute longer lifespan to dietary factor . At the beginning of 20th century , they worked out the theory explaining premature ageing of the body under the action of poisons produced by microbes in the intestine during the digestion . In the opinion of author , reason behind longer lifespan is the tradition of inclusion of fermented or sour milk products in the diet of certain communities of long-lived people . For instance , in the regions of Central Asia , there is a tradition of drinking “ Koumiss “ , which is made of fermented mare’s milk . Fermented milk products contain lactic acid bacteria ( lactobacillus bulgaricus ). They act as antagonists to inhibit the growth of putrefactive bacteria which poison the body by their metabolites . It is now established fact that intestinal bacterial microflora is indispensable for normal development of physiological functions . In a man or woman whose intestinal bacterial microflora is suppressed by antibiotics , it is observed that - if the diet is deficient in vitamins and irreplaceable amino acids - body react to such deficiency much more acutely and immunity to different diseases is weaker .The non-intestinal-microbial animals have inadequate immune and nervous systems and metabolism . The same is true of the people who for various reason grew up in sterile conditions . They are also known to be mentally inferior . The intestinal bacterial microflora provides vitamins , amino acids , and other elements required by the master . Intestinal microflora also helps to digest food . Thanks to the microflora , some food fibers become secondary nutrients which are just as important as the primary ones coming as part of the food . Let's return to afore-mentioned topic - influence of chemical composition of soil , water on lifespan Let me site few examples regarding this .

According to study conducted by authors , the greatest number of sufferers from persistent hypertension and stenocardia were found among those who , incidentally , used water with a low calcium salt content but a higher concentration of sodium salts , above all , sodium chloride . Biochemical analysis of the tissues of atherosclerotic patients showed the almost total absence of chromium in their cell . However , by no means all elderly people suffer from atherosclerosis . In fact there are vast areas throughout the world where atherosclerosis is practically unknown . It has been shown that , as a rule , these are places where the earth's crust contains considerably more chromium than elsewhere . Chromium compounds , it seems , are taken into the human body in water and in plants that are capable of retaining chromium . Comparing this data , the scientists arrived at the conclusion that , chromium compounds in some obscure way influence collagen - the connective tissue of the blood cells - hampering its destruction and the formation of sclerotic patches . I want to quote few lines from a magazine about the research work of another group of researchers regarding the disturbance in mineral metabolism . " For Europeans , atherosclerosis is a widespread phenomenon . Among the Bantu tribe in Africa , it is unknown . Many doctors in Europe believe that the reason for this is that magnesium is lacking in the European diet . This shortage also gives rise to arrhythmia of the heart ." Authors also mention that , some ethnic groups display higher insusceptibility towards particular grave disease . For instance Researchers have established that in persons with marked coronary atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction there are fever mast cells in the myocardium than in healthy people of the control group . In people with a lower incidence of myocardial infarction and atherosclerosis , e.g. Africans , there are twice as many mast cells in the myocardium and the skin as compared to Europeans with a much higher incidence of myocardial infarction . As is known , the mast cells ( heparinocytes ) are natural humoral agents of the anticoagulation system . The mast cells secrete heparin - a substance that exhibits an anticoagulative function ( i.e. inhibits formation of blood clotting ) and an antilipemic function ( decreases high levels of lipids in the blood by activating their cleavage ) Towards the middle of the last century researchers discovered that the Inuit Eskimos who consume large amounts of meat and cholesterol respectively , rarely suffer from atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction , although the relationship between cholesterol and these diseases is quite reliably determined . Body anatomy of some ethnic groups also be taken into consideration . For example , it has been shown by research that , rather less iron is lost through desquamation of the skin and growth of the nails and hair . Most iron is lost by red-headed individuals ,

whose hair contains 10mg% of iron ( against 2mg% in dark brown and blond hair ) , which explains the higher incidence of irondeficiency anemias in them . The color pigment called as trichosiderin, from human red hair contains iron . Migration from one geographical location to another can also be taken into consideration . For example , Endemic goiter - a disease of the organism which is accompanied by an enlargement of the thyroid is found only in definite geographical boundaries or so-called biogeochemical provinces characterized by iodine deficiency in nature . It is beyond dispute that when a family moves from a goitrogenous area to a non-goitrous region , the endemic goitre in members of the family often begins to involute and subsequently the new generation in this family becomes healthy . Adaptation to mountain hypoxia , blood gains in quantity , hemoglobin molecule alter their shaper , developing a greater potential for capturing oxygen , heartbeats and cell metabolism intensify . The man becomes rejuvenated . Enhance his resistance to stresses and wide ranging diseases . Experiments proved that after adaptation to hypoxia , myocardial infarction was no longer fatal for the animal . A rapid growth of coronary vessels proceeds in the heart with a significant increase in their capacity , a rise in the level of erythrocytes , which carry oxygen in the blood flow , and also an increase of alveoli in the lungs . This is especially important since , half of the male population over the age 40 in developed countries , dies due to myocardial infarction alone .

Ageing and cell metabolism
Cell metabolism -This is the sum of all the biochemical processes by which the living cell is maintained . The most rational approach to unlock ageing mechanism would be a deeper research into cell metabolism . Let me give few examples There is a well known correlation between the cholesterol accumulated by the skin's cell membranes and the total amount in the body . Diagnostic methods have been devised to judge the level of atherosclerotic affection in the body by knowing the cholesterol content of the skin's cell membranes . Another example is - the permeability of the erythrocyte membrane for sodium , which is 1.5 - 2 times higher in hypertensive prone patients . Malfunctions in the erythrocyte membrane represents the level of pathological changes in the blood vascular cell membranes also . The cholesterol content of the skin's cell membranes is the indicator or representative of the cholesterol content of the cell membranes of other body organs . We already know that , there is a labyrinth of hundreds of ageing hypotheses . We also know that these hypotheses are classified into

two broad categories . Fortunately , a research work of some authors in the area of cell reconstruction , considerably helps to validate the authenticity of these ageing hypotheses . Research into the area of cell reconstruction received a fresh impetus in the late 1960s , when a chemical technique for removing nucleus from cell was devised . At some point of time , cells stop diving and also stop producing specific biochemical substances . Scientists removed nucleus from these old cells and transplanted it into the cytoplast ( a cell , which is stripped of its nuclei ) of younger cells . As a result , the synthesis of RNA in the nucleus of old cell resumed and proceeded at a growing rate . Apparently , the cytoplasm contains agents that restore a weekly functioning or inactive nucleus to active life . It turned out that factors causing cells to age are localized in both the nucleus and cytoplasm of the old cells . It was discovered that the transfer of malignancy through the cytoplasm is apparently impossible . At the same time the cytoplasm of non-malignant cells can notably lower the malignancy of tumor cells . All the signs are that present in the cytoplasm of healthy cells may be agents capable of suppressing the genes responsible for tumors . It seems that many authors agree that factors that turn the normal healthy cell into malignant are located in the cell nucleus . Here is an example of research work . “ A few years ago the researchers worked out a new method of identifying individual peculiarities in the structure of inter-phase chromatin , a substance storing genetic information . They used a florescent " marker " substance which binds with chromatin with different degrees of intensity at different temperatures . The researchers established that temperature-related changes in the structure of chromatin in various human cells can be an indicator of genetic flaws . Investigating blood cell chromatin in children with blood cancer , the researchers established that in 85% of cases ( some of the patients in a remission stage ) the pattern of temperature dependence is appreciably different from that of healthy children . The identical peculiarities of chromatin in sick children and their mothers points to a connection with the parents' genotype and not that this was due to some genetic disturbances caused by the diseases itself . “ A large amount of data was published in the last quarter of 20th century about subcellular factors that influence the cell metabolism . It is appropriate here to quote lines from leading science journal . “ Non histone proteins in the cell nucleus ( a nuclear matrix ) has a regulatory function in cell metabolism .

Experimentally it has been established that non histone proteins created an extremely thin carcass inside the nucleus attached to the DNA molecules and the membrane. This is called a nuclear matrix . It supports the structure of the cell nucleus keeping it steady . Further studies of the nuclear matrix have revealed that this structural carcass plays a very important role in the life of the cell . It takes an active part in metabolism and in the growth and reproduction of cells. It is in this carcass inside the cell nucleus that begins and continues replication - DNA synthesis preceding the division of cells and transfer of genetic information to the locations of protein synthesis . Reproduction of the DNA and RNA chains begins in its foci , the locations of DNA attachment , and it means it is here that one should look for the origins of life itself .In other words , the nuclear matrix is nothing else but a kind of " control panel " . It controls the vital activity of any living organism . “ Among common factors that influence cell metabolism are glucose and insulin .( We have already discussed about cholesterol ) All the tissues of the organism are sensitive to insulin except the nerves and erythrocytes in which glucose is utilized in the absence of insulin . Without insulin the liver , muscles and other tissues fail to absorb glucose coming to them from the blood , and glucose is a source of energy for a living cell . Just imagine a car at an crude oil well . There is plenty of fuel around , but there is nothing to fill the tank with , for crude oil is not yet gasoline . Some authors have reported the age-related pathological changes that have occurred due to insulin deficiency .For instance - the loosening and early loss of teeth may occur in the case of insulin deficiency . A frequent occurrence of cataract in diabetes , among the causes which is disturbed carbohydrate metabolism with the subsequent decrease of energy processes in the crystalline lens . It has also been shown that , with age , the cell's energy generating systems manifest a more intense activity and that the insulinsecretory function of the pancreas is reduced . In this regard , researchers must strive to use more efficiently modern diagnostic methods - for example - electron microscopy , spectrophotometry , labelled atoms , mass spectrometry , chromatography , NMR tomography , thermography , electrophoresis , ultra-centrifuging , etc. , to study the finest biochemical process of cell metabolism in greater depth . Hence , we can be hopeful that - deeper research of cytology and cell metabolism will help to unravel ageing mechanism .

Mitochondrial Free Radical Theory of Aging
This is currently most widely discussed ageing theory . Hence , I cannot help but to mention about this theory in separate section . In recent years , many authors have published research papers in favour of Mitochondrial Free Radical Theory of Aging . Free radicals are the highly reactive oxygen molecules ( with abnormal number of electrons ) formed by a variety of biochemical processes in the cell . Free radicals are also collectively known as “ active forms of oxygen”(AFO) or “ reactive oxygen species“(ROS) . According to mitochondrial free radical theory of ageing , the manufacturing location for free radicals is cytoplasmic microstructure "mitochondria" and accumulation of damage to mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA ( mtDNA ) leads to ageing of humans and animals. Mitochondria are self-replicating and the entire system of protein biosynthesis is present in mitochondria . Mitochondria contain their own DNA, RNA polymerase, transfer RNA, and ribosomes and they produce protein substances vital for normal functioning of the cell . Mitochondria produce the necessary energy for the cells in the form of ATP molecules . Unlike nuclear DNA , mitochondrial DNA ( mtDNA ) is not supported by histones . During cellular respiration , toxic free radicals are formed . These free radicals damage mitochondrial DNA and cellular bio-membrane . Damaged mitochondria produce less ATP and more free radicals , most of them destroyed by lysosomes. Mitochondria of old cell are especially subjected to an attack of free radicals . Many authors blame the free radical damage as the reason for age-related pathological changes such as " greying of hairs " and formation of "cataract" in crystalline lens . It is appropriate here to quote here lines from the article on ageing on Internet . “It was found that the ability of mitochondria to generate energy decreases with age. This situation prompted to begin the study contained in the mitochondria DNA, which encodes a dozen proteins necessary for their functioning. It is assumed that the mitochondrial DNA being attacked by free radicals, since these organelles are the main source of free radicals in the body, and mtDNA is particularly susceptible to oxidation. The rate of oxidation of DNA in mitochondria is significantly higher than in the nucleus. A special vulnerability of mitochondrial DNA due to the fact that it does not contain histone proteins that bind to nuclear DNA and protect it. In addition, mitochondrial genes are only minimally served by enzymes, "cut" and substituting the oxidized regions of DNA in the cell nucleus. These observations suggest the possibility that the oxidative attack on unhindered mitochondrial DNA can slowly disrupt the mitochondria in the ageing organism. When in a cell large number of these organelles is severely damaged, cell begins to suffer from lack of energy. And when the body breaks down a large number of cells, its activity is at decline. In the elderly people , mitochondrial DNA in cells of the heart and the brain is defective, but , this defect is not detected in embryonic tissues. Some common for elderly chronic disease, including senile diabetes, Parkinson's

disease and Alzheimer's disease, associated with damage to the mitochondria . “ Unfortunately , Mitochondrial Free Radical Theory of Aging is surrounded by controversies and criticism . The main point of criticism is - free radical theory was formulated more than 50 years ago , but , there is no significant breakthrough regarding protection from free radical damage . Scientists recommended the consumption of antioxidants ( " traps " for free radicals ) to slow down ageing process . Consumption of antioxidants have prolonged lifespan of rodents by 50% or even more . But , such lifespan prolongation is not observed in higher organisms . Human organism and other mammals ( higher organisms on the advanced stage of evolution ) obey different laws of physiology and metabolism than lower organisms . Lower organisms ( due to their shorter lifespan ) show exaggerated experimental results . I often read in media about claims made by authors about the invention of new effective antioxidants . I want to cite here one example . Some authors have claimed that , they have invented new class of most effective antioxidants named as “ mitochondria – targeted antioxidants “ which binds the toxic active forms of oxygen ( free radicals ) formed in mitochondria . It is postulated that , the amount of free radical production is much higher in lower organisms , but , in higher organism , the amount of free radical production is much lesser . Second point of criticism is , research has proved that factors causing cells to age are localized in both the nucleus and cytoplasm of the old cells . But , only the cytoplasmic microstructures are susceptible to free radical attack . Crystalline lens of the eye - while all the others have nerves and vessels , this is simply a jelly-like prism whose key function is to remain transparent and let light reach the retina .Crystalline lens is also affected by age-related pathological changes . Currently prevailing scientific explanations about cataract formation still retains their " hypothetical " status . Some authors have claimed that cause of agerelated opacity of crystalline lens is free radical damage in the form of lipid peroxidation . According to authors , with age , the content of natural protein antioxidant “ L-carnosine “ contained in the crystalline lens decreases . This results in opacity of crystalline lens . “ L- carnosine “ based eyedrops have already appeared in international market . In the opinion of authors , L- carnosine based eyedrops will avert the formation of cataract in the crystalline lens .

Some research experiments and observations …

In this section , I have included some research observations that will help to progress of gerontology . Observations in the laboratory showed that the egg-laying may reduce life expectancy. In fruit flies, for example, virgin females live longer than females participating in the pairing. A similar pattern found on the mice. The female octopus dies of exhaustion after the young octopuses are hatched from eggs. But if a female optic gland is removed before maturity , instead of two years, she will live for about eight . Atlantic salmon rapidly undergoes ageing after spawning and soon dies. But , if on its gills dwell larva of pearl-oyster (mollusc), Atlantic salmon can stay young and live up to 30 seasons. Also , the emasculation of Atlantic salmon makes their migration to a river for the laying and fertilization of roe unnecessary , thus postponing their inevitable death . Some authors connect life with the genetics of species. For example, a mutation of only one mouse gene can be a generation of rodents living in one and a half times longer than relatives. In rodents , it was observed that , advancing age reduces the effectiveness of adaptive, homeostatic mechanisms . It is shown, for example, that young rats after immersion in ice water for 3 minutes restores the body temperature for about 1 hour . Rodents of average age requires 1.5 hours , and the old about 2 hours . Administration of thyroid hormone in animals is known to rejuvenate the cells . But , such acceleration entails a shorter overall lifespan . It is well known fact that administration of thyroxine ( thyroid hormone ) causes a considerable increase in the metabolism of animals .The oxidative processes in the mitochondria are most activated and thyroxine influences degree of tissue oxygen consumption , which leads to an intensification of cell energy metabolism . Thyroid hormone also influences intracellular protein metabolism by activating the proteolytic cellular enzymes . There is often mention of “ Half-human and half- animal hybrids “ in science fiction literature and films . But , unfortunately , the existence such a hybrid is impossible in nature . For example - Chimpanzee is the genetically and morphologically closest to humans . Even hybrid of humans and this closer-to-human animal is not possible . The chimpanzee has 48 chromosomes , but humans has only 46 chromosomes . Chromosomes of all cells of living organisms are arranged in pairs . Their number comes from the fusion of two sex cells , each having a single set of unpaired chromosomes .Therefore , when , in accordance with laws of nature , each set of chromosomes split into halves in the zygote ( fertilized ovicell ) and forms odd unpaired combinations of chromosomes , their fusion becomes impossible .( The chimpanzee sex Cell will have 24 chromosomes as against 23 chromosomes of human cell . This means that “ one “ chromosome will remain unpaired . Neither chimpanzee sperm will fertilize human ovum nor human sperm will fertilize chimpanzee ovum ) Moreover , such interspecies fertilization of higher organisms is hampered by the incompatibility of enzymes which take part in

fertilizations . Belonging to different species and ; indeed , to different genetic groups , the chromosomes differ so much that they just do not “ recognize “ one another . Some authors have noted that basal metabolic rate ( energy expenditure or metabolic rate at rest ) decreases with age . It is known that gastric juices , saliva , urine and other biological fluids in the human and animals change their chemical composition if the body develops any deviation from normal . Research has shown that the drying of these fluids forms crystals of the substances which enter into their composition , the crystals changing their shapes depending on the character of the disturbances in the organism .

Ageing and modern molecular biology and genetics
Last century saw unprecedented advance in research of modern genetics . First , it was confirmed in 1940s that DNA contains hereditary information . Then , the molecular structure of DNA was deciphered in 1950s . Since then , modern genetics has progressed considerably .Huge success was obtained when scientists were able to decipher process of protein synthesis by cell by reading DNA sequence code . Many interesting facts about DNA code were discovered . It was found that genes ( a part of genetic code intended for synthesis of a particular protein ) do not necessarily form a sequence - one fragment may belong to several overlapping genes . Furthermore , nature has revealed the existence of DNA parts which jump from one place to another . For example - a sequence of nucleotides in DNA genes is not necessarily a continuous code for the sequence of amino acids in a protein , since parts of the sequence that codes for the protein can be separated and found in different parts of DNA sequence . But it would be better to discus about non-achievements rather than achievements of modern genetics . For example , It has been discovered that the greater part of the DNA in chromosomes lack the genetic code - it has no effect on the phenotype . These are called as " junk" DNA or “selfish” DNA . Junk DNA - it is a collective term for DNA sequences, function of which have not been identified yet. Approximately 95% of the sequences in human genome have been designated as junk DNA . A question arises - why DNA structure keeps so many unwanted details ?? It might be expected that the " junk " DNA is replicated independently , behaving in this sense like a not too much harmful parasite . The presence of an excess amount of such DNA can , however , slow down the rate of meiosis . The size of genome sets up

a limit , beyond which the development cannot be speeded up . Some authors believe that DNA sequence contains not only hereditary but spatial and temporal programmes of living organism . So far the genetic code known to us is not capable to reflect the 3 - dimensional structure of living organism . Researchers are yet to develop a computer programme which when given a complete DNA sequence of particular living organism as an input - will produce 3- dimensional structure of that organism . The subject of heated debate or discussion is the relationship between DNA sequence and the lifespan of living organism . So far nothing conclusive or scientifically substantiated explanation has been obtained yet .

Comprehensive comparison between humans and other animal species
The same compound can serve as a vitamin or absolutely essential amino acid for some organisms , while being ordinary substance for the other . For example - ascorbic acid ( Vitamin C ) is a vitamin for humans , monkeys and for guinea-pigs , since it is not synthesized in their organisms , but it is not a vitamin for rats , rabbits and dogs because these animal organisms produces it from glucose . For mosquito , glycine is an absolutely essential amino acid , while for humans , it is non-essential amino acid . Exceedingly interesting is a comparison of the structure of one and same the same protein in various organisms . To our amazement , for instance , there is only a slight difference in the sequence of amino acids in the hemoglobin molecules of humans , the horse , the bull and the mosquito . Another important protein molecule - insulin , human insulin is different from that of a pig by one amino acid and from that of a cow by three. Compositionally , the DNA in humans differ by a mere 2- 3 % from DNA of chimpanzee , a slightly higher difference is observed for gorilla , more than 10 % difference for the other monkeys , and nearly 100 % difference for bacteria . Some authors have noted that the molecular mass of DNA is dependent on the extent of biological complexity of the living organism - in bacteria , the molecular mass is 2 × 109, in humans and animal , it reaches 1011 . There a vast difference in lifespans of different species . The lifespan of species ranges from 1 day to several hundred years . Mayflies have a lifespan of merely 1 day . Mayfly emerges from larvae in the morning and towards the end of the first day after finishing the reproduction cycle - dies . The maximum duration of life of the mouse does not exceed 3 years . Rat cannot live more than 4 years , an elephant - not more than 80 years . Lifespan of anthropoid apes rarely exceeds 50 years.

In recent years , many authors are trying to establish relationships between genome size , body size , metabolic rate and lifespan of different animal species . For instance , in the opinion of some authors , the smaller the genome size , higher is the rate of metabolism . That is, the longer DNA is, the slower metabolism is . For instance , the most primitive animal organisms with smallest genome size - “ bacteria “ . The metabolic processes inside the microbial cell take place at a very intensive rate . The rate of metabolism in bacteria is hundreds and even thousands of times more intensive . Bacteria can multiply within few hours . Some authors conclude that , there is a relationship between oxygen transport by the blood to the body size of mammals . In this regard , the lines from the book of some authors are worth quoting . “The human brain differs from the animal brain both in quantity and quality . The ratio of the brain’s weight to that of the organism as a whole is known o have changed during evolution . The weight of the whale’s brain is 1/1000th of that of its body , the lion’s brain 1/545th , the elephant’s brain 1/500th , the ape’s brain 1/150th and the human brain , 1/46th .The human brain is thus more than three times as heavy as that of an ape . In absolute weight the human brain is smaller than that of large animals . The average human brain weighs anywhere from 1100 to 2000 g ( 1500 g on the average ) compared with that of anthropoid apes ( 400-500 g ), dolphins ( 1800 g ) , elephants ( 5200 g ) , and whales ( 7000 g ) The square index of the brain to that of the body , can be determines by multiplying the absolute weight of the brain by its relative weight . This index which distinguishes humans from the whole animal world is 0.19 in rodents , 1.14 in carnivores , 6.27 in cetaceans ( dolphins ) , 7.35 in anthropoid apes , 9.82 in elephants , and , finally , 32.0 in humans “

Complexity and ubiquity of ageing mechanism
For normal development and functioning of bacterial cell , according to crude estimates , more than 1000 different enzymes are needed . Over 2000 different reactions take place in the microscopic cells of the human organism , and all are strictly controlled and programmed . At present , it is believed that the cell contains about 10,000 enzyme molecules capable of catalyzing over these 2000 various biochemical reactions. There are 1800 enzymes known to date .

In old age , neurons of brain grow older . Research has shown that the age of mammals can be calculated by the weight of their eye lens , which grows heavier with the years . The above mentioned examples show that effect of ageing is ubiquitous i.e. ageing affects every nuke and cranny of body tissues and cells . Complex mechanism of cell functioning can be judged by following example - Genetic properties are possessed not only by the nucleotide DNA but also the cytoplasm DNA . Besides the nucleus of cell , DNA is also contained in the cytoplasmic organelle - the mitochondria . The mitochondria are the sole cytoplasmic organoids of animal cells known to have their own DNA and a mechanism to synthesize proteins vital for normal functioning of cell . Based on research conclusions , some authors have noted that factors causing cells to age are localized in both the nucleus and cytoplasm of old cells . Another factor contributing to complexity of ageing mechanism There is a vast difference between physiology and metabolism of various organs of one and the same organism . For example - If the limb muscle can function for hours without the blood circulation shut off , the brain cells can do so only for a few seconds . No matter what happens in the body , the brain must be fed first - even a minute's letup in oxygen and glucose supply results in a loss of consciousness . And after about 8 minutes death will occur . Yet , the level of metabolism in it is extremely high . Each minute the brain absorbs almost 0.7 litre of blood . On the average it consumes up to 20% of the blood pumped out by the heart . Very often , there is more than one factor is responsible for ageing related pathological changes . For instance , thrombi - are the dangerous companions of heart attacks , strokes and other grave diseases . Among the causes of thrombus formation , apart from atherosclerotic changes in the vessel wall , is a drop in the natural enzyme content in the blood . Normally , enzyme destroys clots as they appear . In the opinion of some authors , naturally occurring thrombolytic enzymes that dissolve clots are generated in the endothelial cells of blood vessels . As people age, production of these enzymes slows and the blood is more prone to coagulation. This results in clotting . Nowadays , the artificial thrombolytic enzymatic drugs streptodecase , fibrinolysin etc. intended for the dissolution of blood clots are used successfully to dissolve freshly formed thrombus . For example , enzyme streptase produced by Streptococcus - can dissolve blood clots ( within 20 to 90 minutes ) which form in a vessel and disturb the circulation . Actually , a point to be emphasized is that - there is presence a large number of different types of morphologically and functionally differentiated cells in higher organisms . These highly differentiated cells produce specific substances vital for normal of

functioning of living organism . For instance - As we mentioned before , heparin - a substance that exhibits an anticoagulative function ( i.e. inhibits formation of blood clotting ) and an antilipemic function ( decreases high levels of lipids in the blood by activating their cleavage ) It is known that the blood of young and healthy people contains a considerable amount of heparin and possesses blood clot dissolution activity . As is known , heparin is secreted by mast cells found in large number around the vessels in the lungs , the liver , and the skin , in coronary vessels etc . We have already familiar with cells of vascular walls that produce thrombolytic enzymes to dissolve freshly formed clots . It is extremely difficult to compensate for age-related decline in the functioning of these different types of highly differentiated cells . In concluding this section , we can hope that , despite the abovementioned complexities , scientist are capable of unlocking the mysteries of ageing mechanism .

Laser rays - Miracle rays - Big hint
The first mention of a "laser-like" device came up in a literary sci-fi novel in 1926 by Alexei Tolstoy . Alexei Tolstoy the famous Russian science-fiction novelist first used the idea of a device similar to a laser in his science fiction novel in 1926 “The Hyperboloid of Engineer Garin” Written by a distant relative of the more famous author Leo Tolstoy , this novel tells the story of a mad scientist engineer Garin , the central figure, who is dreaming of conquering the entire world using his invention which he called hyperboloid - a laser-like device . Lasers were first invented in 1960s . And soon lasers found innumerable applications in engineering and medicine . Low intensity infra-red Helium-Neon lasers have shown a beneficial and rejuvenating effect on biological tissues of living organisms . Helium-Neon lasers low intensity infra-red emissions activate cellular synthesis of DNA and RNA , stimulate regenerative processes and attenuate inflammatory responses . Experiments carried out by researchers have shown that the cells of mammals are sensitive to very weak light fluxes . A low capacity laser impact may change the speed of cell division . this speed may both rise , accelerating the healing of wounds and tropic ulcers , and fall . This makes it possible to inhibit tumor growth .

Hemosorption and enterosorption
In the beginning of 20th century , one school of thought had

advanced the intoxicating theory of ageing i.e. products of metabolism in our body and the products of metabolism of the germs in the large intestine have a toxic effect or in other words ageing is caused by the accumulation of damaging factors such as toxins ( metabolic products ). Nowadays intoxicating theory is seen as just one of many processes leading to ageing . In the first half of 20th century , scientists began researching efficient methods to get rid of toxins in the body . The first step in this direction was taken in 1943 , when the artificial kidney machine was invented . However , only low molecular substances pass through this apparatus , while high-molecular , especially fat-soluble substances , can also be poisonous to the body . Then the idea of imitating the liver arose . The liver performs the function of rendering harmless all poisonous substances which enter the body , ensuring their elimination . Kidney , the chief organ responsible for liquid and sodium exchange . The kidney is something like a sieve . The function of kidneys is to clear the blood of harmful and toxic substances - especially low molecular substances . But , kidney and liver are not the most efficient organs to remove toxic substances from the body . In this regard , many authors have are devoted their research work to procedures of hemosorption and enterosorption . " Hemo" is the Greek word stands for "blood" , "sorption" designates the removal of noxious substances which poison the organism from the blood .Hemosorption is a method of cleansing the patient's blood , lymph or plasma with specific sorbents which remove any noxious substances such as proteins , poisons , low and high molecular compounds , ions , whole cells etc. The foundation of the hemosorption method is direct capture of harmful substances from liquid blood . Scientists have also evolved a more complex purification process plasma - and plasmocytopheroresis . In this instance the blood is accelerated in a centrifuge . The white part is separated from the red and from the plasma - the blood's liquid part . Each component can be removed and passed through sorbent-filled columns independently and then , mixing everything together again , the purified blood is restored to the circulatory system Many authors think that hemosorption is one of the most promising ways of treating atherosclerosis and is now perhaps the main method for curbing this ailment . The liver plays a decisive role in the cholesterol metabolism . The liver accounts for 90 % of the overall endogenic cholesterol and its esters . The disturbed liver metabolism in atherosclerosis can be normalized by cleansing the blood with special " sorbents " The so-called low density lipoproteins ( LDLs) which are responsible for atherosclerosis can be removed away from blood effectively by passing blood through a column which contains special sorbents that capture LDLs . This flattens the atherosclerotic patches , widening the vessel's passageway and improving the blood supply to the heart

and brain . Another effect sorption method - "enterosorption" - The human stomach daily produces 8 to 9 litres of gastric digestive juice much of which is not used in digestion and is sucked back into blood . Adding sorbent to a diet - substances which bind certain molecules ( for instance , active carbon ) - makes it possible to remove toxic substances from the body . Upon entering the gastrointestinal tract , the active carbon ( carbolen ) " absorbs" the disease-causing substances and harmful toxins . Another variant - synthetic active carbon , the so-called enterosorbent - It comes in the form of granules of black colour pierced with minute holes . Many of those toxic substances which should be removed from the blood by the kidneys are caught in these holes . The used granules are then excreted . Judging from gerontological data , enterosorption especially powerfully influences the body in old age , when it accumulates substances which have to be removed . Researchers suggest combination of hemosorption and enterosorption to combat atherosclerosis . Hemosorption , for example , cleans the blood of excess cholesterol and enterosorbents ( for instance , above-mentioned active carbon ) remove its aggregation from the intestines as well . Dietary fibers ( present in vegetables , cereals etc . ) also acts as enterosorbets to remove excess cholesterol from the gastro-intestinal tract . Some authors have determined that - in an ageing organism - the level of metals increases , and a hypothesis has been accordingly set forward as to the possibility of combating ageing by regular elimination of metals from the organism by using complexons (i.e. chelating agents). Here is another toxin accumulation noted by some authors - With age , the accumulated lipid peroxides in the body accelerate the organism senescence . Lipid peroxides inhibit the cell division and retard thereby the healing of damaged tissues .

In conclusion
In conclusion , to summarize , I want to say that - the first step of research would be to find out the correct biological reason at molecular level for greying of hairs and the reduction in the concentration of water in the tissues with age . And only then there will occur a strategical breakthrough regarding implementation of ageing retarding factors ( biological or non-biological ) I give a lot of importance to a reduction in the concentration of water in tissues with age. To be more precise , the extra-cellular water in the tissues decreases with age . I am a positive thinker . I firmly believe that ageing can be halted .

Scientists are within striking distance to halt ageing process , Only rational concentration of research efforts are needed . Everyday , I read new scientific data . I will continuously modify the information contained in this E-book .Or , I will even delete some lines .

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