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Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

SPECIFYING DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR PRESSURE VESSELS

Note: The source of the technical material in this volume is the Professional Engineering Development Program (PEDP) of Engineering Services. Warning: The material contained in this document was developed for Saudi Aramco and is intended for the exclusive use of Saudi Aramco’s employees. Any material contained in this document which is not already in the public domain may not be copied, reproduced, sold, given, or disclosed to third parties, or otherwise used in whole, or in part, without the written permission of the Vice President, Engineering Services, Saudi Aramco.

Chapter : Mechanical File Reference: MEX-202.03

For additional information on this subject, contact PEDD Coordinator on 874-6556

Engineering Encyclopedia

Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels

CONTENT

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INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................ 6 USE OF SAUDI ARAMCO DOCUMENTS AND THE ASME CODE IN PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN .......................................... 7 Structure and Scope of the ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1, Design By Established Rules......................................... 9 ASME Code Structure............................................................................... 9 ASME Code Scope ................................................................................. 10 ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 2, Design By Analysis................................. 11 Saudi Aramco Pressure Vessel Design Data Sheets ........................................ 12 Content of Form 2682 for Division 1 Pressure Vessels........................... 14 Content of Form 2683 for Division 2 Pressure Vessels........................... 18 EVALUATING THE ACCEPTABILITY OF CONTRACTOR-SPECIFIED DESIGN CONDITIONS AND LOADINGS...................... 19 Pressure ............................................................................................................ 20 Operating Pressure................................................................................. 20 Design Pressure ..................................................................................... 21 Temperature ...................................................................................................... 24 Operating Temperature........................................................................... 24 Design Temperature ............................................................................... 26 Minimum Design Metal Temperature ...................................................... 26 Other Loadings .................................................................................................. 27 Weight..................................................................................................... 30 Wind........................................................................................................ 32 Hydrotest ................................................................................................ 36 External Piping........................................................................................ 37 Internal Components............................................................................... 38

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Engineering Encyclopedia

Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels

Earthquake Loadings .............................................................................. 39 Service .............................................................................................................. 40 Wet, Sour................................................................................................ 40 Lethal ...................................................................................................... 41 EVALUATING THE ACCEPTABILITY OF CONTRACTOR-SPECIFIED PRESSURE VESSEL COMPONENT THICKNESS DESIGN CRITERIA..................... 42 Weld Joint Efficiency ......................................................................................... 42 Corrosion Allowance.......................................................................................... 44 EVALUATING CONTRACTOR-SPECIFIED DESIGN CALCULATIONS FOR PRESSURE VESSEL COMPONENTS..................... 45 Design for Internal Pressure .............................................................................. 45 Shells ...................................................................................................... 46 Sample Problem 1 - Cylindrical Shell Thickness Calculation .................. 48 Heads ..................................................................................................... 51 Sample Problem 2 - Head Thickness Calculation ................................... 55 Conical Sections ..................................................................................... 56 Sample Problem 3 - Conical Section Thickness Calculation................... 56 Design for External Pressure and Compressive Stresses ................................. 58 Shells ...................................................................................................... 60 Heads ..................................................................................................... 60 Conical Sections ..................................................................................... 60 Sample Problem 4 - External Pressure Calculation ................................ 61 Flat Covers ........................................................................................................ 67 Quick-Opening Closures ................................................................................... 67 Nozzle Reinforcement for Design Pressure....................................................... 70 Reinforcement of Pressure Vessel Openings ......................................... 70 Additional Nozzle Reinforcement ............................................................ 74

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................................... 76 Nozzle Flange Rating .............................................................................................................................................................. 119 Information Covered ............................................................. 136 Heads and Conical Sections Under External Pressure.......... 98 Sample Problem 7 .......................... 87 Shell and Nozzle Attachment Parameters ............................................................................................Design of Column Supports .......................................................................................................................... 95 Vertical Vessel... 141 Allowable Compressive Stress of Cylindrical Shells .................................................... 121 SUMMARY............................................................... 97 Column Supports ............................. 93 EVALUATING THE CONTRACTOR-SPECIFIED DESIGN OF PRESSURE VESSEL SUPPORTS .......................................................................... 86 Calculation Procedures............. 79 Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP)............................................................. 83 Stresses From Local Loads Applied to Nozzle and Attachments ....................... 119 Where to Find Other Information ..... 111 Design of Horizontal Cylindrical Vessels on Saddle Supports .......................... 114 COMPLETING SAFETY INSTRUCTION SHEETS FOR PRESSURE VESSELS......Nozzle Reinforcement . 117 Purpose and Use of the Safety Instruction Sheet in Saudi Aramco......... 90 Sample Problem 6 Evaluation of Stresses from Local Loads Applied to Nozzles and Attachments ................................................. 100 Skirt Supports .......................................... 171 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards iii ................................................... 85 Allowable Stress Bases ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 108 Horizontal Vessel Saddle Supports ........................................Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Small Connections .................................................... 123 Cylindrical or Spherical Shells Under External Pressure ............................................................................ 75 Sample Problem 5 ................................................................................... 147 GLOSSARY ..

............................................................................................................................ 49 Figure 7: Typical Formed Closure Heads.. 54 Figure 9: Stiffener Rings on Pressure Vessel Cylinders............................................. 25 Figure 3: Vertical Reactor with Additional Loads .. 71 Figure 14: Typical Nozzle Design Configurations......................... Material Specification List (Excerpt)..................................................................................................................................... 33 Figure 5: Vortex Shedding. 59 Figure 10: Sample Problem 4............ 99 Figure 21: Sample Problem 7............................................................................ 109 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards iv ...................... 93 Figure 19: Types of Pressure Vessel Supports ............................................. 80 Figure 17: ASME/ANSI B16........................................... 52 Figure 8: Thickness Transition Between Hemispherical Head and Shell ................... 63 Figure 12: Figure CS-1................................................................................................................................. 95 Figure 20: Column Support Loads...Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels List of Figures Figure 1: Design Pressure................................................. 63 Figure 13: Cross-Sectional View of Nozzle Opening............ 101 Figure 22: Types of Support Skirts ............................................ Class 150........................................ 77 Figure 16: ASME B16........................................................................................................................................................... 29 Figure 4: Tower Layout for Determining Effective Diameter for Wind Calculations ....................5.....................................................5... 35 Figure 6: Sample Problem 1............................................... 61 Figure 11: Factor A............................................................................................................................... Table 1a....................................... 73 Figure 15: Sample Problem 5.............................................. Pressure-Temperature Ratings (Excerpt) 81 Figure 18: Sample Problem 6........................... 23 Figure 2: Temperature Zones in Tall Vessels....................................................

...... 170 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards v ................... 160 Figure 32: Allowable Column Compressive Stress.................................................................................................................... 154 Figure 30: Vessel on Column Supports................................. 118 Figure 26: Weld Joint Categories ......................... Form 2694..................................... 131 Figure 29: Nozzle Loads Applied to a Spherical Shell............................ 130 Figure 28: Maximum Weld Joint Efficiency.................................... 158 Figure 31: Vessel Column Configurations and Moments of Inertia ............................................................................................. 111 Figure 24: Stiffener Rings at Saddle Supports ...... 128 Figure 27: Types of Welded Joints ........................... 168 Figure 34: Vessel Safety Instruction Sheet Form 2694 With Number Key .............. 113 Figure 25: Pressure Vessel Safety Instruction Sheet.................................................................................................................Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Figure 23: Horizontal Vessel on Saddle Supports .................................. 161 Figure 33: Types of Support Skirts and Skirt-to-Head Welds ........

03. and the design criteria required for calculating pressure vessel component thicknesses. in order to perform this design evaluation role effectively. Therefore. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 6 . This description includes determination of design conditions and loadings. the Saudi Aramco pressure vessel engineer must know the design requirements that the contractors and vessel manufacturers must meet. Pressure vessel mechanical design is done by contractors and pressure vessel manufacturers who are employed by Saudi Aramco. as well as the design calculations required for pressure vessel supports. describes the use of Saudi Aramco design requirements and the ASME Code in the mechanical design of pressure vessels. Saudi Aramco pressure vessel engineers do not perform the detailed mechanical design of pressure vessels. Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels. The pressure vessel component design calculations themselves. the role of the Saudi Aramco pressure vessel engineers will typically be to evaluate the designs that are proposed by others. are also discussed.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels INTRODUCTION MEX 202.02 discussed materials selection requirements for pressure vessels. Now that the materials have been selected. However. the mechanical design of individual pressure vessel components can begin. MEX 202.

and 32-SAMSS-004. and where its use might be appropriate for Saudi Aramco applications. Specific design requirements that are contained within these Saudi Aramco documents will be discussed as appropriate in this module. fabrication. However. Design Criteria for Pressure Vessels. design. is divided into two main sections: Division 1 and Division 2. how it differs from Division 1.02. Pressure Vessels. The ASME Code protects the public by defining the material. The objective of ASME Code rules. is to establish the minimum requirements that are necessary for safe construction and operation. The ASME Code. The Saudi Aramco documents supplement the ASME Code as necessary.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels USE OF SAUDI ARAMCO DOCUMENTS AND THE ASME CODE IN PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN The scope and general use of SAES-D-001. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 7 . This course concentrates on Division 1. These Saudi Aramco documents refer to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII as the basic industry standard that provides the design requirements for pressure vessels that are used by Saudi Aramco. inspection. it is necessary to understand Division 2 in general. Section VIII. based on specific Saudi Aramco requirements. Experience has shown that the probability of a catastrophic failure is reduced to an acceptable level by the use of the requirements and safety factors that are contained in the ASME Code. and testing requirements that are needed to achieve a safe design. aside from assigning dimensional values. were discussed in MEX 202. Division 1 is used most often by industry.

the ASME Code. A purchase requisition for a pressure vessel will specify specific design requirements and the appropriate Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Pressure vessel codes are also written to be broadly applicable to more than just the refinery and petrochemical industries. The inspector is responsible for ensuring that all Code and other requirements have been met. and erosion. Owners apply supplementary requirements in the design. taking into consideration factors associated with normal operation. The vessel will be inspected before it leaves the vendor's shop by an inspector who is authorized by the ASME Code authorities. For example. inspection. The owner defines what additional factors. It will require that the item meet ASME Code rules." Therefore. Additional design factors. Section VIII. states that "the user or his designated agent shall establish the design requirements for pressure vessels. thermal or pressure cycles. the design of pressure vessels for refinery and petrochemical services usually involves factors that are beyond the minimum code requirements. not specifically covered in the ASME Code. Saudi Aramco's Engineering Standards (SAESs) and Materials System Specifications (SAMSSs) are examples of supplementary owner requirements. fabrication. corrosion. are vibration. it is often necessary to supplement even the Saudi Aramco standards to cover design requirements for a particular pressure vessel. these codes cannot anticipate and address every possible design requirement or service application. However. and such other conditions as startup and shutdown. must be considered in each case. Division 1. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 8 . and testing of pressure vessels that are suitable for their applications. beyond normal ASME Code requirements. Accordingly.

Subsection B covers specific requirements that apply to various fabrication methods used for pressure vessels. ASME Code Structure The ASME Code. UF. Division 1. Pressure Vessels. fabrication. and ULT (low-temperature materials). When the words "Code" or "ASME Code" are used in this module. Subsection B consists of Parts UW. regardless of fabrication method or material of construction. Subsection C consists of Parts UCS (carbon and low-alloy steel). Section VIII. inspection. Subsection C covers specific requirements that apply to several classes of materials that are used in pressure vessel construction. respectively. UCD (cast ductile iron). UCL (clad and lined material). is the primary standard that is used by Saudi Aramco for the design. A copy of Division 1 is included in Course Handout 1. UHA (high-alloy steel). UNF (nonferrous metals). ULW (layered construction). and testing of unfired pressure vessels. unless stated otherwise. • • In addition to these subsections. and UB that deal with welded. Section VIII. the general requirements that apply to all pressure vessels. and brazed fabrication methods. UHT (ferritic steel with properties enhanced by heat treatment). the ASME Code also contains the following appendices: • Mandatory Appendices address specific subjects that are not covered elsewhere in the Code. is divided into three subsections as follows: • Subsection A consists of Part UG. Division 1.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Structure and Scope of the ASME Code. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 9 . The requirements that are contained in these appendices are mandatory when the subject that is covered is included in the design and construction of the pressure vessel under consideration. UCI (cast iron). Division 1. forged. they refer to Division 1. Section VIII. Design By Established Rules The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

Therefore. Therefore. However. for cases where welded connections are used. the ASME Code is not applicable. at pressure vessel nozzles. additional design rules are required to cover the design and construction requirements that are needed at such high pressures. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 10 . ASME Code rules are applied only through the first junction that connects to the pipe. except for any attachment weld to the vessel. The Code is applicable for pressures that exceed 103 kPa (ga) (15 psig) and through 20 682 kPa (ga) (3 000 psig). First sealing surface for proprietary connections or fittings. At pressures below 103 kPa (ga) (15 psig). Face of the first flange for bolted. or external supports. The Code is also not applicable to non pressure-containing parts that are welded. to pressure-containing parts. do not need to follow Code rules.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels • Nonmandatory Appendices provide information and suggested good practices. This junction may be at the following locations: • • • • Welded end connection for the first circumferential joint. The exclusions of most interest are: • Fired process tubular heaters (for example. the actual weld that makes the attachment to the pressure part must meet Code rules. The use of nonmandatory appendices is not required unless their use is specified in the vessel purchase order. At pressures above 20 682 kPa (ga) (3 000 psig). The ASME Code is not applicable for piping system components that are attached to pressure vessels. or not welded. furnaces). The ASME Code identifies several other specific items where it does not apply. flanged connections. First threaded joint for screwed connections. items such as pressure vessel internal components. ASME Code Scope The ASME Code scope defines the circumstances where its rules apply.

• • • • Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 11 . The ASME Code. pump. charts. and design by analysis that results in more precise stress calculations than are required in Division 1. Design: some specific design details are not permitted in Division 2 that are allowed in Division 1. However. a Division 2 vessel is less conservative than a Division 1 vessel for the same design parameters and materials. The Division 2 vessel is thinner. Piping systems and their components. contains requirements that differ from the requirements that are contained in Division 1.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels • Pressure containers that are integral parts of rotating or reciprocating mechanical devices (for example. • ASME Code. Division 2. the use of Division 2 is preferred in some applications. or compressor casings). Section VIII. A Division 2 vessel compensates for the higher allowable primary membrane stress by being a much more stringent design standard than Division 1 in other respects. • Stress: the maximum allowable stress for a Division 2 pressure vessel is higher than that of a Division 1 pressure vessel. turbine. uses less material. Section VIII. Quality Control: material quality control is more stringent in Division 2 than in Division 1. Several of the areas where the requirements between the two divisions differ are highlighted below. Division 2. Fabrication and Inspection: Division 2 has more stringent requirements than Division 1. Alternative Rules. Stress Calculations: Division 2 uses a complex method of formulas. Design By Analysis The overwhelming majority of Saudi Aramco pressure vessels are designed in accordance with Division 1. From the standpoint of general primary membrane stress. and costs less. Pressure Vessels.

A Division 2 design will also be attractive for very large pressure vessels. A wall thickness of approximately 50 mm (2 in. Requirements include detailed evaluations of actual stresses in complex geometries and with unusual loadings. The Division 2 design criteria provide formulas and rules for the more common configurations of shells and formed heads. Obtain vendor design information. where a slight reduction in required thickness will greatly reduce shipping weights and foundation load design requirements. These allowable stress values are based on multiples of the basic allowable stress intensity value that is specified in Division 2 for the particular material specification.) is a good starting point at which to consider the use of a Division 2 design. are used to: • • Prepare the pressure vessel purchase requisition. Saudi Aramco Pressure Vessel Design Data Sheets Saudi Aramco standard Pressure Vessel Design Data Sheets. especially cyclic loads or those that result in localized stresses. and this break point will also be influenced by current market conditions. These categories and subcategories have different allowable stress values. also known as Pressure Vessel Data Sheets or Pressure Vessel Design Sheets. The calculated stresses are assigned to various categories and subcategories. A Division 2 design is more likely to be attractive for vessels that require thicker walls. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 12 .Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels The areas where Division 2 are more conservative than Division 1 add to the cost of a vessel. and their associated allowable stresses. Participants are referred to Division 2 for additional information on the stress categories and subcategories. The choice between using Division 1 and Division 2 is based on economics. The thickness break point is lower for more expensive alloy material than for plain carbon steel. The lower costs that are associated with the use of less material must exceed the increased costs that are associated with the more conservative Division 2 requirements in order for the Division 2 design to be economically attractive.

Pressure Vessels. or that are determined later during the detailed vessel design phase. Forms 2682 and 2683 are among these documents. the Safety Instruction Sheet. are initially left blank. SAES-D-001. The completed form from the successful vendor will then be included in the pressure vessel's documentation file. Copies of these forms are contained in Course Handout 3 for reference in subsequent discussions. The Safety Instruction Sheet will be discussed later in this module. it is not the Design Data Sheet that is revised but. In addition to meeting the purposes that are listed above. When a vessel is rerated. The pressure vessel engineer is responsible for completion of the appropriate Design Data Sheet to the extent possible for use as part of the vessel purchase requisition. Other portions of the form that do not impact the cost quotation basis.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels • Ensure a uniform bidding basis among the various vendorsEnsure format consistency in the information that is provided. The portion of Form 2682 that contains material selection information was discussed in MEX 202. Form 2682 is used for Division 1 pressure vessels. refers to other Saudi Aramco documents that must be complied with. Facilitate retrieval and use of design information after the vessel has been installed. inspection. and maintenance personnel after the vessel has been placed in service. The portions of the form that must be completed at this time are those that are necessary to define the Saudi Aramco and ASME requirements that ensure a uniform bidding basis. • • Document the as-built details of the vessel. and Form 2683 is used for Division 2 pressure vessels. the forms are frequently used by operations.02. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 13 . Simplify bid comparisons during pressure vessel purchase. rather. These blank portions are subsequently completed by the vessel vendor as part of his bid.

Later sections will focus in more detail on filling out specific portions of Form 2682. or 2528). and additional features needed to define the vessel. either because they would not impact the initial bidding. The following paragraphs highlight particular sections of this form. provided in Course Handout 3. initial data for Forms 2682 and 2683 are provided by engineers who work for a contractor who is employed by Saudi Aramco for a project. or when documentation is being prepared for the rerating of an existing pressure vessel to new design conditions. nozzle locations. Saudi Aramco engineers typically will review the contractor's work to ensure that it is correct. 2527. References to appropriate paragraphs within Division 1 are indicated on the form. the outline drawing with appropriate details is produced on separate vessel design sheets (Form 2526. Saudi Aramco engineers fill in the initial data on the forms in cases where no contractor is involved.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels In most cases. The sections that follow discuss the overall content of Forms 2682 and 2683. For more complex vessels. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 14 . Content of Form 2682 for Division 1 Pressure Vessels Form 2682. • The large open space in the upper middle portion of the form is used primarily for the vessel outline drawing for relatively simple vessels. such as drums. is the initial form that is used by Saudi Aramco to specify Division 1 pressure vessels. The drawing shows the overall dimensions and orientation of the vessel. Both 32-SAMSS-004 and the ASME Code are intrinsic parts of the purchase requisition. Some sections may not need to be initially completed. This open space may also be used for additional notes or design information. or would clearly be covered by 32-SAMSS-004 or ASME Code requirements.

Division 2. Temperatures that are below 0°C (32°F) require additional materials and inspection steps to meet Saudi Aramco requirements. The material specifications for major vessel components must be specified. Wet.02. The maximum allowable stress values for the specified materials should be entered. sour or lethal service must be specified. The hydrogen partial pressure should also be specified on this form. the actual MAWP of the vessel is determined on the basis of the nominal vessel thicknesses that are actually supplied. as discussed in MEX 202. The static liquid head adds to the pressure that is used to determine component thickness. sour or lethal services (discussed later in this module) require additional items to meet Saudi Aramco and ASME requirements. as discussed in MEX 202. as will be discussed later in this module. These values are taken from the Division 1 allowable stress tables. The maximum operating static liquid head and fluid specific gravity must also be specified to permit adequate design. as specified by 32-SAMSS-004.02. A vessel that is in wet. Material selection for vessels in hydrogen service must also consider the potential for hydrogen attack and the Nelson Curve limitations. even though the overall vessel design is in accordance with Division 1. When the design is complete. The need for impact testing should be specified. The design pressure must be specified in accordance with SAES-D-001. if applicable for the service. • • • • • Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 15 . When the form is first completed. This requirement is based on ASME Section VIII. A minimum temperature of less than 0°C (32°F) must be indicated. the design pressure is assumed to be equal to the maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP). The maximum and minimum design temperatures must be specified in accordance with SAES-D-001 requirements.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels • The operating conditions of pressure and temperature must be specified. These specifications are based on 32SAMSS-004.

Corrosion allowance was discussed in MEX 202. NOTE: 32-SAMSS-004. • The required radiography of the shell seams must be specified as either "spot" or "full. If external pressure is a specified design condition. The results of the external pressure calculations could require greater wall thickness or the addition of stiffening rings. it is preferable to specify them here to ensure that they are properly considered in the vendor quotations. The required corrosion allowance must be specified." The weld joint efficiency that corresponds with the specified radiography is then determined. Internal and external pressure design calculations are discussed later in this module. However. SAES-D-001 requires full radiography for all butt welds on vessels with a minimum design temperature below 0°C (32°F) or on vessels to be used in wet. However. if the magnitudes of external loads are known. These items may be determined and reported by the vendor. Paragraph UW-11 of Division 1 also specifies other cases that require full radiography. The required wall thickness for internal pressure for the shell and heads must be calculated using the ASME equations that are provided on the left side of the form. • • Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 16 . specifies the requirements for impact testing and ultrasonic testing.) thick and of clad plates should be specified in accordance with 32-SAMSS-004.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels • The need for ultrasonic testing of plate that is over 50 mm (2 in. which forms part of the purchase requisition.02. Any additional wall thickness that is required by other loadings must be determined by the vendor during the detailed engineering phase of vessel design. these magnitudes should be specified on this form. separate calculations must be made and the results entered on the form. The information for these items is entered in the upper left corner of the large space provided for the vessel outline drawing. sour service. Examples of external loads include nozzle loads that are imposed by connected piping.

5 rating. ASME rules clearly provide limitations on the size of shell openings and requirements to be met if these limitations are exceeded. The vessel Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP) will be specified by the vendor after the nominal thicknesses have been determined during detailed engineering.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels • • The test pressure may be calculated by the vendor. size. The nozzle schedule. flanges. it should not be the factor that limits in the vessel design. unless specific other loads are known in advance. and bolting must be specified. The block that covers the maximum size of shell openings is left blank. gaskets. The required material for internal components. The estimated vessel weights and capacity are specified by the vendor as part of detailed engineering. • • • • • • • Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 17 . The vendor or contractor will determine any unspecified loads during the detailed engineering phase. allowable working pressure. and service must be specified. The vessel engineer must specify if the vessel must be Postweld Heat Treated (PWHT) for reasons other than those that are specified in the ASME Code. and the vendor will then evaluate the impact of these loads on vessel design. ASME/ANSI B16. The required Class. MAWP will be discussed later in this module. reference mark. and test pressure of flange connections must be specified. Flange Class selection is discussed later in this module. Since the Class is specified on the basis of the design conditions. PWHT requirements may be determined by the vendor if only ASME requirements apply for the particular vessel. The block that covers the design loads is typically left blank.

References to appropriate paragraphs within Division 2 are indicated on the form. These rules are based on the specific parameters that follow: • • • The number of pressure and temperature cycles expected. Form 2683 is similar to Form 2682 and has comparable sections to be completed. If the specified criteria indicate that a fatigue analysis is required. Paragraph AD-160 of Division 2 contains rules that determine the need for a fatigue analysis. the data that are needed to define the pressure and temperature cycles must be specified. provided in Course Handout 3. The expected metal temperature differences between adjacent points on the vessel. The Design Data Sheet must specify where the cycle data may be found. The vendor then determines the impact that the cycle data have on his design and bid. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 18 . is the form that is used by Saudi Aramco to specify Division 2 pressure vessels. The previous discussion of Form 2682 applies to similar sections on Form 2683. The magnitude of the expected pressure and temperature cycles.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Content of Form 2683 for Division 2 Pressure Vessels Form 2683. An additional requirement for a Division 2 pressure vessel is the potential need for a fatigue analysis. A fatigue analysis will normally not be required for typical Saudi Aramco pressure vessel applications.

For example. All pressure vessels must be designed for the most severe conditions of coincident pressure and temperature that are expected during normal service. Temperature affects material strength and. on the other hand. This requirement is stated in the ASME Code. Both sets of design conditions must be specified because either one or the other operating state may govern the mechanical design of the reactor components. thus. Shutdown. Pressure imposes loads on a pressure vessel that must be withstood by the individual vessel components. mechanical engineers must be aware of the differences between operating and design conditions. during its operating cycle. The operation and design conditions that are specified should not be overly conservative or liberal. Process engineers. However. Some pressure vessels have multiple sets of design conditions that correspond to different modes of operation. but it may operate at a much lower pressure and a very high temperature during catalyst regeneration. Normal service must include conditions that are associated with: • • • • Startup. must understand the impact that operating and design conditions have on the mechanical design of pressure vessels. allowable stress. The mechanical design of a pressure vessel begins with specification of the design pressure and design temperature. catalyst regeneration or process upsets). Division 1. Section VIII. regardless of the design pressure.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels EVALUATING THE ACCEPTABILITY OF CONTRACTOR-SPECIFIED DESIGN CONDITIONS AND LOADINGS Mechanical engineers are not responsible for specifying either the operating or design conditions for a pressure vessel. Deviations from normal operation that can be anticipated (for example. Normal operation. a reactor may have a high pressure and moderate temperature during normal operation. These two parameters must be specified together to obtain the correct mechanical design details. Specification of these conditions is the responsibility of the process design engineer. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 19 .

as well as pressure and temperature. Pressure variations due to changes in vapor pressure. such as vacuum.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Pressure vessels must also be designed for other loading conditions and service factors that may apply. Operating Pressure The operating pressure must be set on the basis of the maximum internal or external pressure that the pressure vessel may encounter. System pressure drop. These conditions and factors. Pressure Both operating and design pressure must be considered in pressure vessel design. The following factors must be taken into account: • • • • • • • Ambient temperature effects. Normal cleaning and pre-startup activities if other conditions may occur. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 20 . Static head due to the level of liquid in the vessel. that should be considered in the design. Pump or compressor shut-off pressure. Work Aid 1 may be used to assist in evaluating the acceptability of design conditions and loadings. Normal operational variations. are discussed in the following sections.

The safety relief valve set pressure is normally equal to the pressure vessel design pressure. the pressure vessel must be designed for an external pressure of 52 kPa (ga) (7. The design pressure is applied externally for vacuum conditions. depending upon which of these is the more severe pressure condition. If steam-out is possible. Work Aid 1 summarizes the procedure for setting design pressure based on Saudi Aramco requirements. plus the margin that the process design engineer determines is suitable for the particular application. design pressure is the maximum internal pressure. For full or partial vacuum conditions. More specifically. the design pressure is the maximum pressure difference that can occur between the atmosphere and the inside of the pressure vessel. but may be subject to steam-out conditions which can cause an external pressure condition. The mechanical design of the pressure vessel in this case is based on internal or external pressure.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Design Pressure Generally. the design pressure of a pressure vessel is the pressure that is expected at the top of the vessel. that is used in the mechanical design of a pressure vessel. A suitable margin must also be provided between the maximum operating pressure and the safety relief valve set pressure. in kPa (gauge) or psig. This margin is necessary to prevent frequent and unnecessary opening of the safety relief valve that may occur during normal variations in operating pressure.5 psig) at 149°C (300°F). Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 21 . The design pressure is normally based on the maximum operating pressure at the top of the vessel. SAES-D-001 specifies Saudi Aramco requirements for setting the design pressure and considers the possibility of either external or internal pressure conditions. There may be cases where a vessel is not in vacuum service during normal operation or in an upset. Specific pressure vessels may experience both internal and external pressure conditions at different times during their operation.

as will be highlighted below. plus the hydrostatic pressure of the liquid in the vessel that is above the point being designed. The hydrostatic pressure of the liquid must also be considered in the design of the vessel components. The maximum height of this liquid normally does not reach the top of the vessel. The weight of the liquid that is contained in the vessel must be considered in the design. especially tall towers. the pressure that is used to design a vessel component is equal to the design pressure at the top of the vessel. Therefore. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 22 .Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Pressure vessels. The liquid level that is required for design is specified by the process design engineer. typically will have liquid in them during normal operation.

γ = Weight density of liquid in vessel. 20203.F01 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards . Work Aid 1A contains equations that are used to calculate the pressure below the liquid level.. . 23 . Figure 1: Design Pressure PBH = Design pressure of bottom head. PT = Design pressure at top of vessel.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Figure 1 illustrates this concept. H = Height of liquid.

Figure 2 shows a tall vessel. Temperature Both operating and design temperatures must be considered in pressure vessel design. The minimum specified wall thickness is then based on the more severe condition. For example. The temperature of the liquid in the bottom will be much higher than the temperature of the vapor in the top. The thickness calculation must be made for both the design and hydrostatic test cases. The operation and vertical length of some pressure vessels result in large temperature reductions between the bottom and top of the vessel. determination of the minimum specified wall thickness of each section of a tall vertical tower must include consideration of the design pressure at the top of the vessel. Several wall thickness plates are commonly used in a tall. Operating Temperature The operating temperature must be set on the basis of the maximum and minimum metal temperatures that the pressure vessel may encounter. Each section is designed for the temperature that it will encounter. plus the hydrostatic head that is applicable at the level being designed.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels The pressure vessel designer must determine the minimum thickness that is required for each vessel section. For example. This approach results in dividing the vessel into sections along its vertical length. as long as the temperatures can be accurately predicted. and illustrates the range of sections that have different design temperatures. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 24 . rather than for the most severe condition at the bottom of the vessel. Thicker plates are used in the lower sections because of higher hydrostatic pressure and higher bending moments caused by wind. liquid-filled tower. It is permissible to specify different operating temperatures at different elevations of such a pressure vessel. atmospheric and vacuum pipestill towers are typically very tall and have liquid in the bottom portion and vapor in most of the other sections.

°C (°F) 20203. Engineering Encyclopedia Section 4 (T-Z) Section 3 (T-Y) Section 2 (T-X) Section 1 (T).F04 Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Support skirt Grade Figure 2: Temperature Zones in Tall Vessels Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 25 ..F02 MEX 20203.

upset. SAES-D-001 specifies the factors influencing the minimum design metal temperature. Minimum Design Metal Temperature A Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT) must also be specified for pressure vessel design. if autorefrigeration is possible. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 26 . Some services subject pressure vessels to extremely low temperatures during normal operations or process upsets. In these cases. the lower operating temperature must be considered to determine the minimum design metal temperature. Design Temperature The design temperature of a pressure vessel is the fluid temperature that occurs under normal operating conditions. the minimum design metal temperature equals the minimum design ambient temperature for the construction site. and by the corresponding pressure at those temperatures. it must be considered in the determination of the minimum design metal temperature. Autorefrigeration may occur during startup. shutdown.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Sudden cyclic changes in temperature also occur during normal operation and may be associated with only minor pressure fluctuations. Fracture toughness was discussed in MEX 202. In this case. A MDMT is specified to ensure that materials that have adequate fracture toughness are selected for construction. failure of a piping component. For example. or malfunction of a pressure relief device. SAESD-001 specifies the basis for setting the design temperature. plus an allowance for variations that occur during operation.02. and this basis is summarized in Work Aid 1. For most pressure vessels. the design is governed by the highest and lowest probable operating temperatures of the material that is in contact with the metal.

and seismic reactions. or by equipment that is mounted on a vessel. It is normal practice to assume that wind and earthquake loads do not occur simultaneously. linings. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 27 . Therefore. Test pressure combined with hydrostatic weight. machinery. However. Weight of the vessel and its normal contents under operating or test conditions. specifies the loadings that must be considered to determine the minimum required shell thicknesses for the various vessel sections. weight. The stresses that occur during erection of the vessel at the site must also be considered. and external and internal loads that may occur in actual operation. piping. Impact reactions such as those that are caused by fluid shock. • • • • • • • In its simplest form. the design thickness for a pressure vessel shell component may be determined based on design pressure conditions alone. Temperature gradients within a vessel component and differential thermal expansion between vessel components. other vessels. such as motors. This weight includes any additional pressure that is due to the static head of liquid. Wind. The attachment of internal components or vessel supports. the vessel is designed for the worst of either wind or earthquake. Section VIII.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Other Loadings Paragraph UG-22 of the ASME Code. the detailed design of a pressure vessel must consider all combinations of pressure. and mechanical loadings. These design loadings are as follows: • • Internal or external design pressure. snow. Division 1. and insulation. Cyclic and dynamic reactions that are caused by pressure or thermal variations. Superimposed static reactions from the weight of attached equipment.

Other loads. piping. Some loads. A complete consideration of all loadings that act on a pressure vessel is a complicated process and is normally done using computer programs. affect only a local region of the vessel. It is also not normally necessary to calculate all of these loadings before the Pressure Vessel Design Data Sheet is completed. such as those from piping systems. if any. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 28 . While the Saudi Aramco pressure vessel engineer does not have to calculate the effects of all these loadings. he must be aware of what a pressure vessel designer must do to achieve a correct design. Vendors know that they will have to consider wind.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels The directions. The Pressure Vessel Design Data Sheet has an area where it may be indicated whether these loads were considered. and locations of stresses that are produced by the various load combinations must be evaluated using appropriate criteria. types. and they typically will provide cost allowances for these considerations in their bids as necessary. hydrotest. a localized effect on vessel design and should not be a major factor in distinguishing one vendor's bid from another. at most. to determine the effect. These loadings will generally have. and internal loads in their final designs. such as wind. of the loadings on vessel design. will affect the thickness of an entire shell section.

20203.. .Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Figure 3 shows a typical vertical reactor with additional loads applied. Pipe connection with imposed forces and moments Wind Catalyst bed with liquid holdup Support grid Grid support welded to shell Earthquake Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards .F03 Figure 3: Vertical Reactor with Additional Loads 29 .

operating liquid) and full wind or seismic load. • • Weight The weight and location of the following exterior and interior attachments must be considered in determining the dead weight load that acts on a pressure vessel: • • • • • • Attached equipment and piping Catalyst bed supports Fireproofing Insulation Platforms Trays Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 30 . This is the case for the condition when the vessel is erected but not operating and when it is exposed to the design wind or seismic load (whichever is greater). This case is for the condition when the vessel is being hydrotested in the field. trays. plus wind or earthquake loads reduced by 40%. plus total operating weight (vessel in erected condition. This case is for the condition when the vessel is under normal operation and is exposed to the design wind or seismic load (whichever is greater). Internal design pressure or external pressure loads. It is assumed that the hydrotest would proceed if the wind velocity is up to the specified value but would not be done at higher wind velocities or during an earthquake. Test pressure combined with hydrotest weight (weight of vessel in erected condition and weight of test water).Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels 32-SAMSS-004 requires that the following load conditions be used in the design of pressure vessels and their supports: • Full wind or seismic load combined with all dead loads except operating liquid.

• • • • • • Calculate the total operating and hydrotest weights of the vessel. Calculate the weight of water for the hydrotest based on the total volume of the vessel. Examples of eccentrically applied loads are the weight of platforms that are attached to the side of a tower or the weight of a heat exchanger that is bolted to a nozzle on the side of a tower. Loads that act eccentrically to the vessel axis are resolved into forces and moments that act along the vessel axis. as well as the weight of the vessel shell itself. The hydrotest calculations must be made for both the shop and field testing. Refer to CSE 110.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels The dead weight load must also include the weight of the vessel contents. and filled with the test medium. Calculate the weight of metal based on the volume that is found. and insulation. Weight load calculations must be made both for the operating fluid in the vessel. The general approach is as follows: • Calculate the metal volume of the shell. such as liquid. Determine the weight of appurtenances. heads. and inert balls. internal components. This calculation takes into consideration the geometry of the individual components. catalyst. for the maximum design liquid level. and support. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 31 . CSE 110 provided procedures for the calculation of weight loads. operating condition. These dead weight loads result in longitudinal compressive stresses in the vessel shell and supports. Determine the internal volume of the vessel shell and heads. Note also that the Pressure Vessel Design Data Sheet has an area where the vendor fills in the estimated vessel weights for three cases: empty with internal components. Calculate the weight of operating liquid in the vessel based on its maximum fill height.02 for the specific procedures to use and sample problems. and for the case with the vessel completely filled with water for hydrotest.

This vessel deflection must be kept within reasonable limits in order not to adversely affect process operations. piping.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Wind Wind loads are imposed on all pressure vessels that are located outside of buildings. and ladders. However. The following must be considered in the design of pressure vessels for wind loads: • The pressure vessel data sheet specifies the design wind velocity to be used for pressure vessel design. produce additional longitudinal stresses in the vessel shell. for example by causing a nonuniform liquid flow across distribution trays or by creating an unsafe situation for personnel who may be on the vessel. Wind loads induce stresses in the vessel shell components. considers such factors as insulation. vertical pressure vessels. Figure 4 shows a generalized tower layout and illustrates how items that are attached to the vessel effectively increase the diameter that is exposed to the wind. Wind load evaluation requires consideration of the two concepts that are discussed in the paragraphs that follow. These longitudinal stresses are in tension on the windward side of the vessel and in compression on the leeward side. It must also be assumed that a field hydrotest can take place if there is a wind up to 60% of the design wind speed. This determination is used to calculate the forces and bending moments that are imposed on the vessel. wind loads are only a significant design consideration for tall. De. Pressure applied across the pressure vessel surface due to wind velocity produces forces along the vessel length. and determines the vessel area that is exposed to the wind. These forces produce bending moments along the length of the vessel that. platforms. The effective vessel diameter. • Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 32 . Wind loads also cause vertical vessels to deflect. in turn.

F04 Figure 4: Tower Layout for Determining Effective Diameter for Wind Calculations Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 33 .Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Caged ladder Insulation thickness Insulation thickness Distance between platforms Platform Pipe OD Vessel OD 20203.

This stress calculation is typically done by the vendor during detailed engineering.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels CSE 110." Wind design calculations are typically not done to complete this sheet. The maximum moment occurs at the base. any component thicknesses specified on the Pressure Vessel Design Data Sheet will not include consideration of wind. Determine the height correction factors for various elevations along the total height of the vessel. do not use these procedures to calculate the stresses in the vessel that result from these loads. In most cases. and for sample problems. The general approach is as follows: • • • • • • Determine the gust factor based on the height of the vessel. however. Determine the equivalent vessel diameter.02 for the specific procedures to use. Determine the shape factor for the vessel. Calculate the lateral shear forces that are applied to the vessel at various elevations along the total height. this omission should not be interpreted to mean that wind does not need to be considered by the vendor in his final design. Note that these procedures may be used to calculate the applied loads. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 34 . Calculate the bending moment that is applied to the vessel due to the shear forces. Therefore. Refer to CSE 110.02 provided procedures to calculate the wind loads that are imposed on a tall tower. However. Note that the Pressure Vessel Design Data Sheet has a location where an indication may be made of whether the design includes wind loads. this item will either be left blank or answered "No.

The parameters that affect this phenomenon are wind velocity. mechanical resonance of the vessel occurs.F05 Figure 5: Vortex Shedding When the vortex-shedding frequency coincides with the mechanical natural frequency of the vessel. The vortex shedding alternates from one side of the vessel to the other. The concept of vortex shedding is illustrated in Figure 5. vessel diameter. The dynamic effect of vortex shedding occurs when wind flows past Shed vortex Wind Tower cross section 20203. A region of pressure instability occurs where vortices are shed in a regular pattern. Mechanical resonance causes an increase in vibration amplitudes. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 35 . The vessel must be designed so that its natural frequency is high enough to avoid resonant vibration. and vessel height. These vortices cause an alternating force to act perpendicular to the wind direction and causes the vessel to vibrate. and fatigue failure of vessel sections can eventually result.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels a circular pressure vessel and when the air behind the vessel is no longer smooth.

and in procedures that are contained in the Pressure Vessel Design Data Sheet. In this case.02 discussed the ductile-tobrittle transition temperature. The hydrotest verifies the structural adequacy of the pressure vessel. and pressurized to the prescribed test pressure. Saudi Aramco supplements these requirements in 32-SAMSS-004. and its foundation must be designed for the weight of test water. Section VIII. The hydrotest also provides some mechanical stress relief before the application of service conditions. as long as the test temperature is above the vessel material's ductile-to-brittle transition temperature. the vessel may be accidentally filled with liquid or solids. a vertical pressure vessel is normally designed so that it may also be tested in the installed position. Division 1. The vessel. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 36 . as discussed earlier. even if the original shop hydrotest is in the horizontal position.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Hydrotest Pressure vessels are required to pass a hydrostatic pressure test. MEX 202. either in the shop or in the field.04. its associated support. In the hydrotest. A vertical vessel is often designed to be tested horizontally in the shop. Pressure Vessels. Given the above considerations. These procedures are completely discussed in MEX 202. the vessel is filled with water. provides procedures to determine hydrotest pressure. During normal operation. Paragraph UG-99 of the ASME Code. the following must be considered: • • It may be necessary to retest the vessel in the field after repairs or modifications are made.

piping reaction loads from differential thermal expansion may be high. Therefore. special attention should be paid to very low-pressure applications and largediameter nozzles (over 600 mm [24 in. In most cases. will be determined by the vendor during detailed engineering. the vessel shell may be relatively thin and the nozzle may not need reinforcement for pressure. These additional stresses are localized and diminish away from the nozzle. The detailed design of the nozzle and adjacent shell must be strong enough to maintain these stresses within allowable limits.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels The Pressure Vessel Design Data Sheet has a location where an indication may be made of whether the design includes hydrostatic test loading. The nozzles act as anchor points for the piping systems and absorb forces and bending moments that are imposed on the vessel by the piping system. Thus. In the low-pressure case. These forces and bending moments are caused by weight and differential thermal expansion of the piping. the following are sometimes necessary: • • • Increase the nozzle thickness. Increase the nozzle reinforcement pad size." Stresses that result from hydrotest weight loads will generally not be calculated when this sheet is completed. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 37 . External Piping Most pressure vessel nozzles have piping systems attached to them. if any. Use a thicker section of vessel shell in the local area. Piping systems produce additional stresses in the pressure vessel nozzle and adjacent areas of the shell. Nozzle design modifications that are required to accommodate piping loads are not necessary in most cases. the specified component thicknesses will not reflect the hydrotest. Nozzle and shell designs are generally strong enough to accommodate design pressure and to absorb piping loads.]). However. there may not be adequate inherent strength to absorb the additional piping loads. In the large-diameter nozzle case. this item will either be left blank or answered "No. To accomplish this stress control. The effect of hydrotest weight load on component thickness.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 38 . These stresses must be kept within allowable limits. are examples of components that are typically supported from the vessel shell.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels The evaluation of loads imposed on pressure vessel nozzles will be discussed further in a later section of this module." The vendor will typically determine the effect of loads due to internal components as part of his detailed design. Therefore. such as tower trays and reactor catalyst bed supports. support rings. The weight and bending moment loadings that are associated with pressure vessel internal components induce stresses in the vessel shell and support attachment welds to the shell. This seal-welding prevents any corrosion between the shell and the attachment. The vendor will typically be supplied with piping loads later. This item will typically be left blank or answered "No. This item will typically be left blank or answered "No. Here again. the Pressure Vessel Design Data Sheet may indicate if piping system reaction loads have been considered in the design. pads. and the internal components and their associated supports must be designed by the pressure vessel vendor." Loads from attached piping systems will typically not be available when the sheet is first completed since the piping systems have not yet been designed. and structural brackets that are attached to the vessel be seal-welded all around. The Pressure Vessel Design Data Sheet may be used to designate whether loads due to internal components were considered in the specified design. The evaluation of loads that are imposed by attachments to a pressure vessel shell or head will be further discussed later in this module. 32-SAMSS-004 requires that all internal and external supports. the specified component thicknesses do not consider these piping loads. and he will determine their effect on vessel design then. Internal Components Pressure vessel internal components.

assume I = 1. bending moments. The horizontal.12 . erratic. earthquake forces are then reduced to equivalent static forces that act on the vessel. The forces and stresses in the vessel shell are transient. The simplified equation that follows may be used to estimate the lateral seismic force at the base of the vessel: V = ZIKCSW Where: V = Lateral seismic force at the base of the vessel. The static forces are used to calculate the shear forces. ( ) Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 39 .0 for a pressure vessel. kg (lb. The main factors that cause vessel damage are the intensity and the duration of the earthquake motion.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Earthquake Loadings Earthquake loadings on a vessel result from a sudden. The vessel responds to this motion. C = Base shear factor. the vertical component of the earthquake motion is normally disregarded. Structures that are built in seismic risk zones must be designed to withstand a minimum horizontal shear force applied at the base of the vessel in any direction. and resulting stresses through the height of the vessel. The shear force is translated into equivalent static forces through the height of the vessel. dynamic. Z = Seismic probability coefficient for the site. K = Arrangement factor. vibratory motion of the ground that supports the vessel. To simplify vessel design procedures. assume K = 2. This approach is acceptable since most structures have enough excess strength in the vertical direction to be considered earthquake resistant. C = 1/ 15 T ≤ 0.). I = Importance factor.0 for a pressure vessel. or lateral. Accurate evaluation of earthquake forces and the vessel stresses that these forces cause requires computer analysis. and complex. It is based on the performance of structures that have been previously subject to earthquakes. Earthquake design relies mainly on experience and observation.

S = Site-coefficient based on soil characteristics. when applicable. This is called stress corrosion cracking and is caused by the combined action of tensile stress and corrosion in the presence of water and H2S. Service The pressure vessel service can affect material selection. In addition. the service must be specified on the Pressure Vessel Data Sheet. the calculated loadings are used to determine the resulting stresses in the shell. CSE 110. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 40 .5 unless an exact value is known. sour process environment. W = Total dead weight load of the vessel and contents above the plane being considered. kg (lb. Therefore. Fabrication and inspection requirements based on service considerations will be discussed in MEX 202. Material selection requirements based on service considerations were discussed in MEX 202.). it also must be specified whether the vessel is in wet. Wet.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels T = Fundamental period of vibration of the vessel. Sour In-service cracking at welds is possible in a wet. This procedure involves calculation of the shear force and overturning moment applied at the base. assuming S = 1. for the vessel vendor to know that additional Saudi Aramco material specification and inspection requirements are applicable. and must be reflected in his bid.02. single-diameter tower. and inspection requirements. assuming a uniformly loaded cantilever beam fixed at the base. sour service or in lethal service.04. sour service must be specified.02 contains a simplified procedure to calculate the earthquake loadings on a tall. Wet. fabrication. When earthquake is a design consideration.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 41 . defines a lethal substance as: "Poisonous gases or liquids of such a nature that a very small amount of the gas or of the vapor of the liquid mixed or unmixed with air is dangerous to life when inhaled. the ASME Code requires additional measures to increase vessel quality. Division 1. When the lethal service category does apply. and restrictions on the use of certain carbon steel material specifications. For purposes of this Division. These measures include 100% radiography of all butt welds." It is very rare for a refinery service to be in this category. The vendor must consider these requirements in his cost quotation. this class includes substances of this nature which are stored under pressure or may generate a pressure if stored in a closed vessel. PWHT of carbon and low alloy steel materials. The ASME Code Section VIII.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Lethal The owner must identify to the vendor whether the pressure vessel will contain a lethal substance.

The metallurgical structure of the weld with respect to the base metal. or porosity. Weld joint efficiency must be considered in the vessel design. Weld defects. The first factor is the main source of stress concentration and can be controlled by the vessel design engineer. The last two factors are functions of the procedure that is used to make the weld. The net effect of the three stress concentration factors is to reduce the fatigue strength or efficiency of the weld. This higher local stress is due to local material or structural discontinuities. such as slag inclusions. shrinkage cracks. These additional design criteria are: • • Weld joint efficiency Corrosion allowance Weld Joint Efficiency Weld joint efficiency (E) is used to account for the quality of a welded joint and for the concentration of local stress. Determination of a stress concentration factor takes into consideration the fact that the stress in a localized region of a component or structure may be higher than would be calculated if normal static analysis were used. Stress concentration in welded joints arises from the following factors: • • • The geometry of the weld itself. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 42 .Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels EVALUATING THE ACCEPTABILITY OF CONTRACTOR-SPECIFIED PRESSURE VESSEL COMPONENT THICKNESS DESIGN CRITERIA Two additional pressure vessel design criteria are required before vessel component thicknesses can be calculated (by the vendor) and in turn evaluated for acceptability (by Saudi Aramco engineers).

Note from Figure 28 that the direction of weaker weld joint designs is vertically downward and that lower weld joint efficiencies correspond with weaker weld joint designs. it is only necessary to know that the efficiency of a weld joint is determined by the type of weld joint that is used and by the extent of its radiographic inspection. Types of welded joints and weld inspection methods will be discussed in MEX 202. The degree of radiography and corresponding joint efficiency are specified on the Pressure Vessel Design Data Sheet.04. 32-AMSS-004 requires 100% joint efficiency for all hydrogen. amine and caustic services above 120°C (250°F).00. Section VIII. The Code then specifies. lethal. For our purposes here. specifies the weld joint efficiencies to be used in the formulas for pressure vessel component thicknesses. The majority of pressure vessels use a Type 1 joint design. Section VIII. 100° weld efficiency is also required for hydrocarbon. Later discussion of the ASME Code calculation formulas will show that the required shell and head thicknesses increase with decreasing weld joint efficiency.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Paragraph UW-12 of the ASME Code. by example. the weld joint designs that may be used in each category. MEX 202. cyclic and unfined steam drum services. Division 1. and identifies pressure vessel weld joint categories. these values correspond with either spot or full radiographic examination.04 discusses weld joint types and inspection further. A Type 1 joint design has a weld joint efficiency of either 0. Figure 26 in Work Aid 2A is excerpted from the ASME Code. Figure 28 in Work Aid 2A is also excerpted from the ASME Code and defines weld joint efficiencies based on the type of weld (shown in Figure 27 of Work Aid 2A) and degree of radiographic examination. steam. wet sour. The ASME Code also defines weld joint categories based on the location of a joint in a vessel. Work Aid 2A summarizes how to evaluate the acceptability of the specified weld joint efficiency. These efficiencies depend on the type of weld joint design that is used and on the degree of weld radiographic examination that is made.85 or 1. Division 1. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 43 . Figure 28 shows that the weld joint efficiency decreases as the degree of radiography decreases for a given type of weld joint.

Work Aid 2B summarizes how to evaluate the acceptability of the specified corrosion allowance. The required corrosion allowance must be specified on the Pressure Vessel Design Data Sheet to permit the vendor to determine the required component thicknesses. and therefore. less material. Corrosion. components must have their thicknesses increased over those that are calculated based on the ASME Code design formulas. Internal corrosion/erosionresistant linings are sometimes used as an alternative to the use of greater component thicknesses. In many cases. It is often possible to use a higher-alloy material that has a lower corrosion rate and corrosion allowance in the same service. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 44 . In order to compensate for this thinning. the greater cost per pound of the higher-alloy material is offset by the ability to use thinner components. This larger corrosion allowance requires thicker components and increases the cost of the pressure vessel. Process design and materials engineers typically specify the corrosion allowance for pressure vessel components. These allowances are based on determinations of the expected corrosion rate for the vessel material in the anticipated process environment. The expected corrosion rate is multiplied by the design life of the vessel (normally 20 years) to determine the corrosion allowance that is to be used in the vessel design. A high corrosion rate for a material in a particular service requires a large corrosion allowance. The expected corrosion rate is a major factor that influences material selection.02. Saudi Aramco minimum corrosion allowance requirements for carbon steel were discussed in MEX 202. or abrasion causes the components of a pressure vessel to thin during the operating life of the vessel.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Corrosion Allowance Corrosion was discussed in COE 103 and COE 105. erosion.

Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels EVALUATING CONTRACTOR-SPECIFIED DESIGN CALCULATIONS FOR PRESSURE VESSEL COMPONENTS This section discusses the ASME Code calculations for the following pressure vessel components: • • • • • • Shells Heads Conical sections Flat covers Nozzles Nozzle flanges The calculations required to determine the stresses that result from local loads that are applied to nozzles and attachments to the vessel will also be discussed in general terms. heads.0625 in. This is the thickness after the vessel components are formed and before corrosion allowance is added. This minimum thickness requirement provides a basic level of mechanical strength for the pressure vessel. regardless of calculation results. Division 1. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 45 .6 mm (0.) for most applications. Refer to Work Aid 3A for the ASME equations that are required to perform the calculations. Section VIII. requires the minimum thickness of shells and heads to be 1. Design for Internal Pressure This section discusses calculation of the wall thickness of shells. even if the calculations indicate that the vessel may be thinner for the design loads that are actually imposed. The ASME Code. and conical sections under internal pressure.

the formula is: σθ = Pr 0. For hoop stress. in a cylindrical shell under internal pressure are as follows: σθ = Pr Pr and σ1 = t 2t These equations assume a uniform stress distribution throughout the thickness of the shell.) E1 = Weld joint efficiency for a longitudinal joint Rearranging this equation and substituting S (allowable stress. respectively. mm (in.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Shells The idealized equations for the calculation of hoop and longitudinal stresses.) = Vessel thickness. mm (in. the ASME Code formulas have been modified to account for non-ideal behavior. Since this is an idealized state. kPa (psig) r t = Inside radius of the vessel. kPa [psi]) for σθ yields: t= Pr SE1 − 0. 6P The formula that follows applies when the thickness required to resist the longitudinal stress due to internal pressure must be calculated: t= Pr 2SEc + 0.4P Where: Ec = Weld joint efficiency for circumferential joints Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 46 .6P + tE 1 E1 Where: P = Internal design pressure.

The total combined longitudinal stress is then limited to the maximum allowable stress of the vessel material at the design temperature. The thickness calculated using these equations must then be increased by the specified corrosion allowance in order to arrive at the minimum required new vessel thickness. The thickness of a spherical shell will be approximately half the thickness of a cylindrical shell for the same design conditions. in order for the longitudinal stresses due to wind plus internal pressure to be acceptable. Longitudinal stress can govern when loadings other than internal pressure induce longitudinal stresses that are greater than one half of the hoop stress that is due to internal pressure. This bending moment creates a longitudinal bending stress in the cylindrical sections and increases at lower tower elevations because of the greater tower length on which the wind pressure acts. Note that the Pressure Vessel Design Data Sheet has an area where the thickness calculation equations are summarized. the specified corrosion allowance must first be added to the new vessel inside radius so that the corroded vessel inside radius is used in the equations. the longitudinal stress that is due to these other loads is added to the longitudinal stress due to internal pressure. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 47 . and diameter. The most common example of where longitudinal stress can govern the design of a vessel component is when wind load on a tall tower causes a bending moment. When the required thickness for internal pressure must be determined. Refer to Work Aid 3A for the ASME Code shell thickness equations. material.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Longitudinal stress can govern the design of particular sections in a pressure vessel. In these cases. The wind load sometimes requires that the thickness of the lower tower sections be increased beyond the thickness that is required for internal pressure alone.

The geometry and design data of a vertical cylindrical pressure vessel are specified in Figure 6. Saudi Aramco engineers often use the CODECALC computer program for these calculations. Exercises. Cost estimates are being prepared for this vessel. However. What are the minimum required thicknesses for the two cylindrical sections? Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 48 . It is your job to estimate the required component thicknesses. computer programs are typically used for these calculations on the job. Hand calculations are used in the solution of all Sample Problems. and Evaluations in this course to assist in understanding the design concepts and parameters that are involved.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Sample Problem 1 Cylindrical Shell Thickness Calculation The pressure vessel described in Figure 6 will be used in this and subsequent Sample Problems.

60 Corrosion Allowance = 0.125" Both Heads are Seamless Shell and Cone Welds are Double Welded and will be Spot Radiographed The Vessel is in All Vapor Service Cylinder Dimensions Shown are Inside Diameters 4'-0" 60'-0" 10'-0" 6'-0" 30'-0" 2:1 Semi-Elliptical MEX 20203.F06 Figure 6: Sample Problem 1 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 49 .Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Hemispherical DESIGN INFORMATION Design Pressure = 250 PSIG Design Temperature = 700°F Shell and Head Material is SA-515 Gr.

85 − 0.624 in. E = 0.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Solution Since the welds are spot radiographed.5 × 48 + 0.125 t = 0. required including corrosion allowance Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 50 .6 × 250 tp = 0.0 in.125 in. tp = 250 × 24.125 = SE1 − 0. required including corrosion allowance 4 ft. t = 0.5D + C = 0.85. Shell r = 0.6P 14 400 × 0.747 + 0. 6 ft.125 r = 24.125 in. tp = Pr 250 × 36.499 + 0. . Use Work Aid 3A for this solution.125 r = 36. t = tp + c t = 0. 6 × 250 tp = 0.747 in.5 × 72 + 0. S = 14 400 psi for SA-515/Gr.85 − 0. Shell r = 0. .125 t = 0.125 14 400 × 0.499 in.872 in. 60 at 700°F.0 in.

which simplifies welding the head to the adjacent cylindrical shell section.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Heads Figure 7 shows typical types of formed closure heads that are used on pressure vessels. Elliptical. which is measured from the straight flange to the maximum point of curvature on the inside. The elliptical and torispherical head types have an indicated head depth (h). In equations where the head inside diameter is a parameter. As discussed previously for shells. double the specified corrosion allowance and then add this number to the new head inside diameter so that the corroded inside diameter is used in the equations. Note in Figure 7 that all head types but the conical head have a straight flange (sf) section. and torispherical are the most commonly used head types. the specified corrosion allowance must first be added to the new head inside radius so that the corroded inside radius is used in the equations. hemispherical. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 51 . A different equation is used to calculate the thickness of each head type. • The pressure vessel corrosion allowance must then be added to the thicknesses that are calculated by the ASME equations for these heads. Work Aid 3A contains the ASME Code equations that are used to calculate the wall thicknesses of heads. the internal head dimensions that are used to calculate the required thicknesses must first be increased to account for the specified corrosion allowance. The following procedure is used to adjust the internal head dimensions: • In equations where the head inside radius is a parameter.

F07 Figure 7: Typical Formed Closure Heads Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 52 .Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels t t R sf sf ID Flanged t h sf Elliptical Flanged and dished (torispherical) h ID Hemispherical t sf α t α t r ID Conical ID Toriconical sf MEX 20203.

In carbon steel construction. small-diameter vessels. Half of its minor axis (that is. Hemispherical heads are normally fabricated from segmented sections that are welded together. very large-diameter vessels. The knuckle is the transition region between the straight flange and the spherically dished area. The thickness of this type of head is normally equal to the thickness of the cylinder it is attached to. spun. the ASME Code permits an approximation for the actual head geometry. The required thickness of a hemispherical head is normally one-half the thickness of an elliptical or torispherical head for the same design conditions. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 53 . Therefore. Such a head is of semi-elliptical form. The elliptical head geometry may be assumed to consist of the following: • A spherically dished head with a radius that is equal to 90% of the inside diameter of the shell to which the head is attached. hemispherical heads are generally not as economical as elliptical or torispherical heads because of higher fabrication cost. Hemispherical heads are an economical option to consider when expensive alloy material is used. or pressed. • The Pressure Vessel Design Data Sheet has a location where elliptical head calculations are done. or in thick. material. Figure 8 shows the thickness transition requirements that are contained in the ASME Code. Hemispherical Heads - A hemispherical head is typically half the wall thickness of the cylindrical shell to which it is attached. and A knuckle radius of 17% of the inside diameter of the shell to which the head is attached. and diameter.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels The 2:1 semi-elliptical head is the most commonly used head type. Elliptical Heads - To simplify calculations and fabrication. the thickness transition zone between the head and shell must be contoured to minimize the effect of local stress. the inside depth of the head minus the length of the straight flange section) equals one-fourth of the inside diameter of the head. Segmented hemispherical heads may be economical in carbon steel construction for thin.

Torispherical Heads - A torispherical (or flanged and dished) head is typically somewhat flatter than an elliptical head and can be the same thickness as an elliptical head for identical design conditions and diameter. The minimum permitted knuckle radius of a torispherical head is 6% of the maximum inside crown radius. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards Thinner part 54 . l.F08 Figure 8: Thickness Transition Between Hemispherical Head and Shell Note that the equation shown for a torispherical head on the Pressure Vessel Design Data Sheet reduces to the same equation as for a spherical head. may include the width of the weld ts y ts 20203. since M=1 for a spherical head. The maximum inside crown radius equals the outside diameter of the head.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels th th Thinner part l > 3y y Tangent line l > 3y Length of required taper.

753 in. 2P 2 × 14 400 × 1 − 0.125 D = 72.335 in.25 = 2SE − 0. Top Head Hemispherical head r = 24 + 0.0. tp = Pr 250 × 24.125 = 24. t = tp + c t = 0.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Sample Problem 2 Head Thickness Calculation For the same vessel described in Sample Problem 1 (See Figure 6).21 in. E = 1.628 + 0. required including corrosion allowance Bottom Head 2:1 Semi-Elliptical Head D = 72 + 2 × 0.125 t = 0. tp = PD 250 × 72.2 × 250 tp = 0.21 + 0.125 t = 0. what are the minimum required thicknesses for the top and bottom heads? Solution Since both heads are seamless.628 in. t = 0. 2P 2 × 14 400 × 1− 0. Use Work Aid 3A for the solution.125 = 2SE1 − 0.25 in. required including corrosion allowance Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 55 .2 × 250 tp = 0.125 in.

Knuckles are also sometimes used for smaller angles when there is concern about potentially high local stresses at the cone-to-cylinder junction. This equation assumes that half of the cone-apex angle is no greater than 30°. Knuckles are mandatory when the cone half-apex angle exceeds 30°. Use Work Aid 3A for the solution. tp = PD 2 cos α (SE − 0.85 since the welds are spot radiographed. When knuckles are used. The most common design for a conical transition does not have formed knuckles at the ends of the cone. the transition is called toriconical. conical shell section calculations must be added by hand when applicable. but these design procedures will not be discussed in this course. The cylindrical sections of different diameter are welded to each end of the cone. what is the minimum required thickness of the conical section? Assume that the entire cone will be the same thickness. Solution E = 0. The transitions between the different diameters are made in conical sections. The required thickness for internal pressure of a conical shell without transition knuckles is calculated using the equation shown in Work Aid 3A. The Pressure Vessel Design Data Sheet does not have a location for the calculation of the thickness of a conical shell section.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Conical Sections Tall towers commonly have sections with different diameters along their length. Formed knuckles are sometimes used at the cone-to-cylinder transition in order to reduce the localized stresses.6P) Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 56 . Therefore. The ASME Code has design procedures for toriconical sections. Sample Problem 3 Conical Section Thickness Calculation For the same vessel described in Sample Problem 1 (See Figure 6).

6 × 250) tp = 0.25 2 cos 5.25 in. 5(DL − DS ) Cone Length α = tan −1 0. t = tp + c t = 0. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 57 .751 + 0.125 D = 72.85 − 0.125 t = 0. α = tan−1 0.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Determine the cone half-apex angle.5(72 − 48) 120 α = 5.876 in. α. tp = 250 × 72. D = 72 + 2 × 0. so OK.7° (14 400 × 0.751 in.7° less than 30°.

The critical pressure is directly proportional to the material's modulus of elasticity (E) and the shell moment of inertia and is inversely proportional to the cube of the radius of curvature.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Design for External Pressure and Compressive Stresses Pressure vessels are subject to compressive forces such as those caused by dead weight. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 58 . In failure by elastic instability. Pressure vessel components. An ASME Code allowable stress is not used to design pressure vessels that are subject to elastic instability. The paragraphs that follow discuss buckling of cylindrical shells due to external pressure. wind. The maximum allowable external pressure can be increased by welding circumferential stiffener rings (stiffeners) around the vessel shell. A small irregularity in the shell produces localized bending moments. The critical pressure that causes collapse is not a simple function of the stress that is produced in the shell. The addition of stiffeners reduces the effective buckling length of the shell. These stiffener rings may be welded on either the inside or the outside of the shell. as is true with tensile loads. These bending moments tend to emphasize the irregularity or to increase the out-of-roundness of the shell. This applied external pressure is normally 103 kPa (ga) (15 psig) for full vacuum conditions. and internal vacuum. Instead. and this length reduction increases the allowable buckling pressure. This difference in behavior is due to buckling or elastic instability. These basic principles also apply to other forms of shells as well as to heads and to compressive loads other than external pressure. which make shells weaker in compression than in tension. These effects produce an unstable situation where any surface irregularity is increased by the bending moments that are produced. the vessel is said to collapse or buckle. The collapse of a pressure vessel due to external pressure normally starts with small irregularities in either the physical properties or the shape of the shell. Figure 9 illustrates the use of stiffeners on a pressure vessel cylinder. such as shells and heads. behave differently under these compressive forces than when they are exposed to internal pressure. earthquake. the design is based on the prevention of elastic collapse under the applied external pressure.

the calculation of allowable external pressure considers the unstiffened length of the vessel component. When temperature is considered. These ASME Code external pressure calculation procedures use an iterative approach and are contained in Work Aid 3B.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Moment axis of ring h/3 h/3 L L L L L L h/3 L L L L h/3 h = Depth of head MEX 20203. However. when applicable.F9 Figure 9: Stiffener Rings on Pressure Vessel Cylinders Other factors also affect the design of a pressure vessel for external pressure. respectively. temperature effects must be considered in pressure vessel design. Therefore. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 59 . Paragraphs UG-28 and UG-33 of the ASME Code contain procedures to calculate the allowable external pressure on cylindrical shells and heads. diameter and thickness. the material stress-strain curves are nonlinear with no definite yield point and with a variable modulus of elasticity. The relationship between the modulus of elasticity and unit strain is simple for shells that are at room temperature with an applied stress below the yield point. The results of the external pressure calculations must be shown on the Pressure Vessel Design Data Sheet. The temperature relationship between modulus of elasticity and the stress-strain curve must be expressed as a series of curves based on experimental measurements for particular material types. and the stress-strain diagram of the material.

and corroded thickness. outside diameters at the small and large ends. The head thickness is increased as required to achieve the required external pressure. design temperature. and corroded thickness. See Work Aid 3B for the ASME Code calculation procedure.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels The maximum allowable compressive stress in a pressure vessel component that is due to loads other than external pressure is limited to the lower of the following: • • Shells The allowable tensile stress. and unstiffened length. outside diameter. conical section length. The allowable external pressure may also be increased by adding to the cone thickness. Since a head may sometimes be installed inside a pressure vessel to separate two chambers. design temperature. head depth. or A value determined using the external pressure calculation procedure that is contained in Work Aid 3B. it may be necessary to design the head for an external pressure that is higher than 103 kPa (ga) (15 psig). Work Aid 3B contains the ASME Code procedures to calculate the allowable external pressure for conical sections. corroded thickness. Conical Sections The allowable external pressure of a conical section is a function of material. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 60 . Stiffening rings are not used to increase the allowable external pressure of heads. design temperature. Work Aid 3B contains the ASME Code procedures to calculate the allowable external pressure for heads. The allowable external pressure of a conical section may be increased by the addition of stiffener rings to reduce the unstiffened cone length. Heads The allowable external pressure of a head is a function of material. The allowable external pressure of a cylindrical shell is a function of material. outside radius. apex angle.

Yield Stress = 27 ksi Corrosion Allowance = 0.0625" Cylinder Dimension Shown is Inside Diameter 4'-0" 150'-0" 2:1 Semi-Elliptical (Typical) Figure 10: Sample Problem 4 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 61 . The geometry and design conditions are specified in Figure 10. A tall cylindrical tower is being supplied to Saudi Aramco. and no stiffener rings have been specified. DESIGN INFORMATION Design Pressure = Full Vacuum Design Temperature = 500°F Shell and Head Material is SA-285 Gr.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Sample Problem 4 External Pressure Calculation This Sample Problem will provide practice in using the external pressure design procedure for a cylindrical pressure vessel. B. Use Work Aid 3B to assist in solving this problem.. The vendor has proposed that the wall thickness of this tower be 7/16 in.

875 Do = = 130.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels A.0625) t L 1 808 = = 37 D o 48. From the value of A and the appropriate temperature curve for the material. Do = 48 + 2 × (7/16) = 48. Head Depth = 48/4 = 12 Calculate outside diameter Do. 33 (0. in.875 48. what is the maximum permissible external design pressure Pa? Note that A falls to the left of the temperature line (See Figure 12).875 Determine the value of A using Work Aid 3B and the calculated Do/t and L/Do. L. 4375 − 0. A = 0.000065 (See Figure 11) For the specified material. Is the 7/16 in. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 62 . L L L = Tangent/Tangent length + 2 × 1/3 × (Head Depth) = 150 × 12 + 12 × 2/3 = 1 808 in. thickness acceptable for external pressure? If it is not acceptable. in. Calculate design length. which figure in Section II of the Code should be used? Figure CS-1. what minimum thickness is required? Round your answer upward to the nearest 1/16 in.

0 40.0 2.000 2 .8 = 106 E-20.0 18.000065 .0 = 106 E-27.8 = 106 7.0 7.5 2.00001 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .000 E-29.001 FACTOR A 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .6 1.0 6.000 2.0 1.000 3.00001 Do/t = 100 Do/t = 125 Do/t = 150 Do/t = 200 Do/t = 250 Do/t = 300 Do/t = 130 0 0 0 50 60 40 /t = /t = o/t = D Do Do /t = Do 00 0 80 1.000 63 .1 A=0.0 5.0001 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .0 8.5 3.0 25.0 12.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels A = 0.0 14.0 3.000065 20203.0 16.4 L/Do = 37 20203.V61 Figure 12: Figure CS-1 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards FACTOR B 10.0 9.0001 .000 9.2 2 3 4 5 6 789 Length + Outside Diameter = L/Do 2 3 GENERAL NOTE: See Table CS-1 for tabular values up to 300˚F 500˚F 700˚F 800˚F 900˚F 20.0 10.000 5.000 4.000 6.500 2.000 8.0 30.0 4.f11 Figure 11: Factor A 1.0 20.0 /t = Do 50.0 35.8 1.000 16.500 3.0 = 106 E-24.01 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .000 14.000 12.5 = 106 E-22.000 18.

The intent is to use the thinnest shell that will meet the requirement.000065 × 27 × 106 3 × 130. we will assume a new shell thickness of 9/16 in. by which the thickness is increased until an acceptable value is found. the proposed 7/16 in.000114 Pa = 2 × 0.875 = = 97. Without going through all the iterations. D o 48.7 psi Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 64 .75 t 0. 33 Pa = 15. shell thickness is not sufficient. and thus a corroded thickness of 1/2 in. 5 L = 37 (as before) Do A = 0. This is a trial-and-error process.000114 × 27 × 106 3 × 130. 33 Pa = Pa = 9 psi Since the calculated Pa is less than 15 psi. Now determine how thick the shell must be in order to have Pa ≥ 15 psi.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Pa = 2 AE 3(Do / t) E = 27 × 106 psi from Figure CS-1 (Figure 12) at T = 500°F 2 × 0.

Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels B. Do = 130. This is based on the originally t specified shell thickness of 7/16 in. Calculate the required value of B using Pa = 15 psi.33 from before.e. This alternative will probably be less expensive than to increase the thickness of the whole shell to 9/16 in.. 33 = 4 4 B = 1 466 Locate the calculated B in Figure CS-1 (Figure 12). An alternative to increasing the wall thickness is to add stiffener rings in order to reduce the unstiffened length of shell. 2 AE 3(Do / t) Pa = A= 3Pa (D o / t) 3 × 15 × 130. 33 = 2E 2 × 27 × 106 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 65 . Since B is below the bottom of the chart (i. to the left of the temperature lines). the alternative calculation procedure must be used. L. Calculate A using the following equation. To determine the number of stiffener rings that are required. This calculation is done by working the procedure backwards. you must calculate the maximum allowable design length. 4B 3(Do / t) Pa = B= 3Pa (D o / t ) 3 × 15 × 130.

L/Do = 8 L = 8 × 48. considering 1/3 of the head depth as part of the length.62 Rounding up to the nearest whole number = 5 spaces Number of stiffeners. It is also the maximum permitted length to the first stiffener from the top or bottom. This value is the maximum acceptable length between stiffeners.875 = 391 in. go to Figure G in Section II of the Code and determine L/Do.0001086 Using the value of A calculated above. Maximum number of Total length 1 808 = 391 L spaces between stiffeners = = 4. Total length to stiffen = tangent/tangent length + 2 × 1/3 × (head depth) = 1 808 in. N = (Spaces .Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels A = 0. and the value of Do/t.1) =4 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 66 .

Engineering Encyclopedia

Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels

Flat Covers

The unstayed, circular flat head or cover is another type of head. Unstayed means that the cover is merely a flat plate that does not have any reinforcing bars to strengthen it. The ASME Code contains design rules for flat covers that include items such as minimum required thickness, bolting, and welding requirements. Flat covers are not often used for pressure vessels in refineries and petrochemical plants. However, the flat cover is commonly used as a bolted cover on the channel end of shell and tube heat exchangers. Flat covers will not be discussed further in this course due to their limited applicability to pressure vessels. Flat covers are discussed in MEX 210.

Quick-Opening Closures

Some pressure vessel applications require that the vessel be opened frequently for maintenance or operational reasons and not just during normal T & I’s. The following are examples of such applications: • • • Large strainers or filters that are installed in piping systems that must be frequently opened for cleaning. Pressure vessels in batch process operations that must be frequently entered for cleaning. Mixing vessels where additional material is manually added during the process after the vessel has been depressurized.

In these situations where frequent pressure vessel entry is required, it is preferable to have a faster means to open and close the vessel than is provided by a standard bolted flanged connection. A quick-opening closure provides this faster internal access.

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A quick-opening closure consists of the following main parts (Refer to several standard figures that are contained in Course Handout 3): • Hub. The hub has an integrally-forged ring that extends beyond its outside diameter at one end. There is a gasketed joint in the face of this ring. The other end of the hub is welded to the nozzle neck where the quick-opening closure will be installed. Dished head. The dished head closes the opening of the pressure vessel nozzle. Gasketed joint. A gasketed joint between the hub ring and dished head provides a pressure-tight seal at the closure. Clamping ring or yoke. This component is split into two pieces across its diameter, clamps the head against the hub ring, and forces the head against the gasketed joint to seal the opening. Loosening the yoke allows the closure to be opened. Bolts. The bolts locate the yoke with respect to the head and hub ring. When the bolts are tightened, the yoke pieces are brought together and tighten the head against the hub ring. When the bolts are loosened, the yoke pieces are moved apart and the head can be moved away from the hub ring. Two bolts are used whatever the closure diameter for most pressure vessel applications. Hinge. The hinge is attached to both the dished head and the hub so that the head can remain supported and be easily swung open and shut.

• • •

•

•

The closure can be opened and closed quickly because there are usually only two bolts. Opening and closing may be done either manually or by hydraulic or electric operators depending on the application and the size of the closure. It is much simpler to open a quick-opening closure than a standard flanged joint. Consequently, it is also much easier to make a mistake and open the closure when the pressure vessel or piping system is still under pressure. Opening the closure while the system is still under pressure is dangerous.

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The detailed design of quick-opening closures must meet the normal ASME Code requirements with respect to material selection and dimensions (e.g., head thickness). Paragraph UG-35(b) of the ASME Code contains additional design requirements that focus specifically on quick-opening closures. The ASME Code has these additional requirements because of the potential danger if the closure is not properly operated. Several of these requirements are highlighted below. Refer to Paragraph UG-35(b) for details. • The closure must have a locking mechanism. The locking mechanism must be designed such that a failure of any one component of the mechanism cannot result in failure of all other locking elements and subsequent release of the closure. One design approach that meets this requirement is to have separate plates bolted between the head and the two halves of the yoke. These plates must be unbolted first before the yoke bolts are used to separate the yoke halves and unbolt the closure. It must be possible to see from external visual observation that the holding elements are in good condition and that their locking elements are in full engagement when the closure is in the closed position. The closure and its holding elements must be fully engaged in their intended operating position before pressure can be built up inside the vessel. This feature ensures that all components of the closure are in the position that they were designed to be in before they are exposed to the pressure loads. If internal pressure would force the closure away from the vessel, the closure must be designed such that the pressure must be fully released before the closure can be fully opened for access. This feature ensures that the closure head will not be rapidly blown back due to a high internal pressure and cause damage or injury.

•

•

•

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there is more to the design of openings than calculating the nozzle thickness. and welding the nozzle in. However. External loadings that are transmitted through a nozzle connection to a pressure vessel. These external loadings are discussed in a later section of this module. Reinforcement of Pressure Vessel Openings Calculation of the required wall thickness for a nozzle is one step in the design of openings in pressure vessels. These warning devices also signal if an attempt is made to operate the locking mechanism before releasing the pressure inside the vessel. Pipe material specifications permit the wall thickness that is supplied to be less than the nominal thickness that is ordered by an undertolerance. The permissible undertolerance is stated in the pipe material specification and can be as much as 12.5% of the nominal thickness. Nozzle Reinforcement for Design Pressure The wall thickness of a nozzle under pressure loading is determined by the same procedures used for cylindrical shell sections. pressure loading is normally the main factor and is discussed in detail in this section. such as by connected piping. Material thickness tolerance is an additional factor that must be considered in nozzle thickness calculations and that is not considered in vessel shell calculations. The ASME Code specifies design rules that must be followed.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels • Warning devices may be required that will warn the operator if pressure is applied to the vessel before the closure and its holding elements are fully engaged in their intended position. the undertolerance must be considered when the required wall thickness for a nozzle is calculated. Therefore. may also affect the required nozzle thickness. Pressure vessel nozzles are frequently fabricated using pipe material specifications when the nozzle is a standard pipe size. However. cutting a hole in the vessel. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 70 . Several companies manufacture standard quick-opening closures that meet all ASME Code requirements.

Engineering Encyclopedia

Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels

The design of pressure vessel openings must address two types of stress conditions. First, the membrane stresses must be kept within allowable limits. Second, localized peak stresses that are caused by abrupt geometric changes at the nozzle-to-shell corner must be kept within allowable limits. Evaluation of these peak stresses is important for the evaluation of cyclic loads that may cause a fatigue failure but is beyond the scope of this course. The ASME Code uses simplified rules to ensure that the membrane stresses are kept within acceptable limits when an opening is made in a vessel shell or head.

DP tn Rn trn

2.5t or 2.5 tn + te Use smaller value

t

c

2.5t or 2.5 tn Use smaller value

h

d or Rn + tn + t

;;;

tr d

te

d or Rn + tn + t

Use larger value For nozzle wall inserted through the vessel wall

Use larger value For nozzle wall abutting the vessel wall

Figure 13: Cross-Sectional View of Nozzle Opening

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When the opening is made, a specific volume of material is removed from the pressure vessel shell or head. Therefore, this metal is no longer available to absorb the applied loads. The ASME Code simplifies the design calculations by viewing the nozzle-to-vessel junction area in cross section, as shown in Figure 13. The use of this simplification permits the nozzle reinforcement calculations to be made in terms of metal crosssectional area rather than metal volume. The ASME Code design rules state that the metal area that is removed for the opening must be replaced by an equivalent metal area in order for the opening to be adequately reinforced. The replacement metal must be located adjacent to the opening and be must contained within defined geometric limits in order to provide adequate reinforcement. The replacement metal area may take two forms: • • Excess metal that is available in the shell or nozzle that is not required for pressure or to absorb other loads; or Reinforcement that is added to the shell or nozzle.

Figure 14 shows several typical nozzle design configurations. Please note 32-AMSS-004 requires that all nozzles in hydrogen, hydrocarbon, caustic amine, wet sour and steam services shall be attached by welding through the total thickness of the vessel shell or head, including reinforcement.

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(a) Full Penetration Weld With Integral Reinforcement

(a-1) Separate Reinforcement Plate Added

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

Full Penetration Welds to Which Separate Reinforcement Plates May be Added

(f - 1) (f - 3)

(f - 2)

(f - 4)

(g)

Self - Reinforced Nozzles

Figure 14: Typical Nozzle Design Configurations

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Additional Nozzle Reinforcement Additional nozzle reinforcement must be provided if the vessel shell and nozzle do not have available sufficient excess thickness that is not required for pressure loads or for other transmitted loads. The reinforcement pad material is normally selected to be the same as the vessel material in order to avoid the need to make this compensation. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 74 . Note that self-reinforced nozzles are forged fittings that are designed with extra thickness in the nozzle-tovessel junction area in order to provide adequate reinforcement. If a reinforcement pad is used. Work Aid 3C summarizes the ASME Code procedure used to calculate the required nozzle reinforcement. and selfreinforced nozzles. If a material with a lower allowable stress than the vessel material is used for reinforcement. its material should have an allowable stress that is at least equal to that of the pressure vessel shell or head material that the reinforcement pad is attached to. the reinforcement must be located within the reinforcement zone boundaries in order for the reinforcement to be considered effective. No credit can be taken for the additional strength of any reinforcement that has a higher allowable stress than that of the vessel shell or head material to which it is attached.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Figure 14 provides examples of inserted versus abutted nozzles. the reinforcement area must be increased in inverse proportion to the ratio of allowable stress values for the two materials. pad reinforcement versus no reinforcement. Additional thickness in the lower part of the nozzle near its attachment to the vessel. Additional reinforcement can be in one of the following forms: • • • A reinforcement pad. In all cases. This increase compensates for the lower allowable stress of the reinforcement material. Additional thickness in the vessel shell or head around the opening.

These situations are not discussed in this course. The ASME Code does not contain specific procedures for the evaluation of these external nozzle loads.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels When a reinforcing pad is used. and Participants are referred to the ASME Code for details. Vessel nozzle-to-shell intersections must also be adequate for the loads that are imposed by any attached piping or equipment. any portion of the reinforcing pad that extends outside the boundaries of the reinforcement zone cannot be considered effective. size shall be used in utility services only. The external nozzle loads must be checked by the pressure vessel designer by the use of generally accepted procedures. The ASME Code specifies circumstances under which no nozzle reinforcement evaluations are needed. a nozzle cannot be the weakest component of a pressure vessel. Small Connections SAES-D-001 specifies that connections less than 2 in. The nozzle reinforcement that is determined using the ASME Code procedure considers pressure design only. However. It should also be noted that the Pressure Vessel Design Data Sheet requires that nozzle reinforcement not be the factor that limits the maximum allowable working pressure of a pressure vessel. its thickness is normally set equal to the vessel shell or head nominal thickness. and its required diameter is calculated based on the amount of additional reinforcement area that it must provide. Additional reinforcement must be provided in another manner should it be necessary to extend the reinforcing pad diameter outside the boundaries of the reinforcement zone. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 75 . Therefore. It also provides rules to evaluate the reinforcement of openings that are located near each other.

-thick reinforcement pad of SA-516. Gr. What must the minimum pad diameter be? Neglect any contribution of weld areas in these calculations. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 76 .Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Sample Problem 5 Nozzle Reinforcement You are reviewing the nozzle design details that are proposed by a vendor for a new drum and have selected an 8 in. nominal pipe size nozzle into the shell for detailed evaluation. and he has not provided any calculations to verify that use of the nozzle without reinforcement is acceptable. assume that a 0. Using Work Aid 3C. The information that is needed to perform your evaluation is in Figure 15.5 in. 60 material is used. The vendor has not provided any reinforcement for this nozzle. If it does. determine if this nozzle requires additional reinforcement.

5" Thick 0.0625" Vessel is 100% Radiographed Nozzle does not pass through Vessel Weld Seam 8" Nozzle (8. 48" Inside Diameter 20203.625" OD) 0. B. 60 Nozzle Material .FIG15 Figure 15: Sample Problem 5 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 77 .Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels DESIGN INFORMATION Design Pressure = 300 PSIG Design Temperature = 200°F Shell Material .SA-516 Gr. Seamless Corrosion Allowance = 0.SA-53 Gr.5625" Thick Shell.

0.0.0625 .487) (0.75 = 0.2 = 2(tn .487in.625 .0625 .5 tn + te) = 2(0. A2 = 0.2 required area A11 = (Elt .1 + 0.2 Therefore. 0625) = = 0.889 in.1 in.trn)5t = (0.786 in.2 available in shell A21 A21 A22 (tn .Ftr)d = (0.trn) (2.0.886) = 2.775 .0.5625 . SE1 − 0.5 0.0243 in.6 × 300 t rn = 300(3.0625) 0.5 .2 required area in reinforcement pad.0784 15 000 × 1− 0.5625 . 6P 15 000 × 1 − 0.2 Therefore.786 = 0. A5 = (3.0.0.1.5625 .0625) = 0.0625 + 0.2 A12 = 2(Elt .5625 . Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 78 .Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels tr = Pr 300 × (24 + 0.0625) = 0.0625) + 0] = 0. 8125 + 0.5 .1 in.0784) × 5(0.2 available in nozzle A1 + A2 = 0.886 in. the nozzle is not adequately reinforced.6 × 300 A = dtrF A = (8.Ftr) (t + tn) = 2(0.0625 . A1= 0.0 + 0.125) × 0.0.0.0.5 × (0. and a reinforcement pad is required.786 in.2 Since this value is less than A.5 .0625 .775 in.0.898 in.0784) [2.487) × 7.0.0.487 × 1 A = 3.

). a portion of which is excerpted as Figure 16. if the pressure vessel is fabricated from carbon steel.5.889 = [Dp .75 + 2(0. Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings. ASTM A105 material is in Material Group No. Flange material specifications are listed in Table 1A in ASME B16. Therefore. Specification of an ASME B16.1.75 = 15.0.625] Dp = 13.(7. Standard ASME B16.761 in. The process for determining the Material Group Number is contained in Work Aid 3D. Therefore. Work Aid 3D provides the specific procedure to follow. 2d = 2 × 7.761 in.761 in. Dp = 13.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels te = 0. provides steel flange dimensional details for standard pipe sizes through 600 mm (24 in. Confirm that this diameter does not extend beyond the permitted reinforcement limit.0625)] 0. For example. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 79 .5625 in.5625 5.8. ASTM A105 is an appropriate flange material specification in most applications. The material specifications are grouped within specific Material Group Numbers. 1.5 is contained in Course Handout 1.5 in." The paragraphs that follow discuss this process in general terms.5 . A5 = [Dp .5 flange involves selection of the correct material and flange "Class. the minimum required reinforcement pad diameter is 13.5.136 = [Dp . is acceptable Nozzle Flange Rating ASME B16.5 flanges are acceptable for most pressure vessel nozzle flanges and for shell flanges when the vessel diameter corresponds to a standard pipe size.(d + 2 tn)] te 2. A copy of ASME B16.

5 has 7 classes. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 80 .500. Grade Notes No. Refer to the copy of ASME B16. Figure 17 is an excerpt from Table 2 and shows the temperature and pressure ratings for carbon steel Material Groups in ASME Class 150. 1. Grade Notes 1.500. Grade Notes No.5 provides the information that is necessary to select the flange Class that is appropriate for the specified design conditions. As the number of the Class increases. Table 1a. A higher flange Class can withstand higher pressure and temperature combinations. designated as Class 150. ASME B16. No.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels TABLE 1A LIST OF MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS Material Groups Product Forms Material Nominal Group Designation No. 300.5 in Course Handout 1 for information on other Material Groups in Class 150 and on the other flange Classes. and 2. Material Specification List (Excerpt) Table 2 of ASME B16. Spec.1 Carbon A105 -(1)(2) A216 WCB (1) A515 70 (1) A350 LF2 ----A516 70 (1) C-Mn-Si ------A537 Cl. Steel Forgings Castings Plates Spec.2 Carbon ---A216 WCC (1) ------A352 LCC ----2 1/2 Ni ---A352 LC2 -A203 B -3 1/2 Ni A350 LF3 -A352 LC3 -A203 E -- Figure 16: ASME B16. The Class accounts for the required flange design temperature and pressure.1 -1.5. 900. Spec. 400. Each Class specifies the design pressure and temperature combinations that are acceptable for a flange that has that designation. 600. the strength of the flange increases for a given Material Group.

20 to 100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 285 260 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20 Carbon Steel 290 260 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20 265 250 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20 235 215 210 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20 Figure 17: ASME/ANSI B16. °F .Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Material Group No..1 1.2 1.3 1.5. 1.4 Temp. Class 150. Pressure-Temperature Ratings (Excerpt) Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 81 .

Material and design temperature combinations that do not have a pressure indicated are not acceptable. slip-on type flanges cannot be used in the following cases: • • • Severe cyclic conditions Hydrocarbon or sour services Design temperatures over 232°C (450°F) Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 82 . the strength of a flange increases as the Class number increases for a given Material Group. Therefore. the lowest acceptable Class that is suitable for the design conditions should be used in order to minimize cost. The dimensions of a standard ASME B16. This strength increase is accomplished by increasing flange dimensions. and individual flange cost then increases. this increase results in a more substantial structure. Flange design temperature is read down the left side of the table. For example.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels The Material Group Number is read across the top of Table 2. and Class completes most of the selection requirements for flanges that are covered by ASME B16. The decrease in allowable pressure as the temperature increases ensures that the standard flange design with fixed dimensions will not fail due to the reduction in material strength at higher temperature. As previously noted. Allowable design pressure decreases as the design temperature increases.5 flange are fixed for a given Class and pipe size. Flange type and gasket material must also be specified. Specification of the size.5. material.5. is beyond the scope of this course. discussion of these factors. Several specific flange design requirements are stated in 32SAMSS-004. such as thickness. The numbers in the table are maximum allowable flange design pressures for a particular combination of flange material (as defined by Material Group Number) and design temperature. as well as the design of flanges that are outside the size limits of ASME B16. However. in selecting flange Class. The increase in flange dimensions requires that more steel be used.

Saudi Aramco requires that the vessel shell or heads govern the MAWP. The material thicknesses that are used in these calculations do not include any excess thickness that was added for corrosion allowance or to absorb loadings other than pressure. The MAWP is also specified at a "designated temperature" that is coincident with the MAWP. rather than other components such as nozzle intersections. The MAWP is specified at the top of the vessel when the vessel is in its operating position. The component thicknesses that are actually supplied will frequently be slightly greater than the minimum thicknesses that are required for the design conditions because standard available plate thicknesses are typically used. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 83 .Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels In addition. This finish is a relatively smooth finish for a raised face and increases the probability that a tight seal is maintained with a spiral wound gasket. The MAWP is shown on the Pressure Vessel Design Data Sheet (and the vessel nameplate) after the vendor has completed his detailed design and knows the component thicknesses that he will use. The MAWP is always greater than or equal to the design pressure. Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP) The maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) of a pressure vessel is the maximum permissible gauge pressure in the vessel and is expressed as the lowest MAWP of all the vessel's components. As previously stated. also because the "designated temperature" equals the design temperature. Pressure vessels are normally designed so that the main shell or heads are the components that limit the MAWP. Each component must be checked to determine which component limits the pressure vessel MAWP. flange faces must have a 125-250 microinch machine finish if spiral wound gaskets are used. The MAWP is based on calculations that are made for every component of a pressure vessel and that are based on the actual supplied thicknesses of the material.

However. The MAWP shows whether the same pressure vessel may be used at the new design conditions or whether a new vessel must be purchased. Calculation of the MAWP for both conditions provides an exact range that the vessel can withstand. t. its safety valve set pressure must also be adjusted. since Saudi Aramco requires that the MAWP be determined during the initial design. A new hydrotest based on the MAWP and revised ASME Code documentation is also typically required if the MAWP was not known during the original vessel design.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels The MAWP may be used later if a change in operation is being considered that requires a more severe design pressure and/or temperature. Calculation of the required hydrotest pressure is discussed in MEX 202. From a practical standpoint. P. In this case. is calculated. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 84 . the initial vessel hydrotest pressure is based on the MAWP. the design MAWP is the more meaningful calculation. and "t" is the actual supplied component thickness (less corrosion allowance and any excess thickness provided for reasons other than design pressure). The MAWP is calculated with the same equations by reordering them so that "P" is calculated as a function of "t". The MAWP is normally calculated for two conditions: • • New and cold Design The new and cold calculation is based on ambient temperature and new component thicknesses. The ASME Code requirements and equations for calculation of the minimum required wall thicknesses for various pressure vessel components were discussed in earlier sections of this module. If a vessel is re-rated in accordance with the MAWP. is assumed as given information and the minimum required wall thickness. and this is the value that is shown on the Pressure Vessel Design Data Sheet.04. P = MAWP. The design calculation is made for the design temperature and corroded component thicknesses. In all these cases. The equations that are used to calculate MAWP are shown in Work Aid 3A. the design pressure.

internal or external piping. In the discussion that follows it is assumed that: • • The shell has been properly designed for such factors as internal pressure. and wind loads. or equipment that are supported from a pressure vessel shell by lugs or clips that are attached to the shell. Any nozzle opening in the shell has been adequately reinforced by an area replacement method such as that discussed earlier in this module. • The following discussion focuses on loads that are applied at a pressure vessel nozzle. The nozzle or attachment is not subjected to high thermal gradients. and the applied loadings are not cyclic.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Stresses From Local Loads Applied to Nozzle and Attachments It is common for external loads to be applied to nozzles or lugs that are attached to pressure vessel shells or heads. although the general approach also applies to loads that are transmitted to a vessel shell or head through a lug-type attachment. Loads from platforms. in addition to the local stresses at the point of attachment. weight. weight. wind. Loads at vessel supports. The attachment is not located near another geometric discontinuity in the vessel. External loads cause local stresses in the pressure vessel shell or head that are in addition to the stresses that are caused by pressure. The sources of the external loads may be the following: • • Piping system weight. and wind. such as columns or lugs. and thermal expansion loads that are applied at vessel nozzles. • • • Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 85 . The nozzle neck itself has also been adequately designed for the external loads.

such as those due to internal pressure. Peak stresses are stresses that can cause fatigue failure if the stresses are highly cyclic. S. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 86 . is typically substituted for Sm. the Division 1 allowable stress. For a fatigue analysis. the Division 2 allowable membrane stress. Division 2 also classifies the stresses that are associated with the corner or fillets as peak (F) stresses. must be kept within allowable limits.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Allowable Stress Bases The combination of the additional local stresses that are caused by external loads with the general stresses in the vessel shell. A typical and conservative approach for vessels that are designed to Division 1 is to use Division 1 allowable stresses with a Division 2 stress categorization. It should be noted that while discussion of fatigue analysis is outside the scope of this course the first step in such an analysis is to ensure that the local stresses without stress concentration factors do not exceed the allowable limits for local membrane and secondary stresses. In Division 2. Higher allowable stresses are permitted since the stresses that are produced by the external loads are very local to the junction and die out rapidly away from the junction. a fatigue analysis should be performed. the local membrane and bending stresses in the shell/nozzle due to the cyclic loads should be multiplied by stress concentration factors. and the bending stresses are considered as secondary (Q) stresses. the stresses in the shell near an opening are considered as local membrane (PL) stresses. The fatigue analysis is typically done in accordance with Appendix 5 of Division 2. For a Division 1 vessel. If the internal pressure or external loads are highly cyclic (over 400 full range cycles per Division 2).5 Sm and limits the sum of local membrane and bending stresses to 3 Sm. Division 2 limits the local membrane stress to 1.

WRC 107 covers solid and hollow and square and round attachments to spherical shells and solid rectangular and round attachments to cylindrical shells. It should be noted that. Therefore. Local Stresses in Cylindrical Shells Due to External Loadings on Nozzles .Supplement to WRC Bulletin No. Revision 1 of WRC 297 was published in September 1987. The signs of the stress components depend on the location of the point on the shell. WRC 297. Local Stresses in Spherical and Cylindrical Shells Due to External Loadings. WRC 107. Both bulletins provide a method to calculate stresses on the upper (outside) and lower (inside) surfaces of the vessel shell at four points around the intersection of the attachment to the shell. and if the local stresses in the shell as calculated by the WRC 107 procedure are at or near their allowable limits. WRC 297 is more appropriate to use for nozzles into cylindrical shells than WRC 107. The methods are complicated since the external loads can be either positive or negative and may contribute either a positive (tensile) or negative (compressive) membrane stress component and a positive or negative bending stress component. 107 was first published in 1985.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Calculation Procedures A generally accepted approach for the calculation of the stresses from external loads is contained in the Welding Research Council Bulletins No. 107 and No. was first published in 1965 and has been revised/corrected and reprinted several times. if the nozzle neck is thinner than the shell. the stresses in the nozzle neck should also be checked using the WRC 297 procedure. although the two bulletins appear to be similar. Therefore. WRC 297 also covers a wider range of nozzle and shell geometries than WRC 107. In general. 297. WRC 297 gives a method for the calculation of local stresses due to external loads on hollow cylindrical attachments to cylindrical shells. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 87 . it is important that the latest revision (March 1979) and printing (1989) be used. Another difference between WRC 297 and WRC 107 is that WRC 297 includes a method to calculate the local stresses in the nozzle neck itself in addition to those in the shell. there are subtle differences in nomenclature and sign convention.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 88 . The piping loads that are applied to the nozzles will typically be found using the Simflex II piping analysis computer program. Stress coefficients found from multiple graphs that are functions of these geometric parameters. Work Aid 3E summarizes the approach to use in the evaluation of vessel stresses that result from applied piping loads. The stresses resulting from combination of the appropriate stress components. extrapolation of the methods beyond their geometric limits is not recommended. Saudi Aramco will typically use the CODECALC computer program for these vessel shell stress calculations. The actual calculations involve the determination of the following: • • • • Several geometric parameters.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels WRC 107 and 297 can be used for a wide range of geometries. For nonstandard situations. and resultant stresses based on geometry and load information which is entered as input. These computer programs determine all the required parameters. these calculations are now done using readily available computer programs rather than by tedious hand calculations. Multiple stress components that are found using the applied loads and the stress coefficients. coefficients. but they do not cover all possible geometries. The following paragraphs briefly summarize the WRC 107 calculation approach that is applicable to a nozzle on a hemispherical head. a finite element analysis should be considered. The accuracy of the methods is also a function of the geometry. Therefore. From a practical standpoint.

V1 & V2 Torsional Moment. In the case of a nozzle on a hemispherical head. the maximum stress will occur in the plane of maximum moment. in the case of a hemispherical head. the WRC 107 procedures for a hemispherical head can be used if the mean radius is assumed to be equal to the crown radius of the head. moments M1 and M2 should be combined vectorially to give the maximum moment. is based on WRC 107 sign conventions and nomenclature and shows the positive direction for external loads applied to a nozzle in a hemispherical head. P Bending moments.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels External Loads on Nozzle Attached to Hemispherical Head - Since the calculation procedure is very similar but the nomenclature and sign convention are different. and V1 and V2 resolved into two components in the plane of maximum moment and perpendicular to the plane. contained in Work Aid 3E. Therefore. Also shown are the directions of positive stresses on the top surface of the shell. the calculation procedure will be discussed using the terminology and sign conventions of WRC 107. M. Mt • • Note that. This figure should be referred to in conjunction with the following discussion. which is covered by WRC 107. the following loads can be considered: • • Radial force. In the case of ellipsoidal or torispherical heads. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 89 . Figure 29. The figure also shows the locations of four points around the nozzle-to-shell intersection at which stresses will be calculated on the upper and lower surfaces. M1 & M2 Transverse shear forces.

For comparison with the allowable stress basis. In the case of a round hollow nozzle into a hemispherical head.) = Outside radius of the nozzle. γ: Attachment parameter. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 90 . mm (in. various shell and attachment parameters must be calculated. mm (in. Stress Coefficients and Local Stress Components - The next step is to determine the stress coefficients.) = Thickness of the nozzle.5 γ = rm/t ρ =T/t Where: Rm ro T t = Mean radius of spherical shell. and then the combined membrane plus bending stress should be calculated. eight stress coefficients are required. These stress coefficients are obtained from graphs that are in WRC 107.) The applicable WRC bulletin should be consulted for other types of attachment configurations. the parameters are as follows: • • • Shell parameter. based on the direction of the applied load. In the case of a round hollow nozzle into a hemispherical head that is covered by WRC 107. U: Attachment parameter. It is important that the algebraic sign of these stress components be changed as needed. which are the values of the stress resultant functions for a given set of attachment parameters. mm (in.) = Thickness of the spherical shell. mm (in. ρ: U = ro/(RmT)0.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Shell and Nozzle Attachment Parameters In both WRC bulletins. Local stress components are then determined by multiplying the stress coefficients by the external loads and appropriate shell parameters. the membrane stress components due to pressure should be added algebraically.

The transverse shear forces. such as rectangular or square attachments for support lugs. and the procedure is repeated until the change in thickness is negligible. If a fatigue analysis is performed. The ASME Code Section VIII. Typically. Similar procedures are used for other types of attachments to hemispherical or cylindrical shells. Since the local stresses in the junction reduce and distribute themselves away from the nozzle or attachment. Appendix B in WRC 107 gives some guidance on stress concentration factors. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 91 . stress concentration factors should be used to account for the contour of the nozzles and welds. However. The following paragraphs discuss additional considerations. Note that stress concentration factors are sometimes applied to the entire load to simplify the calculations. Additional Design Considerations - The preceding discussion summarized the procedures that are used to determine the local stresses around a cylindrical nozzle attachment into a hemispherical head. the pad plus shell thickness. In many instances. Reference should be made directly to WRC 107 or 297 for details covering these items. or insert plate thickness. The actual stress calculations are done using computer programs such as CODECALC. and an iterative solution is required. they may cause a fatigue failure of the nozzle or attachment. If the external loads are cyclic. is determined assuming that the stress functions are unchanged. Then new stress coefficients are determined for the assumed thickness. the nozzle reinforcement that is used for internal pressure is also adequate for the externally applied loads. Mt. may also be calculated. V1 and V2.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels An average shear stress is then calculated due to the torsional moment. Division 2 Appendix 4 Article 4-6 gives guidance on stress concentration factors to be used for pressure. the shear stress will normally not be a significant design consideration. This reinforcement complicates the analysis in that the stress functions depend on geometry. local reinforcement by means of a thickened insert plate or a pad is used. although they need only be applied to the cyclic portion of the load. In other cases. the shell must be further reinforced for the external loading.

The maximum width of the reinforcement pad should not exceed 16 times the lesser of the pad or shell thickness. If the nozzle neck is thinner than the shell.75 and 1. One method is to assume that the pad is a rigid plug and to determine the diameter of the plug such that the stress in the shell at the edge of the plug is acceptable. if the nozzle or attachment is of primary importance. the stresses in the nozzle neck should be determined by a procedure such as that given in WRC 297. in some cases pad reinforcement can be used. Typically. The pads should be continuously welded to the nozzle neck and shell with full penetration and full fillet welds. If local reinforcement is used. the pad thickness should generally be between 0. the pad or shell may fail by buckling due to large bending stresses.56(rt)0. the extent of the reinforcement along the shell must also be determined. Since the applied bending moments dampen out away from the nozzle. however. Finally. the thickness of the nozzle neck would be increased as required. On the other hand. otherwise. it should be noted that not all nozzles or attachments are analyzed to the same level of detail. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 92 . or if the geometry is not typical. the extent of the reinforcement along the nozzle neck should be at least 1. If the nozzle or attachment is lightly loaded. respectively.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels If a pad is used to reinforce the shell.5 times the thickness of the shell to which it is attached.5. the shell stresses are probably acceptable. and no analysis need be done. and if the thickness of the shell is greater than the nozzle neck thickness. a computerized finite element analysis may be necessary.

The spherical head geometric information and applied loads are shown in Figure 18. Rm = 227. Figure 18: Sample Problem 6 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 93 . rm = 7. V2 = 1000 lb.5 in. . M1 = 24000 in. V1 = 1000 lb. M2 = 24000 in. -lb.75 in.75 in.lb.5 in. 0. . Nozzle A D Spherical Head 0. B C P = -12253 lb.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Sample Problem 6 Evaluation of Stresses from Local Loads Applied to Nozzles and Attachments Using the procedure that is provided in Work Aid 3E. determine if the stresses in a pressure vessel spherical head under applied piping loads are acceptable. MT = 24000 in.lb.

5 S 3S = 26 250 psi. 1. Therefore. the head design is acceptable for the applied loads. Therefore. allowable membrane stress intensity. the vessel design temperature is 400°F. S. allowable membrane plus bending stress intensity. The results from the computer calculations are as follows: Maximum membrane stress intensity = 24 059 psi. 70. Both of these calculated stresses are lower than their respective allowable values.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels The head material is SA-516 Gr. and the design pressure is 75 psig. The contractor used a computer program. and = 52 500 psi. Maximum membrane plus bending stress intensity = 45 332 psi. to calculate the stresses in the head in accordance with WRC 107. The Division 1 allowable stress in tension. is 17 500 psi. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 94 . such as CODECALC.

.F19 Figure 19: Types of Pressure Vessel Supports Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards . all of which are used at Saudi Aramco facilities. 95 .Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels EVALUATING THE CONTRACTOR-SPECIFIED DESIGN OF PRESSURE VESSEL SUPPORTS The most common types of pressure vessel supports are the following: • • • Skirts Columns Saddles Skirt Support Column Support MEX 20203. Figure 19 shows these types. Saddle Support . .

Axial thermal expansion of a horizontal vessel is normally handled by anchoring one saddle support to the foundation and letting the other saddle support move freely. Figure 19 shows a column support design where the columns attach directly to the vessel and the loads are transferred by shear action.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Most vertical pressure vessels are supported by skirts. The weight load of the pressure vessel must be calculated to permit correct design of the vessel support system. They also transfer the loads to the foundation through anchor bolts and bearing plates. Wind and earthquake loads are especially important in the design of vertical pressure vessel supports since the bending moments that are applied at the support increase as the vessel height increases. Cross-bracing of the columns may be necessary to minimize lateral and torsional movements under wind or earthquake loadings. Skirts are an economical design because they generally transfer the loads from the vessel by shear action. Circumferential stiffener rings may be required at saddle supports if the vessel shell is too thin to transfer the loads to the saddles. The columns permit easy access under the vessel. Wind and earthquake loads must also be determined in order to design the support system. Column supports are also often used for pressurized storage vessels. Horizontal vessels are normally supported by saddles. An alternate design has the support columns attached to lugs and the lugs welded to the vessel shell. Column-supported vessels are normally relatively small and light in weight. The bending stiffness of the shell and its ability to adequately resist the moments must be considered in the lug support design. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 96 . The calculation of wind and earthquake loads that are applied to pressure vessels was discussed earlier and in CSE 110. Weight load calculation is necessary regardless of the type of support that is used or regardless of the vessel geometry.

wind. Larger vertical vessels are typically supported by skirts. For columns. Calculate the stresses in the vessel shell at the support attachment points and determine if these stresses are acceptable. Determine the need for and sizing of cross-bracing for column supports. or if a short vessel is connected by piping to a reciprocating pump or compressor. it is sometimes supported by a skirt to avoid vibration problems. anchor chair details. For skirts. • • • • Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 97 . Determine appropriate weld details to use at the pressure vessel and baseplate attachment points. The height of the support column or skirt is normally set by process design conditions and considers fluid head and flow requirements.8 . this determination involves selection of the appropriate standard structural steel member or pipe size which is necessary for the applied load. the design of vertical pressure vessel supports includes the following: • Determine the required support size. Determine if additional reinforcement at the shell is needed to keep the stresses within acceptable limits. Determine appropriate details to use at the support base to the foundation.]) that are located on the ground are usually supported on uniformly spaced column supports. and earthquake loads have been determined.3. Once the required weight. If a short vessel is located above ground on structural steel construction.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Vertical Vessel Small and medium-sized vertical vessels (1.12 ft. and location. These details include baseplate dimensions. and anchor bolt number.6 m [6 . this determination involves determination of the appropriate skirt diameter and thickness. diameter.

Column Supports Column support design considers axial weight loads. The axial weight force. M.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels • Determine if other specific vessel design considerations would affect the support design. Discussion of the other items is beyond the scope of this course. bending moment. Vessel design pressure is not a consideration since the column supports are not exposed to operating pressures. These considerations might include the calculation and evaluation of localized stresses that are caused by high temperature applications or cyclic loads. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 98 . are carried by the columns that are closest to the neutral axis (Columns B). W. and M. V. The bending moment. Figure 20 shows the forces and bending moment expressed as W. is carried uniformly by all columns. The sections that follow concentrate on the requirements for the basic design of support columns and skirts. and shear forces in the vessel. V. The shearing forces. is carried by the columns that are located away from the neutral axis (Columns A).

.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels B A A W V M A A Section A-A B .F20 W M V Figure 20: Column Support Loads Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 99 .. 20203.

at the top of column B causes a bending moment in the column if no cross-bracing is used. plus some information about the columns. One component of VB acts along the axis of the cross-bracing. and a third acts radially on the shell. VB is resolved into components. VB. 60% of design) Assume that four support columns will be sufficient and that they are SA-36 carbon steel (36 000 psi yield stress). Sample Problem 7 Design of Column Supports Column supports must be designed for the vertical pressure vessel that is shown in Figure 21.. vessel operating weight WT = 208 000 lb.. Selection of the appropriate column size. will be used to demonstrate the general approach to the design of column supports. and position for a particular situation is a trial and error process. vessel hydrotest weight Wc = 6 000 lb. lateral wind force during hydrotest (based on 51 MPH wind velocity. number. The discussion above covers Steps 1 and 2 in Work Aid 4A. lateral wind force during operation (based on 85 MPH wind velocity) = 720 lb.. The following continues with Step 3.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels The shearing force. another acts along the column axis. The design of cross-bracing will not be discussed in this course. The following additional information is available: Wo = 92 000 lb. vessel empty weight Po PT = 2 000 lb. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 100 . in conjunction with Work Aid 4A. The following Sample Problem. With crossbracing...

P e P2 P1 H = 96 in.5 in.F21 Figure 21: Sample Problem 7 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 101 . 3 L 4 a C L column a A Section a-a MEX 20203.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels D = 48 in. Direction of wind or earthquake P Db y x y F x L = 72 in.L. A t = 0. 192 in. T.

Next. This calculation is done for both the operating and hydrotest cases. = 72 in.000 in. = 720 × 96 = 69 120 in. vertical pressure vessels.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels 3. Calculate the bending moments at the column base and the vessel tangent line. At this point. It was already assumed that four columns could be used. = P(H + L) = PH Operating Case Mbo Mao = 2 000 (96 + 72) = 336. Hydrotest Case MbT MaT 4.-lb. we will only go through the process once to illustrate the overall approach.-lb. An iterative process is then used to ensure that the column is not overloaded and to optimize the design. a standard column section must be selected. Mb and Ma respectively.-lb. This assumption is applicable to most small. assumptions must be made for the column design to be used. = 720 (96 + 72) = 120 960 in. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 102 . For the purpose of this discussion. H L Mb Ma = 96 in. = 2 000 × 96 = 192 000 in.-lb.

Fb = 0. Determine allowable bending stress.3 = 3.4 in. Determine allowable compressive stress.01 in. A Lx Ly Zx Zy rx ry = 9.12 in.24 in.3 = 9. = 2. Therefore. or from an equivalent source).Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Assume that the columns are fabricated using a W8 × 31 standard "wide-flange" beam.47 in.01 in. r = 2.6 × 36 000 = 21 600 psi Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 103 . Depth = 8 in. (half of the depth for column orientation used) I = Ix = 110 in. K1L 1.4 = 37 in.4 5.2 = 110 in.5 × 72 = = 53.4 (x-direction is perpendicular to wind direction for this column orientation) ∑ I1 = 2(Ix + Iy) = 2(110 + 37) = 294 in. (least radius of gyration) e = 4 in.73 2. from Figure 32 6.01 r Fa = 18 014 psi. This beam has the following properties (obtained from a standard civil engineering design manual.4 = 27.

it indicates that the operating vessel weight will overcome the wind load that tends to overturn the vessel. Calculate the maximum total axial uplift load on the windward side of each column. Operating Case Co = W o 4Mbo 92 000 4 × 336 000 + = + 4 4 × 57 N NDb Co = 28 895 lb. Hydrotest Case CT = WT 4MbT 208 000 4 × 120 960 + = + N NDb 4 × 57 4 CT = 54 122 lb. 8. Calculate the maximum axial compressive load on the leeward side of each column. Since this value is negative. Operating Case To = − W o 4Mbo 92 000 4 × 336 000 + =− + 4 4 × 57 N NDb To = -17 105 lb.5) + 2 × 4 Db = 57 in. See Figure 30 in Work Aid 4A. See Figure 30 in Work Aid 4A. This calculation is done for the operating conditions and with the vessel empty.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels 7. Db = Vessel outside diameter + 2 × (Distance between shell and column centroid) Db = (48 + 2 × 0. Empty Vessel Case Tc = − W e 4Mbo 6 000 4 × 336 000 + =− + 4 4 × 57 N ND b Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 104 .

Operating Case P10 = Wo 4Mao 92 000 4 × 192 000 + = + N ND 4 × 48 4 P10 = 27 000 lb. The columns must be bolted down to prevent this occurrence. Calculate the lateral force per column for both the design and test cases. Operating Case Fo = PoI 2 000 × 110 = = 748 lb. Empty Vessel Case P 2E = 4Mao W e 4 × 192 000 6 000 − = − 4 × 48 ND N 4 P2E = 2 500 lb. This result indicates that the wind would tend to overturn the vessel if it is empty. P 20 = 4Mao W o 4 × 192 000 92 000 − = − ND N 4 × 48 4 P20 = -19 000 lb. 9. SI 294 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 105 . 10. See Figure 30 in Work Aid 4A. The eccentric loads at the top of the columns are then calculated. Hydrotest Case PIT = WT 4M aT 208 000 4 × 69 120 + = + 4 N ND 4 × 48 PIT = 53 440 lb.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Tc = 4 395 lb. 294 ΣI Hydrotest Case P I 720 × 110 FT = T = = 269 lb. which is always the case. See Figure 30 in Work Aid 4A.

12 Bending f bo = P10e 0. The axial and bending stresses in the column are now compared to allowable values.67 Fy) will typically be higher than the allowable compressive stress. Hydrotest Case Axial Compression faT = C1 54 122 = = 5 934 psi 9. Operating Case Axial Compression f ao = C o 28 895 = = 3 168 psi A 9.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels 11.4 27.75 × 748 × 72 = + = 5 416 psi 27. the allowable tensile stress for the columns (typically 0.12 A Bending f bT = W T e 0.4 b. a. they will not need to be checked.75F oL + Zx Zx 27 000 × 4 0. This comparison is done for both the operating and test conditions.4 27. Also. Note that since the tensile loads in the column that were calculated in Step 8 will typically be lower than the compressive loads from Step 7.75F TL P1T e + + NZ x Zx Zx fbT = 208 000 × 4 0.4 fbT = 15 923 psi Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 106 .4 27.75 × 269 × 72 53 440 × 4 + + 4 × 27.

Combine the axial and bending stresses and compare to the allowable values. The student is left to verify this. the selected beam section does not meet the design requirements. 12.33.732 K1L 23 r 0. Operating Case fo = fao + fbo = 3 168 + 5 416 = 8 584 psi Hydrotest Case fT = faT + fbT = 5 934 + 15 923 = 21 857 psi Therefore.85 × 15 923 faT + = + = 1.85fbT 5 934 0. Using the next heavier 8-inch “W” section should satisfy the strength requirements for this vessel. The local stresses in the shell due to the column load would then be evaluated. and the shell will be locally reinforced as needed. 5 934 faT = = 0. Fa = 18 014 psi and Fb = 21 600 psi Since f exceeds the lower of Fa or Fb.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels c. and therefore. 13.04 18 014 5 934 Fa faT 1− Fb 21 600 1− Fe ' 51724 This value exceeds 1. we must proceed to Step 12 to further evaluate the proposed design.0.15 Fa 18 014 Fe ' = 12 π 2E 12 π 2 × 29 × 106 = = 51 724 2 23 × 53. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 107 . f = fT = 21 857 psi The hydrotest case governs the column design. which is greater than 0.

This type of failure is the same as overloading a structural column in compression. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 108 . The allowable stress that is specified by the ASME Code for the skirt material need not be used because the skirt is an external attachment and is not part of the pressure vessel itself. ASME Code allowable tensile and compressive stresses are normally used for skirt design. These axial compressive loads are caused by weight. failure is more likely to occur due to columnwrinkling that is produced by excessive combined axial compressive loads. As with the vessel shell itself. from a practical standpoint. it would appear that the skirt thickness should be less than the vessel shell thickness at the attachment point if the same material is used for both components. A Type 1 skirt may be either straight or flared and is butt-welded to the knuckle portion of the head. These may be used in skirt design. A Type 2 skirt may be either straight or flared and is lapwelded to the cylindrical portion of the shell. This ASME code allowable compressive stress basis should be followed for skirt design.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Skirt Supports The design pressure of the vessel need not be considered in the design of a skirt support because the skirt is not exposed to the operating pressure. Since the skirt is not designed for pressure. the skirt tends to absorb greater bending moments that are caused by wind or earthquake loads. However. However. Failure of a cylindrical skirt under axial compressive stresses may occur due to axial column buckling or local wrinkling if the skirt is not properly designed. Figure 22 shows support skirts that are welded directly to the vessel bottom head or shell. Paragraph UG-23 of the ASME Code limits the maximum compressive stress to prevent failure (as was discussed earlier in this module). the skirt thickness is often the same as the thickness of the bottom portion of the vessel shell. plus either wind or earthquake. These increased bending moments may require a greater skirt thickness. The local building codes or civil engineering standards usually specify the maximum allowable tensile and compressive stresses for a steel support structure such as a skirt. Therefore. The type of weld attachment that is used between the skirt and vessel determines the weld joint efficiency which must be used in the skirt design calculations.

. Straight Type 1a Flared Type 1b Straight Type 2a Flared Type 2b 15°MAX Type 2: Lap weld blends smoothly into shell contour ...Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Type 1: Butt weld blends smoothly into head contour . .. ... ....... .F18 Figure 22: Types of Support Skirts Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 109 ...... MEX 20203..

Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Skirt Type 1a is most often used for tall vessels. The skirt flare also increases the skirt section modulus in going from the attachment point to the base. If the skirt plate is thicker than the bottom shell plate. or cyclic operating temperatures. If the uplift caused by the imposed external moment is high. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 110 . 32-SAMSS-004 requires that this detail be used for all but hemispherical heads. which makes it more resistant to the applied bending moment. the skirt is designed as a Type 1b. The centerlines of the cylindrical skirt plate and the corroded shell plate are approximately coincident. The Type 2a skirt is more difficult to fabricate and is used mainly in situations that involve high external loads. as required. high design temperatures. The Type 2a skirt is attached to the flanged portion of the bottom head in such a way that it does not obstruct any required inspection of the head-to-shell junction weld seam. A flared Type 2b skirt is used for the same reasons as a Type 1b skirt. Work Aid 4B contains the procedures to use for skirt design. A good fit between the outside diameter of the shell and the inside diameter of the skirt is essential. the outside diameter of the skirt is made equal to the outside diameter of the bottom shell. and if the anchor bolt spacing becomes too small for the required bolt size. The skirt flare increases the skirt diameter at the base plate and permits the use of larger diameter and/or more anchor bolts.

a MEX 20203.F23 Figure 23: Horizontal Vessel on Saddle Supports Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 111 . Less effective portion of unstiffened shell a R b θ A b= R= θ= A= Width of saddle Radius of shell Saddle contact angle Distance between vessel tangent line and centerline of saddle a Section a .Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Horizontal Vessel Saddle Supports Figure 23 shows a typical horizontal vessel on two saddle supports.

the design of a horizontal vessel that is supported on saddles must proceed further through the use of procedures that are not contained in the Code. This location is called the "horn" of the saddle. The actual design calculations for a horizontal vessel on saddle supports will typically be done with a computer program such as CODECALC. If the stresses in the saddle area are excessive. The paragraphs that follow highlight the details that must be considered. These longitudinal bending stresses are combined with the longitudinal pressure stress and are kept below the Code allowable stress. A complication occurs at the saddle location because high bending moments occur at the location where the saddle attachment stops along the shell circumference. If more than two supports are used. a modified saddle design is required. The most common horizontal vessel support design uses two saddle supports that are located an equal distance from the vessel midpoint. A horizontal vessel on two saddle supports is analyzed as a uniformly loaded beam that is simply supported. the load may not be equally divided among the supports after settlement occurs. These high localized bending moments cause localized shell deformation and reduce the ability of the shell to effectively absorb bending. Saddle design modifications may include the following actions: • Increasing the width of the saddles.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels The required cylindrical shell and head thicknesses are generally governed by the membrane stress that is due to pressure and are calculated using the ASME Code design equations that were previously discussed. However. the load that results from the weight of the vessel and its contents will be equally divided between the two supports. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 112 . even if one support should eventually settle more than the other. This localized shell deformation must be accounted for in the calculations that are made at the horn of the saddle. Figure 23 shows the zone above each saddle support where the shell is not completely effective. The uniform weight load produces longitudinal bending stresses in the shell at mid-span and above the saddle supports. With this support configuration. which is used by Saudi Aramco.

Welding circumferential stiffener rings to the vessel shell.F24 Figure 24: Stiffener Rings at Saddle Supports Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 113 . or they must be located on both sides of the saddle and welded only to the shell. The stiffeners may be fabricated from plate or standard structural sections. Ring stiffener Vessel shell Saddle support Single stiffener Two stiffeners MEX 20203. whichever is most appropriate for the specific design loads. The addition of stiffeners prevents local deformation of the shell and makes the entire shell section effective in resisting the local bending moment.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels • • Increasing the contact angle between the saddles and the shell. Figure 24 shows stiffener rings located at saddle supports. they must be located either in the plane of the saddle and welded both to the saddle and vessel shell. without being overstressed themselves or allowing the shell to become overstressed. If stiffener rings are used. The ring stiffeners must be strong enough to prevent shell deformation.

Circumferential stress at the horn of the saddle (that is. The maximum unstiffened length of the vessel between heads and the total horizontal force that acts against the horns of the saddle may also be determined. Zick developed an analysis procedure for calculating the stresses that are induced in the cylindrical vessel shell due to the weight loads ("Stresses in Large Horizontal Cylindrical Pressure Vessels on Two Saddle Supports. where the saddle is welded to the vessel shell). 1971). Tangential shear stress. L. Additional stress in the head used as a stiffener. With regard to weight loading. This procedure calculates and evaluates the following stresses: • • • • • Maximum longitudinal bending stress. Design of Horizontal Cylindrical Vessels on Saddle Supports As with any other vessel. the vessel behaves like a beam resting on supports. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 114 . The paragraphs that follow provide an overview of the overall procedure and of the stresses which must be calculated. P. Ring compression in the shell over the saddle." The Welding Journal Research Supplement.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels The design of a saddle support system for a horizontal vessel is a complex process that requires the calculation of several different stresses at various locations in the vessel. The procedure also considers the strengthening effect of stiffening rings and the design requirements for the rings themselves. horizontal vessels on saddle supports are designed for specified internal and/or external pressure.

The distribution and magnitude of the shear stresses in the shell that are produced by the vessel weight in the plane of the saddle depend on how the shell is reinforced. the weight loading causes tensile stresses at the bottom of the cylinder and compressive stresses at the top. Longitudinal Bending Stress .As with an overhanging beam with two supports. One maximum bending moment occurs over the saddle supports. At the saddles. The combined stresses that result are compared to allowable tensile and compressive stresses to determine their acceptability. or other readily available pressure vessel references for additional details. computer programs such as CODECALC are used for these calculations. Discussion of the specific equations that are used to calculate these stresses and their allowable limits is beyond the scope of this course. but if the saddle is stiffened by a circumferential stiffening ring that is welded to the saddle and shell in the plane of the saddle. which is a tensile stress for internal pressure. if at all. • If the saddle is located away from the head (A > R/2 in Figure 23). and the other maximum bending moment occurs in the center of the vessel span. Tangential Shear Stress . The maximum shear stress occurs at the vessel horizontal centerline. These stresses are combined with the longitudinal stress in the cylinder that is caused by the design pressure. two maximum bending moments caused by the weight load exist in the longitudinal direction of the vessel. At midspan. As previously noted. the tensile stresses are on the top and compressive stresses are at the bottom.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels The paragraphs that follow discuss several of these stresses (except in stiffening rings) and design details that must be determined and evaluated for the design of horizontal cylindrical vessels on saddle supports. the entire cylindrical cross-section resists the load-induced shear stresses. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 115 . The shell acts as a beam over the two supports under the uniform weight load of the vessel and its contents. Participants are referred to Zick's paper.

Ring Compression in the Shell Over the Saddle . called a wear plate. The maximum shear stress occurs just beyond the tip of the saddle. Zick for additional information on the design of horizontal pressure vessels on two saddle supports. The wear plate is somewhat larger than the saddle and reduces the compressive stress in the shell since the applied load is spread over a larger area of the shell. A large part of the weight load that causes the tangential shear stress is carried across the saddle to the head and is then back to the head side of the saddle. the effective cross-section of the shell that is able to resist the shear stresses is reduced.Forces that act on the bottom shell band that is located directly over the saddle cause compression in the shell band. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 116 . The maximum shear stress occurs just beyond the tip of the saddle. the shell is stiffened on the side of the head. and the saddle is then welded to the wear plate. or if the shell is reinforced by two stiffening rings that are located adjacent to the saddle. to be attached to the vessel shell directly over the saddle. Participants are referred to the previously referenced paper by L. The maximum bending stress occurs at the horn of the saddle and is compressive. P. The magnitude of the circumferential bending stress depends on the distance between the head and saddle and thus on whether the head provides any stiffening.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels • If the saddle is located away from the head (A > R/2 in Figure 23). If the saddle is located close to the head (A ≤ R/2 in Figure 23). It is common for an additional circumferential plate. These forces are resisted by a portion of the shell on each side of the saddle.The tangential shear forces in the shell cross-section in the plane of the saddle also cause tangential bending moments and bending stresses in the shell. • Circumferential Stress at the Horn of the Saddle .

A copy of a Safety Instruction Sheet is shown in Figure 25. and additional copies are in Course Handout 3. not the data that is on the vessel data sheet. manufacturer's data for the pressure vessel. as-built. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 117 . must be completed for every new pressure vessel that is within the scope of SAES-D-001. Form 2684 also must be prepared or revised for every pressure vessel which is re-rated or modified. Form 2694. certified.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels COMPLETING SAFETY INSTRUCTION SHEETS FOR PRESSURE VESSELS The Pressure Vessel Safety Instruction Sheet. Form 2694 is completed based on the final.

Form 2694 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 118 .Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Figure 25: Pressure Vessel Safety Instruction Sheet.

Refer to Figure 25 or Course Handout 3. Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard SAES-A-005. These procedures are referenced in Work Aid 5. year built. This information includes the applicable design Code and year of issue.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Purpose and Use of the Safety Instruction Sheet in Saudi Aramco The purpose of the Safety Instruction Sheet is to ensure that operations. • Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 119 . maintenance. Information Covered The following highlights several of the primary types of information required on Form 2694. outlines the procedures for preparing safety instruction sheets. protective devices. function. Preparation of Safety Instruction Sheets. vessel position. The project manager is responsible for the preparation and issue of the Safety Instruction Sheet for new pressure vessels. reference drawings. This information concerns safe operating limits. accounting plant number. As a result. these personnel have a convenient reference to determine the primary design information and limiting factors of every pressure vessel. and Saudi Aramco purchase order number. • Complete descriptive information of the pressure vessel is required. and specifications. This information includes the pressure vessel's title. manufacturer's name and country of fabrication. the sheet is then reviewed by Saudi Aramco engineers. plant number. Other applicable reference information must be supplied. Once completed. The actual preparation would probably be done by a contractor's pressure vessel engineer or project engineer. and any special safety precautions that are required for pressure vessels. serial number. and inspection personnel will have adequate information in a consistent format.

and geometry of the major components. Weld joint types and efficiencies of the major seams. This identification immediately focuses attention on the first area of the pressure vessel that must be addressed. Nozzle and manhole flange rating and facing type. Any special design considerations or unusual construction features. This information is especially useful for maintenance personnel. and insulation details. For example. the vessel might have a maximum operating liquid level limitation because the support and associated foundation have a load limitation. These limits include: Design pressure and temperature. thicknesses. Identification of the limiting component is especially useful when vessel re-rating is under consideration. This information includes: Material specifications. rather than just one pressure vessel. and whether the vessel is adequate for full vacuum.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels • Next comes a section that provides detailed mechanical design information for the pressure vessel. • The next section describes the operating limits of the pressure vessel. The minimum required thickness for the major vessel sections based on specified design conditions. Packing. The test pressures in the shop and field and the limiting component. Whether the vessel was stress relieved and the extent of radiographic inspection. The safety valve location information is especially useful when a single location is protecting an entire system. The location of the safety valve and its set pressure. It tells them when they should become - - Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 120 . the limiting component. lining.

However. Otherwise. • Detailed information about vessel internal trays and packing is often available from the vessel vendor if he also has responsibility for the purchase of these items. However. It is important to note here any special hazards. or tests that are important for the pressure vessel. The paragraphs that follow highlight other items which might have to be obtained from other sources. • The last section provides an area to identify anything else that is special or unusual regarding the pressure vessel. Form 2694 provides much information about a pressure vessel. having the information on this one form reduces the need to refer to the drawings and focuses the research on the necessary items. Where to Find Other Information Almost all of the information that is required on the Safety Instruction Sheet is obtained from the final version of the Pressure Vessel Design Data Sheet and the vessel vendor as discussed above. • Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 121 . the needed information should be available from the contractor if he purchased these items. Information as to the thickness and type of insulation that is used should be available from the contractor. maintenance. There will be situations when the detailed vessel fabrication drawings must be checked to resolve questions. inspections. recommendations. It makes it possible for operations. this information might not appear on the vessel drawings. and inspection personnel to get needed information from one source without reviewing many drawings. The vessel vendor would have this information since he will supply the needed attachments to the vessel. since the vendor does not supply or install the insulation.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels concerned with corrosion that is found in the pressure vessel during periodic inspection.

maintenance. The Process and Instrument Diagram (P & ID) for the system will typically show safety valve locations. safety.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels • Any special design considerations or unusual construction features would have been developed either during the initial specification of the vessel or during its detailed engineering. and inspection personnel who are assigned to the project and are familiar with the vessel and its application. recommendations. • • Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 122 . inspections. or tests can be obtained from General Safety Instructions. The location of the safety valve that protects the vessel is available from the contractor. and discussions with process. Aramco GI 2608. Information and guidance with regard to any special safety hazards. Pertinent information could be obtained from the process and mechanical engineers who were assigned to the work.

using applicable data and Saudi Aramco and industry requirements. After the pressure vessel is designed.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels SUMMARY This module has discussed the mechanical design requirements for pressure vessel components. It has described the use of Saudi Aramco and ASME Code requirements that are applicable to pressure vessel design. it is then fabricated. inspected and tested. and their application to the calculation of pressure vessel component thickness were discussed. Design conditions and loadings. Participants have now become familiar with the required mechanical design calculations for pressure vessel components and pressure vessel supports. Participants are now able to evaluate pressure vessel design requirements. These subjects are discussed in MEX 202. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 123 .04. pressure vessel design criteria.

kPa(ga). Po = _____kPa(ga). Multiple pressure/temperature combinations may be possible for a particular vessel. kPa(ga). and the most severe combination must be used for design. This should be specified by process engineers. Work Aid 1A: Design Pressure and Temperature All pressure vessels must be designed for the most severe combination of pressure and temperature which may be imposed. Design Pressure • Determine the maximum expected internal operating pressure. (psig) • Calculate the minimum required design pressure at the top of the vessel. (psig) PT = 1. PT.1P0. Calculated design pressures and temperatures must be specified on the Pressure Vessel Design Data Sheet. as the larger of that determined from the following equations: PT = P0 + [103 kPa(ga) or 15 psig]. (psig) Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 124 . The Contractor Design Package for the pressure vessel must be checked to ensure that these design conditions have been properly specified. Po.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels WORK AID 1: PROCEDURES FOR EVALUATING THE ACCEPTABILITY OF CONTRACTOR-SPECIFIED DESIGN CONDITIONS AND LOADINGS The procedures in this Work Aid may be used to determine if the design conditions and loadings that are specified in a Contractor Design Package are acceptable.

SI Units P = PT + 0. psig 144 or P = PT + 0. psig Where: P PT γ H = Design pressure at the point under consideration. P. kPa (psig) = Weight density of the liquid in the vessel.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels If the vessel is partially or completely filled with liquid. must include consideration of the hydrostatic head of the liquid. m (ft.3) = Height of the liquid above the point under consideration. In these cases.) SG = Specific Gravity of the liquid Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 125 .00981 γH or P = PT + 9. kg/m3 (lb. the following equations are used to calculate the pressure below the liquid level.433(SG)H./ft. calculation of the pressure that is used for the design of any components that are located below the liquid level. kPa (psig) = Design pressure at the top of the vessel.81(SG)H English Units P = PT + γH .

Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels • Is vessel subject to external pressure conditions during operation (i.5 psig) at 149°C (300°F). T0. CET = _____°C (°F) Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 126 ." vessel must also be designed for an external pressure of 52 kPa(ga) (7." what is the maximum expected external operating pressure. Pe = 103 kPa (15 psig). as the smaller of 1. T. full or partial vacuum conditions)? Yes_____ No_____ If "Yes. Poe? Determine the required external design pressure. Pe. the design temperature shall be no higher than: T = T0 . Design Temperature • Determine the maximum expected operating temperature.(14°C or 25°F) • Determine Minimum Design Metal Temperature or Critical Exposure Temperature (CET). This should be specified by process engineers.e. For full vacuum conditions. The CET is the minimum metal temperature that is coincident with a pressure greater than 25% of the vessel design pressure. • Is vessel subject to steam-out conditions? Yes_____ No_____ If "Yes.25Poe or 103 kPa (15 psig). based on maximum operating temperature as: T = T0 + (28°C or 50°F) If T0 is less than -18°C (0°F). T0 = _____ °C (°F) • Calculate the minimum required design temperature.

Engineering Encyclopedia

Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels

Work Aid 1B: Other Loadings

Other loadings will typically not have to be initially specified on the Pressure Vessel Design Data sheet since they either will be already known to the vendor (such as the design wind velocity), or are unknown at the time the sheet is completed (such as piping reaction loads at nozzles). Use the following checklist for review purposes to ensure that the vendor has what he needs for bidding purposes. 1. 2. 3. Additional weight loads that are imposed by equipment supported by vessel specified. Required internal components, lining, and insulation specified. No indication that design includes other loads unless backup information is provided.

Work Aid 1C: Service

Vessel service information must be specified on the Pressure Vessel Design Data Sheet to ensure that material selection, fabrication, and inspection requirements will be included in the vendor bid. This service is specified by process engineers. Confirm that the following information is specified: 1. 2. Vessel service specified. Yes/No response required to whether wet, sour or lethal service requirements apply. Identify which service applies if "yes" response.

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WORK AID 2: PROCEDURES FOR EVALUATING THE ACCEPTABILITY OF CONTRACTOR-SPECIFIED PRESSURE VESSEL COMPONENT THICKNESS DESIGN CRITERIA

The procedures in this Work Aid may be used to determine if the vessel component thickness design criteria that are specified in a Contractor Design Package are acceptable.

Work Aid 2A: Determination of Weld Joint Efficiency

1.

Determine the Category of welded joint from Figure 26. This is adapted from Figure UW-3 of the ASME Code that is in Course Handout 1.

C A A D B B B D B A C D D

C

C A C

A A C

D

B

20203.F26

Figure 26: Weld Joint Categories

2.

Determine the Type of welded joint being used. See Figure 25 for weld Types. Type 1 joints will typically be used. Confirm that the Type of welded joint determined in Step 2 is acceptable for the Category determined in Step 1. See Table UW-12 in the ASME Code that is in Course Handout 1. Table UW-12 is excerpted in Figure 28. A Type 1 joint is acceptable for all weld joint categories.

3.

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Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels

4.

Determine the degree of radiographic examination that is specified for the weld: Full, spot, or none. Either full or spot radiography will always be done. Determine the weld joint efficiency, E, from Table UW-12 in the ASME Code that is in Course Handout 1 (excerpted in Figure 28). For a Type 1 joint: E = 1.0 for full radiography E = 0.85 for spot radiography

5.

• •

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5 Single-full fillet lap joint with plug welds. 6 Single-full fillet lap joint without plug welds. Backing strip if used shall be removed after completion of weld. 4 Double-full fillet lap joint. MEX 20203. Single-welded butt joint with backing strip which remains in place after welding. 2 For circumferential joint only 3 Single-welded butt joint without backing strip.F27 Figure 27: Types of Welded Joints Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 130 .Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Joint Type 1 Butt joints as attained by double-welding or by other means which will obtain the same quality of deposited weld metal on the inside and outside weld surface.

C (See ASME Code for limitations) A. Confirm that the weld radiography and joint efficiency that are specified on the Pressure Vessel Design Data Sheet are consistent with these determinations.55 0.90 NA NA NA NA 0.70 0. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 131 . C (See ASME Code for limitations) B. D (See ASME Code for limitations) A. C. B.00 0.85 0. B. D A. C A. B. (See ASME Code for limitations) 1. C.45 Figure 28: Maximum Weld Joint Efficiency 6.60 0. B. B.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Joint Type Acceptable Joint Categories Degree of Radiographic Examination Full Spot None 1 2 3 4 5 6 A.50 0.80 NA NA NA NA 0.65 0.

Nonremovable carbon steel internal components must have two times the specified shell corrosion allowance.) and 6 mm (1/4 in. For carbon steel pressure vessels: • Minimum and maximum corrosion allowances are 1. Removable carbon steel internal components must have a corrosion allowance that is equal to that of the shell. by discussion with process and materials engineers as necessary. 4. 2.) respectively for pressure containing components.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Work Aid 2B: Determining Corrosion Allowance 1.6 mm (1/16 in. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 132 . • • 3. Confirm that the corrosion allowance specified on the Pressure Vessel Design Data Sheet is consistent with other available information that is cited above. Determine the corrosion allowance that is required. Determine the necessary corrosion allowance for noncarbon steel vessels or internal components by discussion with process and materials engineers.

Confirm that MAWP is not limited by nozzle reinforcement. and component geometries are specified. Division 1. Determine that component stresses are specified. corrosion allowance.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels WORK AID 3: PROCEDURES FOR EVALUATING CONTRACTOR-SPECIFIED DESIGN CALCULATIONS FOR PRESSURE VESSEL COMPONENTS The procedures in this Work Aid may be used to determine if design calculations for pressure vessel components (or their end results) that are contained in a Contractor Design Package are acceptable. Identify types of heads used. Specify nominal thickness (may be left to vendor). Specify nominal thickness (may be left to vendor). Later sections of this Work Aid provide detailed procedures for performing (or checking) portions of this work. materials and allowable Determine that weld inspection and joint efficiency are specified and are consistent with each other. and whether vessel has any internal heads. Determine that Flange Class is consistent with specified design pressure and temperature. The following checklist may be used as a reference for pressure vessel components that are designed to the ASME Code Section VIII. Calculate minimum required design thickness of shell. Determine that MAWP is calculated for design temperature and corroded components. Calculate minimum required design thickness of heads. • • • • • • • • Determine that vessel design conditions. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 133 .

885PL SE − 0. 2:1 semi-ellipitical head.2P 0.2 t SEt 0.1t 2SEt cos α D+1 . Use the appropriate equation for calculation of the required wall thickness for internal pressure.885L + 0.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels • Determine that stresses from local loads applied to nozzles and attachments have been evaluated as needed.6P Pr 2SE1 − 0.885L + 0. torispherical head. spherical shell or head. tp.6 t ) tE1 P (r + 0. in. but is done during detailed engineering. 2t cos α Stress. 2P PD 2SE − 0. psi SE1t r + 0. Identify the geometry of the part under consideration: Cylinder. This determination is typically not part of initial preparation of the Pressure Vessel Design Data Sheet. tp. 1. Work Aid 3A: Required Wall Thickness for Internal Pressure of Pressure Vessel Components The following procedure may be used to evaluate pressure vessel components for internal pressure. P. Pr SE1 − 0. 2t cos α ) 2 tE cos α Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 134 .6P) 2. S. confirm that the vendor at least considered these in his bid (even if actual calculations are not submitted with his bid).1P PD 2 cos α (SE − 0. 2t ) 2tE P (D + 0. Also determine appropriate material allowable stress and weld joint efficiency. psi P (r + 0. from the following: Thickness. Part Cylindrical shell Spherical shell 2:1 Semi -Elliptical head Torispherical head with 6% knuckle Conical Section (α ≤ 30°) Pressure.2 t 2SEt D + 0. conical section. Obtain this information from the Contractor Design Package.1t ) tE P (D + 1 . If loads are known and specified on sheet.2 t ) 2tE P (0.6 t 2SEt r + 0.

DS = Cone inside diameter at small end. kPa (psig). D = Inside diameter. Allowable stress was discussed in MEX 202. DL = Cone inside diameter at large end. kPa (psi). this is the calculated stress for the given pressure and thickness. Add twice the corrosion allowance to specified uncorroded inside diameter. mm (in.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Where: P = Internal deign pressure. r = Internal radius. When used in the thickness calculation equations.). mm (in. mm (in. L = Inside crown radius of torispherical head.). α = One half of the apex angle of the cone at the centerline. Add corrosion allowance to specified uncorroded inside crown radius. degrees. When used in the stress calculation equations. mm. this is the MAWP. mm (in.). Add corrosion allowance to specified uncorroded internal radius. E = Longitudinal weld joint efficiency tp = Required wall thickness for internal pressure of the part under consideration.). (in. Add twice the corrosion allowance to specified uncorroded inside diameter. S = Allowable Stress.5(DL − Ds ) (Cone Length) Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 135 . E1. α = tan−1 0.). When used in the pressure calculation equations. Add twice the corrosion allowance to specified uncorroded inside diameter. this is the allowable stress for the material used.). mm (in.02.

Note that Figure 12 is an example of one of these material charts. = Outside diameter of a cylindrical shell. B Do Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 136 . It may also be used to determine the allowable compressive stress of a cylindrical shell. t = tp + c 4. When checking a Contractor Design Package for acceptability. confirm that the specified component thickness is at least equal to the calculated value.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels 3. See the copy of Section II that is in Course Handout 1. Part D. Note that the lower of "B" or the allowable tensile stress is the allowable compressive stress of cylindrical shells. Include calculated required thickness from Step 3 in appropriate section on Pressure Vessel Design Data Sheet. = A factor determined from the applicable material chart in Subpart 3 of Section II. See the copy of Section II that is in Course Handout 1. Determine the minimum required component thickness. C. and Allowable Compressive Stress of Cylindrical Shell The following procedure may be used to evaluate pressure vessel components for external pressure. mm (in. Work Aid 3B: Required Wall Thickness for External Pressure of Pressure Vessel Components. by adding the specified corrosion allowance. t. Cylindrical or Spherical Shells Under External Pressure Nomenclature A = Factor determined from Figure G in Subpart 3 of Section II. Note that Figure 11 is an excerpt from the appropriate figure. for maximum design metal temperature.). Part D of the ASME Code. kPa (psi). It is used to enter the applicable material chart in Subpart 3 of Section II. to tp that was determined in Step 2. Part D of the ASME Code.

that is used elsewhere. If needed. A stiffening ring that meets Code requirements. mm (in. mm (in. A cone-to-cylinder junction or a knuckle-tocylinder junction of a toriconical head or section.). = The minimum required thickness of a cylindrical shell or tube. A line of support is: (1) A circumferential line on a head at one-third the depth of the head from the head tangent line (excluding conical heads and sections). and 52 kPa (ga)(7. mm (in. mm (in. kPa (psi). Do not confuse this parameter with the weld joint efficiency. or spherical shell. = The outside radius of a spherical shell.).). kPa (psi). This is 103 kPa (15 psi) for full vacuum design.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels E = Young's modulus of elasticity at design temperature for the material. = The nominal thickness of a cylindrical shell or tube. of a tube between tubesheets or the design length of a vessel section between lines of support. = The calculated maximum allowable external working pressure for the assumed value of t.5 psig) for steamout conditions. that satisfies the Code moment of inertia requirements. A jacket closure of a jacketed vessel that meets Code requirements. kPa (psi). E. The required corrosion allowance must be added to this value. Pa Ro t ts Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 137 . = The total length. L (2) (3) (4) P = The external design pressure. obtain from same material chart that was used to determine "B".).

Use interpolation for intermediate temperatures. enter the applicable material chart in Subpart 3 of Section II. go to Step 8. For L/Do less than 0. If A is to the right of the end of the material/temperature line. move horizontally to the right and read the value of Factor B. Using the value of A from Step 4. Use interpolation for intermediate values of Do/t. Move horizontally to the line for the value of Do/t determined in Step 1. Enter Figure G in Subpart 3 of Section II. Part D at the value of L/Do from Step 2. Step 6: From the intersection obtained in Step 5. calculate Pa using the following: Pa = 4B 3(Do / t) 138 Step 3: Step 4: Step 5: Step 7: Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards . use L/Do = 0. assume an intersection with the horizontal projection of the upper end of the material/temperature line. use L/Do = 50.05. Move vertically downward from this intersection point to determine Factor A.05. Using the value of B from Step 6. The selection between the two procedures is based on the ratio Do/t.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Two procedures exist for calculating allowable external pressure for cylindrical shells and tubes. Part D. Move vertically in this chart to the intersection with the correct design temperature line. Cylinders with a Do/t ≥10 are calculated as follows: Step 1: Step 2: Determine L and Do. If A is to the left of the material/temperature line. If L/Do is greater than 50. Assume a value of t and determine the ratios of L/Do and Do/t.

However.167 Pa1 = − 0. calculate A from the following: A= 1 . Step 10: Include the required minimum thickness on the Pressure Vessel Design Data Sheet. plus any corrosion and forming allowances.1 Step 2: Using the value of B from Step 1. for Do/t less than 4. Cylinders with a Do/t < 10 are calculated as follows: Step 1: Use the same procedure as with Do/t > 10 to determine B. If Pa is greater than or equal to P. If stiffening rings are required for this minimum shell thickness. L. The minimum thickness of the cylinder must be at least equal to t. increase t or decrease L and repeat the procedure. reduce the value of t and repeat the procedure to arrive at a Pa that is closer to P. the design is acceptable. must be specified. calculate Pa1. calculate Pa using the following: Pa = 2 AE 3(Do / t) Step 9: Compare Pa with P. use A = 0. If there is an economic incentive.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Step 8: If A is to the left of the material/temperature line.1. this and their maximum permitted spacing. If Pa is less than P. using the following: 2.1 (Do / t)2 For A greater than 0. 0833 B (Do / t) Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 139 . This procedure must be repeated until Pa is greater than or equal to P.

Part D. Interpolate for intermediate temperatures. go to Step 5. enter the applicable material chart in Subpart 3 of Section II. If A is to the right of the end of the temperature line. or 90% of the material yield strength at design temperature.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Step 3: Calculate Pa2 using the following: Pa 2 = 2S Do / t 1 1 − (Do / t) S is the lesser of two times the material allowable stress in tension at design temperature. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 140 . assume an intersection with the horizontal projection of the upper end of the material/temperature line. Move vertically in this chart to the intersection with the correct design temperature line. The procedure from this point is the same as for Do/t > 10. The minimum required thickness for spherical shells under external pressure is determined using the procedure that follows. Step 1: Assume a value for t and calculate the Factor A using the following: A= 0. The yield strength is double the value of B that is obtained from (a). If A is to the left of the temperature line. determine the value of B that corresponds to the right end point of the curve. (b) Step 4: The smaller of Pa1 or Pa2 is compared with P to determine acceptability of the value of t.125 Ro / t Step 2: Using the value of A from Step 1. Yield strength may be obtained from the applicable external pressure chart as follows: (a) For a given temperature curve.

If Pa is less than P.). If there is an economic incentive. increase t and repeat the procedure until Pa is greater than or equal to P. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 141 . reduce the value of t and repeat the procedure to arrive at a Pa that is closer to P. B. Using the value of B from Step 3. Include the required minimum thickness on the Pressure Vessel Design Data Sheet. The minimum thickness of the spherical shell must be at least equal to t. Do = Outside diameter of the head skirt. move horizontally to the right and read the value of Factor B.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Step 3: From the intersection obtained in Step 2. plus any corrosion and forming allowances. Step 7: Heads and Conical Sections Under External Pressure Nomenclature The following is additional nomenclature used in the design of heads and conical sections for external pressure. and Allowable Compressive Stress of Cylindrical Shell. The definitions of A. E and P are the same as for cylindrical and spherical shells. cont'd Step 6: Compare Pa with P. If Pa is greater than or equal to P. calculate Pa using the following: Pa = B Ro / t Step 4: Step 5: If A is to the left of the temperature line.625E (Ro / t)2 Work Aid 3B: Required Wall Thickness for External Pressure of Pressure Vessel Components. the design is acceptable. calculate Pa using the following: Pa = 0. mm (in.

mm (in.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Do/2ho = Ratio of the major to minor axis of elliptical heads. One-half of the apex angle in conical heads and sections. the outside radius. mm (in. The required corrosion and forming allowances must be added to this.1 of the ASME Code. the equivalent outside spherical radius taken as KoDo. mm (in. One-half of the length of the outside minor axis of the elliptical head. mm (in. or the outside height of the elliptical head. mm (in. Outside diameter at the large end of the conical section under consideration. mm (in.). degrees. t cos α.). Ko = Ro Ro Ro t = = = = α = Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 142 . For elliptical heads.).).).). measured from the tangent line (head-bend line).). the outside radius of the crown portion of the head. mm (in. te = = Le = = L Ds DL ho = = = = Effective thickness of a conical section. Outside diameter at the small end of the conical section under consideration.). For torispherical heads.). For hemispherical heads. mm (in. A factor that depends on Do/2ho as determined from Table UG-33. See the copy of the ASME Code in Course Handout 1. mm (in. mm (in. which equals the outside diameter of the head skirt divided by twice the outside height of the head. Equivalent length of a conical section. (L/2)(1+Ds/DL) Axial length of a cone or conical section.). The minimum required thickness of a head after forming.

or with pressure on the convex side. use the same procedure that was previously discussed for spherical shells. The minimum required thickness for heads under external pressure must be the greater of the following thicknesses: • The thickness calculated using the equations for internal pressure. The correct value of Ro is as previously defined. Step 1: Step 2: Determine Ro Assume a value for t and calculate Factor A using the following: A= 0. which are detailed in the following paragraphs. but using a pressure equal to 1. intermediate head is used. is calculated using the procedure that follows. it must be designed for the pressure on each side of it.67 times the external design pressure. The thickness computed using the procedures for the specified head type.125 (Ro / t) Step 3: With the value of A from Step 2. in addition to their more common use as a part of the pressure shell. and may greatly exceed 103 kPa(g)(15 psig). The pressure that acts on the convex side is an external pressure. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 143 . The external pressure that acts on an internal head is based on the process design conditions. When an internal.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Heads may be installed inside a pressure vessel to separate it into compartments. • Minimum Required Thickness for Elliptical Heads The required thickness of an elliptical head under external pressure.

or with pressure on the convex side. From this intersection point. The selection of a procedure is based on the values of α and DL/te. Assume a value for te and determine the ratios Le/DL and DL/te. use the steps that follow: Step 1: Step 2: Determine Le and DL.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Minimum Required Thickness for Torispherical Heads The required thickness of a torispherical head under external pressure. Use temperatures. Part D. move vertically down to determine Factor A. Using A determined chart in Subpart 3 vertically to the line temperature. or with pressure on the convex side. For Le/DL greater than 50. Interpolation may be used. in Step 4. is calculated using the same procedure as for elliptical heads. Minimum Required Thickness for Conical Heads or Sections The required thickness of a conical head or section (without transition knuckles) under external pressure is calculated by the use of one of the following procedures. When α is < 60 ° and for cones having DL/te ≥10. enter the chart at Le/DL = 50. enter the applicable of Section II. is calculated using the same procedure as for a spherical shell. Minimum Required Thickness for Hemispherical Heads The required thickness of a hemispherical head under external pressure. The correct value of Ro is as previously defined. Move horizontally to the line for the value of Do/t equal to the value of DL/Te determined in Step 2. Move that corresponds to the design interpolation for intermediate Step 3: Step 4: Step 5: Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 144 . Part D at a value of L/Do equivalent to the value of Le/DL found in Step 2. Enter Figure G of Subpart 3 of Section II.

then increase t and repeat the procedure. calculate the value of Pa using the following: Pa = 4B 3(DL / t e ) Step 7: Step 8: If A is to the left of the material/temperature line. If Pa is greater than or equal to P. If Pa is less than P. The minimum thickness of the cone must be at least equal to t. the design is acceptable. Using the value of B from Step 6. go to Step 8. assume an intersection with the horizontal projection of the upper end of the material/temperature line. If there is an economic incentive. Step 6: From the intersection obtained in Step 5. reduce the value of t and repeat the procedure to arrive at a Pa that is closer to P. calculate Pa using the following: Pa = 2 AE 3(DL / t e ) Step 9: Compare Pa with P. plus any corrosion and forming allowances. If A is to the left of the temperature line. move horizontally to the right and read the value of Factor B. Repeat this procedure until Pa is greater than or equal to P.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels If A is to the right of the end of the material/temperature line. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 145 . Step 10: Include the required minimum thickness on the Pressure Vessel Design Data Sheet.

Refer to the ASME Code for details. However.167 Pa1 = − 0. Step 5: Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 146 . calculate A using the following: A= 1 . for DL/te less than 4. The procedure from this point is the same as for cones with DL/te > 10.1 Step 2: Using the value of B from Step 1. Use the following procedure for cones having DL/te < 10. 0833 B (DL / te ) Step 3: Calculate Pa2 using the following: Pa 2 = 2S DL / t e 1 1 − (DL / t e ) S is defined identically as for cylinders having Do/t <10. However. Step 4: The smaller of Pa1 or Pa2 is compared with P to determine the acceptability of the value for t. This is also covered by ASME Code procedures.1 (DL / t e )2 If A is greater than 0. use A = 0. calculate Pa using the following: 2. Reinforcement of the cone-to-cylinder junction must be checked as for cones with DL/te > 10.1.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels The cone-to-cylinder junction must also be checked to determine if there is adequate reinforcement. Step 1: Use the same procedure as above to determine B. as previously discussed. cone-to-cylinder junction reinforcement does not influence design of the cone in most circumstances.

the diameter of the head is assumed to be equal to the largest diameter of the cone. Step 1: Step 2: Determine Ro. enter the applicable material chart in Subpart 3 of Section II.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Use the following procedure when α > 60°: The thickness of the cone must be the same as the required thickness of a flat head under external pressure. Part D. Calculate: A= 0. Allowable Compressive Stress of Cylindrical Shells The allowable compressive stress of a cylindrical shell is the lower of the allowable tensile stress that was discussed in MEX 202. This is the maximum allowable compressive stress for the values of t and Ro that were used in Step 1. In this case. Move vertically in this chart to the intersection with the correct design temperature line. If A is to the left of the material/temperature line. or the value of B determined from the following procedure. outside radius of the cylindrical shell. assume an intersection with the horizontal projection of the upper end of the material/temperature line. Use interpolation for intermediate temperatures. in. If A is to the right of the material/temperature line. It is unusual to see a cone with an angle this large. From the intersection that is obtained in Step 3. move horizontally to the right and read the value of factor B. Step 4: Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 147 . go to Step 5. Refer to the ASME Code for the required calculation procedure.02.125 (Ro / t) Step 3: Using the value for A calculated from Step 2.

and assumes that there is no internal nozzle projection. A. The calculated value of B must be greater than the calculated compressive stress. a greater value of t must be selected and the procedure is repeated. or finished dimension (chord length at mid surface of thickness excluding excess thickness available for reinforcement) of nonradial opening in the plane under consideration.2) Where: d = Finished diameter of circular opening. mm2 (in. The following procedure is valid for the most common case where the strengths of the nozzle and reinforcing pad materials are at least equal to that of the shell or head material to which they are attached. calculate B using the following formula: B= AE 2 B is the allowable compressive stress. since this contribution is small.).1 in the ASME Code for nozzle geometry and the general forms of the equations that are used for nozzle reinforcement calculations.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Step 5: If A is to the left of the material/temperature line. 1. The procedure also neglects any reinforcement contribution from weld metal. Calculate the required reinforcement area. Note: Work Aid 3C: Nozzle Reinforcement for Pressure Refer to Figure UG-37. Figure 13 is an excerpt from this figure. Minimum required thickness of the shell using appropriate ASME Code formula and a weld joint 148 tr = Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards . In this procedure. mm (in. the efficiency of butt-welded joints may be taken as one. Step 6: If the value of B that was determined in Steps 4 or 5 is smaller than the computed compressive stress. A = dtrF.

mm (in.5 tn + te) Where: te = te = te = 0 if there is no reinforcing pad. See Figure UG-37 of the ASME Code for integrally reinforced openings in cylindrical shells and cones. mm (in.). Reinforcing pad thickness if one is installed. mm (in. "A" for openings that are subject to external pressure is 50% of that calculated using this equation. Calculate the reinforcement area that is available in the vessel wall. mm (in.).0. mm (in. or (Rn + tn + t) Where: Rn = t Radius of the finished opening in the corroded condition.0. or (2. Nominal thickness of the nozzle in the corroded condition. = Thickness of the vessel in the corroded condition.).). Determine the reinforcement limits measured parallel to the vessel wall as a distance on each side of the axis of the opening equal to the greater of the following: d. as the larger of the following: Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 149 . mm (in.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels efficiency of 1. determine this thickness. 2. F = Use Work Aid 3A to Correction factor normally equal to 1. As defined in Figure UG-40 of the ASME Code for self-reinforced nozzles. A1.5t. tr is the value that is required for external pressure.). Calculate the reinforcement limits measured normal to the vessel wall as the smaller of the following: 2. tn = 3. 4.).

Ftr)d or A1 = 2 (Elt-Ftr)(t + tn) Where: El = 1. El = F = 1 for all cases except integrally reinforced nozzles that are inserted into a shell or cone at an angle to the vessel longitudinal axis. Use Work Aid 3A to determine this thickness.). The ASME Code joint efficiency when any part of the opening passes through any other welded joint. as the smaller of the following: A2 = (tn-trn)5t or A2 = 2(tn-trn)(2. UG-37 for this special case. See Fig.5 tn + te) Where: trn = Required thickness of a seamless nozzle wall. Calculate the reinforcement area that is available in the nozzle wall. mm (in. 5.0 when the opening is in the base plate away from the welds.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels A1 = (Elt . A2. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 150 . or when the opening passes through a circumferential joint in the shell (excluding head to shell joints).

e. 1 1/4 Cr1/2 Mo. the nominal shell thickness. 7. If a reinforcing pad is used. then additional reinforcement is required.(d + 2 tn)]te Where: Dp = Reinforcing pad diameter. Reference the copy of ASME/ANSI B16.5 that is in course Handout 1. in general select te = (t + c). Nozzle is adequately reinforced if: A1 + A2 > A If this relationship is not true. When a reinforcing pad is used. Work Aid 3D: Determine Required Flange Rating Use the following procedure to determine the required flange rating (or Class) in accordance with ASME/ANSI B16. may be calculated from the following: A5 = [Dp . and generic material type and specification (i.). These values are on the Pressure Vessel Design Data Sheet. carbon steel. its area contribution to reinforcement.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels 6.) of the pressure vessel.5. etc. Then determine the required Dp such that: A1 + A2 + A5 > A Dp must not extend beyond the reinforcement limit that is parallel to the shell. Note the design pressure and temperature. mm (in. 1. P T Material = = = _____ kPa (psig) _____°C (°F) _____ Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 151 . A5.

Go to Table 1A of ASME/ANSI B16. determined in Step 3. 600. Go to Table 1 of 32-SAMSS-004 and select the flange material specification corresponding to the "Vessel Service Classification" (Reference Course Handout 2). Note that Figure 16 is an excerpt from this table. If the pressure vessel material does not correspond to a Table 1 selection due to special circumstances. 150.e. 900. 1500. • The intersection of design temperature with Material Group No.5 and determine the Material Group No. Confirm that the flange Class that is specified in the Contractor Design Package is acceptable. for the selected material specification. 300. Note that Figure 17 is an excerpt from this table. See MEX 202. 2500). 4.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels 2. select a flange material specification with matching chemistry to the vessel material. • • 5. Table 2 contains design information for all seven possible flange Classes (i. 3. 400. Go to Table 2 of ASME/ANSI B16. Select the lowest Class whose maximum allowable design pressure is equal to or greater than the required design pressure.02 for additional information on material selection. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 152 .5 with the design temperature and Material Group No. is the maximum allowable design pressure for the flange Class.

) kg-m (in.-lb. Refer to WRC 107 or WRC 297 for vessel or attachment geometries that are not covered by this Work Aid.) kPa (psig) Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 153 . Note the nomenclature and coordinate directions for the applied loads in Figure 29.-lb. 1. Applied Loads Radial Load Shear Load Shear Load Overturning Moment Overturning Moment Torsional Moment Design Pressure P V1 V2 M1 M2 MT P = = = = = = = kg (lb.-lb.) kg-m (in. Confirm that the contractor has used this information in his stress calculations. This should be readily available from the vessel drawing information and other given information. It is based on requirements that are contained in WRC 107.) kg-m (in. and that they must be evaluated for acceptability.) kg (lb. It is assumed that these stresses have been calculated by a contractor or vendor using a computer program such as CODECALC. Determine vessel geometric information and applied loads.) kg (lb.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Work Aid 3E: Evaluating the Stresses Resulting From Nozzle Loads Applied to a Vessel Shell This Work Aid may be used to evaluate the local stresses in a spherical shell that result from loads imposed at a nozzle attachment.

Sphere Thickness Rm.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels V2. Torsional Moment V1. Sphere Mean Radius Figure 29: Nozzle Loads Applied to a Spherical Shell Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 154 . Nozzle Thickness B C P. Radial Load MT. Nozzle Mean Radius t. Moment A to B rm. Shear C to D M2. Moment C to D Nozzle A D Spherical Shell or Head T. Shear A to B M1.

Engineering Encyclopedia

Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels

Geometry Sphere Thickness Sphere Mean Radius Nozzle Thickness Nozzle Mean Radius T Rm t rm = = = = mm (in.) mm (in.) mm (in.) mm (in.)

2.

Determine the allowable stresses for the vessel design temperature and material. The design temperature, material and allowable stress in tension will be available from the vessel drawings and Design Data Sheet • • • • • Design Temperature Sphere Material Allowable stress in tension, S Allowable membrane stress intensity = 1.5S Allowable combined membrane plus bending stress intensity = 3S kPa (psi) kPa (psi) kPa (psi) °C (°F)

3.

Confirm that the computer program used by the contractor or vendor for calculating the vessel shell stresses is based on WRC 107.

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Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels

4.

From the computer program results provided by the contractor or vendor, determine the following stresses: • • Membrane stress in the shell due to internal pressure. Membrane stresses in the shell due to the applied loads. Note that these stresses will typically be reported at four locations around the nozzle as shown in Figure 29, and at both the inner and outer surfaces of the shell. Bending stresses in the shell due to the applied loads. These stresses will be reported at the same locations as the membrane stresses.

•

5.

From the computer program results provided by the contractor, determine the following combined stresses: • • Maximum membrane stress intensity at any point. Maximum membrane plus bending stress intensity at any point.

These combined stress intensities consider both internal pressure and the applied loads. 6. Compare the maximum stress intensities determined in Step 5 with the allowable values determined in Step 2. The design is acceptable if the calculated stress intensities are no greater than their allowable values. If the calculated stress intensities are greater than their allowable values, then additional reinforcement is required.

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Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels

WORK AID 4:

PROCEDURES FOR EVALUATING THE CONTRACTOR-SPECIFIED DESIGN OF PRESSURE VESSEL SUPPORTS

The procedures in this Work Aid may be used to evaluate the design of pressure vessel supports that are specified in a Contractor Design Package.

Work Aid 4A: Vertical Vessel on Column Supports

This procedure may be used for evaluating unbraced column supports of vertical pressure vessels. Refer to Figure 30 in using this procedure. Note that this procedure is only for design of the columns and does not evaluate the stresses in the vessel shell. 1. Determine the total weight of the pressure vessel, attachments, and contents to be included for the case under consideration. This information should be available from the vendor or contractor and shown on the Pressure Vessel Design Data Sheet, or may be calculated using procedures that are contained in PEDP course CSE 110. Wo = WT = We = 2. kg (lb.), for operating conditions kg (lb.), for hydrotest conditions kg (lb.), for empty conditions

Determine the horizontal force, P, at the vessel centroid due to either wind or earthquake for both the design wind velocity (137 km/h [85 MPH]) and hydrotest wind velocity (48 km/h [30 MPH]). This information should be available from the vendor or contractor, or may be calculated using procedures that are contained in PEDP course CSE 110. Po = PT = kg (lb.) during operation kg (lb.) during test

3.

Calculate the moments, Mb and Ma, for both the design case and test case. Mb = P(H + L)

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

157

L.: = Ma = PH ΣI = 2lx + 2ly Figure 30: Vessel on Column Supports Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 158 .) Ma = Moment at the tangent line. x Direction of wind or earthquake P Db y y F x L 3L 4 a C L column a A Section a-a Elevation Moment at base: Mb = P(H + L) Moment at T.) = Distance from bottom tangent line to grade. kg-mm (in. mm (in. kg (lb. mm (in.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Ma = PH Where: H L = Distance from vessel centroid to the bottom tangent line.) Mb = Moment at the base.-lb.L.) D A t P e P2 P1 H T.

mm4 (in. mm2 (in.) I = Moment of inertia of one leg perpendicular to the direction of the wind or earthquake load. Iy. Determine the maximum allowable compressive stress for the column. These may be standard structural members or pipe.4) r = Least radius of gyration of the selected section.5 is a reasonable approximation of the column's behavior. Determine the maximum allowable bending stress. kPa (psi) 6. Make an initial assumption of the number and structural shape to be used for the column supports. Use "r" equal to the least radius of gyration of the column section. mm4 (in. mm (in. a vessel with four column supports as shown in Figure 30 will have: Σ I1 = 2Ix + 2 Iy and I = Ix See Figure 31 for other column orientations.4) For example. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 159 . from Figure 32. N = Number of columns A = Cross sectional area of one column. Note that for most column and base plate attachment details. K1 = 1.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels 4. Fb. 5. Fa. as: Fb = 0.6 Fy Where: Fy = Minimum specified yield stress of the column material. Iz = Moments of inertia of selected column section (See Figure 31).2) Ix.

Calculate the maximum total axial compressive load on the leeward side of each column. kg (lb. channels and rectangular tubing c1 X Fh Y X Y Fh W Z b a c1 Y e a Z Fh W W Y b ≅ e θ Z e Y X Y W e e Z e Fh X Angle legs Y V e X Y c1 e V Fh U c1 U V c1 X Fh U θ V e U Fh X X Fh 45° only Z Fh c1 W W Z fb = M C1 l lw = lx sin2θ + ly cos2θ lz = lx cos2θ + ly sin2θ fb = M lz = r2A lw = lx + ly + lz lv = lw cos2θ + lz sin2θ lu = lw sin2θ + lz cos2θ fb = M C1 l [ b sinθ + a cosθ ly lx ] fb = M C 1 l e MEX 20203.). Beams.F31 Figure 31: Vessel Column Configurations and Moments of Inertia Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 160 .Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels 7.

54 11.60 13.64 16.54 20. Allowable Compression Stress K1l r 21 22 23 24 25 Fa (ksi) 20.08 17.26 18.26 11. .60 19. .12 16.73 19.35 18. K1 End Connection Coefficient (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) 0.40 11.09 13.59 12.69 15.0 1.78 18.41 20.15 20.80 19.90 10.94 19.79 14.90 17.81 11.0 2. .28 20.19 Main and Secondary Members 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 19.0 1. .0 0.72 12.58 15.22 16.24 15.53 16.04 16.86 18.67 14.2 1.07 11.79 15.0 2.81 17.97 13.20 12.33 17. .84 16.36 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 15.24 17.62 17.72 13.85 12.01 15.99 17.17 18. .14 17.32 14.11 19.74 16.35 13.48 13.94 16.35 19.84 13.90 14.44 18.95 18.13 15.80 2.33 12.02 14.20 14.87 19.65 19.47 12.10 Rotation fixed and translation fixed Rotation free and translation fixed Rotation fixed and translation free Rotation free and translation free Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels MEX 20203.08 20.98 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 12.23 13.33 16.43 10.70 18.03 18.27 19.56 14.65 0.01 19. .94 11.13 10.50 19.0 2.57 10.Engineering Encyclopedia Buckled shape of column is shown by dashed line Theoretical K1 value Recommended design value when ideal conditions are approximated End condition code Reprinted by permission of AISC.43 16.90 15.61 18.67 11.43 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 17.35 20.7 1.47 15.28 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Figure 32: Allowable Column Compressive Stress Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 161 .48 20.71 17.85 10.5 0.42 19.71 10. .44 14.F32 Fa.53 18.22 20.53 17. .10 12.

Calculate the eccentric loads at the top of the column. Calculate the lateral force per column. kg (lb. Calculate the maximum total axial uplift load (tensile) on the windward side of each column.). for the operating conditions N ND W T 4MaT + . F= PI ∑ I1 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 162 . for the operating conditions N NDb W e 4Mbo + . kg (lb.). F. for both the design and test cases.). for the empty vessel ND N P1 = P2 = P2 = 10. for the operating conditions N NDb W T 4MbT + . mm (in. 8.). kg (lb.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Co = CT = W o 4Mbo + . for the test conditions N NDb Where: Db = Diameter of circle passing through centroids of columns. for the empty vessel N NDb 9. for the operating conditions ND N 4Mao W e − . for the test conditions N ND 4Mao W o − . To = − Te = − W o 4Mbo + . P1 = W o 4Mao + .

Calculate the individual and combined stresses in the column. Operating Conditions Axial compression stress.3). b. psi Zx Zx Where: Zx = e Section modulus of the column that resists bending. fb: SI Units f a = 9 810 Co .kPa A English Units fa = Co . psi A Bending stress.kPa Zx Zx P e 0. and compare them to the allowable values. 75FL fb = 1 + . = Distance between vessel shell and centroid of the column. fa: SI Units f a = 9 810 CT . fb: SI Units English Units P e 0. fb: SI Units Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 163 . psi A Bending stress.).75FL f b = 9 810 1 + .kPa A English Units fa = CT . mm3 (in.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels 11. mm (in. a. Test conditions Axial compression stress.

Compare the calculated stresses to the allowable values to determine the acceptability of the number and size of the columns selected. Combined compressive stress in the column.kPa Zx Zx NZ x English Units W e 0.75FL P1e f b = 9 810 T + + . • If fa f f ≤ 0. f = fa + fb. 12. then the result is acceptable (but conservative). Proceed to Step 12 if this conservative limit is exceeded. kPa (psi) Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 164 .Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels W e 0. f.15.psi Zx Zx NZ x c. then a + b ≤ 1 Fa F a Fb • If f Cmf b fa > 0. for the higher of either the operating or test conditions.75FL P1e fb = T + + . kPa (psi) If the calculated value of "f" is no greater than the smaller of Fa or Fb that were determined in Steps 5 and 6. then a + ≤1 Fa Fa fa 1− ' F b Fe Where: Cm = 0.15.85 Fe = ' 12 π 2E 2 Kl 23 1 r E = Modulus of elasticity.

as follows: Ms = M .-lb. This information should be available from the vendor or contractor. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 165 . This aspect of column support design is beyond the scope of MEX 202. Ms. kg-mm (in.) 3. Calculate or determine the bending moment at the skirt to vessel shell intersection. kg-mm (in. Determine the total weight of the pressure vessel.hs (V .).-lb. and contents to be included for the case under consideration.). attachments.). for empty conditions Calculate or determine the bending moment at the base of the skirt. or may be calculated using procedures that are contained in PEDP course CSE 110. for operating conditions kg (lb.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Note that Fa. Confirm that the column support design that is specified in the Contractor Design Package is in accordance with the preceding procedure. These attachment details must ensure that the vessel shell is not overstressed due to the locally applied loads. for hydrotest conditions kg (lb. Work Aid 4B: Vertical Vessel on Skirt Support This procedure may be used to determine the required thickness of the skirt for a vertical pressure vessel. Fb and Fe' may be increased by one-third where fa and fb are computed on the basis of wind or seismic loads in combination with dead loads.0.). 14. kg (lb.03. due to wind (from procedures that are contained in CSE 110). M. the attachment details at the vessel shell must be developed. and will often include reinforcing pads or rings. After the columns have been designed.5qzDehs). 1. 13. Wo = WT = We = 2.

Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Where: M = As determined in Step 2. English Units σL = − W 4M ± .) De = Effective diameter of skirt. tsk.) qz = Wind pressure. mm (in. V = qzDehs.-lb.). kg (lb. = Weight of the vessel for the case under consideration. Calculate the longitudinal stress in the skirt at the base.). A good initial assumption would be to choose tsk equal to the vessel shell thickness at the skirt attachment. kg-mm (in. Assume a value of skirt thickness. 4. kPa πDsk t sk π Dsk t sk 5. σL. kg/mm2 (psi) De and qz may be determined using procedures that are contained in CSE 110.) hs = Skirt height.). psi π Dskt sk π D2 sk tsk Where: Dsk = Skirt diameter at the base in the middle of its thickness. the difference between Ms and M will not be large and Ms may be taken as equal to M without being overly conservative.). mm (in. Note that for relatively short skirts and tall towers. kg (lb. M W = Bending moment at the base for the case under consideration. mm (in. mm (in. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 166 . SI Units W 4M σL = 9810 − ± 2 .

80 for Type 2 skirts 9. for the skirt-to-shell weld. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 167 . E. • • Allowable tensile stress determined per Work Aid 2A. 8. For the skirt material.55 for Type 1 skirts E = 0. mm English Units t sk = [(W / πD skv ) + (4Ms / πD2 skv ) ]/ ESal2 . kPa (psi). Use the lower of the two as Sal2. Recalculate tsk as follows: SI Units t sk = 9 810 (W / π Dskv ) + 4Ms / π D2 skv [ ( )]/ ESal2 . Determine the weld joint efficiency. Set a uniform skirt thickness that is equal to the larger of that determined in Steps 7 or 10.).Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels 6. mm (in. Determine the allowable stresses of the skirt and vessel materials at the vessel design temperature. Confirm that σL ≤ Sal1. See Figure 33. Where: Dskv = Skirt diameter at its attachment to the vessel in the middle of its thickness. 11. increase tsk and/or Dsk and recalculate. Sal1. • • E = 0. 10. determine the allowable stress in tension and compression per the ASME Code at ambient temperature. If it is not. Allowable compressive stress determined per Work Aid 3B. in. 7. kPa (psi).

D t D t T.. .. T.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels 12. .L. Dsk (a) Straight (b) Flared Type 2: Skirt lapped to the cylindrical portion of the shell.... ..L.. tsk D t 15°max. ... Confirm that the skirt support design that is specified in the Contractor Design Package is in accordance with the preceding procedure. 2tsk 1. ... Butt weld blends smoothly into head contour tsk Dsk = D tsk 15°max.L. ..75tsk T. Figure 33: Types of Support Skirts and Skirt-to-Head Welds Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 168 .. (a) Straight (b) Flared Type 1: Skirt butted to the knuckle portion of the head Lap weld blends smoothly into shell contour .... .

SAES-A-005 is contained in Course Handout 2. Preparation of Safety Instruction Sheets. Form 2694. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 169 .Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels WORK AID 5: STEPS FOR COMPLETING A SAFETY INSTRUCTION SHEET FOR A PRESSURE VESSEL Use the procedural steps that are contained in SAES-A-005. The key numbers indicated in the procedure are shown on the edited Form 2694 in Figure 34. to complete a Safety Instruction Sheet for Vessels.

Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels Figure 34: Vessel Safety Instruction Sheet Form 2694 With Number Key Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 170 .

design. The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. It can be either a mixture of two types of crystalline structures or a solid solution. Deterioration of a material.5 and that is needed to withstand the design pressure and temperature. at least one of which is a metal. The collapse of a pressure vessel component due to elastic instability that is caused by an external pressure or a compressive stress. Section VIII. The flange class that is determined from ASME/ANSI B16. ANSI rating area replacement method ASME Code buckling contractor corrosion corrosion allowance Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 171 . which exhibits metallic properties. For capital projects.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels GLOSSARY allowable stress alloy The minimum stress permitted by ASME Code design rules for a material at a specified design temperature. Within Saudi Aramco usage. The design approach used by the ASME Code to determine the reinforcement requirements for an opening in a pressure vessel. the contractor is responsible for specifying the requirements for pressure vessels on data sheets in accordance with industry codes and Saudi Aramco requirements. due to its reaction with the environment. usually metal. Corrosion may be caused either by direct chemical attack or by an electrochemical action. An intentional combination of two or more substances. the contractor is the company engaged by Saudi Aramco to provide detailed engineering. It is composed of Divisions 1 and 2. Additional wall thickness that is added to a pressure vessel component to compensate for deterioration during operation. and procurement services for a capital project. is the basic design code that is used for pressure vessels.

A knuckle may be located between two different sections of a pressure vessel (such as at a cone-to-cylinder junction) or within a single component (such as a formed head). design pressure design temperature ductility erosion fatigue strength head hoop stress joint efficiency knuckle Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 172 .Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels creep A condition that occurs at elevated temperature where continuing deformation takes place without any increase in applied load. on the outside. The pressure that is used for the mechanical design of a pressure vessel. Stress at which failure occurs at some definite number of cycles. The component of a pressure vessel which closes the ends. A factor that is used to reduce the assumed strength of a welded joint to account for material or structural discontinuities. or which separates two sections of a pressure vessel on the inside. The destruction of a metal by the abrasive action of a liquid or vapor or of solid particles that are suspended in the operating liquid or vapor. A curved uniform transition between two different geometries in a pressure vessel. Stress acting in a direction that is perpendicular to the axis of revolution of a pressure vessel. The temperature that is used for the mechanical design of a pressure vessel. The ability of a metal to deform in the plastic range without fracturing under stress.

internal pressure will cause a uniform stress to occur in the wall. these gases or liquids include substances of this nature that are stored under pressure or may generate a pressure if stored in a closed vessel. For purposes of the ASME Code. fabrication. longitudinal stress manufacturer maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) mechanics membrane stress membrane theory modulus of elasticity operating pressure Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 173 . and testing in accordance with the data sheets. Within Saudi Aramco usage. such as pressure vessels and heat exchangers. inspection. the manufacturer is the company that supplies equipment items.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels lethal service An application that involves poisonous gases or liquids of such a nature that a very small amount of the gas or of the vapor of the liquid. The manufacturer is responsible for the final design. For thin-walled cylindrical vessels. The maximum gauge pressure that is permissible at the top of a completed vessel. mixed or unmixed with air. The maximum internal or external pressure to which a pressure vessel may be exposed. The study of the response of matter to various force systems. The component of normal stress that is uniformly distributed and that is equal to the average value of stress across the thickness of the section under consideration. to Saudi Aramco. The terms "manufacturer" and "vendor" may be used interchangeably. in its operating position. the applicable industry codes. Stress acting in the direction of the axis of revolution of a pressure vessel. and Saudi Aramco requirements. materials. The ratio of the unit stress to the unit strain for a material. is dangerous to life when inhaled. for a designated temperature.

such as pressure vessels and heat exchangers. the vendor is the company that supplies equipment items. The maximum and minimum normal stresses acting on planes passing through a solid. A method for detecting imperfections in materials by passing X-ray or nuclear radiation through the material and presenting its image on a recording medium. The ratio of the strain in the lateral direction to the strain in the axial direction. and Saudi Aramco requirements. materials. The maximum load per unit of original cross-sectional area that a test specimen of a material can sustain before fracture. A method for detecting imperfections in materials by passing ultrasonic vibrations (normally 1-5 MHz) through the material. Within Saudi Aramco usage. A force per unit area acting on a material. The representation and determination of internal force systems and the deformation of solid bodies subjected to external forces. The vendor is responsible for the final design. The terms "vendor" and "manufacturer" may be used interchangeably. fabrication.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels operating temperature Poisson's ratio principal stresses radiographic examination (RT) solid mechanics The maximum and minimum metal temperature to which a pressure vessel may be exposed. strain stress thermal fatigue ultimate strength ultrasonic examination vendor Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 174 . inspection. the applicable industry codes. The ratio of the elongation of a solid under an applied load to the original length of the solid. and testing in accordance with the data sheets. The development of cyclic thermal gradients producing high cyclic thermal stresses and subsequent local cracking of the material. usually in single tension or compression. to Saudi Aramco.

yield strength Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 175 ./in.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Specifying Design Requirements for Pressure Vessels weld joint efficiency The efficiency of a welded joint that is expressed as a numerical (decimal) quantity.002 in. The ordinate of a material's stress-strain curve at which the material has a permanent deformation of 0. It is used in the design of a joint as a multiplier of the appropriate allowable stress value taken from the appropriate allowable stress table of the ASME Code.

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