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By Rahul Bhatia ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT
The Five Generations of Computers
First generation(1940-1956) Vacuum Tubes
• The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms. They were very expensive to operate and in addition to using a great deal of electricity, generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause of malfunctions. First generation computers relied on machine language, the lowest-level programming language understood by computers, to perform operations, and they could only solve one problem at a time. Input was based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was displayed on printouts. The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first-generation computing devices. The UNIVAC was the first commercial computer delivered to a business client, the U.S. Census Bureau in 1951.
Second Generation (1956-1963) Transistors
• Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers. The transistor was invented in 1947 but did not see widespread use in computers until the late 1950s. The transistor was far superior to the vacuum tube, allowing computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient and more reliable than their first-generation predecessors. Though the transistor still generated a great deal of heat that subjected the computer to damage, it was a vast improvement over the vacuum tube. Second-generation computers still relied on punched cards for input and printouts for output. Second-generation computers moved from cryptic binary machine language to symbolic, or assembly, languages, which allowed programmers to specify instructions in words. High-level programming languages were also being developed at this time, such as early versions of COBOL and FORTRAN. These were also the first computers that stored their instructions in their memory, which moved from a magnetic drum to magnetic core technology. The first computers of this generation were developed for the atomic energy industry.
Third Generation (1964-1975) Integrated Circuits
• The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of computers. Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers. • Instead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system, which allowed the device to run many different applications at one time with a central program that monitored the memory. Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience because they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors.
As these small computers became more powerful. In 1981 IBM introduced its first computer for the home user. as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip. The Intel 4004 chip. which eventually led to the development of the Internet. • • . they could be linked together to form networks. Microprocessors also moved out of the realm of desktop computers and into many areas of life as more and more everyday products began to use microprocessors. and in 1984 Apple introduced the Macintosh. located all the components of the computer—from the central processing unit and memory to input/output controls—on a single chip. What in the first generation filled an entire room could now fit in the palm of the hand.Fourth Generation (1971-1989) Microprocessors • The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers. developed in 1971. the mouse and handheld devices. Fourth generation computers also saw the development of GUIs.
though there are some applications • . . The use of parallel processing and superconductors is helping to make artificial intelligence a reality. Quantum computation and molecular and nanotechnology will radically change the face of computers in years to come. based on artificial intelligence.Fifth Generation (Present and Beyond) Artificial Intelligence • Fifth generation computing devices. The goal of fifth-generation computing is to develop devices that respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self-organization. such as voice recognition. that are being used today. are still in development.
• 3. In logical operation it compares the numerical data as well as alphabetical data. The data and instructions flow along these circuits with high speed that is close to the speed of light. The operations on the data inside the computer are performed through electronic circuits according to the given instructions. In computer terminology it is known as garbage-in garbage-out. It means million cycles units of frequency is hertz per second. Speed The computer is a very high speed electronic device. . Computer can perform million of billion of operations on the data in one second. it performs the addition. The computer generates signals during the operation process therefore the speed of computer is usually measure in mega hertz (MHz) or gega hertz (GHz). If input data is in-correct then the resulting output will be in-correct. In arithmetic operations. multiplication and division on the numeric data. It means that output is totally depended on the given instructions and input data. Different computers have different speed. subtraction. • 2. it gives accurate output result provided that the correct input data and set of instructions are given to the computer. Arithmetical and Logical Operations A computer can perform arithmetical and logical operations. Accuracy In addition to being very fast. computer is also very accurate device.Characteristics of computer • 1.
Retrieving data and programs The data and program stored on the storage media can be retrieved very quickly for further processing. The modern computer can perform very complicated calculations without creating any problem and produces consistent (reliable) results. In general. The stored data and programs are available any time for processing. a large amount of data and programs (set of instructions) can be stored for future use. 6. In secondary storage. Storage A computer has internal storage (memory) as well as external or secondary storage. Reliability The electronic components in modern computer have very low failure rate. Similarly information downloaded from the internet can be saved on the storage media. . Many personal computers have never needed a service call. computers are very reliable.Characteristics of computer • 4. Communications are also very reliable and generally available whenever needed. 5. It is also very important feature of a computer.
Communications Today computer is mostly used to exchange messages or data through computer networks all over the world. It is the most important feature of computer. 8. It executes automatically the program instructions one by one. The talent of computer is dependent on the software. It controls automatically different devices attached with the computer.Characteristics of computer • 7. Versatility Versatile means flexible. the next moment you are composing and sending emails etc. Automation A computer can automatically perform operations without interfering the user during the operations. 9. It is most important feature of the modern information technology. For example the information can be received or send throug the internet with the help of computer. At one moment your are playing game on computer. In colleges and universities computers are use to deliver lectures to the students. Modern computer can perform different kind of tasks one by one of simultaneously. .
It has no feelings. It does not get tired while working after hours of work it performs the operations with the same accuracy as well as speed as the first one. . Diligence A computer can continually work for hours without creating any error.Characteristics of computer • 10. Based on our feelings. knowledge and experience: we can make certain decisions and judgments in our daily life. computer can not make such judgments on their own. No Feelings Computer is an electronic machine. On the other hand. Their judgments are totally based on instructions given to them. • 11. taste. It detects objects on the basis of instructions given to it.
To deliver a lecture through computer in a class room etc. you can keep the accuracy and precision upto the level. To play multimedia animations for training purposes.Characteristics of computer • 12. Consistency • • • People often have difficulty to repeat their instructions again and again. a lecturer feels difficulty to repeat a same lecture in a class room again and again. For example. you desire. . The length calculations remain always accurate. Computer can repeat actions consistently (again and again) without loosing its concentration: To run a spell checker (built into a word processor) for checking spellings in a document. A computer will carry out the activity with the same way every time. For example. Precision Computers are not only fast and consistent but they also perform operations very accurately and precisely. You can listen a lecture or perform any action again and again. • 13. in manual calculations and rounding fractional values (That is value with decimal point can change the actual result). In computer however.
. • Dynamic RAM: Refreshed periodically. 3 to 4 transistors are required to form one memory cell.Random access memory • Static RAM: No refreshing. Information is stored as a charge in the gate to substrate capacitance. 6 to 8 MOS transistors are required to form one memory cell. Information stored as voltage level in a flip flop.
• These types of memories are frequently seen in video game consoles. implantable medical devices. high-definition multimedia interfaces (HDMI) and in many other consumer and automotive electronics products UVEPROM (ultra voilet erasable programmable ROM) . The key difference from a strict ROM is that the programming is applied after the device is constructed. Such PROMs are used to store programs permanently. radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags.Read only memory Programmable ROM • A programmable read-only memory (PROM) or field programmable read-only memory (FPROM) or onetime programmable non-volatile memory (OTP NVM) is a form of digital memory where the setting of each bit is locked by a fuse or antifuse. mobile phones.
" "double-e prom" or simply "e-squared") stands for Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory and is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices to store small amounts of data that must be saved when power is removed.Read only memory • Electronically Erasable and Programmable ROM • EEPROM (also written E2PROM and pronounced "e-eprom. e. • . When larger amounts of static data are to be stored (such as in USB flash drives) a specific type of EEPROM such as flash memory is more economical than traditional EEPROM devices..g. calibration tables or device configuration. EEPROMs are realized as arrays of floating-gate transistors.
an EEPROM chip has to be erased and reprogrammed in its entirety. However. In an EEPROM that is frequently reprogrammed while the computer is in use. It also has a limited life . the life of the EEPROM can be an important design consideration.that is. EEPROMs do not need to be removed from the computer to be modified.• EEPROM is user-modifiable read-only memory (ROM) that can be erased and reprogrammed (written to) repeatedly through the application of higher than normal electrical voltage generated externally or internally in the case of modern EEPROMs. not selectively. Unlike EPROM chips. • Flash memory . the number of times it can be reprogrammed is limited to tens or hundreds of thousands of times.
Local area network .
or a home. Specialized operating system software may be used to configure a local area network. a school. Most local area networks are built with relatively inexpensive hardware such as Ethernet cables. games or other applications. and hubs. A LAN in turn often connects to other LANs. Wireless LAN and other more advanced LAN hardware options also exist. printers. most flavors of Microsoft Windows provide a software package called Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) that supports controlled access to LAN resources. and to the Internet or other WAN. For example. network adapters. A LAN is useful for sharing resources like files. .Local area network Definition: A local area network (LAN) supplies networking capability to a group of computers in close proximity to each other such as in an office building.
Local area network • A large PC or a minicomputer serves as the HUB of the LAN • A high capacity hard disk attached to the HUB.serves as a file server • PC’s stationed in the various offices are attached to the network through communication cards and by cable running from the card to the network cable .
Workstations do not necessarily need their own hard disk or CD-ROM drives which make them cheaper to buy than stand-alone PCs. all the users are affected. One copy of each application package such as a word processor. Networks are difficult to set up and need to be maintained by skilled technicians. Disadvantages of connecting computers in a LAN Special security measures are needed to stop users from using programs and data that they should not have access to. . User can save their work centrally on the network’s file server. When a new version comes out. This is cheaper than buying a printer for every workstations. it only has to be loaded onto the server instead of onto every workstation. Users can communicate with each other and transfer data between workstations very easily.Advantages of LAN • • • • • Workstations can share peripheral devices like printers. rather than just one user in the case of a stand-alone machine. This means that they can retrieve their work from any workstation on the network. spreadsheet etc. can be loaded onto the file and shared by all users. If the file server develops a serious fault. They don’t need to go back to the same workstation all the time.
• As was the case with most other high-speed buses. Each end of the cable had a 50 ohm (Ω) resistor attached. thin Ethernet. In a 10BASE2 network. or if there was a break in the cable. thinnet. Typically this resistor was built into a male BNC and attached to the last device on the bus. This reflected signal was indistinguishable from a collision. terminated with BNC connectors. each segment of cable is connected to the transceiver (which is usually built into the network adaptor) using a BNC T-connector. A few devices such as Digital's DEMPR and DESPR had a built-in terminator and so could only be used at one physical end of the cable run. as opposed to the thicker cable used in 10BASE5 networks). The maximum practical number of nodes that can be connected to a 10BASE2 segment is limited to 30. when it reached the end. rather than dissipated. with one segment connected to each female connector of the T. and thinwire) is a variant of Ethernet that uses thin coaxial cable or similar. Ethernet segments had to be terminated with a resistor at each end. Network design • 10BASE2 coax cables had a maximum length of 185 meters (607 ft). . During the mid to late 1980s this was the dominant 10 Mbit/s Ethernet standard. This is most commonly connected directly to the T-connector on a workstation though it does not technically have to be. the AC signal on the bus was reflected. If termination was missing.10BASE2 • 10BASE2 (also known as cheapernet. and so no communication would be able to take place.
and integrated LAN controllers on motherboards don't have the connector. which can be sourced from the nearest computer.Comparisons to 10BASE-T • 10BASE2 networks cannot generally be extended without breaking service temporarily for existing users and the presence of many joints in the cable also makes them very vulnerable to accidental or malicious disruption. and wiring can be particularly easy since only a single wire run is needed. possibly due to a lack of standardization. • . so the hardware cost is very low. it is becoming very difficult to find 10BASE2-compatible network cards as distinct pieces of equipment. by the time multiple home computer networks became common. perhaps in a home where easily concealed wiring may be an advantage. the format had already been practically superseded. These characteristics mean that 10BASE2 is ideal for a small network of two or three machines. They do not need the 10BASE-T hub. 10BASE2 systems do have a number of advantages over 10BASE-T. There were proprietary wallport/cable systems that claimed to avoid these problems (e. For a larger complex office network the difficulties of tracing poor connections make it impractical. As a matter of fact. SaferTap) but these never became widespread. although the underlying logic may still be present.g. Unfortunately for 10BASE2.
BNC connector .
baseband. breaks in cable difficult to locate) • Speed – 10 MBPS.5 m • Up to 30 attached nodes • Cable flexible and cheap • Integrated or external transceiver connected via a BNC 'T' connector • Used mainly for workgroups • Difficult to manage (i.3a) A summary of the properties of this type of cabling is given below: • Segment length < 185m and > 0.e.Thin Ethernet (10B2 / IEEE 802. twisted pair .
and the popularity of 802. the low cost of Category 5 Ethernet cable.10BASE5 • • 10BASE5 (also known as thick ethernet or thicknet) is the original "full spec" variant of Ethernet cable. .11 wireless networks. Both 10BASE2 and 10BASE5 have become obsolete. 10BASE5 has been superseded due to the immense demand for high speed networking. using cable similar to RG-8/U coaxial cable but with extra braided sheiding.
rather than dissipated when it reaches the end. this ensures that the reflections from multiple taps are not in phase. These suitable points are marked on the cable with black bands. or if there is a break in the cable.5-metre intervals.600 ft). This distance was chosen to not correspond to the wavelength of the signal. Transceivers may be installed only at precise 2. If termination is missing. Network design • 10BASE5 coax cables had a maximum length of 500 meters (1. each end of the cable has a 50 ohm (Ω) resistor attached. • • . and the 5 stands for the maximum segment length of 500 metres (1. T-connections are not allowed. The cable must be one linear run. installation kits include a "coring tool" to drill through the outer layers and a "braid pick" to clear stray pieces of the outer shield.640 ft). Care must be taken to keep the outer shield from touching the spike. As is the case with most other high-speed buses. Transceivers can be connected to cable segments with N connectors. the AC signal on the bus is reflected. For coaxial-cable-based Ethernet. This reflected signal is indistinguishable from a collision. Typically this resistor is built into a male N connector and attached to the end of the cable just past the last device. The 10 refers to its transmission speed of 10 Mbit/s.Name origination • The name 10BASE5 is derived from several characteristics of the physical medium. and so no communication is possible. The BASE is short for baseband signalling as opposed to broadband. A vampire tap clamps onto the cable. segments must be terminated with a resistor at each end. forcing a spike to pierce through the outer shielding to contact the inner conductor while other spikes bite into the outer braided shield. The maximum number of nodes that can be connected to a 10BASE5 segment is 100. or via a vampire tap. which allows new nodes to be added while existing connections are live.
AUI cable .
a network in which the Ethernet protocol provides the data link layer. Other Ethernet cable standards use coaxial cable or optical fiber. These three standards all use the same connectors. so that in most cases different generations of equipment can be freely mixed. The number refers to the theoretical maximum transmission speed in megabits per second (Mbit/s). respectively. • . and 1000BASE-T. They use 8 position modular connectors. The T designates twisted pair cable. 100 Mbit/s. where the pair of wires for each signal is twisted together to reduce radio frequency interference and crosstalk between pairs (FEXT and NEXT). they all operate over distances of up to 100 meters. The common names for the standards derive from aspects of the physical media. usually called RJ45 in the context of Ethernet over twisted pair. According to the standards. 100BASE-TX. running at 10 Mbit/s (also Mbps or Mbs-1). Where there are several standards for the same transmission speed. they are distinguished by a letter or digit following the T. There are several different standards for this copper-based physical medium. meaning that there is no frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) or other frequency shifting modulation in use.10 base T (Ethernet over twisted pair) • Ethernet over twisted pair refers to the use of cables that contain insulated copper wires twisted together in pairs for the physical layer of an Ethernet network—that is. each signal has full control of wire. Each of the three standards support both full-duplex and half-duplex communication. such as TX. The BASE is short for baseband. on a single frequency. The most widely used are 10BASE-T. and 1000 Mbit/s (1 Gbit/s). Higher speed implementations nearly always support the lower speeds as well. The cables usually used are four-pair twisted pair cable (though 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX only actually require two of the pairs).
Bits And Bytes Conversion Tables Unit Equals 1 Bit 8 Bits 1024 Bytes 1024 Kilobytes 1024 Megabytes 1024 Gigabytes 1024 Terabytes 1024 Petabytes 1024 Exabytes 1024 Zettabytes 1024 Yottabytes Binary Digit 1 Byte 1 Kilobyte 1 Megabyte 1 Gigabyte 1 Terabyte 1 Petabyte 1 Exabyte 1 Zettabyte 1 Yottabyte 1 Brontobyte .
Network topologies .
10 BASE 2 – BUS TOPOLOGY .
bus networks work best with a limited number of devices. \ 3. Bus networks use a common backbone to connect all devices. However. the backbone functions as a shared communication medium that devices attach or tap into with an interface connector. performance problems will likely result. . A single cable. Ethernet bus topologies are relatively easy to install and don't require much cabling compared to the alternatives. but only the intended recipient actually accepts and processes the message. 10Base-2 ("ThinNet") and 10Base-5 ("ThickNet") both were popular Ethernet cabling options many years ago for bus topologies. if the backbone cable fails.BUS TOPOLOGY 1. the entire network effectively becomes unusable. 4. A device wanting to communicate with another device on the network sends a broadcast message onto the wire that all other devices see. 2. If more than a few dozen computers are added to a network bus. In addition.
The cable length is limited. 2. It is easy to handle and implement. 3. 2. It is best suited for small networks. Reconfiguration with repeaters is difficult. Fault diagnosing is difficult.Advantages of Bus Topology 1. Resilient architecture. 3. 4. This network topology can perform well only for a limited number of nodes. This limits the number of stations that can be connected.inherent simplicity Disadvantages of Bus Topology 1. Short cable length compared to star topology 4. .
every device has exactly two neighbors for communication purposes. All messages travel through a ring in the same direction (either "clockwise" or "counterclockwise"). Ring topologies are found in some office buildings or school campuses. or Token Ring technology.Ring topology In a ring network. one typically uses FDDI. A failure in any cable or device breaks the loop and can take down the entire network. . SONET. To implement a ring network.
Each packet is sent around the ring until it reaches its final destination. . Today.RING TOPOLOGY • Also known as a ring network. the ring topology is seldom used. the ring topology is a type of computer network configuration where each network computer and device are connected to each other forming a large circle (or similar shape).
To use the network. In the example above. this is a data frame which to all intents and purposes is an empty vessel for transporting data. realizes it is not its own. but Token Ring also has a built in management and recovery system which makes it very fault tolerant. • • • • • • . realizes that it is not its own and so forwards it on to the next machine in the ring. so it first has to capture the free Token. so passes it on to machine 3. a free Token is circulating on the ring. The receipt is then sent to machine 5 who checks the address. This time it is the correct address and so number 4 reads the message (represented by the yellow flashing screen).Token ring • • At the start. a machine first has to capture the free Token and replace the data with its own message. it must first send the message back to number 1 with an acknowledgement to say that it has received the data (represented by the purple flashing screen). reads the acknowledgement from number 4 (represented by the purple flashing screen) and then releases the free Token back on to the ring ready for the next machine to use. That's the basics of Token Ring and it shows how data is sent. however. Machine 1 recognizes the address. release a free Token on to the ring. Machine 6 does the same and forwards the data to number 1. It then writes its data and the recipient's address onto the Token (represented by the yellow flashing screen). received and acknowledged. Machine 3 does the same and passes the Token on to machine 4. number 6. Below is a brief outline of Token Ring's self maintenance system. It cannot. machine 1 wants to send some data to machine 4. The packet of data is then sent to machine 2 who reads the address. who sent the original message.
if it passes. Each machine knows the address of its Nearest Active Upstream Neighbour. Ring purges reset the ring after an interruption or loss of data is reported. If a problem occurs anywhere on the ring. The ring polling allows all machines on the network to find out who is participating in the ring and to learn the address of their Nearest Active Upstream Neighbour (NAUN). and to re-establish the ring after a break or an error has occurred. and all other machines become 'Standby Monitors'. This is won by the machine with the highest MAC address who is participating in the contention procedure. The Active Monitor performs Ring Polling every seven seconds and ring purges when there appears to be a problem. it sends a voltage to the hub which operates a relay to insert it into the ring. If this situation continues for a short period of time it initiates a recovery procedure which assumes that its NAUN is at fault.Token Ring Self Maintenance • • When a Token Ring network starts up. • • • . the machine that is immediately after the fault will cease to receive signals. The job of the Active Monitor is to make sure that none of the machines are causing problems on the network. or become the 'Active Monitor' to give it its proper title. This is an important function in a Token Ring as it updates the information required to re-establish itself when machines enter or leave the ring. When a machine enters the ring it performs a lobe test to verify that its own connection is working properly. the outcome of this procedure either removes its neighbour from the ring or it removes itself. the machines all take part in a negotiation to decide who will control the ring.
) . a star network generally requires more cable. to the bus topology. A star network features a central connection point called a "hub" that may be a hub. (If the hub fails. switch or router. Devices typically connect to the hub with Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Ethernet. the entire network also fails.Star topology 10BASE T (ethernet over twisted cable) Many home networks use the star topology. but a failure in any star network cable will only take down one computer's network access and not the entire LAN. however.
COMPLEXITY-very complex PERFORMANCE-is a direct function of capacity of the central node VULNERABILITY-extremely vulnerable if the switch malfunctions EXPANDIBILITY-severely restricted if all the ports are occupied .STAR topology • • • • • APPLICATION-best way to integrate data transfer among several terminals.
2. the failure of the central hub leads to the failure of the entire network. there are no collisions between 2 systems. The network operation depends on the functioning of the central hub. the topology offers simplicity of operation. Difficult to expand under circumstances of congestion. Extremely expensive. Due to its centralized nature. 4. . Lot of heat is generated when all the wires run through wiring hubs.Advantages of Star Topology 1. 4. Dedicated connection at the point of time when data transfer wants to take place Disadvantage of Star Topology 1. Hence. theoretically. It also achieves an isolation of each device in the network. 5. 3. 2. 3. No contention for access. Very long cable lengths.
A co-axial cable .
Maximum length-500 meters Maximum length-182 meters Maximum length-100 metres .
LAN switch .
8 port switch 16 port switch .
UTP.unshielded twisted pair .
Brief history of internet The Internet was the result of some visionary thinking by people in the early 1960s who saw great potential value in allowing computers to share information on research and development in scientific and military fields. and moved over to the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in late 1962 to head the work to develop it. It showed the feasibility of wide area networking. Kleinrock's packet switching theory was confirmed.C. first proposed a global network of computers in 1962. which was to form the basis of Internet connections. Lawrence Roberts of MIT connected a Massachusetts computer with a California computer in 1965 over dial-up telephone lines. Roberts moved over to DARPA in 1966 and developed his plan for ARPANET. J. .R. Leonard Kleinrock of MIT and later UCLA developed the theory of packet switching. These visionaries and many more left unnamed here are the real founders of the Internet. but also showed that the telephone line's circuit switching was inadequate. Licklider of MIT.
Mitre. and Systems Development Corp (SDC) in Santa Monica. In months to come. MIT. UCSB. Burroughs. and the U of Illinois plugged in.The Internet. was brought online in 1969 under a contract let by the renamed Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) which initially connected four major computers at universities in the southwestern US (UCLA. . Stanford Research Institute. BBN. RAND. By June 1970. After that. then known as ARPANET. Stanford. By January 1971. and Case-Western Reserve U were added. and the University of Utah). NASA/Ames. Cal. MA under Bob Kahn and went online in December 1969. Carnegie-Mellon. Harvard. The contract was carried out by BBN of Cambridge. MIT's Lincoln Labs. there were far too many to keep listing here. were added.
and librarians. There was nothing friendly about it. and anyone who used it. The early Internet was used by computer experts.The Internet was designed in part to provide a communications network that would work even if some of the sites were destroyed by nuclear attack. . If the most direct route was not available. engineers. routers would direct traffic around the network via alternate routes. scientists. There were no home or office personal computers in those days. had to learn to use a very complex system. whether a computer professional or an engineer or scientist or librarian.
joined with Ohio to form a national.) led networking of Ohio libraries during the '60s and '70s.html . Automated catalogs. Inc. was published as a Request for Comments (RFC) in 1972. and from then on RFC's were available electronically to anyone who had use of the ftp protocol. not very user-friendly at first. • Libraries began automating and networking their catalogs in the late 1960s independent from ARPA. later international. was published as an RFC in 1973. the Southwest states. He picked the @ symbol from the available symbols on his teletype to link the username and address.• E-mail was adapted for ARPANET by Ray Tomlinson of BBN in 1972. The telnet protocol.walthowe. first through telnet or the awkward IBM variant TN3270 and only many years later. See The History of OCLC • http://www. The visionary Frederick G. RFC's are a means of sharing developmental work throughout community.com/navnet/history. enabling file transfers between Internet sites. network. The ftp protocol. In the mid 1970s more regional consortia from New England.. through the web. and the Middle Atlantic states. Kilgour of the Ohio College Library Center (now OCLC. etc. became available to the world. enabling logging on to a remote computer.
Internet network map .
A Router accepts packets on at least two network interfaces. For instance. It understands one or more network protocols. a router might have one Ethernet port and one ISDN port. such as IP or IPX.frequently over large distances. . Router's may be programmed to filter out some packets.• A Router is a device that connects two networks . • Router's often use different media on each interface. and forwards packets from one interface to another. and to dynamically change the route by which packets are routed.
each with defined sets of rules to use with corresponding programs elsewhere on the Internet • There are many other Internet protocols. . which uses a set of rules to send and receive messages at the Internet address level • Additional protocols that include the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and File Transfer Protocol (FTP). consisting of: • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). such as the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) and the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). describing its contents) is the special set of rules that end points in a telecommunication connection use when they communicate. which uses a set of rules to exchange messages with other Internet points at the information packet level • Internet Protocol (IP). a protocol (from the Greek protocollon. there are one or more protocols at each layer in the telecommunication exchange that both ends of the exchange must recognize and observe. there are protocols for the data interchange at the hardware device level and protocols for data interchange at the application program level. For example. Protocols are often described in an industry or international standard.• In information technology. which was a leaf of paper glued to a manuscript volume. there are the TCP/IP protocols. In the standard model known as Open Systems Interconnection (OSI). Protocols exist at several levels in a telecommunication connection. On the Internet.
How does the internet work .
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