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Signals and Systems Coursework

# Signals and Systems Coursework

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Signals and Systems Coursework
Signals and Systems Coursework

Published by: Gabriela Maciel on Jul 02, 2013

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# Signals and Systems Coursework

Simulating and Analyzing a Low Pass Filter

................. System Frequency Response: Part 5 . Part 6 .................................................... Part 7 ................... Part 1 ...................................................................................... 2..................................... 3................................................................................................................................. ................. Part 4 .......... References ………………………………………………………………................................ Assignment Description: Introduction .Table of Contents: Page: 1................................ System Step Response: Part 2 ...................................................................... 4................................................................................................................................................ Part 3 .............................................................

Fortunately. a Capacitor (C = 1 farad) and an Inductor (L = 1 henry). The input x(t) is the source voltage and the output y(t) is the voltage across the capacitor. these three voltages must add up to x(t) so that: Ri(t) + L + = x(t) (1) Assuming that R. i(t) and q(t). The circuit that will be analyzed is below. both theoretically and via simulation. analyzing and explaining each of the results. the goal of each student is to solve each of the questions below. there is a relationship between them: i(t) = = C y’(t) (2) . respectively are Ri(t). C and x(t) are known. Assignment Description Introduction: This assignment’s aim is to understand the functioning of a second order electrical circuit.I. Land C. Part 1: Consider i(t) is the current flowing at time t in the circuit and q(t) is the charge on the capacitor. Using kirchhoff’s law that says that the voltage between any two points has to be independent of the path used to travel between the two points. L. Fig 1: RLC circuit. then the voltage across R. this is still one differential equation with two unknowns. L and y(t)= . Using mathematical skills and Matlab software (along with the tool Simulink). The circuit consists of a Resistor (R = 1 ohm). analyzing the filtering and frequency response properties of the same.

it is possible to identify the time constant as: (8) Like L and R equal 1. From equation 6. as follows: ( ) (5) Isolating Y(s). we can find the transfer function of the circuit and then the time constant and time period. using Laplace Transform. we have that : (9) .Subbing (2) into (1) gives : LC y’’(t) + RC y’(t)+ y(t) = x(t) That is the equation that we need. From equation number 3. From equation 7. II. we have the following values of s: √( ) (3) (7) and . System Step Response Part 2: All the information contained in an LTI ODE is contained in the CT impulse response signal h(t): (4) h(t) represents the impulse (unforced) solution to the ODE. it is possible to find: (6) that is the transfer function. Also from 7.

we have the following result: Fig 2: Simulink model. we should set all derivatives in the ODE equals to zero.e.So. .. (11) The gain can then be calculated as: Part 4: Entering the system as a transfer function in Simulink. i. substituting √ for 2πf: (10) √ Part 3: To find the state gain.

Part 5: System Frequency Response i) { { } { } } { { } } { } ( ) (12) ii) .Fig 3: System response.

32 -π/2 -2.  | ( | | ) |=| ( | | | √ = (13) ( ) (14) ( 0 -0.04 1 0. title('magnitude'). >> X = 1/(-s^2 + i*s + 1). >> figure. >> logX=log(X).55 0. ezplot(abs(X). Fig 4: Magnitude sketch.28 0. the following MatLab code: >> syms s . 1 1. title('phase'). . >> figure.10 ) ) ω 0 0.ezplot((logX-conj(logX))/2i.3 1 2 10 Table 1: Magnitude and Phase. [-100 100]).01 To sketch the magnitude and phase graphs.[-100 100]).

since the magnitude of the output reduces as the frequency values increases The Pass Band of the circuit can be calculated using the following equation: Part 6: .phase 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 s 20 40 60 80 100 Fig 5: Phase sketch iii) Looking at the graphs above. we can see that this circuit works like a low pass filter.

: phase difference = 1.Fig 6: Simulink model. mag = 1.3t) . I.05 Fig 7: Input = sin(0.1s .

: phase difference = 2π .03 .6s . mag = 1 Fig 8: Input = sin(t) III. : phase difference = 1.II. mag = 0.

. mag = 1 Fig 10: Simulink model.5 s. Fig 11: Input = . IV.Fig 9: Input = sin(10t). : phase diff = 1.

we have the new transfer function: = .pdf .ubc.lx.iam. and changing C to 4.ca/~sospedra/03-RLC.Part 7: We can find the new circuit characteristics from the following steps: √ (16) ( ) =( ) Keeping R and L equal 1.it.pt/~lbalmeida/sinaisesistemas/respostas%20no%20tempo. (17) The new cut-off frequency can be represented in the graph bellow: Conclusion: www.pdf http://www.

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