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Stress Analysis & Pressure Vessels

Lent Term 2005

**Dr. Clemens Kaminski
**

Telephone: +44 1223 763135

E-mail: clemens_kaminski@cheng.cam.ac.uk URL: http://www.cheng.cam.ac.uk/research/groups/laser/

**Synopsis 1 Introduction to Pressure Vessels and Failure Modes
**

1.1 1.2 1.3 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Stresses in Cylinders and Spheres Compressive failure. Euler buckling. Vacuum vessels Tensile failure. Stress Stress Concentration & Cracking

2

3-D stress and strain

Elasticity and Strains-Young's Modulus and Poisson's Ratio Bulk and Shear Moduli Hoop, Longitudinal and Volumetric Strains Strain Energy. Overfilling of Pressure Vessels Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Thermal Effect in cylindrical Pressure Vessels Two-Material Structures

3

Thermal Effects

3.1 3.2 3.3 4.1 4.2 4.3

4

Torsion.

Shear Stresses in Shafts - τ/r = T/J = Gθ/L Thin Walled Shafts Thin Walled Pressure Vessel subject to Torque

5

**Two Dimensional Stress Analysis
**

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 6.1 6.2

Nomenclature and Sign Convention for Stresses Mohr's Circle for Stresses Worked Examples Application of Mohr's Circle to Three Dimensional Systems Tresca's Criterion. The Stress Hexagon Von Mises' Failure Criterion. The Stress Ellipse

6

Bulk Failure Criteria

7

**Two Dimensional Strain Analysis
**

7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4

Direct and Shear Strains Mohr's Circle for Strains Measurement of Strain - Strain Gauges Hooke’s Law for Shear Stresses

Supporting Materials

There is one Examples paper supporting these lectures. Two good textbooks for further explanation, worked examples and exercises are Mechanics of Materials (1997) Gere & Timoshenko, publ. ITP [ISBN 0-534-93429-3] Mechanics of Solids (1989) Fenner, publ. Blackwell [ISBN 0-632-02018-0] This material was taught in the CET I (Old Regulations) Structures lecture unit and was examined in CET I (OR) Paper IV Section 1. There are consequently a large number of old Tripos questions in existence, which are of the appropriate standard. From 1999 onwards the course was taught in CET1, paper 5. Chapters 7 and 8 in Gere and Timoshenko contain a large number of example problems and questions.

Nomenclature

The following symbols will be used as consistently as possible in the lectures. E G I J R t T

α ε γ η ν σ τ

**Young’s modulus Shear modulus second moment of area polar moment of area radius thickness
**

τορθυε

thermal expansivity linear strain shear strain angle Poisson’s ratio Normal stress Shear stress

A pressure vessel near you! .

Ongoing Example We shall refer back to this example of a typical pressure vessel on several occasions. Distillation column 2m P = 7 bara carbon steel t = 5 mm 18 m .

It is thus important to be able to be able to understand and quantify (resolve) stresses in solids. distillation columns) Such vessels fail when the stress state somewhere in the wall material exceeds some failure criterion.g.g.g. liquid storage tanks) • cylindrical shells with hemispherical ends (e. Stresses in Cylinders and Spheres Consider a cylindrical pressure vessel L External diameter D internal gauge pressure P r L h wall thickness. This unit will concentrate on the application of stress analysis to bulk failure in thin walled vessels only. t The hydrostatic pressure causes stresses in three dimensions. Longitudinal stress (axial) σL 2. 1. Radial stress σr 3. where (i) the vessel self weight can be neglected and (ii) the thickness of the material is much smaller than the dimensions of the vessel (D » t). 1. Hoop stress σh all are normal stresses. SAPV LT 2005 CFK.1. Introduction to Pressure Vessels and Failure Modes Pressure vessels are very often • spherical (e. LPG storage tanks) • cylindrical (e. MRM 1 .1.

σ r σ r L h L σ h a. The hoop stress σh P PD 4t σ h σ P h P Force balance. then σ L is tensile σL = b. D L P = 2 σ h L t σh = SAPV LT 2005 CFK. MRM 2 PD 2t . The longitudinal stress σL P σ L Force equilibrium π D2 P = π D t σL 4 if P > 0.

so D >> t so σ h . 2t thin walled. Radial stress σ σ r r varies from P on inner surface to 0 on the outer face σr ≈ o ( P ) σh . σ L >> σ r so neglect σ r Compare terms D d.c. MRM 3 . σL ≈ P ( ). The spherical pressure vessel P σ h P π D2 P = σh π D t 4 PD σh = 4t SAPV LT 2005 CFK.

Bulk failure will occur when the normal compressive stress exceeds a yield criterion. W σ bulk = W = σY πDt Compressive stresses can cause failure due to buckling (bending instability).g. Compressive Failure: – Bulk Yielding & Buckling – Vacuum Vessels Consider an unpressurised cylindrical column subjected to a single load W. I = πR3t so the compressive stress required to cause buckling is σ buckle or W π 2 EπD3t 1 π 2 ED 2 = = ⋅ = 2 πDt 8L πDt 8 L2 σ buckle π2 E = 2 8( L D) 4 SAPV LT 2005 CFK. MRM .2. A full explanation is given in the texts. The critical load for the onset of buckling is given by Euler's analysis. e. and the basic results are summarised in the Structures Tables. A column or strut of length L supported at one end will buckle if π 2 EI W= 2 L Consider a cylindrical column.1.

MRM 5 . The mode of failure thus depends on the geometry: σ stress Euler buckling locus σ y Bulk yield Short L /D ratio Long SAPV LT 2005 CFK.where L/D is a slenderness ratio.

σh = ∆P D L 2 If this force is large enough it will cause buckling.Vacuum vessels. Cylindrical pressure vessels subject to external pressure are subject to compressive hoop stresses ∆PD 2t Consider a length L of vessel . σh L t = length Treat the vessel as an encastered beam of length πD and breadth L SAPV LT 2005 CFK. the compressive hoop force is given by. MRM 6 .

MRM 7 .Buckling occurs when Force W given by. 4π 2 EI W= (π D) 2 b t3 L t3 = 12 12 ∆P D L 4π 2 EI = 2 (π D )2 ∆p buckle 2E ⎛ t ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 3 ⎝D⎠ 3 I= = SAPV LT 2005 CFK.

Tensile stresses can thus cause failure due to bulk yielding or due to cracking. The stress distribution across the rod a long distance away from the change in cross section (XX) will be uniform. Tensile Failure: Stress Concentration & Cracking Consider the rod in the Figure below subject to a tensile load. D X d W X There is a concentration of stress at the rod surface below XX and this value should thus be considered when we consider failure mechanisms. including that of cracks. MRM 8 . SAPV LT 2005 CFK. and gives the failure criterion for a crack of length a σ π a = Kc where Kc is the material fracture toughness. The ratio of the maximum local stress to the mean (or apparent) stress is described by a stress concentration factor K K= σ max σ mean The values of K for many geometries are available in the literature.3.1. but near XX the stress distribution is complex. The mechanism of fast fracture involves the concentration of tensile stresses at a crack root.

a SAPV LT 2005 CFK. MRM 9 .σ crack = Kc 1 ⋅ √ π √a stress failure locus length of crack.

deformation is reversible and the material eventually returns to its original shape.2. known as the yield stress (stress axis) or the elastic limit (strain axis). Hooke's Law ε1 = (σ1 ≡ F / A ) / E 10 . 2 F F 1 3 An increase in length (axis 1) will be accompanied by a decrease in dimensions 2 and 3. Above these limits. the material behaviour depends on its nature. Elasticity and Yield Many materials obey Hooke's law σ = Eε σ σ E ε applied stress (Pa) Young's modulus (Pa) strain (-) failure Yield Stress ε Elastic Limit up to a limit. 3-D stress and strain 2. Below these limits.1. Consider a sample of material subjected to a tensile force F.

The strain in the perpendicular directions 2. These effects are additive. so for three mutually perpendicular stresses σ1.ε3 = − ν σ1 E where ν is the Poisson ratio for that material.33 0. Material Steel Aluminum alloy Brass E (x109 N/m2) 210 70 105 ν 0.30 0.35 11 . σ2 σ1 σ3 Giving ε1 = σ1 E − E νσ 2 E + − − E νσ 3 E − ε2 = − ε3 = − νσ1 νσ1 E σ2 νσ 3 E νσ 2 E + σ3 E Values of the material constants in the Data Book give orders of magnitudes of these parameters for different materials. σ2. σ3.3 are given by ε2 = −ν σ1 E .

The bulk modulus is defined as Puniform = − Kε v i. K = 2. E = 210 kN/mm2. In the case of a pressure causing expansion so σ1 = σ 2 = σ 3 = − P −P 1 σ1 − νσ 2 − νσ 3 ] = (1 − 2 ν ) [ E E −3 P ε v = ε1 + ε 2 + ε 3 = (1 − 2 ν ) E E K= 3(1 − 2 ν ) ε1 = ε 2 = ε 3 = For steel. ν = 0. G).e. the volumetric strain resulting from the application of a uniform pressure.2 kN/mm2 For a perfect gas. 10-4 kN/mm2) Shear Modulus definition τ = Gγ γ . K) or shear (shear modulus.3.2 Bulk and Shear Moduli These material properties describe how a material responds to an applied stress (bulk modulus.2.shear strain 12 . K = P (1 bara. giving K = 175 kN/mm2 For water.

2υ ) = 4tE L Hoop strain: εh = σn E - υσ L E = δR δD PD = (2 .3.υσ h .2. longitudinal and volumetric strains (micro or millistrain) Fractional increase in dimension: ε L – length ε h – circumference ε rr – wall thickness (a) Cylindrical vessel: Longitudinal strain εL = σL E - υσ h E - υσ r E = PD δL (1 .υσ L ] = [ t 4ET E [fractional increase in wall thickness is negative!] 13 .υ ) = R D 4tE radial strain εr = δt 3PDυ 1 = σ r . Hoop.

υσ n ) E 1 60 x 10 6 .114 millistrain [ ] ε h = 0.486 millistrain ε r = -0.257 millistrain Thus: pressurise the vessel to 6 bar: L and D increase: t decreases Volume expansion Cylindrical volume: ⎛ πD 2 ⎞ Vo = ⎜ o ⎟ Lo ⎝ 4 ⎠ V = (original) 2 New volume π (Do 4 2 + δD) (Lo + δL) L π Do 2 1 + ε h ] [1 + ε L ] = o [ 4 δV Define volumetric strain ε v = V V .14 x 10-4 -≡ 0.1 Vo 2 = 1 + 2ε h + ε h (1 + ε L ) .1 2 2 εv = 2εh + ε L + εh + 2ε h ε L + ε L ε n ( ) Magnitude inspection: 14 .(0.3)120 x 10 6 9 210 x 10 1.[ONGOING EXAMPLE]: εL = = = 1 (σ L .Vo 2 ∴ εv = = (1 + ε h ) ( 1 + ε L) .

486 mstrain εrr = -0.υσ L .114 mstrain εn = 0.905 x 10 210 x 10 εv = 2ε h + ε L 6 Ignoring second order terms.343 mstrains increase in volume of steel = 0. {Continued example} – cylinder εL = 0.257 mstrain εv = 2εn + ε L ∴ new volume = Vo (1 + εv) Increase in volume = π D2 L 4 ε v = 56.377 m3 εv for steel = εL + εh + εrr = 0.ε max (steel) = σy E 190 x 10 −3 = ∴ small 9 = 0.086 x 10-3 = 61 Litres Volume of steelo = πDLt = 0.55 x 1. (b) Spherical volume: εh = so 1 [σ h .υσ r ] = PD (1 .Do εv = 6 πD 3 o 6 { } = (1 + εh)3 – 1 ≈ 3εh + 0(ε2) (c) General result εv = ε1 + ε2 + ε3 εii are the strains in any three mutually perpendicular directions.129 L Strain energy – measure of work done Consider an elastic material for which F = k x 15 .υ ) 4Et E 3 π (Do + δD )3 .

2ν (σ 1σ 2 + σ 2σ 3 + σ 3σ 1) 2E 2 2 [ ] Consider a uniform pressure applied: σ1 = σ2 = σ3 = P 3P P ∴U = (1 . U = work done per unit volume of material. U = So U = 1 σ 12 + σ 2 2 + σ 32 .2 υ) = 2E 2K energy stored in system (per unit vol. U = ⇒ U = Al o ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎟ ε σ ⎜ 2 ⎝ Al o ⎠ 1 1 U = ε1σ 1 2 = σ 12 2E 1 [ε1σ1 + ε2σ2 + ε3σ3] 2 υσ 3 υσ 2 σ etc Now ε1 = 1 E E E In a 3-D system. 16 .Work done in expanding δx dW = Fδx F work done A=area L 0 x Work done in extending to x1 2 kx1 1 x1 x1 w = ∫o Fdx = ∫o k x dx = = Fx 2 2 1 1 Sample subject to stress σ increased from 0 to σ1: Extension Force: x1 = Lo ε1 ⎫ AL oε 1σ1 ⎬ W = F1 = Aσ 1 ⎭ 2 (no direction here) ALo ε1σ 1 2(ALo ) Strain energy.

δV = 61 x 10-3 m3 increase in volume of pressure vessel Increasing the pressure compresses the contents – normally test with water.273) = -15. {Ongoing Example} P – 6 barg .4 (L) = 76.For a given P. 6 x 10 ∆P = .2 x 109 ∴ decrease in volume of water = -Vo (0.4 x 10 –3 m3 Thus we can add more water: Extra space = 61 + 15. U stored is proportional to 1/K → so pressure test using liquids rather than gases.0.273 mstrains = − ∆V water? ε v (water ) = − K 2.4 L water extra space 5 p=0 p=6 17 .

.1.6 K 18 .e. Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Definition: coefficient of thermal expansion ε = αL∆T Linear Volume Coefficient of thermal volume expansion εv = αT Steel: αL = 11 x 10-6 K-1 reactor ∆T = 10oC ∆T = 500oC ∴ εL = 11 10-5 εL = 5. non buckling) If rigid: ε = 0 ⇒ steel: σ = 210 x 109 x 11 x 10-6 ∆T = 2. Thermal Effects 3.3.5 millistrains (!) Consider a steel bar mounted between rigid supports which exert stress σ Heat σ σ ε = α∆T - σ E so σ = Eα∆T (i.3 x 106 ∆T σy = 190 MPa: failure if ∆T > 82.

installed at 10oC. steel construction L = 3 m . The Vessel Wall stresses (tensile) σL = PD = 83. σ = 300 MPa→ failure.3 P 4t σn = 2σL = 166. by ∆T: pressure rises to Vessel P.7 P 19 .{Example}: steam main.2. ∴ must install expansion bends. full of water t = 3 mm D=1m Initially un pressurised – full of water: increase temp. to contain 6 bar steam (140oC) if ends are rigid. 3. Temperature effects in cylindrical pressure vessels .

3 = 210 x 10 ⎬ = 11 x 10 −6 ⎪ ⎭ 9⎪ ⎫ εL = 1. Strain vessel expands due to temp and pressure change.08 x 10-10 P + 33 x 10-6 ∆T = vessel vol. (water) Expands Contracts due to T due to P increase increase: εv.29 x 106 ∆T ∆σn = 22. The Contents.37 bar Now .9 Mpa per 10°C rise in Temperature 20 pressure. H2O = αv∆T – P/K ∴ H2O = αv = 60 x 10-6 K-1 εv = 60 x 10-6 ∆T – 4.7 P = 2.75 x 10-10 P + 11 10 –6 ∆T εv = εL + 2εn = 15.Strain (volume) εL = σ L νσ h + α l ∆T E E υ E α = 0.585 x 10-10 P + 11 x 10-6 ∆ T Similarly → εh = 6. σn = 166. rise of 1.55 x 10-10 P Since vessel remains full on increasing ∆T: εv (H20) = εv (vessel) Equating → P = 13750 ∆T per 10°C increase in temp.

∴ Failure does not need a large temperature increase. (εv. Very large stress changes due to temperature fluctuations. MORAL: Always leave a space in a liquid vessel. gas = αv∆T – P/K) 21 .

22 .3.3. Two material structures Beware. The Bimetallic strip controllers a= 4 mm (2 + 2 mm) b= 10 mm temperature a d Cu Fe L = 100mm b Heat by ∆T: Cu expands more than Fe so the strip will bend: it will bend in an arc as all sections are identical. {Example} Where there is benefit. different materials with different thermal expansivities can cause difficulties.

α Fe ) ∆T bd ⎩ E cu E Fe ⎭ 23 . we will obtain a straight beam and Cu Fe F F can then calculate the shearing forces [and hence the BM]. set up shearing forces in the strip. Shearing force F compressive in Cu Tensile in Fe Equating strains: α cu ∆T - F F = α Fe ∆T + bdE cu bdE Fe So 1 ⎫ F ⎧ 1 + ⎨ ⎬ = (α cu .Cu Fe The different thermal expansions. If we apply a sagging bending moment of equal [: opposite] magnitude. which create a bending moment.

bd = 2 x 10-5 m2 Ecu = 109 GPa EFe = 210 GPa αcu 17 x 10-6 k-1 αFe = 11 x 10-6 K-1 ∆T = 30°C F = 387 N (significant force) F acts through the centroid of each section so BM = F. ML2 δ= 2 EI This is the principle of the bimetallic strip. 24 .774 Nm Use data book to work out deflection./(d/2) = 0.

increase ∆T : copper expands more than steel. so will generate a TENSILE stress in the steel and a compressive stress in the copper. Data: αcu > αFe Balance forces: Tensile force in steel Stress in steel “ “ copper |FFe| = |Fcu| = F = F/AFe = σFe = F/Acu = σcu εFE = αFe ∆T + σFe/EFe Steel strain: (no transvere forces) = αFe∆T + F/EFeAFe copper strain εcu = αcu∆T – F/EcuAcu 25 .Consider a steel rod mounted in a upper tube – spacer Analysis – relevant to Heat Exchangers Cu Fe assembled at room temperature .

α Fe ) ∆T ∆d So you can work out stresses and strains in a system.Strains EQUAL: ⎡ 1 1 ⎤ ⇒ F⎢ + = AFe E Fe Acu Ecu ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 144 4 2444 3 sum of strengths (α cu . 26 .

Torsion – Twisting – Shear stresses 4.4. Shear stresses in shafts –τ/r = T/J = G θ/L Consider a rod subject to twisting: Definition : shear strain γ ≡ change in angle that was originally Π/2 Consider three points that define a right angle and more then: Shear strain A γ = γ1 + γ2 [RADIANS] γ1 A B C B γ 2 C Hooke’s Law τ=Gγ G – shear modulus = E 2(1 + υ) 27 .1.

T.Now consider a rod subject to an applied torque. T 2r Hold one end and rotate other by angle θ . B B θ B B γ L Plane ABO was originally to the X-X axis Plane ABO is now inclined at angle γ to the axis: tan γ ≈ γ = Shear stress involved τ = Gγ = rθ L Grθ L 28 .

Torque required to cause twisting:

τ

r dr

τ

.δT = τ 2Π r.δr r

T = ∫ τ 2Π r 2 dr

A

or

2

∫ τ r.dA

A

Grθ ⎫ ⎧ ⎨τ = ⎬ ⎩ L ⎭

T

= =

Gθ L

∫r

dA

so

Gθ {J} L

T Gθ τ = = J L r

cf

M E σ = = I R y

DEFN: J ≡ polar second moment of area

29

**Consider a rod of circular section:
**

J = ∫ 2π .r r 2 dr =

o R

π

2

R4

y r x

J=

Now r2 = x2 + y2 It can be shown that J = Ixx + Iyy

πD 4

32

[perpendicular axis than]→ see Fenner

this gives an easy way to evaluate Ixx or Iyy in symmetrical geometrics:

Ixx = Iyy = πD4/64 (rod)

30

Rectangular rod:

d

b

I xx

I yy

bd 3 ⎫ = ⎪ 12 ⎪ ⎬ 3⎪ db = ⎪ 12 ⎭

J=

bd 2 b +d2 12

[

]

31

6 x 10 = ⇒ From L J 1.5 m Failure when τ = τy = 95 MPa G = 81 GPa τ max rmax Now J= πD 4 32 T 95 x 10 6 ⎫ = = ⎪ J 0.Example: steel rod as a drive shaft D = 25 mm L = 1.5 ( ) θ = 0.141 rad = 8.1° Say shaft rotates at 1450 rpm: power = = = Tω 291 x 2π x 1450 60 45 kW 32 .0125 ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ so T = 291 Nm = 383 x 10 −8 m 4 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ Gθ T 81 x 109 θ 9 = ⇒ 7.

0254} τy rmax 6 32 ⎛ T ⎞ 95 x 10 x 2 291 =⎜ ⎟⇒ = 4 D π D . Shafts: T = 291 Nm D min 0.0.0254 = 6. Thin walled shafts (same Eqns apply) Consider a bracket joining two Ex.24 x 10-5 D D ≥ 4.2.4.025m What is the minimum value of D for connector? rmax = D/2 J = (π/32){D4 – 0.0254 ⎝J⎠ ( ) D4 – 0.15 cm 33 .

..4. Thin walled pressure vessel subject to torque τ T = r J now cylinder J= [(D + 2t ) 32 π π 3 4 .D4 ] + .3. = [8D t + 24 D t 32 π 4 D 3t 2 2 ] ≈ so τ2 D = 4T πD 3 t τ= 2T πD 2 t 34 .

whether a pressure vessel will explode can not depend on how we set up our co-ordinate axes to describe the stresses acting on the 34 .2.3 or : p1 = T11q1 + T12 q2 + T13 q3 p2 = T21q1 + T22 q2 + T23 q3 p3 = T31q1 + T32 q2 + T33 q3 Axis transformations The choice of axes in the description of an engineering problem is arbitrary (as long as you choose orthogonal sets of axes!). Components of Stress/ Mohr’s Circle 5. j = 1.CET 1. Obviously the physics of the problem must not depend on the choice of axis. For example. SAPV 5.1 Definitions Scalars tensor of rank 0 Vectors tensors of rank 1 r r F = ma hence : F1 = ma1 F2 = ma2 F3 = ma3 or : Fi = mai Tensors of rank 2 pi = ∑ Tij q j j =1 3 i.

However it is clear that the components of the stress tensor will be different going from one set of coordinates xi to another xi’. How do we transform one set of co-ordinate axes onto another..CET 1. keeping the same origin? x1 x1 ' a11 x2 ' a21 x3 ' a31 x2 a12 a22 a32 x3 a13 a23 a33 .. SAPV vessel. where aij are the direction cosines Forward transformation: xi ' = ∑ aij x j j =1 3 “New in terms of Old” Reverse transformation: xi = ∑ a ji x j j =1 3 “Old in terms of New” We always have to do summations in co-ordinate transformation and it is conventional to drop the summation signs and therefore these equations are simply written as: xi ' = aij x j xi = a ji x j 35 .

CET 1. such that: pi ' = ∑ Tij ' q j ' = Tij ' q j ' (in short form) j We can find this from a series of sequential co-ordinate transformations: p' ← p ← q ← q' Hence: pi ' = aik pk pk = Tkl ql ql = a jl q j ' Thus we have: 36 .e. if we have a situation where pi = ∑ Tij q j = Tij q j (in short form) j where Tij is the tensor in the old co-ordinate frame xi. SAPV Tensor transformation How will the components of a tensor change when we go from one coordinate system to another? I. how do we find the corresponding tensor Tij’ in the new co-ordinate frame xi’.

SAPV pi ' = aik Tkl a jl q j ' = aik a jl Tkl q j ' = Tij ' q j ' For example: Tij ' = ai1 a jl T1l + ai 2 a jl T2l + ai 3 a jl T3l = ai1 a j1 T11 + ai1 a j 2 T12 + ai1 a j 3 T13 + ai 2 a j1 T21 + ai 2 a j 2 T22 + ai 2 a j 3 T23 + ai 3 a j1 T31 + ai 3 a j 2 T32 + ai 3 a j 3 T33 Note that there is a difference between a transformation matrix and a 2nd rank tensor: They are both matrices containing 9 elements (constants) but: Symmetrical Tensors: Tij=Tji 37 .CET 1.

CET 1. SAPV 38 .

39 . If T1. then these are called PRINCIPAL STRESSES. SAPV We can always transform a second rank tensor which is symmetrical: Tij → Tij ' such that : ⎡T1 0 Tij ' = ⎢ 0 T2 ⎢ ⎢ ⎣0 0 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ T3 ⎥ ⎦ Consequence? Consider: pi = Tij q j then p1 = T1 q1 . T2. p2 = T2 q2 .CET 1. p3 = T3 q3 The diagonal T1. T3 is called the PRINCIPAL AXIS. T2. T3 are stresses.

the force on the opposite side will not differ significantly. Dividing by the area of the x-face gives the stresses on the x-plane: σ xx τ xy τ xz It is traditional to write normal stresses as σ and shear stresses as τ. On the x-face there will be some force Fx. σ yy . The force Fx can be divided into its components parallel to the coordinate directions. one facing greater values of x. τ yz 40 .z. on the y-face: τ yx . Fxz.y. Since the cuboid is of infinitesimal size. y Fxy y face Fx x z face z x face Fxz Fxx The faces on this cuboid are named according to the directions of their normals.CET 1. There are thus two x-faces. SAPV Mohr’s circle Consider an elementary cuboid with edges parallel to the coordinate directions x. Fxx. as shown in Figure 1 and one facing lesser values of x (not shown in the Figure). Similarly. Fxy.

σ yy y x τyx τ xy σ xx σ xx τ xy τ yx σ yy But for non accelerating bodies (or infinitesimally small cuboids): and therefore: ⎡σ xx τ xy τ xz ⎤ ⎡σ xx τ xy τ xz ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ σ ij = ⎢τ yx σ yy τ yz ⎥ = ⎢τ xy σ yy τ yz ⎥ ⎢ τ zx τ zy σ zz ⎥ ⎢ τ xz τ yz σ zz ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ Hence σij is symmetric! 41 . ⎡σ xx τ xy ⎢ σ ij = ⎢τ yx σ yy ⎢ τ zx τ zy ⎣ τ xz ⎤ ⎥ τ yz ⎥ σ zz ⎥ ⎦ Note that the first subscript refers to the face on which the stress acts and the second subscript refers to the direction in which the associated force acts. τ zy . SAPV and on the z-face we have: τ zx .CET 1. σ zz There are therefore 9 components of stress.

Imagine we are in the coordinate frame xi where we only have principal stresses: 0⎤ ⎡σ 1 0 0 σ2 0 ⎥ σ ij = ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣ 0 0 σ3⎥ Transform to a new co-ordinate frame xi’ by rotatoin about the x3 axis in the original co-ordinate frame (this would be. σr). So if. SAPV This means that there must be some magic co-ordinate frame in which all the stresses are normal stresses (principal stresses) and in which the off diagonal stresses (=shear stresses) are 0. We are usually interested in shears and stresses which lie in the plane defined by the vessel walls. and normal stresses (σh. Is there a transformation about zz which will result in a shear Would really like to transform into a co-ordinate frame such that all components in the xi’ : σ ij → σ ij ' So stress tensor is symmetric 2nd rank tensor. in our example. σl. in a given situation we find this frame we can apply all our stress strain relations that we have set up in the previous lectures (which assumed there were only normal stresses acting). z-axis) 42 .CET 1. Consider a cylindrical vessel subject to shear.

SAPV The transformation matrix is then: ⎛ a11 ⎜ aij = ⎜ a21 ⎜a ⎝ 31 a12 a22 a32 a13 ⎞ ⎛ cos θ ⎟ ⎜ a23 ⎟ = ⎜ − sin θ ⎜ a33 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 0 sin θ cosθ 0 0⎞ ⎟ 0⎟ 1⎟ ⎠ Then: σ ij ' = aik a jl σ kl ⎛ cos θ ⎜ = ⎜ − sin θ ⎜ 0 ⎝ sin θ cosθ 0 0 ⎞⎛ cos θ ⎟⎜ 0 ⎟⎜ sin θ ⎜ 1⎟ ⎠⎝ 0 − sin θ cosθ 0 0 ⎞ ⎡σ 1 0 0⎤ ⎟⎢ 0⎟ 0 σ 2 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎟ 1 ⎠⎢ 0 σ3⎥ ⎣0 ⎦ ⎡ σ 1 cos 2 θ + σ 2 sin 2 θ ⎢ = ⎢− σ 1 cosθ sin θ + σ 2 cosθ sin θ ⎢ 0 ⎣ σ 1 cosθ sin θ + σ 2 cosθ sin θ σ 1 cos 2 θ + σ 2 sin 2 θ 0 0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ σ3⎥ ⎦ 43 .CET 1.

CET 1. SAPV Hence: σ 11 ' = σ 1 cos 2 θ + σ 2 sin 2 θ 1 1 = (σ 1 + σ 1 ) − (σ 2 − σ 1 ) cos 2θ 2 2 σ 22 ' = σ 1 sin 2 θ + σ 2 cos 2 θ = 1 1 (σ 1 + σ 1 ) + (σ 2 − σ 1 ) cos 2θ 2 2 σ 12 ' = −σ 1 cosθ sin θ + σ 2 cosθ sin θ = 1 (σ 2 − σ 1 ) sin 2θ 2 44 .

y plane normal stresses σ x.z plane x.z plane 1 . y z x Shear stresses τ y.Yield conditions. Tresca and Von Mises Mohrs circle in three dimensions.

τ) 2 . 6. 0) τmax = 0. BULK FAILURE CRITERIA Materials fail when the largest stress exceeds a critical value. σ2. 0. Normally we test a material in simple tension: P P σy = Pyield A τ σ = σ σ σ=σ This material fails under the stress combination (σy.We can draw Mohrs circles for each principal plane. σ3) or (σn. σL.5 σ y = 95 Mpa for steel We wish to establish if a material will fail if it is subject to a stress combination (σ1.

1. 0. The Stress Hexagon (Brittle) A material fails when the largest shear stress reaches a critical value. 0) τ -σ 3 . Tresca’s Failure Criterion. Case (i) Material subject to simple compression: σ1 σ1 Principal stresses (-σ1. the yield shear stress τy.Failure depends on the nature of the material: Two important criteria (i) (ii) Tresca’s failure criterion: brittle materials Cast iron: concrete: ceramics Von Mises’ criterion: ductile materials Mild steel + copper 6.

e.σ2 = σy material will not fail. when σ1 .M.C.0) . ( 0. (σ1. 4 .0) σ1 τ max σ1 τmax = σ1/2 occurs along plane at 45° to σ1 Similarly for tensile test. Fails when 2 = τ max = τy = σy 2 i..σ2 M.0). Case (ii) σ2 < 0 < σ1 τ -σ σ σ2 σ 1 σ1 .C: mc passes through (σ1.

5 .Lets do an easy example.

σ 2 ) + (σ 2 .σ1 ) 2 2 2 } [ ] M. Early hypothesis – material fails when its strain energy exceeds a critical value (can’t be true as no failure occurs under uniform compression). Von Mises’: failure when strain energy due to distortion. exceeds a critical value.2 Von Mises’ Failure Criterion. UD.6. C = 1 [σ + σ2 + σ 3 ] 3 1 1 ⎧ 2 ⎨σ + 2E ⎩ 1 1 = (σ1 12G UD = { 1 ⎫ 2 σ2 3C 2 + 6 υC 2 ⎬ 2 + σ 3 + 2υ (σ1σ 2 + σ 2 σ 3 + σ 3σ 1 ) ⎭ 2E .C. τ σ3 σ σ σ 1 2 6 . UD = difference in strain energy (U) due of a compressive stress C equal to the mean of the principal stresses.σ 3 ) + (σ 3 . The stress ellipse (ductile materials) Tresca’s criterion does not work well for ductile materials.

σ1 ) > 2σ 2 y 2 2 } 7 . σ) .Tresca → failure when max (τI) ≥ τy) Von Mises → failure when root mean square of {τa.σ2 )2 + (σ2 + σ3 )2 + (σ3 . τc} ≥ critical value τ σ σ y Compare with (σy. simple tensile test – failure Failure if 1 2 2 (σ1 . τb. σ.σ1 )2 > 1 σ2 y + 0 + σy 12G 12G { } { } {(σ .σ ) 1 2 2 + (σ 2 + σ3 ) + (σ3 .

8 .

9 .Lets do a simple example.

10 .2 = s ± t Thus σ2 may be positive (case A) or negative (case B). Case A occurs if τ is small.τ) σ τ 50 s (50. What torque can it support? Calculate stresses PD = 50 N / mm 2 4 t' PD σh = = 100 N / mm 2 2t' σL = and σ3 = σr ≈0 Mohr's Circle (100.−τ) 100 Circle construction s = 75 N/mm2 t = √(252+τ2) The principal stresses σ1. t' = 0.Example Tresca's Failure Criterion The same pipe as in the first example (D = 0.005 m) is subject to an internal pressure of 50 barg.2 m.

Case A. 'minor' principal stress is positive (σ2 > 0) Thus failure when 2 τ max = 1 2 σ y = 105 N / mm 11 . determine which case applies by trial and error.Case A (100.−τ) Case B τ σ3 100 σ1 (100.τ) 2β σ2 σ3 50 s 100 σ1 σ (50.−τ) We do not know whether the Mohr's circle for this case follows Case A or B.τ) τ σ2 50 s (50.

7 N / mm 2 σ1 = 210 N / mm2 . σ 2 = −30 N / mm 2 Thus Case B applies and the yield stress is 101. tan(2 λ ) = 102 ⇒ 2 λ = 76.2 = 75 ± 105 ⇒ σ 1 = 180 N / mm2 . We now have τmax as the radius of the original Mohr's circle linking our stress data.For Case A.2λ ⇒ β = 6. Thus τ max = 252 + τ 2 = 105 ⇒ Principal stresses τ = 101. σ 2 = −60 N / mm2 Case B. 75 2β = 90 . τ max = ⇒ ⇒ Giving σ1 2 = 1 2 [75 + (252 + τ 2 )] τ 2 = 135 − 252 τ = 132.23° .98 N / mm2 σ1.9° 12 .98 N/mm2. The torque required to cause failure is T = πD2 t' τ / 2 = 32kNm Failure will occur along a plane at angle β anticlockwise from the y (hoop) direction.

−τ) 100 Giving σ1 = s + t = 75 + 252 + τ 2 σ 2 = s − t = 75 − 252 + τ 2 σ3 = 0 1 (σ 1 − σ 2 ) 2 + ( σ 2 − σ 3 ) 2 + ( σ 3 − σ 1 ) 2 } { 12G At failure UD = 13 .Example More of Von Mises Failure Criterion From our second Tresca Example σ h = 100 N / mm 2 σ L = 50 N / mm 2 σ r ≈ 0 N / mm2 What torque will cause failure if the yield stress for steel is 210 N/mm2? Mohr's Circle (100.τ) σ τ 50 s (50.

14 . Tresca is more conservative.in this case.Or (σ1 − σ 2 ) 2 + ( σ 2 − σ 3 ) 2 + ( σ 3 − σ1 ) 2 = ( σ y )2 + (0)2 + (0 − σ y ) 2 4 t 2 + (s − t )2 + ( s + t ) 2 = 2σ 2 y 2 2 s 2 + 6t 2 = 2 σ y s 2 + 3t 2 = σ 2 y ⇒ 752 + 3(252 + τ 2 ) = 210 2 The tube can thus support a torque of τ = 110 N / mm 2 πD2 t' τ T= = 35kNm 2 which is larger than the value of 32 kNm given by Tresca's criterion .

Direct and Shear Strains Consider a vector of length lx lying along the x-axis as shown in Figure 1. i. ε yy = δ yy ly . ε yx = δ yx ly 1 . lx ε xy = δ xy lx εxx is the direct strain. εxy represents rotation of the vector through the small angle γ1 where. so that. γ1 lx We can define strains εxx and εxy by.e. Strains 7. Let it be subjected to a small strain. the fractional increase in length in the direction of the original vector. This need not be in the x-direction and so will have components δxx in the x-direction and δxy in the y-direction. if the left hand end is fixed the right hand end will undergo a small displacement δx. γ1 ≅ tan γ1 = δ xy l x + δ xx ≅ δ xy lx = ε xy Thus in the limit as δx→ 0. Similarly we can define strains εyy and εyx = γ2 by.7. γ1 → εxy. δx δxx δxy Figure 1 ε xx = δ xx .1.

γ1 lx Or. where i. Thus 2 . in our example (Figure 2 above): γ xy = ( γ 1 + γ 2 ) = ε xy + ε yx or γ xy = − (γ 1 + γ 2 ) depending on sign convention. j = 1. Thus it is sensible to take γxy as +ve when the angle ABC decreases.and ydirections. in general terms: ε ij = δ ij li .3 The ENGINEERING SHEAR STRAIN is defined as the change in an angle relative to a set of axes originally at 90°. Thus.2. In particular γxy is the change in the angle between lines which were originally in the x.δ yx Figure 2 δ yy δy ly γ 2 as in Figure 2. τ yx A τ xy A' B C Figure 3a B' C' Figure 3b Positive values of the shear stresses τxy and τyx act on an element as shown in Figure 3a and these cause distortion as in Figure 3b.

Note that the TENSOR SHEAR STRAINS are given by the averaged sum of shear strains: 1 1 1 1 γ ij = (ε ij + ε ji ) = (γ 1 + γ 2 ) = γ ji 2 2 2 2 7. Thus our strain tensor is symmetrical. we have γij = γji.γ xy = +( γ 1 + γ 2 ) Or.2 Mohr’s Circle for Strains The strain tensor can now be written as: ⎡ ⎢ ε 11 ⎢1 ε ij = ⎢ y 21 ⎢2 ⎢1 y 31 ⎢ ⎣2 1 y12 2 ε 22 1 y32 2 1 ⎤ ⎡ y13 ε 11 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢1 1 y 23 ⎥ = ⎢ y12 2 ⎥ ⎢2 1 ε 33 ⎥ ⎢ y13 ⎥ ⎢2 ⎦ ⎣ 1 y12 2 ε 22 1 y 23 2 1 ⎤ y13 2 ⎥ ⎥ 1 y 23 ⎥ 2 ⎥ ε 33 ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ where the diagonal elements are the stretches or tensile strains and the off diagonal elements are the tensor shear strains. and: 3 . in general terms: γ ij = (ε ij + ε ji ) and since τij = τji.

ε ij = ε ji This means there must be a co-ordinate transformation. such that: ε ij ' → ε ij such that : ⎡ε 1 0 ε ij = ⎢ 0 ε2 ⎢ ⎢ ⎣0 0 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ ε3 ⎥ ⎦ we only have principal (=longitudinal) strains! Exactly analogous to our discussion for the transformation of the stress tensor we find this from: ε ij ' = aik a jl ε kl ⎛ cos θ ⎜ = ⎜ − sin θ ⎜ 0 ⎝ sin θ cosθ 0 0 ⎞⎛ cos θ ⎟⎜ 0 ⎟⎜ sin θ ⎜ 1⎟ ⎠⎝ 0 − sin θ cosθ 0 0 ⎞ ⎡ε1 0 ⎟ 0 ⎟⎢ 0 ε 2 ⎢ 1⎟ ⎣0 0 ⎠⎢ 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ ε3 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ ε 1 cos 2 θ + ε 2 sin 2 θ ⎢ = ⎢− ε 1 cosθ sin θ + ε 2 cosθ sin θ ⎢ 0 ⎣ And hence: ε 1 cosθ sin θ + ε 2 cosθ sin θ ε 1 cos 2 θ + ε 2 sin 2 θ 0 0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ ε3 ⎥ ⎦ 4 .

ε11 ' = ε1 cos 2 θ + ε 2 sin 2 θ 1 1 = (ε1 + ε1 ) − (ε 2 − ε1 ) cos 2θ 2 2 ε 22 ' = ε1 sin 2 θ + ε 2 cos 2 θ = 1 1 (ε1 + ε1 ) + (ε 2 − ε1 ) cos 2θ 2 2 ε12 ' = γ 12 ' = −ε1 cos θ sin θ + ε 2 cos θ sin θ 1 (ε 2 − ε1 ) sin 2θ 2 1 2 = For which we can draw a Mohr’s circle in the usual manner: 5 .

strain gauge _ _ _ 45° 120° Strain rosettes are employed to obtain three measurements: 7. multiple wire assemblies are used in strain gauges.Strain Gauges It is difficult to measure internal stresses. to measure direct strains. This stems from the fact that the engineering shear strains differs from the tensorial shear strains by a factor of 2 as as discussed. however. its radius decreases so its electrical resistance increases and can be readily measured.Note. • Glue a piece of wire on to a surface • Strain in wire = strain in material • As the length of the wire increases. at least those on a surface. In practice. 7.3 Measurement of Stress and Strain . Strains. that on this occasion we plot half the shear strain against the direct strain. are easy to measure.3.1 45° Strain Rosette Three direct strains are measured ε C εB θ εA principal strain ε1 Mohr’s circle for strains gives 6 .

ε A = s + t cos(2θ ) ε B = s + t cos(2θ + 90) = s − t sin( 2θ ) ε C = s − t cos(2θ ) 3 equations in 3 unknowns Using strain gauges we can find the directions of Principal strains γ/2 ε 7 . centre s.γ/2 B 2θ εB εC A ε εA C radius t so we can write circle.

−γ ) xy ε xx = 0 − γ xy 2 =− τo E (1 + ν ) 8 . Consider a 2-D element subject to pure shear (τxy = τyx = τo). y τo τo The Mohr’s circle for stresses is Y Q τo P τo x X where P and Q are principal stress axes and σ pp = σ1 = τ o σ qq = σ 2 = − τ o τ pq = τ qp = 0 Since the principal stress and strain axes are coincident.7. Venant’s Principle states that the principal axes of stress and strain are co-incident. ε pp = ε1 = = σ1 E − νσ 2 E τo E (1 + ν ) σ2 E − ε qq = ε 2 = νσ1 E = −τ o (1 + ν ) E and the Mohr’s circle for strain is thus γ/2 Y Q P the Mohr’s circle shows that ε εqq εpp X (0.4 Hooke’s Law for Shear Stresses St.

strain and stress.So pure shear causes the shear strain γ τo τo γ/2 γ/2 γ= 2τ o (1 + ν ) E But by definition τo = Gγ so and G= τo E = γ 2(1 + ν ) Use St Venants principal to work out principal stress values from a knowledge of principal strains. Two Mohrs circles. ε1 = σ1 E − E νσ 2 E + − − E νσ 3 E − ε2 = − ε3 = − νσ1 νσ1 E σ2 νσ 3 E νσ 2 E + σ3 E 9 .

Using Tresca or Von Mises you can then work out whether your vessel is safe to operate. You can then work out magnitudes of principal stresses.So using strain gauges you can work out magnitudes of principal strains. ie below the yield criteria 10 .

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