# L

A
T
E
X Mathematical Symbols
The more unusual symbols are not deﬁned in base L
A
T
E
X (NFSS) and require \usepackage{amssymb}
1 Greek and Hebrew letters
α \alpha κ \kappa ψ \psi } \digamma ∆ \Delta Θ \Theta
β \beta λ \lambda ρ \rho ε \varepsilon Γ \Gamma Υ \Upsilon
χ \chi j \mu σ \sigma κ \varkappa Λ \Lambda Ξ \Xi
δ \delta ν \nu τ \tau ϕ \varphi Ω \Omega
c \epsilon o o θ \theta c \varpi Φ \Phi ℵ \aleph
η \eta ω \omega υ \upsilon ¸ \varrho Π \Pi Q \beth
γ \gamma φ \phi ξ \xi ς \varsigma Ψ \Psi ¯ \daleth
ι \iota π \pi ζ \zeta ϑ \vartheta Σ \Sigma ג \gimel
2 L
A
T
E
X math constructs
abc
xyz
\frac¦abc¦¦xyz¦ o/c \overline¦abc¦
−→
o/c \overrightarrow¦abc¦
)

f’ o/c \underline¦abc¦
←−
o/c \overleftarrow¦abc¦

o/c \sqrt¦abc¦
´
o/c \widehat¦abc¦
¸..¸
o/c \overbrace¦abc¦
n

o/c \sqrt[n]¦abc¦

o/c \widetilde¦abc¦ o/c
.¸¸.
\underbrace¦abc¦
3 Delimiters
[ [ ¦ \{ ¸ \lfloor , / ⇑ \Uparrow , \llcorner
[ \vert ¦ \} | \rfloor ¸ \backslash ↑ \uparrow ¸ \lrcorner
| \| ¸ \langle ¸ \lceil [ [ ⇓ \Downarrow ' \ulcorner
| \Vert ) \rangle | \rceil ] ] ↓ \downarrow ¯ \urcorner
Use the pair \left:
1
and \right:
2
to match height of delimiters :
1
and :
2
to the height of their contents, e.g.,
\left| expr \right| \left\{ expr \right\} \left\Vert expr \right.
4 Variable-sized symbols (displayed formulae show larger version)

\sum
_
\int

\biguplus

\bigoplus
_
\bigvee

\prod
_
\oint

\bigcap

\bigotimes
_
\bigwedge

\coprod
__
\iint

\bigcup

\bigodot

\bigsqcup
5 Standard Function Names
Function names should appear in Roman, not Italic, e.g.,
Correct: \tan(at-n\pi) −→ tan(ot −nπ)
Incorrect: tan(at-n\pi) −→ ton(ot −nπ)
arccos \arccos arcsin \arcsin arctan \arctan arg \arg
cos \cos cosh \cosh cot \cot coth \coth
csc \csc deg \deg det \det dim \dim
exp \exp gcd \gcd hom \hom inf \inf
ker \ker lg \lg lim \lim liminf \liminf
limsup \limsup ln \ln log \log max \max
min \min Pr \Pr sec \sec sin \sin
sinh \sinh sup \sup tan \tan tanh \tanh
6 Binary Operation/Relation Symbols
∗ \ast ± \pm ∩ \cap < \lhd
× \star ∓ \mp ∪ \cup \rhd
\cdot H \amalg ¬ \uplus \triangleleft
◦ \circ ¸ \odot ¯ \sqcap > \triangleright
• \bullet ¸ \ominus . \sqcup _ \unlhd
_ \bigcirc ⊕ \oplus ∧ \wedge _ \unrhd
\diamond ¸ \oslash ∨ \vee _ \bigtriangledown
\times ⊗ \otimes † \dagger ´ \bigtriangleup
÷ \div / \wr ‡ \ddagger ¸ \setminus
. \centerdot ¯ \Box ¯ \barwedge Y \veebar
¸ \circledast ¬ \boxplus · \curlywedge \curlyvee
¸ \circledcirc ¬ \boxminus + \Cap J \Cup
¸ \circleddash ¯ \boxtimes ⊥ \bot · \top
÷ \dotplus ¯ \boxdot ¡ \intercal · \rightthreetimes
÷ \divideontimes ¯ \square , \doublebarwedge  \leftthreetimes
≡ \equiv ≤ \leq ≥ \geq ⊥ \perp

= \cong ≺ \prec ~ \succ [ \mid
,= \neq _ \preceq _ \succeq | \parallel
∼ \sim ¸ \ll ¸ \gg > \bowtie
· \simeq ⊂ \subset ⊃ \supset \Join
≈ \approx ⊆ \subseteq ⊇ \supseteq \ltimes
· \asymp ¸ \sqsubset ¸ \sqsupset \rtimes
.
= \doteq _ \sqsubseteq _ \sqsupseteq \smile
∝ \propto ¬ \dashv ¬ \vdash · \frown
[= \models ∈ \in ÷ \ni , ∈ \notin
¸ \approxeq _ \leqq _ \geqq ≶ \lessgtr
∼ \thicksim ¸ \leqslant ¸ \geqslant _ \lesseqgtr
~ \backsim _ \lessapprox _ \gtrapprox _ \lesseqqgtr
- \backsimeq ≪ \lll ≫ \ggg _ \gtreqqless
= \triangleq < \lessdot \gtrdot ¸ \gtreqless
= \circeq _ \lesssim _ \gtrsim ≷ \gtrless
= \bumpeq ¸ \eqslantless ¸ \eqslantgtr ~ \backepsilon
· \Bumpeq _ \precsim _ \succsim ¸ \between
= \doteqdot _ \precapprox _ \succapprox . \pitchfork
≈ \thickapprox ¸ \Subset ¸ \Supset . \shortmid
= \fallingdotseq ¸ \subseteqq ¸ \supseteqq · \smallfrown
= \risingdotseq ¸ \sqsubset ¸ \sqsupset · \smallsmile
∝ \varpropto - \preccurlyeq , \succcurlyeq ' \Vdash
∴ \therefore - \curlyeqprec  \curlyeqsucc = \vDash
∵ \because ¬ \blacktriangleleft > \blacktriangleright ' \Vvdash
= \eqcirc _ \trianglelefteq _ \trianglerighteq + \shortparallel
,= \neq < \vartriangleleft \vartriangleright + \nshortparallel
æ \ncong _ \nleq _ \ngeq _ \nsubseteq
[ \nmid _ \nleqq _ \ngeqq _ \nsupseteq
∦ \nparallel ¸ \nleqslant ¸ \ngeqslant ¿ \nsubseteqq
· \nshortmid ≮ \nless ≯ \ngtr ¸ \nsupseteqq
+ \nshortparallel ⊀ \nprec , \nsucc _ \subsetneq
~ \nsim _ \npreceq _ \nsucceq _ \supsetneq
÷ \nVDash _ \precnapprox _ \succnapprox _ \subsetneqq
= \nvDash _ \precnsim _ \succnsim _ \supsetneqq
- \nvdash _ \lnapprox _ \gnapprox _ \varsubsetneq
; \ntriangleleft _ \lneq _ \gneq _ \varsupsetneq
_ \ntrianglelefteq _ \lneqq _ \gneqq ¸ \varsubsetneqq
; \ntriangleright _ \lnsim _ \gnsim ¿ \varsupsetneqq
_ \ntrianglerighteq _ \lvertneqq _ \gvertneqq
7 Arrow symbols
← \leftarrow ←− \longleftarrow ↑ \uparrow
⇐ \Leftarrow ⇐= \Longleftarrow ⇑ \Uparrow
→ \rightarrow −→ \longrightarrow ↓ \downarrow
⇒ \Rightarrow =⇒ \Longrightarrow ⇓ \Downarrow
↔ \leftrightarrow ←→ \longleftrightarrow ¡ \updownarrow
⇔ \Leftrightarrow ⇐⇒ \Longleftrightarrow ¸ \Updownarrow
→ \mapsto −→ \longmapsto ¸ \nearrow
← \hookleftarrow → \hookrightarrow ¸ \searrow
÷ \leftharpoonup ÷ \rightharpoonup ¸ \swarrow
÷ \leftharpoondown ÷ \rightharpoondown ¸ \nwarrow
--- \dashrightarrow --- \dashleftarrow ⇔ \leftleftarrows
¯ \leftrightarrows ÷ \Lleftarrow ÷ \twoheadleftarrow
÷ \leftarrowtail ÷ \looparrowleft = \leftrightharpoons
. \curvearrowleft ¸ \circlearrowleft ¨ \Lsh
| \upuparrows , \upharpoonleft ¸ \downharpoonleft
÷ \multimap - \leftrightsquigarrow ⇒ \rightrightarrows
· \rightleftarrows ⇒ \rightrightarrows · \rightleftarrows
÷ \twoheadrightarrow ÷ \rightarrowtail + \looparrowright
= \rightleftharpoons \curvearrowright ¸ \circlearrowright
¨ \Rsh _ \downdownarrows  \upharpoonright
¸ \downharpoonright ~ \rightsquigarrow
÷ \nleftarrow ÷ \nrightarrow = \nLeftarrow
= \nRightarrow ÷ \nleftrightarrow = \nLeftrightarrow
8 Miscellaneous symbols
∞ \infty ∀ \forall k \Bbbk ℘ \wp
∇ \nabla ∃ \exists ± \bigstar ∠ \angle
∂ \partial ± \nexists ¸ \diagdown X \measuredangle
ð \eth ∅ \emptyset , \diagup < \sphericalangle
♣ \clubsuit ∅ \varnothing ♦ \Diamond U \complement
♦ \diamondsuit ı \imath · \Finv V \triangledown
♥ \heartsuit , \jmath , \Game ´ \triangle
♠ \spadesuit / \ell / \hbar , \vartriangle
\cdots
____
\iiiint h \hslash # \blacklozenge
.
.
. \vdots
___
\iiint ♦ \lozenge B \blacksquare
. . . \ldots
__
\iint G \mho # \blacktriangle
.
.
.
\ddots ; \sharp / \prime * \blacktrinagledown
· \Im . \flat ¯ \square \ \backprime
' \Re ; \natural

\surd ¸ \circledS
9 Math mode accents
´ o \acute¦a¦ ¯ o \bar¦a¦
´
´
¹ \Acute{\Acute{A}}
¯
¯
¹ \Bar{\Bar{A}}
˘ o \breve¦a¦ ˇ o \check¦a¦
˘
˘
¹ \Breve{\Breve{A}}
ˇ
ˇ
¹ \Check{\Check{A}}
¨ o \ddot¦a¦ ˙ o \dot¦a¦
¨
¨
¹ \Ddot{\Ddot{A}}
˙
˙
¹ \Dot{\Dot{A}}
o \grave¦a¦ ˆ o \hat¦a¦


¹ \Grave{\Grave{A}}
ˆ
ˆ
¹ \Hat{\Hat{A}}
˜ o \tilde¦a¦ o \vec¦a¦
˜
˜
¹ \Tilde{\Tilde{A}}

¹ \Vec{\Vec{A}}
10 Array environment, examples
Simplest version: \begin{array}{cols} row
1
\\ row
2
\\ . . . row
m
\end{array}
where cols includes one character [lrc] for each column (with optional characters | inserted for vertical lines)
and row
j
includes character & a total of (n −1) times to separate the n elements in the row. Examples:
\left( \begin{array}{cc} 2\tau & 7\phi-frac5{12} \\
3\psi & \frac{\pi}8 \end{array} \right)
\left( \begin{array}{c} x \\ y \end{array} \right)
\mbox{~and~} \left[ \begin{array}{cc|r}
3 & 4 & 5 \\ 1 & 3 & 729 \end{array} \right]
_
2τ 7φ −
5
12

π
8
__
r
j
_
and
_
3 4 5
1 3 729
_
f(z) = \left\{ \begin{array}{rcl}
\overline{\overline{z^2}+\cos z} & \mbox{for}
& |z|<3 \\ 0 & \mbox{for} & 3\leq|z|\leq5 \\
\sin\overline{z} & \mbox{for} & |z|>5
\end{array}\right.
)(.) =
_
_
_
.
2
+ cos . for [.[ < 3
0 for 3 ≤ [.[ ≤ 5
sin. for [.[ 5
11 Other Styles (math mode only)
Caligraphic letters: $\mathcal{A}$ etc.: /B( Tc T ( H1 ¸ /L/^ OT Q¹o T | 1 JA } Z
Mathbb letters: $\mathbb{A}$ etc.: ABC|EFGH" , K'MN´P¸1S¯UVWXYZ
Mathfrak letters: $\mathfrak{A}$ etc.: ABCDEFGHI J KLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ a b c 1 2 3
Math Sans serif letters: $\mathsf{A}$ etc.: ABCDEFGHI J KL MNOPQRSTUVWXYZ a b c 1 2 3
Math bold letters: $\mathbf{A}$ etc.: ABCDEFGHI JKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abc 123
Math bold italic letters: deﬁne \def\mathbi#1{\textbf{\em #1}} then use $\mathbi{A}$ etc.:
ABCDEFGHI J KLMNOPQRS TUVWXYZ a b c 1 2 3
12 Font sizes
Math Mode:
_
)
−1
(r −r
a
) dr ${\displaystyle \int f^{-1}(x-x_a)\,dx}$
_
)
−1
(r −r
a
) dr ${\textstyle \int f^{-1}(x-x_a)\,dx}$

f
−1
(x−x
a
) dx ${\scriptstyle \int f^{-1}(x-x_a)\,dx}$

f
−1
(x−x
a
) dx ${\scriptscriptstyle \int f^{-1}(x-x_a)\,dx}$
Text Mode:
\tiny = smallest
\scriptsize = very small
\footnotesize = smaller
\small = small
\normalsize = normal
\large = large
\Large = Large
\LARGE = LARGE
\huge = huge
\Huge = Huge
13 Text Mode: Accents and Symbols
´o \’{o} ¨o \"{o} ˆo \^{o} `o \‘{o} ˜o \~{o} ¯o \={o} s
.
\d s
˙ o \.{o} ˘o \u{o} ˝o \H{o} oo \t{oo} ¸ o \c{o} o
.
\d{o} ˚s \r s
o
¯
\b{o}
˚
A \AA ˚a \aa ß \ss ı \i  \j ˝s \H s
ø \o s \t s ˇs \v s Ø \O ¶ \P ¸ \S
æ \ae Æ \AE † \dag ‡ \ddag c _ \copyright £ \pounds