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ACST101

Techniques and Elements of Finance


Department of Applied Finance and Actuarial Studies Faculty of Business and Economics

Unit Guide
S1 Day Session 1, North Ryde, Day 2013

Table of Content Table of Content General Information


Convenor and teaching staff Credit Points Prerequisites Corequisites Co-badged status Unit Description

2 3
3 3 3 3 3 3

Learning Outcomes Assessment Tasks


Class Tests Final Examination Weekly Quizzes

4 5
5 5 6

Unit Schedule Delivery and Resources


Learning and Teaching Activities Required and Recommended Texts and/or Materials Technology Used and Required Unit Web Page Teaching and Learning Strategy Consultation PAL What has changed?

7 8
8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9

Policies and Procedures


Academic Honesty Grades Grading Appeals and Final Examination Script Viewing Special Consideration Policy Student Support
UniWISE provides:

10
10 10 10 10 11
11

Student Enquiry Service Equity Support IT Help

11 11 11

Graduate Capabilities
Capable of Professional and Personal Judgement and Initiative
Learning Outcome

12
12
12

Problem Solving and Research Capability


Learning Outcome Assessment Task

12
12 12

Discipline Specific Knowledge and Skills


Learning Outcome Assessment Task

12
13 13

Critical, Analytical and Integrative Thinking


Learning Outcome Assessment Task

13
13 13

Research and Practice

14

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General Information
Convenor and teaching staff
Unit Convenor: David Westcott Email: david.westcott@mq.edu.au Phone: 98508568 Office: E4A728 (call 8568 on the House Phone near the lifts) Consultation Hours: Tuesday 1pm - 2pm, Wednesday 12pm - 1pm

Credit Points
3

Prerequisites
N/A

Corequisites
N/A

Co-badged status
This unit is not co-badged.

Unit Description
This unit provides an introduction to the pricing of financial instruments in the techniques section, and to the functions of the Australian financial system in the elements section. The principal components are the basic methods of financial mathematics and the structure of the financial system. In this unit students apply mathematical concepts in valuing a range of financial instruments including investment accounts, promissory notes, mortgage loans, personal loans and bonds. They also learn about financial institutions (eg, banks, insurance companies, superannuation funds), financial instruments (eg, bills, bonds, shares) and financial markets. A background of HSC Mathematics or equivalent numerical competency is assumed. Students who have not studied the necessary mathematics are advised to complete MATH123 before enrolling in this unit. The concepts developed in this unit are required in subsequent actuarial studies and finance units. The unit also provides a practical introduction to finance for students not planning to continue with study in the area.

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Learning Outcomes
1. Understand the concepts of present value and future value and apply to problems involving single payments. 2. Apply the concepts of present value and future value to problems involving annuities. 3. Use the concepts from 1. and 2. to price mortgage loans, bonds and debentures and other financial instruments. 4. Describe the functions of the Australian financial system and the financial institutions, financial instruments and financial markets which form part of it.

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Assessment Tasks
Task Weight Due Date Linked Learning Outcomes 1, 2, 3, 4 1, 2, 3, 4 Linked Graduate Capabilities 1, 2, 3 1, 2, 3 Brief Description

Class Tests Final Examination

30% 50%

Weeks 5, 8, 12 University Examination Period 11:59pm Monday Weeks 2 to 13

3 Class Tests Final Examination

Weekly Quizzes

20%

1, 2, 3, 4

1, 2, 3

Weekly Online Quizzes (11)

Class Tests
Due Date: Weeks 5, 8, 12 Weight: 30%
Date of Class Tests C lass Test 1 will be held in the first hour of the two hour lecture in Week 5. Students m ust attend at the lecture tim e for which they are enrolled. Depending on the lecture enrolled this will be on Tuesday 26 March, Wednesday 27 March or Thursday 28 March. C lass Test 2 will be held in the first hour of the two hour lecture in Week 8. Depending on the lecture enrolled this will be on Tuesday 30 April, Wednesday 1 May or Thursday 2 May. C lass Test 3 will be held in the first hour of the two hour lecture in Week 12. Depending on the lecture enrolled this will be on Tuesday 28 May, Wednesday 29 May or Thursday 30 May. Extension No extensions will be granted. Students who do not sit for the test will be awarded a m ark of 0 for the test, except for cases in which an application for special consideration is m ade and approved. Topics Tested C lass Tests will be based on the following lecture topics from the Unit Schedule:

Techniques Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Weeks 1, 2, 3 Weeks 4, 5, 6 Weeks 7, 8, 9, 10

Elements Weeks 2, 3, 4 Weeks 4, 6, 7 Weeks 9, 10, 11

Full details of the C lass Tests will be given on iLearn. The 3 C lass Tests each count 10% of the final assessm ent. A list of basic form ulae available on iLearn will be supplied to students.

Final Examination
Due Date: University Examination Period Weight: 50%
Examination conditions

The closed book final exam ination will contain questions from all techniques and all elem ents lectures. It will be a three hour written paper with 10 m inutes reading tim e. Part A will consist of 45 m ultiple choice questions on both techniques and elem ents. Part A will be m arked out of 45. Part B will contain 3 questions requiring the application of the techniques section to practical problem s. Part B will be m arked out of 30. A list of basic form ulae available on iLearn will be supplied to students. What is required to complete the unit satisfactorily

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To be eligible for a passing grade in this unit a pass is required in the final exam ination.

Weekly Quizzes
Due Date: 11:59pm Monday Weeks 2 to 13 Weight: 20%
Submission

For each of the 11 weekly online quizzes, students use iLearn to obtain the questions, enter the answers and view the solutions. Before students can access Q uiz 1 due in Week 3 they m ust score 100% in the Unit Requirem ents Q uiz and at least 80% in both the Maths Revision Q uiz and the Practice Q uiz. These prelim inary quizzes are all due early in Week 2. Extension

No extensions will be granted. Students who have not subm itted a quiz prior to the deadline will be awarded a m ark of 0 for the quiz, except for cases in which an application for special consideration is m ade and approved. What is required to complete the unit satisfactorily

A satisfactory attem pt by the due date is required for at least 8 quizzes. A definition of satisfactory is given in the Unit Requirem ents Q uiz. Calculation of Overall Quiz mark

The m arks for all 11 quizzes are used to calculate the final assessm ent m ark out of 20 based on quizzes. Q uizzes 7 to 11 are given double weighting.

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Unit Schedule
Week Elements (1st hour) Techniques (2nd hour) Class Test

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Unit Overview Elements Overview Banks RBA, Bank Regulation -Non-bank institutions Non-bank institutions Semester Study Break

Simple interest & simple discount Compound interest Compound interest Annuities Annuities Annuities Mortgage loans 1

8 9

-Government finances and instruments Corporate finances and instruments Derivatives --

Flat rate loans, NPV, IRR Bonds & debentures

10 11 12

Tax on bonds Varying annuities Sinking funds and capitalised costs Revision 3

13

Revision

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Delivery and Resources


Learning and Teaching Activities
There are 3 hours of face-to-face teaching per week consisting of 1 x 2 hour lecture and 1 x 1 hour tutorial. Class times can be found at: http://www.timetables.mq.edu.au Lectures The Elements lecture is held in the first hour of the 2 hour class. The Techniques lecture is held in the second hour of the 2 hour class. The lecture notes for both techniques lectures and elements lectures are available from ACST101 iLearn. A copy should be brought to each lecture. Tutorials Tutorials which are held weekly commence in the second week of the semester. Tutorial attendance is compulsory. Students must attend and fully participate in at least 9 tutorials. Tutorial enrolment or change of tutorial can be made through eStudent in the first two weeks of the semester. No tutorial changes are allowed after Week 2. To prepare for each weekly tutorial, print a copy of the Tutorial Exercises from iLearn and attempt the first few questions eg for the Week 2 tutorial you should attempt Q1 to Q4 of the Tutorial Exercises on Week 1. Check on eStudent for the location of your tutorial. Some tutorial rooms may have been changed since you enrolled. You must attend your allocated tutorial.

Required and Recommended Texts and/or Materials


The textbooks are available as a package from the Macquarie University Co-op Bookshop. They are also available in the Macquarie University Library. Knox D M, Zima P and Brown R L, Mathematics of Finance, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill (2009) Viney C, Financial Market Essentials, 1st Edition, McGraw-Hill (2011)

Technology Used and Required


Calculators Calculators will be allowed in the class tests and the final examination but a clear indication of the steps involved in every calculation must be shown. Non-programmable calculators with no text-retrieval capacity are allowed. Calculators that have a full alphabet on the keyboard are not allowed. Graphics calculators are not allowed. You will need a calculator which has xy or ^, 1/x and log or ln functions, and a memory.

Unit Web Page


Course material is available on the learning management system (iLearn). The web page for this unit can be found at http://ilearn.mq.edu.au The following are available on the website: 1. Lecture notes and Revision Exercises for "Techniques". 2. Lecture notes and internet exercises for "Elements". 3. Tutorial Exercises and solutions. 4. Quizzes. 5. Class Test solutions for the past two semesters and the current semester. 6. Final Examination papers and solutions.

Teaching and Learning Strategy


This unit is taught via lectures and tutorials. Tutorial exercises will be provided for each tutorial so that you

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can practise applying the results developed in lectures. Weekly online quizzes will encourage you to revise the material regularly. Understanding of concepts is required rather than memorisation of formulae. It is essential that you work steadily and consistently over the whole semester. Each topic builds on the previous one. It is extremely difficult to catch up if you fall behind.

Consultation
Commencing in Week 3 tutors will be available each day in the Numeracy Centre C5A225. The timetable will be posted on iLearn. You can consult any of the tutors not just the one who takes your tutorial.

PAL
Commencing in Week 3 there will be Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) workshops where students can learn in a group setting. The workshops will be led by students who have recently studied ACST101 and who have achieved very good grades.

What has changed?


There have been no substantial changes since the previous offering of this unit.

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Policies and Procedures


Macquarie University policies and procedures are accessible from Policy Central. Students should be aware of the following policies in particular with regard to Learning and Teaching: Academic Honesty Policy http://www.mq.edu.au/policy/docs/academic_honesty/policy.html Assessment Policy http://www.mq.edu.au/policy/docs/assessment/policy.html Grade Appeal Policy http://www.mq.edu.au/policy/docs/gradeappeal/policy.html Special Consideration Policy http://www.mq.edu.au/policy/docs/special_consideration/policy.html In addition, a number of other policies can be found in the Learning and Teaching Category of Policy Central.

Academic Honesty
The nature of scholarly endeavour, dependent as it is on the work of others, binds all members of the University community to abide by the principles of academic honesty. Its fundamental principle is that all staff and students act with integrity in the creation, development, application and use of ideas and information. This means that: all academic work claimed as original is the work of the author making the claim all academic collaborations are acknowledged academic work is not falsified in any way when the ideas of others are used, these ideas are acknowledged appropriately. Further information on the academic honesty can be found in the Macquarie University Academic Honesty Policy at http://www.mq.edu.au/policy/docs/academic_honesty/policy.html

Grades
Macquarie University uses the following grades in coursework units of study: HD - High Distinction D - Distinction CR - Credit P - Pass F - Fail Grade descriptors and other information concerning grading are contained in the Macquarie University Grading Policy which is available at: http://www.mq.edu.au/policy/docs/grading/policy.html

Grading Appeals and Final Examination Script Viewing


If, at the conclusion of the unit, you have performed below expectations, and are considering lodging an appeal of grade and/or viewing your final exam script please refer to the following website which provides information about these processes and the cut off dates in the first instance. Please read the instructions provided concerning what constitutes a valid grounds for appeal before appealing your grade. http://www.businessandeconomics.mq.edu.au/new_and_current_students/undergraduate_current_students/how_do_i/grade_appeals/

Special Consideration Policy


The University is committed to equity and fairness in all aspects of its learning and teaching. In stating this commitment, the University recognises that there may be circumstances where a student is prevented by unavoidable disruption from performing in accordance with their ability. A special consideration policy exists to support students who experience serious and unavoidable disruption such that they do not reach their usual demonstrated performance level. The policy is available at: http://www.mq.edu.au/policy/docs/special_consideration/policy.html

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http://www.businessandeconomics.mq.edu.au/new_and_current_students/undergraduate/how_do_i/special_consideration

The due date for receipt by the University of an application for Special Consideration is five (5) working days after the due date of the associated assessment task / final examination.

Student Support
Macquarie University provides a range of Academic Student Support Services. Details of these services can be accessed at: http://students.mq.edu.au/support/

UniWISE provides:
Online learning resources and academic skills workshops http://www.mq.edu.au/learning_skills/ Personal assistance with your learning & study related questions. The Learning Help Desk is located in the Library foyer (level 2). Online and on-campus orientation events run by Mentors@Macquarie.

Student Enquiry Service


Details of these services can be accessed at http://www.student.mq.edu.au/ses/.

Equity Support
Students with a disability are encouraged to contact the Disability Support Unit who can provide appropriate help with any issues that arise during their studies.

IT Help
If you wish to receive IT help, we would be glad to assist you at http://informatics.mq.edu.au/help/. When using the university's IT, you must adhere to the Acceptable Use Policy. The policy applies to all who connect to the MQ network including students and it outlines what can be done.

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Graduate Capabilities
Capable of Professional and Personal Judgement and Initiative
We want our graduates to have emotional intelligence and sound interpersonal skills and to demonstrate discernment and common sense in their professional and personal judgement. They will exercise initiative as needed. They will be capable of risk assessment, and be able to handle ambiguity and complexity, enabling them to be adaptable in diverse and changing environments. This graduate capability is supported by:

Learning Outcome
1. Describe the functions of the Australian financial system and the financial institutions, financial instruments and financial markets which form part of it.

Problem Solving and Research Capability


Our graduates should be capable of researching; of analysing, and interpreting and assessing data and information in various forms; of drawing connections across fields of knowledge; and they should be able to relate their knowledge to complex situations at work or in the world, in order to diagnose and solve problems. We want them to have the confidence to take the initiative in doing so, within an awareness of their own limitations. This graduate capability is supported by:

Learning Outcome
1. Understand the concepts of present value and future value and apply to problems involving single payments. 2. Apply the concepts of present value and future value to problems involving annuities. 3. Use the concepts from 1. and 2. to price mortgage loans, bonds and debentures and other financial instruments.

Assessment Task
1. 3 Class Tests 2. Final Examination 3. Weekly Online Quizzes (11)

Discipline Specific Knowledge and Skills


Our graduates will take with them the intellectual development, depth and breadth of knowledge, scholarly understanding, and specific subject content in their chosen fields to make them competent and confident in their subject or profession. They will be able to demonstrate, where relevant, professional technical competence and meet professional standards. They will be able to articulate the structure of knowledge of their discipline, be able to adapt discipline-specific knowledge to novel situations, and be able to contribute from their discipline to inter-disciplinary solutions to problems. This graduate capability is supported by:

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Learning Outcome
1. Understand the concepts of present value and future value and apply to problems involving single payments. 2. Apply the concepts of present value and future value to problems involving annuities. 3. Use the concepts from 1. and 2. to price mortgage loans, bonds and debentures and other financial instruments. 4. Describe the functions of the Australian financial system and the financial institutions, financial instruments and financial markets which form part of it.

Assessment Task
1. 3 Class Tests 2. Final Examination 3. Weekly Online Quizzes (11)

Critical, Analytical and Integrative Thinking


We want our graduates to be capable of reasoning, questioning and analysing, and to integrate and synthesise learning and knowledge from a range of sources and environments; to be able to critique constraints, assumptions and limitations; to be able to think independently and systemically in relation to scholarly activity, in the workplace, and in the world. We want them to have a level of scientific and information technology literacy. This graduate capability is supported by:

Learning Outcome
1. Understand the concepts of present value and future value and apply to problems involving single payments. 2. Apply the concepts of present value and future value to problems involving annuities. 3. Use the concepts from 1. and 2. to price mortgage loans, bonds and debentures and other financial instruments.

Assessment Task
1. 3 Class Tests 2. Final Examination 3. Weekly Online Quizzes (11)

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Research and Practice


This unit uses research from external sources. The teaching is at an introductory level. Hence you can find the research we are using in the textbooks cited above, rather than needing to source recent research papers.

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Department of Applied Finance and Actuarial Studies ACST101 : TECHNIQUES AND ELEMENTS OF FINANCE WEEKLY QUIZZES
This is a brief outline of how to complete your weekly quizzes in ACST101 Techniques and Elements of Finance. A satisfactory attempt by the due date is required for at least 8 quizzes. Note the word "satisfactory". This implies that you made a reasonable effort. For this requirement a mark of at least 40 in Quizzes 1 to 11 will be regarded as satisfactory. The main purpose of the Quizzes is to give you feedback so that you can identify areas requiring further study. Quizzes 7 to 11 will be given double weighting. The marks for all 11 quizzes are used in the final assessment. You are allowed 2 attempts at each of Quizzes 1 to 11. The highest mark counts. (Completion time about 1 minute)

Unit Requirements Quiz - Due Monday 4 March.

You must score 100% in the Unit Requirements Quiz to have access to the Maths Revision Exercises. You are allowed 3 attempts. This quiz tests your knowledge of the minimum requirements for tutorials and quizzes. Maths Revision Exercises - Due Monday 4 March. (Completion time about 20 minutes)

You must score at least 80% in the Maths Revision Exercises to have access to the Practice Quiz. If you score less than 80% make another attempt. You have unlimited attempts. The Maths Revision Exercises will give you practice in the types of algebraic operations which are assumed knowledge for ACST101. This is important if you are unsure about your maths or haven't done any maths for a long time. Each maths revision exercise is preceded by a worked solution of a similar type problem. Students may consult the Numeracy Centre C5A225. Practice Quiz - Due Monday 4 March. (Completion time about 20 minutes) You must score at least 80% in the Practice Quiz to have access to Quiz 1. If you score less than 80% make another attempt. You are allowed 3 attempts. The Practice Quiz tests calculator and basic algebra skills. Overview In addition to the above 3 introductory quizzes which do not count towards the final assessment, there are 11 quizzes to be completed. Each quiz is based on the corresponding Techniques topic, e.g. Quiz 1 is based on the Week 1 Techniques topic. You will use the ACST101 website to get your copy of each quiz, and subsequently enter your answers for marking. You are allowed 2 attempts at each quiz. Your version of each quiz will be different to that of other students in ACST101. Your version will have the same number of problems and each problem will be of the same TYPE as the corresponding problem in everyone else's, BUT the numerical values (like dates, monetary amounts, interest rates, etc.) in your version will be different to those in everyone else's.

15 ACST101 Quizzes

What do you have to do to complete a quiz? Click on the name of the quiz which you wish to attempt. Quizzes can be found on pages 1 to 11 of iLearn or by opening the Activities block on the right hand side of iLearn. When you click Attempt Quiz Now the quiz questions will appear on your screen. To print a quiz place the cursor in the frame containing the quiz questions and click the right mouse button. In Internet Explorer the frame that appears gives an option to Print. Close the window by clicking on ACST101 in the "breadcrumb" line or use the back button on the browser. Do NOT click on the Finish button at this stage. When you have worked out the answers to your quiz questions (which may be several days later), login, click on Assessment then on the name of the appropriate quiz as before. The answer for Question 1 is entered in the answer box at the end of Question 1. Click the cursor into the answer box then type in the answer. Repeat this for each subsequent question. When all answers have been entered, click on the Next button at the bottom of the page so that your quiz can be marked. If you are completing the quiz online you are advised to keep a copy of the numerical answers as your answers will be lost if you lose your connection before you save them. When your quiz has been marked. a list of your answer and the correct answer is given for each question and an overall mark is given. Full Worked Solutions to each question (not just the numerical answers) will appear after the quiz has closed. To view the solutions, click on the link for the Quiz. Quiz Availability Dates Answers to the quizzes should be entered by 11:59pm on the following dates. Deadlines will not be extended any further. Quiz Unit Requirements Maths Revision Practice 1 2 3 4 Due Date Mon 4 March Mon 4 March Mon 4 March Mon 11 March Mon 18 March Mon 25 March Tue 2 April Quiz 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Due Date Mon 8 April Mon 29 April Mon 6 May Mon 13 May Mon 20 May Mon 27 May Mon 3 June

A quiz is due on the Monday of each teaching week of the semester from Week 2. No quizzes are due in the mid-semester break. Confidentiality You should read the Confidentiality section under Privacy Information at the login address. It sets out the types of information collected about student use of the site.

16 ACST101 Quizzes

Spreadsheets Students enrolling in ACST101 are not required to use a computer spreadsheet. However some students will have learnt to use a spreadsheet in 100-level COMP or ISYS units or in other studies. Spreadsheets such as Microsoft Excel can be used to perform ACST101 calculations and the following notes may be useful to students who wish to extend their learning. Excel Commands The Help topics have a financial functions category. Among the functions that are of use in ACST101 are: FV(i,n,-R,-P,0) PV(i,n,-I,-C,0) RATE(n,-I,P,-C,0) NPER(i,-R,L,0,0) PMT(i,n,L,0,0) which calculates Rs i + P(1+ i) n
n| which calculates Ia i + n|

C(1+ i) n
n|

which calculates the value of i for which P = Ia i + C(1+ i) n which calculates the value of n for which L = Ra i
n|

which calculates the value of R for which L = Ra i n|

Some of the parameters in the above expressions have negative signs. The convention is adopted that payments out of your pocket should have a negative sign and money coming in should have a positive sign. The last entry in the above commands is 0 or 1. The indicator 0 means that the annuity payments are at the end of each period or (in arrear) and the indicator 1 means that the annuity payments are at the start of each period or (in advance). NPV(i,A1:A5) which calculates the net present value at rate i of the set of cash flows in cells say A1,A2,...,A5 assuming A1 occurs at the end of the first time period. If A1 occurs at the start of the first time period, it must be added separately.

IRR(A1:A5,Guess) which calculates the internal rate of return of the cash flows in say A1,A2,...,A5. Guess is a rough estimate of the IRR. The numerical value of A1 is usually negative. Another useful function is the Solver function or the Goal Seek function in the Tools menu. As an example you might use the spreadsheet to set up a loan repayment schedule (studied in Week 7) for a given loan but using an estimate of the instalment. The Solver function allows you to find the instalment which will make the loan outstanding at the end of the term equal to zero.

ERRATA TO KNOX, ZIMA & BROWN, Mathematics of Finance, 2nd edition


Page 7 Page 10 Page 52 Page 64 Page 219 Page 227 Page 297 Page 299 Page 300 Example 2 Example 4 Solution Example 2 Example 2 Equation (31) Formula for i Exercise 1.6 Q4 Exercise 3.6 A Q2 Exercise 6.5 A Q2 Answer should be $8.91 not $6.51 The bill was purchased on 2 May not 3 May In the line beginning Step 1, 1000 should be 10000 The interest rate is j4 = 12% not j4 = 3% 1 Second term on right hand side should be F1(1 + i) Numerator should be F0 + F1 + F2 + F3 + ... + Fn Answer should be $1025.28 not $810.66 Answer should be $4291.72 not $2262.56 Answer should be sinking fund by $302.25 not $1090.80
17 ACST101 Quizzes

MACQUARIE UNIVERSITY ACST101 : Techniques and Elements of Finance FORMULAE FOR USE IN EXAMINATIONS 1 Future value at simple interest S = P(1 + rt) 2 Present value at simple interest P = S(1 + rt)-1 3 Present value at simple discount P = S(1 dt) 4 Future value at compound interest S = P(1 + i)n 5 Present value at compound interest P = S(1 + i)-n 6 Future value of n payments of R at compound rate i
(1 + i )n 1 S = Rs i = R n| i

7 Present value of n payments of R at compound rate i


1 (1 + i ) n i P = Ra n = R | i

8 Approximation to bond or debenture yield for given price


1 I + n (C P) i 1 2 (C + P)

9 Present value of an annuity with payments increasing in arithmetic progression P = R[(1 + i)-1 + 2(1 + i)-2 + ... + n(1 + i)-n]
(1 + i )a i n(1 + i ) n n| = R i

10 Future value of an annuity with payments increasing in arithmetic progression (1 + i )s i n n| S = R i 11 Present value of an annuity with payments increasing in geometric progression P = R[(1 + i)-1 + (1 + r)(1 + i)-2 + ... + (1 + r)n-1(1 + i)-n] i r j = R(1 + r )1 a n| where j = 1 + r 12 Future value of an annuity with payments increasing in geometric progression S = R(1 + r ) n 1 s nj| where j =
18

i r 1 + r