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ARMENIAN JOURNAL OF NEAR EASTERN STUDIES
VOLUME V, ISSUE 1 - 2010
ASSOCIATION FOR NEAR EASTERN AND CAUCASIAN STUDIES YEREVAN 2010
Association for Near Eastern and Caucasian Studies Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography NAS RA. 2009. Institute of Oriental Studies NAS RA. Armen Petrosyan and Yervand Grekyan PART I YEREVAN 2010 . German University of Armenia URARTU AND ITS NEIGHBORS FESTSCHRIFT IN HONOR OF NICOLAY HARUTYUNYAN IN OCCASION OF HIS 90TH BIRTHDAY (22-24 SEPTEMBER. YEREVAN) Edited by Aram Kosyan.
Why We do Need to Study Leonti Mroveli ����������������������������������������� 17-26 MIRJO SALVINI. The Hittite marnuwa ������������������������������������������������������������������� 127-132 ARMEN PETROSYAN. Western Periphery of Urartu and Beyond ��������������������������������������������������� 43-54 ROCIO DA RIVA. Thureau-Dangin. Hurro-Urartian-North-East Caucasian-Armenian Linguistic Connections ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 116-120 GERNOT WILHELM. The Hieroglyphic Script of Van Kingdom: The Perspectives of Decipherment ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 166-183 SUMMARIES ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 184-196 ABBREVIATIONS ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 197-198 16 . Just Another Brick in the Median Wall �������������������������������������������������������� 55-65 MICHAEL ROAF. On the Use of the “Article” in Urartian ������������������������������ 109-115 JOHN GREPPIN.TABLE OF CONTENTS _____________________ History EDITORIAL ARTICLES GREGORY ARESHIAN. Remarks on the Urartian Verbal System ������������������������������������������� 121-126 HASMIK HMAYAKYAN. Lehmann-Haupt. Morphological Negation in Urartian ������������������������������������������������ 141-165 ARTAK MOVSISYAN. The Battle of Uauš Revisited ������������������������������������������������������������ 83-108 Linguistics MARGARIT KHACHIKYAN. The Armenian Elements in the Language and Onomastics of Urartu ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 133-140 ILYA YAKUBOVICH. Rusa SarduriÆi and Rusa ErimenaÆi ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 66-82 YERVAND GREKYAN. Recent Discoveries of Urartian Inscriptions ������������������������������������������������ 27-42 ARAM KOSYAN.
53-59. before the mid-9th century BC) or did they appear there during the existence or after the fall of Urartu? If we show that there is at least one borrowing in Urartian from Armenian and that some place and personal names mentioned in the Urartian sources have Armenian origins then we can say that Armenian was spoken along with Urartian in the Armenian Highland. The Armenian conjunction ew ‘and’ originates from the Indo-European *epi(> *ewi > ew).Diakonoff as he as no other was familiar with the ancient cultures and languages of the region. 2 Diakonoff 1967: 135. The native origin of the conjunction is beyond all doubt. Diakonoff 1985: 602f.Djahukian’s works. Djahukian 1984: 369. Djahukian 1988a. p. 417-474.3 1. In order to show that this conjunction is borrowed from Armenian. The most significant are G. Diakonoff notes that it is not known in earlier attested Hurrian and other North-Eastern Caucasian languages (which are considered to be related with HurroUrartian). Urartian has been in contact with Armenian prior to this. eai (the two last forms are the results of a development peculiar to Urartian).. where he systematically examines the borrowings of Armenian from ancient cuneiform languages. 2010. They are known from the first Urartian records of the last quarter of the 9th century BC. eia. Hurrian is an ergative language and does not use non-affixed conjunctions. D Djahukian 1988: 148-161. 133-140 . Djahukian 1987: 312-321.2 The following question is essential: were there speakers of the earliest Armenian language in the Armenian Highland in the pre-Urartian period (i.THE ARMENIAN ELEMENTS IN THE LANGUAGE AND ONOMASTICS OF URARTU Armen Petrosyan Several scholars tried to identify the linguistic traces of the Armenian ethnic element in Ancient Near East. It is borrowed in Urartian. Diakonoff 1992. jahukian 1963: 133. important are the examples and arguments adduced by I.e. Djahukian 1992a: 34-38. 4 KUKN: 442.4 Hence. e’a (to read: ewa). where it appears as eue. 3 See Petrosyan 2007: 32-34.1 Furthermore. 1 Appellatives AJNES V/1. Here I will present a few indicative examples from the dozens adduced by various authors. Djahukian 1986. Djahukian 1992. shows that it is possible for some cuneiform languages to have borrowings from earliest (Proto-) Armenian and that numerous ancient names of the Armenian Highland and adjacent regions can be etymologized in Armenian.
well being. where the ending -(o)sə is an abstract word-forming Urartian suffix) ‘health. Avest. Ar§ibi.’ For the y > ˜ change cf. Lat.’etc). Gamkrelidze and Ivanov 1984: 744 f.‘swift/ sharp-winged’).’ coinsides with Arm. z and Ind. arcui < *arciwi. Urart. j. 5 Watkins 1995: 71. b-arzu. The Greek.’ known from ancient sources4 (cf. oł˜ ‘whole. Îjipya-.(or *olyo-) ‘whole.’ which presents the earliest Armenian *olyo-. cf. the being alive’ corresponds to Arm. an epithet of both the eagle and mythological stallion. Syriac and Armenian/Urartian words have been considered to be derived from an ancient Indo-European centum language. especially Xorenac‘i II. 6 HAB I: 488. j is rendered as z). Diakonoff 1985: 603. 3 Diakonoff 1985: 602.v. especially Urart. arcui ‘eagle’ and the system of its epithets “suggest that the Armenian word is native and genuine.1 2. § corresponds only to Arm. the identical terms of the Kartvelian and Northern Caucasian languages are to be derived from Armenian (Georg. Urart. 50. where Arm. Diakonoff and Starostin 1988: 184. alive.” cf. where it is applied to the “black horseman” king Artašēs) represents the Armenian reflex of an Indo-European poetic formula. toponym Zabaha = Arm.’ Gk. pyramid’ (-ni is a common Hurro-Urartian suffix).2 3. Djahukian and others regard this name as borrowed from Armenian. 4 NHB 1: 756. Lak. castle. Ar§ibi /arcivə/ (Urart. while the Aryan forms with z and j would have been transliterated with the cuneiform zi (cf. see Djahukian 1987: 193. Arm. ster˜ ‘barren. ˜ = Ind. the name of the horse of King Minua. cf. arciw-.‘eagle god’ (Djahukian 1986: 49). according to C. burgana(ni) ‘fortress. Martirosyan 2010. Arm. ərəzifia. the Armenian expression arcui srat‘ew ‘sharp-winged eagle. 1 2 134 . Moreover. the regular Armenian reflex of the Indo-European g’ (see below). in spite of Lamberterie’s and Watkins’ claim. Chechen. column (?). the regular cognate of Ind. Thus. Avest. –awax-k‘. s.‘tower.’ Syriac būrgā ‘tower.’ etc.’ This name is the same as Arm. b frequently represents v/w. c. Urart.5 Note that Urart. etc. burgn < burgan.’ lit. ärzu.). for the possible Indo-European protoforms of ołĵ. but Neo-Sumerian has acquired a new conjunction u ‘and’ from Akkadian with which it co-existed.6 On the other Diakonoff 1992: 52-53.3 However. sterile’ < *steryo-. Note also that Ar§ibi would have been divinized in Urartu. 4. ‘sharp-winged. c vs IE g’. may not be considered a Hurro-Urartian borrowing from “an Indic horse cult” because in Armeno-Urartian lexical and onomastical coincidences Urart. does not have non-affixed conjunctions.‘eagle. Burg ‘castle. púrgos ‘tower. aigypios < *argipios ‘vulture’ (Indo-European *Îg’ipiyo.). the phonology of Arm. presumably ‘Eagle.Armen Petrosyan There exists a good analogy: another ancient ergative language.’ Germ. while Diakonoff considers as probable both the native Armenian and Caucasian/HurroUrartian origins of this word. arcui + di. arc‘ib. These words have obvious parallels in several languages (Gk. Batzb. Old Sumerian. the regular Armenian reflex of Indo-European *sol-yo. accipiter ‘hawk.Watkins. ulguše (probable reading: olyosə. the Urartian theonym Ar§ibedi-ni which may be interpreted as Arm.
Murat-su) corresponds to Arm. 3 Salvini 2008: 545 f. Urart.’ daŕnam ‘to turn. and *kəbur‑˜ (> Georg.’ Thus.’ Georg.‘beam. 4 Djahukian 1987: 308. 3. a loan from an early Armenian dialect) ‘a log that serves as a bridge.apparently does not mean ‘tower. bridge. see above). *kəpur˜ > dial. 1 2 135 . kiporči). but brgan. see also Martirosyan fortcoming.v. Armenian and Urartian would have been in contact for a long time.’ baŕnam ‘to lift. Urart. durgn).2 5. burgana. burgana would have been not burgn. mountain’ (barj-r. the regular Armenian reflex of Urart. pl. like a stela or a column. peculiar only to Armenian. ’Arsanivaõ (Harutyunyan 1985: 44).e. Djahukian considers durgn as a dialectal form: Dja hukian 1987: 253 f. toponym ZabaÆa = Arm. Toponyms 1. –awax-k‘) coincides with the reconstructed Armenian *kabwur˜-a and is to be borrowed from Armenian. Thus. load’).. Aracani < *Arcaniyā.. similarly to the reflexes of *dhÎg’h-/*dhÎgh. oł˜ < *(s)olyo-. the comparison with Gk géphūra shows that an earlier form of the Armenian word would have been *kawur˜-a. which was borrowed into Urartian.g.’Abkhaz *qwəmbər‑ ‘beam. The Urartian qab/purza. s. with bibliography. the Urartian word should be read /kawur˜a/.’ Gk géphūra ‘beam. gen.’ durgn.’ Diakonoff concludes that Arm.1 However.The Armenian Elements in the Language and Onomastics of Urartu hand. Djahukian 1987: 253 f.5 H. These words have parallels in many languages: Hatt. 2. kamur˜ represents a result of an obscure development (an unknown law?) or popular etymology. brgan should be derived from *bhÎg’h-/bhÎgh. 5 HAB II: 502f. Diakonoff claims that: 1.’ In Armenian. a-stem ‘id. gen. dialect kiporči (probably. drgan ‘potter’s wheel’). Initialy it was a word for a specific vertical object. qab/purza(ni) ‘bridge’ (?). it had two reflexes: *kəm(m)ur‑˜ > kamur˜. for the rendering of ˜a as cuneiform za. kamur˜. Urart. burgn holds a place in the system of Armenian reflexes of the Indo-European *bhÎg’h-/bhÎgh.3 represents an obvious parallel to Arm. Gk. attested in a newfound inscription of Argišti II. darj ‘turn. and is considered to be a “Mediterranean” or “MediterraneanPontic” cultural term. Martirosyan 2010 s. after the y > ˜ change). the Arm. The river name Ar§ania for the Eastern Euphrates (Turk.Acharyan. the Armenian word often has been considered as a Hurro-Urartian borrowing.(as a normal parallel to Arm.(to read: kawur˜a. Diakonoff 1985: 602 f. The latter would yield *kabur˜-a > *kawur˜. burgn.‘high.‘high. Arm. Æamuru(wa) ‘beam.’Turkic *köpür / *köp(ü)rüg ‘bridge.Martirosyan postulates the Mediterranean-Pontic *g/qwə(m)bhər ‘beam.‘turn’ (cf.v. First attested See e. The -˜(a) ending.4 According to H. log serving as a bridge.’ which yielded Proto-GreekoArmenian suffixed form *gwə(m)bur-i(e)h2. 310.. cf. would have been derived from the Indo-European suffix *-yā = i(e)h2 (cf.’ etc. Note that this word would have been borrowed later that ulguše (i. the word is not attested in Hurrian and therefore cannot be proved to be originally Hurro-Urartian.
moreover. This name has an apparent Armenian etymology: cf. the region of the lower streams of Aracani.(derivative of *Harg’.g. Mala. see Petrosyan 2002: 72. 1982: 362.. white’) > *Arcesk‘o..’ for the suffix -(ē)š < *-(e)skho-. 11. later Arčak ‘small Arčēš. Mevlaõ.g.’ Located to the north of the upper streams of the river Ar§ania. 5 Srvandztyants 1. paired with Sew getak ‘Black little River. Adilcevaz). etymologized from the Indo-European *Harg’esk(h)o. Attested in the second quarter of the 8th century BC. Erçek. Erciş) to the north of Lake Van. 1 2 136 . also Gk. Thus.g. there was a homonymic city to the southwest of Lake Van. Krahe 1962: 8.. For the localization of Ar§ašku(nu). Arčišoy (an almost precise rendering of Arcesk‘o is Assyr. $uara§iniei Æubi ‘$uara§ian valley’ corresponds with the Armenian Tuaracoy tap‘.> Arčēšo. Indo-European *Harg’.see e. e. Ar˜iš ‘Lake Van’). Ar§ašku(nu) may be identifyed with the Armenian Arčēš (Turk. ’Arsh(sh)nhv /Strabo. for the Indo-European hydronyms from *Harg’. cf. while in Turkish it is called Kara-su.Armen Petrosyan in an Assyrian source in the mid-9th century BC. Martirosyan 2010: 672.8/. ēš ‘donkey’ < *ek’wo.2 2. Melia(ini). Ar§ašku-). for the Indo-European “white” cities: Petrosyan 2002 : 71 ff. The Upper (Western) Euphrates in different languages and in different periods has been called: Hitt. the toponyms Bałałēš (modern Bitlis) and Muš (< *muskho-) to the west of Lake Van. See Petrosyan 2002: 186.14.7 4. these names reflect certain mythological and cosmological ideas on the black and white contrast. Urart. 7 Petrosyan 2002: 71 ff. 6 For the change *skh > š. Tuaracatap‘ ‘plain of tuarac. localized along the river Ar§ania.‘horse. white. The “royal city” of the first known Urartian king Aramu. see Harutyunyan 1985: 34-35. a small lake to the east of Lake Van was called Arčišak.1 i. Arab.’ Significantly. the river was called by the same stem throughout the length. Gk.in the vicinity of Xarberd. see Djahukian 1984a: 158 ff.’ with the reflection arc.peculiar to Armenian (cf.e. also Arcurak. cf. 2.’5 3.6 Arčēš was the denomination of the northern gulf of Lake Van as well as the whole lake itself (cf. e.‘bright. probably. Notably. cf.. čanač‘em < *canačem < *g’en. for the lower streams of the river.‘black’). and the suffix -ani < *-a-niyā and *-iyā for Ar§ia-ni (with the Urartian suffix -ni). Gen.’ with the suffix *-iyā. the upper streams of the river are attested as Ar§iani. if it is not a distorted rendering of Ar§ania. n.‘to know. may correspond with Tuarizu Salvini 2008: 545 f. c > č change is conditioned by the influence of the terminal š. Indo-European *mel‘black. a city to the north of the lake was called Arcak ‘small Arc’ (later: Arcke = Turk.4 Evidently. and the Turkish name of the river: Kara-su ‘Black water. cf. In the mentioned newfound Urartian inscription of Argišti II. 31-32. *mel.’ Turk. another Armenian river name derived from *Harg’.‘bright. 4 Yeremyan 1963: 70. with bibliography. 3 KUKN: 514. the main tributary of Aracani Mełraget has similar appellations: its ancient name is Meł (cf. arcat ‘silver’). this early Urartian capital could have been named (and once populated) by the early Armenians.3 cf.’ for ē before š.
‘dark. where Aram defeats his third. is to be identified with the Urartian Mt.(*rēmo. 6 Diakonoff 1958: 32.and *rōmo. Salvini 1987: 399 f.‘god’ + *g’en. Arama) coinsides with the name of the legendary patriarch Aram. with the regular disappearance of the final vowel in Armenian).2 Anthroponyms 1. Arnuwandas. the second eponym of Armenia (*Aramo/ā. Notably. 52.5 In the ancient traditions of the region. Adduru. black’). Djahukian 1988: 154.Grekyan (personal communication). crystal and silver” (Khorenatsi 2.115-116. tuarac ‘graze cattle. Arm. Mt. the story is also told in the Purāµas).14). ruler of the federation of Etiuni. n.1 cf. Eiduru (modern Süphan). Moreover. and Arm.‘bright. Yarris.3 These myths can be considered in the context of the theme of black and white or dark and light. Arame. According to Y. i. tuar is etymologized from the Indo-European *dīpîro. In Khorenatsi (1. is derived from the Hittite version of *Harg’-. which appears in the myths and epics elsewhere. respectively. Attested in the mid-8th century BC.e. Salvini 1995: 27 ff. If so. Kumarpi. mentioned in the area of Ar§aškun.in derivatives and compounds). Hur. the name of Mt... he might have been a “condotier” of Aramaean ancestry. In this context.The Armenian Elements in the Language and Onomastics of Urartu of an Assyrian source of the mid-8th century BC.’ consists of the words tuar ‘bull-calf’ and aracim ‘graze. Aram would represent the epithetal name of the ‘black’ thunder god who fights with his white adversary. kin. Διογένης. Comparable with the Indo-European (especially Balkanic) anthroponymic pattern *deiwo. Hitt.‘birth. the first Rāma–Paraśurāma ‘Rāma-with-the-axe’–defeats Arjuna Kārtavīrya. he kills the Syrian deified hero Baršam.’ cf. 4 Petrosyan 2002: 43 ff.or Semitic *taur-. The latter was called spitakap‘aŕ ‘of white glory’ (Agathangelos 784) and his idol was “embelished with ivory. which embraced the northern regions of the Armenian Highland. Gk. whose name is derived from *Harg’. Argaeus. etc. Ar§ašku was situated not far from Süphan and thus should be identified with Arčēš. 5 Alternatively.). Ašur. the epicized version of the god Baršamin (Syriac Ba‘al Šamin ‘Lord of Heaven’). Aram is best comparable with the Indic Rāma (Indo-European *rē-mo. 2. Telepinus. Harutyunyan 1985: 185-186. Assyr. cf. Martirosyan 2010: 684. Luw. monstrous advesary.would yield *Arim and *Arum. 1 2 137 . who was worshiped in Armenia as well. TarÆunzas.4 His name can be regarded as the regular reflex of *Hrîmo. Diu§ini/ $iu§ini (di can also be read as ‹i):6 the name of a king. 3 Laroche 1985: 88-89.14). In epic India. For the relation of the Aramaean and Armenian ethnonyms see Petrosyan 2002: 163 ff. The name of the first Urartian king Aramu (var. it has been hypothesized that the name of Aramu the Urartian alludes his Aramaean origin. theonyms were frequently used as anthroponyms. white’ (Mahābhārata 3.’ from which the latter is doubtlessly native Armenian (Indo-European *treg’-). his “royal city” Ar§ašku(nu) was localized in the basin of Lake Urmia (van Loon 1966: 7. cattleman’ tuaracatap‘ ‘place for grazing bull-calves.
’ Urart. Kulibarzini – barjr ‘high. e. separate. § corresponds only to Arm. make. toponym êupa-(ni) = Arm. *clan’ + ardi ‘order’ (goddess of birth and tribe). c. and might have existed many centuries before their first attestations. Alištu) – ał ‘salt. cold. Urart. cf. etc) sources. 77.‘god. 15. arm(n) ‘root. šuri ‘edge. aniarduni ‘independent’ – Arm. $urani – tur(k‘) ‘giving. z/§ari ‘garden’ – Arm. zil(i)be/i ‘breed. Words: Urart.’ etc. caŕ ‘tree.’ Urart.’ Meluiani – mełu ‘bee.com Gindin 1981: 42. west and north of it before the formation of the Urartian Empire. which is the reflection of the Indo-European *g’ peculiar only to Armenian. Θιογενεις. Djahukian 1987: 430 f. 3 Here I represent some other examples of Armenian elements in the Urartian language and ono mastics from Djahukian 1992 (the adduced Armenian words are considered to be native IndoEuropean). Ar§ibedini – arcui ‘eagle.’ Zirma – ˜erm ‘warm.’ etc. thing’ – Arm. oronyms: Ar§abia. abili.’ etc.3 Toponyms. particularly in the area of the upper streams of Ar§ania. Gizuar§u) – *arc. north of Lake Van. gen.. §ovə) = Arm. Assyrian. speech.’ Gugunaini – gog-o ‘gulf. cov ‘sea. sur ‘sharp. Cop‘-k‘. §ui (i. ba-n ‘word. hydronyms: Alaini (cf.Armen Petrosyan Thrac. Ar§idu (cf.‘id. or dik‘. Barzaništun. In Armeno-Urartian lexical and onomastical parallels Urart. bauše ‘speech.’1 For the Armenian interpretation. Diuzenus.‘white.‘birth. tribe.’ Urart. the domain of the legendary forefather of the Armenians Hayk. source. 375025.’ Uluruš – olor ‘winding. for the identification and localization of the early Armenians in the region: Petrosyan 2007. ayr ‘cave’ (*ayrayin). sinus. aŕnem ‘to do.the god who gives. Aluar§a.‘to add’ = Arm. also Gk. especially hydronyms. diw-c‘ ‘gods’ (*dhēs-) and cin ‘birth. other place-names: Alburi – ałbiwr ‘spring.’ Urart. order. etc. generation’ – Arm. presents). c‘eł ‘tribe. Διυξενι. armuzzi ‘family’ – Arm. sword. generation.e..’ *** In the adduced examples essential is the presence of the sound /c/. from θεός ‘god. Yerevan. Diakonoff 1958: 36. also place names Ar§ugu. Armenia alpehist@gmeil. anyar ‘unrelated. also town names Aliala. Balduar§a.. gift’ (*Turan.’ Urart.’ Šarni – saŕn ‘ice. theonyms: Airaini – Arm. kin. etc.g.2 which in the considered etymologies is indicative of the Armenian language. 4 For the possible Armenian elements in the earlest onomastics of the region. Hittite. as well as to the south. tiw ‘daytime’ (< *deiwo.g.. cf. thing. These words and names may substantiate the presence of the earliest Armenians in the Armenian Highland.’ Urart. 1 2 138 . For many of such etymologies coherent reasons could be adduced. Djahukian 1990.’ êinuiardi – cin-o.’ ‘day’).’ Barzuriani. weapon’ – Arm. arniuše ‘deed’ – Arm. k‘arins). Acc. bright.’ Urart.’ Karnišie – k‘ar ‘stone’ (Pl. This grounds the quest for the Armenian elements in the scattered names of the Highland and the adjacent regions attested in pre-Urartian (e. pl.’ Dilizia – dełj ‘yellow. present the earliest strata of languages. awel. spearhead.’ Urart.4 Armen Petrosyan Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography Charents Str.. see Djahukian 1988a..
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