# Clippers and Clampers

मंगलवार, 2 जुलाई 2013

Clippers and Clampers-1

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Clippers
 

A circuit that clips off or removes a portion of the input signal. A clipper can process any type of signal.

मंगलवार, 2 जुलाई 2013

Clippers and Clampers-1

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There can be single clippers : –

Positive Negative

 

Two categories :
Series – Diode and load in series. Parallel – Diode and load in parallel.

मंगलवार, 2 जुलाई 2013

Clippers and Clampers-1

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Series negative clipper

The circuit

The transfer characteristics

मंगलवार, 2 जुलाई 2013

Clippers and Clampers-1

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2 जुलाई 2013 Clippers and Clampers-1 5 .What happens if the diode in a halfwave rectifier is reversed ? Ans. It still remains a half-wave rectifier. but it now works as a positive clipper. Input Output ? मंगलवार.

 मंगलवार.Series Biased Clippers Bias means applying a dc voltage to change the dc level of a circuit. 2 जुलाई 2013 Clippers and Clampers-1 6 .

मंगलवार. Draw the transfer characteristic of the clipper.Guidelines to Solve     Determine the transition level at which the diode turns ON. With diode ON. Plot the waveshape of vo for given input. 2 जुलाई 2013 Clippers and Clampers-1 7 . find relation between vo and vi.

मंगलवार.We find that      Diode is ON for vi > VB. Therefore. When diode is OFF. Plot the transfer characteristic of the clipper. vi(tr) = VB. vo = vi – VB. 2 जुलाई 2013 Clippers and Clampers-1 8 . vo = 0. When diode is ON.

2 जुलाई 2013 Clippers and Clampers-1 9 .Characteristic (Graph between input and output) Draw the output wave corresponding to a sinusoidal input with Vm > VB मंगलवार.

Now. मंगलवार. 2 जुलाई 2013 Clippers and Clampers-1 10 . draw the output.

मंगलवार. if the input is a sinusoidal wave of peak value 15 V. 2 जुलाई 2013 Clippers and Clampers-1 11 .Example 1  Determine the output waveform for the clipper circuit.

•At transition level. vd  0 V and id  0 A. 2 जुलाई 2013 Clippers and Clampers-1 12 . so that vo  id RL  0 Writing KVL.Solution •The direction of the diode suggests that it will be ON for positive values of vi. vi (tr)  3  0  vi (tr)  3V मंगलवार.

2 जुलाई 2013 Clippers and Clampers-1 13 . vo  vi  3 मंगलवार.After diode is ON.

Transfer characteristic Draw the output. 2 जुलाई 2013 Clippers and Clampers-1 14 . मंगलवार.

Example 2  Determine the output waveform for the clipper circuit of Example 1. if its input is as follows मंगलवार. 2 जुलाई 2013 Clippers and Clampers-1 15 .

Solution Problem is simpler. Only two levels : vi = +15 V and vi = -5 V मंगलवार. 2 जुलाई 2013 Clippers and Clampers-1 16 .

you can draw the output. मंगलवार.Now. 2 जुलाई 2013 Clippers and Clampers-1 17 .

Total swing of vo is 18 – 0 = 18 V. 2 जुलाई 2013 Clippers and Clampers-1 18 . Total swing of vi is 15 – (-5) = 20 V. मंगलवार. and raised the dc level by 3 V. 3.Note that 1. Clipper circuit clipped off 2 V. 2.

Clippers and Clampers-2 Output wave. 19 .Parallel Clipper   The diode is put in parallel with the load. Input wave. मंगलवार. 2 जुलाई 2013 The circuit. This too is the familiar half-wave rectifier circuit.

Practical Aspects of Parallel Clipper. 2 जुलाई 2013 Clippers and Clampers-2 20 . but 0.7 V. VT = 0. मंगलवार.  If we take into account the threshold voltage. the clipping level is not zero.7 V.

1V  0. For example.7 V  RB   30 Ω 10 mA मंगलवार. a forward current of 10 mA at 1 V.     Small-signal diodes have small junction area. determine RB. 2 जुलाई 2013 Clippers and Clampers-2 21 .Defining Conditions. because they are optimized to work at high frequencies. RB. For above specifications. They have more bulk resistance.

unless RB << RS << RL We must have 100RB < RS < 0. RS should be at least 3 kΩ. If this condition is satisfied. we can ignore RL in the circuit. 2 जुलाई 2013 Clippers and Clampers-2 22 .    Clipper does not work properly.01RL For Example. and RL should be at least 300 kΩ. if RB = 30 Ω. मंगलवार.

मंगलवार. The Input. The Circuit. 2 जुलाई 2013 Clippers and Clampers-2 23 .Simple Parallel Positive Clipper Draw the output. The Output.

Example 3  Determine the output of the parallel biased clipper for the given input. 2 जुलाई 2013 Clippers and Clampers-2 24 . मंगलवार.

Solution मंगलवार. 2 जुलाई 2013 Clippers and Clampers-2 25 .

draw the transfer characteristic Now. मंगलवार. draw the output wave. 2 जुलाई 2013 Clippers and Clampers-2 26 . and get credit.Now.

Solution : To determine transition level. 2 जुलाई 2013 Clippers and Clampers-2 27 .7 V VR  id RS  0 V मंगलवार.7 V. id  0 A at vd  0. taking a silicon diode with VT = 0. instead of an ideal diode. we use the condition.Example 4  Repeat Example 3.

2 जुलाई 2013 Clippers and Clampers-2 28 . and vo = vi as shown in figure.3 V. Vi (tr)  VT  VB  0  Vi (tr)  VB  VT  4  0. मंगलवार.3 V For inputs less than 3. the diode is ON.3 V For inputs greater than 3.7  3. the diode is OFF.Applying KVL.3 V (including negative values). and vo = 3.

and get credit. मंगलवार. Note that VT reduces Vi(tr) to 3.Draw the output.3 V from 4 V. 2 जुलाई 2013 Clippers and Clampers-2 29 .

Design Problem  You are given     PN-Junction diodes (assumed ideal). Two batteries of 1.5 V each.  Design a circuit that gives an output as मंगलवार. and A sinusoidal voltage source. 2 जुलाई 2013 Clippers and Clampers-2 30 . Resistors.

मंगलवार. 2 जुलाई 2013 Clippers and Clampers-2 31 .Solution • D1 clips off positive parts above the positive bias level. • This circuit is called a combination clipper. • D2 clips off below negative level.

as a limiter used to protect a sensitive circuit (e.Applications of Combination Clippers     If the input voltage is very large compared to the bias level.. It can also be used in a completely different way. the output signal is a SQUARE WAVE. the circuit can be used for wave-shaping. Galvanometer). The diodes conduct only when something abnormal happens. OP-AMP. Thus. Sensitive Circuit मंगलवार.g. 2 जुलाई 2013 Clippers and Clampers-2 32 .

In addition. it may have a dc supply to introduce additional shift. or ties) either the positive or the negative peak of a signal to a definite level. The circuit has a capacitor. It clamps (or holds. a diode. Clippers and Clampers-3 33 मंगलवार. The capacitor does not discharge when diode is not conducting.Clampers (Electronic Circuits)       Also called DC Restorers. Time constant τ = RC is made much larger than T (time period) of the signal. and a resistor. 2 जुलाई 2013 .

The capacitor starts charging. 2 जुलाई 2013 Clippers and Clampers-3 34 .Positive Clamper (a) The input. the diode turns ON. • On first negative cycle. At negative peak. मंगलवार. the circuit is as shown in (c). The capacitor charges to Vm. (b) The circuit.

(c) (d) Slightly beyond negative peak. At positive peak. the diode turns OFF. the circuit is as shown in (d). Capacitor does not discharge much because of high RC. मंगलवार. 2 जुलाई 2013 Clippers and Clampers-3 35 . The net output is shown in (e).

The output sits on 0 V level.(e) The output. This is the dc voltage that is added to the signal. The charged capacitor acts like a battery of Vm. मंगलवार. 2 जुलाई 2013 Clippers and Clampers-3 36 . as seen in (e). The output is shifted in positive direction.

but always remaining below 0 V. and the circuit becomes negative clamper. 2 जुलाई 2013 Clippers and Clampers-3 37 . It is clamped to zero-volt level. • Memory Aid : The diode points in the direction of shift.Negative Clamper (a) The circuit. (b) The output. मंगलवार. The capacitor voltage reverses. • The diode is turned around.

मंगलवार. for which diode is ON.Note :      The total swing of the output is the same as that of the input. the capacitor does not discharge. Assume that the capacitor charges to voltage level decided by the circuit. Assume that when diode is OFF. A clamper can also have an added dc voltage. Start the analysis of the circuit for that part of input. It is then called biased clamper. 2 जुलाई 2013 Clippers and Clampers-3 38 .

(b) The circuit.Example 1 Determine the output for the input of 1 kHz shown. • Is it a positive or negative clamper ? • Ans. (a) The input. 2 जुलाई 2013 Clippers and Clampers-3 39 . मंगलवार. : Biased positive clamper.

2 जुलाई 2013 Clippers and Clampers-3 40 .Solution : The time constant of the circuit. the capacitor holds the charge when the diode is OFF. • We begin analysis with the period from T/2 to T.   RC  100 kΩ 1μF  100 ms  The time period of the input signal. 1 1 T   1 ms f 1 kHz   T • Thus. •The circuit is as shown in (a) मंगलवार. the diode is ON.

(a) • • • • The output is across R. VC = 18 V. मंगलवार. 2 जुलाई 2013 Clippers and Clampers-3 41 . but it is also across 3-V battery. -15 + VC -3 = 0. Applying KVL. vo = 3 V. Hence. the circuit is as shown in (b). during this period. For the period from T to 3T/2.

2 जुलाई 2013 Clippers and Clampers-3 42 . • Thus. • Note that the output swing is also 20 V. (c) मंगलवार. the output is as shown in (c). vo = 5 + 18 = 23 V.(b) • Applying KVL.