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sensory organ

2 epidermis dermis dermis


subcutaneous tissues hypodermis
Epidermis
keratinized horny layer
35
lichenification
Dermis arrector pili
(sweat glands) (sebaceous glands)
(sweat glands) apocrine glands eccrine glans
eccrine glands
apocrine glands (nipple & areola)

pheromones
(sebaceous glands)
active androgenic hormones

(: lesion)
(primary lesion)


(secondary lesion)
(Primary lesion)
- macule (pigmentation changing)
1 patch
macule/patch (tinea versicolor) (melasma) (vitiligo)
macule erythema
(diascopy)
- papule
1 / plaque (psoriasis)
(chronic eczema)
wheal (urticaria) drug allergy
- nodule 1
(wart) (callus) folliculitis
comedo open closed comedone

- vesicle 1 (herpes) (chicken pox)


(acute eczema) 1 bullous blister
Steven Johnson Syndrome (SJS) pustule ()
bacteria (inflammatory
acne) bullous
Nikolskys sign toxic epidermal
necrolysis (TEN) staphylococcal scaled skin sundrome (SSSS)
- umbilication vesicle
(molluscum contagiosum)
- burrow

- verrucous (genital warts)
- fissure perieche
- telangiectasia permanent vasodilation
diascopy

- purpura diascopy
ecchymosis () petechiae
(2556)

2
(extravasation)

(Secondary lesion)
- crust (hemorrhagic crust)
vesicle pustule
- scale
papule

- lichenification
extensor lichen
simplex chronicus
- ulcer
(bed sore) (peptic ulcer)
(scar)
- erosion
excoriation
- scar collagenous
tissue
hypertrophic scar atrophic scar

- atrophy

(2556)



- (shape & arrangement) (linear)
(annular) (arciform) (iris) (grouped)
(herpetiform) dermatome (zosteriform)
- (location & distribution) herpetiform vesicle
zosteriform
vesicle contact dermatitis
- (color)

- (lesion margin & border)


- (surface) (consistency)

- (discharge & drainage)
- (symptom)
(ECZEMA OR DERMATITIS)
Dermatitis
delayed type hypersensitivity
eczema 2
1. endogenous (hypersensitivity) atopic
dermatitis, pityriasis alba (), dyshydrosis, nummular eczema intertrigo

2. exogenous contact dermatitis, phototoxic dermatitis eczematous drug
eruptions
eczema

infantile eczema
contact dermatitis
atopic dermatitis

acute, subacute (3 months-2 years old)


acute, subacute, chronic
acute, subacute, chronic

dyshidrosis (pompholyx)
nummular (discoid)
eczema

recurrent deep-seated vesicle


subacute, coin-shape pinpoint vesicle

(2556)

lichen simplex chronicus


(neurodermatitis)
prurigo simplex
gravitational (stasis)
eczema

pruritic, chronic lichenified


hyperpigmentation
excoriated pruritic papules
subacute, chronic scale,
hemosiderinosis, stasis ulcer


(major features) 3 4
1.
2.
3.
4.
minor features eczema
(hyperlinearity palm) (recurrent
conjunctivitis) Dennie-Morgan infraorbital fold
(allergic rhinitis)
EASI (the eczema area and severity index)
SCORAD (the scoring of atopic dermatitis)
EASI
SCORAD 3 dimensions

eczema

1. acute eczema
(maculopapular vesicle) (oozing)
2. subacute stage papule, scale, crust excoriation acute
phase
3. chronic stage
lichenification scale

(detergent)

(2556)

acute subacute wet dressing burows solution (aluminium


acetate 1:20) 3% boric acid NSS
15 3-4 crust steroid
lotion cream ointment

antihistamine
sedative non sedative antihistamine sedative high dose hydroxyzine
scratch reflex

corticosteroid
2
chronic eczema corticosteroid
cream ointment
3-5% salicylic acid 5-10% urea cream occlusion technique
corticosteroid

corticosteroid
corticosteroid calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus (0.03%, 0.1% ointment)
pimecrolimus (1% cream) coal tar selenium sulfide
corticosteroid
prednisolone 0.5-1 // 1-2



(emollient) 3

SEBORRHEIC DERMATITIS AND DANDRUFF
Seborrheic dermatitis (seborrheic area)
sebaceous gland activity
Pityrosporum ovale (lipophilic yeast) normal flora
seborrheic area P. ovale
seborrheic dermatitis

(2556)

(scale) (crust) seborrheic area



(plaque)
(marginal blephalitis) flexor
HIV antibody

Seborrheic dermatitis

coal tar, selenium sulfide, zinc
pyritihione ketoconazole P. ovale
keratolytic activity 2-6% salicylic acid
imidazole topical corticosteroids
corticosteroid scalp lotion

FIXED DRUG ERUPTION, ERYTHEMA MULTIFORME, STEVENS-JOHNSON SYNDROME, TOXIC


EPIDERMAL NECROLYSIS
Fixed drug eruption
phenolphthalein, tetracyclines, barbiturates, salicylates NSAIDs.
macule patch
blister .
hyperpigmentation melanin
dermis
. .
corticosteroid oral antihistamines wet dressing .
Erythema multiforme (EM)
EM iris target lesion
epidermal
necrosis 1
extensor surface purpuric lesion
erythema multiform
EM EM minor EM major delayed type
hypersensitivity herpes simplex virus (HSV)
mycoplasma pneumonia sulfonamides, barbiturates, penicillins
(2556)

phenytoin. EM minor EM oral


antihistamine topical/oral corticosteroid
Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) EM major

1-2 maculopapular rash (MP rash)
target lesion bulla formation erosion
10 SJS

conjunctivitis
SJS
wet dressing antibacterial prophylaxis

prednisolone 1-2 // 1-2

Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) epidermis


30 SJS
(sheet-like detachment) dermis

SJS
topical
silver zinc sulfadiazine non-adhesive dressing

(URTICARIA)
Urticaria (wheal and flare)
type I hypersensitivity (immediate type; IgE & mast cell) vasoactive
mediators histamine, bradykinin prostaglandins


wheal and flare lesion
urticaria

(2556)

SLE, hepatitis, cancer (true


allergy) immunologic system (pseudoallergy)
angioedema laryngeal edema bronchoconstriction
24-48
6
acute urticaria 6 chronic urticarial 24
telangiectasia
vascuitis connective tissue disease


angioedema systemic antihistamine
chlorpheniramine (4 mg) 4-6 hydroxyzine (10-25 mg) 4-6
2nd generation antihistamine cetirizine (10 mg) 1
sedative antihistamine calamine lotion

Corticosteroids systemic severe angioedema


anaphylaxis 1:1000 epinephrine 0.3-0.5 chronic
non-life threatening urticaria topical corticosteroid
urticaria


Staphylococcus aureus Streptococcus spp.


anaerobes
organ




Impetigo
contagiosa
epidermis

Staphylococcus aureus Streptococcus spp.



(2556)

crust
autoinoculation
S. aureus epidermolytic toxin
bullous impetigo
mupirocin ointment 2-3 7-10
systemic antibiotics
Ecthyma impetigo dermis
crust
(punch-out ulcer)
folliculitis
S. aureus

(furuncle, boil) furuncle

(carbuncle)

Cellulitis (erysipelas)
cellulitis erysipelas
Haemophilus
influenza type b Pseudomonas aeruginosa
gangrenous cellulitis
cellulitis/erysipelas
(peaud orange appearance)
necrosis
(desquamation)

antiseptic

dicloxacillin (250-500 mg 6
) beta-lactamase

10-14
penicillins erythromycin
(250-500 mg base, estolate, sterate 400-800 mg ethylsuccinate 6-12 )
(2556)

10

clindamycin (150-300 mg 8 )
(incision drainage) (debridement)
HERPES SIMPLEX
Herpes simplex () herpes simplex virus (HSV) HSV-1
HSV-2 (herpes labialis), ,
(genital herpes)
3-12
(primary infection) (recurrent infection)
1-3 1-2
(group of vesicles)




aseptic meningitis
(sensory ganglion)
(reactivate) (prodrome)
7-10

Tzanck smear test
Wright Giemsa multinucleated giant cell
herpes

purine nucleoside analogue particle thymidine


kinase active form DNA polymerase
herpes encephalitis eczema herpeticum
acyclovir 5 8 7
genital herpes 48-72

herpes labialis 5 4

chlorhexidine

(2556)

11

(recurrent) acyclovir
10% povidone iodine acyclovir
400 2 6-12 acyclovir

genital herpes
acyclovir
valaciclovir

Famciclovir

200 mg q 4 hrs 5 times for 710 days or 400 mg q 8 hrs for


7-10 days
initial episode: 1 g q 12 hrs for
10 days
recurrent: 500 mg q 12 hrs for
3 days
initial episode: 250 mg q 8 hrs
for 7-10 days
recurrent: 1 g q 12 hrs for 1
day

herpes labialis (recommended


for 1st episode only)
200 mg q 4 hrs 5 times for 710 days or 400 mg q 8 hrs for
7-10 days
2 g q 12 hrs for 1 day

1.5 g single dose

herpes zoster/ varicella


800 mg q 4 hrs 5 times for
7-10 days
1 g q 8 hrs for 7 days

250-500 mg q 8 hrs for 7


days

HERPES ZOSTER
Shingle () DNA virus Herpes virus varicellae varicellazoster virus (chickenpox varicella)
sensory
neurons
prodrome 2-5
acute phase (dermatome)
72 7-8
2-3
(Tzanck test)

ophthalmic branch trigeminal nerve zoster


opthalmicus keratitis
uveitis
(post herpetic neuralgia)
10 Bells palsy
motor nerve

(2556)

12

Burows solution (5% aluminium acetate) 4% zinc


sulfate 15 3-4 10% povidone iodine
purine analogues
Herpes simplex
acyclovir 10 8
paracetamol corticosteroids
prednisolone post herpetic neuralgia
Post herpetic neuralgia 2 (dull pain)
TCAs amitriptyline 25 mg 75 mg
(sharp pain) carbamazepine 50-100
mg 2 gabapentin 300-3000 mg
SSRIs SNRIs
WART ()
human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA virus
cell-mediated immunity (CMI)
HPV 70 genotype
1, 2, 4 planta wart; genotype 2, 4 common wart; genotype 3, 10
plane wart; genotype 6, 11, 16, 18 anogenital wart
5
(verruca vulgaris, common wart)
2-3

(verruca plana, plane wart) 2-4



lichen planus
filiform wart


plantar wart

anogenital wart condyloma acuminate


(2556)

13

pearly penile papules


1-3 coronal margin

seborrheic keratosis, epidermal nevi, skin tag


filiform
lichen planus syringoma,
trichoepithelioma Koebner phenomenon
(callous)



autoinoculation
cryotherapy liquid nitrogen
surgical
excision,
curettage,
electrodessication CO2 laser cryotherapy


o Salicylic acid epidermis HPV

salicylic acid
salicylic acid salicylic acid
salicylic acid
hypo- hyperpigmentation salicylic acid
12
5
occlusion
plantar wart collodion
salicylic acid 40% 2
plantar wart
salicylic acid lactic acid podophyllin

(2556)

14

o Podophyllin in tincture benzoin 25% anogenital wart 4


3-4

o Topical retinoids

o Bleomycin DNA
tissue necrosis
(intralesional injection) 1

Raynauds phenomenon
o Cimetidine histamine2 receptor antagonist immunomodulatory action
30-40 mg/kg/day
cimetidine (Simonart, 2012)
o Imiquimod 5% cream
3 16
6-10

anogenital wart
2 quadrivalent HPV vaccine HPV
type 6, 11, 16 18 ( 70) anogenital wart (
90) Gardasil 3 0, 2, 6
9 26 bivalent HPV vaccine HPV type 16
18 ( 70) Cervarix
3 0, 1, 6 HPV vaccine
HPV vaccine HPV genotype
5
(molluscum contagiosum) pox virus
inclusion (molluscum) bodies

central umbilication
6-12
curette
trichloracetic acid
(2556)

15

SCABIES ()
(Sarcoptes scabies var. hominis)
stratum corneum
1 5-15 mm.
burrow hypersensitivity
1-2


burrow

Norwegian scabies
12
lindane, permethrin malathion
benzyl benzoate (25% suspension) sulfur (10% ointment)
sulfur (10% ointment)
1% lindane
benzyl benzoate
benzyl benzoate sulfur 2,3 8


LICE ()
(Pediculosis humanus var. capitis)

(Phthirus pubis)

chitin 7

Lindane gamma benzene hexchloride 1% cream


(2556)

16

12
() 1
Lindane 2 blood brain barrier

10
lindane
2

malathion (1% shampoo)


lindane lindane permathrin
(pyrethrin derivative)

(DERMATOPHYTOSIS)
dermatophytes genus Trichophyton, Epidermophyton
Microsporum keratin

(Tinea capitis) (Tinea faciei)
(Tinea corporis) (Tinea cruris) (Tinea manuum) (Tinea pedis) (Tinea
unguium)

(papule) .
(maceration) .
(black dot ringworm)
kerion. (onychomycosis)
(subungual hyperkeratosis)
(nail dystrophy)
(onycholysis).

1.
Keratolytic agents: whitfield ointment (6% salicylic acid/12% benzoic acid)
tolnaftate 2.5% undecylenic acid
Broad spectrum antifungal (imidazole derivatives, allylamine fungicides)
3
(2556)

17

T. capitis selenium sulfide ketoconazole shampoo


2.

itraconazole 100 ketoconazole 200 mg
2
griseofulvin 500-1000 / 6
ketoconazole
griseofulvin itraconazole 100
6
pulse therapy itraconazole 200
2 7 2 3-4


ciclopirox nail
lacquer 1-2

(PITYRIASIS VERSICOLOR)
Malassezia furfur pathogenic form Pityrosporon

macule
(perifollicular)

dicarboxylic acid melanin

steroid
20% sodium thiosulfate solution
1 2-3
2.5% selenium sulfide suspension 10-30 1
2-3 50% propylene glycol zinc pyrithion

Broad spectrum antifungal imidazole antifungals (-azole cream) allylamine
fungicides cream (terbinafine, naftifine)
oral imidazole antifungals
(2556)

18

ketoconazole 200 1 5-10 itraconazole


400 200 mg 7

CANDIDIASIS
Candidiasis dimorphic fungi normal flora
Candida albicans

(satellite lesion) (nail fold)
(paronychia)

Candidiasis
candidiasis (oral thrush)

candidiasis nystatin imidazole
derivatives 2-4
systemic imidazole antifungals fluconazole 150
ketoconazole 200 1
Candidiasis nystatin oral suspension (100000 units/ml) 1
10 4 nystatin clotrimazole
troche 1-2 1% gential violet miconazole oral
gel nystatin suspension
paronychia imidazole antifungals clotrimazole cream
beta-lactamase penicillins (dicloxacillin)
(VITILIGO)
melanocyte
macule patch
, autoimmunity
unilateral dermatome (segmental vitiligo)

(2556)

19

- PUVA 0.05-0.1% 8-methoxy psoralen


1 -1 UVA
10-15
5

1 3
50
- corticosteroid cream 0.1% batamethasone valerate, 0.1% triamcinolone
2
3

(photochemotherapy) PUVA (psoralen + UVA) 8-methoxy psoralen
(10 ) 0.6 / 1 2
10-15 5%
PABA
25

UV

(MELASMA)


melanin
melanin epidermis
dermis . (skin
whitening agents) .

.
(2556)

20

2-5% hydroquinone tyrosinase / melanocyte


melanin

Corticosteroid

Tretinoin (vitamin A acid) melanin
melanocyte

Azelaic acid 20% cream tyrosinase
4% hydroquinone
Ammoniated mercury 1-2% cream uptake melanin

kojic acid, arbutin, locorice, vitamin C mulberry extract





(sunscreen) 2
1. physical sunscreen
zinc oxide, titanium dioxide talcum

2. chemical sunscreen UV UV
para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), benzophenone, cinnamate
15
UV 2-4


3. tanning sunscreen
dihydroxy acetone (DHA)
stratum corneum tanning sunscreen SPF 5-13
DHA

(2556)

21



sunburn protection factor (SPF)
Protection factor of UVA (PA)
UV UVA UVB
1
SPF UVB (290-320 nm wavelength)
SPF 15.
SPF
15
SPF 30 15x30 = 450 7.5

PA UVA (320-400 nm wavelength) UVA


UVB
PA 1 2
3 2 PA SPF




water-resistance water-proof.

1
(ACNE)
(sebaceous follicle)
(acne vulgaris) (acne neonatorum)
(acne venenata) (acne medicamentosa)
(cystic) (acne conglobata)
(comedone) (open comedone)
(close comedone) (papule) (pustule)
(pustular nodule)
23 40

(2556)

22





- 1 (mild): 10

- 2 (moderate): 10 / nodule 5
- 3 (severe): nodule/cyst 5




chlorinated
hydrocarbon,
corticosteroids, coal tar, mineral oil, , barbiturates,
corticosteroids, tuberculous drugs, vitamin B
androgen

Tretinoin (trans-retinoic acid, vitamin A acid)
Tretinoin comedolytic 1)
epidermal cell turnover comedone closed
comedone open comedone follicle. 2) horny cells
horny cell comedone
prophylactic treatment. 3) . 4) papillary
dermis blood flow 5)
collagen
photo-aging.
tretinoin 1) comedone 2)
3) acne cosmetica,
pomade acne, oil acne chloracne 4) prophylaxis
.
tretinoin prophylaxis (
) 2-3
1 . .

(2556)

23

1-2

. .
2-3 .
3-4
. cream gel 0.01,
0.025, 0.05 0.1
Benzoyl peroxide
Benzoyl peroxide
1) gram positive organism yeast
Propionibacterium acnes (P. acne)
2) epidermal mitosis acanthosis hyperkeratosis 3)
irritating effect peeling action
sebostatic
mild to moderate papulopustular acne
comedone acne. aquagel, alcohol acetone gel
2.5, 4, 5 10. 2
15
retinoic acid benzoyl peroxide retinoic acid
.
allergic contact
dermatitis aqua
based, hydrogel. oxidizing agent
.
Topical antibiotics
Topical antibiotics
topical antibiotics 1% clindamycin phosphate lotion
gel 2-4% erythromycin base solution gel
Clindamycin erythromycin
clindamycin pseudomembranous colitis

pseudomembranous colitis erythromycin

(2556)

24

. topical antibiotics
retinoic acid benzoyl peroxide topical antibiotics
2-3 benzoyl peroxide

Azelaic acid
Azelaic acid P.acne
mild to moderate acne cream
20 azelaic acid 2

Adapalene
synthetic retinoic analogue tretinoin
open closed comedone
.
adapalene gel 0.1 tretinoin
.
Topical Isotretinoin
cis-isomer tretinoin mild to moderate acne comedone
isotretinoin gel 0.05 tretinoin
Tetracyclins
doxycycline tetracycline

papulopustules P. acnes
microcomedones moderate to papulopustules acne acne
conglobata
100-200 mg
, ,


3 3-6
.
(2556)

25

12
.
tetracyclines erythromycin 1,000 mg .
Isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid)
corneum
P. acnes
leukotriene B4 .
. rosacea, gram negative folliculitis, severe
recalcitrant, nodular inflammatory acne, dissecting cellulites of scalp pyoderma faciale
0.5-1 mg/kg .
teratogenic effect paraben
paraben preservative gelatin capsule.
1 ,
1 .

cheilitis vaseline
ointment
dry skin
scaling, icthyosiform dermatitis
ophthalmologic side effects cornea night vision
contact lens
hair loss, increase sunburn, skin infection
friction blister musculoskeletal symptoms arthralgia 15
activity
pseudotumor cerebri benign intracranial hypertension
tetracyclines
early epiphyseal closure 18


(anti-androgen) ethinyl estradiol
35 mcg/ cyproterone acetate 2 mg (Diane-35), ethinyl estradiol 30 mcg/ drospirenone 3 mg
(Yasmin), ethinyl estradiol 20 mcg/ drospirenone 3 mg (Yaz)
ethinyl
estradiol 35
mcg/
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26

norgestimate 180/215/250 mcg (Tricilest) ethinyl estradiol 40/30 mcg/ desogestrel 25/125
mcg (Oilezz)
1) sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG)
free testosterone 2) 3) antiandrogen block androgen receptor .

/
(endocrine acne) resistant papulopustular acne refractory acne conglobata
PCOS.
spironolactone ketoconazole
(ALOPECIA)
100000 85-90
0.35 mm 2-6
(telogen phase) 3 .
100 .
Alopecia alopecia
(
syphilis) (SLE) thyroid (hypothyroidism)
(chemotherapy, radiotherapy).
(androgenetic alopecia)
androgen



minoxidil
2-5
4-6 12
. finasteride 5-alpha reductase
testosterone dihydrotestosterone activity hair follicle.
finasteride 1 6 1 .
(2556)

27

androgen spironolactone 25-100 mg


minoxidil .
syphilis 3
2

(moth-eaten alopecia)
.

VDRL syphilis 3.
(telogen effluvium)
.

2-3
2-6 .

- 3
- 1-2
- 2-3
- psychogenic stress
-
- allopurinol PTU heparin


hyperthyroidism, heparin, colchicine, allopurinol, methamphetamine.


minoxidil solution

.

dermatophytes keratin

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(PSORIASIS)
Psoriasis papulosquamous eruption

4 3-4 . (plaque)
(white, silver scale) (Auspitzs sign).
lichenification . flexural psoriasis
candidiasis.
Psoriasis
. bony prominence
(Koebner phenomenon).
(pitting) (subungual keratosis).
.
antiproliferative keratolytic

topical steroid - antiproliferative antiinflammation




(tachyphylaxis)
coal tar (2-5% crude coal tar ointment) 1-2
antimitotic .
. purified coal tar liquor
carbonis detergen (LCD)
5-10%.
anthralin intercalation DNA. psoriasis
coal tar
short-contact anthralin therapy (SCAT). 3-4
.
calciprotriol ointment vitamin D3 analogue epidermis
chemotaxis neutrophil psoriasis .
remission .

(2556)

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topical
steroid .
exfoliative psoriasis, pustular psoriasis
25

methotrexate (MTX) DNA .
pustular psoriasis psoriatic arthritis .
7.5-25 1
3 .
macrocytic anemia folate
metabolism
biologic therapy
(immunomodulating agents) MTX


Biologic therapy
Source & mechanism
Infliximab
Chimeric monoclonal antibody;
against TNF-
Etanercept
Human fusion protein; bind
TNF- and competitively
interfering the interaction at
cell bound receptor
Adalimumab
Human IgG1 monoclonal TNF antibody; inactivation of
TNF-

Dosage regimen
15 mg/kg IV infusion at week 0, 2, 6, then
every 8 weeks thereafter
50 mg SC once a week for psoriatic
arthritis
50 mg SC twice weekly for 3 weeks, then
50 mg SC once a week for plague psoriasis
40 mg SC every other week for psoriatic
arthritis
80 mg SC, then 40 mg SC every other
week for plague psoriasis

1 transquillizer
sedative antihistamine . trans-isotretinoin
keratin immunosuppressive tacrolimus, cyclosporine,
mycophenolate mofetil hydroxyurea PUVA therapy
TOPICAL CORTICOSTEROIDS

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topical corticosteroid

1.
2.



.
3.

(occlusive effect)
10-100
4. topical corticosteroids
topical corticosteroid (striae)
rosacea-like dermatitis, perioral dermatitis
0.05% clobetasol propionate 14
(tachyphylaxis)
corticosteroid (potency)

Very potent
Potent
Moderate potent

Weak potent

(generic)
Betamethasone dipropionate 0.05% in propylene glycol
Clobetasol propionate 0.05%
Betamethasone dipropionate 0.05%
Desoximethasone 0.25%
Betamethasone valerate 0.1%
Diflucortolone valerate 0.1%
Flucorolone acetonide 0.025%
Flumetasone 0.02% w/ salicylic acid
Fluocinolone acetonide 0.025%
Fluocinonide 0.05%
Halcinonide 0.1%
Mometasone furoate 0.01%
Prednicabate 0.1%
Triamcinolone acetonide 0.1%
Clobetasone butyrate 0.5%
Triamcinolone acetonide 0.02%
Hydrocortisone acetate 1%
Prednisolone 0.5%

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, . -. : Printing Place; 2554.
. sunscreen. 2553.
. (atopic dermatitis). 2553.
, . Clinical case in community pharmacy: cutaneous warts.
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