Motivation: concept and application

Azmi Banibaker MHP

Process based motivation theories for artificial systems focus on a particular aspect of causation in order to create artificial systems that exhibit some particular desired form of behavior. an activating function that energies action to achieve the goals and a control function that influence the combination of behavioral components into consistent. goal-oriented behavioral order. Motivation is though to have three key tasks: a directing or steering function that steers an individual’s behavior towards or away from particular objective. Psychological study of motivation searches for theories that describe the role of motivation in natural systems such as humans and animals. Techniques of motivation are related to the theories of motivation aim to satisfy the needs of employees in order to affect their production to achieve the goals of the organization .ABSTRACT Motivation is the cause of behavior.

Also it covers the sources of motivation both intrinsic and extrinsic. and Attribution theory. and it shows an example from a university hospital environment about techniques of motivation . Expectancy theory.based theories Maslow's need hierarchy Herzberg's two-factor theory.McClelland's need theory. and X and Y theory. And Process-based theories: Equity theory. It presents methods and techniques of motivation.Edward Deci and Richard Ryan. Goal-setting theory. McGregor's theory. Alderfer's ERG theory.Introduction This report covers the definitions of motivation. and recent motivational theories Sheila Ritchie and Peter Martin and Job design theory. types of theories of motivation: need. the importance. Reinforcement Theory. and impacts of motivation.

we need to understand the needs of human. these theories are different in their approach.Motivation Motivation is an internal state that activates behavior and gives it direction. and explanation. The motivation process is a circular dimension starts with an unsatisfied need and ends with new an unsatisfied and mostly higher needs. and lower organisms. how does it work.Maslow's need hierarchy 2. Unsatisfied need => Tension => Drives => Search Behavior => Satisfied needs => Reduction of tension => new unsatisfied needs To apply motivation. The main question facing managers in an organization is motivation. For this a manager normally seeks to change or maintain certain environmental factors so as to influence the inner drives which may change or sustain the behaviors of the subordinates. when to apply and to whom they should apply on. In today’s organization. Motivation is different things to different people. 3. where such behavior could lead to the fulfillment of the needs. which can be divided into two components which are the direction of a behavior working to reach a goal and the strength of the behavior. Motivation in Organization Motivation is a process of arousing and sustaining goal-directed behavior induced by the expectation of satisfying individual needs. therefore. Theories of human needs (A) Need-based theories 1. Motivation is a set of attitudes and values that influence a person to act in a specific goal directed manner. the manager tries to achieve the goals of the organization through employees.Edward Deci and Richard Ryan . different employees have different needs and different priorities. predictive strength. motivation plays an important role in determining whether a company will succeed or not. managers must be able to establish their needs and be able to apply different motivational tools to satisfy different needs. There are numerous theories that try to explain the human needs. The inner drives within an individual are believed needs to be activated to give rise to appropriate behavior.Alderfer's ERG theory 4. In an organization. At the core of motivation is human needs satisfaction. Within an organization the desired goals are often clearly defined. Motivation is the driving force behind all actions of human beings. address different outcome and motivation sources.Herzberg's two-factor theory. where motivation is the key to their mission as leaders. It is an invisible inner state that energizes the human goal-directed behavior. In today’s business environment. animals. managers must employ an organizational culture.

advancement. satisfied needs cannot. Physiological – most basic of human needs. only unsatisfied needs can influence behavior. keeping the order of needs in mind. listed from complex or high level to basic or low level are as follows 1. responsibility) which give positive satisfaction. Esteem – need for respect. The theory can be summarized as follows: Human beings have wants and desires which influence their behavior. job security. (e. These factors lead to the prevention of dissatisfaction. need for food. recognition. and belongingness in one’s relationships with others 4. the more individuality. work itself. status. (e. and sustenance Using this theory. Maslow in 1954 developed a “hierarchy of needs” or an order of needs that need to be fulfilled in each person. humanness. 2-Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory Frederick Herzberg's two factor theory concludes that certain factors in the workplace result in job satisfaction. from the basic to the complex. If a manager embraces Maslow’s hierarchy. The person advances to the next level of needs after only when the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied. they are arranged in order of importance. He distinguished between: Motivators. affection. recognition.g. challenging work. The needs. although dissatisfaction results from their absence. Self actualization – need to grow and use abilities to the fullest. Social – need for love.g. they are mostly intrinsic factors such as achievement. water. responsibility. protection. Further by the hierarchy. he/she will motivate employees. They are mostly extrinsic factors such as . and psychological health a person will show. Since needs are many. and growth and Hygiene factors. highest need 2. Safety – need for security. and stability in the personal events of everyday life 5. while others lead to dissatisfaction. prestige.5-McClelland's need theory 6-McGregor's Theory X and Theory 1-Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of human needs theory is the most widely discussed theories of motivation. and recognition from others as well as self esteem and personal sense of competence 3. managers can use the hierarchy to motivate people by satisfying the most important needs. salary. and fringe benefits) which do not give positive satisfaction.

were placed in the Existence category. Alderfer’s theory proposes only three basic needs: existence. developed by Edward Deci and Richard Ryan. relatedness. competence feedback. empowerment. SDT reflects a natural tendency toward growth and development. 4-Self-Determination Theory Self-Determination Theory (SDT). Love and self esteem needs were placed in the Relatedness category. and participative management. Unlike other theories. but instead requires active encouragement from the environment. or high standards. supervision. 5-McClelland's Achievement Motivation Theory David McClelland’s achievement motivation theory predicts that a person has need for three things but people differ in degree in which the various needs influence their behavior: 1-Need for achievement refers to an individual's desire for significant accomplishment. . Relatedness. The primary factors that encourage motivation and development are autonomy. 1-Physiological and safety. however. control. and growth. and relatedness.Management implications: job enlargement & enrichment. mastering of skills. 3-Growth needs: an intrinsic desire for personal development: the intrinsic component of esteem.a. Alderfer in 1972 proposed a conceptually simpler framework know as ERG theory. The theory is sometimes called the Motivator-Hygiene Theory 3-Aldelfer’s ERG Theory ERG theory: (Existence. Relatedness needs correspond to love needs. SDT does not include any sort of "autopilot" or self guidance for achievement. Like Maslow's hierarchical theory and others that built on it. the lower order needs. and Growth).. 2-Interpersonal relationships. focuses on the importance of intrinsic motivation in driving human behavior. Existence needs correspond closely to Maslow’s physiological and safety needs. Alderfer asserts that multiple needs may operate simultaneously and that there is no specific order in which needs are activated. and self-actualization. work condition.Company policy and administration. Growth needs correspond to Maslow’s esteem and growth needs. and salary b.

Employees will compare their rewards with the rewards received by others for their efforts. Because of this workers need to be closely supervised and comprehensive systems of controls developed. anxious to accept greater responsibility. Theory X: assumes that lower-order needs motivate individual behavior Theory Y In this theory management assumes employees are ambitious. There are two kinds of power. they are likely to withhold some of their contributions. to bring a situation into better balance. It is also believed that employees have the desire to be imaginative and creative in their jobs if they are given a chance. if someone thinks he or she is not getting enough pay (output) for his or her work (input). If employees perceive that an inequity exists. when a worker thinks he or she is being paid too much for the work he or she is doing. People with these needs are most satisfied by seeing their environment move to a certain direction due to their involvements and 3-Need for affiliation referring to a person's need to feel like he needs to belong to a group. he or she tends to increase the amount of work. inside his organization or outside the organization. they compare their input/output ratio with the input/output ratio of other workers. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work activities. he or she will try to get that pay increased or reduce the amount of work he or she is doing. either consciously or unconsciously. Worker may compare his reward to others inside the group.2-Need for power. and exercise self-control and self-direction. According to this theory employees will show little ambition without an enticing incentive program and will avoid responsibility whenever they can. Not only do workers compare their own inputs and outputs. On the other hand. A fair or equitable situation is one in which people with similar inputs experience similar outcomes.Douglas McGregor's Theory X and theory Y Theory X In this theory management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work if they can. Process-based theory 1-Equity theory Equity theory is the perception of fairness involved in rewards given. A hierarchical structure is needed with narrow span of control at each level. and the desire to be liked and accepted by others 6. social and personal. self-motivated. Theory Y: assumes that higher-order needs motivate individual behavior (B). For example. If one work team believes they are doing more work than a similar team for the . An example of personal power is what drives most corporate leaders to seek those commands. Nelson Mandela likely commands social power. referring to an individual's need to be in charge. For example.

the employee must know for what specifically he or she is being rewarded! The reward should come as quickly as possible after the behavior. Instrumentality. This theory states that a person will expend the required effort. he will be motivated to perform.2) Negative reinforcement occurs when a person engages in behavior to avoid unpleasant consequences or to escape from existing unpleasant consequences. In other words. It argues that reinforcement conditions behavior.e. . Some of the most powerful rewards are symbolic. which appears more comprehensive than other theories and is applicable to employees at work as well as humans in general. According to this theory. Examples of symbolic rewards are things like plaques or certificates. that is.same pay. Reinforcement theory: involves four types of consequence. Expectancy refers to the linkage between effort and performance. if he believes that his effort will result in the desired performance. 3-Goal-setting theory In 1960s.3) Punishment is an attempt to discourage a target behavior by the application of negative outcomes whenever it is possible.. self-efficacy affects the behavior. and Valence. which will get him a reward that is important to him. 4) Extinction is the absence of any reinforcement. It will motivate them to try to do an exceptional job on their next project. Briefly. the strength of one's belief that certain kind and level of performance will lead to a particular reward. that is. 2-Expectancy theory or Vroom's Expectancy Theory Vroom in his 1964 book Work and Motivation presents a theory. the higher self efficacy produce more confidence in abilities. following the occurrence of a target behavior. either positive or negative. Reinforcement theory takes a behavioristic approach. i. Edwin Locke proposed that goal is a major source of work motivation. their sense of fairness will be violated and they will tend to reduce the amount of work they are doing.Reinforcement Theory. This theory is a counterpart to goal. it is well adapted to the culture. It is a normal human inclination to want things to be fair. 4. Instrumentality refers to the linkage between performance and reward. but it must be something desired by the employee. it represents the strength of one's belief that specific effort will result in related specific performance outcome. also this theory is cultural-bound. specific and hard goals with feedback produce higher level of productivity than generalized goals. Employees must associate the reward with the behavior. Employees who do an exceptionally good job on a particular project should be rewarded for that performance.setting theory. things that cost very little but mean a lot to the people who get them. the expectancy theory states that motivation to behave or perform depends on three variables: Expectancy.1) Positive reinforcement creates a pleasant consequence by using rewards to increase the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated. The reward can be almost anything. Valence refers to the attractiveness or utility of the reward to the individual.

Heider introduced the idea that people follow specifiable rules in interpreting the causes of behavior. This is to say that. 11. where the job is a complete multi-steps to perfect the product. among this group of managers. the needs for interesting work and achievement were most 2-Job design theory This theory proposes that job design and the way the job is organized affects the effort of worker. They then developed a motivational profile survey with thirty-three questions.5-Attribution theory Attribution theory attempts to specify the processes that are involved when an individual develops an explanation for the behavior of others or themselves. 10-structure and rules. naïve perceivers share the belief that there are two classes of causes: personal forces and environmental forces. 3-self development. Heider further subdivided each of these forces into two categories: ability and trying. Knowing an individual’s profile. The motivation management theory of Ritchie and Martin would be classified as a content theory. 2achievement. He proposed that the relationship between ability and task difficulty is additive.3)task significance. Merrick) Recent Theory 1-Sheila Ritchie and Peter Martin Motivation management theory Ritchie and Martin developed their motivation management theory in the late 1990’s. The order of the twelve drivers listed above reflects the profile scores of the original sample.good working conditions. a manager can then tailor a motivation method for that person. which suggests that motivation results from the individual’s attempts to satisfy needs.The basic assumption is that “‘the task of the manager is to find out what motivates people’ and to make them ‘smile more and carp less. 8-social contact. 2) task identity. (K.” These include human needs for 1-interesting work.5) feedback. and 12.4)autonomy. task difficulty and luck respectively. along with professional psychologists.’” From literature and their own observations. 6. where the job provides important effect on the lives or work of other people. Heider’s proposed that. 5-creativity. not with a raise. Ritchie and Martin claim that each of the twelve drivers is independent of the others. where the job provides independence and freedom to the worker in performing the job. Successful action depends on the presence of both can and exertion. then the manager should reward accordingly. 7-influence.long-term relationships. Robbins) . they identified twelve “motivational drivers. For instance. it shows that any job may have five core dimensions: 1) skill variety. 4-variety. where the product of the job provides information about the efficiency of performance (S. After scoring.power. where a job depends on multi-skills worker. Further he proposed that the personal force trying is made up of two components: intention and exertion. a unique pattern of the individual’s motivational drivers is revealed that can be compared to the data of the original one thousand three hundred fifty-five respondents. environmental forces could oppose or support the personal force and thus increase or reduce its effectiveness. if a manager is considering giving an employee a raise and their profile shows that creativity and variety motivate this person. 9-money and tangible rewards. That is.

by demonstrating fairness in treatment of employees. and allow a manager to see where a role-shift may make sense for the company. exciting. Managers must be flexible to the needs of each individual employee. and giving Loyalty. even with the pay rate difference of $3 per hour. Precht. Managers must also feel comfortable with different styles of motivation.benefits money. I think the needs can not be organized or classified independently. . involving. also manager . satisfying or personally challenging. Manager must be loyal to his organization. what his resume and references told about strengths and weaknesses of that employee. This test-drive might spark new ideas about increased value from the employee. that doesn’t mean I don’t care about recognition. will either motivate or dissatisfy employees. (J. Motivation by managers is sometimes considered manipulation by employees. praise. Trust. Manager who knows how to motivate the people around them are bound to be good managers. motivating may needs to be one-to one approach. 370). they do not like this late time. manager must be aware of the misinterpretation of his effort to motivate employees. rewards . The technique a manager uses to motivate employees to work for him.” Says A. Or as all of my female coworkers who are concerned about security in the hospital at work environment during the late evening shift. and recognition.2) Get co-workers’ Motivating employees Effective managers have the ability to get things done through other people. interesting. A manager needs to uncover the employees potential for example 1) Ask the employee what she or he likes to do. for example if I need money. family and social reasons. 3) Look to history for clues. respect. growing. managers can motivate employees by using good communications to show Approval. Internship may lead to valuable information for the company and the individual. A manager must be able to delegate these tasks to employees. Since there is no one true way to motivate employees.” Intrinsic motivation flourishes in an environment where employees feel like they are a part of something larger than themselves. Job enrichment and Cash incentives. a manager needs to spend time concentrating on why he hired this employee. and /or extrinsic origin in which the person works for reasons other than internal desire. Regular employees said they also wanted a “chance to learn new things”.this may be achieved indirectly without discussing other coworker personalities. managers and employees were their desire to have job security (Jurkiewicz 1997.Sources of motivation In general motivation may be of intrinsic origin where the desire for the job comes from internal motivation which occurs in the absence of external motivation such as. Since there are no two people that are motivated by the same exact thing. 4) Allow the employee to test-drive a new role. In a study on the needs or wants of managers and employees from their job. Many managers are motivated by personal factors that lead them to be managers. and his expectations. or security. Motivated employees will work with the manager to achieve company goals. Those employees who are dissatisfied will work against company goals Motivation is based on how much someone wants something. that includes. some times the intrinsic desire needs to find the right and suitable environment to be ignited. for this. the top three for both. This is accomplished by motivating employees to accomplish specific tasks. After setting the right environment.

or withdrawal. managers.2-Make sure all members believe in the product and have had a chance to use it firsthand. Methods for Managers to Gauge Motivation Probability 1-Employee Selection A manager’s ability to motivate starts with employee selection. By employing these two methods. Precht). Managers show this by having new employees watch “pace setters” to demonstrate that these expectations are taken very seriously throughout the organization. managers must treat employees the same way they themselves want to be treated by their superiors. If an employee is motivated from within. Mistreatment may lead to counter production for example. These expectations are impressed upon new employees. it may need to be accompanied by a personal touch. for this. then the “motivator” aspect of a manager’s job is less difficult 2-High Organizational Expectations Another method that managers can utilize to help them motivate their employees is incorporating high organizational expectations or standards. that help a manager to create the right atmosphere for his employees to be motivated. more than likely. will not need to motivate their employees as much or as often. even when motivating by money. and quality of output. They want opportunity. They can also be motivated by money and incentives but those kinds of incentives aren’t always possible. This is not to say that motivation can be neglected at any point. So when employees are demonstrating destructive behavior it is the manager responsibility to negatively reinforce that behavior. . This is true of student leaders on college campuses. These expectations include a sense of responsibility. high productivity. Managers must continually motivate their employees. lack of output. for example a manger needs to achieve an environment of inclusion.must be honest and trustworthy. In an .tickets or lunch out. Manger may achieve this environment by:1.3-Keep an eye open for rightness of fit of employee to job. and praise. must be consistent and logical. (A. some such behaviors might be excessive absences. but this can be made easier by attempting to hire self-motivated employees and impressing high standards upon them and reinforcing the standards on a daily basis.” Employees want the same things managers want. The hiring of employees that are self-motivated is crucial to the success of any business.4-When hire and promote. In order to be able to motivate others. where every one feels that he is part or important part of the organization. The decisions a manager make. Motivation techniques The ability to motivate others has long been an accepted hallmark of the successful leader. as well as CEOs of large company. people should be placed where their passions lie”.“Showing a dedication to the mission statement. “If employees in an organization feel that they are not being treated equitably on the job. may have greater impact with employee. Some leaders and managers build important productivity expectations into their organizational cultures. a manager must be motivated himself. They might start to demonstrate destructive behavior on the job. recognition.

when maintain sense of humor.” People want to have influence and feel as if they share power within the organization. there is maximum productivity. a leader. and enjoyment. but self less so. efficiency... the more meaningful their commitment and the more successful the organization. Real enthusiasm generates real energy.organization where people are motivated. Barth) From the real life this is an example from University Medical Center about how managers are expected to behave in order to be valued as good managers. The more they become involved. if you're willing to consistently apply the Seven Techniques of Motivation. have to praise and/or criticize. A manager should interact with members in a positive and energetic manner. They don't necessarily do what he or she says. Believe in the organization and show some zest. It'll translate into a more motivated membership. employ praise and criticism separately.and friends. 3: Treating members equally everyone enjoys being "in the know. 2: Assigning incremental tasks Everyone in an organization should be involved. members are drawn into action on behalf of the organization. Practice what is important. Managers at RUMC are expected to . Professor Roland Barth. 5: Generating enthusiasm There's no substitute for genuine enthusiasm. Have confidence in members. People model what a first person does. And be enthusiastic. A manger may keep sanity -. “Motivating others is a leadership skill you can learn” says Harvard U. If possible. 1: Delegating effectively By wisely assigning responsibility. the majority of the membership will be involved. (R. even if it is in small ways at first. 4: Using praise and criticism Inevitably. 6: Promoting integrity An essential part of your college development is forming your own set of principles. which can become an irresistible force if you focus it properly. A manager should show that he or she values every person in the organization. When delegating even simple tasks. 7: Maintain humor Take work seriously. Learning to do so effectively maximizes the potential to act as a motivator.

and valued. the manager uses the best motivation to fit each situation. A positive corporate culture and a pleasant work environment are more . C-enthusiastically embrace changes to work methods. accountability. but keeping staff motivated is an essential part of any business. and E-make use of resources to support work performance Conclusion Motivating employees is never simple.1) Exceed standard by showing both initiative and leadership. and G-accept responsibility for compliance with all rules and active and eager to try new approaches. and E. clinical or service outcomes with peers.Go beyond supporting each others’ efforts to support (the organization). for this managers are expected to foster an environment where employees can show accountability behaviors such as A-understanding of and commitment to Rush mission and vision. A good manager can understand the needs of employees and their priorities. collaboration. patient – centered services by fostering an environment where employees can show innovation behavior such as. C-accept responsibility for own decisions and those of the team.Meet standard which is the minimum. respect. B-improve performance through deliberate effort. F-eagerly accept challenging assignment. C-provide evidence of specific accomplishments. to achieve these goals managers are expected to foster an environment where employees can A-exceeds quality standards. B. and excellence. to establish clear expectations. and of all professional and cultural background. understood. These include externally established professional and industry standards and internally organizational and departmental standards.Exceed standard by showing initiative. then. B. vision and values. Managers are expected to 1) identify the organization mission. each one has his own priorities. Unproductive staff can have a disastrous effect on a company's bottom line. policies and procedures initiated by others. D-create and maintain progress on individual professional development plan. 2.improve existing work methods or process. and seek to foster an inclusive climate where difference are accepted. D-use creative ways when confronted by limited resources. management. or 3. 2) identify the workplace behavior that exemplify the mission. and accept responsibility when expectations are not met. cost effective. concepts and techniques. strive to meet these expectations.Strive to meet standards of excellence. D-admit to mistakes and weaknesses instead of blaming others. customers and with other departments 3-accept ownership and responsibility for specific contributions to the success of the medical center. E-step in to fill gaps in workflow as needed. Guidance for behavioralizing the organization values A manager should 1-seek and support new and better methods to deliver high quality. or 2. A-create useful work methods or process. 4-recognize and value the efforts and contribution of employees in all positions. vision and values. 5. Even though all people may share same needs. For this mangers are expected to foster an environment where employees can create constructive synergies achieve mutually positive business.complete work on time and up to standard. and 3)practice behaviors that support the values of the organization Managers are expected to support Rush values which are: innovation. to seek out strategic relationship that promote a whole that exceeds the sum of its parts.

Employees should be trusted.” Health Care Supervisors. References than money to most good employees. www. the company and themselves. McCabe. 11th Ed. Tom K. Non-Supervisory Personnel.usyd. and Massey Jr. (Fall 1997) http://www. http://studentorgs. and empowered to make decisions and act autonomously. .Ronald Barth. included.htm 3. Motivation Theories for Natural and Artificial Systems.pdf. Robbins.2001 4. 2-A.thinkavenue.htm 6-Stepen www.html 5. Carole L. They also need to be part of a harmonious team working for the mutual benefit of the clients.qst?a=o&se=gglsc&d=5000556662. “What Motivates Municipal Employees: A Comparison Study of Supervisory National ICT Australia & University of Organizational Prentice Hall 2005 7-Kathryn Merrick.!motivat.Charles E.J. Screening new employment prospects to insure they fit in and buy into organization culture will prevent future problems. Recognition and communication are among key responsibilities of a manager.

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