UPKAR’S

By : Dr. Mahendra Saraswat

UPKAR PRAKASHAN, AGRA-2

By the Same Author * lœ`¥rk ds` vnΩHqr jgL; * bE^wo ;ksj ekbUM ikoj * ^sj.kæfDr ds` peRd`kj * nΩ xVΩl * beksæu¥ gSYFk * n ikoj vkWœ` eksfVosæu
* Create Super Intelligence * The World of Inspiring Quotations * The World of Idioms And Phrases * The World of Synonyms And Antonyms * The World of Proverbs

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Contents
Sl.No. Page No.

01. Acquire the Power of Pronunciation Skill 02. Let Yourself Grasp the Pompous Shortened Forms 03. Bank Upon the Proficient Vocabulary 04. Train Your Tongue 05. Befriend with Speech Fluency Techniques 06. Let Down Your Fluency Obstacles 07. Divide and Rule Your Speech 08. Realize the Beauty of Pauses 09. Speak in Rhythmic Fluency 10. Control Your Speech Delivery 11. Tag Your Speech with Short Responses 12. Secret of Successful Spontaneous Speech 13. Beautify Your Speech with Drops 14. The Final Touch

2–11 12–19 20–45 46–61 62–76 77–91 92–96 97–112 113–123 124–136 137–157 158–182 183–191 192–234

Even speech fluency is so potent that it can establish you prominently in your society. then you find that your treasure of English doesn’t wish to assist you. It is the speech fluency that places you as an important person in others’ views. Fluency transforms your personality as a charismatic and magnetic one. Fluency is the great booster of your self-confidence. it brightens up your career. English utterance looks like mockery. so of English. still rules the major minds of cosmopolitan Indians. Everywhere. This is high time to realize the power of speech fluency. yet sometimes. In absence of speech fluency. This is the meek point where you are compelled to think why your English speech is so lame. They judge you by your fluency of speech than by your treasure of qualifications. And fluency of speech gives a magnetic character to its speaker and it influences positively the person to whom you speak. Fluency is the soul of any language. It makes you successful in your interview for an important assignment. the powerful International language. It means that your vast knowledge of English isn’t helping you to get the required results and it lacks something.Realize the Power of Speech Fluency English. And at the helm. that can put you in dilemma when you have to see a daemonic dignitary. in your . It makes you successful in your presentation or discourse. write English better and even you are able to manage to speak English. It is the speech fluency that bestow the gift of successful attempts. people who speak English better are treated above par than those who are not able to speak it fluently. whether it’s an institution or an industry. you have to face an implex interview. you feel that your English utterance doesn’t leave any impression on your counterpart. And your adequate knowledge of reading and writing English is facing the difficulty to move. Though you read English better. and you have to represent a vivid view.

merely a second class PCM graduate was selected. During an interview session for Maths Teacher. attentively. Do you know the reason behind the successful selection ? It was the Fluency of Speech. And the result is in your hands. The only requirement is that you go through each page of this book carefully. and follow every command honestly. And you’ll find that your ENGLISH SPEECH is getting golden wings of FLUENCY with ease. religiously and patiently. Fluency gives an extra edge to your charming personality.( vii ) profession. and in your enterprise. Believe that you are born to achieve high degree of speech fluency. That was the prompt that drove me to inscribe some hints and tips to young fellows striving hard for English speech fluency. —Dr. Mahendra Saraswat . With all my best wishes. while the first class post-graduate with 92·7% marks was rejected.

Speak English Fluently .

It was the writing that came after about 500 days. i. While the natural way of learning is to speak first.. This misdemeanour has a definite reason and the reason is that We’ve Learnt English in an Erroneous Way Every language has two major aspects.e. it was the spoken part of language which came first and then the written part. In spite of that there is something wrong that debars so many people to manage properly the spoken part of English. what did you do first––Speaking or Writing. write and speak. You spoke your unknown language. then write. It is the only language that is spoken far and wide in India and accepted as a universal ambassador in every nook and corner not only here but throughout the world. Though we have fourteen languages officially recognised in the Indian Constitution. you are correct. and the Written part. and proudly boasts of an important curricular subject. the Spoken part. and you kept yourself in speech. Now you recall. This is the root cause that creates difficulties to speak English fluently and properly. It’s a matter of pleasure that English can be found on language menu in every part of the country. it was speech. What do we do generally ? We try to speak in written way of English. It is English. English still enjoys the privilege of high goodwill in this continent. Yes. Have you ever thought why you are most competent to speak your mother tongue fluently ? Because you . Because we fail to adopt the natural way of speech. when you appeared in the world. Certainly. You had spoken first. Most of Indians study English since their childhood and are able to read.1 Acquire the Power of Pronunciation Skill Do you know which tongue is mostly understood by the world ? Yes.

Gnat (nat). Knuckle (nukl) etc. and the written part of language comes later on. and gives the sound of k w .S. And this is the only natural way to gain speech fluency. Wrangler (ranglr). 5. Know (no). That’s why we always endeavour to speak in the written style. Gnosis (nosis) etc. | 3 learnt that to speak first and you also succeeded to manage efficiently the written part of your mother tongue. F. Would you think to learn these words ‘give’. Q always followed by ‘U’ (except Q–boat. Things to Remember 1. W followed by ‘r’ loses its sound. For example. K always remains silent if followed by ‘N’. P always remains silent if followed by ‘S’ or ‘T’. Queen (kwen). Wring (ring). What we have done in the case of English ? We have learnt to write English first in our homes. 2. Psycho (siko). For example. For example. These separate four words ‘give’. Quantum (kwont m) . If you need anything from your mummy. ‘it’. E. ‘to’ and ‘me’ separately and connect them. ptosis (tosis) etc. Knight (nit). ‘it’. Wreath (reth). For example. So we fail to succeed in gaining the speech fluency in English. in our schools. the war-ship also used as merchantship). What is the natural way of speech ? Just imagine that you are a little kid now. Speak in Natural Way Natural way of speech is the prime requirement for development of fluency. Quality (kwoliti). Ptomaine (tomain). Psalm (sam). write (rit) etc. Gnaw (no). The characteristics of following consonants : G always remains silent if followed by ‘N’. Knack (nak). ‘to’ and ‘me’ would be the same as the single word ‘giveittome’ for you. Gnocchi (noke). what would you say ? You would ask : “giveittome”. e . 4. For example. and in our tutorials. 3. It is the spoken part of language that comes first. Quote (kwot) etc.

Speak in Idea Units Only This is your first instrument to acquire speech fluency. in a natural speech. Then what is the idea behind the natural talk.. idea-units those do not require any support from context. For example. and bestow you pleasant fluency. it cannot be called an idea-unit. In fact.. Thus. e. So. Who. speak in word– groups.. and idea–units those require a context.g. not word by word. you may convey your message even in a single word.g. Henceforth. Therefore. F. like ‘I shall go (Aishelgo)’. But this single word can be converted to an idea-unit if it is said in the right context. Connecting two or more words together and utterance thereof like a single word makes the real sense.e. and in that case that single word will form an idea-unit too. Child doesn’t make any conscious effort to edit the words to be uttered. Idea Units are your key to make you fluent. utterances begin with question-words like What. Suppose your brother spontaneously says ‘No’.. E. Does it convey any idea ? No. When. ‘no’ is a contextual idea-unit here. Though you are insisted upon here to speak in word– groups. How etc. Why.e. take the word ‘No’. Where. You can define an idea-unit as a ‘Group of Words’ that has a ‘meaningful utterance’. interrogative utterances. Though sometimes our speech may be limited to even a single word too. descriptive utterances. So the utterances may be of two types. i. Is it making any sense to you ? No.. the group of words is uttered as a single word–unit. And you would speak these four words in a single utterance without any pause in between them.4 | S. always try to speak in idea-units only. i. If you ask your brother. but in exceptional cases. natural talk comes out from the mouth in a group of words. While we try to speak word by word instead of group of words. Therefore. . ‘Give it to me (givitumee)’ etc. ‘Are you going to see the Taj Mahal ?’ and he replies ‘No’. When a child conceive an idea in its mind it comes out from its mouth naturally and spontaneously. In this context ‘no’ forms an idea–unit. Natural talk consists of Idea Units. A natural speaker speaks in idea-units. e.

| 5 Therefore. (c) to buy some sweets. i. Practically. ‘for your papa’ in place of ‘It is the message that was conveyed by your mother to buy some sweets because your papa has asked for’. F. i.e. it makes no sense. look at the following sentence : ‘It is the message that was conveyed by your mother to buy some sweets because your papa has asked for. i. Sentences.. For example. not for spoken part. your speech should be in accordance with contextual idea-units which can be a ‘group of words’ or merely a ‘single word’. ‘your mummy has asked to buy some sweets’. and (2) Written part of English. Sentences are the part of written English. and easy to understand. Leave Sentences for Written English Sentences are not the essential part of natural talk or spoken part of English. there is no need to mix up so many ideas. Speak in simple idea-units.’ Is it an idea-unit ? Definitely not. written part of English. in simple word-groups. and do not represent the natural talk. In natural talk. These sentences are meant for literature or written part of English. So you must have clear understanding about an idea–unit that it is not similar to a sentence. English Language consists of two distinctive aspects : (1) Spoken part of English.e.. Hence. you can convert the written part of English in simple idea-units like ‘It’s the message’ . it requires a context otherwise it can’t give you any meaning.e. when you say ‘no’ only. in simple utterances. Therefore. Idea Units. E. That’s why we have acquired the in– feed instinct to speak in the way we write. The sentences are primarily for written part of English. It is the complex mixture of four different sentences. not to speak. It is the idea-unit that matters highly in speech fluency. we try to speak in sentences. An idea–unit is not like a sentence. because we have learnt writing first. Definitely. Thus.S. It is the simple idea-unit that is easy to say. (b) that was conveyed by your mother.. Because it contains so many ideas like (a) It is the message. and (d) because your papa has asked for. .

And start speaking in idea-units only. this is the only and single method that would compel your speech organs to make you fluent in English speech. To speak English fluently. Remember. These organs have been equipped with extra-ordinary capabilities to provide you wonderful speech fluency. and need some special treatment and training. It is the training of speech organs that assist you in framing the proper idea–units. It is the Golden Key to gain Speech Fluency. this is the real problem with you. F.6 | S. it is very necessary to gain fluency. these organs of speech have learnt certain type of habits and so also have gained fluency in our mother tongue. and some other parts of your mouth. and our speech organs are very efficient to produce idea–units in our mother tongue. . because I have the habit of forming sentences ?’ Yes. And the right and ultimate solution of this problem is Train Your Speech Organs You are in possession of very unique speech organs gifted by the Omnipotent. It is the secret behind its appreciable fluency. So ensure reading your practice material ALOUD as well as several time. ALOUD and ALOUD only. These speech organs are your tongue. your lips. your throat. That’s why make it a point and etch in your mind to read the practice material ALOUD. that programme your mind to grasp the habits of English speech. because we started speaking it first and writing next. And the training programme for your speech organs consists of a very easy single lesson. Hence. That is Read the Practice Material ALOUD Yes. that is different from English. E. But there is also a foolproof solution to this problem. the training of speech organs is an indispensable process. if you give them required training. Now you may ask ‘How can I speak in idea–units. it is your pre-requisite to avoid speaking in sentences of written part of English. Till now.

sad a a air. It is the sound of semi-vowel ‘ ’. recognise their correct pronunciation (sound).S. shi. sad ar. mop. seize. E. ton den. The alphabet have their distinctive sounds and require better understanding in right perspective. chin. sid. eld. hymn. red bizi. sam den. side. but sound ‘a’. This sound comes from your throat. you are required to acquaint with some unique notations. rit kot. ‘ ’ is a semi–vowel sound frequently used in English. shop dough. ‘ : ’ is the long form of ‘ ’. tem . toe. It is a very short sound. sam. And say ‘a’. shop do. him. and be acquainted to them. but its length is also very short in comparison to length of other vowels. Now let’s forward towards the pronunciation chart. To know how ‘ ’ sounds like. So understand the alphabet. red busy. team chef. glad. tin might. This semi-vowel sounds like a semi–‘a’ or a semi–‘e’ or a semi–‘o’ sound. has. read the examples and pronounce them aloud. shy. In the pronunciation chart. same. lo. You have not to say letter ‘a’. but don’t round your lips. clean. to. F. low. tone chief. Understand the English Alphabet Properly | 7 You have studied the English alphabet for the sake of written English. PRONUNCIATION CHART Alphabet Examples Pronunciations e e e e e e e Vowels bat. bat. rad. raid. psalm heart. tame a e e i i o o glass. haz. write cot. mop. mas. lot. stretch the lips sideways towards the cheek. tin mit. glad. tam mass. lot. you will find some strange notations like ‘ ’ or ‘ : ’. eld. clench your teeth. mend. sez. glas. Before going through the pronunciation chart. chin. klen. hart. mend. Now you must realise the beauty of the powerful sound of alphabet.

fech. wheel. took. flood. duck. furn. then mudh r . vu u bury. tough see box Ghana. laf. tub . flud. F. good. view kup. down. ghat. good. oho whale. fall. hil. fount. brown. zoo could. when. t o o k . igzolt. ghost ghana. hill. caught. hoo.8 | S. huj. news. huge. moon. duk. igzakt. learn. duch. fern. wurld Diphthongs oo oo oi ow cool. down. luv. the. ghee. boi. fetch. laugh. igzamin. roof. tub see box Dutch. zoo kool. wood kood. hymn. mother. lad e e e radh r. m a c h . match. who. lon lawn cup. foil. exalt. world buri. bun. do. lad den. foil. tuf boks. rob. bun. rub dew. dhen fair. toy boil. kot. oho hav k . rather. lurn. such such den. which which e far. example igzampl havoc. ghost exact. rob. ghe. love. moon. him. toi brown. roof. rub du. examine. Examples Pronunciations Alphabet o u u brought. dh . whal. nuz. doo. fownt. E. sound sownd Consonants b c ch d dh f g gh gz h (h)w box. fol. ghat. wheen. whel. buoy. brot. wood boil.

ksar. luk. ship. park. azhur. thumb hath. tol dom. jim. song. ring. nip. gym. woch. swing. valet. nil. tongue long. ozon. wrought lips. risk. watch. shi dat. pen rib. path. ram. not. value. shy date. kwaliti.S. zho zho e e . jump. was. path. king. F. ring. skurvi. kiss fax. tam man. basy n hiy r . swing. jump. yak. sam. were wun. task. ship. tips hath. wur bastion. tung lips. valit. fit. ksar. park. song. yak. nip. mill. tame man. think. tax kaf. milk. measure. scene. ram. Lux. yot yatch lodge. pen rib. note. kap. mil. rot mass. sip mas. shoe. lesion. lezh n. tips rush. mezh r. milk. zon e e azure. ledge jentl. higher. sip rush. think. taks quality. ric. risk. sen. lej calf. kwit. Ozone. kis faks. E. vesta vesta one. cap. queen. luck. nil. woz. luks. ten lad. fit. king. tall dome. kwen. Alphabet j k ks kw l m n ng p r s sh t th v w y z zh Examples | 9 Pronunciations gentle. zone loz. quip kwip lad. psalm. task. rice. valu. shoo. quiet. thumb scurvy. ten long.

. In this book. these consonants produce the sounds of ‘S’ and ‘J’ respectively. a. what do you do ? Yes. i or y. On the other hand. o. You need it at every stage to have a clear idea about any new word. When “C” and “G” are followed by a. Cigar (sigar) and Cycle (sikl). Gum (gum). Cup (kup). — oo. So here is also the need to manage for the required tool to get fluency in English. A dictionary is a right source of various kinds of information related to words. ot). I have used some notations like a. Glaze (glaz) and Grass (gras). if “C” and “G” are followed by e. This is one of the best Dictionaries available. you make some arrangements for necessary implements or tools. u. e. Gin (jin) and Gym (jim). l or r.. And this tool is a good ‘English to English’ or ‘English to Hindi’ or your language Dictionary. Manage for the Necessary Tool When you start any execution or operation. New Delhi. Ltd. E. For example C→ Cess (ses).10 | S. It will prove a good help to achieve your desired aim.. Class (klas) and Crane (kran). etc. For example C→ Cat (kat). Cot (k. “C” and “G” have distinctive edge over other Consonants and possess the property of two different sounds. Goat (got). and G→ Gem (jem). these consonants enjoy the sounds of ‘K’ and ‘G’ respectively. F. These are the recognised notations of English language as suggested in Chambers 20th Century Dictionary published by Allied Publishers Pvt. Be Acquaint to the Power of ‘C’ & ‘G’ Barring exceptions. its meaning and its pronunciation. and G→ Gas (gas). You can make good use of it too.

Speak in a Natural Way. i.. the group of words. | 11 Chapter in Nutshell • Always remember that the practice material should be read ALOUD and that too again and again to train your Tongue. UTTER each word-group as a single word-unit or you can say in a single IDEA UNIT. The Spoken part of language is not the same as the Written part.e. your Lips. and Written language only afterwards. • • • • . i.. your Throat and other organs of speech.e.S. E. F. You are not required to consciously stop to think about how to string the words together. Natural talk comes out in idea–units only. It is the Spoken language that comes first. Speak out spontaneously. to speak in Word-groups. Learning and speaking in words only can’t help you to gain speech fluency. Don’t try to speak in written style of language.

enhance your intimacy with these extraordinary idea-units. But as you know. i. every dark cloud possesses a silver lining. When you utter ‘Aid’. you feel hesitation to speak English effectively. Resultantly. The given list of Shortened Forms of starters is bound to give you an extra confidence. you will find that there are a number of word-groups which have the same utterance for different spellings of word-groups. And it is the Fear of making Grammatical Mistakes. ‘Heez’ for two different word-groups. Because the list consists of single word for almost Subject plus Auxiliary Verbs those require single utterance consequently.. and ‘Aid’ for ‘I had’ and ‘I would’. Therefore. it is one of the greatest barriers that hurdle your speech fluency. Here is that. and trust that they will prove your best friend on the path of gaining speech fluency. For example. It poses really a problem before you. it expresses both ‘I had’ and ‘I would’. either ‘I had’ or ‘I would’. In this list. and it gives liberty to the listener to derive the idea according to its requirement.2 Let Yourself Grasp the Pompous Shortened Forms Have you ever seen the barriers ? The barriers are meant to block the traffic on roads/rails etc.e. But there is an invisible damn barrier between you and your speech fluency. Can you trace or sort it out ? No. Yes. ‘He is’ and ‘He has’. Your fear of the feeling that what the listener will think of you for your ignorance about English. Don’t worry. so every problem brings its solution with it. . Now it rests with the listener to distinguish that what may that word-group be. The right solution of this problem is the use of SHORTENED FORMS of speech starters or initiators. and its grammatical mistakes.

E. so forget about the long forms of word-groups. Since gaining fluency is our main concern here. Chart of Shortened Forms Long Form I am I have I had/I would I shall/I will We are We have We had/We would We shall/We will You are You have You had/You would You will They are They have They will He is/He has He had/He would He will She is/She has She had/She would Shortened Form I’m I’ve I’d I’ll We’re We’ve We’d We’ll You’re You’ve You’d You’ll They’re They’ve They’ll He’s He’d He’ll She’s She’d Pronunciatio n a’im a’iv a’id a’il ve’ea(r)* ve’ev ve’ed ve’el yooa’(r)* yoov yood yool the’a(r)* the’iv the’id the’il heez heed heel sheez sheed They had/ They would They’d . then you are free to use the long forms of the word-groups. whenever you wish to give a special impetus. Besides it.S. you are required to make good use of Short Forms only of very common words given in the Chart herebelow. F. Use and keep the following Shortened Forms in your memory. | 13 Henceforth.

F.14 | S. Shortened Form She’ll It’s It’d It’ll That’s That’re That’ve That’d That’ll Here’s Here’re There’s There’re Pronunciatio n sheel its itd itl thats that a(r)* thatv thatd thatl he z hea(r)* th z th r a(r)* th v th d th l hauz haua (r)* hau v hau d haul hooz hooa (r)* hood hoov hool e e e e e e e e Long Form She will It is/It has It had/It would It will That is/That has That are That have That had/That would That will Here is Here are There is/There has There are There have There’ve T h e r e h a d / T h e r e There’d would There will How is/How has How are How have How will Who is/Who has Who are Who had/Who would Who have Who will There’ll How’s How’re How’ve How’ll Who’s Who’re Who’d Who’ve Who’ll How had/How would How’d . E.

E.S. Long Form What is/What has What are What have What will When is/When has When are When have Short Form What’s What’re What’ve What’ll When’s When’re When’ve | 15 Pronunciatio n vatz vata(r)* vat v vat d vat l ven z vena (r)* ven v ven d ven l vhe z v h ra(r)* vh v vh d vh l ju–u (or d’yu) shal v vil v shud v vud v kan v kud v mei v mit v aut v e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e What had/What would What’d When had / When When’d would When will Where is/Where has Where are Where have When’ll Where’s Where’re Where’ve Where had / Where Where’d would Where will Do you Shall have Will have Should have Would have Can have Could have May have Might have Ought to have Where’ll D’you Shall’ve Will’ve Should’ve Would’ve Can’ve Could’ve May’ve Might’ve — . F.

while you speak. F. You have the liberty to even drop these letters’ sound. E. For example. Must’ve Short Form Isn’t Aren’t Wasn’t Weren’t Doesn’t Do’nt Did’nt Hasn’t Havn’t Hadn’t Won’t Wouldn’t Shalln’t Shouldn’t Can’t Couldn’t Musn’t Needn’t Mightn’t Oughtn’t mus v Pronunciatio n (i)zn(t)* aun(t)* vazn(t)* w : n(t)* duzn(t)* don(t)* didn(t)* hazn(t)* havn(t)* hadn(t)* won(t)* vudn(t)* shan(t)* shudn(t)* kan(t)* kudn(t)* musn(t)* needn(t)* mitn(t)* autn(t)* e e Must have Long Form Is not Are not Was not Were not Does not Do not Did not Has not Have not Had not Will not Would not Shall not Should not Can not Could not Must not Need not Might not Ought not * The consonants ‘r’ and ‘t’ closed in parenthesis ‘( )’ represent the letters having very mild or half –sounds thereof. you can pronounce ‘Has .16 | S.

. Now let’s proceed for practice. I hadn’t written a letter. (b) It forms the habit of natural speech so that your organs of speech and mind can associate unconsciously. He’ll write a letter. You’ll come here. I’m late. | 17 Practice Material There is no need to learn the practice material by heart. He’s out of the town. utter “I am afraid of cockroaches”. For example. I wouldn’t have a piano. Similarly. You aren’t a player. You haven’t a single rupee. I’ve a pen. Read each idea-unit as a single word. I don’t like classical music. but is meant to read it ALOUD several times. You can’ve it. He’s returned to house. I’d like to go there. I won’t sing a song. such as (a) It gives a clear picture of patterns of general frames of words–groups to your mind to generate more idea–units. as if the word–group is a single word “Iamafraidofcockroaches”. You should’ve read it. You hadn’t played the flute. You’d read the book. He’d written a poem. You’ve a lot of money. You shouldn’t shout. You mustn’t open the can. He isn’t in the room. and not as if there are five different words in it. I hadn’t been there. F. and speak out as a single word. You’d come closer to me. I’d gone there. He hasn’t gone to the market. Let ‘I’ flow into ‘am’. I may’ve it. He’d beat the child. I am not a singer. I’ll see the picture. He not’ as ‘Hazn’t’ as well as ‘Hazn’. and ‘of ’ into ‘cockroaches’. This practice benefits you in many ways. ‘afraid’ into ‘of’’. You’re a good boy. I must’ve a piano. ‘They are’ can be pronounced as ‘Thear’ or ‘Thea’ and so on. I can’t say. I shan’t come. You wouldn’t drink it. He hadn’t spoken to them. I haven’t a coat. He won’t learn his lesson. The following practice material consists of selfcontained idea-units. I wouldn’t like to play. I won’t take milk. You won’t rub the board. (c) It helps the Central words to work in various contexts. ‘am’ into ‘afraid’. E.S.

It won’t be nice. He doesn’t have any book. It’s me. We weren’t playing. She’d give thanks to them. She wasn’t in the room. We don’t like it. There’re so many pots. That wouldn’t be useful. They mightn’t to fight. We haven’t gone there. wouldn’t tease the kids. They aren’t painter. He hasn’t finished his work. It isn’t mine. They might’ve given it. They won’t climb on the tree. They aren’t foolish. It isn’t good. He couldn’t appear for test. Here isn’t your book. That hasn’t any meaning. They’ve their note books. She hasn’t any good book. There aren’t many people. We hadn’t run on the grass. We’d like to swim in the pool. He ought to have a pen. We won’t go to the movie. They’ll slip in the mud. She isn’t a good player. Here’s your money bag. It’d interesting poems. They wouldn’t read their books. He will’ve finished his task. That hadn’t any logic. They hadn’t match boxes. We shall’ve written the letters. We aren’t lazy. They haven’t their luggages. That’d some logic. There hasn’t been any club. It hasn’t any coin. They’d write a letter. That’ve nothing to say. There’s been a film show. She won’t sing any song. It’ll be better. Here isn’t any plant. There’ve been a film show. We’ll drink chilled water. We weren’t present there. She’s a beautiful woman. We’ve our books with us. That aren’t interesting. Here aren’t good flowers. We haven’t money at all. That’s good. That isn’t good. She hadn’t any good dress. It wouldn’t be better to leave it. That won’t be a fair deal. . They would’ve returned till 12. That haven’t any common sense. That’re beautiful. She’s a good girl. That’ll prove a good bet. We’d lost our box. It’s a coin. We’re too tired. He didn’t say it. They’re very crazy. She’d sung a sweet song. She doesn’t like ice-cream. She could’ve done it. She hasn’t broken it. F. It isn’t me.18 | S. It’d be good to listen them. It hadn’t good pictures. That’s sense. That’d do some magic. He wasn’t there. She’ll dance in a group. She wouldn’t receive them. He didn’t play well. Here’re some good novels. They’d a little car. We haven’t received cheques. There’s a nice park. They aren’t there. E. We wouldn’t like to see movie.

There’ll be an essay competition. and ‘You’d’ (Yood) for both ‘You had’ and ‘You would’ and so on. Ensure maximum use of Shortened Forms like ‘I’ ll’ (Ail) for both ‘I shall’ and ‘I will’. don’t try to use the Long Forms of starters at this stage. There haven’t been a large crowd. F. How’s your mother ? How’re your brothers ? How’s she slipped on floor ? How’ve they reached there ? How’d he attend the party ? How’ll you send the money ? What’s your name ? What’re your qualifications ? What’s driven you here ? What’ve you missed in the park ? What’d she lost ? What’ll be there ? What’ll happen after it ? What’d be the price of that ? What d’you do ? Where’s my watch ? Where’re your books ? Where’s she gone ? Where’ve they played ? Where’ll you be ? Where’d be the next show ? Who’s incharge here ? Who’re the players ? Who’s broken it ? Who’ve won the match ? Who’ll bat first ? Who’d be the captain ? When’s the next train ? When’re her sisters coming ? When’s the course finished ? When’ve the ministers visited ? When’ll you come ? When’d she appear for the interview ? Needn’t to go. There won’t be any puppet show. . There wouldn’t be my play. | 19 There’ve been many plays. E.S. Chapter in Nutshell • • To avoid the Fear of Grammatical Mistakes. There’d be my singing.

The base of the vocabulary bank is Central Words or Core Words.3 Bank Upon the Proficient Vocabulary Poor vocabulary can put obstacles on your path of gaining fluency. Hardly about 5.000 words.000 (1525 × 40) words in English language as per the dictionary.500 words. Yes. Chambers 20th Century Dictionary (1983 Edition) contains 1525 pages of main words-pronunciationsmeanings part. Now you can ask what are these Central words or Core words ? To understand the Core words. For example. Now you just think.000 words. Thus.000 or 6. So. Because words other than these 2. and each page contains about 40 words.000 words. Poor vocabulary can also create speech hardship for you. and you can be deprived of your expected results.000 words while he reads. you are required to make your close relations with these words. it is an indispensable tool to gain required fluency. It is.000 or upto the maximum extent of 10.000 to 10. Hardly about 2. Can you tell how many words he would be able to use in writing out of these 20. very necessary for you to build up a Vocabulary Bank upon that you can bank faithfully. how many words he would be able to use in his speech. out of these 5. It means there are more than 61. pick your dictionary and find out how many pages it contains. . therefore. his reading vocabulary limits at about 20.500 words are not very familiar to the organs of speech of even well educated person or an Englishman.000 words. A well educated person too would not be able to recognise more than 20. And you can very well apprise that it is very difficult to be acquainted with all these words even for a well educated person.

and (ii) Poly-syllabic Words for better understanding. aunt.Do you know the main reason behind it ? The reason behind it is that he generally encounters with mostly words in writing only. ache. and you would have a ‘Ready to Use Vocabulary’ created with some of these Core words. arm. at. arch. you can say that the speech vocabulary of a well educated or an Englishman is about 2. This vocabulary of frequently used words is called Central Words or Core Words vocabulary. These words are meant only for reading and writing.500 words that it is very short and can be easily mastered. add. . Hence. no person tries to speak very technical or archaic words. an. The syllable that you have to stress is the word itself. the listener can mark down him as crazy. am. aim. That is why. as. (i) Mono-syllabic Words. The Central words or Core words have been segregated in two groups. If that person thinks to speak words more than these 2. you can combine the words among themselves in different style and can generate numerous idea-units or word-groups. aid. art. axe. all.e.500 words. You have to do subs-tantial efforts to make with it. You should not under-mine this vocabulary of about 2. Thus. i. And once these Central words are mastered. Therefore. . Core words are the treasure of great generative skill that can give you gift thereof.. Now. You are supposed to grasp these Central words. in the course of conversation. (i) MONO-SYLLABIC WORDS Mono-syllabic words are the words those contain only one syllable. awe (o). you will rarely listen someone saying ‘He is suffering with Icterus’ instead of ‘He is suffer-ing with Jaundice’. act. ask. age. arms.. in the Mono-syllabic words. Frequently Used Mono-syllabic Words ‘A’ a. air. there is no need to have stress on them. and.500 words. ash. let yourself acquaint with the mono-syllabic words.

dirt. chip. climb. dock. crawl. cheat. bag. clown. bench. catch. beard. by. caste. blind. code. click. claim. case. bless. chop. bus. dash. brain. ‘C’ cage. check. beast. book. course. bud. band. doubt. deed. curve. ball. bite. blaze. crust. blue. cave. board. crisp. breach. bathe. care. black. can. dense. box. bind. bound. choke. cope. chess. drag. blunt. dose. clap. bump. cough. bad. bug. debt. blink. cream. chance. breadth. craft. chair. bell. breed. damp. depth. deer. dark. dive. cat. cast. chum. cure. dream. chalk. door. . deal. cell. cash. coil. clash. bar. ditch.‘B’ back. coarse. beach. cord. death. break. clue. cane. blank. bread. chain. charm. bruise. blab. date. chase. bone. cheer. crow. brush. drop. boy. cheap. drip. bake. cause. choose. damn. boat. cub. base. bowl. blow. choice. belt. conch. bill. bean. clear. dead. bow. ccite. brand. club. chime. dish. crew. cap. bride. curl. crowd. bulb. blade. dawn. cramp. bore. chief. corpse. bend. cant. burn. bald. claw. draw. come. drain. die. bribe. bring. call. chap. cheque. bare. cuff. dare. clutch. corn. dig. down. bomb. bike. deaf. brown. could. deck. best. breathe. clean. clerk. cross. drive. cook. crime. boss. beef. bark. broom. court. craze. dew. cup. calf. build. cloud. bleed. dog. bright. dodge. close. born. bull. blend. desk. clay. both. blot. brook. coach. but. breast. days. curse. bear. cold. comb. doll. burst. bed. be. big. crack. bet. cut. cheek. charge. dot. cleave. beer. clip. den. beak. crash. bit. breath. cool. dear. chest. bath. boast. block. carve. clench. clock. change. camp. chin. beam. chart. coast. birth. bid. boil. brave. day. branch. brow. car. coal. bird. bang. cheese. broad. brief. cone. dim. beat. cost. crush. bank. creep. breeze. crown. dip. blame. ban. buy. calm. cling. boot. cease. card. blush. deep. dress. brass. clasp. do. beg. bridge. bunch. cork. drill. cart. coin. brick. chat. ‘D’ dam. blood. chill. cake. bush. dine. drink. crop. chew. child. dance. bee. count. bold. cry.

drown. hand. hole. farm. gust. growl. fence. gay. halt. fade. her. from. grease. dust. haste. forge. . hate. glow. flesh. go. glare. hit. free. ink. full. gang. hook. hose. fair. inn. flee. grudge. eye. hint. fluid. high. gleam. flow. fresh. fleet. ear. fire. dusk. friend. guide. fill. hide. field. hold. dwarf. ground. glimpse. heal. flap. helm. is. fake. halve. err. grade. eight. ill. fort. hoax. grace. gap. east. hoot. haul. ease. fridge. if. hard. grip. fault. giant. hen. fail. heel. grind. hire. frost. health. ‘G’ gab. front. fifth. in. grass. file. hour. glance. flag. huge. here. graph. fly. harm. its. grief. force. fry. fourth. give. gas. fine. hay. his. great. heir. flash. good. goods. hive. guess. feel. fame. firm. heed. due. home. float. fuel. flue. film. fist. green. filth. fee. ‘H’ hail. false. form. fun. grave. edge. grunt. hoist. God. gear. flush. foam. gift. drum. grand. have. gum. fetch. flour. glove. flask. gain. flight. folk. hurt. flea. else. fright. frank. feast. grape. flock. girl. end. height. grain. dry. hut. fruit. fact. growth. faith. eat. glad. freight. he. for. grey. harsh. horse. goal. earth. hell. hope. grant. gape. fight. hill. how. guy (gi). haze. foul. itch. hunt. inch. drunk. hedge. grim. few. fast. him. hair. fire. fish. howl. fool. grope. herd. globe. gasp. horn. hop. fond. fix. egg. dump. hatred. help. frog. funds. glue. fork. hers. found. greed. groan. fur. group. feed. house. gaze. grow. duck. host. haunt. food. grasp. graze. grab. fuse. fare. grill. freeze. fog. flame. fierce. hip. fold. faint. dub. glass. hoarse. ‘I’ ice. flood. guilt. flat. gold. greet. hare. dwell. frown. fear. drug. game. first. floor. hall. far. ‘F’ face. frame. fox. dull. guard. find. half. glide. earn. hang. heat. it. hear. frail. get. four. gulf. duet. ‘E’ each. fit. guest. heart. head. gate. fall. ghost. heap. gnaw (no).

much. knee. lend. mill. may. ‘K’ keen. mean. nymph. know. limb. now. monk. of. let. ought. nurse. lump. jog. jet. mode. judge. lip. map. land. lame. might. mock. oil. knit. nick. odd. lion. main. mild. lot. lent. oar. ‘L’ lace. kiss. me. moist. kith. neigh (na). mince. list. miss. near. launch. lag. lamp. news. lux. lad. mood. lean. ours. meal. joke. kneel. kid. lounge. learn. leaf. most. myth. least. lung. mail. like. light. mile. none. leg. ‘M’ mab. net. march. mule. make. lap. king. knife. jaw. lay. knot. mug. noise. move. mass. mouth. load. once. . or. need. maize. jug. lest. love. knock. man. nil. mind. mend. look. jazz. job. jail. marsh. kin. mud. lime. mate. maid. life. keep. ‘N’ nab. mark. long. nerve. mount. mesh. law. jam. melt. kick. owe (o). old. nose. jar. leave. nun. lunch. norm. must. log. match. noon. mask.‘J’ jack. neat. lawn. just. laugh. new. mute. loss. lick. kneed. mess. low. nine. lane. meat. kit. ore. nest. noun. lose (looz). mob. link. moan. loaf. our. one. large. lamb. mix. juice. joy. mosque. neck. niece. nail. mourn. next. nut. kind. name. limp. jump. means. lack. lift. ox. lisp. mere. mum. moon. midst. lodge. kite. nod. nor. loose. ‘O’ oak. month. join. men. muse. less. – owl. luck. lead. no. length. nice. last. lance. mine. male. north. late. live. ninth. more. lid. night. joint. lake. left. line. mad. naught. mow. lock. note. lie. key. out. off. own. leak. not. lense. oath. liar. kill. mole. mist. mouse. moth. loud. lord. meet. milk. on. loan. mat.

place. rain. shift. pick. shave. seat. pad. phrase. pious. scare. rail. reach. pan. robe. share. role. silk. plead. plough (plow). sauce. ship. quaint. pass. raw. patch. shade. shirt. ridge. should. sex. prince. scratch. rib. quest. peace. scheme. post. road. scrape. rouge. shy. scene. pool. shall. rough. room. shape. play. ‘R’ race. pearl. rich. pause. pierce. pipe. root. shame. ride. please. screen. range. saw. queue. scarce. paste. roof. queen. sharp. point. per. sketch. scoff. rest. rise. risk. seal. pond. rind. poor. rug. siege. sew. saint. scold. safe. pinch. pound. priest. pill. paint. rush. paw (po). sand. punch. sing. pawn. pit. sea. plain. read. sake. right. piece. serve. search. pray. rust. route. plump. round. pork. sack. same. phone. rule. pile. rage. quench (kwensh). proof. prize. rhyme. scorn. past. skirt. sight. roam. pride. rash. shrug. plus. port. shine. plane. shelf. print. sell. quiet. sick. scale. sit. pour. ‘S’ sac. pain. rope. plan. pant. scarf. rude. sign. plant. plank. sail. rose. seed. par. shield. pink. plate. shut. rack. rub. phase. pea. rare. raid. shot. prick. riot. sheet. quick. preach. push. shout. pack. pen. pang. pot. site. roar. quail. set. ripe. proud. rid. shell. pin. scout. park. sheep. roll. pop. pluck. pub. rag. shed. raise. peek. send. plum. page. score. rob. pig. shoot. pet. sir. pulse. ray. show. short. seem. row. pole. shrink. reef. shore. scent. shriek. pale. palm. rod. size. peel. ‘Q’ quack. pastry. pint. rate. skill. rice. sheer. put. scream. sense. raft. rear. sip. pump. press. plug. side.‘P’ pace. rent. sin. shake. quite. quote. . pure. praise. screw. real. path. queer. she. price. pull. since. peach. seek. scar. part. prime. six. shrug. purse. prose. save. self. prey. seize. skin. rouse. pear. pair. sigh. peak. rake. shock. pave. shrewd. prove. ring. pat. pay. peer. plot. quit. ruin. peep. pane. reap. sane. rock. script. run. roast. rot. rank.

top. strong. sky. tent. think. thought. stale. this. swing. swift. sock. voice. touch. storm. son. their. steal. splash. stage. style. tree. tongs. veil. tone. stab. tin. trunk. tack. trip. slap. tub. sour. thin. track. tough. trail. time. thing. tramp. strip. spin. spade. street. tie. straw. threat. slit. sow. tire. streak. stride. space. suit. vault. stove. thread. trick. strange.skull. steer. sway. sort. snow. turn. spite. soul. . stock. trap. tug. stoop. tour. sleep. tribe. thorn. there. vast. sneeze. till. tooth. tend. tube. sober. stool. vogue. tread. tempt. stunt. smart. thank. try. speed. tide. tray. smooth. stare. squeeze. us. slide. stern. twin. thirst. spread. state. swim. stair. strife. vase. stroke. stiff. tame. trade. view. straight. slow. tight. tyre. speech. sun. smile. too. sole. twice. sob. spit. spill. steel. sport. split. stick. sneer. toss. term. squat. start. spring. stain. square. sniff. toe. tar. tenth. stress. stripe. tan. snail. sword. strain. starve. steep. thick. slack. strike. take. spend. tape. stir. soak. teach. tank. team. theme. strap. thief. sure. store. though. soup. stitch. smell. strength. trim. sweat. ‘V’ vade. spoil. trust. spell. slice. soon. thrive. smoke. steam. stamp. that. very. snatch. snake. throat. slave. still. stone. strive. some. trend. speak. taste. slight. tall. sound. switch. spark. sponge. trial. step. sleeve. troop. tap. suck. toy. such. vague. treat. tale. spare. them. ton. soar. solve. these. trace. talk. urn. tell. type. sum. urge. tip. spoon. smash. two. tense. van. tune. soil. throne. tax. tool. valve. slot. stuff. toil. tail. south. source. soft. tile. train. task. truck. slim. song. trench. used. string. verse. third. through. vest. vain. vow. toast. stream. strict. sore. thumb. stem. star. slip. twelve. snack. swell. true. throw. those. smack. tram. vice. town. twist. truth. torch. ten. throng. they. snap. stay. stout. tongue. then. use. stand. stairs. staff. slope. tear. stretch. than. tea. ‘U’ up. text. stall. swamp. vote. thus. stop. ‘T’ tab. swear. three. test. soap. small. thrill. sting. spot.

wise. well. whip. worth. where. wave. wild. weave. wink. whose. yawn. whole. wake. wool. woe. zone. white. It means that this part of word ‘accommodation’ requires stress. ward. wealth. worse. while. your. weed. yes. year. wretch. wet. web. wit. zip. ‘Z’ zeal. write. win. yeast. The remaining parts ‘accommo’ and ‘tion’ have unstressed syllables and require no any pressure or force or extra effort to say it. wheat. wait. It contains a dash on letters ‘da’. weep. which. wire. you. warm. wife. watch. whom. what. wish. yet. warn. wreck. i. zest. wax.. worst.e. and it should be said rapidly and softly. way. wound (woond). yolk. Thus remember to pronounce the polysyllabic words with a special effect. whim. wipe.‘W’ wag. dash-mark represents that portion of word that requires stress thereon. youth. wine. wring. This. zoo. wrong. wind. In the given list of poly-syllabic words. please refer to chapter 9. For example. wrap. would. walk. we. work. wheel. wed. west. weigh (wa). yard. worm. ‘Y’ yacht. when. hence note down the following points while say these syllables : * About the pronunciation with a special effect. with. waste. want. (ii) POLY–SYLLABIC WORDS Words having more than one syllable are called Polysyllabic words. yours. who. word. week. some pressure or force on it. width. whine. writ. young. take the word ‘accommodation’. wall. wear.* Since poly-syllabic words contain both stressed and unstressed syllable. why. wash. wide. weight. you will notice that a portion of words is marked with a Dash (—) on their top. world. and it should be heard a little bit loudly than remaining part of the word ‘accommodation’. yield. wrist. weak. whirls. wing. While the remaining part of word needs no stress or you can say that part of word represents the unstressed portion thereof or stress falls thereon. . witch. wage. wasp. will. waist.

alive. approve. account. ambition. anchor. active. go to the list very attentively and say each and every word with stress where–ever it is needed. accomplish. advise. announce. although. appetite. arrange. argue. angle. admiration. accurate. Now. around. argument. accuse. aimless. Frequently Used Poly-syllabic Words ‘A’ aback. amaze. accent. alcohol. admire. action. amuse. according. annoy. advice. The given list of poly-syllabic words contains almost words those are required for effective day-to-day conversation and general use. allow. about. advertise. apologize. advance. accommodate. ago. (iv) The stressed syllable should be said more slowly while the unstressed syllable should be spoken fastly. apology.(i) The stressed syllable needs extra effort or force to say it in comparison to unstressed syllable. altogether. applause. above. achieve. advantage. accustom. abroad. ahead. afraid. accquire. accept. ankle. again. arrest. adventure. another. agreement. anyhow. alike. against. acquaintance. anybody. adopt. accountant. absolute. arise. affection. appoint. accommodation. alter. anywhere. (ii) The stressed syllable should be said more loudly than unstressed syllable. affair. absent. alone. anniversary. afford. afterwards. administration. any. anxious. alarm. able. apparently. adjust. agency. annual. absence. among. almost. admit. acknowledge. accident. appear. adequate. analyse. accompany. after. anything. ability. (iii) The stressed syllable should be pronounced more clearly than the unstressed syllable. arrive. achievement. apply. appreciate. across. actual. activity. acquaint. always. Proper acquaintance with these words is definitely capable to give you your desired fluency of speech. . apart. analysis. addition. approach. along. abuse. anyone. accelerate. applicant. anxiety. anyway. adult. agree. appeal. absorb. ancient. affect. already. approximate.

bother. bullet. authority. beckon. basic. assume. cemetery. audience. bypass. axis. beautiful. bulky. commentary. cafe. clarify. average. barrel. bury. basket. boldness. bully. clothing. beggar. blunder. audible. atmosphere. bony. careful. champion. chubby. childish. baggage. catalogue. benefit. (shof r). classify. automatic. casual. cancel. behind. bridegroom. castle. compare. circulate. aware. centre. attempt. bubble. brighten. belong. celebrate. colleague. awake.arrow. bucket. broaden. circuit. briefcase. campaign. calender. carton. bandage. boring. before. beloved. ‘C’ cabinet. commercial. chicken. attack. begin. burglar. carpenter. author. broadcast. cartoon. companion. assist. canvas. belly. childhood. carriage. bombing. bedroom. commotion. bottom. balloon. burden. byte. assemble. award. borrow. cloudy. bygone. commonplace. believe. century. celler. autumn. better. basin. command. clever. clockwork. below. ashamed. beyond. between. comfort. capture. calculate. bravery. cluster. ceiling. bloody. central. combination. comment. bedclothes. ‘B’ backbone. available. clumsy. cannon. cigar. association. community. commit. artificial. chauffeur. bundle. boundary. ceremony. border. climate. blackmail. attitude. butcher. basis. breakdown. blacksmith. career. become. bladder. capacity. awful. background. carry. e . assure. channel. avoid. attain. communicate. astonish. attraction. bumper. article. attend. common. backward. comely. company. badly. attract. certainly. chatter. clearing. capable. certify. away. cherish. challenge. blanket. behaviour. blossom. burial. blessing. comedy. civilize. atrocious. cautious. ashore. column. comparative. being. buttonhole. carpet. beside. bystander. busy. bitter. balcony. cheerful. balance. attach. carbon. chimney. battle. classi-fication. collect. circle. basement. canal. bargain. aside. cattle. combine. cable. asleep. awkward. bedside. character. careless. climax. barber. commonsense. belief. circumstance.

decay. concise. conflict (v). dazzle. convict (n). defend. defy. deliver. dancer. declaration. definite. consume. decorate. confidential. defence. contempt. crossroads. cultivate. contrast (n). context. consideration. crazy. constant. conjure. degree. conscious. damage. daytime. cordial. contact. debate. congested. condition. deplore. confuse. delight. definition. consult. deafen. contemplate. crafty. convenient. conclusion. contain. danger. complexion. confine. considerate. crisis.compel. defeat. conversation. credit. departure. consider. conspire. conservative. concern. decide. consist. deeper. delicate. content (n). consumer. derive. contradict. contract (v). dentist. decision. crockery. descent. cousin. delighted. democratic. content (v). corrupt. concentrate. deliberate. consequently. connect. costly. declare. conviction. couple. conclude. decent. delay. dangerous. delivery. confidence. cripple. criminal. conference. contribute. consequence. condemn. critical. depart. concession. contest (n). continue. decline. demolish. conflict (n). dairy. create. considerable. current. conceal. concede. culture. corner. conduct (v). complaint. conceive. cruelty. curiosity. darken. courage. convey. compose. curtain. cottage. comprise. consent. ‘D’ dacoit. cutlery. darling. . compound. comrade. comprehend. confirm. conscience. curious. conspiracy. convince. depend. cushion. dependence. counter. contract (n). confer. cultural. creatures. concrete. descend. cunning. conduct (n). dedicate. complicate. courageous. competition. coward. conveyance. contrary. custom. congratulate. cradle. contrast (v). demand. courtesy. confide. conquer. cruel. condole. depress. complex. cooperate. cupboard. concept. compete. correspondence. cumbersome. deputy. comply. convention. decrease. confess. convict (v). demonstrate. define. delicious. comprehension. deeply. control. compulsory. complete. construct. corridor. contest (v). daughter. cracker. darkness. conceit. deceive. convenience. deny.

enemy. dusty. economic. energy. dynamic. especially. evaluate. examine (igzamin). eldest. driver. elbow. entire. during. essence. display. division. establish. domestic. efficient. dutiful. detest. example (igzampl). dismiss. encourage. develop. earnest. dreadful. despise. endure. equip. deserve. distress. detail. devil. dozen. effort. determine. diary. employ. endurance. estimate. disturb. equal. eagle. differ. double. entertain. dragon. element. disgrace. disorder. diamond. echo. either. disobey. doubtless. eastward. distinct. devote. empty. dryness. dispute. dissolve. discreet. excitement (iksitment). exclude (iksklood). enterprise. displease. essential. discuss. edit. exact (igzact). detect. downward. discount (n). despair. destroy. eternal. energetic. empire. everlasting. desire. device. distort. eventually. distinguish. enjoy. easily. destination. disadvantage. elsewhere. dispose. excite (iksit). desert (v). disappoint. effect. ever. disappear. embody. enclose. earthquake. discriminate. dullness. discipline. despite. destruction. dissatisfy. disease. ending. discourage. emphasis. endless. desperate. excellent. environment. disagree. event. enable. emergency. document. exception (iksepshun). envy. excess (ikses). embarass. emerge. door-step. downstairs. dial. disclose. entry. even. elastic. evil. disguise. economy. desert (n). except (iksept). digest. doorway. emotion. ‘E’ eager. discontended. exaggerate (igzaj rat). dishonest. escape. discount (v). divide. encounter. dominate. eastern. description. engage. exclaim (iksklam). discomfort. design. dialogue. evidence. ensure. dislike. embrace. distance. duty. difference. enormous. e . doubtful. disgust. enter. entreat. elder. exclusive (ikskloosiv). disaster. erect. enlarge. distribute. dressing. destiny. dignity. exciting (iksiting). exchange. detective. error.describe. disapprove. enthusiasm. divorse. elect. difficult. enough. entrance. every. entitle. discover. drunkard. discharge. early. dictate. estate. direct. dungeon. earnings.

faithful. flavour. freshen. extreme (ikstrem). exhaustive (igzostiv). genius. garage. fairly. furnish. fatal. ferry. flourish. forward. fellow. footstep. fasten. extinguish (ikstinguish). fraction. fortune. fugitive. fruitful. further. feature. foresee. e e e e e . gamble. genuine. exhaust (igzost). folly. filling. finely. flatten. general. flatter. foggy. exhibit (igzibit). explode (iksplod). filter. ‘F’ fable. fantastic. glimmer. financial. extremely (ikstremli). framework. explain (iksplan). festival. exploite (iksploit). expect (ikspekt). firmness. fortunate. frighten. fury. expenditure (ikspendichur). forbid. former. ghastly. gain. forefinger. fondly. exercise. export (v). express (ikspres). expense (ikspens). export (iksport) (n). expansion (ikspansh n). gesture (jesch r). extraordinary (ikstordinari). fountain. gigantic. forget. garden. explore (iksplor). eyesight. friction. glory. famous. golden. extend (ikstend). fortnight. external (iksternal). final. freely. existence (igzistans). funeral. goddess. extra. expression (ikspresh n). flutter. function. faultless. gospel. feather. fiction. generous. fracture. expert. execute. gallery. founder. extent (ikstent). expand (ikspand). garbage. ‘G’ gabble. fertile. giggle. futile. follow. frenetic. gallant. explosive (iksplosiv). frenzy. graceful. gracious. formula. fluent. friendship. funny. feeble. exquisite. flicker. eyelid. fitness. extract (ikstrakt). familiar. eyewitness. exploration. galaxy. garment. filthy. farmer. figure. forest. follower.excursion (ikskurshon). foreign. expensive (ikspensiv). experience (iksperiens). gaily. excuse (ikskuz). gently. foolish. fancy. eyebrow. forehead. finish. exist (igzist). favour. formal. fully. frequent. gather. fashion. experiment (iksperiment). gaiety. fighter. gateway. graduate. fearless. generate. furious. gentle. freedom. extension (ikstensh n). faulty. govern. explosion (iksplozh n). ferocious. frightful. forgive. forecast. fascinate. gradual. glasses. failure. female. gossip. fearful. frontier. farther. flexible.

insolvent. intend. horizon. handful. interest. imperfect. include. hybrid. intense. import (n). heroic. image. ignore. impatient. ingenuity. injustice. groccer. industrious. hinder. gutter. greetings. gratitude. innocent. imprison. individual. indication. human. huddle. impact. however. happen. inefficient. hobby. guarantee. interfere. hustle. impress. improbable. incline. hollow. improve. innumerable. insist. haircut. inner. imply. history. horror. greatness. inform. insincere. himself. import (v). healthy. gunny. hurricane. hateful. habitat. hammer. honest. illtreat. inspection. highway. hillside. intellect. harshly. holder. instead. holy. grumble. inherit. gymnasium (jimnazi m). insure. index. ingenious. initial. inhabit. incorrect. improper. importance. inconceivable. hasten. inborn. hero. impartial. illegal. honey. injury. incapable. impatience. increase (n). honeymoon. harbour. horrible. indispensable. inquire. infections. hunger. inevitable. incomparable. instance. intention. immediate. institute. inside. independence. illustrate. inferior. indecent. hazard. headache. grievous. inspire. hunter. e ‘H’ . interior. incompetent. intermediate. immortal. insignificant. holiday. hereditary. inclination. indirect. gruesome. inhabitant. ‘I’ ideal. hotel. gunpowder. intake. immoral. intelligence. imitate. infect. incredible. handy. handsome. guilty. indicate. heavy. insurance. immense. hardly. humanity. haughty. induce. incomprehensive. harden. herself. inflame. honour. hostage. inflict. ineffective. imagination. heaven. heighten. hearty. grateful. honestly. internal. impolite. humour. incomplete. ignorant. instant. harvest. illiterate. inject. hatred. imagine. influence. insight. impart. heritage. hostile. inquiry. hospitable. indifferent. install. hostess. injurious. greedy. insult. insect. instruct. greatly.grammar. humble. handkerchief. implore. insert. impersonal. indeed. indoor. industry. hesitate. innate. hostel. harmony. impression. grandchild. hilly. incident. habitual. idle. impossible. identity. inspiration. hurrah.

jewel. loudly. marble. inwardly. leader. livelihood. meditate. manage. investigate. magistrate. meddle. e e . midnight. interrupt. ‘J’ jacket. lever. kudo. lorry. interview. likely. manual. labour. mansion. jealousy. into. journey. mattress. meeting. mason. loosen. kindness. media. literary. isolate. legend. lament. memorial. lonely. landscape. mention. library. locate. listen. language. lesson. maintain. kitchen. junction. merry. meagre. jetty. ivory. level. kilometre. lessen. marriage. item. kilogram. intimidate. longing. mediate. invent. medicine. luxury (luksh ri or lugzh ri). justify. mechanic. maintenance. liquid. method. kindhearted. judicial. merit. mighty. merely. lately. involve. lively. logic. lazy. lobby. liberty. memory. loneliness. masses. jungle. knowledge. lecture. invite. message. lightening. jeopardy. liberal. knuckle. majesty. jolly. masculine. mankind. menace. medium. lengthen. latest. matter. jealous. marvellous. lunatic. kidnap. liable. middle. licence. manner. judgement. luggage. liquor. manuscript. lovely. introduce. investment. mellow. manly. interval. leather. ‘K’ kennel. ladder. loyal. invalid. menu. kilo. margin. mainland. mainly. ‘M’ maestro. invade. legendary. mental. iron. mercy. joyful. invert. invasion. linger. journal. limit. jewellery. lighten. literature. lawyer. invitation. learning. jeopardize. malice. mature. issue. intrude.interpret. lavatory. learned. marvel. magnet. measure. lower. invisible. lukewarm. meanwhile. laundry. liar. later. lucky. liberate. journalist. itself. kindly. intervene. layer. invoke. leisure. intimate. intolerant. manufacture. island. justice. magnificent. laughter. kettle. lumber. legal. ‘L’ label. kerosine. maximum. legacy. living.

output. obtain. mutual. nothing. ourselves. negotiate. nervous. mortally. opposite. origin. murmer. moustache. nobody. modify. noble. number. moody. outline. noisy. necessary. moral. oppose. monster. ornament. obedience. naughty. nickname. numerous. movement. nation. misbehave. negligent. navy. monument. open. overhear. overlook. mislead. outcome. overhaul. outbreath. offensive. notice. okay. mischief. owner. mutter. outstanding. omelette. mumble. misery. opinion. nowhere. outlook. outburst. northern. missing. nightmare. organ. nutrient. outdoor. omit. mysterious. ozone. minimum. overturn. occasion. movie. outrage. outdated. overwhelm. nobility. overboard. needless. ocean. nature. otherwise. museum. ‘P’ . model. narrate. outside. needle. object (v). obstruct. occupy. narrow. ‘O’ oasis. nonsense. outskirts. offend. motto. natural. overall. ‘N’ naked. moment. nasty. miracle. modern. nostril. overrun. ordinary. outward. muscle. over. obligation. multitude. outfit. notion. notify. order. obsolete. oneself. outcast. opportunity. outlive. oblige. opponent. monotonous. mission. opress. overthrow. overcome. network. nominate. nuisance. orphan. miserable. mortgage. minor. overnight. misunderstand. nourish. often. oxygen. negative. obey. murder. onto. neglect. outspoken. operate. nowadays. mingle. only. oven. noteworthy. outcry. mixture. neither. moderate. modest. overtime. normal. occur. oral. overtake. outnumber. motion.mileage. occupation. o’clock. object (n ). molest. obvious. outlet. misfortunate. obstacle. native. orator. neighbour. nucleus. overcoat. offer. offence. mystery. never. odour. mostly. novel. muddle. nephew. outlaw. overhang. nearly. muddy. observe. obscure. other. nearby. overflow. militant.

piracy. principle. prospect. precious. prejudice. pleasant. perfect. pressure. persist. previous. principal. property. payment. pursuit. perhaps. passport. plumber. personality. protest (n). panel. probable. parachute. proprietor. passion. petty. province. pardon. partner. procedure. prefer. printer. prescribe. prepare. progress (v). pregnant. profile. passage. punishment. president. pronunciation. position. provide. preserve. portrait. pronounce. private. puddle. produce (v). philosophy. portion. peasant. purpose. plenty. permit. ‘Q’ . punctual. physician. participate. proper. population. pretty. perfection. provision. parent.pacify. punish. power. palace. pollution. patience. possess. proficiency. pickpocket. patron. portray. perceive. publish. partial. penetrate. prestige. powder. perpetual. prosper. proudly. preface. politeness. plunder. poison. purchase. preside. prescription. permanent. pillar. plucky. promise. peaceful. political. painful. pleasure. period. pulley. prevalent. penalty. police. prevail. pastime. prayer. pillow. persuasion. proclaim. proportion. precede. persuade. prickly. paleness. particle. pickle. precise. petition. provoke. prevent. porter. perform. pedestrian. presume. pocket. proxy. proceed. public. protect. popular. present (n). pilot. prudent. pepper. project (v). physical. present (v). pursue. parlour. penny. practise (v). picturesque. patient. particular. provocation. polite. parallel. passerby. pupil. possible. profess. purity. policy. prickles. psychological. perfume. poet. propose. presence. predecessor. progress (n). permission. privilege. pavement. package. process. protest (v). peculiar. pretext. puzzle. pretend. prison. poverty. pattern. pebble. panic. primary. pottery. practical. postpone. problem. pension. polish. positive. produce (n). programme. poem. people. practice (n). project (n). promote. proverb. proposal. pity. profit. picture.

reserve. reveal. rudely. repetition. reply. react. recognize. rural. revive. reason. rely. really. savage. satisfaction. resent. religion. revert. rather. ‘S’ sachet (sasha). regular. rattle. retire. schedule. ruthless. reconstruct. rectangle. qualified. sacrifice. select. remark. saucer. revolve. refrain. reform. relieve. self– confident. response. recruit. quietness. relief. restrain. rally. salty. risky. repent. quaver. renew. quotation. self–conscious. recess. scarcely. research. rebellion. revolution. seduce. self–control. resemblance. relative. reckless. regard. rocky. realize. quickly. reception. routine. sausage. rumour. receive. seaside. rotten. scissors. reluctance. recall. reflect. remember. sailor. refresh. quarterly. quintal. sculpture. receipt. replace. resist. recovery. resignation. riddle. seldom. royal. revenge. sacred. rainbow. religious. railing. reservation. question. racket. return. rehearsal. rider. recollect. reverse. robber. respect. recipe. removal. report. reside. scatter. refer. record (n). respond. relax. saddle. secure. relation. radius. renown. reconcile. quota. reinforce. rhythm. scholarship. restore. satire. refuse. resign. remote. render. rescue. republic. revolt. retreat. ruler. rebel (v). qualify. rapid. resolution. quantity. remind. resume. release. recreation. relish. roughly. recoil. request. resort. region. remove. riot. reward. quietly. recover. repair.qualification. reduce. season. scribble. quarter. safety. scarcity. rusty. represent. recognition. sandy. regret. rigid. rejoice. scornful. ridiculous. repeat. reality. self–interest. rebel (n). relinquish. reduction. recent. rubbish. remedy. secret. safely. rival. renovate. recommend. resource. reliable. section. refuge. rustle. revoke. relate. review. quarrel. ready. resistance. quiver. reproduce. revise. ‘R’ racial. sadly. retain. scenery. . reject. reddish. ripen. require. result. remain. record (v). refine. scientific. reproach. restrict. reputation. resolve. rugged. salute.

startle. stable. super. storage. signal. stormy. situated. skilful. superior. stiffen. sightseeing. strangely. suspicion. somehow. sunset. tarriff. strongly. slowly. territory. selfish. situation. striking. sportsman. snapshot. suppose. shortcoming. sexual. sorry. surrender. sustain. subtle. succeed. simultaneous. similarly. swiftly. surprise. social. solid. sparkle. storey. swallow. thirsty. stingy. shameless. sideways. stateman. serial. socalled. sweater. slightly. shimmer. sympathy. tackle. temple. substance. steadfast. telegram. thicken. shiver. temporary. shady. serious. share. spacious. temperate. statement. solitary. (s ksed). sexy. serpent. terrible. swollen. survey. sunshine. slacken. soften. solution. e e . silent. struggle. setting. service. suitable. signature. simple. stuffy. splendid. sidework. sober. support. speculate. shabby. temper. swelling. structure. terrific. tendency. sudden. shudder. steady. slender. sincere. souvenir. shoulder. session. stupid. spectacles. someone. syrup. solemn. severe. suicide. sensation. settle. stranger. study. teenager. submit. spectator. tension. tenant. significant. tarnish. spirit. survive. shelter. student. sweeten. something. supply. slipshod. surround. sensible. ‘T’ tablet. thoughtful. tender. solitude. subtract. stocking. shapeless. surely. southern. shatter. skeleton. sermon. separate. signify. suffer. slaughter. stagger. strictly. superstition.self–made. sunny. slipper. shadow. society. stammer. supress. substitute. summary. sickness. staircase. strengthen. theory. shortage. somebody. slavery. speedy. summon. seller. supper. stillness. sender. sometime. surgeon. target. sprinkle. theatre. stony. somewhere. terminal. subdue. straighten. terror. servant. singer. shameful. suspect. several. shadowy. self–service. sorrow. suburb. sufficient. self–respect. talent. sunrise. surface. sovereign. symbol. success (s kses). swampy. silly. sticky. starvation. shower. supreme. series. sharpen. silver. thinker. single. thorough. stretcher. system. sleepy. silence. sentiment. sturdy. statue. suggest. surgery. shorter. stubborn. shallow. thickness. senseless. shiny. temporarily.

warmly. triangle. vessel. venture. western. undo. treasure. various. uphill. urban. thunder. vulnerable. trailer. trespass. transmit. tunnel. timely. tragedy (trajidi). until. united. vacation. vulgar. topic. trousers. wallet. virgin. uppermost. tumble. volunteer. water–resistance. variation. untidy. weekly. verandah. trifle. unite. trader. watchdog. understand. variety. traffic. verify. victor. violence. valley. violent. warning. turbulent. unfortunately. unable. trickle. unemployment. unlawful. thriller. waterproof. useful. westwards. unit. upon. transfer (v). unconscious. vengeance. weaken. trample. wedding. uphold. translate. unnecessary. weekend. uproot. urgent. travel. vary. valour. whatever. tower. unique. torture. vocabulary. unbutton. usual. traitor. triumph. vicious. undertake. vocal. vivid. vigour. trainer. tighten. upwards. voluntarily. ultimate. threaten. utterance. veto. trouble. underground. tidy. ‘V’ vacant. watery. virtue. unsatisfactory. volume. tiny. union. wander. unkind. uncertain. unknown. treatment. weapon. unity. unlock. undergrowth. undress. warehouse. well–made. uproar. wasteful. valueless. thunderstorm. unarmed. untie. victim. uniform. universal. umpire. transfer (n). upper. trigger. ‘W’ waddle. vanish. together. unfair. weather. visible. wealthy. vaccum. tremble. valid. upright. turning. vomit. uncomfortable. upset. unload. vision. valuable. upkeep. tolerate. violate. ‘U’ ugly. . universe. unpleasant. utmost. weakness. underline. unlike. unhappy. toxic. tourist. vital. transform. valiant. token. unless. throughout. vertical. vegetable. utter. unusual. upstairs. tremendous.thoughtless. transparent. waken. timber. tyrant. well–known. unlucky. victory. title. welfare. trumpet. tiptop. unjust. useless. toward. uneasy. uncommon. visit. tolerable. unwilling. understatement. tradition. voyage. wardrobe.

wherever. women. within. worthless. ‘Z’ zealous. worthwhile. angry etc. affect etc. willing. and the best way to keep it rolling on is the maximum utilisation of this bank’s treasure. aback. whichever. worthy. worship. e e . wrinkle. woolen. Do you know what does Bank do to earn income on its treasure of Deposits ? Yes. youthfulness. yesterday. action. anniversary. yourself. your this Vocabulary Bank also requires same type of circulation. widespread. yellow. whisper. zigzag. (wim n). you might have encountered with some strange words. witness. whoever. whistle. widow. zipper. worldwide. wholly. wooden. widower. so. wonder. woman. without. absorb. For example. youngster. Besides. (woom n). you can classify them in following three groups for better acquaintance : (a) The words in which stress falls on the First syllable. wisdom. widen. wisely. (b) The words in which stress falls on the Second syllable. witty. admiration. able. ‘Y’ yearly. yourselves. artificial etc. worker. more and more and frequent use of these words is an indispensable process to enrich your Vocabulary Bank.whenever. windy. ‘X’ X–ray. X–mas. For example. whether. it keeps its money in circulation to earn more money. For example.. Let Yourself Sharp Your Vocabulary Now you have an important treasure of words you can bank upon. You are required to sort out them and consult these words with your dictionary to find out various meanings of them. and (c) The words in which stress falls on the Third syllable. zealousness. withdraw. worry. In both. the list of Mono–syllabic words and Poly– syllabic words. As Bank keeps the money in circulation to earn more money. Therefore. widely.

i. That’s why always beware of High Sounding and difficult to pronounce words at this stage. .. Trying to make your speech high sounding can ditch your fluency. Let us Practice The following are the model structures to train your organs of speech. These words are capable to bestow you the powerful proficiency to communicate effectively. and your memory can be waked up. Read them out loudly so that your voice could easily strike your ear–drums. Develop Fast Friendship with Core Words The Core words may be proved your best assistant. Yes. and you can rely then on your organs of speech that they won’t feel any difficulty to make you fluent in English speech. you can acquire the skill to grasp the words quickly and your organs of speech would feel convenient to pronounce them effectively. This treasure is enough to make you rich in fluency.e. 1586 Mono–syllabic words plus 2414 Poly– syllabic words in your Vocabulary Bank. Any how at present you should try to master the given list of Mono–syllabic and Poly– syllabic words.By classifying these words. But it doesn’t mean that you should limit your efforts to enrich this Vocabulary Bank. This is very important task to be performed by your organs of speech to be accustommed in the fashion that demands English language. Make arrangement for any good book that can show you the way to make better use of Prefixes and Suffixes to frame more new words. after acquiring required fluency level you can be at your liberty to use such words at your convenience. So make effective use of this drill and speak them loudly. You have 4000 words in your hands. Your Attention Please You are also required to bear in your mind that you should always use simple and common words to make your communication accessible to listener. Now count your treasure. and make your speech realistic.

I am going to circus. She is not cooking the food.Practice Material Read out the practice material aloud. You are not pleased with her.” as “Iwasn’tthesecretary. You are down stairs. It is his fault. She is not lazy. It is not getting cool. We are not sure about it. I am not going to cinema. They are not idiots. She is playing with kids. They are very polite to us. You are a really nice fellow. It is mine. It is not a good one. They are not feeling ashamed. They are not so proud. She is smart. She is reading a letter. You are not allowing him to go. He is not a good student. She is a pretty looking girl. For example read “I wasn’t the secretary. They are qualified teachers. We are proud of our son. I am happy to see your report. I am looking at the door. He is an intelligent. It is draining. He is not writing the lesson. We are not below. We are managing a hotel. You are not cruel to others. You are not up stairs. She is not courteous. She is not the girl he wanted to see. They are not doing well. You are across the road. We are listening the music. We are above. It is big enough. It is not large enough to pick. You are sure. and try to speak the group of words as a single unit. They are sly and cunning. She is not so ugly. You are not near to me. It is not Raju’s bag. They are not trained persons. I am a student. He is swimming into the pool. He is just going to read it. They are the people who live here. We are not all silly fools. He is not running on the track. 1. We are not singing the song. I am not a teacher. We are all geniuses. He is not a stupid. She is a very sweet girl. I am not afraid of snakes. We are not tax payers. I am not playing football. He is a very handsome chap. I am an actor. He is a clever boy. They are our friends. He is not so laborious.” General Structure No. It is Raju. It is not hers. I am not a tailor. . You are forcing him to run.

They were cutting it short. She was not up. I was not playing the match. She was not inside. She was outside. They were not sly and cunning. They were not making a noise. . I was not disturbed at all. We were planning for a trip. 3. I was not upset over that. You were not so idiot. I was lucky. You were his good friend.General Structure No. There were not far. I was not there. It was us. 2. They were near. He was very happy and gay. She was the best girl to ask. I was here. It was not so tough. They were going there on business. She was not so lucky. We were pleased to see him. He was not wrong at all. She was not the girl I have been looking for. They were not behind. He was so kind and gentle. It was as simple as that. We were far away. I am behind the curtain. We were sure about that. We were not calm about that. We were not late. It was not me. It was not floating on the surface. He was a classmate of mine. It was shining as it used to. I was not the President. I was near the shop. You were not her enemy. You were very crazy. He was not the thief. You were writing the notes. They were ready to do it. We were not confused about that. She was a good dancer. She was very fortunate. You were not practising hard. We were not explaining it to them. It was me. He was not surprised to have it. He was not the President’s brother. I was having lunch. They were ahead. You were away. We were not somewhere. They were not feeling very happy. You were wearing a fine shirt. She was not a dull student. I am not by the gate. She was washing her clothes. He was the son of Prime Minister. He was a clerk. I was not there. I was the prefect of my class. She was down. You were not fighting with others. It (the container) was not full of sweets. General Structure No. It was worse at all. We were early. I was not outside. He was the boy I wanted to see. You were not back. She was not doing her best. I was inside.

He was not across the road. She stiches well. She didn’t relish the dishes. They are not in front of the gate. You didn’t write any letter. You completed your work. They asked to enter the room. It has annoyed him. She is not at the back of her seat. We stayed at home till eight. They haven’t made fun of her. It didn’t drop down from his hand. 4. You are not among your friends. It was not included in the list. She hasn’t forgotten her insult. General Structure No. He has confessed it. You are in between the rows. I didn’t go there. It (train) hasn’t left before she reached the station. They don’t enjoy playing hockey. It doesn’t entertain nicely. We were the customers of that shop. They didn’t help me. He doesn’t play well. We didn’t avoid meeting them. He didn’t owe her any money. You were not here for a long time. You were away from here. It is a long way from here. She was not on the board. She doesn’t cook so well. It was mentioned at the last. I had written . They believe much on it. They were not the person I have been looking for. She is from my town. I haven’t written my notes. They have made many mistakes. I lived in New Delhi. It is not by the side of the hotel. He forgot his promise. We have forgotten his mischief. They are off side the street. You haven’t misspelt any word. I have finished that novel. He enjoys playing guitar. They were of very different kind. It prevented her to play. It belongs to me. You have judged well. She has broken it open. You don’t speak in fluency. We haven’t listened any noise. 5. We run fast.He is far away from Agra. We were not the members of club. She ate too much. He was at fault. We are not against freedom. You write better. She was on the top of list. We are against indiscipline. He hasn’t used any unfair means. I don’t have money. I like it. We don’t eat eggs. General Structure No. He is not in a good mood.

Chapter in Nutshell • • Build up your own Vocabulary Bank. Their men had done appreciable work. He hadn’t informed us that* he is coming. hence you can omit it. One of my friends didn’t go to the circus. while Poly–syllabic words require stress as the situation demands. Rohit is a brilliant student. Mono–syllabic words generally need not any stress or extra effort to speak them out. . Hockey isn’t his favourite game. His shoes needs polishing.e. They hadn’t offered any bribe. She had allowed him to go out. Her hair doesn’t want setting. I hadn’t spoken any harsh word. Goats aren’t wild animals. We had painted the room. It hadn’t made her work harder. They had paid the coolie. Just a few steps after he was not visible. Just for a few rupees they fought badly. Poly–syllabic words contain more than one syllable. • • • * ‘that’ is not an essential part of spoken English. A lot of people rush to the spot. There are new designs of clothes. The sweeper didn’t sweep the street. It had become dry. You had addressed it to him. Practic e Material requires frequent and several readings ALOUD. and Poly–syllabic words. Every girl want to be an actress. The house owner doesn’t let out the flat. Mono– syllabic words. 6. General Structure No. and Poly–syllabic words ALOUD. You hadn’t started the speech. Mono– syllabic words contain only one syllable. She hadn’t sung better. Many of them haven’t sprayed the house–walls. We hadn’t charged him anything. Read out the given Mono–syllabic. i. On the other hand. Dog is a faithful animal. Singing is her favourite hobby. More people have completed their assignments. The workmen hadn’t report on their duty.my book. Have better acquaintance with words. The postmen delivered the letters. He had quarrelled badly.

It always wishes to cooperate with you from the bottom of its heart. Now go through the table of ‘important combinations’ given here carefully and teach your tongue the principles of description. so your speech may come out from your mouth without any extra strain. so your tongue can become immune from faltering. i. important and indispensable programme that can bestow upon you the gift of speech fluency. Principles of Description.. But what’s the reason of not having desired fluency in English speech. it is not so. . particularly in your tongue.4 Train Your Tongue Just imagine. But you have learnt them with your brain and eyes only.e. To scrap the hesitational tendency of your tongue. the tongue refuses to cooperate with you. what would happen to your tall talks if your fleshy organ in the mouth. And the valid reason is this that your tongue has not been provided proper training to speak English fluently. you are most capable to describe and transmit your ideas through paper. It is your tongue that also keeps you in effective speech. Because you have given it extensive training for it since your childhood. Now it is the right time to train your beloved tongue to get it along with you in your efforts. But fortunately. It is the only. you’ve learnt almost important rules and principles of English and English grammar. make it adept about the principles of English grammar which were learnt earlier by your brain and eyes. That’s why you speak your mother tongue very efficiently. In the schools and colleges. not with the help of your tongue. Therefore. And you always succeed to keep it busy in experiencing various tastes. and you still long for fluency of speech.

Important Combinations Subject I We You They He She It I We You They He She It I We You They He She It I We You They He She It What should speak I don’t We don’t You don’t They don’t He doesn’t She doesn’t It doesn’t I didn’t We didn’t You didn’t They didn’t He didn’t She didn’t It didn’t I have/haven’t We have/haven’t You have/haven’t They have/haven’t He has/hasn’t She has/hasn’t It has/hasn’t I had/hadn’t We had/hadn’t You had/hadn’t They had/hadn’t He had/hadn’t She had/hadn’t It had/hadn’t What’s not I doesn’t We doesn’t You doesn’t They doesn’t He don’t She don’t It don’t — — — — — — — I has/hasn’t We has/hasn’t You has/hasn’t × × × × × × × × × × They has/hasn’t × He have/haven’t × She have/haven’t × It have/haven’t × — — — — — — — .

. Use only basic form of action-words with them. ‘haven’t written’. hasn’t written’. ‘doesn’t go’. • Use only Past Participle (IIIrd) form of action-words after. ‘don’t’ and ‘didn’t’. For example. ‘hasn’t’. ‘have’. ‘have written’. For example. Go through them and read them Aloud. ‘haven’t’. and ‘hadn’t written’. ‘has’.Things to Remember • Never use Past Tense (IInd) form of action-words after ‘doesn’t’. Now you repeat each and every combination ALOUD so many times in the following manner : I don’t We don’t You don’t They don’t He doesn’t She doesn’t It doesn’t I didn’t He didn’t I have He has I haven’t He hasn’t I had He had I hadn’t He hadn’t We didn’t She didn’t We have She has We haven’t She hasn’t We had She had We hadn’t She hadn’t You didn’t It didn’t You have It has They didn’t They have You haven’t They haven’t It hasn’t You had It had You hadn’t It hadn’t They had They hadn’t Understand the Verb and its 3 forms Verbs or Action words and their proper application is the life–line of your speech fluency. Given herebelow is the list of most frequently used verbs or action words. ‘don’t go’ and ‘didn’t go’. ‘has written’. ‘had written’. You’ve gone through the important combinations of various word–groups of English language those follow certain principles and patterns. You are required to adhere strictly with them. ‘had’ and ‘hadn’t’.

and Past Participle (III) form. Basic (Ist) form. awake awoke awoke bend bent bent bind bound bound bleed bled bled breed bred bred bring brought brought . Past Tense (IInd) form. spellings of Basic forms are different from Past Tense forms. i.Most–Frequently used Verbs (Action words) Basic (Ist Form) Group I : Past Tense (IInd Form) Past Participle (IIIrd Form) Group II : The verbs of this group have the same physical structure (spellings) in all the three forms..e. while the Past Tense forms and Past Participle forms have the similar structure of spellings. bet bet bet burst burst burst cast cast cast cost cost cost cut cut cut hit hit hit hurt hurt hurt let let let put put put read (red) read (red) read (red) rid rid rid set set set shut shut shut split split split spread spread spread upset upset upset In this group.

I build burn buy catch cling creep deal dig dream (drem) dwell feed feel fight find fling get grind hold kneel (nel) lead lean leave lend lose make mean meet shine sit sleep slide smell * II built burnt bought caught clung crept dealt dug dreamt (dremt) dwelt fed felt fought found flung got ground held knelt (nelt) led leant left lent lost made meant met shone sat slept slid smelt III built burnt bought caught clung crept dealt dug dreamt (dremt) dwelt fed felt fought found flung got* ground held knelt (nelt) led leant left lent lost made meant met shone sat slept slid smelt American accent uses it as ‘gotten.’ .

Past Tense and Past Participle forms.I II III speed sped sped spend spent spent spin spun spun spit spat spat spoil spoilt spoilt stand stood stood stick stuck stuck sting stung stung strike struck struck string strung strung sweep swept swept swim swam swam swing swung swung teach taught taught think thought thought understand understood understood weep wept wept win won won wind wound wound wring wrung wrung Group III : Action words of this group have different spellings in Basic. arise arose arisen bear bore born beat beat beaten bid bade bidden bite bit bitten blow blew blown break broke broken choose chose chosen draw drew drawn drink drank drunken drive drove driven eat ate eaten .

I fall fly forbid forget forgive forsake freeze give go grow hide know lie ride rise see shake show shrink sink slay sow speak spell steal strive swear (swar) swell take tear throw tread wake wear weave write II fell flew forbade forgot forgave forsook froze gave went grew hid knew lay rode rose saw shook showed shrank sank slew sowed spoke spelled stole strove swore (swor) swelled took tore threw trod woke wore wove wrote III fallen flown forbidden forgotten forgiven forsaken frozen given gone grown hidden known lain ridden risen seen shaken shown shrunk sunk slain sown spoken spelt stolen striven sworn (sworn) swollen taken torn thrown trodden waken worn woven written .

button FYFW ‘C’→ call. bridge. count. Go through them. For example : ask asked asked drop dropped dropped force forced forced laugh laughed laughed reduce reduced reduced The following are some such words that need only ‘d’ or ‘ed’ to be added at the end thereof to become past tense and past participle. advertise. close. annoy. chase. carry. compel. climb. belong. care.I II III Group IV : This group contains the action words which can be changed into past tense and past participle by adding ‘d’ or ‘ed’ at the end thereof. breathe. cure. crowd. continue. cover. argue. block. act. attract. cross. blame. advise. agree. clothe. charge. civilize. cease. complain. attend. bill. ‘A’→ accept. comfort. consider. avoid FYFW* ‘B’→ bake. arrange. concern. crack. camp. attempt. charm. behave. compare. allow. comb. approve. account. border. control. consist. command. branch. curl. crash. clean. all the three forms. complete. cry. ask. afford. boil. curve FYFW * Use this space ‘For Your Favourite Words (FYFW)’. combine. appoint. admire. bar. cheer. base. admit. contain. confuse. arrive. ache. advance. clear. curse. connect. cheat. cause. address. brush. add. accompany. conquer. colour. attack. collect. beg. amuse. copy. believe. chain. grasp them and read them ALOUD. change. bury. answer. arm. . accustom. borrow. aim. appear. claim. cough.

depend. excite. flash. delay. describe. last. grieve. flame. inform. invent. improve. knot FYFW ‘L’→ lack. exercise. judge. delight. fear. deserve. limit. inquire. fail. drown. hook. fit. fix. flood. disappoint. declare. end. introduce. explain. instruct. elect. desert. include. deliver. expect. decrease. jump FYFW ‘K’→ kick. land. harm. direct. desire. hand. like. guess. joke. enter. fish. interrupt. lift. employ. influence. kill. handle. educate. defend. heap. look. discover. enjoy. examine. film. furnish FYFW ‘G’→ gain. guide FYFW ‘H’→ hammer. dare. exchange. fill. dress. express FYFW ‘F’→ fade. explode. live. interest. gather. decide. decay. load. help. fasten. fire. dance. float. fulfil(l). invite FYFW ‘J’→ join. exist. govern. destroy. defeat. love. excuse. develop. fold. hire. demand. escape. hasten. hate. heat. form. hope. enclose. enquire. fancy. discourage. drop. divide. dry FYFW ‘E’→ earn. feast.‘D’→ damage. lodge. drag. intend. favour. greet. infect. laugh. happen. deceive. follow. flow. listen. lower FYFW . descend. lock. free. doubt. die. hurry. hunt FYFW ‘I’→ imagine. establish. determine. encourage. dip.

save. surprise. step. post. start. report. screw. offend. shout. pause. remove. obtain. pilot. remind. plant. serve. suck. row. rain. preserve. stretch. name. struggle. rob. please. satisfy. stop. mark. photograph. oil. remain. operate. protect. shop. remember. risk. marry. state. prick. request. notice. rush FYFW ‘S’→ sail. recognise. shock. raise. refuse. reason. punish. repair. pronounce. rest. past. miss. receive. offer. roll. mend. milk. poison. perform. suit. pretend. park. reward. respect. reply. suggest. relate. provide. question FYFW ‘R’ → race. search. push FYFW ‘Q’→ quarrel. stay. sound. polish. mix. slope. shield. scatter. prove. overflow. signal. match. permit. slow. shelter. present. pull. share. open. scold. rub. shade. steam. supply. plan. swallow FYFW . settle. press. slip. pick. need. stamp. pour. prefer(r). require. smile. reduce. succeed. place. smoke. return. support. pass. print. move. stitch. promise. retire. prevent. ornament. note. regard. point. surround. pile. suffer. repeat. result. suppose. prepare. rent. matter. suspect. oppose. reach. owe. mind. sign. pump. murder FYFW ‘N’→ nail. seat. paint. meagre. store.‘M’→ manage. play. mention. nurse FYFW ‘O’→ obey. pity. praise. seize. study. practise. persuade. march. represent. own FYFW ‘P’→ pack. record. order. seem. separate.

wander. worry. They don’t see horror movies. urge. They’ve broken the promise. trouble. travel. toss. They don’t like to play chess. We didn’t beat them. tremble. treat. whistle. trust. I haven’t gone to theatre. She didn’t start her work. task. It doesn’t look like that. It doesn’t feel cozy. We haven’t planned the programme. They didn’t allow to play. She doesn’t drive car. whip. They didn’t take their medicine. She doesn’t cook dishes well. telephone. He didn’t teach the boy. trick. I’ve done it. touch. It didn’t work well.‘T’→ talk. wound FYFW Practice Material Group 1. work. weigh. walk. . tire. trap. It didn’t melt even at 200° C. whisper. worship. He’s painted the scene. You haven’t shown your results. I didn’t hear any voice. You’ve attended the classes. wish. We’ve complained today. They haven’t reported the facts. tidy. tow. You don’t play hockey. You didn’t inform me. train. wrap. I don’t wish to go. tax. visit. want. try. We don’t write illegible. You don’t run fast. I didn’t go there. We didn’t play bad. welcome. tie. wave. warn. We don’t eat eggs. You didn’t write any letter. vote FYFW ‘W’→ wait. wash. test. She didn’t wash her clothes. thank. I don’t think that* it is better. wreck. waste. He hasn’t white-washed * ‘that’ is not an essential part of spoken English. warm. He doesn’t play well. use FYFW ‘V’→ vary. wonder. hence you can omit it. He didn’t appear in the exam. watch. He doesn’t ask questions. turn. twist FYFW ‘U’→ unite. tower.

The cloth is 50 rupees a metre. It’s concealed nothing. She did her best. She hasn’t performed nicely. She forgot that he called her. I wonder who did it. She hit him in the head. You hadn’t shown your calibre. I doubt if they can do it. They hadn’t played the piano. I had a little doll. He didn’t washed his shirt. They’ll call you any moment now. She asked him if he was tired of waiting. Cloth is sold by the metre. They wondered if he would come. They’ll arrive here any minute now. Milk is 10 rupees a litre. They broke their hands. She had danced amazingly. It hasn’t revealed anything. He hadn’t any good book. He kicked her in the back. We can’t remember how we did it. He took her for her twin-sister. She slapped him on the cheek. He had beautiful pictures. They enquired where I was. They didn’t lose their purses. We hadn’t given any chance. These toffees are one rupee each. I can’t recall if I have seen her. She caught him by the arm. They asked why I did it. I asked him if he was born in Agra. We’ll find out if it is true. He asked if I had seen it. He caught her by the hair. Please tell me the truth. . It (the book) had nice pictures. I didn’t know which one he wanted. Tomatoes are 20 rupees a kilo. Bananas are eight rupees a dozen. Wheat is sold by the kilo. I hadn’t finished my lunch. She didn’t cook well. He patted her on the back. She hadn’t met her son. Cauliflowers are 5 rupees each. He mistook her as his friend. She didn’t know if I had gone. I forgot if she had picked it up. Bananas are sold by the dozen. She wanted to know if I counted on her support. I enquired if there was any vacancy. You can go there any day now. We had furnished the informations. I asked her if she wore plain glasses. Apples are sold by the weight. You can start any time now. They had sung the song. It hadn’t interesting stories. She’s done her work well. Group 2. You had written wonderfully. He combed his hair.the room. She enquired where he was. We didn’t know if he had gone.

I can go there any time now. She counted him as dependable. You regarded him as guilty. She named her daughter Shruti.Please remind me if I forget it. I hadn’t a moment to spare. She confessed her guilt to them. Geeta stopped writing. I preferred to go by bus. I hadn’t a book to read. He classed them as separate. They made me President. They parted with it. I enquired where he was. They described her as innocent. He named his son Anand. He hasn’t any time to waste. . We smelt something burning. She disliked travelling by jeep. Everybody began to dance. They noticed the bus coming. She treated him as her brother. She looked at me. We used it as a lever. I can’t help laughing. They haven’t a single rupee in their purse. We nominated you Secretary. She described her journey to me. She will come here any moment now. They haven’t anytime to spare. They regarded him as an expert. She found the boy waiting. He explained the whole thing to me. She hadn’t a paisa to spare. You must inform him if they are going. They named me Chairman. I don’t mind doing it. I saw the man coming. I watched the girl opening the door. He listened to her. I looked after her. We stopped drinking. They’ve voted her Secretary. We mistook him as a thief. She waited for him. He forgot to switch it off. I remember meeting you at park. We can start any moment now. Neeta began reading. He’ll phone you any moment now. He suggested the plan to them. She hasn’t an enemy in the world. He continued to argue. They appointed him teacher. We declared him our President. I avoided eating. I took him as a clerk. I said it to him. We considered him as dishonest. They failed to do it. You must tell me if you are late. I put the question to her. I apologized for what I did wrong. He heard someone shouting. He hadn’t anything to eat. He looked on him as an authority. He agreed to come. I caught him hiding behind the bushes. She decided to marry him. She practised swimming. We wanted to go. We longed for their friendship. I like getting up early. He finished writing. She remembered to send me a card. We admitted everything to them. They mentioned it to us. They suggested going for a walk.

He wrote her a note. You fetched me some water. They sent you a letter. it can be omitted. It isn’t any difficulty. They sent a letter to you. The show is in the evening. I handed over her a cheque. You taught me a lesson. We owed some money to them. The train is at quarter to three. She showed him a photograph. Her birthday is in August. The house is infront of garden. The market was inside the campus. His seat was in the front. She showed a photograph to him. I read a story to her. It isn’t any use. . The bus is at half past six. You brought him a parcel. I read her a story. We granted him permission (to play)*. It’s at the bottom. The shop was near the tower. It’s on the top. We granted permission to him (to play)*. He spared her some trouble. You brought a parcel to him. You fetched some water for me. I sold my car to them. I handed over a cheque to her. * The word/word-group here is not an essential part of spoken English. They threw the stone to us. We promised them a present. They passed the jam to him. He spared some trouble for her. She chose a book for her brother. She chose her brother a book. It’s under the stool. She offered some sweets to us. Her seat was at the back. We promised a present to them. The party is at midnight. Group 3. They passed him the jam. He told the truth to me. It isn’t any problem. They threw us the stone. He told me the truth. then you have to speak it out.It’s here. I sold them my car. If the context demands. We owed them some money. It isn’t any fun. He wrote a note to her. It’s at five O’clock. It isn’t any trouble. You taught a lesson to me. She offered us some sweets. It isn’t any pleasure. Hence. The school is behind the fort.

hence you can omit it. We hear (that) you have selected her. She suppossed (that) it was an old one. You found (that) she was a correct lady. They satisfied (that) we could depend on them. I felt (that) her decision was wrong one. He considered (that) it was an important thing. We felt (that) they were not right. You wished (that) they wouldn’t interfere. You found (that) we were the honest men. He guessed (that) he was a cunning boy. She pleaded them (that) they must oblige her. I thought (that) she was an honest girl. They believed (that) I recognised their voice. You thought (that) she would like to come. I said (that) they were right. He considered (that) it was important. You found (that) she was correct. She suggested (that) they must consult a doctor. We convinced her (that) he was not wrong. She requested (that) I must come. He requested us (that) we must consider his case. . I thought (that)* she was honest.Group 4. We told him (that) he should leave the place. I felt (that) her decision was wrong. We reported (that) they were efficient persons. I requested her (that) be quite and calm. I told them (that) they were not right. You phoned him (that) he can come. They presumed (that) that was right. He guessed (that) he was cunning. They presumed (that) that was the right answer. We reported (that) they were efficient. They reminded me (that) they won’t come. She insisted me (that) I must do it. He assured me (that) he would do it. We felt (that) we must apologize. They knew (that) I was the guilty person. They knew (that) I was guilty. He hoped (that) she wouldn’t check it. You found (that) we were honest. They thought (that) he would be there. She believed (that) it was true. She supposed (that) it was old. She believed (that) it was the truth. We felt (that) they were not the right persons. * ‘that’ is not an essential part of spoken English. I expected (that) she would be there. He decided (that) he’ll not interrupt. You informed us (that) they can reach there.

but several times to let your organs of speech to acquire the speech habit. Understand the Action words and their three forms carefully. Read it aloud not once. . Important Combinations of Speech.Chapter in Nutshell • • • • Grasp the Principles of Description.e. Pay due attention towards ‘Things to Remember’. i. There is no need to learn any text given here by heart including Practice Material.

You can call the fundamental frames as generative frames too. and it has some fundamental frames or structure style. Through this chapter we’ll take a step further to befriend with it. Now go through the following very common type of idea-unit : She is a girl. you can be called fluent in speech. . The idea–units are most potent to offer you revived speech–fluency. From this idea–unit. but only when you grasp the art of generating as much speech as you require. so not for idea–units as well as to your fluency of speech. You can generate numerous idea–units and one good thing about the idea–units is this that they don’t require to be learnt by heart. These are the generative frames those generate a big amount of speech. You are most capable to get fluency in English language. you might have had an idea about it.5 Befriend with Speech Fluency Techniques What the fluency is and how it can be acquired ? Perhaps. As every language has its own style of framing up idea–units. For example : Pooja is a girl. translating your ideas into sentences and learning these readymade sentences by heart is not the right answer to get fluency. The generation of speech depends upon the idea– units. so has English. Therefore. Without understanding them it is absolutely difficult to get speech–fluency. And as you know that there is no limit for ideas. When you speak or you talk with a flow without your speech getting broken down in the middle. you can generate a number of other idea–units. Fluency is an art of speaking a language fluently.

. She is the girl I saw in the market.g. Generally. She. To generate the substitution skill.. By this substitution. Conjunction. In this way. Preposition. or a place or a thing. (a) Naming Part. you can multiply your idea–units to generate an unlimited amount of speech. F. (b) Descriptive Part. you are in need of new words or word-groups instead of word or word-groups already used therein. and . They etc.g. Noun.). you are required to go through again the list “Important combination” and practice material given in chapter 4 to grasp the applied principles of description. Her friend is a girl. e. describing the naming part as Ram (Naming part) is in his room (Descriptive part) etc. and so on. Adverb. Just read them aloud as many time as you can. So for the purpose of our speech convenience. So we can call that part of idea-unit as Naming Part. therefore. Or we speak about some action connected with them. And we describe something about that person or place or thing too. There is no necessity to go in details for all these parts of speech. we shall look at the structures from different angle..e. Adjective. Your Speech has Parts too You are well aware about parts of speech. It means a part of ideaunit contains a name or some other word used in place of a name. i. we classify our idea–unit or speech structure broadly in three parts.. name of a person (like Siddhartha. Kapila etc.) or word used instead of that name (like He. E.e. Interjection and Articles. She is a beautiful girl. She is a wise girl. You needn’t to learn them by heart. your speech gets multiplication and effective generation. | 63 Your sister is a girl. e. whenever we speak. i.S.. we speak about a person. Pronoun. As we are concerned with speech–fluency part of English. Verb. To multiply your idea-units efficiently.

you describe its nature. studies. She sings very sweetly. our speech consists of either naming part plus descriptive part and/or action part (including helping action words like as is. a fashionable woman. a kind-hearted man. a short letter. the part of idea–unit indicating about action by naming part. in the following structures : She goes to school daily. a strong letter. as Sharmila is reading a novel etc. So you have to just manage these frames of speech properly to get required fluency in English. Whenever you have to speak about Madhu. F. In the above structures. in the morning. Simultaneously. a dull movie.64 | S. a famous artist. Naming Frames or Parts a handsome boy. And while you speak a naming part or an action part. Now take an example. a noisy film. Thus your speech would be like as Madhu is fond of chocolates. a wanted man. regularly. e. you would have to describe about her qualities. isn’t. She prays in the morning. sings) + Descriptive Part (to school daily. and ‘in her kitchen’ are all descriptive parts. Madhu is in her kitchen. She studies regularly. a beautiful girl. ‘quite well’. very sweetly). Thus. a pleasing look. You can notice the definite pattern of idea–units here.. (c) Action Part.g. a well-dressed gentleman. Madhu is quite well. your speech is made up of several frames. a curly haired lady. a melodious singer. ‘very intelligent girl’. Now you go through the Naming Parts given here carefully and read them aloud several time. a long letter. And the pattern is Naming Part (she) + Action Part (goes. prays. a ghastly woman. E. ‘fond of chocolates’. aren’t etc). a pleasing personality. or her condition or her position. a dirty room. Hence. Madhu is very intelligent girl. a fine .

an awful uniform. a lovely old gramophone. a terrible situation. a long time. a delightful meal. a good profit. a little naughty lad. a horrid medicine. a pleasant journey. a great success. a full-time assignment. a miraculous look. an extra–ordinary group. a terrible day. a wise decision. a very efficient boy. a pleasant walk. a well–built mansion. a little cooperation. a great harm.S. a surprised look. | 65 corridor. a little information. an awful happening. a stony pathway. a wonderful day. a terrible headache. a lovely face. a relish lunch. a nasty cold day. . a small favour. the nearer bus stop. a long-lasting polish. a fine new coat. a well–fed cow. a difficult decision. a poky little hut. a good one. an excellent speech. a parttime job. an able boy. a stupid chap. an idle talk. a serious complaint. an unfortunate error. the fair price. a nice thing. a dinner set. a horror movie. a badly torned shirt. a beautiful place. a sweet little lass. a slight cold. a decisive person. a bit early. an intelligent girl. an absolute failure. a terrible back-pain. a nice hot coffee. E. an excellent painting. the regular visits. a wide street. an excellent day. a fine day. an unexpected visit. the most difficult way. a very common–place building. a huge box. a difficult situation. a serious mistake. a long bolt. a horrible week. a wooden table. a zigzag road. a bad thing. a long delay. the shortest way. a mouth–watering breakfast. a big help. an outrageous suggestion. an unexpected meeting. a right sized shirt. a good thing. a pleasant novel. a horrid little house. a really splendid match. a blue silk tie. the close secret. a better red paint. a narrow lane. a very dull girl. a badly stained trousers. a hopeless day. a great big pan. a peculiar instance. the nearest railway station. a little place. a short screw. a rare chance. a sweet voice. a humourous story. a wise officer. a golden opportunity. a colourful book. a horrid dinner. a big hand. a sweet home. a large group. a beautifully-built house. a really good view. a silly young fool. a humble house. the unusual things. a delightful feast. a favourite dish. a very busy time. an absolute success. a loud knock. a steel box. a dark grey pant. a great honour. F. a very good price. a partial judgment. a wretched day. an ugly duck. a red one. a rude remark.

much gratitude. the mental strain. memorable friendship. the extra– ordinary views. some distance that way. the bit showing. all their belongings. two or three people. all the months. some rare specimens. all your life. the votes for. the meeting today. the meeting tomorrow. the boy on first floor. all the night. complete rubbish. good health. many rooms. the same reply. the person above. the boy inside. all hers. the people there.66 | S. the bottom one. the votes against. all the years. the people behind. your lucky star. extra work–outs. much better things. very bad company. that dreadful place. the right place. all her family members. the wrong person. the train departing. bad weather. the party day after tomorrow. much light. that love affair. the people here. the bus approaching. the top one. more practice. every gift. that old woman. all his. the longest way. many more miles this way. another three months. good manners. the ringing bells. the meeting yesterday. bad manners. the man behind. several months. the next one. several days. that thin woman. the other one. all my money. the last thing. very few windows. the physical burden. the girl talking to him. several kilometres this way. that short girl. very pleasant company. some little difficulty. the bedroom door. the first thing. the boy wearing the blue jeans. the way ahead. clear weather. next two weeks. commendable etiquette. the weather yesterday. this horrible weather. that fabulous moment. that tall boy. . the girl outside. that feeble man. good food. the whole time. some good news. the people below. ambitious schemes. her precious possessions. that terrible day. that terrible weather. a lot of people waiting there. the fellow upstairs. the road block. E. the man on ground floor. her own words. successful people. all her luggage. the new car. the way out. the beautiful pictures. that sentimental rubbish. mechanical trouble. several weeks. bitter enemies. F. all his friends. the road back. the people down stairs. the lady standing in the door way. the least familiar boy. that cloudy weather. the neat things. one important point. much progress. all the day. the luncheon tomorrow.

the interesting girl. the right person for the task. the one next to the dark one. the shop in front of the mosque. the house on your left. E. that fellow without money. a very fantastic story. a soothing ointment. the running water. the growing boys. a flower–vase that shape.. the difficult note of the music. a few presents for tiny tots. a fellow the size of a camel. the news on the T. the red one with white stripes. the cut on your finger. a delicious looking mango. an inspirational idea. an inspiring discourse. a letter from her. a thrilling moment. a boy with long hair. a week from tomorrow. a right time for the trip. some gifts for kids. a dazzling day. a three–storey building. the approval at the meeting. the road to Kanpur. a good reason to be angry. the last year. an amazing trick. a puzzling problem. the girl next door. a big hall like this. a forty–minute talk. a delicious apple. a very exciting novel. a pleasing personality. the white one on the left side. a boy your age. the embarrasing talk. a shocking answer. a five kilometres walk. an interesting moment. the blue one on the right side. a working woman. the easiest lesson in this book. somebody of your age. the last one in that line. the building beyond the bridge. a good looking dress. the people from here. a player without equal. the next to the last one. a record breaking jump. . an interesting idea. the coming week.V. the one with white print on red. the flowers in the garden. a place on the right there. the rising sun. a sixty–year old woman. the agreement on the dispute. a report on the meeting. the grown–up girls. the temple in front of park.S. an official from New Delhi. a charming woman. a little help from friends. F. a piece this size. | 67 a five hundred–rupee note. the first one from this line. a government official from capital. the cat under the table. a moving story. the hut down the street. the book over the desk. the bus stop at the next turn. some reading material. the difference between them. that hiding place. a befitting remark. a smiling face. the going month. the big one next to it. the boy across the street. an inspiring quotation. a girl with curly hair. a home in the town. a very embarassing situation. a good day for the picnic.

a lot of it. the one opposite the big one. nothing much. someone younger. all of it. which are generally used while we speak. the smell of it. every thing in the book. Thus except the certain . all of them. the books you recommended. the way I used to know. the man you saw. a little of it. the strange thing about that. the rich. the front of it. there are several action frames or word–groups. a pile of plates. the wise. a finest piece of work. nothing important. a kilo of tomatoes. the last thing we saw. For example. things you have been wanting to do. more of it. the poem she quoted. the beauty of it. a lot of fun. anyone anxious. the things I want to do. the meek. something strange. In these action frames. someone in the hotel. the ugly part of it. half of the audience. the nail you hit with a hammer. whatever you hear. the one he selected. the style of it. nothing serious. the shop over there. the fight against corruption. F. the information he wanted. the pleasant part of it. something special. the next one after that. a great deal of admiration. change for a five rupee note. none of it. something beautiful. the money she won in the lottery. nothing strange. someone annoyed. the danger of it. something they like. E. Action Frames or Parts In the list given here below. the picture for my room. none of them. the music system I had last summer. a speck of dust. a small group of girls. the back of it. the stupid. the problem that he is having. the day before last. a couple of years. ‘thinking’ generally followed by ‘about’. part of it. definite prepositions. the girl he kept following. the look of it. somebody she met last week. the difference in rate. half of it. someone angry. things like that. a glass of water. the prize he won in the contest. both of them. a list of things. a lot of sight-seeing. the wicked. the needy. a bit of advice. a bit of quiet. the greedy. the fun of it. the poor. the good part of it. a large group of boys. you’ll find certain action words those are always followed by certain. something different.68 | S. ‘hope’ often followed by ‘for’ and ‘invert’ followed by ‘in’ and so on. every rupee you possess. everyone I met.

F. taught me English. worked with David. allowed me to remain here. caught him stealing. gave us some grapes. forced it open. stayed in bed.S. cut it very large. liked him singing. saw him lying. if other prepositions are used with them. accounted to him for it. liked her singing. preached about prohibition. compelled her to answer. lectured about brotherhood. travelled to Paris. let her arrange. concentrated on his examinations. showed her the picture. dashed for the place. interfered with her plans. made me go. expected him to reach there. saw him in person. tempted me to buy. read them a story. helped me to win. worked it loose. offered him a job. at it raw. required him to sign. E. left him wandering. complained about the misbehaviour. cut it short. forced us to go. helped her to pull. promised her a present. persuaded me to join her. worried about the delay. voted for him. heard her sing. Now go carefully to the action frames and read them aloud not once but several time. smelt it approaching. waited for a call. waited until two O’clock. was in trouble. at it cold. banged on the door. resigned from it. made him important. asked for his help. dyed it blue. pressed me to agree. went to a performance. lay on the stomach. asked for affectionate hand. looked at her. prayed for her health. rubbed it dry. they tend to change their entity. urged her to accept it. helped her wash. lent him some money. helped me shift. wished for a change. found him guilty. denied her the chance. | 69 prepositions. found it missing. saw him perform. clapped for silence. heard her scolding him. kept the tea hot. returned it clean. made it safe. appeared before the interview board. knocked at the door. noticed it overtake. considered him successful. sent for her assistant. taught him to behave. ordered him to begin. wrote to Iris. advised him to start. set him free. left it open. felt it crawling. asked him to read. permitted her look at it. smelt in burn. crawled into bed. handed his book. . up the spine. asked her to sit. kept him waiting. built it solid. paid them salary. made her happy. attended to the matter. argued about it. heard him laugh. listened to the music.

kept still. told something. lay scattered. became a celebrity. tasted bitter. expected to come. ordered two cups. demonstrated the experiment. ignored the suggestion.70 | S. began to climb. lighted the lamp. noticed the difference. baked a cake. smelt something. looked fishy. waved the flag. sold the two– in–one. sounded delighted. looked fit. stood perplexed. hurt himself. met the friend. missed the bus. discussed the problem. liked the new neighbours. appreciated her help. convinced the warden. covered the plate. went sour. dropped a new toy. promised to help. cancelled the contract. blew the horn. promised to see. bought a dog. tried to catch. continued to read. examined the report. asked him to see. pretended to be asleep. felt sick. sounded surprised. met Ila. got angry. got confused. rejected our suggestion. obtained a licence. . returned the book. noticed many mistakes. detected the leak. called the boy. grew big. organised a protest. meant to do. whispered something. lifted the heavy load. hated to read. felt depressed. made a good profit. opened a hotel. became older. agreed to work. won the fight. entered the room. decided to quit. got dressed. saw a lion. climbed a fence. sounded good. forgot to mention. meant to go. got depressed. turn red. felt fine. advised the monitor. neglected to report. F. got too friendly. arranged to meet. grew fruits. grew tired. stayed late. E. managed to pass. smelt sweet. remembered to bring. tasted the soup. rested little. liked to leave. became an important person. joined the college. understood her position. started to boil. decided to write. tasted delicious. attempted to hurt. hoped to get. ran wild. lifted the weight. felt warm and sticky. looked dejected. drank the water. bit of pieces. fed the new born. felt worried. visited Agra. accepted the invitation. remained calm. dreaded to speak. understood your problem. looked battered. considered the matter. intended to steal. grew old. looked better. looked super. shouted slogans. lost the scooter key. looked thoughtful. closed down a restaurant. refused to talk. started to sing. made a living. put out the candle. followed their captain. smelt horrible. wanted to collect. felt annoyed. rested a little. loved to read. threw away the rubbish. borrowed a book. decided the case. managed to sort it out.

acted on instructions. planted a tree. borrowed it from her. made breakfast. shook his head. voted on the proposal. served coffee. didn’t complain about it. heard heavy noise. compared it with that. dreamt about it. thinking about examinations. charged him for the repairs. F. looked after it. longed for it. sent the report by hand. preferred to walk. belonged to it. missed the train. added to my problems. quarrelled with me. took my place. mistook her for someone else. replied to him. resulted from a misunderstanding. changed the subject. gripped my shoulder. belonged to her. attended to the work.S. filled it with water. rubbed his hand. struggled with her. was in luck. searched for it. dabbed the ointment. | 71 arrived home. decided to remain these. dreamt of her. objected to it. spoke about him. prevented him from doing it. interfered with them. committed the mistake. died for his principles. shown the composition. yield to it. lived for it. raised his hands. forced them to accept it. changed it for a better one. combined business with pleasure. searched for it. relied on it. resigned from it. replaced that by this. went for pleasure. differed from it. wondered at it. sent the letter by mail. complained to him about me. reported on it. listened to him. reached the place. hoped for a promotion. went by train. judged by his behaviour. gave a smile. bargained with them for it. wished for nothing more. crashed into the wall. offended against the law. complimented her on her gracious dress. went on foot. paid the porter. chewed the food. met her by accident. believed in Jainism. stared at her. listened to it. supported his enemy. knew the rules. persuaded her to go. interfered with it. E. differed from that. nursed the patients. lost the temper. went by bus. retired from it. yielded to them. substituted that for this. admired his courage. failed to get it. thanked for the help. . cursed the waiter. attended the sick. looked at her. waited for her. wrapped it round her body. made a hole. thinking about her husband. remembered the answers. reported on him. smelt of chlorine. sympathised with them. struggled with it. joined in it. agreed to meet me. watched for his reaction. dropped it by accident. excused us for the delay. grieved in repentance. used to deal with many problems.

used for washing. fought for his share. served as a reminder to us. beware of him. died for them. traded with them. didn’t argue about the cost. lived in comfort. F. wanted to ask. shot at the tiger. reminded me of something. applied to the principal. leant on him. E. worried about him. reported about everything. stared at it. came in a bus. talked to me about it. profited by the experience.72 | S. lived on junk food. worrying about the future. loved to do it. relied on him. . inquired about him. laughed about those people. didn’t talk about you. asked her about you. boasting about their house. finished it on his own. asked for it. waited for the result. asked for it. looked for me. was suffering from fever. submitted to discipline. boasted of it. learnt about those people. told me about you. asked for him. looked for it. apologised to her. beware of it. teased him about it. asked after your health. arguing about his rights. open it at page number. opened with a knife. argued with her about them. shared the emotions. promised to bring it. learnt the lesson by heart. thought about the troubles. shared the profit. didn’t agree about it. thought about it. used in emergencies. distinguished them from these. complaining about every one. wrote to them about it. agreed on that course of action. indulged in it. consulted him about that. asked about it. insisted on it. thought of everything. reasoned with him. wrote to her about his feelings. traded in it. benefitted from it. arguing about the plan. agreed to their proposal. agreed with him about it. worrying about the job. saw him by chance. divided it into many parts. came by car. worrying about her son. showed it in public. thought of everyone. met her by chance. economised on it. kept it in control. reflected on it. benefitted by the hands–on practice. look after the children. fought them for her share. agreed with me about programme. learnt about the situation. were suffering from acute bronchitis. depended on him. wrote to them about it. laughed about everything. submitted them. applied for the post. died of hunger. quarrelled with every one. divided it into equal parts. was in pain.

succeeded in finishing it. operated on him. don’t trouble about those things. depended on them. talking about his relatives. refused to talk. knew about him. got out of control. found fault with everyone. gained by it. talking about her future plans. laughed at him. decided on it. forgave him for it. don’t worry about them. wished for it. looked for the book. fought for it. objected to it. approved of her. rolled by hand. opened it by mistake. used for cutting. answered for him. qualified for admission. failed in the examination. forgot about it. watched for it. resigned from the post. burnt it on purpose. leant out of the window. tasted of onion. advised her to stay away. undertook to complete it. sold it for a large sum. heard of it. failed to complete it. exchanged for a pencil. described it in detail. forgot about you. seemed to like it. hoped for it. bought it for a small sum. lived in fear. thought of him. made from a large piece of wood. writing about you. saw him about it. lived by teaching. argued with me. . didn’t care about me. parted with it. engaged in some urgent work. expected you to do so. resulted in failure. was in trouble. dreamt about their marriage. searched for it. made by hand. heard of him. paid for it. E. was on fire. worried about it. knew about it. knew of them. sympathised with them. surrendered to them. approved of it. called on them. was on duty. played against them. failed to reach there. mistook me for his brother. spent it on essential things. thought of it. died for the country. appealed to them. | 73 opened the almirah by instinct. cared about us. experimented with it. arranged for the money. attended to the visitors. called everyone in turn. combined with the neighbours. spoke about it. ranked with them. despaired of them. fought with him. registered his name in advance. spoke to me about it. tasted like garlic. joined this to that. talked of it. pardoned him for the mistake. tried to contact him. smiled at them. knew of it. swore at them. persisted on it. spoke about them. united with them. didn’t care about it. spoke of it.S. allowed for his weakness. made of wood. called for him. argued with them about the cost. troubled him about it. responded to it. F.

There is no such thing. So. i. Practice Material It took me half–an hour to paint it.. and so on.74 | S. They were annoyed at his behaviour. A beautiful girl let her arrange. A beautiful girl made me go. talked to her. Naming Frames. and Action Frames. It took us a long time to come to a decision. E. I am disappointed with the result. you picked a naming frame ‘a beautiful girl’ from the list. They don’t appear any different. grasp this speech generation technique properly and go through the practice material carefully. I have no such programme. cared about his career. He doesn’t feel any different. In this way. interfered in our affairs. you can be able to frame the million idea units. joking about them. . There is no such person. A beautiful girl accounted to him for it. Now you conjugate the various action frames as follow : A beautiful girl looked at her. combined with it. She didn’t seem any different. We have no such ideas. with the help of them. A beautiful girl resigned from it. A beautiful girl was in trouble. your speech fluency can fly high. you’ve two very strong wings. For example. congratulated him on it. He was convinced of her innocence. It took him three days to finish it. There is no such place. A beautiful girl heard him laugh. It doesn’t seem any different. Now. He has no such plan. She has no such book. She is efficient at house– keeping. It doesn’t sound any different. A beautiful girl voted for him. It doesn’t look any different. F. You have only to do it that you pick a Naming frame and join it with various Action frames and generate a flow of speech. It doesn’t appear any different. He is good at cricket. It took her three hours to shop the jewellery.e. joking with him about it. belonged to him.

She has some dresses to wear. I’m sorry to hear about it. It’s time we started our project. You have something to do. but he doesn’t look it. We had no money to spend. It’s time he learnt it. The cooler started turning by itself. It’s difficult to please her. It’s certain (that) our team will win the match. They should be thrilled. We haven’t seen them for years. but I didn’t feel it. She has a few question to answer. I finished it by myself. She used to go to school by herself. He lived there by himself. We had few rupees to spend. She is difficult to please. She has no good dresses to wear. but we don’t look it.S. It’s time she wore dark glasses. They are surprised to see her there. hence you can omit it. It’s fortunate (that) they are here. She hasn’t come here for two months. They travelled by themselves. It’s possible (that) she was waiting for a reply. It surprised them to see her there. She is very rich. but it doesn’t feel it. I was very poor. but they don’t feel it. He has some books to read. F. I had a little quantity of food to eat. She was sure (that) she’ll pass the exam. He is hard to convince. He was proud (that) he can do it. It is very heavy. . It’s time I bought a new watch. It’s time I paid the bill. It’s years since we saw them. They had some work to do. They * ‘that’ is not an essential part of Spoken English. I am confident (that) I would get the contract. He has no books to read. We should be angry. We painted the room by ourselves. but she doesn’t look it. It made me sorry to hear about it. but it doesn’t feel it. We were happy (that) they listened us patiently. It’s odd (that) he hasn’t sent us a message yet. They were glad (that) you invited them. It’s surprising (that) she didn’t reach here. It was silly of him to behave like that. I had no food to eat. They had no work to do. E. He was silly to behave like that. | 75 He is fifty. It’s hard to convince him. It’s two months since she came here. It is the right dimension. It’s true (that)* he is past eighty. It’s weeks since they met. It’s time they settled the accounts.

She’ll willingly work with you. viz. . He turned back and ran quickly. i. It’s long time since we worked late. We haven’t worked late for a long time. Chapter in Nutshell • Grasp the idea of fundamental frames or structure • • • • style. and generate numerous idea-units. He was quick to turn back and run. F.76 | S. It began raining on Monday. It’s a couple of days since it rained. Read the list of ‘Naming Frames’ and ‘Action Frames’ ALOUD. Understand the Parts of Speech. She is willing to work with you. He has been going to college since the beginning of this year. and Action Part. Naming Part. Descriptive Part. It has been raining for three days now. She has been writing for three and half hours now. Pick a Naming frame and conjugate it with different Action frames . E. I have been painting Monalisa since last week. Remember. I have been painting Monalisa for three weeks now. haven’t met for weeks.e. She began writing at half past three. It hasn’t rained for a couple of days. conjugation of different Naming Frames with different Action frames in various style is the secret of speech generation. I started painting Monalisa last week. It has been raining since Monday. She hasn’t phoned for hours. He started going to college at the beginning of this year. She has been writing since half past three. It’s hours since she phoned. I am anxious to know the result. He has been going to college for a year now. I was not able to find where it was. substitution.

we are concerned only * For detailed study of sounds (pronunciations). and the end of that word into beginning of the word next to that word. and not as several words making a shallow single sound. i.e. a. By flowing a word into another word. i. refer to chapter 1. Hence your single utterance of word or word–group needs a constant flow of one word into another. Understanding the junction between one word and another word is a very important task.. .. Let’s flow to the Word–junctions The English alphabet consists of five vowels.e. and so on. group of words. required to be affluent with the technique that bridges the gap between words. Thus. And the single utterance of that word or word–group is also indispensable to gain fluency. You are. therefore. you eliminate any gap of pause between the words of word–group. So you can easily flow one word into another and your fluency couldn’t be obstacled at any stage. and twenty-one consonants. o. In this way.* Since we are striving for fluency development. e. as you know. i. You can achieve this continuous flow by making the end of one word flow into the beginning of the next word. you succeed to utter that word–group as a single utterance or a single word. u. you complete the flow of the utterable idea–unit. These vowels and consonants have their distinctive sounds.6 Let Down Your Fluency Obstacles The secret of core competency in speech fluency. is to say an idea–unit made up either of a single word or a group of words.

nor allow any vowel sound like ‘a’ or ‘u’ in between them. This is the high time to break all the barriers of fluency at the word junctions. Thus. ‘g’. (a) Junctions Originated by just Two Consonants— At the time of flowing the sound of ‘b’. For example. and you could always find ‘t’ or ‘d’ at the point of junction. Further.with the sound of alphabet. omitting the sound of ‘t’ from word ‘fast’. ‘t’ into the sound of other consonant. Here. For example. Here you avoid the sound of ‘p’ of ‘top’ and speak only one ‘p’ of the word ‘portion’. Here. ‘k’. and ‘pt’ and ‘g’ form this category of junctions in wordgroups ‘fast bus’ and ‘accept gifts’ respectively. For example–superb game. back door. big table. (a) Junctions originated by just two consonants like big table. cat vomitted. before consonant ‘g’ is a sound of ‘i’ and after consonant ‘t’ is a sound of ‘a’ in word group ‘big table’. Consonant–Consonant Junctions Consonant–Consonant junctions are the junctions where a word ending with a consonant comes first and the next word to it also starts with a consonant. and (b) Junctions originated by more than two consonants like fast bus. In such cases. So go through the following special collection of consonant–consonant junctions carefully. And on the basis of sound. you say ‘top portion’ as ‘toportion’ instead of ‘topportion’. etc. . you should avoid the sound of ‘d’ or ‘t’. the consonant-consonant junctions can be classified in two groups. and say the word–group aloud again and again. you have the following types of junctions : 1. Now grasp the idea of consonant–consonant junctions illustratively. cat vomitted etc. ‘d’. you have to be very careful. you should pronounce ‘fast bus’ as ‘fas bus = fasbus’. Have neither gap at the junction nor explosion of sound after the last sound of first word and before the first sound of second word. ‘p’. And you are required to produce partly sound of the first consonant and sound fully the consonant of the next word of that word–group. accept gifts etc. ‘st’ and ‘b’. we’ll determine the word–junctions of letters. viz.

noted down. it follows. scolded me. stop going. thief got. not right. eight years. touch me. stop running. superb gallery. much wealth. drug might. started yielding. with children. chief doctor. both hands. get back. big report. with wife. dig here. sad look. fit the. bad habits. north gate. breath was. not tired. with none. great show. rub foolishly. stop laughing. what next. hot cake. back door. both changed. dig carefully. worth much. much haste. stop reading. stop writing. with force. step forward. worth nothing. check properly. not zero. absorb half. look better. what word. job should. thief said. grip very. hard cover. black figure. look there. bad boy. top hill. deep zone. stock worth. if the. both liked. keep playing. which book. bad fellow. good judge. big gang. which shop.stop singing. worth thousand. black curtain. cloth belonged. keep singing. big yield. rich very. job during. stop joking. job racket. bag without. top portion. knock lightly. with . grab your. link this. rub carefully. glib manner. included the. chief value. stock things. big chair. both panicked. pick the. rich fellow. started very. red figure. approach people. much relief. big things. worth just. disturb things. big table. red book. mob like. cloth faded. keep thinking. worth visiting. red curtain. cheap chair. tough job. brief period. with pity. rough road. book shop. bad wood. bag fell. rub just. bag full. poor fellow. look cheerful. big zoo. it happened. teeth decayed. great danger. with vision. enough for. that fun. grab now. keep saying. reach very. absorb very. youth should. top bottom. both keys. cheap talk. good news. big chance. much chance. concluded that. attack some. job for. with terrific. develop the. mob became. big people. touch their. big thief. keep listening. mob chased. what changes. which calendar. enough courage. half your. superb performance. steep wall. big changes. big dog. stop chatting. both these. beach garden. big note. quiet please. enough height. slip forward. which letter. both sat. drag something. look surprised. that vegetable. earth turns. splendid chance. keep your. big shop. cheap cover. much depends. look gloomy. which junction. look your. brief note. that may. superb game. bad pen. cheap potato. with ladies. slip back. got letters. bath room. look here. smart girl. with delight. with whatever.

her neighbours. his share. attention wandered. awful thirst. getting ready. over the. anxious moment. famous painter. sometimes happen. your letter. And here. never thought. looking lovely. selfish man. other mistakes. fresh changes. green pen. join some. poor salary. with readers. push towards. brush remained. getting ready. finish half. a charming girl. impartial decision. his last. long show. modern games. wrong conclusion. Read the given words aloud several times. long jour-ney. our share. harsh customs. inform none. better book. postpone learning. remain these. main news. clear day. complain to. can show. boss joked. utter waste. total weight. serious matter. never happened. young girls. equal share. firm decision. In the following words–groups. often visited. fresh tomato. wash some. selfish people. As we are concerned here with the sound of word only. selfish girl. outstanding work. brush your. serious thing. wash just. own house. finish dozens. according to. medium cold. polish very. smooth thing. evil fellow. small mistakes. wrong thing. few chances. eleven things. fresh things. certain foreigners.your. furious with. men must. morning duty. final reply. business today. several picture. during their. punish the. with players. casual charges. young people. You should not require to be confused about the nature of junction. never gone. fresh shares. brush my. certain languages. clear day. fresh cheese. doctor took. people say. never found. smooth shell. several volumes. general belief. often happen. gas stove. sang nicely. among children. harsh behaviour. establish new. with my. annual conference. calm voice. long journey. the end sound of first word and beginning sound of next word. you may notice that first word is ending with a vowel like ‘e’. long before. main reason. final year. his weight. can do. fresh water. with writers. both are of the consonants nature. impress children. his job. among some. gas light. all letters. will give. colour combination. was careless. keen competition. harsh language. . several names. always helped.

some servants. improve their. please don’t. shake violently. purpose should. believe children. arrive shortly. are just. please remember. because tomorrow. game was. wife smiled. move forward. late sales. Here you have not to allow the ‘u’ sound or ‘ ’ (soft ‘e’) sound between the ‘st’ and ‘f’. use the. one year. some samples. message should. wipe neatly. drove by. bribe to. engage temporarily. safe bet. forgive me. introduce them. same thief. practise your. one chance. knife was. some guests. some harm. acknowledge my. life should. ‘must follow’. made good. came for. average value. improve your. move fast. life changed. manage your. surname should. large zoo. some teachers. shave daily. use your. strike nicely. bribe them. were going. age limit. receive gifts. huge bundles. breathe better. calm voice. manage without. cause more. live peacefully. same book. severe pain. native town. And utter the word–group as ‘musfollow’ not as ‘mustfollow’. college girls. huge salary. beside some. these boxes. choice doesn’t. discourage corruption. encourage boys. nice girl. wife thought. nice behaviour. receive visitors. observe how. breathe comfortably. same teacher. courage helped. bathe the. large packet. miserable journey. but drop the sound of ‘t’ and make a single explosion for ‘sf’. were visitors. come back. e . please come. breathe more. move just. came yesterday. have not. those news. same judge. same cheque. flame may. ripe tomato. wife laughed. overcame the. are reliable. like to. use some. leave things. make money. average distance. wise person. sound of ‘d’ or ‘t’ generally comes in middle of the word and the sound of other consonants comes on either side of the words. (b) Junctions Originated by more than Two Consonants—In this group of word junctions. arrive shortly. charge those. handsome people. have some. receive friends. Now go through the following word–groups and utter each word–group aloud several time. postpone learning. active worker. huge jug. For example. drove carefully. please go.more changes. firm decision. idle talk. were your. precise value. some remembered. whose fault. type here. live like. extreme limit.

accept gift. lift began. (this) concept came. incorrect report. handicraft seminar. Bribd (bribed). best coach. ‘s’ and ‘sh’. select your. accept defeat. • When ‘d’ or ‘t’ is followed by ‘ed’. select good (ones). lowest rent. direct contact.In the list of word–groups. last person. interrupt the. distinct changes. act decisively. eldest daughter. against you. most changes. Things to Remember Always keep it in your mind that • When ‘d’ or ‘ed’ joined with the sound of ‘ch’. For example. ‘k’. manuscript was. craft teacher. accept none (of). perfect justice. eldest son. left for. first job. you will notice that some words have been given in paranthesis ‘( )’. perfect picture. cost nearly. collect lots. lift got. joint fast. best show. For example. Rubd (rubbed) etc. aircraft shed. ‘p’. For example. left right. must follow. lift did. perfect fitting. left just. lift near. last game. left things. east wind. corrupt judge. . contract was. Walkt (walked). then ‘ed’ is pronounced as ‘id’. Permittid (permitted). modest lady. cheapest metal. reject some. Coacht (coached). accept my. Guardid (guarded). the ‘d’ or ‘ed’ transformed to as ‘t’ and give the sound of ‘t’ (V) and not as the sound of ‘d’ (M). adopt new. manuscript should. left hand. ‘f’. Now move on. left cheek. corrupt person. adopt child. last visitor. perfect balance. east wing. accept some. soft mattress. accept responsibility. Have a look only on such words. direct method. gift like. lift your. Wantid (wanted) etc. Blesst (blessed). fast bus. interrupt them. While in other cases ‘d’ and ‘ed’ retain their original sound of ‘d’ (M) itself. biggest zoo. gift packet. almost totally. protect the. gift was. Pusht (pushed) etc. Succeedid (succeeded). They needn’t to be pronounced at this juncture. Stoppt (stopped). Stufft (stuffed). best paint.

want people. consult my. belt just.result was. soiled letter. stuffed the. consult your. closed door. want your. result does. shaped like. controlled things. coughed continuously. loved hunting. tired long. innocent nature. boiled water. used to. smoothed the. arrived today. caused nearly. smelt good. instant relief. constant worry. curved sharply. advertised regularly. faint hope. told good (jokes). salt powder. smoothed your. guilt cannot. looked new. result cheered. scoffed very. moved with. bold person. told nothing. disclosed half. wild justice. used bad (words). saved money. sniffed round. solved the. important things. represent village. stopped hurting. breathed with. observed very. caused several. blessed the. smelt very. believed people. smelt like. stopped writing. consult regularly. roused you. grilled chicken. revolved continuously. melt things. student showed. bathed the. result showed. amused themselves. moved just. paint did. apologized for. amazed very. looked mellow. faint sounds. present government. detailed report. expressed thanks. loved hunting. praised just. abused people. hoped for. fault finding. consult here. chalked things (out). sailed back. published daily. liked to. replaced something. excused me. dashed for. amused children. believed firmly. caused things. looked hurt. pushed . result terrified. received gifts. silent till. stopped thinking. loved rats. saved some. observed very. improved things. fault became. behaved badly. excellent form. appealed separately. decent judge. called for. pleased lots. typed your. bald head. realised what. represent those. brushed your. joint committee. howled down. fooled me. solved the. advised shopkeepers. arrived late. violent behaviour. achieved nothing. excellent meal. recoiled sharply. result never. mailed coupons. caused confusion. pushed thick. worked for. innocent look. pulled towards. loved children. practised hard. sold the. received your. achieved something. insult them. hold your. picked short (ones). looked marred. soiled very. moved daily. decent language. gripped very. result seemed. praised God. escaped to.

seemed to. finished polishing. grabbed just. cashed the. approached rather. seemed hurt. joined just. managed very. seemed happy. assumed things. entertained people. contained dozens. seemed cheerful. touched things. distinguished guests. bribed lots (of). snatched those. hanged poor. mortgaged things. hanged children. round things. robbed person. hanged just. robbed ladies. performed well. found guilty. acknowledged just. sound changed. depend completely. questioned very. wronged them. rubbed some. seemed annoyed. bandaged carefully. punished corrupt (persons). harmed more. acknowledged my. finished painting. reached some. joined recently. contained lots. seemed shaky. informed them. engaged poors. behind some. charged one. watched your. hanged girls. welcomed you. mind their. seemed peculiar. managed to. explained how. judged them. spend whatever. touched near. touched things. wronged half (of). grabbed my. presumed very. wronged me. complained bitterly. reached home. discouraged people. engaged good. finished half. wronged nobody. belonged to. performed so. encouraged both. seemed rigid. disturbed you. robbed shop. encouraged girls. calmed down. reached just. accomplished something. discouraged players. encouraged shop keepers. seemed better.back. coached children. absorbed water. seemed good. hanged during. approached broker. confirmed later. discouraged rich. engaged five. punished cheats. seemed familiar. reached last. stand for. rubbed both. fetched more. published weekly. finished late. encouraged neither. assumed correctly. acknowledged your. round table. and now. astonished me. reached where. examined your. published new. bribed them. engaged hundreds. named nobody. marched towards. massaged daily. longed very. named just. robbed people. searched carefully. finished shaving. polished well. wronged some. bribed regularly. distinguished visitor. absorbed half. discouraged changes. clashed together. absorbed nothing. finished just. obliged some. coached . hanged boys. lend me. bribed children. longed for. marched for. hanged last (month). turned sharply. encouraged ladies.

while the next word ‘earning’ begins with the sound of ‘ea’. To avoid such situation. they stop the flow of speech into next word after uttering the first word. keep earning. Generally what the people do at this junction. hope either. develop it. 2. keep out. cheap artist. and you may feel a little fix about how to flow first word into the next word. This type of junction can pose a bit difficulty in pronouncing that. encountered with. freightened of. sketched very. shop always. marched back. but that tumbling stop crashes the flow of speech. keep another. keep every. beware of not to stop or explode between the consonant–vowel junction. stop adding. So you should say the word groups ‘keep earning’ and ‘what else’ as ‘kee–*pearning’ and ‘wha-telse’ respectively. The next important junction is consonant vowel junction. stop oil–leakage. . ‘keep earning’. * Here (–) sign denotes that you have to speak the word–group as a single unit. Have a look on the following examples and say ‘disturb old’ as ‘distur-bold’ ‘good idea’ as ‘goo-didea’ ‘teach owls’ as ‘tea-chowls’ ‘change it’ as ‘chan-git’ and so on. dip eight. The word–groups having first word ending with the sound of consonant and next word beginning with the sound of vowel are accounted in this junction group. Consonant–Vowel Junctions You have been acquainted with consonantconsonant junctions just now. clutched tightly. You have to treat both the consonant and the vowel as a part and parcel of the same word. Here the first word ‘keep’ ends with the consonant sound of ‘p’. Following are some most commonly used word– groups. Though they stop unconsciously at the utterance of first word. Go through them attentively and read them aloud as many times as you can. type other. in word–group ‘keep earning’. ‘what else’ and so on. stop each. For example.people. reached down.

mouth always. dig after. Ila understood. boss owned. friend opened. must earn. much oil. because . since each. next item. encourage actors. wife opened. wife earns. spoke across. grab over. bath every. thus every. rich artist. engage eight. dug out. meet all. if evil. that airport. thus all. big opportunity. bus accident. back ached. his earnings. as on. good idea. above each. his own. went after. much about. receive others. seemed upset. teach old. wise idea. spoke openly. convince others. change it. worth another. work after. left out. teeth ache. replace our. change either. mob aimed. big owl. clerk offered. acknowledge each. curious answer. big aims. rub it. dug under. work actively. disturb others. bribe every. that age. ask any. what obstacles. brave act. and artists. took ideas. which items. thus age. save about.sharp ears. move all. like our. get active. mob obviously. large organisation. job afterwards. watch over. above all. big ideas. type other. charge over. what else. get up. mob urged. if ache. chief interest. teach all. change any. shave after. disturbed all. job of. teach all. both acted. cut even. what error. that item. false alarm. wife always. superb acting. false ideas. cloth on. thus obviously. enough activities. talk easily. disturb either. but it. not only. wait until. rich actor. job easily. engage artists. if enemies. watch it. mob opposed. youth urged. extend all. bad intention. cloth in. which airport. disturbed old. beg earnestly. and another. much early. above it. make others. drag each. speak earnestly. both answers. confide in. attach each. behind every. absorb all. road accident. road side. good offer. teach others. that apple. if out. found oil–lamps. such able. discouraged us. if our. if age. drag any. if others. have old. judge agreed. his enemies. thus obviously. laugh easily. wife agreed. directed each. friend earned. huge objects. dig across. enough ideas. walk inside. chief officer. big ambassador. safe answer. teach any. have objections. live idly. both old. believe our. have intention. make all. pass it. good offer. right ear. good aim. such opportunities. have any. both our. leave early. drag it. large earnings. nurse earns.

brush it. with appreciation. Vowel–Vowel Junctions In this category of junctions. same answer. far away. finish another. and (v) as in ‘may’ (sound ‘ei’). with actors. with our. 3. an item. first word of word–group ends with the sound of vowel as well as next word of the same word–group also begins with the sound of vowel. welcome every. four each. better image. living only. eleven others. finish any. on any. always ill. better artist. . praise our. one after. young actor. (i) as in ‘free’. young age. chin ached. will ask. door opened. with old. fear our. use each. better ask.another. (ii) as in ‘she’ and ‘busy’. an accident. among our. ‘be only’ etc. from up. always ordered. fell outside. The distinction given here is only for your information. among all. during each. finish answering. i. ‘we outside’. accuse others. come on. certain effects. room each. total earnings. with others. until ideas. selfish aims. because it. control all. doctor urged. finish other. same artist. always able. home urgently. with artists. (iii) as in ‘toy’ (sound ‘oi’). with all. never able. For example. sing any. all in. came out. men eat. cousin accepted. certain organisations. own earnings. better operate. please answer. ‘see us’. foolish ideas. with each. compel each. tell any. wrong answer. will understand. during early. same age. some ideas. with aged–lady.e. finish each. certain offices. with obvious. assure everyone. ‘he aimed’. You are not required to make any hard and fast distinction among these sounds. bring it. fell on. those accidents. will again. king obeyed. an old. with only. You have the liberty to treat all the five forms of sound in the same way while you speak the word–groups of this category. came over. wash our. king obviously. furnish opportunities. came in. name always. mother understood. actual age. There are three types of vowel–vowel junctions— (a) Words ending with the sound of ‘i’—The sound of ‘i’ can be of any one from the five endings of words. among others. wash all. wrong ideas. four items. little over. will act. brush only. with any. with immediate. (iv) as in ‘try’ (sound ‘ai’)..

they outlined. buy ornaments. try out. free offer. cry aloud. the ears. may offer. lay each. the aim. my uncle. we aimed. my active. she allowed. they opened. try it. they urged. she explained. buy eggs. buy oil. ‘the ointment’ as ‘the–y–ointment’ and so on. occupy our. they abused. delay in. see if. may organise. she eats. ‘I urged’ as ‘I–y–urged’. and don’t forget to add a very gentle ‘y’– sound at the junctions. be able. the enemy. see about. buy everything. my eyes. my age. see it. three important. I only. ‘be outside’ as ‘be–y–outside’. they easily. she analysed. say everything convey confirmation. be only. they asked. justify each. she always. the other. he answered. buy aeroplane. For example.Only keep it in your mind to feel the presence of very–very gentle sound of ‘y’ at the junction. they added. my arguments. say ‘he explained’ as ‘he–y–explained’. they aimed. why object. Now go through the following word–groups and read them aloud. he urged. . shy and. he opened.

you have to apply a very mild (not strong one) sound of ‘w’ at the junction. ‘to even’ as ‘to–w–even’. only argued. boy obviously. destroy old. very often. boy actually. many advantages. saw oil. saw our. empty oil–can. saw altogether. saw officers. many awful. (b) Words ending with the sound of ‘o’ or ‘u’—This category includes the words–groups ending with the sound of ‘o’ or ‘u’ including the sounds ‘aw’. many aircrafts. .enjoy it. employ ideal. ‘ow’ or ‘ue’ at the junctions. ‘you upset’ as ‘you–w–upset. ‘show eight’ as ‘show–w–eight’ and so on. raw eggs. bury it. i. ‘ew’. lay among. very angry. For example. Here. saw ugly. many old. employ army. draw aircrafts. destroy our. draw animals. employ every. carry out. annoy others.. very urgent. many other. boy urged. boy inherited. employ old–one. boy eagerly. saw an. say ‘go across’ as ‘go–w–across’. enjoy all. draw ears. saw a. many offer only uncle. end of the first word of word– group. saw iron. copy everything. very ideal. saw old. many objectives. saw aged. saw each. saw urban.e. Now say the following word–groups aloud and add a very–very mild sound of ‘w’ at the junctions.

so urgent. how artificial. you answered. to offer. slow effect. grow up low opinion. new ideas. now earns. now it. now outside. throw it. go out. to illustrate. you acted. new actor. new aim. to all. no aim. you imagined. knew about. grew up. do an. grow idle. who organised. so ugly. . knew urban. no enemies. throw each. how awkward. renew it. you objected. threw all. new artist. you aimed. to overcome. new officer. you abondoned. no oil. now actor. two of. you expressed. now active. draw each. no objections. you isolated. into its. screw it. threw out. to any–one to added. now over. go inside. so only. so each. to ask. two ears. you ate. grew anxious. new engine. you upset. how astonishing. you overheard. how about.draw in. go across. you oiled. how often. to even. knew only. you ordered. how amazing. no idea. so also. you urged. new items.

go to. era–y–is. so that.. camera–y–is. idea–y–is umbrella–y–is. drama–y–expert. Read them aloud area–y–is. These are the simplest word– groups to utter. • Read the practice material given in the chapter ALOUD several time. how did.(c) Words ending with the sound of ‘a’—This category includes those word–groups in which first word ends with the sound of ‘a’ (same as ‘a’ in ‘are’) as well as letter ‘a’. (b) Consonant–vowel junctions. destroy completely. era–y–of. drama. they came. too much. extra etc. Following are some such word–groups. true story etc. Vowel–Consonant Junctions In this category of word–groups. extra work. There are very few such words. Chapter in Nutshell • Understand carefully all the four types of word– junctions.Camera. 4. While you speak such word–groups. area–y–increased. • Master the gliding over at the word–junctions. For example. add a very gentle sound of ‘y’ at the junction. For example. you needn’t any extra efforts to speak them out. extra–y–expenses. era. • Take special care of the text given under heading ‘Things to remember’. (a) Consonant–consonant junctions. i. no bus. and (d) Vowel-consonant junctions. see now. . camera–y–expert. formula–y–is. data–y–are. You can easily glide over the junctions of these word–groups.e. (c) Vowel–vowel junc-tions. who gave. and grasp their style of flowing into each other. extra–y–income. we saw.

How to Divide Your Speech To bestow fluency to your English speech. To know about rhythm and Rhythmic Fluency. you are required to follow the same rule that made Britishers rule India for more than two hundred years. please refer to chapter 9. i. divide your stream of speech in chunks. your utterable chunk should not contain more than eight words. and it requires to be uttered in a single stretch or you can say it as a single chunk. the flow of English speech is not delivered as full length speech. the chunks. So divide your speech and rule it effectively. In general terms. more or less are the same as idea-units. Rhythm. It is spoken in chunks by chunks. Or you can say that. That is the ‘Divide & Rule’. These stretches of language are called chunks. that comes out as a stretch of language. Hence. The speech comes out from his mouth in fragments. And try to understand the following general structures to follow the ‘Divide and Rule’ policy : (1) As you know that each structure or word–group contains an idea-unit. Here you should also be careful that each chunk must not be bulky with so many words. Hence. and the utterance of each chunk has a special character. Henceforth. while you have to speak.7 Divide and Rule Your Speech Just try to look at an Anglo–Indian or Englishman how he speaks.. You’ll find that English speech doesn’t come out as a continuous flow or in a uniform style.e. otherwise the speech can be broken down in between. . You’ll notice a very unique feature in his speech. Each chunk or stretch represents a piece of specific information.

| 93 To immunize your speech from faltering. i. .. F. you can divide utterable structures in two or more chunks if there is more than eight words in that structure. I am an actor*1 I am afraid of cockroaches* I am going to the market* She asked me how I wrote it * He was telling (that)2 he would go there* In the above idea-units. He was saying to her * (that) he wouldn’t go with her* I asked my sister * what were you writing * It’s difficult to recall * (that) where I’d seen that boy* Who told you * (that) teacher is going to ask this question* The boy didn’t tell me * who his father was* They didn’t try to find out * whose shirt it was* Followings are the some structures for comparative comprehension. 2.S. She asked me how I wrote it * She asked my friend * how I managed to write it* I didn’t tell her what I kept * I didn’t tell to anyone * what I wanted to sing* It’s funny to see him singing* It’s funny to see * (that) he is trying to sing* I couldn’t explain why it had happened * I couldn’t explain to her * why I was so nervous to see her * 1. For Example. You may be compelled to use more words than this limit. For Example. This division of structure in chunks not only facilitates easy flow of speech. But it is not necessary that every time you could convey your message within this limit of idea-unit. then you are required to divide that word–group into two or more chunks. ‘*’ marks the end of chunk. ‘(that)’ is not an essential part of spoken English. the words are within the utterable limit. Go through them carefully and try to grasp the idea thereof.e. E. but puts less burden on your organs of speech. there are not more than eight words.

F. For Example. that descriptive word or word–group is used at the beginning of structure. E. modifying word or word–group can be appear at either place in the structure of idea-unit. you are free to utter that naming word or word–group as a separate chunk. Sweety * gulp down it quickly* Mr. In such cases. The girl who danced beautifully * lives here* The boy with hat * is the best player of team* The path he chose * wasn’t a good one* Some of my friends * were speaking very loudly there* The sweets lying in the box * aren’t fresh* . such descriptive word or word–group. sometimes you may have a naming word–group as subject or topic in the structure. In that case. you should treat such ‘attention drawing’ word or word–group as a separate chunk. (2) During the conversation. Evidently * they weren’t shouting* Frankly speaking * I don’t like his rude behaviour* From here * she went half–an–hour before* For thirty minutes * she waited for you* On most of the days * he played well* Personally speaking * it is very difficult to manage* (4) In the course of conversation. i.. Generally. Ajay * please come in* My dear children * would you like to have it* Your attention please * may I request you to keep silence* Excuse me * is this your purse * (3) Sometimes your speech may require to be modified by a descriptive word or word–group. For Example.e. this type of word or word–group is uttered at the beginning of idea-unit. In that case. Generally. That is that that word may appear at the beginning of structure or in the middle of structure or even at the end thereof. you can be encountered with ‘attention drawing’ word or word–group. For Example. and is required to be uttered as a separate chunk.94 | S.

until. while. and the remaining part including ‘and/or/but’ as a next chunk. The train left before I reached there* Ask him whether he has found the purse* Ravi reached here * after Ram and his friends visited here* She wanted to ask him * if he met her anywhere there* (7) Sometimes the subject or topic of structural word– group might be a clause. whether. provided (that). . In all such cases don’t forget to divide the structure as per guidelines cited above under serials 1 to 7. though. But sometime you may be compelled to utter a structure containing more than eight words. an utterable chunk of speech–structure shouldn’t contain more than 8 words at a stretch. as. you should utter the clause as a separate chunk. unless. if. In such cases. For Example. than. you are required to treat the word–group upto ‘and/or/but’ in the structure as one chunk. because. when.S. although. I like sweets * but she likes namkeens* I gave him a pen * and she gave him a ballpen* I can go for the movie * or I can visit to zoo also* She wished for it * but hasn’t asked me for* (6) Sometimes you may require to join two structural word–groups with any one of the following word or word– group : after. An ideal utterable word–group or chunk is that one which consists of five to eight words. as if. whenever. Then the combined word–group is generally uttered as a single chunk if it doesn’t contain more than eight words. while you speak. In that case. For Example. so that. | 95 (5) Sometimes you may have to link two structures with conjunctions like ‘and’ or ‘but’. as soon as. For Example. otherwise it can be divided in two or more chunks. since. F. E. How he plays hockey * is very fantastic* What I told here * wasn’t heard at all* How she became lunatic * is still a mystery* Whether she agrees with me * is yet to know* Generally. before.

Now you are equipped with a very important device of speech fluency. Try to speak out a standard chunk upto eight words within three seconds. divide your speech in chunks and manage your utterable idea–units efficiently. A chunk is a piece of specific information. A standard chunk shouldn’t contain more than eight words. For your information. Grasp the Seven Tips given in the chapter for effective division of utterable structure of word–group.96 | S. wherever it is • • • • necessary. F. an Englishman doesn’t take more than three seconds to utter a standard chunk of eight words. So use this device. Chapter in Nutshell • Divide your speech in chunks. . And also manage to speak out the chunks well within the normal time frame. E.

i. Here you can notice that the pauses don’t have the same length of duration. viz.e. In fact a natural speaker utters the chunks rhythmically * or you can say foot-by-foot. The momentary break of speech flow or of sound stream is a natural phenomena of spoken English and it should not be treated as any drawback thereof. You can classify the pauses in three categories. During conversation. You have to just try to give lustre of silver to your speech with plating of gold. (1) Standard Pause—A standard pause is equal to the time taken to speak out a foot. The gold here is momentary silence. .* After utterance of every chunk. a break or pause.. Yes. he stops or keeps silence for a moment at the end of chunks. the speaker stops.. A pause or break during speech is a unique and common feature of spoken English. Besides. silence is gold’? Now you can see this saying in working efficiently for you. Some of the pauses may be for a very short duration while others may be for a bit lengthy duration. you are required to put a little gold in your speech. The spoken part of English has a set pattern of utterance that is not only competent to make your speech effective but also gives beauty too. and in this manner his speech goes on. * For rhythm technique and for foot. The speech of a natural speaker of English consists of a number of breaks or pauses.8 Realize the Beauty of Pauses Have you heard or read the popular saying ‘If speech is silver. Thus. on the basis of time taken by pauses. sometime the speaker does not only pause but takes breath too. then he speaks another chunk and stops. please refer to chapter 9.

Beautify Your Speech with Pauses You must bear in your mind that pauses are the part and parcel of the natural speech. then it is called a lengthy pause. You are not required to . Thus. E. The classification inscribed here is only meant for your general comprehension. Now the question is where your stream of speech should have the pauses. Or you can say that pauses can occur between the beginning and end of the chunks. To get the answer. (c) Lengthy pauses generally occur when the speaker requires to manage his breath. Such pauses are called hesitation pauses. (b) Brief pauses are very common feature of speech as they normally occur at the end of all chunks. The pauses have another valid reason therefor.98 | S. These pauses occur at the end of that chunk that shows any significance or importance. You can call them as grammatical pauses too. the reason behind this type of pauses is somewhat hesitation. it sounds well that the end of chunks are right place to pause. That’s why lengthy pauses are also called the Breath pauses. F. and (2) Hesitation Pauses—Sometime pauses occur in between the chunks and cause breaking down the stream of speech flow. Generally. standard pauses and lengthy pauses do not occur at the end of every chunk. (d) Theoretically. (2) Brief Pause—A brief pause is that which takes less time to speak out a foot than the standard pause. And this happens because of hesitation and speaker unconsciously efforts to deal with hesitation with the help of various types of pauses. (3) Lengthy Pause—If speaker pauses for more time than the standard pause. you can further classify these pauses as : (1) Junction Pauses—Junction pauses are those pauses which occur at the junctions between chunks. but practically you can find the occurrence of pauses in between of the chunks. and sometime for some grammatical adjustments. try to understand the following general guidelines : (a) Normally. and also not at the end of all the chunks.

for selecting the appropriate words or phrases. correction and editing of structure. he may feel difficulty to select appro-priate word or phrase. construction. planning. selection of words. Therefore. The problems which may come in your speech process can be classified as under : • Problem 1. This type of problem is related with the construction of structure or wordings of the utterance that doesn’t occur in the manner as the speaker wants. and for correction and editing of structures. You will be amazed to know that your Mind* has a unique and special faculty that prompts the planning. You are most capable to manage the pauses and can use them to beautify your speech. During conversation. as soon as you start talking. But whenever you have to talk. • Problem 3. Sometime it happens that the speaker may have a particular idea in his mind to speak. you can’t find enough time to think over about the subject–matter. Sometimes the organs of speech may not cooperate with the speaker. E. editing etc. • Problem 2. refer to the author’s bestsellers “Improve Your Mind Power” and “Create Super Intelligence” published by Upkar Prakashan. At this juncture. Since all these functions are performed by your mind at the same time while you talk. | 99 worry about these pauses whether they are junction pauses or hesitation pauses. like a natural speaker you are required to do all these functions as and when you have to talk. framing. and to speak out it he may know various words and phrases. you have a lot of time to think over the subject-matter for construction of sentences. And to beautify your speech with pauses. you must always remember that there is an important difference between written English and spoken English. At the time of writing. That’s why it’s very natural that some speech problems may crop in too. and unconsciously the organs of speech may utter the same word or phrase * For detailed study of your Mind and its various faculties and functions. correction and editing of structures are to be done in a very limited time and also spontaneously.S. . F.

Secondly. • Problem 4. the speaker may feel lump-like formation in his throat. Whenever the speaker faces any of such problems. tension. Because nobody can succeed to decide structure to be uttered. Hence his stream of speech is broken down. I ha – have never been there. What happens when flow of Speech gets blocked You may face two outcomes of the hesitation. you successfully succeed in managing the speech to continue from the point where you hesitated. distraction etc. Now you are required to accept compulsorily this revelation that Hesitation is a part of Spoken English Hesitation is not only a part of spoken English but it’s a part of every spoken language.. E. Due to some psychological factors like shyness. and/or select the suitable words and phrases mentally. So try out to grasp this bare truth that . This type of problem is very common with the speakers. you have to correct. The lack of enough time here interrupts the smooth flow of speech. For Example. you have to modify the wordings. I don’t – don’t like it. or to plan a conversation or to frame the wordings of idea–units in advance. if you are acquainted with how to deal hesitation. Firstly. structures or idea-units. and obviously for all these functions you can’t get enough time during spontaneous speech.100 | S. Consequently. and causes hesitation. you barely succeed to continue your speech and the flow of speech halts thereat. In fact. he finds him in a crucial fix and he automatically hesitates. and after a pause it utters the word completely. Nobody is absolutely capable to avoid this natural phenomena of speech. the decision making and planning are done simultaneously at the time of conversation. self-consciousness. if you don’t know how to deal with the hesitation. more than once. F. he finds it difficult to complete the ideaunit which was to be uttered by him. And also the organs of speech may utter a part of word.

and resultantly his flow of speech falters. | 101 No One can Absolutely Avoid Hesitation Do you know why so many persons lack the fluency of speech ? Because they are not aware about this fact that hesitation is a common feature of spoken English. you will find out various methods to deal with hesitation effectively. you have been interacted with pauses. you have to follow the following : (a) Train perfectly your organs of speech by uttering the basic sound groups.. words-groups. deletions and corrections shouldn’t be made aloud. You are free to choose any one of them according to your choice and requirement. conversational expressions. F. viz. and (b) Learn to tackle with hesitation properly. Such people avoid editing of utterance aloud on this false ground that the modifications. To achieve both the objects. How to Deal with Hesitation In the subsequent lines. And also he makes himself confused. E. How to Scrap the Hesitation It’s very easy to scrap. reduce or bring down the hesitational problem. Brief Pause . additions. To overcome this problem. In the preceding paragraphs. you are not required to try to avoid hesitation.S. and inadvertently blocks the speech. otherwise listener would get the impres-sion that the speaker knows nothing about English. That’s why a speaker unknowingly debars the decision-making and planning process. They have the wrong notion that a good speaker must not hesitate at all. and (b) Avoid speaking strictly on the written English track and ensure your speech definitely on spoken English track. structures. practise the practice material ALOUD as many times. So they just try to avoid hesitation and also try to cover it up. To boost up your speech fluency. but (a) Try to reduce hesitation as much as possible. Standard Pause.

the pauses have been marked with daggar (†). you’ve a particular idea in your mind to speak and you know various words or phrases. You have the liberty to treat the brief pause as standard pause or lengthy pause as the situation demands. E. F. if you feel any type of hesitation. The teacher asked you’ve (†) have you chalked out the programme ? You (†) she is not doing well in exams. Let’s move to deal the hesitation with pauses. Then immediately after the pause. but you are not able to select an appropriate word or phrase. You can make use of this hesitation pause to organise your thoughts. I sent off (†) he should have got the book. Then you should use the hesitation pause to select the word or phrase and resume your talk using the newly selected word or phrase. You should know that it is a normal feature of spoken part of English as well as other spoken languages. i. During conversation. She’s been hoping (†) do you think she’ll get appointment this time ? 2. METHOD 1. i.e. to leave an utterance half finished and to begin with another utterance. Suppose the hesitation is due to problem no. For Example.. 1. You are free to change the construction or wordings or both. 1. For better understanding of examples. and Lengthy Pause. However. pause for a moment. Suppose the hesitation is due to problem no. brief pause.e.102 | S. The pause also gives you a good opportunity to get a momentary rest and reduce the pressure on your speech organs.. there is no any hard and fast rule to stick strictly with that. try to change the construction or the wordings. you can symbolize the pauses as : Standard Pause by * Brief Pause by † Lengthy Pause by ≠ In the examples given here. 2.e.. problem related to construction of structure or wordings which are not coming out in the way you want. . i.

If you are even not able to recollect any vague word or phrase in context of current idea-unit then do this→leave that idea-unit half-finished. green grass.] I went to my village and saw beautiful (†) beautiful place having tall trees. loose constructions. A natural speaker doesn’t bother to spend time in searching for a very accurate or right word. So he used the phrase ‘curly-haired boy’.] I’ll do it (†) little-by-little. but the word ‘glad’ escaped from him. [The speaker wanted to tell the name of the boy but he couldn’t recollect the boy’s name. repetitions.] . [Suppose here the speaker wanted to speak ‘very difficult’ but he couldn’t decide to speak it out. So h e used another word ‘happy’. E. hence he changed this word-group by ‘of no use’. [Here speaker wanted to say ‘He is a handsome boy’ but the word ‘handsome’ didn’t occur to him. Meeting her now is (†) of no use. explanations. Hence he changed the construction. so he described the scene in his own words. phrases.S. For Example. Do you know the symptoms of natural conversationalist’s talk ? There are great use of more common and vague words. and corrections. F. but he didn’t know this word.] Her arrival made me (†) made me happy. hills etc. contradictions. [Here speaker wanted to use word ‘landscape’. I met with (†) with that curly-haired boy. [Here speaker wanted to say ‘glad’. The situation was very (†) awkward. [Here the speaker wanted to say ‘excellently’ but he used the hesitation pause to replace this word by word-group ‘little-by-little’.] She’ll come over here after (†) having lunch. and restructure your utterance in such manner that there may be no need to use such word or phrase.] He is a (†) he is a good-looking boy. | 103 And also don’t try hard to make the use of very appropriate word. paraphrases. But he uses only vague words or simple words in place of typical words.

He (†) opened the door with a bang. or utter the part of word. Nothing was happened with (†) them. 3. After the pause. In case of such type of artificial lump formation in the throat. It’s my submission. She gulped down all the Ras (†) Rasgullas. Then you are required to pause for a moment. F. i. a breath can be of great help in the situation.104 | S. . He is a good pai (†) painter. Suppose the hesitation is caused by problem no. E. it depends upon you to repeat or not to repeat the connected word or phrase that you had spoken before the pause. It’s marvellous (†) wonderful. For Example. self-consciousness etc. and after a pause utter the word completely. And after a breath. Tell me what’s (†) what’s the price of that doll. Would you please bring me that (†) that book ? And you should also know that repetition or breaking down and uttering the part of a word is very common in spoken language too. you can speak either repeating the half-finished word with or without repeating the same word. tension.e. 4. distraction. The falling tree was a memo (†) memorable scene. you can treat (†) treat it otherwise. Suppose the hesitation is caused due to problem no. while organs of speech don’t cooperate with the speaker and the organs of speech unconsciously utter the same word or phrase more than once.. I’ve fed up (†) up (†) of his naughtiness. a lump-like formation in the throat due shyness. don’t be embarrassed or confused about this type of occurrence. you may continue your speech as if nothing was happened. What’s the new (†) news ? 4. 3. Wait (†) wait for a moment. For Example. For Example. Therefore.e. and immediately after the pause. And feeling of trouble to complete the idea-unit that was to be spoken.. i. You must borne in your mind that repetition of this kind is a common feature of spoken part of a language.

Now we’ll deal with the problems one-by-one.. the sound after ‘g’ in ‘germ’. F. What they can find (†) eh (†) they seem to have lost everything.S. He snatched her all of her (†) her jewellery. . so of English.e. How can I suppose (†) eh (†) I never thought of this type of happening.e. Pause while you feel any short of breath. Pause at every point of hesitation. or ‘ehm’. Pause and take breath before continuation of utterance. The thief was (†) handed over to the police. Use the hesitaion sounds or hesitation fillers with the pauses as per the demand of context. E. but here you are required to make hesitation sound alongwith pause. 1. i. Whenever you feel hesitation. This method tackles the hesitation in a different style. Pause at every junction of chunks. use Standard ( *) or Lengthy (≠) pause at every momentous junction. The problem no. | 105 She returned back (†) immediately. the sound between ‘h’ and ‘d’ as in ‘herd’. The only difference here is that we had a pause in earlier method. And pause again for a moment after the hesitation sound. or ‘mm’.. Things to Remember • • • • • You should have— Pause whenever you feel any hesitation during utterance of your idea–unit. The sounds of ‘eh’ or ‘ehm’ should come through the mouth not through the nose. 1 is to be tackled here in the same manner as described earlier in method 1. For Example. Borne it in your mind that pauses are the natural features of every spoken language. METHOD 2. You may find him always wrapped (†) wrapped in his own dreams. and one more pause thereafter. you are required to pause for a moment and make a hesitation sound like ‘eh’. i.

The flower–show was all the (†) mm (†) talk of the day. 2.. She shouldn’t be able to (†) ehm (†) how can she manage without the text books. There weren’t any (†) mm (†) there were no any letter for you. brief pause. i. The difference here is this : Earlier you were supposed to make only pause there. i. but here you have to follow the sequence (†). The caves were (†) eh (†) really marvellous. . She wanted me to (†) mm (†) I don’t like her overpowering me. What do you think (†) eh (†) can it be a reality ? Somehow I’ll try to (†) eh (†) arrange a vehicle for you.e. He spoke a little (†) eh (†) and faltered.. For Example. E. How did you enter herein (†) ehm (†) nobody was allowed to come in. Priyesh would act like this (†) ehm (†) I never thought like that. brief pause → ‘eh’ or ‘ehm’ or ‘mm’. hesitation sound → (†) i. F. Could you find (†) eh (†) any sign of life in that. They (†) eh (†) I don’t like them. She (†) ehm (†) she wasted all of my money..e.e. How she could manage to woo him (†) mm (†) its amazing. What’s wrong with you (†) ehm (†) you always come late. That’s a (†) eh (†) a fantastic movie. She told me (that) she was annoyed (†) ehm (†) she wasn’t seen so. 2. That book would have been a bestseller (†) ehm (†) that book didn’t appeal me any way. Me (†) eh (†) she doesn’t love me. You don’t know (†) ehm (†) how could I control my anger.106 | S. The problem of this group is to be settled down in the same manner as described on page no. 106 heading no.

She wanted to look into (†) ehm (†) look into my personal diary. [Here speaker wanted to say : ‘The movie was full of romance. the sequence of your utterance will be (†)–Pause → ‘eh’. For Example. but the word ‘wonderful’ didn’t occur to him. So he changed the construction. So he used the other word ‘completed’. The problem of this group can be handled in the same way as explained on page no. [Here speaker wanted to say ‘The novel was wonderful’. So he used the phrase ‘sitting quietly’.] She was wearing a (†) ehm (†) I liked her dress very much. This year. So he used the phrase ‘full of surprize. [The speaker wanted to speak the word ‘over’. E. I remember my pleasant coll (†) eh (†) college time. [The speaker wished to say the words ‘marvellous dress’.’ But the word ‘romance’ didn’t occur to him so he used the phrase ‘full of love scene’.] The movie was (†) ehm (†) full of love scene. Now. but this word didn’t occur to him. but these words didn’t occur to him. 108 under point 3.] The writing of letter is nearly (†) eh (†) nearly completed. I am (†) eh (†) I am least bothered about it.] 3. or ‘ehm’ or ‘mm’ – hesitation sound → (†)–Pause. F. [The speaker wanted to say the word ‘mischievous’. Sometime.] She beat the boy as he was (†) ehm (†) he was not sitting quitely. You should run fast (†) eh (†) run fast otherwise you may miss the bus. | 107 The novel was (†) eh (†) full of surprize. the (†) ehm (†) the crops can’t be better than last year.S. with an additional feature of hesitation sound. but it didn’t occur to him. . How can she assure us (†) ehm (†) assure us about her timely return.

108 under point 4.M. you have to follow the same rules as given earlier under method no. The rates are (†) eh (†) a bit high. Whenever you have the feeling of hesitation. You can handle the problem of this group in the same style as described on page no. I don’t want (†) eh (†) to spoil your name. In comparison to other methods. 1. ‘you know’. Don’t run blindly oth (†) ehm (†) otherwise you may slip down. . follow this sequence—pause → hesitation sound → pause. Dry out all the (†) ehm (†) the dishes. She visited the (†) ehm (†) the school at 8:00 A. This method is really a very effective one to face the hesitation problem successfully. And the sequence to be followed by you is (†)–pause → Hesitation filler → (†)–pause. or word–groups filler like ‘oh yes’. I generally (†) ehm (†) like to visit to city library. according to context of the speech. METHOD 3. Has she finished (†) eh (†) her breakfast ? Manish went to jungle (†) ehm (†) for hunting. with an additional feature of hesitation sound. E. with a hesitation filler.108 | S. you are required to pause for a moment. F. To solve the hesitation problem. then utter a single–word filler like ‘yes’. To solve the hesitation problem by this method. ‘no’ or ‘well’. Wh (†) ehm (†) when did you come back ? Her hou (†) eh (†) house is very near from here. For Example. or ‘I mean’ etc. I was very excited to lis (†) ehm (†) listen that wonderful news. 4. in this method you have the opportunity to have more time to organise your thoughts and idea–units and you can relieve your organs of speech from undue pressure on them. ‘you see’. You aren’t rea (†) ehm (†) realizing my problem. What a wonderful (†) eh (†) picture ! He gave me a really (†) ehm (†) really great surprize. She wasn’t cra (†) eh (†) crazy to accept his present. ‘oh no’.

She didn’t try (†) yes (†) to compete in her right spirit. His condition (†) no (†) his condition is still not better. 1. They’ve a lot of work (†) I mean (†) they can’t finish their work till noon. He was not a (†) no (†) not a handsome boy. Can’t any one of them (†) well (†) nobody wants to help her. F. 2. For Example. . Solving the hesitation caused by problem no. She requested him (†) you see (†) to come early. You can say it (†) oh yes (†) you can manage the things. Rani was asking me to (†) yes (†) what is the secondary school syllabus ? Do you think (†) no (†) you can’t realize her family problems. It can’t be (†) no (†) you aren’t kind to her at all. E. What’s this (†) I mean (†) you can’t sit properly. I’ve nothing to say (†) you know (†) they always try to make vague arguments. For Example. What she writes (†) you see (†) she never try to improve her writing. | 109 1. Solving the hesitation caused by problem no. Archana is (†) well (†) really a nice girl. 2. Do you know (†) yes (†) he’s decided to leave the Academy. What would I like to see (†) you know (†) that movie is fantastic.S. If you say (†) well (†) I am not able to do it. Have a look at (†) I mean (†) your books are lying on the floor. It’s very horrible (†) you see (†) I don’t like such type of behaviour. Can I recall it (†) oh no (†) it’s not possible at all. The window-pans of room (†) you know (†) were totally smashed. Check your belongings (†) yes (†) must be in order.

That book–book (†) you know (†) that book is written by him. He was ca–ca (†) oh well (†) calling her again and again. Ravi is (†) you know (†) he is not an intelligent boy. She doesn’t have (†) you see (†) the book you asked for. So he was compelled to replace construction and used phrase ‘an animal having a lot of long black hair on his body’. . At this price (†) oh no (†) I can’t afford. She was sweating (†) oh yes (†) like anything.] She can deliver speech (†) oh yes (†) at once without any preparation. [Here speaker wanted to say hero as ‘bear’. the hero was (†) you know (†) like an animal having a lot of long black hair on his body. He–he (†) I mean (†) he believes on everyone. E. Solving the hesitation caused by problem no. So he used the phrase ‘at once without any preparation’. you will feel (†) well (†) just like you’re in your home. O. but the word ‘bear’ didn’t occur to him. She was a bit confused for–for (†) oh yes (†) for a few moments. So he used the phrase ‘just like you’re in your home’. I’ll drop you (†) oh yes (†) at Dr. but it didn’t occur to him. I’ll defi–definitely (†) well (†) I’ll come definitely. [The speaker wanted to say the word ‘spontaneously’. They mustn’t (†) oh no (†) they mustn’t lift such a heavy load. He just played a trick to–to (†) oh yes (†) to cheat me..] In the movie.110 | S. Singh’s Clinic. but this word didn’t occur to him. The castle wa–was (†) you see (†) was at the left corner of that big building. For Example. That lady has a lot–lot of (†) yes (†) a lot of jewellery. Here. F. [Here speaker wanted to say ‘at home’. She was no–not a (†) no (†) not a rowdy girl. 3.K.] 3.

at the end of one idea-unit or at the beginning of the next idea-unit. You pause at junction to make your utterance more clear. She isn’t (†) yes (†) doing well now–a–days. 4. For Example. It’s really a wonderful idea to make good use of the pauses to electrify you speech. He isn’t–isn’t (†) no (†) that type of boy. They’re (†) not (†) not able to sing again. F. Please don’t do (†) you see (†) you shouldn’t do it. These are junction pauses. i.. go through the following lines. She did that (†) you see (†) just to tease him. the pause anywhere in your utterance. That intelligent boy (†) I mean (†) Raju met with me yesterday. Solving the hesitation caused by problem no. Junction pause is a pause at a junction in your utterance. you deliver . I rang you up so (†) you know (†) so many times. Remember.S. | 111 4. is called the hesitation pause. We’ll come (†) well (†) come to your house definitely.e. For Example.” The junction pauses are needed mainly due to two reasons : (a) You have the liberty to make junction pauses if even there is no any hesitation. “What they think (†) you know (†) I least bother of it. JUNCTION PAUSES Just now you’ve realised the beauty of hesitation pauses.e. either in the middle of your utterance or at the end of idea-unit.. For Example. hesitation pauses you may be encountered with another kind of pauses. They were (†) yes (†) they weren’t fair in their dealings. To understand the difference between hesitation pause and junction pause. i. I’ve (†) well (†) nothing to spend at the moment. Besides. She is poor (†) I mean (†) is poor in English. E. and also to deal with the hesitation. I decided at last (†) you know (†) at last to drop that beautiful idea. “The boy didn’t tell them (†) who his father was ?” On the contrary.

(b) Junction pauses are necessary to make your utterance effective and to immunize your speech from faltering. F. particularly junction pauses. correction and editing of structure. construction. it provides time to organise your speech and relieves your organs of speech from strain thereupon.112 | S. • Pauses. facilitate to relieve your speech–organs from undue pressure thereon. Because long and continuous utterances may pose some difficulty to understand the message of your utterance. both the pauses help to convey your ideas better to the listeners. . and pause at each junction of the chunks. and no one can absolutely avoid it. Besides. your utterances better while you speak in chunks. Though your pauses may be brief pauses. You are also free to take breath while you feel like running out of breath even at the junction pauses as you take breath at hesitation pauses. Chapter in Nutshell • Pauses are the part and parcel of spoken part of English. The pauses also help you to keep up your continuity of speech efficiently. and immune your speech from faltering. Whether it’s a junction pause or a hesitation pause. E. • Pauses are the best way to tackle your hesitation during the conversation. • Hesitation is an essential phenomena of spoken English. and provide required opportunities to think over subject–matter. selection of words or word–groups. You can use hesitation sounds as well as hesitation fillers too at the junction pauses.

go through very carefully and try to grasp the Rhythtech. and heart–throbbing too. because it has some certain feet. how many efforts have you made to utter this single word ‘utility’ ? You made three efforts to say the word ‘utility’ : (a) uti. because it has some distinct ups and downs and at the outbrag it has a jubilant flow like a jogging rivulet. while you utter your idea-unit. “A word or the part of word uttered by single effort of the voice” is a syllable. You enjoy the music because it flows with a unique rhythm. uti/li/ty. . you are right.. because it has some definite notes.9 Speak in Rhythmic Fluency Do you listen to music ? But why ? Because it’s pleasant to hear. (b) li. And you know. Now you just try to pronounce the word ‘utility’. Also you lay the foundation to have a better image as a good speaker of English. and (c) ty. The Rhythtech—Rhythm Technique—works on some fundamentals and principles. Let’s arrange the spare parts of Rhythtech. Do you know. and requires some spare parts.e. because it has some predetermined order. To give amazing rhythm to your fluency. Can you tell me why music is so pleasant and heart–throbbing ? Yes. it definitely gives pleasure to its listener and you succeed to earn goodwill thereof. The rhythmic utterance can bring about a down to earth change in your speech fluency. The Syllable Pick your dictionary and consult it to know what is a syllable. i. construction of words or word–groups in a rhythmic style. According to Chambers 20th Century Dictionary.

.. And you can notice the following two features : . sing etc. Approximate = Ap + pro + xi + mate → Four units of sound. you will notice a very unique feature of his speech. Here ‘Y’ is giving the sound of ‘i’.Thus. we can say that a syllable is a unit of sound that contains a vowel.e. Brother = Bro + ther → Two units of sound. For example. the words having single syllable. and (b) The words having more than one unit of sound or syllable are called Polysyllabic words. the structures of letters or words can be classified in two major groups. ‘uti. The above interpretation reveals that a word may have only one unit of sound as well as more than one units of sound.g. bigger. fantastic. He doesn’t speak out in a flat way. viz. Important = Im + por + tant → Three units of sound. mother. not with the written character of letter (alphabet) like ‘Y’—utility. ‘li’. He speaks the language in somewhat a musical way. greatest. i. and Monosyllabic = Mo + no + syl + la + bic → Five units of sound. car. are called Monosyllabic words.. and ‘ty’ each containing a vowel. more. etc. How Spoken English Flows If you will listen to a natural speaker of English. (a) The words having only single unit of sound or you can say. e. Here the word ‘utility’ has three units of sound. (Please note that we are concerned here only with the sound of utterance. dog. Hence.) Now check the following structure of letters : The Brother Important Approximate Monosyllabic The above words contain the units of sound as under : The = The → One unit of sound.

i. Because (i) all the syllables of a word or word-group are generally spoken out with the . going up (↑) of some syllables and coming down (↓) of others. syllables in a word or word-group with the same effort or force. But the utterances of syllables go nearly at equal interval of time-period. So your flow of speech requires the same pattern to utter the syllables.. it is heard somewhat in shallow voice. He puts great effort or force on some of the syllables. while he speaks some of the syllables without much effort or force. These languages are uttered in a flat-flow having no wavering tendency. And this is the main feature that provides a streamy flow to English speech. the Hindi language or other Indian languages don’t have the tendency of flowing in this way. While you speak a syllable in upward flow.e. the speech comes out from the mouth in a wavering sequence like Your speech follows the same pattern which is seen in the flowing rivers. the syllables those are spoken out with extra effort or force come out more loudly from the mouth in comparison to other syllables of the same word or word-group.e. It flows almost like a wave..e. This feature of regular succession of stressed syllables and unstressed syllables creates an extra-ordinary rhythm in speech. Thus the syllables of some words in a word-group are uttered much quickly than the syllables of other words in the same word-group. (b) He spends different length of the time in uttering the syllable—i.e. i.. the length of time used in speaking out a syllable—in one word is generally not the same as the length of time spent in speaking out syllable in another word in the same word-group.(a) He doesn’t utter all the units of sound. Again the flow will go up (↑) and come down (↓). it is heard a little loudly and when you speak the other syllable in downward flow. This is the central idea of flow of English speech. Contrary to this. i. Resultantly. You’ll notice here that sometime water goes up and sometime it comes down in continuous succession.. This upward (↑) and downward (↓) sequence gives the unique rhythm to your speech and your speech is felt like a musical utterance.

and (b) your speech-flow also comes down (↓) while you speak out a monosyllabic word by not putting stress on that solo syllable. and (ii) all the syllables of a word or word-group are spoken out in the same length of timeperiod. Remember that . it goes up when you speak out a strong syllable in a polysyllabic word by stressing that one. What is the Syllabal Stress ? The syllable which needs extra effort or force to be uttered is called stressed syllable. and check which syllable is stressed one or which is not. while the remaining letters of that word are unstressed syllables. (a) while you speak out a weak syllable in a polysyllabic word by not stressing that one. you need to go back to chapter 3 and go through the lists of Monosyllabic and Polysyllabic words carefully. i.e. To know about the stressed syllables and unstressed syllables or strong syllables and weak syllables. your speech flow also goes up (↑) when you speak a monosyllabic word by putting stress on that solo syllable. in the flat way. (2) The flow of speech comes down (↓). They don’t make efforts to let their English speech flow in ups-and-downs style like a wave. Henceforth. Let’s try to understand the points where we’ve to make Up and Down Movements (1) The flow of speech goes up (↑) in two cases.same effort or force. And this is the great secret to achieve your passionate fluency in English speech. but you are required to speak it in ‘wave-like’ way. Firstly. as they try to speak English in the same style as Hindi or their mother tongue flow. It’s the rhythm that provides you cushion from faltering while you speak and also keeps it balanced.. The letters of words having dash (—) on their head are the stressed syllables. Secondly. It’s the wave or rhythm that makes English speech to flow without unwanted breaks. you should never try to speak English in rapid manner. That’s why a number of people do not succeed to be fluent in English speech.

How did they come ? Otherwise there is no need to stress the monosyllabic word. So try to grasp the list of polysyllabic words appeared on page no. you’ll find one particular syllable that is more important than all the other syllables. say stressed syllable bit loudly than the unstressed syllable. monosyllabic words come in the category of weak ones and are not stressed. The stressed and unstressed syllables are also called strong and weak syllables respectively. Hence whenever you have to utter a polysyllabic word. This is the polysyllabic word which matters most at the time of utterance.(i) the stressed syllable in a word is to be said with extra effort or more force in comparison to unstressed syllables. 29 to utter them as natural speaker of English. But you can put stress on any monosyllabic word. Thus. A word about Monosyllabic words Normally. As you know from the chapter 3. One thing must also be clearly understood that in every polysyllabic word. and no one have the liberty to change that predetermined position. Because in every polysyllabic word. (ii) the stressed syllable is pronounced to be more clearly in comparison to the unstressed syllables. if you wish to draw the attention towards the meaning conveyed by that particular monosyllabic word. Further you have the liberty to put stress on a monosyllabic word. . a word can be either a monosyllabic or polysyllabic word. The monosyllabic word can also be stressed to maintain the rhythm of speech. For example. and (iii) the stressed syllable is uttered more slowly in comparison to the unstressed syllables. the position of strong syllable is predetermined or fixed in English language. if that word is appeared as first word in a question word-group. you should put a bit stress on that important syllable marked with a dash.

‘Ram and her’. .” And the length of time-period in which a foot of word-group is uttered must be approximately the same as the length of timeperiod in which you intend to utter the next foot within the same word-group. But both have marvellous relationship between them. car. Foot 1 Foot 2 Foot 3 In the above word group. this is the foot that helps the rhythm to keep going on. driving the) approximately within the same length of time and so on. You needn’t to worry about unstressed syllables in a foot. “A unit made up of a stressed syllable and the unstressed syllables and that follows upto the next stressed syllable is known as a foot. The first foot have a stressed syllable and two unstressed syllables.e. dri.Rhythm requires Foot too Yes. You may feel it strange about the relationship between Rhythm and Foot. This is the basic principle of Rhythm in English speech. Mohan is) should follow the next stressed syllable and unstressed syllable (i. And this principle ensures that stressed syllables are uttered and heard at a regular frequency and intervals of time-period. You can satisfy your curiosity with the help of this representation. there are three feet. while the third foot have only one stressed syllable. You may be eager to know that what type of feet are required by the rhythm. the syllables those are stressed one are Mo. i. In the above word-group. ‘sister have’ and ‘gone’.e. Remember : the length of time in which you’ve to utter the first stressed syllable plus the unstressed syllable (i... Now look at the following example : Mohan is / driving the / car on the / rough / highway. Take one more example : Ram and her / sister have / gone.. the second foot have one stressed and two unstressed syllables. rou and high.e.

nor too slow so that your flow of speech looks like a broken one. She has / wasted a / lot of / time. So that you couldn’t seem to be hesitating between two words or word-groups. No one is / allowed to / swim here. Who is / curious to / see it ? Hari can / do it / easily. first foot (3 syllables). Do it. and keep on tapping at the rate of one tap for every stressed syllable at regular interval of time. You should utter a stressed syllable at each tap. viz. and your speech may not sound artificial.Here you are required to say each foot. These / sweets are / very / tasty. Tell me / who’s not / listening to you. tap somewhere. Hence to fetch the proficiency in it. The oblique (/) marked in between the word-groups indicates the end of a foot. Uttering an idea-unit foot-by-foot requires a little exercise. Read out each foot aloud with tap. Let us / go to the / market. Leave me / alone. even your book or notebook with your index finger. second foot (3 syllables) and third foot (one syllable) in approximately same amount of time-period. Bestow Pace to your Speech But how much ? In fact there is no austere rule that can dictate the speed of your speech. but you should always endeavour to speak as fast as you can. It depends absolutely upon you. While you speak a stressed syllable of foot. Remember that the pace of your speech must not be too fast so that your listener don’t succeed to receive the message from your utterance. Now practise the following word-groups by beating the rhythm with your index finger. It’s the / best way to / solve it. . or you can say about 6 taps per second.. You should try to keep the speed of your speech at equilibrium by uttering each foot in approximately 3/4th of second. Ram is / going /there.

hence a starting foot should always have the stress on syllable. An uninteruppted flow of speech is that one which is interuppted only by as few unmanaged hesitations as possible. There’s a / big / hole in his / pant. Don’t pause at the end of foot. I’m / over / forty. A three-word foot takes approximately a full second to utter it at normal speed. He / sings a / song. • • • • Some people just try to speak at unwanted fast speed. To sharpen the rhythm art. They / want to / take a / month’s / leave. If you think that when you speak faster. you may called more fluent in English speech. Speak out each wordgroup foot-by-foot from beginning till the end without any pause in between them. It gives equilibrium to speech and prevents it from faltering. Don’t let there be more than three words per foot normally. . An idea-unit is nothing but a chain of feet. inspite of having only one syllable in the foot. It is the rhythm that rules speech-fluency effectively. beat the rhythm and utter each word-group foot-by-foot aloud. It’s on the / table. In case of a foot having more than one syllable the foot will end as an unstressed syllable. English speech has greater loudness at the beginning of foot. then you are fostering a wrong impression. They’re / nearly / fifteen. Fluency doesn’t mean that you should have the extra-ordinary speed of speech. But you should be fluent in speech with an uninterrupted flow. She’s in the / room.• Things to Remember No foot starts with an unstressed syllable. and gradually falls down towards the end of foot rhythmically. Practice Material It’s in my / purse.

It be / came too / boring. He’s / painting a / picture. She’s / washing the / clothes. She / shook her / head at / me. Don’t / make too much / noise. Someone is / singing. I / know him by / his name. There / isn’t any / fruit in the / fridge. We / had a very / exciting / game. She has / come. It / seems / nice. Give all the / books to him. They’re / calling. He / fell / sick. She was / dancing. Find a / seat for me. This / trousers doesn’t / fit me. I’m / happy to / see you. We / stayed at a / hotel. The / chair’s / broken.She’s / jealous of her / beauty. It / can’t be / done. We / must be / going now. It / smells / nice. It’s / under the / cot. He has / tried to / beat him. She’s on the / roof of her / house. He re / fused to / pay. I / sometimes / go for a / walk on / holidays. They / want to / live in / comforts. That was a / fabulous / gift. I / didn’t have my / lunch. . I’ll / come / again. They / shook their / hands. We / rather / liked it. We / formed a / committee. I’m a / fraid of / cockroaches. He’s much / younger / then. They were / running on the / grass.

The / wind shook the / curtains. Can you / do it for / me ? Are you / here for / swimming ? Did you / have any / work with / them ? What / causes / fire ? What was the / show like ? What sort of / book is it ? Where did you / go to ? Could you / tell me / how to / get to the / museum ? How / old are you ? Is there any / school / here ? How do you / spend your / holidays ? Can you be / quiet for a / moment ? Are you / going / anywhere to / morrow ? Is she / still / studying / here ? Are they / tired ? Wasn’t I / right ? Do you / know a / good / doctor a / round / here ? Is / Vrindavan / near to / Mathura ? When did you / run out of / kerosine ? Does it / matter / what we / say ? What’s the / number for / Railway / enquiry ? When does your / college / start ? Was / anyone in the / room ? Where does she / get provisions from ? Are you in / favour of / this ? How are the / kids ? Would you / lend some / money to / us ? Haven’t you / seen them / yet ? Where did he / go ? Could I / take / Monday / off / next / week ? What should be the / size of / your / shirt ? When did you / last / see them ? Where was she / born ? When did you / first / come / over here ? . It has be / come much / hotter.It’s / made of / copper.

What’d you / like to / have ? Do you / mind if I / open the / door. . Rhythtech works primarily with the help of some spare parts like syllables—the word or the part of word uttered by a single effort. Rhythtech needs the proper arrangement of stressed and unstressed syllables as well as the amount of timeperiod invested in utterance thereof.. and distinct up and down movements in your speech. How / good is he at / swimming ? How long did the / match use to / last ? Would you / like to / take a / cup of tea ? What / time do you / go to play ? Does he / grumble when I / speak ? How / long is / that way ? Will / forty be su/fficient ? Will you / tell me a/bout the / news ? When does the / Madras flight a/rrive ? Could you / get me a / book from the / shop ? Have you / packed the / luggage ? How / large is / Germany ? Could you / tell me / something a/bout the film ? Chapter in Nutshell • • • • Rhythm of Fluency depends upon the Rhythtech. The Rhythm–flow of speech is virtually a well constructed chain of feet. i. a predetermined order.e.

as you know. And the right way to solve this problem is to impart proper training to your organs of speech to utter the initial word combinations. Though these combinations can be written very easily and seem very simple in use. the tongue and other organs of speech have not been in the proper habit to speak out the initial parts of speech smoothly. ‘have’ etc. . A speech or conversation. but you will be surprised to know that even a perfect speaker may feel uneasy to utter them freely. The initial parts of speech-unit are very common words like ‘I’. You are most competent to control your speech delivery. and the flow of speech can be broken down.10 Control Your Speech Delivery Now you’ve an idea why most of the people have lack of fluency in English speech ? Further. is a chain made up of several speech-units. This problem is not very difficult to solve for you. if it is broken. Because. it can also happen with speech flow if organs of speech refuse to cooperate to utter right combination at the beginning of speechunit. in some of the cases. The reason behind this dilemma is absence of proper application of initial parts of speech-unit. And this is one of the reasons that create difficulty in starting the speech-units. A chain looks beautiful when it has its aesthetic continuity. Similarly. ‘you’. A chain can lose its glamour. you will find that the speaker fails even to start the conversation and his organs of speech refuse to cooperate with him. Consequently he tends to loose the control over his speech. These simple words are combined in numerous ways to form the initial parts of speech-unit.

He was to. Group 4. Group 5. Group 1. therefore. I hadn’t been. I didn’t have to. You don’t have an. I haven’t got to. these combinations are called speech initiators. F. I had. He isn’t able to. We didn’t. I haven’t a. We don’t have an. I hadn’t. I hadn’t a. I hadn’t been the. He is to. I have been. I had to. I don’t have to. I haven’t been. He is going to. He wasn’t. He is able to. I had been. The initiators form an essential part to develop effective fluency nucleus. I don’t have an. They didn’t have to. He isn’t an. I didn’t. I had been able to. I haven’t. They didn’t have an. I have a. They didn’t. Group 6. You didn’t. He was the. I hadn’t been able to. They don’t have to. He wasn’t a. They don’t have an. He isn’t. Group 3. Now utter the initial word combinations reproduced herebelow ALOUD as many times as possible. I have to. He . He isn’t to. We don’t have to. I have been able to. I haven’t been the. I have got to. He isn’t going to. Group 2. He was going to. E. This group of words generally initiates the speech or you can say that it boosts the speech tendency. He wasn’t to. He was able to. I have been the. You don’t. He wasn’t the. He was. | 125 Know the Speech Initiators The speech initiators are nothing but the group of words to be uttered at the beginning of an idea-unit. He is. You don’t have to. The initiators are the important tools to control the delivery of your speech. I don’t. They don’t’. I have. We don’t. I have got a. We didn’t have to.S. I haven’t got a. He wasn’t able to. I haven’t been able to. I had been the. I had a. You didn’t have to. He was a. He is an. We didn’t have an. I didn’t have an. You didn’t have an.

It doesn’t have. It doesn’t have to. He hadn’t been. I am not an. We are the. He doesn’t have. We aren’t.* Group 8. I was’nt an. I am going to be an. He hasn’t got to. wasn’t going to. I was able to. (2) it is. I am. We were going to. We weren’t the. We aren’t going to. Group 11. She doesn’t have. He has a. He didn’t have. We aren’t able to. He doesn’t have to. I am not going to. and so on. It doesn’t. He doesn ’t. I am not able to. . He has been. Group 12. She didn’t have to. I was’nt the. I am not going to be a. We weren’t * Now replace ‘He’ by ‘SHE’ and ‘IT’. We are going to be. He isn’t going to be a. She isn’t. He hadn’t been able to. We aren’t to. We weren’t. For example (1) She is. We aren’t the. F. I was an. and read out the speech initiators. He hadn’t. He hadn’t to. We are able to. Group 10. I was the. He has got to. We weren’t to. I am able to. He hasn’t. I wasn’t. He had. He hasn’t been the. He had been the. He isn’t going to be the.* Group 7. I am going to. We were able to. We weren’t able to. He hadn’t been the. He has got a. I am not a. I wasn’t going to. I was a. He had to. He hasn’t to. He has. He didn’t have to. I am going to be a. He is going to be the. We are to. He hasn’t a. She didn’t have. She hasn’t and (4) It has. E. (3) She has. I am a. It hasn’t. Iam an. He has to. I am not to. He hasn’t been. It didn’t have to. He has been the. She didn’t. It didn’t. I wasn’t to. He had been. He had been able to. I am to. He didn’t. I was. We were the.126 | S. He hasn’t been able to. She doesn’t have to. We aren’t going to be. It didn’t have. He is going to be a. I am not going to be an. She doesn’t. We were. I was going to. We are. I wasn’t a. I am not. He hasn’t got a. Group 9. It inn’t. He had a. I wasn’t able to. He hadn’t a. He has been able to. We were to. We are going to.

(1) You are. I oughtn’t to have been the. I oughtn’t to be the. We aren’t going to be the. and (2) They are. I shouldn’t. | 127 going to. They are‘nt and so on. I must have been. I needn’t have been. I mustn’t have been the. I might not. I (He/She/It/We/You/They) ought to. I needn’t be the. I oughtn’t to have. * Replace ‘We’ by ‘You’ and ‘They’ and read out the speech initiators. I must have. I ought to have been the. I (He/She/It/We/ You/They) may. Group 16. I couldn’t have. I may be the. I ought to be able to. I mustn’t. I may not. I mustn’t have been able to. I couldn’t have been the. Group 17. I ought to be. I may have. I needn’t have.* Group 13 I (He/She/It/We/You/They) can. Group 18. I must have been able to. I oughtn’t to be. I can’t be. I couldn’t have been. I couldn’t. I may not have. I may not have been the. I ought to be the. Group 14. I needn’t have been the. I mustn’t have been. I can be the. I may have been able to. I shouldn’t be. . I may have been the. I may have been. E. I shouldn’t be the. I can have. I (He/She/It/We/You/They) should. I must have been the. I may not have been. I could. I may be. I should have been. I oughtn’t to. I may not have been able to. I can’t have. I needn’t be. I may not be. I should have. I might. I mustn’t have. I mustn’t be the. I mustn’t be. I needn’t have been able to. I could have.S. I ought to have been. I ought to have. I could have been. We are going to be the. I can’t have been the. F. I can be. I may not be the. I shouldn’t have. I (He/She/It/We/You/They) must. I can’t have been. I should be. For example. Group 15. I must be. I (He/She/It/We/You/They) needn’t. I can’t be the. I oughtn’t to be able to. You aren‘t. I must be the. I should be the. I can’t. I oughtn’t to have been.

Group 20. I shouldn’t have been the. He’d be able to. I had better not. We had better. I should have been the. There were. We didn’t use to. He had better. I won’t have. He won’t have. She had better not. He won’t. They never used to. He’d have. I wouldn’t like to. I wouldn’t be the. I’ll have. I’d have liked to. She never used to. I wouldn’t have been. You used to. You had better. I shouldn’t have been. There weren’t. He (She/It/You/They) will. He wouldn’t be able to. F. He used to. There aren’t. It had better not. They had better. Group 19. There was. I wouldn’t. He’ll be. I’d have been. I never used to. It never used to. He’d have been. I shan’t be the. I won’t be able to. There were no. I’d be. Group 22. I’ll be. I (We) should like to. I’ll. You didn’t use to. Group 23. They didn’t use to. You never used to. He would. I shouldn’t be able to. He’ll have been. I shan’t have. I had better. I’d be the. I shall be the. He’ll be able to. He wouldn’t be able to. I shall be.128 | S. She didn’t use to. They had better not. E. It used to. I won’t be the. There isn’t. I’ll be the. There is. We used to. I should be able to. He wouldn’t be. Group 21. He’d be. He wouldn’t have been. He’ll have. She had better. I shall have. She used to. He wouldn’t. There is no. I shan’t be. He never used to. I shouldn’t like to. I (We) shall. He wouldn’t like to. I wouldn’t be. I would. I’d be able to. They used to. He’d have liked to. I wouldn’t be able to. There was no. I won’t be. I’ll have been. He won’t have been. I won’t have been. It didn’t use to. I used to. You had better not. He wouldn’t be. I shan’t. I wouldn’t have. We never used to. I won’t. He’d like to. There wasn’t. I’ll be able to. I didn’t use to. We had better not. He didn’t use to. There are. I’d have. I wouldn’t have liked to. I’d like to. There . He wouldn’t have. There are no. It had better. He had better not.

There can’t have been. There may have been no. There may have been. There couldn’t have been. There has been no. There might have been. There’d be no. There is going to be. F. There had been no. There wouldn’t be. There ought to be no. So let’s practise : Group 27. There are going to be. Group 26. There were going to be. There remains. There haven’t been.S. There hadn’t been. There won’t be. There oughtn’t to have been. There oughtn’t to be. There have been. There’ll be. There aren’t going to be. There must have been no. Here your aim is to make acquaint your organs of speech fluent. You may find some initiators like strange or you can say of no use. But you have not to think about their uses at this juncture. There might not be. There weren’t going to be. There could have been. There were’t going to be. There can be. That is why utter each word group aloud several time. There’d be. There can be no. There must be. E. There may not have been. There may be no. There is going to be no. There ought to have been. There isn’t going to be. There was going to be no. There might be. There must have been. There might have been. There was going to be. There might have been. There couldn’t be. There were going to be no. There are going to be no. Following is the collection of frequently used common speech initiators. There couldn’t be no. | 129 has been. There’ll be no. There seems. There appears. There must be no. There mustn’t be. There had been. There may not be. There hasn’t been. There could be. Group 24. There have been no. There might not have been. There may be. Group 25. There mustn’t have been. There can’t be. You have gone through a number of speech initiators. . There may have been no. There ought to have been no. There could have been no. those are much capable to control your speech delivery as well as bestow the most awaited speech fluency. There might not have been. There ought to be.

It was quite easy to. It’d cost money to. I’d like to. He was thrilled to. It seems hard to. He is not a man to. He doesn’t meant to. It’ll take him ages to. He was too confused to. It is essential to. He was too angry to. He showed me how to. It was unpleasant to. He said it must be. It was delightful to. It used to be difficult. He has a large family to. I didn’t take long to. It is sensible to. It may be customary to. He is big enough to. He will be too impatient to. I don’t want her to. It was amusing to. He asked her not to. I was hoping to. He wondered when to. He told her he could. It was annoying to. He made up his mind to. He is too weak to. It failed to. It was thrilling to. It will be practical to. He has decided to. I shouldn’t like to. It is pleasant to. Group 29. It was startling to. It may be terrible to. I’ll try to. It was satisfying to. He was too upset to. It is very boring to. It is terrifying to. It’d cost a lot to. It is very fair to. He was too tough to. He was certain to. He was experienced enough to. He will be too glad to. It was marvellous to. He wanted to stay at home to. He wasn’t listening to. It was dangerous to. It was painful to. I didn’t want him to. He seemed amazed to. It was inspiring to. He told the lie just to. He offered to. I saw them later to. He seems to. He was delighted to. It is very irritating to. He wasn’t going to. He thought he could. I found out where . F. It was silly to. It will be absurd to. I met her later to. It is expensive to.130 | S. It is pleasing to. He was too afraid to. I’ve go to. It is shocking to. He seemed ambitious to. He was too narrow-minded to. I should like to. He was shocked to. Group 28. He was happy to. He will be too excited to. He is eager to. He is too clever to. He was too busy to. It is enough to. E. He claimed his father had. He asked me if. It is useless to. It was wonderful to. It will be convenient to. It may be impossible to. I want you to. He (She) didn’t go to. He is supposed to go to. He explained what. He didn’t have enough time to. He was calm enough to. It didn’t take long. It never occured to him to. It was astonishing to. It is exciting to. It is necessary to. He desired to. He persuaded me to. He was right to. He was lucky to.

You must go somewhere else to. I said he hadn’t. They were unable to. I was wrong to. They didn’t remember to. They are going to. They often listen to. You were kind enough to. Group 31. They didn’t know how to. ‘whom’ is not used commonly in Spoken English. They never remember to. They planned to. I wondered whether to. I forgot who* to. You must understand why. You told me. They say they are. I had to do that to. | 131 to. They told me I should be. I’ll be curious to. You are required to. E. I’ll be able to. You are requested to. They say they have. They didn’t persuade me to. They hesitate to. I said I was. They were irritated to. They may be happy to. You’ve got the. I don’t know if. They may be unwilling to. They were quick to. . I went to that place to. You were too tired to. They didn’t like me to. They were pleased to. They may be sorry to. They asked me what. I knew who to. You told her you had. They may be reluctant to. They were prepared to. They wondered which. They remembered to. They started to. They say they will. They have to book to. They may be glad to. They said they would. They told you their. They have no lawn to. You were too depressed to. You were too confused to. You are supposed to. They told us the.S. You can’t stop her going to. You were too tough to. They came over here to. They had been trying to. They expected to. They promised they would. They came here to. I didn’t have an apportunity to. They succeeded to. They started asking her why. They said it is. You can’t be going to. You suggested I could. You were too mean to. They were inclined to. You aren’t required to. You shouldn’t use the. They failed to. They have no bike to. I said we must. Group 30. They told him not to. F. They told him how. I’ll be anxious to. You can’t get one at. They said they must. They couldn’t have moved * In context like this. They may be relieved to. You can’t do anything about. I was wondering which way to. I told her he was. They were ready to. I wanted to stay at home to. You haven’t paid the.

They’ve got used to. I don’t like to. It’s high time they. There is no chance to. I can’t go anywhere else to. There is no place there to. I can’t hear the. I don’t agree with. I enjoy watching the. There is not much time left to. I sent it to. That is far from here to. I don’t like doing. I don’t have my. There was a lot of. I don’t have anything else to. I couldn’t find a. I . That is far away the. I forgot to feel. I’d fix it for you if. I’ll bring the. I got into trouble for. There is nothing to. utter each initiator word group aloud several time . I don’t think the. I don’t understand the. There was nothing to. I don’t know the. I have nothing in. I’ve been here since. They explained everything to. There is not enough chance to. I don’t need any. I took the box to. I’ve heard them speak about. I can’t remember his. I don’t know which one. I don’t feel like tidying the. the. Group 33. I had trouble finding a. I didn’t dare to. I had lunch in. I need change for a. I haven’t had enough time for. I should like to speak to. These speech initiators are potent to give you an extra edge to your speech fluency. They watched me playing the. I rubbed out the. I don’t speak. This is the best piece of. I hadn’t ever seen the. There is very little to. They don’t want any more of. F. Group 32. E. I couldn’t help making a. I am closing the. I apologised for. I haven’t gone to. Following is the collection of various speech initiators mostly used in day–to–day speech. I was really a. I am feeling very. I’ve no idea of. I asked for a. I like going to. I’m looking forward to meeting our. I don’t have any trouble finding. I have no. I don’t like the service in. I must buy a gift for. I’ve got to visit my. I’ve something in. I haven’t heard why. I’d better take. I am not used to carrying. I only hope we can. They warned me about. I don’t want to. I’ve to go to. I’m at the. I’ve come to know about. I’m having some trouble with. I enjoyed talking to.132 | S. I had a lot of difficulty understanding. I am taking a tip to. I should like to look at. I was in front of. I don’t need any. That is near the. I really wonder how. This is the best book. I like doing. Therefore.

We shall buy a lot more of. He was between. He complained about. He was behind the. We are pushing the. I met him at. His shoes are made of. F. He was quite. I wish I had a. He has polished the. I was in front of. I live in a. He is working in. I usually have breakfast about. We do our own. He’d have. He got a letter from. He’ll be late for. I tired of. We are staying at. He quarrelled with. He wasn’t in the. He didn’t have much. He can’t eat without. I thought he was. He is running from. We live in. He’ll be back in. We have more. I’d rather see the. He is very popular with. I prefer a. Group 34. He couldn’t see the. We can’t imagine what. We use this oil for. He likes this kind of. He tore the. I’ll have the. He didn’t mention the. He didn’t send me. He managed to fix the. I remember how. He is travelling by. He is always buying. I’ve been feeling. | 133 didn’t know you had. He didn’t answer my. we were to have invited. He didn’t have his. We put down the. He didn’t say how often. He can’t speak a word of. He got into trouble for carrying. I don’t remember insulting. He hadn’t dusted the. He was serving the. We can’t tell you where. He doesn’t have much. He rubbed out the. He left a message for. We wouldn’t leave the.S. He doesn’t have to wash his. He found a. He wasn’t in the. We have stopped using. I need some. We were mending the. He doesn’t have much. He hasn’t ordered the. I didn’t have my. We can’t tell you where. We have been here since. He was supposed to. We bought it at. We can’t let you use the. He was out of. He has fewer. He didn’t have more. He was to go with. We didn’t hear from. He’s gone abroad for. He was touching the. He’s had a lot of. We can’t understand your. We didn’t get the. He believes in. I’ll lend you. He took a message for. He wouldn’t do it for. He can go by. His name is. E. We’re looking for a. He doesn’t agree with. I’m against the. Group 35. He looked upset about. He sold it to. We went to a. He spent the day reading a. He was at the. He is putting the packet on the. He doesn’t look very. We missed the. We are getting. He can’t take care . I’ll bring the.

She wouldn’t do it for. He may be coming from. She’ll act as if she. It’s on the. He’ll get the. He’s got the. It’s near the. It is difficult for him to. It is many miles from here to. It’s no use going to. She wrote a reply to. He passed his. It’s no use your offering a. It’s getting. He doesn’t dare to. E. She has everything she. It isn’t in. It looks as if it’s going to. He was walking to the. It’s 2 kms. It’s the same as. Group 37. She doesn’t mind the. of. He’ll act as if he. She was working in. She doesn’t have to wash her. She heard him shouting at.134 | S. She apologised for spoiling the. He needed it for. She paid only. He always tries to be. She had a lot of. He has used up all the. She got into trouble for carrying. He placed the book on the. She didn’t come to. He was standing by the. He was wearing a. She was worried about. He hasn’t seen me for. He hadn’t noticed the. She’ll behave as if she. It’s time you collected the. She poured some more. He didn’t wash the. She tore the. He was pulling the. He hasn’t told me what. She was showing me her. She is always buying. She has given me some. She is very popular with. His behaviour is different from. She told us the. She’s got the. He is at the. She doesn’t ever get tired of. She likes this kind of. He has to pay his. It is . She hasn’t ordered the. She lost all her. She wasn’t in the. It’s her. She’d have. He forced her to. She never remembers to drop the. She’ll get the. Group 36. She was pulling the. She is thinking of. He was taking the book from the. She’s always very fair to. He has got used to getting up at. She was walking to the. from. She can go by. He told us the. He shouldn’t have said. He hasn’t had enough time for. It’s no good making. She spent the day reading a. He wanted no more of. She couldn’t see the. He’s always very fair to. He’s been out since. It is the boy who. She can go out whenever. It’s right next to. He didn’t come to. It’s worse than. He may have been trying to. She was behind. She looked upset about. She has polished the. He took out the. She has to pay her. She passed her. F. She kept waving to. He didn’t mean to. She’ll be late for.

It always seems better when. They couldn’t hear what. They made him pay back the. You can rely on. You can get one at. They took it back to. They cooked their own. They didn’t see him beating the. They’re making the. They must be talking to. Group 39. They don’t wan’t any more. It’s opposite the. They warned me about. They haven’t made much. They couldn’t have reported it to. It’s no good warning. It rains a lot in. They couldn’t have moved the. F. You needn’t have gone to. They haven’t finished their. They are in favour of the. They were opening the. They’re working for. They won’t understand the. It’s definite to. They haven’t found a. They want one or two more of. . | 135 certain to. They worried about. It was a very. They’ve heard her speak about. They borrowed it from. They’ve to take the trip to/by. You must go somewhere else to. They wrote him a. They wouldn’t wait for. They watched me weighing the. They’re annoyed. They were showing her their. It is easy for you to. They bought a few. You can’t prevent anyone looking at. They never seem to get upset over. You’ll soon get used to. It’s high time you were. E. They use this for. They didn’t think it was. They heard you shouting at. They wouldn’t leave the. They’ll wait for him at.S. They paid nothing for. It’ll be useful in. It’s not much good asking. They’re having a party at. It doesn’t include. You shouldn’t use the. It’s likely to. You can’t stop him going to. You’ve got the. Group 40. They are travelling by. They have one at. They’ve got used to. They always forget to pay the. You ought to ask for. They’ve been cheating us for. They gave her a. They haven’t said. They used to have a lot of. They have no idea when. You can’t be going to. They put a little more. You must understand why. They were grumbling about. It took about. Group 38. They happened to look at our. They weren’t in any. You’ll be late for. They went with. They’ve only just checked my. They’d have helped him. They went on mending the. They’ve been out since. They explained everything to. You haven’t paid the.

Give it to. Several of them will be. Turn right at. Some of her friends are. Give him a. Nothing happened when. E. Let’s find out who. Look in the. F. This is the first day of. Our ofice is the. Let’s not do the. Imagine not looking the. All your friends will be. The next one was. Give me the number of. Look at her eating the. Everyone is looking at. Borrow some money from. None of her brothers is. Get off the bus at. Everyone wonder where. Please take it out of. Find someone who. Try turning the. . Tell me the. Show me some of the.136 | S. Bring me all the. The discount price is. That’s south of. No one can explain why. The paper says it is. Please explain it to. • Speech initiators are the group of words that are uttered at the beginning of idea-units. Turn left at. Let’s watch the. The next train leaves at. Both of them can be. Don’t tell them what. Both my bags are. Chapter in Nutshell • Speech initiators control your speech delivery efficiently. The next bus leaves in. Her friends are all. Her behaviour is different from. Put all this in. The shortest way is. Meet me here at. The nearest one is. Let’s go to. The first day of the year is. Guess what the. Let’s ask her about. Ask her to turn off the. Many people don’t do their. Let’s see him as soon as. Meet him at. Let’s speak to him. Try pushing that. Imagine quarrelling with. All our oil is. Don’t give her any. Something is bothering. Wait until. The train stops at. All her skirts were. All his brothers are. Most of them are. Here’s my. Tell her it’s. Imagine not working for. • Speech initiators help you to develop effective Fluency Nucleus. Most of them are. Everybody got tired of. Look at the. Get him some. Let’s see if we can. The longest way is. Someone wants to.

annexing a tag thereto. i. and ‘isn’t she’ is an interrogative word-group. Short responses help in maintaining the speech fluency. and then at the end of statement. a tag containing interrogative wordgroup is added.e. is she ? In the above examples. (i) ‘She is a beautiful girl’ is a statement. Tagging is a technique to provide effectiveness and lustre to your conversation. If short response is used in the right context. question wordgroup. She is a beautiful girl. On the other hand. but it can be started with a statement. This annexed tag converts the statement into question form. ‘No.11 Tag Your Speech with Short Responses English language is a bouquet of specialities. Whenever a speaker intends to use the tags in his conversation. And one of its various specialities is this that English conversation doesn’t go always in long idea-units or heavy structures of alphabet. are common short responses in use to continue the flow of conversation. isn’t she ? She isn’t a beautiful girl. Very often you can convey your expression through short responses.. Short responses like ‘yes. ‘so am I’ etc. a statement is made first. it can deliver complete message as well as it can forward your conversation smoothly. For example. they aren’t’. A conversation doesn’t start always with a question. and . he’s’. Using Tags is also a very common practice during English conversation.

. ‘is it ?’ or ‘isn’t it ?’ in most of the cases. you are required to bear in your mind that (a) Generally.e. statement portion of the idea-unit is positive. On the other hand.. while the tag-question is negative. Remember to say only ‘am I not’. then your tag-question must be in positive form. isn’t it ?” (×) While they are required to say it as “They are reading. The tags are also called tag-questions. ‘haven’t I’ in place of ‘have not I’ . In Hindi language. i. For Example. ‘am I not’. i. can I ? In the first example. we use only two type of tag-questions. can’t I ? I can’t speak English fluently. ‘isn’t she’ and ‘is she’ are the tags with the statements.. the negative meaning word ‘not’ is not used completely in tag-questions.(ii) ‘She isn’t a beautiful girl’ is a statement. i. the statement portion is negative. Say ‘don’t I’ in place of ‘do not I’ . you have to use the shortened form of ‘not’ (n’t) alongwith other words.e. aren’t they ?” (√) . use negative tagquestion.e. if statement part of your utterance is in positive form. The interrogative word-groups here. While English language has a variety of tag-questions besides ‘is it ?’ and ‘isn’t it ?’ You’ll be surprised to know that most people mistook to use only ‘is it ?’ or ‘isn’t it ?’ in almost all cases and speak like “They are reading. generally. (b) As a rule of using tag-questions. Before advancing further. And while you use the statement in negative. But there is an exception. in the second example. For Example. while the tag-question is in positive form. You should never ask ‘amn’t I’ but ‘am I not’. I can speak English fluently. and ‘ is she’ is an interrogative word-group. (c) English language is much different in comparison to Hindi and other Indian languages. ‘Shan’t I’ in place of ‘shall not I’ and so on. In all the other cases.

have they ? (√) Now. Yes. no ? (×) You are singing. which one from the following two ideaunits is correct : “She has been singing for the whole day. we are. no ? (×) She is eating. Am I abusing you ? A. Q. Q. Go through the each pair carefully and utter them several time Aloud. Yes. She is eating. isn’t she ? (√) You are singing. Yes. Are you happy here ? A. Group 1.Now examine. The proper application of Short Responses and Tagquestions can make your conversation effective as well as fluent. hasn’t she ?’ Therefore. you are.). I am. it’s your prudence to avoid using ‘no’ in tag questions. Were you reading a novel ? A. you should avoid the mistake of using only ‘isn’t it ?’ or ‘is it ?’ with every idea–unit. (d) Also remember that ‘no’ has no place in tagquestions. I was. Q. you are correct that the correct idea–unit is ‘She has been singing for the whole day. . Following is the representation of selected idea-units or word-groups in the pairs of question and answer (Q. aren’t you ? (√) They haven’t read it till now. no ? (×) They haven’t read it till now. Are you from Agra Public School ? A. For Example. there are two wonderful techniques in your hand to grace your speech. Yes. but use an appropriate tag-question as per the requirement of statement. Q. hasn’t she ?” Yes. Let us practise the SHORT RESPONSES. & A. isn’t it ?” “She has been singing for the whole day. So make good use of both of them according to the need of idea-units and context. Therefore.

Was he juming over the couch ? A. she is. I did. Yes. Are you going to temple ? A. he was. they were. Q. Q. it isn’t. Group 3. No. you are. Yes. No. No. Q. Q. Yes. Q. No. Are we really perfect in Maths ? A. Were they eating their lunch ? A. they are. you aren’t. Q. they aren’t. Q. Q. Yes. No. Yes. No. Do you like it ? A. You were. Q.Q. they weren’t. Q. Yes. Was he scolding his son ? A. Q. No’ it isn’t. I’m not. Is she angry with you ? A. Yes. No. Yes. Q. No. Are you ready now ? A. I wasn’t. . he wasn’t. Is it raining heavily ? A. No. Q. Q. Is your tension over ? A. Group 2. I do. Was he winking at her ? A. Were they wishing to visit here ? A. Am I wrong ? A. Q. I’m not. Are they singing well ? A. Are they laughing so hard ? A. Q. Was I shaking hands with him ? A. Were you taking your bath ? A. he wasn’t. Did you beat your sister ? A. Q.

that did. Do you hear any voice ? A. Did she make any promise to you ? A. she did. you did. Group 4. Did I do anything wrong with you ? A. Yes. Q. Q. I don’t. Does she often pick fight with her friends ? A.Q. she didn’t. Q. Q. he doesn’t. they didn’t. No. Yes. Do I speak loudly ? A. you didn’t. No. Q. she doesn’t. No. he didn’t. Q. you don’t. it does. they did. Q. Do I eat a lot ? A. she does. Did she shout at you ? A. Yes. I didn’t. Did you eat well ? A. Did her words hurt you ? A. Did he go to see the movie ? A. Yes. Q. No. Q. Q. . Q. No. Q. Yes. Q. Does she pay courtesy ? A. Yes. No. Q. Q. Did I speak a lie about it ? A. Does he feel insulted by me ? A. Does it matter ? A. we do. Do you wish to listen this song ? A. No. Yes. Did they quarrel with them ? A. you do. Did they wash their clothes ? A. it doesn’t. Q. Does it make any difference ? A. No. Yes. No. No. Q.

Group 5.
Q. Have you read this letter ? A. Yes, I’ve. Q. Had she completed her work ? A. Yes, she’d (she had). Q. Has he written the letter ? A. Yes, he’s. Q. Had you taken the medicine ? A. Yes, I’d. Q. Have they given up drinking ? A. Yes, they’ve. Q. Had he visited in the meeting ? A. No, he hadn’t. Q. Has she had time to come over here ? A. No, she hasn’t. Q. Had it been raining cats and dogs (heavily) ? A. No, it hadn’t. Q. Have they informed you earlier ? A. No, they haven’t. Q. Had I ever asked you for anything ? A. No, you hadn’t.

Group 6.
Q. Will you post it for me ? A. Yes, I’ll. Q. Would he go to theatre ? A. Yes, he’d (he would). Q. Will she sing the song ‘Sad Sunday’ ? A. Yes, she’ll. Q. Would they be ready to swim ? A. Yes, they’d. Q. Will you make a fun of it ? A. Yes, I’ll. Q. Would you really cut a joke on him ? A. No, I wouldn’t. Q. Will she be get there in time ? A. No, she won’t. Q. Would he mind if she refuses to come ? A. No, he wouldn’t.

Q. Will you carry this bag to my house ? A. No, I won’t. Q. Would you feel if we don’t come for play ? A. No, we wouldn’t. Group 7. Q. Can I help you ? A. Yes, you can. Q. Could he afford it ? A. Yes, he could. Q. Can they maintain this garden ? A. Yes, they can. Q. Could she prove it ? A. Yes, she could. Q. Can you hear that murmuring ? A. Yes, we can. Q. Could he convince them ? A. No, he couldn’t. Q. Can you see the difference ? A. No, I can’t. Q. Could they find their luggage ? A. No, they couldn’t. Q. Can I execute the service contract ? A. No, you can’t. Q. Could he finish his work within 30 minutes? A. No, he couldn’t.

Group 8.*
Q. Must I tell her this story ? A. Yes, you must. Q. Must he be so ignorant ? A. Yes, he must. Q. Must you disclose it publicly ? A. Yes, I must.
*
Replace ‘must’ by ‘need’, and ‘mustn’t’ by ‘needn’t’ in this group and read the idea-units ALOUD. For example, Q. Need I help her to carry her luggage ? A. No, you needn’t.

Q. Must she be so harsh to him ? A. Yes, she must. Q. Must they be so early ? A. Yes, they must. Q. Must I switch on the fan ? A. No, you mustn’t. Q. Must they help him ? A. No, they mustn’t. Q. Must I receive them at the Conference Hall ? A. No, you mustn’t. Q. Must she run fast ? A. No, she mustn’t. Q. Must it be too concise and brief ? A. No, it mustn’t.

Group 9.
Q. I’m going to deliver it to him. A. So am I. Q. I was much worried about her health. A. So was I. Q. He is very busy now-a-days. A. So is she. Q. She was very fond of Rasmalai. A. So were we. Q. They are making fun of that little boy. A. So is she. Q. I was very sorry about that. A. So was he. Q. He’s terribly rude. A. So is she. Q. We were ready to go there. A. So were they. Q. They are making excuses again. A. So is he. Q. This was indeed interesting to see. A. So was that.

Group 10.
Q. I’m not grumbling about it. A. Neither am I.

Q. I was not certain for his return. A. Neither was I. Q. He isn’t happy with this offer. A. Neither is she. Q. She wasn’t particular about it. A. Neither is he. Q. You aren’t smiling. A. Neither are they. Q. We weren’t familiar with that method. A. Neither was he. Q. She isn’t polite at all. A. Neither are they. Q. This was not made of brass. A. Neither was that. Q. That isn’t with her. A. Neither is this. Q. She was not expecting so early. A. Neither were they.

Group 11.
Q. I prefer the sweets in comparison to salties. A. So do I. Q. I saw them playing cricket. A. So did I. Q. She wishes to go to her house. A. So do we. Q. He got annoyed without any reason. A. So did they. Q. They promised him a bike on his birthday. A. So did she. Q. I don’t hate washing the dishes. A. Neither do she. Q. She didn’t accept their invitation. A. Neither did he. Q. We don’t eat stale fruits at all. A. Neither do they. Q. That didn’t look better. A. Neither did this. Q. This doesn’t feel comfortable. A. Neither does that.

M. Neither had he. This will take atleast a week. A. Q. Neither has this. Q. A. A. Q. A. Q. A. A. Q. So have I. Neither had they. They won’t give me more money. Q. She wouldn’t take any risk ? A. Q. A. I’ve finished my study. Group 13. So would we. Q. I’ll go with my friends. Neither had he. . He has made a lot of money in the shoe business. Q. So will he. So have I. Neither will we. They haven’t forgotten the promise. Q. A. A. So had they. Neither would I. So will that. She had missed her period. That hasn’t spoilt a bit. A. Neither have we. She hadn’t stopped reading. It wouldn’t better to ring her again. A. A. Neither would that. They would like to relish it more. Q. So will she. You would feel sorry for her. Q. So will they. Q. So have we.. A. A. Q. We hadn’t heard about their programme. I’d bought 2 kgs of oranges. A. Q. So had he. A. Q. A.Group 12. You hadn’t lost any chance. Q. He has severe bodyache. Q. She will be there by 8:00 A.

Q. That won’t be finished till noon. A. Neither will this. Q. He wouldn’t agree on this proposal. A. Neither would she.

Group 14.
Q. I can win this game easily. A. So can we. Q. He would have told a nice story. A. So could they. Q. She can try again for it. A. So can he. Q. He could have delayed it a bit longer. A. So could I. Q. They can visit to me on tomorrow. A. So can she. Q. She couldn’t have been here. A. Neither could we. Q. We can’t finish it within such a short period. A. Neither can they. Q. I couldn’t start that immediately. A. Neither could I. Q. He can’t collect the money within three days. A. Neither can she. Q. They couldn’t afford such a costly article. A. Neither could we.

Group 15.
Q. I must be very happy with you. A. So must we. Q. He must stop boasting. A. So must they. Q. She must leave early to school. A. So must he. Q. You must complete it by the next day. A. So must she. Q. We must go now. A. So must I. Q. He mustn’t gossip now. A. Neither must you.

Q. You mustn’t be so irritate. A. Neither must they. Q. They mustn’t see you here. A. Neither must be. Q. She mustn’t drink like anything. A. Neither must he. Q. I mustn’t tease her for long. A. Neither must you. You’ve just gone through a special kind of drill to boost up your conversational skill, the short responses. A short response makes your speech more flowable, because it gives you substantial opportunity and time to rearrange, remould and replay your thoughts and ideaunits. Besides short responses, you were also introduced with an extra-ordinary feature of spoken English, i.e., Tag–questions. Now we’ll discuss a little more about

Tag Questions
If you’ll try to peep into English conversation between two natural speakers of English, you’ll notice, certainly a special feature thereof. That is, in most of the cases, conversation starts with an interrogative utterance. Or you can say that almost conversations start with a question word. And generally conclude with a question word-group. For example, How do you do ? Where were you ? How was your journey to Kashmir ? and so on. Is this true ? That every conversation must have a question word or question mark, or it must be a question itself. Definitely answer will come as No. Because every conversation needn’t be started with a question. You will encounter with the numerous dialogues which don’t start with an interrogation, but in the form of a state-ment. Though these statements are also supported by the questions. This type of conversation is a common feature of spoken English.

This style of conversation contains a statement followed by a Tag-question, i.e., a question word-group appended to the statement. For example, He is a good player, isn’t he ? He isn’t a good player, is he ? I am an intelligent boy, am I not ? I am not an intelligent boy, am I ? In the examples given here, the statements are supported by the tag-questions like ‘isn’t he ?’ ‘is he ?’, ‘am I not ?’, and ‘am I’ to have the continuity of speech or conversation. Now I would like to attract your attention towards the para ‘b’ appeared on page no. 138 that says that “As a rule of using the tag-questons, use negative tag-question, if statement part of your utterance is in positive form … and vice versa. Let’s have a look on the most common type of Tagquestions those are frequently used in day-to-day conversation of natural speakers of English. Try to grasp the idea behind the Tag–questions and read them ALOUD several time.

Things to Remember
• Use always a tag or tag-question in right context of
utterance. That is a negative tag-question is used with a positive statement part of word-structure. While negtive form of word–structure contains a positive tag-question. • Avoid use of ‘no’ in tag-question, and make it a habit to use only ‘not’ in shortend form, i.e., ‘n’t’. (Exception : Am I not)

Group 1.
I study every day, don’t I ? I don’t study everyday, do I ? We study everyday, don’t we ? We don’t study every day, do we ? He studies everyday, doesn’t he ? He doesn’t study everyday, does he ? She studies everyday, doesn’t she ? She doesn’t study everyday, does she ? It (suppose you’re using it for a boy*) studies everyday,
*
You can use ‘it’ for even girl and child.

doesn’t it ? It doesn’t study everyday, does it ? Smita studies everyday, doesn’t she ? Smita doesn’t study everyday, does she ? Micky studies everyday, doesn’t he? Micky doesn’t study every day, does he ? You study every day, don’t you ? You don’t study everyday, do you? They study everyday, don’t they ? They don’t study everyday, do they. I am reading now, am I not ? I am not reading now, am I ? We are reading now, aren’t we ? We aren’t reading now, are we ? He is reading now, isn’t he ? He isn’t reading now, is he ? She is reading now, isn’t she ? She isn’t reading now, is she ? It (suppose you use it for a boy) is reading now, isn’t it ? It isn’t reading now, is it? Runa is reading now, isn’t she ? Runa isn’t reading now, is she ? Priyesh is reading now, isn’t he ? Priyesh isn’t reading now, is he ? You are reading now, aren’t you ? You aren’t reading now, are you ? They are reading now, aren’t they ? They aren’t reading now, are they ? I have already finished my lesson, haven’t I ? I haven’t yet finished my lesson, have I ? We have already finished our lesson, haven’t we ? We haven’t yet finished our lesson, have we ? He has already finished his lesson, hasn’t he ? He hasn’t yet finished his lesson, has he ? She has already finished her lesson, hasn’t she ? She hasn’t yet finished here lesson, has she ? It (suppose you use it for a boy) has already finished its lesson, hasn’t it ? It hasn’t yet finished its lesson, has it? Upasana has already finished her lesson, hasn’t she? Upasana hasn’t yet finished her lesson, has she ? Sahil has already finished his lesson, hasn’t he ? Sahil hasn’t yet finished his lesson, has he ? You have already finished your lesson, haven’t you ? You haven’t yet finished your lesson, have you ? They have already finished their lesson, haven’t they ? They haven’t finished their lesson, have they ? I have been working since morning, haven’t I ? I have not been working since morning, have I ? We have been working since morning, haven’t we ? We have not been working since morning, have we ? He has been working since morning, hasn’t he ? He has not been working since morning, has he ? She has been working since

hasn’t it ? It has not been working since morning. did I ? We went yesterday. has she ? It has been working since morning. won’t she ? Farah won’t swim tomorrow. hasn’t he ? Atul has not been working since morning. did he ? You went yesterday. haven’t you? You have not been working since morning. won’t you ? You won’t swim tomorrow. have they ? I shall swim tomorrow. shall we ? He will swim tomorrow. didn’t you ? You didn’t go yesterday. hasn’t she ? She has not been working since morning. won’t he ? He won’t swim tomorrow will he ? It will swim tomorrow. did she ? It w e n t yesterday. wern’t we ? We weren’t reading when warden came. will she ? Ali will swim tomorrow. didn’t he ? He didn’t go yesterday. shan’t we ? We shall not swim tomorrow. will they. shall I ? We shall swim tomorrow. will you ? They will swim tomorrow. was I ? We were reading when warden came. I went yesterday. didn’t it ? It didn’t go yesterday. were we ? He was reading when warden came. did you ? They went yesterday. didn’t I ? I didn’t go yesterday. has it ? Reena has not been working since morning. wasn’t I ? I was not reading when warden came. did she ? Hari went yesterday. did we ? He went yesterday. didn’t she ? Sweta didn’t go yesterday. will it ? Farah will swim tomorrow. did it ? Sweta went yesterday. didn’t we ? We didn’t go yesterday. haven’t they ? They have not been working since morning. won’t he ? Ali won’t swim tomorrow. wasn’t he ? He wasn’t reading when warden came. was he ? She was reading when warden came wasn’t she ? She wasn’t reading when warden . will he ? You will swim tomorrow. won’t it ? It won’t swim tomorrow. didn’t he ? Hari didn’t go yesterday. did they ? I was reading when warden came. has she ? Atul has been working since morning. didn’t she ? She didn’t go yesterday. has he ? You have been working since morning. have you ? They have been working since morning. didn’t they ? They didn’t go yesterday. Group 2. did he ? She went yesterday.morning. shan’t I ? I shall not swim tomorrow. won’t they ? They won’t swim tomorrow.

had he ? You had done your work before warden came. had we ? He had been gossiping when warden was out. weren’t you ? You weren’t reading when warden came. had he ? She had done her work before warden came. hadn’t he ? He hadn’t done his work before warden came. hadn’t it ? It had not been gossiping when warden was out. wasn’t she? Shreemoyee wasn’t reading when warden came. hadn’t she ? She had not been gossiping when warden was out. hadn’t you ? You hadn’t done your work before warden came. were you ? They were reading when warden came. had you ? They had done their work before warden came. I had been gossiping when warden was out. wasn’t he ? Rajat wasn’t reading when warden came. weren’t they ? They weren’t reading when warden came. had I ? We had done our work before warden came. hadn’t he ? Soumya hadn’t done his work before warden came. had she? It had done its work before warden came.came. hadn’t we ? We had not been gossiping when warden was out. wasn’t it ? It wasn’t reading when warden came. hadn’t they ? They hadn’t done their work before warden came. had we ? He had done his work before warden came. was it ? Shreemoyee was reading when warden came. hadn’t it? It hadn’t done its work before warden came. was she ? It was reading when warden came. had it ? Neena had been gossiping when warden was out. was she ? Rajat was reading when warden came. had they. had it ? Aakansha had done her work before warden came. hadn’t she ? Aakansha hadn’t done her work before warden came. had he ? She had been gossiping when warden was out. hadn’t we ? We hadn’t done our work before warden came. hadn’t I ? I had not been gossiping when warden was out. hadn’t I ? I hadn’t done my work before warden came. was he ? You were reading when warden came. hadn’t he ? He had not been gossiping when warden was out. were they ? I had done my work before warden came. hadn’t she ? Neena had not been gossi- . had I ? We had been gossiping when warden was out. had she ? It had been gossiping when warden was out. hadn’t she ? She hadn’t done her work before warden came. had she ? Soumya had done his work before warden came.

would he ? Akash should go if teacher insisted him to. shouldn’t she ? Honey shouldn’t go if teacher said ‘no’. would she ? Honey should go if teacher insisted her to. wouldn’t he ? He would not go if teacher didn’t ask him to. would we ? We should go if teacher insisted us to. wouldn’t I ? I would not go if teacher didn’t ask me to. should they ? . shouldn’t she ? She shouldn’t go if teacher said ‘no’. Honey would go if teacher asked her to. had he ? You had been gossiping when warden was out. hadn’t you ? You hadn’t been gossiping when warden was out. would I ? I should go if teacher insisted me to. should she ? You would go if teacher asked you to. would she ? She should go if teacher insisted her to. should we ? He would go if teacher asked him to. would you ? You should go if teacher insisted you to. shouldn’t he ? He shouldn’t go if teacher said ‘no’. should she. shouldn’t you ? You shouldn’t go if teacher said ‘no’. should I ? We would go if teacher asked us to. hadn’t they ? They hadn’t been gossiping when warden was out. wouldn’t they ? They wouldn’t go if teacher didn’t ask them to. shouldn’t I ? I should not go if teacher said ‘no’. would they ? They should go if teacher insisted them to. wouldn’t you ? You wouldn’t go if teacher didn’t ask you to. had you ? They had been gossiping when warden was out. shouldn’t we ? We should not go if teacher said ‘no’. shouldn’t they ? They shouldn’t go if teacher said ‘no’. hadn’t he ? Sanjeev hadn’t been gossiping when warden was out. had they ? I would go if teacher asked me to. wouldn’t she ? Honey wouldn’t go if teacher didn’t ask her to. wouldn’t we ? We would not go if teacher didn’t ask us to. should you ? They would go if teacher asked them to. shouldn’t he ? Akash shouldn’t go if teacher said ‘no’. wouldn’t he ? Akash wouldn’t go if teacher didn’t ask him to.ping when warden was out. wouldn’t she ? She wouldn’t go if teacher didn’t ask her to. would he ? He should go if teacher insisted him to. should she ? Akash would go if teacher asked him to. had she ? Sanjeev had been gossiping when warden was out. should he ? She would go if teacher asked her to.

are there ? There was a painting in your room earlier. can he ? She could cross the English Channel if she had strong will to. So read them aloud. can’t he ? He can’t read this lesson very easily. The main aim of the practice is to cultivate the habit to use them in your day-to-day conversation. He can read this lesson very easily. shall we*? Let us start our study. need we ? Group 5. Practise them aloud several times to have the better acquaintance about tags. would there ? There should be heavy rush at the circus. didn’t you ? She needs extra care. aren’t there ? There aren’t several paintings in your room. couldn’t you ? They must sit properly in the class. . I went to the hospital. did I ? I can’t put trust in them. “shall we” is used and not the “letn’t we”. wasn’t there ? There wasn’t a painting in your room earlier. couldn’t she ? You could run 400 metres race. should there ? Group 4. shall be ? Following is the group of more tag-questions. must you ? We have to * In such type of idea-units. isn’t there ? There isn’t a painting in your room. There is a painting in your room. shall be ? Let us take our lunch. wasn’t he ? You mustn’t tease others. was there ? There were several paintings in your room earler. Group 6. Let us go to the market.Group 3. shall we ? Let us have a cup of coffee. is there ? There are several paintings in your room. doesn’t she ? He was singing on the roof. mustn’t they ? I mustn’t shout to the kids. didn’t I ? I didn’t go to the hospital. must I ? We needn’t go to the play ground. shouldn’t there ? There shouldn’t be any rush at the circus. wouldn’t there ? There wouldn’t be any fun at the circus. were there ? There would be a great fun at the circus. weren’t there? There weren’t several paintings in your room earlier. You needn’t to learn them by heart. can I ? You came late in the party.

were you ? They must water the plants well. is there ? That is the boy you asked me about. can’t I ? She doesn’t like to take sugar in milk. does she ? That’s enough. aren’t there ? There was quite a heavy crowd at the zoo. didn’t she ? I can do it any way I want. isn’t it ? He had his dinner. his car knocked a boy down. does she ? There is nothing further we’ve to do. isn’t there ? There are a lot of things to see. don’t you ? You don’t know how to ride a scooter. couldn’t they ? She didn’t let him know about that. won’t there ? He is always very unlucky. is there ? There was heavy rush at the booking window. pay attention to such type of usages. didn’t you ? She was surprised when she saw me. didn’t it ? They should think carefully before they act. isn’t it* ? He could see it at a glance. didn’t we ? Let’s go to picture. does it ? There isn’t a drop of oil left in the car. wasn’t there ? She doesn’t want to change her skirt. weren’t there ? This blue tie doesn’t look well on me. couldn’t I ? She isn’t kind to me.get a music system. shall we ? Your name is Jugnu. won’t they ? The milk has gone sour. mustn’t they ? She doesn’t wear saree.* You sat down opposite her. shouldn’t they ? She is going to play hockey. am I ? My friends will be coming to my house. hasn’t she ? His grey hairs don’t show too much. isn’t she ? He doesn’t like her at all. isn’t he ? Geeta left the light on in her bedroom. haven’t we ? They could manage what they wish. . hasn’t it ? He waved her from the train. isn’t it* ? Buses are running late today. weren’t they ? That is the girl you told me about. wasn’t there ? There were so many books to buy. do they ? There is a shorter way here. hadn’t he ? You know how to drive a car. do you ? This trousers doesn’t look well on me. does she ? It is the time for bed. isn’t it ? I could see it at a glance. wasn’t she ? Yesterday. did she ? You weren’t a bit sorry about it. couldn’t he ? There will be a dog show here next month. does he ? I am not used to wash my own clothes. is she ? Her daughter has grown up. aren’t * This is a special type of tag-question. isn’t it. does it ? They were sitting in their room all by themselves. didn’t he ? We went there on foot.

don’t they ? Sister is cooking the food. wasn’t there ? There was a great deal of excitement at film show. wasn’t it ? You must do as you are told. wasn’t it ? The report was badly written. isn’t it ? I overslept a little this morning. was there ? Your car is in good condition. can you ? The results of Secondary examination have appeared. should you ? It was our mistake. did we ? This time nobody clapped harder than before. if you go fast. didn’t she ? He didn’t . shan’t I ? They could run faster if they wanted. can’t they ? We didn’t have any lunch this noon. did they ? There is plenty of time. is she ? The shirt doesn’t fit you better. couldn’t they ? She did her best to ruin my career. isn’t it ? They are very selfish. isn’t it ? They were not used to getting up early. shouldn’t you ? They came back just a short time ago. isn’t it ? They can wait a little longer. aren’t they ? There was a great deal of noise in the upstair classes. does it ? The wind is blowing hard.they ? She sleeps too little. mustn’t you ? She lives near the school. isn’t she ? She was too scared to look at him. hasn’t she ? I’ll tell you the story. wouldn’t she ? There won’t be any rebate. can’t you ? You can’t wait a little longer. didn’t I ? The car doesn’t start. will there ? I am the next. wasn’t she ? Pinky isn’t old enough for school. doesn’t she ? You can stay the night with me. wasn’t it ? She took her friend home yesterday. mustn’t you ? I felt dizzy after the train journey. do you ? You should to board the Taj Express at Agra Cantt. doesn’t she ? You can ring me back a little later. can’t you ? There wasn’t enough food left for us. can’t you ? Pencil costs less than ballpen. isn’t there ? He didn’t answer my question. wasn’t she ? You can catch the bus. were they ? It’s too early to fix your programme. does it ? You shouldn’t treat this complaint lightly. won’t it ? My home is right by the park. was there ? They usually have sweets for dinner. didn’t she ? She has talked with you long enough. don’t they ? You don’t suppose it matters. did he ? She was holding the bag tight. doesn’t it ? Ballpens cost less than pens. wasn’t there ? It was your mistake. am I not ? The college will start next week. didn’t they ? You must have told me before. isn’t it ? There was nobody in. didn’t I ? She would be at home.

did he ? There was a heavy rush at Diwali Fair. • In comparison to other Indian languages. hasn’t it ? She wanted to throw a scare into you. isn’t he ? She is uneasy about the quarrel. isn’t she ? Rashid pulled him by the collar. doesn’t it ? I wanted to clear up this matter. hasn’t she ? I’ll be free within few moments. didn’t she ? I had a pink shirt and grey pants. . hadn’t I ? The war has come to an end. in contrasts to popular belief that the Tags may be only like “isn’t it ?” or “is it ?”. didn’t I ? This boy has no sense. isn’t it ? She dropped the inkpot on the mat. has he ? The mangoes are fine and ripe. did you ? There was a great deal of difference. wasn’t there ? He went to see the cricket match yesterday. shan’t I ? It looks like cloudy today. didn’t she ? You didn’t answer my question. English has a variety of Tags or Tag-questions. aren’t they ? My house is across the street. didn’t he ? You haven’t done well in the test. wasn’t there ? Chapter in Nutshell • S h o r t R e s p o n s e is a r i g h t s o u r c e o f c o m p l e t e conveyance of your message. am I ? She has made out the copy correctly. if it is applied as per the demand of context. didn’t he ? He is quite a good player.help me with my work. have you ? I am not afraid of the dark.

preparation and organisation in advance. feel them out. speech without planning. even we can’t be sure about absolute correctness of the word-groups used by us. not because it is the best one but at the time of conversation nothing better occurs to us immediately.. Thus.12 Secret of Successful Spontaneous Speech You know it well now that there is a great deal of difference between written English and spoken English. and experience with them to refine and edit what we say. you’re bound to speak the language spontaneously. infact the required information is not made available set in words or in an organised form. In the speech process. spontaneous speech-making is an impromptu action. while at the time of speech. It’s natural. The secret of successful spontaneous or impromptu speech is the makeshift–improvisation. When we start conversation. So there is no need to worry about such type of problems. we all want to try them out. Hence. you’ve enough liberty and opportunities to arrange your text.e. That is composition and utterance of the subject-matter is done by you at the same time. During spontaneous speech. the spontaneous speech has a distinctive smack—the smack of makeshiftimprovisations. and hard to believe that most of the speakers face the same situation. That’s why we are compelled to speak out such word-groups those occur to us as suitable on the spur of that moment. At the time of writing. generally we use a particular word-group inspite of having knowledge of various word-groups. and as you proceed exploratorily and speak tentatively at the time of . At that time. i.

and read them aloud. like “Your sister—what’s her name ?” Here the speaker has presented the topic or theme first : ‘Your sister’. you are required to arrange your word-groups’ order in a certain style. E.S. | 159 spontaneous speech. he made a comment on it by a separate and independent structure : ‘What’s her name ?’ This type of word-group arrangements are very common in spoken English. composition and speech of your idea-units simultaneously. It’s the beauty of spoken English that gives a unique smack to spoken language and differentiate from written language.. absolutely correct grammatically. It can be asked in more simple and in natural way too. My mother and sister—they are going today. Because this unique style or word-group order makes it easier to plan and execute your impromptu speech.e. Topic–Comment Order Examine the following word-group : “What is the name of your sister ?” This is a sentence of written English. After presenting the theme. and is very common to ask. 1. So of the spoken English. the unique word-groups’ order also helps you to makeshift-improvisation. Let’s grasp the unique styles of word-group arrangements. Unique Order of Word-groups The style in which a sizeable proportion of wordgroups is arranged or ordered in written English is very different from the order of word-groups in spoken English. Topic-comment order makes you free from the burden of structures of written style. i. That girl—who’s she ? Your brother—is he in Paris ? . it may not be a true spoken language. it is necessarily subject to revision and refinement. Let’s go for some more examples. Besides. To be successful in impromptu speech. F. If there is no vagueness. That boy—I’ve seen him at the picture hall. tentativeness and lack of exactness in your spoken language.

Abusing him—it isn’t good. ‘where is it’. Crying like this—it wouldn’t help at all. Comment—Topic Order Comment–topic order is the reversal of topic– comment order. E. Waiting for her—it’s of no use. In this arrangement. your utterance would be as : “My sky–blue Tie—where is it ?”. Walking like this—you can’t reach the school in time. Scolding at him like this—what good it will do ? Arranging all these items—it isn’t easy.160 | S.e. According to topic–comment arrangement. F. For example examine the following word-group : “Where is my sky-blue Tie ? ” This word-group has two parts—(a) Comment. That cook—he doesn’t cook properly. and then you present topic as a tag. i. and (b) Topic.e. The things she gave—none of them was useful. Washing the dishes—she finds it boring. Talking with her friends—she enjoys too much. This fan—I don’t like its style. first you make a comment about the topic. Let’s go for more comment–topic arrangements. Sipping a cup of tea with her—isn’t a great privilege ? 2.. while as per comment–topic arrangement you would speak the word-group as : “Where is it—my sky-blue Tie ?” Both the Topic–Comment order and Comment–Topic order of the word-groups are very common in spoken English. Your wife—is she from Delhi ? His father—have you seen him ? That curly-haired boy—is his father in Central Bank ? My book—where’s it ? Your moneyorder—I received it today only. The people standing there—do you know them ? That fellow—be cautious about him.. ‘my sky-blue Tie’. I’ve seen him at the picture hall—that boy. They’re going today—my mother and sister. i. Who’s she—that girl ? Is he in Paris—your brother ? . Changing the jobs—it isn’t the right practice.

Let’s see the examples of repeated references. | 161 Is she from Delhi—your wife ? Have you seen him—his father ? Is his father in Central Bank—that curly-haired boy ? Where’s it—my book ? I received it today only—your moneyorder.S. i. It’s of no use—waiting for her. What good it will do—scolding at him like this ? It isn’t easy—arranging all these items.e. most of the natural speakers of English repeat syllables. Repetition of References Generally. words. She enjoys too much—talking with her friends. F. It isn’t the right practice—changing the jobs. and try to grasp them. words or word-groups is a common knack of impromptu speech that keeps the perfect balance of speech. I don’t like its style—this fan. It wouldn’t help at all—crying like this. . You can repeat the references at your most convenience as per need of the context. Sometimes.. and for the repetition. Repetition of syllables. It also helps to maintain the desired flow of speech. The repetition of references is a part and parcel of the process of momentous editing of speech. whileas the repetition can be inadvertent. You can’t reach the school in time—walking like this. Isn’t a great privilege—sipping a cup of tea with her ? 3. She finds it boring—washing the dishes. E. Do you know them—the people standing there ? Be cautious about him—that fellow. without realizing it. they do it deliberately to emphasize any utterance. It isn’t good—abusing him. He doesn’t cook properly—that cook. there is no hard and fast rule to be followed by you. None of them was useful—the things she gave. or word-groups now and then.

a mini swimming pool and so on. Mr. Puri. She wanted to see Puneet—my son. a beautiful palace. All the players opined to discontinue the game— all of them. Each student of the class—each has to complete the work today itself. She’s a beautiful girl—more beautiful than other girls of her class. This chapter is very—very much—more easier. . Neeta wrote to him—his sister. She sings very—very sweety.162 | S. We’re happy—we are happy to note your passing the B. This sum is so—too—more difficult. He’s a handsome boy—most handsome in this colony. None of your request—none is going to be accepted now. Mr. His father scolded Raju–Mr. Singh. She’s dropped the letter—she has just dropped the letter to her brother. Puri had phoned me—my banker. My banker had phoned me–Mr. They’ve every luxury in their house—a fleet of cars. He is much—more—much better now. a hi-fi music system. You know Mr. He came here—he came here yesterday. Mr. F. Exam. Gupta is an exporter—exporter of Jewels. He was shouting—shouting badly. E. Singh scolded Raju—His father. His sister wrote to him—Neeta. I’m a doctor—a doctor of medicine. Dhingra—the DGM of Bank. None of them ate a single piece of sweet—none. They must try again—try harder. RR* 1 : RR 2 : RR 3 : RR 4 : RR 5 : RR 6 : * Repeated Reference. Everyone in the party was annoyed—everyone.Sc.

i. SC* 1 : She is an actor—a film star. * Self–Correction. the utterance without any pre-planning. This type of utterance may require some correction too. SC 2 : Aparna is very hard-working girl—or rather— very efficient. I didn’t. He’s a gentle boy—or rather—a very sober boy.e. 4. So have a look. and speaking what strikes at the spur of moment. Now she is better—better than yesterday. Mona’s a tough lady—or rather—a difficult one. how the mistakes are corrected and so on. As a part of moment-to-moment editing. Nobody liked the dish—at least. E. F.. but he—he didn’t care for it. They—Well. SC 3 : They were all against the agenda—well. He was the guest—the chief guest in the party. They’re very rude persons. but I—I’m seeing him for the first time. Kannada and Malyalam. Telugu. but we—we’re different. how the excessive claims are modified. but I—I couldn’t control mine. how the expressions are substituted. many of them are factory workers. most of them. but Hari—Hari couldn’t. how the corrections are made to furnish more information. | 163 RR 7 : She was annoyed with him. Rohit plays well the guitar—the Spanish Guitar. It’s beautiful—really beautiful. . Gita controlled her anxiety. I can speak so many South Indian languages— Tamil. the selfcorrection is a normal feature of English speech. He knows a little about me.S. He refused the job offer. Self–Correction As you know about the impromptu speech that it’s the process of makeshift–improvisation.

Somebody crying—did you hear ? Idiot—they called him. Basic concept—it is. A knock—I heard at the door. 5. Fifty rupees—it costs him. * Fronting. often they reverse the normal word order of utterance. And you shouldn’t avoid this knack of impromptu speech. F* 1 : Meenakshi—her name is. An intelligent boy—he is. Very harsh—his voice is. and they don’t mind to utter the ideaunit according to exact requirement of the grammar. Horrible boy—Mrs. A good jeans—she bought yesterday. In impromptu speech. and give impetus on a specific part thereof. Some noise—I heard. Fronting Fronting is also a normal feature of English speech. In the process. The fair judgment—they gave. Her promise—you can rely upon. Running slow—I don’t like.164 | S. Fronting is a popular style of moment-to-moment speech composition and editing. Not good—that write-up. Enough time—we didn’t have. He likes roasts very much—I mean toasts very much. Sharma told about Sandeep. E. . SR 4 : She is from Madhu Nagar—I mean. Delhi—it’s really a nice place. F. on tour. A great mystery—that was. Radha Nagar. F 2 : A rude person—his brother. people tend to speak what they have in their mind. I was on tower—I mean. So step forward for fronting. Red—he’s painting his drawing-room. Blue and white—the uniform must be.

S. They listened to the speech—till end. Pooja can speak French—and even German too. He likes her—perhaps loves her. They didn’t ask Priya to go there—or Priti either. He missed the train—just. A 2 : She sang the song—sweetly. I wish to finish it till noon—anyhow. | 165 Full of humour—that article. the speaker tends to add extra informations at the end of utterance of an idea-unit. He presented me an Executive Diary—and a wallet too. E. I didn’t admit it—even denied it. I don’t like to play hockey—or football either. They made a heavy noise—and didn’t listen anyone too. They are very kind to poors—and generous too. 6. Rajat is an honest boy—and very dedicated too. He can’t write correct Hindi—or speak either. Very entertaining—HAHK (Ham Aapke Hain Kaun). I visit there often—and my father too. She’s very proud of her beauty—and her mother too. Appendix Appending additional bits of information is also very common in English speech. He was sitting in the first row—inattentively. They were furious—and even aggressive. She looked at him—perhaps pointed out something. You must come over here—and even your brother. In this process. that occurs to him later on. Beautiful place—Bangalore. Examine the following : A* 1 : She continued to scold him—and with harsh words too. F. He’s a handsome boy—and his brother too. * Appendix .

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I saw her—last month. They want to live here—perhaps for two months. We haven’t received parcel—yet. I remain standing for a long time—outside.

7. After thoughts
In spontaneous speech, planning and execution thereof goes up simultaneously. That is, the speaker frames up his speech by piece-meal addition of informations. It includes descriptions, clarifications, explanations, reformations etc. Thus speaker doesn’t present all the informations about any subject at once in an organised way or in a well-knitted manner. But he presents them bit-by-bit, one bit at a time. In fact, these bits of informations are presented as afterthoughts. This process goes in a very unique style like→ some utterance→ then addition of some bits→ and continuation of the utterance. Afterthoughts is also a very important tool to shape, and refine your conversation, and provides greater freedom and ease to your spontaneous speech. Go through the following examples for better understanding : The shift incharge—who joined the Co. last week— he met with an accident. Priyanka—she is my best friend—she is going to Bombay on Monday. Gupta—the proprietor of Kalamandir theatre—he has donated one lac rupees to this school. Her story—the story she told about a feeble old lady who was begging in the dirty lane—attracted all the people. Your father—where is he now—he’s my class teacher. She was very happy—her appointment letter had come—and she distributed the sweets.

8. Fragmentary Word–groups
You must rest assured that a sizeable proportion of spoken English consists of incomplete structures and

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unfinished phrases too. And fragmentation of wordgroups is not a new tendency of English speech. By the fragmentary word-groups, speaker tries to attract the listerner’s attention on a specific piece of information by omitting all secondary words. And he leaves the phrases in fragments. These fragments of word or word-group work as complete sentence. For example, “The buses aren’t running in the city today—Bandh.” The fragmentary word ‘Bandh’ doesn’t need any support to convey its meaning. It’s capable itself to represent as a complete sentence. Let’s move to some more illustrations. FW* 1 : She’s on leave for ten days—her marriage. She’s absent today—loose motions. My brother is here—Diwali vacations. He’s busy in study now–a–days—examinations. He is fully engaged at present—Exports. I heard somebody knocking at the door—Postman. I don’t like her—too talkative. FW 2 : They like her—obedient †# disciplined † dedicated. Have you seen Sushmita—beautiful, sharp features † fair complexion, blue eyes † long hair. We’re very busy—Diwali sales, stock arrival † heavy order. You know that girl—aggressive † harsh † difficult to convince.

Always Remember
• That a fluent speech or the speech of a natural speaker
of English is one in which he invests as much as 30 to 50 per cent of his speaking time in speechcomposition features alone. *
Fragmentary Word-groups.

# The sign ‘†’ used here indicates ‘a brief pause’.

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9. Freedom of Speech
Spoken English enjoys much freedom. It is its beauty that it doesn’t need any strict control over speech style. Virtually it is free from the ambiguous restrictions. And perhaps you aren’t aware that whenever you try to control or restrict your speech–flow, it may bound to falter at that moment. Naturally, your spoken part of English requires the freedom from any restriction. That’s why try to mind the following : (1) Don’t make the structure of your text rigid. (2) Don’t pack your utterances tight. (3) Don’t try to speak in full or completely any structure at a stretch. (4) Don’t try to organise your speech in paragraph like parts. (5) Don’t try to relate each part of utterance logically with connectors like ‘in addition to’, ‘consequently’ etc. (6) Don’t try to avoid the repetition of syllables, words or word-groups. (7) Don’t try to adopt the pre-fabricated style of structures, and (8) Don’t try to follow strictly absolute correctness and formality of utterances. You are required hereby to follow the above tips and try to make free your speech from the rigid compositions. To bestow freedom to your speech from restrictions, examine the followings in right perspective.

(A) Make good use of Comment Clauses
The comment clauses are essential part of spoken English. These are chiefly of five types : (I) Comment clauses indicating the speaker’s uncertainty about truth or correctness of the utterance. The clauses are : I believe, I feel, I guess, I hear, I suppose, I think, It appears, It seems, I’m told, I’ve heard, They say.

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Comment clause may appear anywhere in the utterance, i.e., Either at the beginning, or in the middle or at the end of utterance. For Example, I believe—he must be in his class. He must be in his class—I believe. He doesn’t want—I believe—to attend his class. Now, examine the following utterances : (i) I feel—he isn’t interested in this job. (ii) I guess—somebody is sitting in the room. (iii) I hear—she’s going to sing on MTV. (iv) I suppose—they’ve spoilt the entire programme. (v) I think—we must go now. (vi) It appears—he’s going to take charge of new post. (vii) It seems—they’ve won the match. (viii) I’m told—that was very dangerous game. (ix) I’ve heard—she trusts on that vagabond. (x) They say—that seems a tough competition.

Things to Remember
• The comment clauses can be used at the beginning or
at the end or even in between the beginning and the end of an information unit. • The comment clauses act as useful ‘fillers’ too. In this way, they provide you required time to plan your utterances. • The silence breakers or discourse markers should be uttered at falling tone , and not with a rising tone .

• You can make good use of these markers to change
your topic of conversations. ‘Any how’ and ‘any way’ help you most to do so. • ‘By the way’, ‘eh’, ‘ehm’ etc. also help you to introduce or initiate new topics in your speech. • You shouldn’t insists always for strict precision.

(II) Comment clauses indicating the speaker’s certainty about what it says. The clauses are : I admit, I

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agree, I know, I remember, I tell you, I’m convinced, I’m sure, It’s true, I don’t deny, I don’t doubt, I’ve no doubt, There’s no doubt. For example, (i) I admit—that wasn’t your fault. The question paper was really tough—I admit. He helped me—I admit—in my hard time. (ii) I agree—it’s an exciting journey. (iii) I know—he took a very right decision. (iv) I remember—I saw that magnificent picture in Art Gallery. (v) I tell you—she won’t come now. (vi) I’m convinced—the task was very monotonous. (vii) I’m sure—he’s going to compete for IAS this time. (viii) It’s true—she married a Christian boy. (ix) I don’t deny—I was too late in the meeting. (x) I don’t doubt—that strange boy wasn’t her brother. (xi) I’ve no doubt—they won’t be able to succeed in their attempts. (xii) There’s no doubt—the delegation will enjoy this excursion. (III) Comment clauses indicating the speaker’s emotional attitude about what it says. Most frequently used clauses are : I fear*, I hope, I’m afraid*. For example, (i) I fear—she has lost her purse. She is a cheat—I fear. Your valuable time—I fear—is going in vain. (ii) I hope—she won’t forget it. (iii) I’m afraid—that sum puzzled you too much. (IV) Comment clauses that draw the listener’s attention towards what the speaker says. Most frequently used comment clauses are : Mind You*, You know, You see. For example,
* *
The phrases ‘I fear’ or ‘I’m afraid’ don’t denote that you’re frightened. The phrases are infact meaningless here and are used to show disagreement with someone in a polite way. ‘Mind you’ phrase implies various expressions, i.e.,—you can make use of it to emphasize what you are saying (see example—(i–a); you can use it to emphasize a contrast (refer example—(i–b); and, you can use it for any doubtful dispute from the listener (refer example—(i–c) given on page no. 171. It also helps you to express your different point of views.

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(i–a) Mind you—the sale is over (we’ve to return empty hand.) (i–b) (Mother is angry with you). Not with your brothermind you. (i–c) The boy who you’re talking to—mind you—is a great cheat. (ii) You know—she’s very rude. I don’t mean it—you know. She won’t like—you know–to lend her books. (iii) You see—they know how to handle the problem. That wasn’t her intention—you see. He spoke to me—you see—in very harsh words. (V) Comment clauses those help you to clarify your version. ‘I mean’ is a very popular comment clause of this category. The clause is used to explain something more clearly and to correct or restate what has been said by you immediately. For example, (There’s no other way) I mean—I’ve got to do it in this way. (How did they come to know) Nobody told them—I mean. That boy—I mean—Hari had already informed them. She is Neeta—I mean—Geeta. (VI.a) Comment clauses those help you to ask questions in the statement form. The clauses are : I believe, I suppose. For example, I believe—you wouldn’t like to go there ? I suppose—he’s still working at Upkars. Besides, one more comment clause ‘I wonder’ also accounts in this group, but it contains the question word-group in its statement part. For example, I wonder—what help do you want from me. (VI.b) Sometime comment clauses are used as positive questions too. Such clauses are : can you see, do you know, do you remember, do you suppose, do you think, would you say ? These comment clauses generally follow the main question word-group. For example, Have they finished their study—can you see ? Is she still learning computers—can you see ?

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What is Ram doing—do you know ? Where is he working—do you know ? When we were there—do you remember ? What’s the price of this drug—do you remember ? Will they sing well—do you suppose ? Will she come again—do you suppose ? Could he do it properly—do you think ? Who’s going to pay for lunch—do you think ? Was that a good dinner—would you say ? Is it good enough—would you say ? (VI.c) Sometime comment clauses are used as negative questions too. The clauses are : can’t you see ?, ‘don’t you agree’, ‘Don’t you know, don’t you remember ?, don’t you think ?, wouldn’t you say ? While you use these comment clauses, keep your statement in assertive form, i.e., it won’t be a question word-group. And add comment clause after the statement. For example, She is still inside the room—can’t you see ? It’s very difficult—can’t you see ? It’s a unique proposition—don’t you agree ? It’s absolutely impossible—don’t you agree ? There’s a premier show of Gambler today—don’t you know ? Pt. Jasraj is coming here today—don’t you know ? I gave you the dictionary—don’t you remember ? You promised to gift me this pen—don’t you remember ? The question was so obvious—don’t you think ? They shouldn’t have scolded him—don’t you think ? Veena was very rough to him—wouldn’t you say ? Anil is too impolite to his elders—wouldn’t you say ? (VII) There are a few more comment clauses which can be used effectively by you in the course of conversation. These comment clauses are : (do you)* follow me ?, (do you)* get it ?, (do you)* get what I mean?, okay ?, right?, Yes ?, You understand ?
*
‘do you’ is not an essential part of your speech. You can omit it, if you wish to do so.

She’s anxious to say something—isn’t that so ? He’s a chap of that sort that he must be—isn’t that so ? The comment clauses like ‘by any chance ?’. But spoken part of English doesn’t demand such type of precision. Even this much isn’t enough—(do you) follow me ? You should finish it first—(do you) get it ? She’s jealous of her achievements—(do you) get what I mean ? Write this paragraph again—okay ? Wash it clean as you can—right ? She told me first about it—yes ? You must never come again here—you understand ? Besides.S. inexact and vague. The Hallmark of spoken English is imprecision and vagueness. . F. and whether he’s agree to your statement or accept it or not. | 173 These comment clauses or tags help you to check whether the listener has understood or not what you’ve just said. E. clause ‘isn’t that so ?’ is also used to help you to call for the agreement to what you’ve just said. and (ii) most of the details and descriptions would be rough and couched in the vague terms and approximations. For example. For example. Has he succeeded—by any chance ? Are they likely to join us—by any chance ? Have they lost it—perhaps ? Can you write it for me—perhaps ? (B) Don’t insist for Strict Precision Precision and precise vocabulary are an absolute need of written English. you must know that— (i) a good number of words used in spontaneous speech would likely be general. these clauses. For example. So far as spoken English is concerned. ‘perhaps?’ can also be used by you as per the demand of context.

I was working on that new machine—what–do–you– call–it. F. ‘what’s it’.. Now. I was explaining about—things—uses of new pressure cooker. don’t try to avoid the vagueness and imprecision. (a) Non–availability of Lexical Items It is not possible always to have lexical items. And it helps you to compose and edit your speech spontaneously with ease. Can you tell me about that boy—what’s the name. The substitutes can be reckon to : ‘what–do–you–call it’*. . It also relieves you from the unwanted pressure of proceeding alongwith rigid lines. the natural speaker often uses some substitutes for necessary elusive word or phrase. For example. will you ? I had been in the party and I saw—what’s the name. ‘what’s the name’. Remember. handy. ‘things’. your speech won’t sound natural. it’s the time to experience the common types of imprecision and vagueness. E. you should cultivate the habit of using this knack because it makes you feel relaxed and tension–free while you speak English. In that case. without this type of imprecision and vagueness. My wife asked me to purchase that—what–do–you– call–it. it isn’t necessary that the right word or appropriate phrase may occur to you that is required by you for on–the–spot–speech–composition. He’s disposed off his Maruti and is buying a— what’s it. I came over here to buy some—things—cheeze. In such situations like nonavailability or non-occurrence of lexical items. Collect that one is lying on the table—what’s it. i. Because in most of the situations. Instead.e.174 | S. the words of language as distinct from its grammar and constructions. * Pronounce it as→ ‘whajjucollit’. your efforts to speak out in precise terms would sound pedantic. Henceforth.

There were 100 barrels in the store or near enough. For example.000. This pen can be used to write. washes the clothes and so forth. For example. draw. He got it for something like 10. There were something between 40 and 50 boys there. . sketch the picture and so on. He waters the plants. F. Number and Quantity To give natural touch to speech. speaker often creates approximation of duration. The park is some 100 yards away from here. The sweets weighed 20 kgs something.S. There were 25 chocolates or so in the packet. he summarise the list by using the phrases like ‘and so on’. number or quantity in his utterance or tends to instil an element of vagueness. people. namkins and everything. Geeta wanted five hundred rupees for it or as near as makes no difference. | 175 (b) Need of Listing Sometime there may be a lot of items to be described by the speaker. He gave her something over 1..000 rupees. He’s getting round about 3. (c) Insertion of Duration. In such situation. The seating capacity of this auditorium is 900 odd persons. She bought about 15 sarees. E. The discount was something below 25%. Because in the opinion of speaker. the presentation of that list may not be possible or may not be necessary. action etc. he doesn’t give a complete or exhaustive list. He sells audios. note books and things like this. When a speaker has to speak out a list of things. videos and the like.000 rupees. My grandfather is 85 years old give or take a few years. She collected her books. ‘and everything’. There were sweets. ‘and so forth’ etc.

Something Lincon was the president of U. Her name is Urmila something. Pankaj presented her a tunic or something. There was someone standing at the door. Ritu met with Gargi the other day.A. Radha left the party early for some reason or other. F. The workers in factory are somewhere between 200 and 250. Examine the following examples : Rahul is suffering from Malaria or something. things according to demand of context is also a common feature of spoken English. He met someone important person there. And . Has Kanha gone to Gokul or anywhere ? It isn’t in the safe or anywhere. A natural speaker of English makes an effective use of descriptions. Send one or other boy to pick it.S. Please give me one or other novel. They’ve lots of old books.176 | S. I entrusted the work to one or other officer there. He ate some pudding-like thing. My sister or someone waved me at the show. His mother expired some time two years back. The parcel was collected by Madhuri or someone. He opened one or other container. Where. qualities. They hadn’t bought the stationery or anything. Qualities etc. vaguely in his speech. Who Insertion of an element of uncertainty or vagueness into the concept of persons. They weren’t happy or anything. (e) About Descriptions. places. E. Did Razia or anyone dance there ? I didn’t see Mohan or anyone at the party. She gave him some pills and he swallowed them. Rajan was talking about something or other. (d) About What. etc. They joined the club somewhere around 1990.

He has a biggish tub. In the same way. He has a bullish face.S. For example. He is a teacher sort of. (f) About ‘Sort of’* The phrase ‘sort of ’ helps us to speak about descriptions or qualities vaguely. She was having a sort of packet. For example. you make the approximation as roughly or as partly correctness of the description. Ramesh has the womanish style of walk. Lata was feeling sort of giddiness. The colour of shirt is Yellowish-green. She’s a kittenish girl. i. ‘kind of ’ is often used in place of ‘sort of ’.. you convey the message that someone or something has the quality of person or thing named by that noun. By adding suffix ‘ish’ to the end of an adjective. By adding suffix ‘ish’ at the end of a noun. That was a sort of punishment. Anita showed me a tricky sort of picture. F. That boy has girlish attitude. By using this phrase. He presented a devilish idea. adding suffix ‘ish’ at the end of nouns and adjectives to make your speech effective and more natural. That looks like a fattish book. | 177 he adds the suffix ‘ish’ at the end of noun and adjectives. you should also use this trait. They were speaking in a sort of lisping accent. It was a sort of container. She is a shortish girl.e. E. He had a sort of girlish look. you convey the message that someone or something has the quality described by that adjective upto some extent. . It was a longish journey. For example. * In American English.

Understanding ‘You’ and ‘They’ Your speech generally refers to ‘people’ in general. even a highly-educated Englishman fumbles at the beginning of speech and feels uncomfortable to start an information unit. This is the reason that makes a speaker restless and he unconsciously repeats the initial words or syllable of his utterance. E. You can’t believe on his promise. For example. i. Breaking the Ice of Speech Impromptu or spontaneous speech. That’s why the trouble fails to unnerve the speakers. and words ‘you’ and ‘they’ help you to make your speech distinctively. on the other hand. utterance without any rehearsal has one more extra feature. I can’t—can’t come back till four. For example. How—how pretty she is ? What—what’s wrong with you ? A natural speaker doesn’t mind this type of starting trouble of speech. F. You must come alongwith your friends. I’m—I’m ready to do it. These speakers may face starting troubles at varying moments. They’re not trustworthy at all. They aren’t building the buildings this year. You can’t find a dedicated person now-a-days. They’ve raised the prices again. They’ll soon be reaching here. ‘They’ refers to people in general ‘other than yourself and the listener’. 10. Pay your attention : ‘You’ is used to refer to the people in general ‘including yourself and the listener’. They didn’t perform well this time. and they don’t feel any kind of perplexity. Because he knows that this is an integral part of speech. You can never think what he’ll speak next.e. . He gave—he gave me this piece of information..178 | S. This feature is that everybody. 11. You should be careful about it.

Silence breakers : well. hm. now. You can call a silence breaker as a discourse marker too. all right. look. Will she return it back till Monday ? Well—I’m not sure. ehm. now look. Well—I don’t want to make any comment. | 179 Therefore. To break the silence. Well—she has never sung it before. well now. there is no need to hesitate. no. The silence breakers cited above are infact empty words. F. right. mm. okay then. well then. . (2) Oh well The players are going to fight again. Besides.S. ah. now then. yes. I don’t think she would be able to sing it. all right then. eh. you should try to scrap or break the uncomfortable silence at the beginning of an information unit or at the start of speech. The students Gheraoed the Principal again. Well—shall I go now ? They told the show was a great success. if it rushes out from your mouth unconsciously. But these silence breaker words extend good help to crash your hesitation at the start of an utterance. Oh well—you can’t stop them to do so. Now examine the silence breakers or discourse markers one-by-one. and come forward to break the ice of spoken English. oh well. E. and their lexical meanings have no significance or relevance to the utterance of idea-units. right then. Oh well—it has become a normal feature now-adays. You shouldn’t try to avoid repeating any of the syllable or word. you can use any of the following sounds or silence breakers. (1) Well Well—thank you for your kind cooperation. Sounds : oh.

(5) Look Look—Ramesh.—right then. You must practise cricket for a week. All right—you can start it at your convenience. (4) Well then There were four ladies in the party. I’ll try to attend your marriage party—right then. Well now— don’t use any water yet. Now then—if its true. (7) Now look Now look—Why do you not try to do it ? Now look—We can start up our new project. Well then—one of them was Mukesh’s wife. Now—We don’t wish to lend any money to them. F. O.K. . Well now— don’t try to play other games during these days. First you finish your homework. Now then—they must make a definite programme. where did that go ? If they wish to sing here. you mustn’t quarrel again with your brother. (11) Right then We’ll see you again. Well then—you can takeup other job thereafter. it isn’t good to play all the time. (8) Now then He said he didn’t see her purse. Right—you can leave your luggage here. (3) Well now You should mix both of them together. (9) Right Right—let’s go now. (10) All right (alright) All right—write it if you can.180 | S. Look—Sangita. (6) Now Now—You can go now. E.

Oh—who would believe it. the programme is at six. (21) Hm Hm—I’ll try to come early. (18) Ah I’m really sorry for it. You can’t go now. E. He couldn’t qualify the test. Okay then—you can take up that new assignment. Ehm—I can’t believe on your story. F. (17) Oh He is going to gift us a bike. (19) Eh Eh—Raj. (14) Okay then Okay then—we decided to drop that plan. yes—but he is very honest. All right then—I am not ready to go there. Ah—forget it. (13) Okay Okay—will you show it again ? Okay—you can take this book. Eh—Bobby. She had won the first prize. (15) Yes* He is a dull fellow. * You can pronounce it as ‘YEAH’ in casual style. No—she’ll take it up only tomorrow. (20) Ehm Ehm—show me your new Jacket. No—you must finish it up first. yes—but she is very cunning. . | 181 (12) All right then All right then—what were they doing all. She is a smart girl. Oh—its really wonderful. (16) No She couldn’t have completed it. There were about ten of them.S. you’ve to come positively in my party. Ah—poor fellow.

E. ‘yes—well’. ‘mind you—ehm’. Spontaneous speech confers you the freedom of arranging your speech in various styles like (a) Topic– comment order. Mm—You aren’t that sort of boy. ‘eh—yes’. etc. i. (d) Addition of Afterthoughts. ‘yes— now’. You can make use of these discourse markers in your conversation as per the need or demand of the context. F. Chapter in Nutshell • Spontaneous speech making is an impromptu action. etc. There are some more silence breakers or discourse markers like ‘eh—look’. (b) Comment–topic order. (c) Appendages. ‘ehm—now then’. ‘well—you see’. Hm—why should I give you my new book ? (22) Mm Mm—It’s really a fantastic idea. preparation and organisation in advance. (e) Use of fragments. ‘well—ehm’.182 | S. and so on. thus. You can use the silence breakers or discourse markers as fillers too.. Comment clauses play the commendable role in composition as well as correction in spontaneous speech. speech without planning. ‘well—you know’. ‘now—eh’. ‘ehm—now then’. The Hallmark of spoken English is imprecision and vagueness. It’s the spontaneous speech that provides you better chances for (a) Self–correction. thus having uniqueness of makeshift improvisation—composition and speech of your idea-units simultaneously.. (b) Fronting. you’ve the appreciable freedom of speech.e. There’s no any hard and fast rule for application of them. (c) Repetition of References. • • • • .

Contextual droppings of words from the speech is a common and accepted feature of spoken English. (I) hope he’s doing well (there). sugar. Till now you have been in practice of enriching English— literally and linguistically by adding something that is called collectively as grammar. . Thus. We gifted 100 kg. And you were successful to make your English perfect on inscription or writing front. You were at the party. (I) said ‘no’. He’s in IIT. you’re free to shred off that extra bulge with the help of contextual drops. (You) looked like a saint. and the listener grasps the subjectmatter or message from the contexts.13 Beautify Your Speech with Drops Now it must be clear to you that there’s an apparent distinction between spoken English and written English. Bombay. (1) I–We–You–They–He–She–It Look at the following word-groups and the intended drops given within the brackets : Group 1. (We) thought he was Remo Fernandez. We saw a long-curly-haired boy. conveyance of message through speech doesn’t need any load of grammatical insistence. (We) believe it’s enough. She asked me if I was going. You were in the saffron dress. Let’s drop. And you know that during conversation. Now it’s the time to beautify your English speech not by adding something usual or unusual but by dropping something. whenever you experience any bulk in to be spoken message or deliverance. (You) looked very smart. context plays an important role. Therefore.

(I) ought to have a new pair of shoes. The behaviour you did. Both were here yesterday. How can I write on this paper. How can we be held responsible ? (We) haven’t done it. (It) barks loudly. (It) isn’t a smooth one. They’re not well. She saw the movie. . This watch has been smashed badly. He met with an accident. (It) costs him 38. (He) is not coming office today. She’s very lazy. How can she do this sum. Group 3. (He) wants some money. (They) can’t come over here now. Though they didn’t invited us in their party. (He) trusts everybody. (We) must invite them. Shopkeeper was cheating him. (They) won’t be able to sing. (They) looked very happy. The meeting is very important. I’ve to face the interview. (She) doesn’t know about Maths. He informed me. (She) told me (about it). Why has he sent it ? (I) haven’t asked for it. (I) must pay (it) now. (It) can’t be repaired. (They) wished to see me. She has an Alsatian (dog). Payment has become due. (We) ought to be at right time there. (He) won’t be able to play. Why should we come to your home ? (You) haven’t invited us.I called both of them. Where should we go ? (We) haven’t any proper address. They are disturbed now-a-days. (She) takes daily.000/rupees. Why I give him my book ? (I) don’t like him. (She) doesn’t take interest in any work. (You) wouldn’t expect too. She likes sweets. He purchased a Hero Honda. Group 2. He is coming tomorrow.

They always make a fun of others. Ciello is sold heavily. He has come late again. I’ve already recommnded them.. Had are also not dropped alone. (They) used to be my class-fellows. These words are required to be dropped alongwith naming words. (They are) very naughty boys. (She) may be doing something. ‘She’ and ‘It’. ‘They’. (She is) really a loveable child. 2. (You) ought to be well dressed. (They were) poor peasants. Am–Is–Are–Was–Were These words are not dropped alone. 3. (She) used to take the milk. Where may she be ? (I am) eager to see her. I can’t wait too much ? (I am) in hurry. (He) ought to have got up early in the morning. Your dress is very dirty. For example. You can drop these words alongwith ‘I’. I–We–You–They–He–She–It. I’ll start in the early morning. Has–Have–Had Has. Have. i. ‘He’. She didn’t listen you. (They were) very gentle fellows. (It) ought to be fine vehicle then. Where is that girl who lived here ? (She was) a very innocent girl. (He) must be very careful about his study. ‘We’. He played cricket nicely. ‘You’. They’ll positively be here by 2 O’clock. Can you tell me where he is ? (He has) left for Sydney. (They) must approached too. (He is) very dull chap. She ate a little food. They used to come here very often. (They are) anxious to see you. For example. Everyone likes her.We won’t wait for long. I know them well. He wouldn’t pass his exam. . (He was) a dedicated player. Did you see it ? (It) must be good.e. Somebody looked them last night. (You) must come early.

They won’t be coming in party. He is in hurry to go to Delhi. please go now. For example. ‘He was’. (You have) completed it by now. ‘She is’. ‘That was’. Shall–Will The twins—‘Shall and will’ can also be dropped. (She is an) extra-ordinary artist. (She has) shifted to other colony. For example. they were away for two months. (We shall) try to solve it. ‘They are’. (They are the) busiest executives. Last week. (They will) bring parcel with them. ‘She was’. They’ll come back tomorrow. (He will) meet you next day. . Have you seen the Taj ? (It is a) beautiful building. I’m very busy. ‘They were’. ‘It is’. Last year. Please pick it for me. 4. (I shall) call you later on. I couldn’t use my scooter. Do you know that boy ? (He is a) very naughty boy. (I shall) return it to you after that. I need it for practical exams. What’s the progress of work. but they can be dropped alongwith I–We–You–They–He– She–It. ‘It was’. ‘An’ and ‘The’. (They had) gone for training to Dehradun. She has finished her work. (This is a) tool of mine. ‘That is’. My sister has painted it. ‘That will’. (That is a) good picnic spot too. Though it’s a difficult problem. I think.She isn’t living here now. I know that girl. A–An–The During conversation. you can drop even ‘A’. (She will) write the letter now. (I have) met her somewhere. I hope. You’re going to zoo. 5. ‘This was’. ‘He is’. (It had) broken down. But these elements are usually dropped with and including ‘This is’.

Did you see the cutlery lying in the cupboard. you know. (That was the) useless absolutely. 6. . (This was an) unattractive building once. Would you please come tomorrow. For example. 1993 and 1994. We couldn’t recognised them. Have a look and see how you can do so. There It’s the real beauty of English speech that during your conversation. That was one of the best music systems till then. (There have been) no competitor to beat that. You’ll certainly get it. (They were the) Hockey Champions of Hero Cup. Yesterday night a man met with an accident. I saw a beautiful girl yesterday. (She was a) nice dancer. I saw her dance yesterday. You must see tomorrow’s programme. how you can drop the ‘There’. (That will be) very exciting one. I heard my brother’s scream. (There was) a Cobra in his bag. I was selected for that only post. (There were) more than 50 interviewees. The programme was a great success. Dropping of Words from Questions You can unload your questions too and can relieve your organs of speech by drops. (There will be a) musical programme here. 7. (It was an) unforgettable performance. Now you see. Please wait for a moment. (He was an) honourable member of society. (There is) something I want to give you. (There has been) no any problem so far. you have the liberty to drop something.The palace has renovated completely. (There are) so many shops here.

• By dropping the words in right perspective. • Dropping of words gives required continuity to your speech and helps you to keep up the flow of idea-units. you won’t sound like bookish and pedantic. dropping the words given in brackets. Group 1.Things to Remember • Dropping of words is a very common feature in day-today-conversation by a natural speaker of English. (Is) she ready ? (Is) he really coming today ? (Are) you angry with me ? (Are) they fighting with each other ? (Was) he at the station ? (Was) she at the top of merit list ? (Were) you in the market ? (Were) they studying properly ? (Does) he like to eat it ? (Does) she want this pen ? (Do) you have to go now ? (Do) we have to finish it ? (Did) he ask her something about ? (Did) she buy it yesterday ? (Has) he sold it to you ? (Has) she written it ? (Have) you received the offer ? (Have) they constructed the corridor ? (Had) she finished sewing ? (Had) they forgotten their promises ? (Will) he visit here again ? (Will) she marry him ? (Shall) I be able to get this contract ? (Shall) we succeed in our effort ? . • Read the word-groups aloud.

isn’t he ? (She is) crying badly. weren’t you ? (We were) listening quietly. aren’t we ? (He is an) efficient mechanic.At the time of dropping. aren’t we ? (He is) his real brother. isn’t he ? * In spoken English and during droppings. (I am) little fatter. wasn’t he ? (She was) dancing efficiently. wasn’t she ? (You were) singing well. aren’t they ? (We are a) prominent business guild. . weren’t we ? (I am a) laborious boy. you are required to note that you should drop grammatical auxiliary verbs alongwith ‘I’ and ‘It’ in the following manner. Say (Am I) late ? Dont say (Am) I late ? (Is it a) pen ? (Is) it a pen ? Group 2. isn’t it ? (He was) trying hard to win her friendship. aren’t they ? (We are) very tired now. use of ‘aren’t I’ is a very common practice. isn’t she ? (It is) going to waste. aren’t I* ? (They are) very fond of it. aren’t I ? (They are a) large group. Why are you not paying attention to me ? (Am I) saying something improper ? What are you doing ? (Are you) silly ? She wanted to marry him ? (Was she) serious about it ? What did they say ? (Is it) important ? He wanted to eat chocolates ? (Has he) had any ? They wanted to go somewhere ? (Have they) left ? Why have you come back ? (Is it) raining ? How did she take ? (Did she) ask about it ? Do you want to read it ? (Shall I) give it tomorrow ? I wish to have like this one ? (Will it be) available here? Group 3.

doesn’t he ? (She) went to see movie yesterday. wasn’t he ? (She was an) extra-ordinary swimmer. didn’t I ? (They) didn’t clean the floor. isn’t she ? (It was an) excellent flower-show. has she ? (You have) spilled the milk. (You) won’t have any problem. weren’t you ? (We were the) most exploited workers of the factory. (Does) any one need this magazine ? (Are they) afraid of flies ? (Do you) wish to have it ? (Are you) not feeling well ? (Is) she really sick ? (Is there) any problem ? . didn’t she ? (It) doesn’t make any difference. don’t we ? (He) plays video games daily. (My) back is paining. (He) says his brother is an IAS. you couldn’t succeed. (It is) no wonder the car wouldn’t start. weren’t we ? (I) showed my inability to come. wasn’t it ? (He was a) well–mannered chap. (I’m) going to buy some books. does it ? (He has) broken my pen. did they ? (We) read newspaper everyday. (It is) pity on you. haven’t you ? (We) haven’t a single piece of cloth. hasn’t he ? (She) hasn’t completed her course. wasn’t she ? (You were the) leader of your school. (The) box is there. (A) friend of mine is coming. have we ? Group 4.(She is a) good singer. (Be) careful with that hot iron. (There is) no sign of rain now. (It) must be very cold in Leh. (It) seems right.

and There. It is the beauty of English that provides an apportunity to do so. but you can beautify your spoken English even by some drops too. I-We-You-They-He-She-It. can be the extra bulge in your spoken English which requires to be shredded. HasHave Had. Shall-Will.(Are) these enough ? (Have you) met Neena ? (Have you) any problem ? (Is there) anything in the bag ? (Does) anybody wish to have it ? (Has) she got enough money ? (Are you) searching for anything ? (Do you) feel thirsty ? (Have you) waited for long ? (Have) they got any doubt ? (Is) she listening attentively ? Chapter in Nutshell • • Though adding something makes your English effective. Am-Is-Are-Was-Were. . A-An-The.

Sometime they may fail to ask a question at the spur of moment. But where at ? To start the conversation. And most of the conversations start with it. What do you say ? You still feel some trouble. The absence of good hands to frame and to ask questions without hassle and faltering is a big barrier in smooth flow of speech. those keep you in continuous conversation. These are the questions.14 The Final Touch In the preceding chapters. and you would have been successful in keeping your speech-fluency up. it’s really troublesome to have problem in starting conversation. Yes. For example. And do you know why even some of the highly qualified persons are not fluent conversationalists. I believe now that you won’t be tongue-tied in English conversation. we’ve missed a very important point to discuss. . and it pretends that they’ve nothing to ask further. What’s your good name ? What’s your father ? Where do you live ? etc. you met with almost knacks of spoken English. This situation compelled them to keep mum for some time. Generally. Right. That is framing up of the Speech Driving Statements. The main reason is : Those people find it difficult to frame questions instantly during conversation. you called these statements as Questions. But the fact is that they may not be able to frame the line of interrogation and to ask the questions to exchange their ideas to keep them in conversation properly.

‘whom’ is not used in questions of this kind. | 193 Now you just try to recall your school days and classsessions. To have the skill in this knack of conversation. Therefore. it’s indispensable to train your organs of speech to utter the interrogative wordgroups.S. you are required to sharpen now the art of designing interrogative structures. they were putting some questions before you to answer them. . F. And to examine your learning and comprehension. while there were very few chances for you to design the questions. That was the main reason that you couldn’t find enough opportunities to involve yourself in hands-on interrogation. What you were doing thereat ? Your teachers were used to teach you. E. Who* can I ask about this ? How can we eat such stuff ? Where shall we put the book ? Are they awaken yet ? Can I trouble you for a moment ? What can be happened to us ? Have you been there long ? What’s the name of that boy in Red shirt ? What’s the diamond-ring worth ? Who’s to blame ? What do you dislike most about this place ? Can I speak to Anoop. Let’s examine the following common question frames and read them aloud. please ? How did her explanation strike you ? What’s worrying you now ? What do you need from me ? How soon will it be finished ? What do they do (for their livelihood) ? * In spoken English. Group 1. And also you couldn’t earn this unique knack of conversational trend. you had good opportunities and scope to frame the answers. Thus.

Can you let us know about the programme ? Would you mind open the door ? Was that your car I saw ? Did he have any luck ? Will you be coming round evening ? Where’ll she be this time next week ? What if I don’t do it ? What shall we do about this parcel ? Is there any chance of your getting a promotion now ? Do you mean to tell them she doesn’t know it ? Do you know who that man is ? Where’ll I put this bag ? How many times did they come here ? Are you afraid of the dark ? What sweet do you like most ? Can I have another try ? Do you realise that you’ve done a great mistake ? Who is that boy over there ? How long has he been waiting ? Have you got any idea why she refused to reply ? How did they come to lose it ? Is he the boy you told me about ? Could I ask a few questions ? Anybody for more Coffee ? Is she back yet ? Do you mind if I go early ? When’ll you make up your mind ? Is it alright (okay) to sign here ? Whose fault was that ? Did they win ? What’s the news ? Did you have to tell everything to them ? Are you going or not ? .194 | S. F. E.

S. | 195 Group 2. Does this style suit her ? What’s on her mind ? Have you read anything interesting today ? What do you advise me to do in this matter ? Is it okay to send it by Skypak (courier) ? What suggestions would you like to make ? How did your winter vacations go ? Have they got a light ? What do you think she is doing ? Can I talk to him for sometime ? Were you surprised to see her ? Was Manish to blame for it ? How good a doctor is he ? How soon do you want it ? What’ll you wear ? Would you agree with that attitude ? Do you like her style ? Where does Suman live ? What was to be done ? Who is it for ? Have they made up their mind to go for picnic ? What’re the particular advantages of this ? What salary do you expect ? How is she finding the new house ? What is to be done ? What were the tests like ? Have they finished the work ? Whose side is he on ? How’s life ? Do you think he has forgotten ? Can I have my suit pressed ? Can I get something to drink ? What size is the dining table ? Whose dress do you think looks sober ? Can you make any good suggestion ? . F. E.

E. What’s the nature of your job ? Could you describe that incidence for me ? What business is it of theirs ? How can I learn to swim ? What does she expect to achieve by this nuisance ? Do you have to paint yourself ? Does it mean you think differently ? What is it about ? Have you got anything for fever ? Have you decided what to do ? Did any of them go there ? Does he sell sweets ? When does she want it back ? Can I give you a piece of advice ? What kind of lady would you say she is ? Group 3. Where did they meet ? When did he last write ? Who is she marrying ? Who did they come with ? Can you delay it a bit longer ? How long is the hall ? Do you require anything ? May I make a point about this offer ? Can you help me with your recommendation ? What I do better than you ? What shall I do with this broken pen ? How tall would you say that man is ? Do you want more sugar for your tea ? Where are you off to now ? What would you do if you had a millian rupees ? Can you spare a few moments for me ? Do you want to invite them ? How do you like this place ? Are there any fruits in the basket ? What height is the room ? .196 | S. F.

if I take a bus ? What do you think of that fridge ? What qualities do you think a manager should have ? Could you let me know where that is available ? What do you think of this ? Is he here yet ? Why hasn’t he had a taxi ? How long will this take ? What has he been doing since he resigned ? How do you like this season ? What’s your view on her decision ? What time is best ? Would you like to buy one more ? What are you going to tell them ? How early did he get there ? Are you free this Sunday ? Where can she have gone ? Group 4. E.S. | 197 Can you change me a 50-rupee note ? Who does she plan to go with ? When did you go to college ? Did you hear any strange voice ? Is it worth buying ? Is something the matter ? If you’re not too busy could I ask you to do it ? Just what are they objecting to ? Any time to spare day after tomorrow ? Do you like your coffee with or without sugar ? Why not discuss it with me ? Which seat should I sit in—this or that ? Which would be the better—this or that ? What time will I be in Delhi. F. Is your typewriter in working order ? Do you think they are serious ? What is she afraid of ? Can I pay by cheque for it ? Can you imagine what she might do ? .

Had he been there ? Could I have made a mistake ? How early did you get there ? What do you like to do on holidays ? Do you read comics in your spare time ? What’s your opinion on this ? Who does he work for ? Can I have it for two weeks ? Can it be Priyanka ? Could you give me more tea ? Who paid for the lunch ? What magazine do you read ? Why argue with her ? Anything else to be done ? How much will you charge for dry-cleaning ? What do they charge ? Is anybody in the room ? What was it like in London ? Can you think of any way of doing that ? Who has got it wrong ? Do you know of an eye-specialist around here ? Isn’t it a horrible waste of time ? Who can be that on the line ? What are the alternatives ? Do you own a bike ? Have you got time to visit there ? Who would like to begin ? How about asking him ? If you know the answer.198 | S. F. why didn’t you speak up ? What time will you come ? Shall I go now ? Have you ever seen a white Tiger ? Can you hear me ? Could you wait a little longer ? Can you come for a drink tomorrow ? Can you recommend a good hotel in Hyderabad ? Who keeps the keys ? . E.

what would you do ? Are these guavas ? How would you feel if you were ignored ? Have you heard anything about her ? Did anybody call me ? Do you think she is going to be elected the mayor ? What’s the point of inviting her. if you were me ? What kind of furniture is that ? How many passengers does this taxi take ? Have you got any brothers or sisters ? How do you use to take notes in the class ? Have you anything to say ? Can you prove that I am wrong ? Whose pen is this ? Is she inside ? Are you there ? Did you all go straight to party afterwards ? Which of these three would you choose ? Would you mind switching the fan off ? How do you start this drill ? What are the office hours ? What would you advise ? Supposing it’s blowing hard. | 199 What would happen if I refused to obey ? How many people was he able to meet ? Would you like me to help you with this ? Is that all ? Won’t her father be angry ? What date is today ? Would you like to start now ? Isn’t it rather expensive ? Group 5. How’ll you deal with this matter ? How long do you want her to stay ? Are they ready yet ? Which would you choose. F.S. if she won’t come ? What do you call that one you use to shine your shoes ? . E.

F. What’s her attitude towards it ? Where has she been all this time ? Did you count your change ? Haven’t you always wanted to go to Ooty ? Have you been to Bangalore recently ? Who’s the best person to ask ? What got her to change her mind ? What explanation do you give for it ? Would you get me some oranges on your way back ? Which’s your seat ? How did he get on ? How was he looking ? Do you think you could help them with this ? Is there enough food-grains ? Is there any vacant seat ? Why not wear a shirt ? Do you feel like taking a bath ? Who is behind all these disturbances ? Is there anything they want ? Could you help me with the cleaning up ? Is it customary to do like this ? Now what do you have to do ? Is she very bright ? Group 6.200 | S. E. Who would know about such matters ? Have you any objection ? Are you with us or against us ? Where does he come from ? When can you let us have it back ? Are you certain he cried ? Why were you smelling that ? Any ideas for the holidays ? What programme you have for the weekend ? Is it an out-of-the-way place ? Seen any good movie during last week ? Is she badly hurt ? Was there any person there ? .

| 201 When can you do it for me ? What would you have done.S. if you were in the same situation ? Is that the reason he failed ? What’s the paper today ? What’re the today’s plans ? What’s behind all that number ? What did you think of her speech ? Do you like jogging ? How did the fire start ? Will this question-bank do ? Will you assist me check the accounts ? Are you for or against this proposal ? What would you prefer to do ? Why so serious ? Is she well known ? What’re you doing this Sunday ? How much do you want for this house ? Can he do some shopping for me ? Who’re there ? Have you any money with you ? Can you come tomorrow ? Is there anyone who doesn’t like it ? How much did you get for it ? Is it true that he is transferred ? Do you think that they were right ? Was she surprised ? Who told you we were short of money ? What’s so special about it ? Would you prefer to sit here or inside ? How does she find it ? What sort of picnic did they have ? Does he always get angry ? Has she telephoned yet ? Could you stick to this point please ? How about six O’clock ? Could you talk a bit more quietly ? Are you free or busy ? . F. E.

Things to Remember • • To Speak English Fluently. don’t try hard to use very new or extra-ordinary word-groups at this stage. † To read aloud. And the little knack is ‘enough use of phrases’. There is no need to learn them by heart. Never try to go after colourful expressions and structures you see in the news papers. please refer to ‘The world of Idioms and Phrases’. and try out to find the contexts to use them accordingly.202 | S. Account for = to explain the cause of Act on = to exert influence on Act out = to play as an actor * For detailed study of phrases.* Yes. Given herebelow is the list of selected phrasal verbs. by using phrasal verbs. Always speak in small structures or in chunks. Just go through them. And create or look for contexts or situations to use them. Select about 20 questions from this chapter or frame your own questions every day. Always speak in spoken English and avoid speaking in written English. published by Upkar Prakashan. books or you hear over the radio or TV. Your confidence can be puffed up with the help of one very little knack. • • Things to Do • • • Think of the contexts or situations in which you can frame the questions and can use them in your day-today conversation. . and try to avoid very lengthy word-groups or idea-units. you can succeed to give an extra lustre to your speech fluency. Go through them carefully and ‘read out’† them. to convey your message effectively to the listener. Let Yourself Boost an Extra Confidence You are required to boost up your confidence now. E. F. Speak English Fluently the Rhythtech way to ensure your success.

F. to restore from illness . to fail completely to enter violently. escape to collapse. to interrupt to detach by breaking. end suddenly to have no further relation with to get out by breaking. in tears.S. Act up Answer back Answer for Ask after Ask for Back away Back down Back out Back up Bargain for Bear out Bear up Bear with Blow down Blow out Blow over Blow up Boil over Break away Break down Break in Break off Break off with Break out Break through Break up Bring about Bring back Bring in Bring off Bring out Bring over Bring round = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = | 203 to behave badly to reply arrogantly to be responsible for to enquire about health to invite trouble to reverse away to abandon one’s opinion or position to move out backwards to give support to to expect to corroborate to keep up one’s spirits to make allowance for to knock down to extinguish by blowing to pass away. as a storm to lose one’s temper to spill-over after boiling to go away. E. to put before the public to convert to win over. destroy or upset completely to cause to happen to return something to introduce something to achieve to make clear. to burst into speech to overcome an obstacle to disintegrate.

to demand repayment of to abandon. to rebuke to ask loudly for. to telephone again to visit in passing to invoke. = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = to bring into contact to rear or educate. e. to vomit to ignore. to gain. to cause the death of. to quarrel or disrupt to interrupt to fix or close by doing up buttons.204 | S. to transport to behave. scolding etc. to have an affair Bring together Bring up Brush off Brush up Build up Burst in Burst out Burst up But in Button up Buy off Buy over Call away Call back Call by Call down Call for Call in Call of Call on Call out Call over Call round Call up Care about Care for Carry away Carry it Carry off Carry on . to look after to deprive of self-control by exciting the feelings. demean oneself. to require to visit. dismiss to clean and tidy. to renew one’s knowledge of to create. to cancel to make a short visit. F. E. to ready for action to get rid of by paying to bribe to summon to carry on another activity to visit again. acquire. to appeal to to challenge to fight a duel to read aloud (a list) to visit casually to summon. to mobilise to be concerned to attend.g. to demand.. to win to continue. consolidate to enter suddenly into a room or into conversation to start violently into.

to search for to waste. flush to happen to be understood. by slashing with a razor. to grapple with to make untidy by cluttering or crowding with many things to blush. to turn to one’s advantage to look about. to injure a person esp. to explain. to turn up to comprehend. to complete a task to postpone to next occassion to continue a building upward to remove to divide. to wreck to revert to deject. F. to turn downward to reject to quarrel to throw up. to meet or find by chance to provide . to come to stoppage of work to accede to. to make or to become clear to give up business. to accept . dispose of to empty.S. to become popular to detect in error or deceit to draw level and sometime over-take to pursue for a purpose to arrive at a hotel to give up one’s room and leave a hotel to inspect carefully to examine or verify to get rid of. Carry out Carry over Carry up Cart off Carve up Cash in on Cast about Cast away Cast back Cast down Cast off Cast out Cast up Catch on Catch out Catch up Chase up Check in Check out Check over Check up Clear off Clear out Clear up Close down Close with Clutter up Colour up Come about Come across = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = | 205 Come across with = to accomplish. a drawer etc. E.

to turn out. to befall Come round = to retain consciousness. to affect. e.g. to proceed. in Come down = to descend. to supress Come at Come by . to become of Come off = to come away. to arrive in order to collect Come forward = to identify oneself Come high = to cost much Come low = to cost little Come of = to descend from. to meet Count for = to signify Count in = to include Count on = to rely on Count out = to exclude Count up = to find out the total Crack a joke = to utter a joke with some effect Crack down on = to take firm action against. to amount to. E. to thrive. to rebuke Come down with = to become ill with (a disease) Come for = to attack.. to obtain. to exclaim Come over = to surpass. to pay up Come on = to advance. to be faced with a problem Come upon = to attack. = to attack. Come down upon = to punish. on T. to recover consciousness Come true = to be fulfilled Come up against = to encounter.g. Come out = to result. to become known Come out with = to say. to come near. to be published. F. to appear e. prices etc. to visit casually Come round to = to begin to accept or appreciate Come short = to fail Come short of = to fail to attain Come to = to obtain. to reach = to pass.. to be reduced. to utter.V.206 | S.

to kill = to murder.g. to fail suddenly. E. to make an end of. to cheat = to suit. to ruin. to beat up .. = to curtail. e. to stop flow of supplies. F. to interrupt = to disconnect. to give up a habit = to abridge. = to shape.g. to part with. to go to pieces = to delete from a list etc. to provide for. to take action in regard to = to work hard = to take a share = to settle what is to be done with. to destroy = to act towards = to put down. = to decry = to withdraw from an agreement = to call upon = to be in urgent or obvious need of = to praise = to take shorter way = to reduce. = to interpose. to silence by interruption = to cut into pieces.S.. Crack up Cross out Cry down Cry off Cry on Cry out for Cry up Cut across Cut back Cut down Cut in Cut off Cut out Cut short Cut up Dab on Deal in Deal with Dig in Dip in Dispose of Do away with Do by Do down Do for Do in Do out of Do over | 207 = to praise. to reduce. to deceive = to deprive = to do again. to criticise severally = to apply in small quantities = to do business or trade = to have to do with. e. to sell = to abolish. to debar. communication etc. to exhaust. expenses etc. expenses etc.

to pull on to leave the place. to slow down and stop. to come to an end. to accept the challenge to laugh hysterically to meet by chance Do up Do well Do with Do without Draw in Draw on Draw out Draw up Dream up Drop across Drop away Drop back Drop by Drop down Drop in Drop off Drop out Dry up Eat away Eat in Eat out Egg on End up Face out Face upto Fall about Fall across . often unrealistically to come across to visit to depart.. car etc. to consume. to stop to plan in the mind. to be justified to make use of. e. in casually to fall asleep.208 | S. move or row down a coast to come. by). to lose inspiration to destroy gradually to corrode. to redecorate to prosper. from an academic course to stop talking. E. usually unsatisfactory to carry off by bold looks to face. F. to become shorter.g. to meddle with to dispense with. = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = to fasten up. to withdraw esp. use up to eat in a restaurant to encourage to finish (with. to approach. not to be dependent on to reduce. set etc. contract. disappear to fall behind in performance to visit casually to sail. fall. to take money out of Bank account to prepare a written statement. to diminish to disappear from one’s place.

by addition of more = to conclude. to add what is necessary to complete = to fill to the full. to grow lean. to die away = to begin eagerly. decide for = to arrange. to elaborate on (an idea etc. attend to = to give substance to. to go over to the enemy = to fail. bored. e.) = to waste = to aim high. repel = to act as a temporary substitute.).g. to meet = to quarrel = to go to sleep. E. to dwindle.S. come to nothing = to begin hastily. F. to begin to eat = to be tired. to get in arrears = to fail completely = to be taken in by (a trick etc. to comply with = to deteriorate. give way = to depend on for support = to lag behind. to be duped by = to concur or agree with. depressed = to be in the mood for = to feel equal to. to settle. to kill = to seek = to single out. or capable of = to supress or restrain. to waste away = to retreat.. to perish. to put to rights. to make an attempt. Fall away Fall back Fall back on Fall behind Fall flat Fall for Fall in with Fall off Fall on Fall out Fall over Fall through Fall to Fed up Feel like Feel up to Fight down Fight off Fill in Fill up Finish off Fish for Fix on Fix up Flesh out Fling away Fly high Fly open | 209 = to decline gradually. be ambitious = to open suddenly or violently . an emotion = to resist.

to end in failure Follow out = to carry out Follow up = to pursue an advantage closely Get about = to travel. go visiting. F. to make contact by phone Get through with = to finish completely with a feeling of relief Get together = to meet for social intercourse or discussion Fold up . to remove clothes.. talk over. attain.. e. to complete. to join Get off = to escape. to escape Get over = to recover from. convey away Get away with = to pull something off. succeed Get through = to finish. escape. to learn. to be mobile and active Get across = to communicate successfully Get ahead = to make progress. to put on clothes Get out = to leave. to go unpunished Get back at = to have one’s revenge on Get by = to succeed in passing. to circumvent Get round to = to bring oneself to do (something) Get there = to achieve one’s object. to depress Get in = to come in. to agree. to survive Get down = to alight. to prosper.210 | S. E. advance.g. to surmount Get round = to persuade. = to make smaller by folding. advance Get along = to get on Get at = to reach. to pass a test. a room etc. to gain the affection of someone of the opposite sex with Get on = to proceed. to attack verbally Get away = to leave.

believed or accepted (with pleasure). neglected = to enter. a smell = to report. to assemble regularly = to make a practice of. to retire = to attack vigorously = to betray. F. Get up Give away Give back Give ear Give forth Give in Give off Give out Give over Give up Go about Go ahead Go along with Go aside Go at Go back on Go by Go down | 211 Go down with Go far Go for Go hang Go in Go in for Go it Go off Go on = to rise from bed. base judgement on = to sink. to withdraw. to fetch = to forgotten. to achieve success = to assail. to prepare = to give for nothing. e. = to continue. to hand in something = to emit.g. support = to err. fail to keep (promise. to continue = to agree with. to be swallowed. to seek = to proceed at once. to decline. to publish. go bad. to take part in = to act in a striking or dashing manner = to leave. to proceed. to stop doing = to pass from place to place.. etc. to cease = to abandon. milk etc. to set out to secure. to behave. depart. to arrange. E.) = to pass by. to fare . to expatiate = to yield. to distribute to individuals = to transfer. e. to emit. to surrender.. to restore = to listen (to) = to emit.S.g. to betray = to return. surrender. to fail to fulfil one’s contract = to contract (an illness) = to go long way.

group or generation Hand out = to distribute. = to approach = to stop burning. to pass in review Go through = to perform to the end. to become unfashionable Go over = to revise. or ruined. F. result from. to grip firmly Hang out = to display. accord with Go without = to manage without Grow on = to gain a greater hold on Grow out of = to issue from. to loiter. to be slow in taking effect Hang off = to let go. come to (of milk) Grow up = to advance in growth. persist Hang back = to show reluctance Hang fire = to hesitate. to relinquish possession of Hang about = to wait idly. to recall. to hold off Hang on = to wait. to restore Hand in = to give in. E. to agree with.212 | S. to spring up Hammer down = to fix down with nails by hammering Hammer in = to fix in by hammering Hammer out = to remove out by hammering Hand back = to return.. to increase. to lodge or reside Go on for Go out . price Go with = to accompany. to die Go up = to ascend. to examine in order. as a sign. to become too big for Grow to = to advance to. to offer Hand over = to transfer. to be erected.g. to perform successfully Go through with = to complete Go under = to become submerged. to stay. e. or submit by hand Hand on = to pass to next person.

to offer = to postpone. to mislead = to have extracted or removed = to call to account before a court of justice etc. to speak in public = to restrain. to take in. to restrain. last. supress = to keep at a distance = to persist in something = to endure.S. e. to tease. to single out = to strike out. check. often by chance. to bring to expose. to exceed in any way. with the fist = to withhold. to replace a telephone receiver. strike in again = to find. to deceive. Hang over Hang tough Hang up Have in Have it Have on Have out Have up Hear of Hear out Hit back Hit it Hit on Hit out Hold back Hold by Hold forth Hold in Hold off Hold on Hold out Hold over Hold up | 213 = to project over or lean out from = to stay resolute or determined = to delay. E. to get punishment = to wear. to hesitate = to believe in = to put forward. to stop . to break of communication = to have people in one’s home. esp. devise. to suspend. = to listen to = to listen (to some one) until he has said all he wishes to say = to resist actively. to keep possession of (land or house beyond the term of agreement) = to raise. to ehxibit..g. to have as an appointment. visitors = to prevail. F. to keep back. to show. to continue resistance. to endure. the right answer = to come upon. discover.

to deduct. to steal. to restrain to stay away or refrain from to continue to stick closely. to fell with a blow. F. loaf about to drink. more difficult round to persist in anything to cause to stay at a distance. to remain low to abstain from. to construct or arrange hastly Hunt out Hush up Idle away Join in Join issue Join up Jumble together = Jump at = Jump off Keep at Keep back Keep down Keep from Keep in Keep off Keep on Keep to Keep up Knock about Knock back Knock down Knock off Knock out Knock up = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = . to overcome. E. to participate to begin to dispute to link together. to confine oneself to to retain one’s strength or spirit. to connect. to be worn out. to overwhelm with amazement. to weary out. to remain away from to prevent from escaping. eat.214 | S. to withhold to restrain. = = = = = = to seek out to be silent. eagerness to complete in another. to repress. admiration etc. compound to accept with enthusiasm. prevent from falling. to cost to demolish. demolish. to support. to suppress to waste (time) to take part. to kill to dislodge by a blow. to maintain in good condition to mistreat physically. to unite to mix. to rouse by knocking. to saunter. to conceal. to reduce in price to stop (work).

to dismiss one as unimportant = to treat as of no importance = to discard. to deposit. get amused about. cigarette etc. to confine to bad or one’s room = to begin or take the start in anything = to persuade to go on. to formulate = to install a supply of. as a pledge. to plan. or with = to allow to remain = to desist. to draw on = to prepare for by steps or stages. to play in challenge to. . = to mock. pipe. to lower = to drop = to allow to enter = to allow to go free or without exacting all = to allow to be believed. to preserve. to abate = to light one’s lamp. to pretend. pressure etc. to fall = to store up. to expend. to reveal = to allow to get free or to become known = to become less. to terminate. exclude = to allow to fall. Knuckle down Knuckle under Laugh at Laugh off Lay aside Lay at Lay by Lay down Lay on Lay out Lay up Lead off Lead on Lead up to Leave in Leave off Leave on Leave out Let down Let fall Let in Let off Let on Let out Let up Light up | 215 = to set oneself to hardwork = to yield to authority. E. to dismiss = to give up. to put apart for future use = to endeavour to strike = to save.S. to provide = to display. to keep for future use. F. to give up using = to allow to stay in place or position = to omit.

appear. to inspect closely Look out = to show. = to survive. to admire Lose out = to suffer loss or disadvantage. to be watchful. to escape Make off with = to run away with Make on = to make much of Live down Live for Live on . to hold in contempt Look for = to search for Look forward to = to anticipate with pleasure Look in = to visit. to consider. F. to favour Make it = to reach an objective. to fail to acquire something desired Make down = to turn down the sheets and blankets of Make for = to set out for. to inspect Look through = to look over. to expect Look at = to examine. E. refer to. seek to reach. to look for and select Look over = to examine cursorily. to over look or pass over Look round = to visit.V. to seek. to make a short call. to improve Look up to = to feel respect or veneration for. to survive. to become a success Make off = to decamp. Look into = to investigate. to scan Look up = to search for.216 | S. to manage to forget = to attach great importance to = to live by feeding upon. to continue Live through = to undergo a period of strain Live up to = to rule one’s life in a manner worthy of Loaf about = to idle around Look after = to take care of. to watch T. to inspect Look down on = to despise.

to upset. to expand. to repair. to put together. to comprehend. to encounter = to potter about. to disclose. to unpack. to seek to make it appear. to develop = to open completely. to behave in a foolish or annoying way. to spoil. to complete.S. to omit. receive as recruits = to discharge from service = to fall asleap = to allow to vote by proxy (in Parliament) = to begin to shoot = to make or become more widely open. to arrange. to unfasten = to come to an end. esp. understand. to draw up. E. to prepare by mixing thoroughly = to enroll. to elapse . F. to prove. to die. unexpectedly. by chance or with an arrangement = to come to or upon. to feign. to achieve. to become friends again. speak frankly. to compensate = to meet. to parcel. to transfer = to fabricate. to fill up. disturb = to make a mess of. to collect. to miss completely. to fail to take part = to fight forcefully = to involve. to confuse = to lose. Make out | 217 Make out of Make over Make up Meet up Meet with Mess about Mess up Miss out Mix it Mix up Muster in Muster out Nod off Nod through Open fire Open out Open up Pass away = to descry. to be confused. go off. to succeed = to interpret (a situation or statement) = to remake. supplement. reconstruct.

to detach and remove = to single out. to palm off.. F. to have nothing to do with = to pay in return (a debt). to impose fraudulently = to go forward. to learn or acquire without difficulty = to run ashore. to faint = to undergo.g. experience = to renounce. = to move. to bear the expense = to contribute to a fund. go beyond or past. floor etc. to deposit money in a bank account = to pay in full and discharge. e. to locate. to carp at. to disburse = to turn the ship’s head = to pay in full. as rope.218 | S. to confine. E. to take revenge upon. pain. to complete military training. distinguish. to accumulate = to secure with a pin. to ignore or overlook = to be mistaken for or accepted as = to disappear gradually. to proceed. to recover after an illness. justify itself = to cause to run out. to go off. to give tit for tat = to make amends for. to nag at = to make out. to pay arrears = to find fault with = to select from a number and shoot. trap in a position Pass by Pass for Pass off Pass on Pass through Pass up Pay back Pay for Pay in Pay off Pay out Pay round Pay up Pick at Pick off Pick on Pick out Pick over Pick up Pile up Pin down . to die. limit. to suffer for. restrict. to pluck out = to go over and select = to lift from the ground. to yield good results.

E. to set aside Put back = to push backward. to enter. presumption or the like Pull about = to treat roughly Pull back = to retreat. to imprison. to delay. to exhaust Play up to = to act so as to afford opportunities to. to divorce. to attribute. to wear out. to repulse Put down = to crush. usually temporarily Play at = to engage in the game of. circulate. to drive a motor vehicle away from the side of the road or out of a line of traffic Pull up = to pull out of the ground. quell. to arrest Put about = to publish. to halt. bring off Put away = to renounce. withdraw Pull down = to take down or apart. write down on paper. to demolish. to flatter Puff up = to swollen with pride. Pin up Play about | 219 = to fix up with a pin = to behave irresponsibly. to practise without seriousness Play back = to replay an audio or video cassete Play ball = to cooperate Play down = to treat (something) as less important than it is Play out = to play to the end. to distress Put across = to carry out successfully. not seriously Play along (with) = to cooperate. to make fighter Pull off = to carry through successfully Pull out = to draw out.S. to give up Put for = to make an attempt to gain . to kill. agree with. F. to degrade. to take to task. to bring down Pull in = to draw in.

to postpone. E. to put aside. to expand. to assume. to offend = to refer. overcharge = to arrive by chance. clothe with. apply. to propose. to divert. to mislead. to set to. to insert. to take off. to set to work = to expel. e. to parcel up. to put to in-convenience. to produce = to propose. or with a casual air = to assemble. to raise. to discover = to talk continuously = to read aloud = to amass knowledge of by reading = to utter rapidly and fluently = to dress up or equip quickly with whatever available = to call again over phone = to close a conversation over phone = to call on the telephone = to steal. to dismiss.g. to impress an audience = to bring to an end. to advance = to introduce. to accomplish. to add to. to dismiss.. to disconcert = to don. arrive Put forth Put forward Put in Put in for Put off Put on Put out Put over Put through Put to Put up Put up with Rake up Rattle on Read out Read up Reel off Rig out Ring back Ring off Ring up Rip off Roll along Roll up . = to extend.220 | S. to exploit. price = to endure. to appoint = to request. deceive. to palm off. F. to cheat. to extinguish. attach. to erect. to display. to process = to apply. to apply for = to lay aside. to affix. to shut = to compound. to lodge. to tolerate = to collect together.

to incur increasingly. to freshen one’s memory of = to come upon by accident = to pursue = to take away. to extirpate = to rot or decay slowly and completely = to take whatever hardships come = to get along. to transfix. let out liquid = to overflow. to attend to . to knock down = to exhaust. to overthrow. run away from = to meet by chance.S. expire. to murder = to polish. to leak. Root out Rot away Rough it Rub along Rub down Rub out Rub up Run across Run after Run away with Run down Run dry Run for it Run into Run off Run on Run out Run over Run through Run up Scrub round Seal off See about | 221 = to remove by roots.) = to consider. to repeat. to ignore intentionally = to make it impossible for anything. to manage somehow = to rub from head to foot. to search by passing the hands over the body = to erase. to win easily = to knock down on road. to disparage = to come to an end. to continue in the same line = to run short. person. F. to cease to flow = to attempt to escape. determine. to build hurriedly. hang = to cancel. recount = to talk on and on. to string up. to leave or enter (an area etc. to read or perform quickly but completely = to make or mend hastily. to terminate. to destroy totally. to extend into = to cause to flow out. E.

. to start for a journey. to reprimand = to see to the end = to be conducted all through = to help through a difficult time = to look after.. e. forward to a new address = to make persons to leave the room. esteem. to become prevalent = to mark off. season etc. to instigate.222 | S. e. to lay by = to check. to start off. to value or esteem. to put in writing. reverse. to give out. to care = to lay on the ground. to display. to adorn. to sentence to imprisonment = to deal or distribute. to circulate = to make fun of. recommend. go forth. to see off = to redirect. to get rid of.g. to cost = to lay up. to punish = to bring to table = to put aside.g. E. to judge. to publish = to begin. to attribute. to praise. to send off = to move on. lay off. = to despatch. F. to reject. charge = to exhibit. to incite to attack = to start. by messenger or post = to submit (an entry) for competition etc. to expound. to make sure about = to look for and find = to rusticate or expel = to summon or order. = to accompany (someone) at his departure. to emit. to display See off See out See round See through See to Seek out Send down Send for Send in Send off Send on Send out Send up Serve out Serve up Set aside Set back Set by Set down Set forth Set in Set off Set on Set out ..

to establish a home. to develop = to let out a secret = to manifest. by signature = to distinguish or pick out for special treatment = to be absorbed. to apply oneself = to erect. = to engage for a job etc. to be understood = to live at the rate of expense of = to take no active part = to look on without taking any action = to take a seat. Set to Set up Settle down Settle for Settle in Settle with Shake down Shake off Shake up Shape up Show away Show forth Show off Show up Sign away Sign off Sign on Single out Sink in Sit at Sit back Sit by Sit down Sit for Sit in | 223 = to affix. to put up. rest. to appear to advantage or disadvantage.S. to stop work etc. E. arrive = to transfer by signing = to record departure from work. mix. disturb. to be present. to appear. to go to be (esp. to begin a siege = to take examination = to be present as visitor at conference etc. often by shaking = to rouse. F. to exalt = to calm down. loosen by shaking = to make progress. . in a temporary bed) = to get rid of. to become reasonable = to agree to accept (as a compromise) = to adapt to a new environment = to come to an agreement = to cheat of one’s money at one stroke. proclaim = to display or behave ostentatiously = to expose. to pause.

unreservedly = to speak so as to be easily heard = to quicken the rate of working = to prolong. to assess = to ease off freely = to slow = to classify. endure = to cost. to go off duty = to be a candidate for. to witness to = to speak boldly. to be a sponsor for. animate = to be a proof of. to sit upsight = to take mental measure of. to keep clear = to support. to sit to the end of = to become alert or started. arrange etc. to deal with. = to speak loudly and freely (in complaint). to repress = to sit apart without participating. freely. protract = to betray. kindle. abide by. to put up with. to become a party. E. to adhere to.) = to face up to and tackle = to resist = to stand to the rear. = to hold an official enquiry regarding. separate. F. to represent. to keep watch during the night. to prepare to work at = to leave the witness box.224 | S. give (a person) away = to settle (a bill. account etc. to boast = to increase the power of = to cause to begin. to deputise. punish etc. to be at hand. act as a substitute (for) Sit on Sit out Sit up Size up Slack away Slack up Sort out Sound about Soup up Spark off Speak for Speak out Speak up Speed up Spin out Split on Square up Square up to Stand against Stand back Stand by Stand down Stand for Stand in .

E. to show resistance = to be consistent = to begin = to begin a journey = to rise suddenly. to intervene = to go out a little way. to incite. to direct the course from = to continue on the same track or course. to refuse to yield = to keep (someone who is working) under close supervision. to remain loyal to = to speak or act in defence of = to drive out by a bad smell = to go out of doors = to excite. to mix by stirring . to postpone = to fall to. to decrease the voltage of. F.S. to back up. to have a gay social life = to come forward. to be obvious = to persevere in holding to = to remain attached. to set in motion = to withdraw. resign. to increase the rate of. Stand off Stand on Stand out Stand over Stand to Stand up to Stand with Start in Start out Start up Step down Step in Step out Step up Stick around Stick at Stick out Stick to Stick up Stick up for Stink out Stir forth Stir up | 225 = to keep at a distance. to insist on = to project. to continue to resist. to persist at = to project. to upheld = to meet face–to–face. to reduce the rate of = to enter easily or unexpectely. to arouse. retire. = to remain in the vicinity = to hesitate or scruple at. set to work. to be prominent. to stay with. to raise by steps. as production etc.

. to bring into light. to undertake. or play = to hang = to dismantle. pull down. to escort to the dining room. e.g. E. to go out with. to agree = to erase from an account. to extract. to mimic = to receive aboard. either aimlessly or gracefully = to go against = to conform to = to become gradually less or fewer = to follow in resemblance = to oppose. to report or write down to dictation = to come off. remove parts from = to take one’s clothes off = to pay up. to swim away = to begin to beat. resolve = to fell. sing. fork out = to move about aimlessly = to arrive. to assume control of Stop behind Stop over Stop up Straighten out Strike down Strike in Strike off Strike out Strike up String up Strip down Strip off Stump up Swan arround Swan up Swim against Swim with Tail off Take after Take against Take back Take down Take effect Take heed Take off Take on Take out Take over . to take a dislike to = to retract. a car = to disentangle. F. to come into force = to be careful = to remove. = to remain while group goes on = to break one’s journey = to seal up or close completely. to lower. to demolish. to receive an equivalent for = to receive by transfer. to remove = to efface. to assume = to remove from within. succeed. to copy. to make ill or cause to die = to enter suddenly. to withdraw = to reduce. to deduct.226 | S. to swallow.

S. to accept. E. to weary (from deferred hopes or broedom) = to devise. concoct = to reject. to talk as to inferiors in intellect or education = to persuade = to defeat = to convince. to rate. devise. to raise. to squander. to refuse = to demolish . chide = to betray. F. Take up Talk at Talk back Talk big Talk down Talk into Talk out Talk over Talk round Talk tall Talk to Talk up Tell off Tell on Think aloud Think back to Think for Think long Think out Think over Think through Think up Throw away Throw back Throw down | 227 = to lift. to talk to incessantly. to make much of = to count off. consider together = to talk of all sorts of related matters without coming to the point = to boast = to address. give away secrets about = to utter one’s thoughts unintentionally = to bring to one’s mind the memory of = to expect = to yearn. without waiting for a response = to reply impudently = to talk boastfully = to argue down. to praise or boost. to absorb. to arrest = to address remarks indirectly. project completely = to reconsider at leisure = to solve by a process of thought = to find by thinking. toss aside. to rebuke = to speak boldly. to pick up for use. to discuss. to interrupt sharply. to bestow unworthily = to retort.

to intesify. with fuel oil = to perform. to add as an extra = to divest oneself of. to vomit = to carry over. to make healthier = to finish (a building) by putting on the top or highest course = to fill up. to reject. or surmount. stimulate = to find after intensive search = to deal in lower grade. a book containing the story of) = to give a lower tone. to utter = to discard or desert = to erect hastily. to soften = to heighten.228 | S. dearer goods Throw in Throw off Throw on Throw open Throw out Throw over Throw up Tide over Tie in Tie up Tie with Tone down Tone up Top out Top up Toss off Toss out Toss up Touch off Touch up Track down Trade down Trade in Trade off Trade up . = to interject. fancily = to throw a coin in order to decide. difficulties for the time at least = to agree with. to moderate. to resign. to utter or compose off-hand = to put on hastily = to make freely accessible = to cast out. E. cheaper goods = to give in part payment = to give one thing in return of another = To deal in higher grade. to be closely associated with = to parcel up.. to cook and serve up hastily = to trigger = to lash lightly. F. produce quickly. to expel.. to give up.g. to tie so as to remain up = to be linked with (as e. to tether. e. to drink off = to dress smartly. to emit.g.

to muster = to roll over. to invert. to change sides. to rob = to fold upwards. to enter. to dismiss. to complete. E. or fold down. to ponder. to invert = to expel = to bend inward. adduce. to come. to depart = to cause to retreat. Trot out Tumble in Tumble over Tumble up Turn about Turn aside Turn away Turn back Turn down Turn forth Turn in Turn off Turn on Turn out Turn over Turn up | 229 Use up View away Visit with Vote down = to bring forward. to deviate = to dismiss from service. F. to fall over = to get out of bed. to refer to = to consume. to light. rotate. to expel. to refuse admittance. to dress groom. take care of the appearance of. to upset. to disturb. to return = to bend. or otherwise . to tire out = to see by breaking the cover = to visit. to throw into confusion = to spin. to drive out.S. to discharge. to exhaust. to hand over. to chat with = to defeat or supress by vote. double. to face round to the opposite quarter = to avert. to depend on = to bend outwards. to surrender = to deviate. produce for show. or bring. to walk out with = to go to bed = to toss about carelessly. to appear by chance. pass on. to switch off = to set running (as water). to be guest with.

to pass away by degrees Vote in Wade in Wait on Wait up Wait upon Wake up to = Walk away with = Walk into = Walk off Walk on Walk out Walk over Walk tall Wall up Warm up Wash out Wash up Watch in Watch out Watch over Watch up Water down Wave aside Wave down Wear down Wear off = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = . to finish to keep awake to welcome (the New Year) to look out. to cancel. to spoil. visit formally.230 | S. or overcome. to become animated. to exhaust to wash one’s hands and face. to eat heartily of to leave. be careful to guard. alive to to win with ease to beat. F. to depart. or traverse. to get rid of by walking to walk ahead. interested or eager to remove by washing.) as irrelevant or unimportant to signal to stop by waving to diminish. = = = = = to elect to make a very vigorous attack to wait for to stay out of bed waiting for to call upon. take care of to sit up at night to make less strong to dismiss (a suggestion etc. E. as a gesture of disapproval to cross. esp. have self-respect to block with a wall. to continue to walk to leave. gradually by persistence to rub off by friction. to attend and serve to become conscious of. to win an uncontested game to be proud. to entomb in a wall to make or become warm. to storm at.

alter into = to separate and throw off = to influence. to excite very much = to obliterate. to beat up. exercise (of an athlete) = to examine in detail. or try to do so = to effect by continued labour. to reduce the book value of an asset . to train. to have completely in hand = to force off by wringing = to squeeze out by twisting = to write. to render useless by decay = to make headway against adverse weather = to hold out against till the end = to force down. rouse. to obtain favour with. Wear out Weather along Weather out Weigh down Weigh up Weigh with Win of Win on Win out Win over Wind down Wind up Wipe out Wire away Work at Work into Work off Work on Work out Work over Work up Wrap up Wring off Wring out Write down | 231 = to impair by use. to a conclusion. to influence = to get the better of = to gain on. to lose strength = to bring.S. F. thrash = to excite. to change. annihilate or abolish = to act or work with vigour = to apply oneself to = to make way gradually into. to be successful = to bring over to one’s opinion or party = to relax. to exhaust. influence over = to get out. or come. to depress = to force up. E. to consider carefully and assess the quality of = to appear important to. elaborate = to settle completely. to expand.

move towards Now you are well equipped with necessary tools to converse. = to apply for. Most commonly used greetings are : Good Morning—Make it a habit to say these little words since morning till before noon. it’s enough to just start conversation. to aim for. Both Good Morning and Good Afternoon are said at the time of meeting as well as of parting. Hello or some time Hullo are the greetings which are paid to well intimate acquaintances of the same age group. friends etc. But do you think. and you can start conversation very effectively and can keep it on smoothly. to send away for = to cancel (in book keeping). say Good Night—Besides departing at evening. but not at the time of departing. whether it is evening or afternoon. You are still in need of : Write for Write off (a) Greetings and Salutations Greetings and Salutations are the marvellous virtues that create and maintain your better image. to write a report or review of Zero in = to direct oneself straight towards a target. Instead. Good Night is also said—(i) at the time of going to bed. For example : . damage Write out = to write in full. Hallo or Hello—Hallo. E. Good Afternoon—This greeting is paid afternoon till setting off evening. (ii) at the time of departing from the working place. It is used only at the time of meeting.232 | S. F. to destroy. to write in praise of. or be in conversation. Good Evening—Say it at evening but till before midnight. It is not used for elderly persons. (iii) at the time of retiring to bed in night. Good Bye—It is used at the time of departing from very intimates like family members. to transcribe Write up = to put a full description of in writing.

if request is in an interrogative form. don’t use ‘please’ but say ‘No. please. it is courtesy that always pays. (i) Use ‘please’ at the end of an utterance in case of a ‘request’. Hallo Raju ! How do you do ? Hello Ria ! Come here. if request is in imperative mood. For example. (iii) Use ‘please’ in between the utterance.S. Would you like to have coffee ? Yes please (or ‘No. Thanks’) (v) Pay ‘Thanks’. Thanks for your wonderful suggestion. And you can be virtually rich by encashing only ‘Please’ and ‘Thank you’. E. F. For example. Now you’re going to conclude the Rhythtech to Speak English Fluently. Though you’ve practised the various . G.” —A. “‘Please’ and ‘Thank you’ are the small change with which we pay our way as social beings. Please open the door. They are the little courtesies by which we keep the machine of life oiled and running smooth. Thank you very much for your kind co-operation. thanks’. | 233 (b) Courtesy always pays Yes. or say ‘Thank you’ or ‘Thank you very much’ lavishly for any favour shown towards you. Thanks’) Do you need this book ? Yes please (or ‘No. For example. Please call him here. Thank you for your nice company. Gardiner So use them abundantly and properly. Will you please stop smoking ? Will you please close the door ? (iv) Say ‘yes please’ for affirmative reponses. For example. Help me please. Pick it for me please. For example. while for negative responses. the most commonly used courtesy words. (ii) Use ‘please’ at the start of utterance.

i. ears etc. Practice. It’s a bare fact that your success in life is almost depended upon your fluency of spoken English. . F. so for the art of Spoken English.e. only repetition that trains efficiently your organs of speech. A lot of cheers to your speech fluency. So keep yourself in English conversation fluently with total confidence.234 | S. Chapter in Nutshell • • • Besides so many things. I’d like to attract your attention here towards the principal principle of fluency development. and touch the highest point of your success. the knack of conversation. That inculcate the habit of uttering word-groups or idea-units comfortably. framing up of questions.. E. It is the repetition. I believe that you must have gone through and practised the word-groups and idea-units in the book honestly and patiently. tongue. Keep it up.e. The Secret of Success in any sphere is a single worded Mantra—REPETITION. Keep it up. i. techniques of speech-fluency in a nice way. to speak out your idea-units efficiently. yes Perfect Practice is the “SUPREME SUTRA” to get skill in any art.. it’s enough to bestow you the required skill of speech-fluency. And I hope. It is the REPETITION. so of the spoken English. plays an important role to gain speech-fluency.

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