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Formulas

# Formulas

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electrical machines formulae
electrical machines formulae

Published by: kowkuriram25 on Jul 03, 2013

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07/03/2013

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# Formula Sheet – Electric Power Systems

The allowed tools at the exam are: this formula sheet, TEFYMA (or equivalent) and a pocket calculator.

9D  9  =  E  9F  

1 1 90     \$ 91  where \$ = 1 D 2 1 D  92   

1  D  with D = H D2  

M

2π 3

1 1 1 ; \$ = 1 D 3 1 D 2 
−1

1  D2  D 

Three-phase per-unit base definitions according to Glover-Sarma:

6 EDVH 3φ = 36EDVH1φ 9EDVH/1 = 9EDVH// / 3 <EDVH = 1 / = EDVH

, EDVH = = EDVH =

6 EDVH1φ 9EDVH/1

9EDVH/1 , EDVH

39EDVH// 2 9 9EDVH// = = 6EDVH1φ 6EDVH 3φ
2 EDVH/1

=

6EDVH 3φ

Zero sequence networks of transformers, neglecting phase shift and shunt admittance:

Zn1

Zn2

Zn

3Zn1 Zeq 3Zn2

3Z n Zeq

Zeq

Electric Power Systems – Formula Sheet

n) of zero. Q −1 = QQ − 2 + = QQ − 0 + 3= )    Znn-0. . DF (W ) + 2 . Q − 2 = . In-2) for a fault at bus n Three-phase fault . " 2 J G Electric Power Systems – Formula Sheet . UPV (W ) = . rms short-circuit current unloaded synchronous machine Symmetrical (ac)  1 1 − . Q −1 = . phases b and c 9)   . In-1.’ . .Zero. Q−2 = 0 = QQ −1 Single line-to-ground. Q −1 = . bus voltages during fault at bus n. Q − 2 = 9) . positive and negative sequence bus impedance matrix Zbus. Q −0 = 0 = QQ −1 + = QQ − 2 + = ) Line-to-line fault. UPV (W ) = . Q−0 = . DF (W ) = (J     . positive and negative sequence fault currents (In-0. Q −1 = − . Q − 0 = .G    2 2 Asymmetrical (ac+dc) Asymmetrical (ac+maximum dc) . Q −1 = QQ − 2 + = QQ − 0 + 3= )   = QQ − 2  . " H −W / 7\$ ( ] where . Q −1 = = (= + 3= ) ) = QQ −1 + QQ − 2 QQ − 0  = QQ − 2 + = QQ − 0 + 3= )   = QQ − 0 + 3= )   . "G . Q − 2 = − . DF (W ) + LGF (W ) [ 2 . " = . ’G  − W / 7 "G  1 1   + − H   . phases b and c Double line-to-ground fault. If prefault currents are neglected. G   G  − W / 7 ’G 1   + H   . phase a 9) = QQ − 0 + = QQ −1 + = QQ − 2 + 3= ) 9) . Znn-1 and Znn-2 denote element (n. V bus = V F − Z bus IF where IF only has one nonzero element being In – the fault current leaving bus n. Q − 0 = − .

. N ⇒  1 4N = 9N ∑ <NQ9Q sin(δ N − δ Q −θ N )  Q =1  where <NQ H Mθ = <EXV (N .−1 (L ){\ − I [[ (L )]} ∂I Matrix element .T .G . iteration i: [ (L + 1) = [ (L ) + .Salient pole rotor synchronous generator   3H (δ ) =    4H (δ ) =  (T9 . bus voltage vector: 1  3 = 9N ∑ <NQ9Q cos(δ N − δ Q −θ N )   N * Q =1 6 N = 3N + M4N = 9N .G       cos 2 δ sin 2 δ cos δ − 9 2  +  . Q) and 9N H Mδ = 9EXV (N ) NQ N Z AB = Z BC = ∆-Y transformation Z A ZB + ZB Z C + Z A ZC ZC ZA = ZB = Z AB Z AC Z AB + Z BC + Z AC Z AC Z A Z B + ZB Z C + Z A ZC ZA Z Z + ZB ZC + Z A Z C = A B ZB Z AB Z BC Z AB + Z BC + Z AC Z AC Z BC ZC = Z AB + Z BC + Z AC Electric Power Systems – Formula Sheet .G (T9 sin δ +  92   1 − 1  sin 2δ  2   .(L ) = = ( ) ∂[ P PQ [ [ L Q Complex Power injected at bus k calculated using bus admittance matrix.G T  Newton-Raphson solution of y=f(x) .

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