# SKILLS Project SKILLS Project

BUILT-UP COLUMNS
Special features for the design of built-up columns
Design procedure
Design of closely spaced built-up members
LEARNING OUTCOMES
3
Introduction
Constructional details
Calculation
General
Laced built-up columns
LIST OF CONTENTS
Battened built-up columns
Closely spaced built-up members
General
Simplified method
Worked example
Conclusion
4
INTRODUCTION
2 types of built-up columns:
INTRODUCTION
Laced built-up columns Battened built-up columns
6
INTRODUCTION
1000
1
1
5
5
Type 2
1000
Type 1
1000
2
0
0
0
Type 3
7
Built-up column Shear stiffness [kN]
Type 1 615000
Type 2 288000
Type 3 73000
L 100x10
HEA 400
8x 1000
20x400
Shear stiffness of a panel:
INTRODUCTION
L
F S
v

=
F

8
L
F
Reduction of mass
Increasing of flexural stiffness
Architectural effect
INTRODUCTION
Costs of joints
Costs of protection against corrosion
9
Modelling using design software
One bar-type element using effective section properties
Area A = Area of the chords
Inertia about strong axis = I
eff
Inertia about weak axis = 2 x I
y,chord
Shear stiffness S
v
INTRODUCTION
v
Advantage: Rapidity of the modelling process
Sets of elements using common section properties
Advantage: Knowledge of internal forces and moments of the
elements of the built-up column
10
CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS
Field of application
Pinned at both ends
Parallel chords
Equal modules of lacings or battens
At least 3 modules per member
CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS
At least 3 modules per member
12
CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS
A – Corresponding lacing
system
B – Mutually opposed lacing
system
A B A B
1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1
2 2
1 1
2 2
1 1
13
Treillis sur
face A
Treillis sur
face B
Treillis sur
face A
Treillis sur
face B
CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS
14
N-Shape V-Shape X-Shape
CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS
Types of section
Chords:
I-shape
Channels
Web members (laced systems)
15
Web members (laced systems)
Angles
Web members (battened systems)
Plates
CALCULATION
CALCULATION – GENERAL
Design steps
Mechanical properties of the built-up section
Critical axial force of the built-up column
Maximum global bending moment
Maximum axial force
Maximum transverse force
17
Maximum transverse force
Verification of the components
CALCULATION – GENERAL
Mechanical properties of the built-up section
Built-up columns with lacings:
Effective second moment of area:
ch 0 eff
A h I
2
5 , 0 = EN 1993-1-1 § 6.4.2.1
h
0
18
A
ch
Area of the chord
I
ch
Second moment of area of the chord
H
0
Distance between the chords
h
0
I
ch
, A
ch
CALCULATION – GENERAL
Shear stiffness S
v
:
EN 1993-1-1 § 6.4.1
System
A
d
A
v
a
A
d
a
A
d
a
19
S
V
n is the number of planes of lacings
A
d
and A
v
refer to the cross sectional area of the bracings
3
2
0 d
2d
ah nEA
3
2
0 d
d
ah nEA
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
3
V
0 d 3
2
0 d
1
d A
h A
d
ah nEA
h
0
h
0
h
0
CALCULATION – GENERAL
Built-up columns with battens:
Effective second moment of area:
ch ch 0 eff
I A h I µ 2 5 , 0
2
+ =
EN 1993-1-1 § 6.4.3.1
Criterion Efficiency factor µ µµ µ
20
λ ≥ 150 0
75 < λ < 150
λ ≤ 75 1,0
Where:
75
2
λ
− = µ
0
i
L
= λ
ch
1
0
2A
I
i =
ch ch 0
I A h I 2 5 , 0
2
1
+ =
CALCULATION – GENERAL
Built-up columns with battens:
Shear stiffness:
2
2
2
2
2
1
24
a
EI
a
h
nI
I
a
EI
S
ch
0
b
ch
ch
v
π

(
¸
(

¸

+
= EN 1993-1-1 § 6.4.3.1
h
0
21
I
b
: second moment of area of
the batten
b ¸ ¸ h
0
I
ch
, A
ch
I
b
CALCULATION – GENERAL
Maximum global bending moment
M e N
I
+
Critical axial force:
2
2
L
EI
N
eff
cr
π
=
22
eff
ch 0 Ed
Ed Ed ch,
2
5 , 0
I
A h M
N N + =
V
Ed
cr
Ed
Ed 0 Ed
1
S
N
N
N
M e N
M
I
Ed
− −
+
= EN 1993-1-1 § 6.4.1
EN 1993-1-1 § 6.4.1
Maximum compression axial force in a chord
CALCULATION – GENERAL
Maximum transverse force
Compression and imperfection
Attention: In case of a bending moment caused by external
L
M
V
Ed
Ed
π =
( ) 0
Ed
=
I
M
EN 1993-1-1 § 6.4.1
23
Attention: In case of a bending moment caused by external
loads, this formula is not applicable.
Transverse force due to external loads has to
be accounted for.
CALCULATION – LACED BUILT-UP COLUMN
Verification of the components
Flexural buckling of the chord:
Buckling length:
1
Rd b,
Ed ,

N
N
ch
EN 1993-1-1 § 6.3.1.1
24
Buckling length:
in plane buckling: I or H sections: 0,9 a
other sections : 1,0 a
out of plane buckling: distance between lateral supports
CALCULATION – LACED BUILT-UP COLUMN
Flexural buckling of the compressed web members (angle
sections):
Buckling length and slenderness ratio:
welded connection/at least 2 bolts per joint
1
Rd b,
Ed

N
N
EN 1993-1-1 § 6.3.1.1
25
welded connection/at least 2 bolts per joint
1 bolt per joint
L L =
cr
L L =
cr
v eff,v min
7 , 0 35 , 0 λ λ λ + = =
v min
λ λ =
EN 1993-1-1 BB § 1.2
CALCULATION – LACED BUILT-UP COLUMN
z
u
v
h
26
y
z
y
u
v
h
CALCULATION – LACED BUILT-UP COLUMN
Verification of the web members – diagonals in tension:
Welded joints:
1
Rd t,
Ed

N
N
0 M
y
Rd pl, Rd t,
γ
Af
N N = =
EN 1993-1-1 § 6.2.3
27
Bolted joints: According to connection type
Category A connections: Bearing type
Category B connections: Slip resistant at service limit state
Category C connections: Slip resistant at ultimate limit state
0 M
CALCULATION – LACED BUILT-UP COLUMN
Category A, B and C connections:
( )
Rd u, Rd pl, Rd t,
,N N Min N =
0 M
y
Rd pl,
γ
Af
N =
EN 1993-1-1 § 6.2.3
EN 1993-1-1 § 6.2.3
28
1 Bolt 2 Bolts 3 Bolts or more
( )
2 M
u 0 2
Rd u,
5 , 0 0 , 2
γ
tf d e
N

=
2 M
u net 2
Rd u,
γ
β f A
N =
2 M
u net 3
Rd u,
γ
β f A
N =
EN 1993-1-8 § 3.10.3
CALCULATION – LACED BUILT-UP COLUMN
Constants β
2
and β
3
:
Pitch p
1
≤ 2,5 d
0
≥ 5,0 d
0
2 bolts β
2
0,4 0,7
3 bolts or more β
3
0,5 0,7
EN 1993-1-8 § 3.10.3
29
d
0
e
1
e
2
e
1
e
2
p
1
e
1
p
1
p
1
CALCULATION – LACED BUILT-UP COLUMN
Additional verification for category C connections:
0 M
y net
Rd net,
γ
f A
N =
EN 1993-1-1 § 6.2.3
Ed Rd net,
N N ≤
30
Where: t: is the thickness of the leg
n: is the number of vertically aligned holes
d
0
: is the diameter of the hole
0 gross net
tnd A A − =
CALCULATION – BATTENED BUILT-UP COLUMN
Verification of the chord
• Flexural buckling perpendicular to the battens
Buckling length = distance between lateral supports
Chord subjected to axial force
31
1
Rd b,
Ed ,

N
N
ch
EN 1993-1-1 § 6.3.1.1
CALCULATION – BATTENED BUILT-UP COLUMN
• Flexural buckling in the plane of the battens:
Buckling length = distance between battens
Chord subjected to axial force and local bending moment
1
Rk
Ed ch,
yy
Rk y
Ed ch,
≤ +
γ
γ
χ M
M
k
N
N
1
Rk
Ed ch,
zy
Rk z
Ed ch,
≤ +
γ γ
χ M
M
k
N
N
32
+ Verification of the end sections
1 M
1 M
γ
γ
1 M 1 M
γ γ
EN 1993-1-1 § 6.3.3
CALCULATION – BATTENED BUILT-UP COLUMN
Verification of the web members – battens
Transverse force:
1
Rd c,
Ed batten,

V
V
( )
0 M
y
Rd pl, Rd c,
3
γ
f A
V V
v
= =
EN 1993-1-1 § 6.2.6
33
Bending moment/Lateral Torsional buckling:
0 M
γ
1
Rd b,
Ed batten,

M
M
1 M
y
y LT Rd b,
γ
χ
f
W M =
EN 1993-1-1 § 6.3.2.1
CALCULATION – BATTENED BUILT-UP COLUMN
Axial force and moment in the
chord:
Shear force and moment in
4
Ed Ed ch,
a
V M =
eff
ch 0 Ed
Ed Ed ch,
2
5 , 0
I
A h M
N N + =

V
Ed
a/2
a/2
h
0

a/2
V
Ed
a/2
V
Ed
a/4
V
Ed
a/4
34
Shear force and moment in
the battens:
0
Ed Ed batten,
h
a
V V =
2
Ed Ed batten,
a
V M =
h
0

V
Ed
a/h
0

a/2
h
0

a/2
V
Ed
/2
V
Ed
/2 V
Ed
/2
V
Ed
/2
V
Ed
a/h
0

CLOSELY SPACED BUILT-UP MEMBERS
CLOSELY SPACED BUILT-UP MEMBERS – GENERAL
Case 1: Connected through packing plates
36
Case 2: Connected by pairs of battens
CLOSELY SPACED BUILT-UP MEMBERS – GENERAL
Calculation
Shear stiffness is set to infinity if maximum spacing for
joints are respected
Case Maximum spacing
1
15i
EN 1993-1-1 § 6.4.4
37
Buckling verification as a single member
If maximum spacing is not respected
Shear deformation has to be accounted for
1
2
min
15i
min
70i
CLOSELY SPACED BUILT-UP MEMBERS – SIMPLIFIED METHOD
Simplified calculation for sections composed of 2 equal
leg angles (Reference [3])
when the spacing is > 15 i
min
.
h
0
z’
38
a a
t
p
y’ y’
z’
CLOSELY SPACED BUILT-UP MEMBERS – SIMPLIFIED METHOD
Scope of application
Spacing of the packing plates a: 15i
min
… 50 i
min
Number of packing plates: 2 … 5
Width of the legs b: 50 mm … 200 mm
39
Thickness of the legs t: 0,1b
Thickness of the packing plates: 0,8t … 2t
Non dimensional slenderness about z’-z’: ≤ 1,80
CLOSELY SPACED BUILT-UP MEMBERS – SIMPLIFIED METHOD
Procedure
Second moment of area about z’-z’ axis:
Critical axial force about z’-z’ axis:
ch ch
2
0 z'
2 5 , 0 I A h I + =
z'
2
EI
N
π
=
40
Non dimensional slenderness about z’-z’ axis:
2
z'
cr,z'
L
EI
N
π
=
cr,z'
y ch
z'
2
N
f A
= λ
CLOSELY SPACED BUILT-UP MEMBERS – SIMPLIFIED METHOD
Effective non dimensional slenderness about z’-z’ axis
Number of packing
plates
S235 S355
2
39 , 0 77 , 0 18 , 0
2
+ + λ λ 66 , 0 18 , 0 86 , 0
2
+ − λ λ
:
eff
λ
41
2
3
4
5
39 , 0 77 , 0 18 , 0
z'
2
z'
+ + λ λ
41 , 0 52 , 0 32 , 0
z'
2
z'
+ + λ λ
48 , 0 17 , 0 56 , 0
z'
2
z'
+ + λ λ
53 , 0 05 , 0 69 , 0
z'
2
z'
+ − λ λ
66 , 0 18 , 0 86 , 0
z'
2
z'
+ − λ λ
66 , 0 16 , 0 66 , 0
z'
2
z'
+ − λ λ
67 , 0 21 , 0 65 , 0
z'
2
z'
+ − λ λ
70 , 0 31 , 0 69 , 0
z'
2
z'
+ − λ λ
CLOSELY SPACED BUILT-UP MEMBERS – SIMPLIFIED METHOD
Second moment of area about y’-y’ axis:
Critical axial force about y’-y’ axis:
ch y'
2I I =
2
y' cr,
'
2
y' cr,
L
EI
N
y
π
=
42
Non dimensional slenderness about y’-y’ axis:
y' cr,
L
y' cr,
y ch
y'
2
N
f A
= λ
CLOSELY SPACED BUILT-UP MEMBERS – SIMPLIFIED METHOD
Choice of the determining non dimensional
slenderness:
Determination of the reduction factor with:
) , (
y' eff max
λ λ λ Max =
34 , 0 = α
43
Resistance criterion:
34 , 0 = α
1 M
y ch
Ed
) 2 (
γ
χ f A
N ≤
WORKED EXAMPLE
WORKED EXAMPLE – GEOMETRY
Height: 10m
Axial force: 900 kN
Bending moment: 450 kN.m
N
Ed
=900 kN
M
Ed
= 450 kN.m
45
WORKED EXAMPLE – GEOMETRY
1
2
800
800
1
2
5
0
46
1. Chords: HEA 240
2. Posts: Equal leg angles 80 x 80 x 8
3. Diagonals: Equal leg angles 90 x 90 x 9
2
3
1
2
5
0
WORKED EXAMPLE – SECTION PROPERTIES
Chords HEA 240 – S355

Posts Equal leg angles L 80 x 80 x 8 – S355

2
ch
cm 8 , 76 = A
cm 05 , 10
y
= i
cm 0 , 6 =
z
i
2
cm 27 , 12 =
V
A
cm 125 = a
cm 80
0
= h
47

Diagonals Equal leg angles L 90 x 90 x 9 – S355

cm 27 , 12 =
V
A
cm 43 , 2 = =
z y
i i cm 06 , 3 =
u
i cm 56 , 1 =
v
i
2
cm 52 , 15 =
D
A
cm 73 , 2 = =
z y
i i cm 44 , 3 =
u
i cm 75 , 1 =
v
i
cm 80
0
= h
cm 148 = d
WORKED EXAMPLE – BUILT-UP COLUMN
Effective second moment of area of the built-up column
Critical axial force
ch
2
0 eff
5 , 0 A h I =
4 4 2
eff
cm 245760 10 7680 800 5 , 0 = × × × =

I
2
EI π
EN 1993-1-1 § 6.4.2.1
48
2
eff
2
cr
L
EI
N
π
=
kN 50937 10
10000
10 245760 210000
3
2
4 2
cr
= ×
× × × π
=

N
EN 1993-1-1 § 6.4.1
WORKED EXAMPLE – BUILT-UP COLUMN
Shear stiffness
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
=
3
V
3
0 d 3
2
0 d
v
1
d A
h A
d
ah nEA
S
800 1250 1552 210000 2
3
2
× × × ×

EN 1993-1-1 § 6.4.2.1
49
kN 134075 10
1480 1227
800 1552
1 1480
800 1250 1552 210000 2
3
3
3
3
2
v
= ×
(
(
¸
(

¸

×
×
+
× × × ×
=

S
WORKED EXAMPLE – INTERNAL FORCES AND MOMENTS
Maximum global bending moment:
Imperfection:
Global bending moment:
mm 20
500
10000
0
= = e
M e N
I
+
EN 1993-1-1 § 6.4.1
50
V
Ed
cr
Ed
Ed 0 Ed
Ed
1
S
N
N
N
M e N
M
I
− −
+
=
kNm 7 , 479 10
134100
900
50937
900
1
10 450 20 900
3
3
= ×
− −
× + ×
=

Ed
M
EN 1993-1-1 § 6.4.1
WORKED EXAMPLE – INTERNAL FORCES AND MOMENTS
Maximum compressive axial force of the chord
Class of the section:
Class 1
Maximum axial force in the chord
A h M N
EN 1993-1-1 § 6.4.1
EN 1993-1-1 §5.6 Table 5.2
51
eff
ch 0 Ed Ed
Ed ch,
2 2 I
A h M N
N + =
kN 6 , 1049
10 245760 2
7680 800 479700
2
900
4
Ed ch,
=
× ×
× ×
+ = N
EN 1993-1-1 § 6.4.1
WORKED EXAMPLE – INTERNAL FORCES AND MOMENTS
Maximum shear force
Shear force due to axial force and imperfection
V
Ed
cr
Ed
0 Ed Ed
1 Ed,
1
1
S
N
N
N
L
e N
L
M
V
− −
= = π π
52
Maximum shear force
V
Ed
cr
Ed
Ed Ed
2 Ed,
1
1
S
N
N
N
L
M
L
M
V
I
− −
= =
2 Ed, 1 Ed, Ed
V V V + =
WORKED EXAMPLE – INTERNAL FORCES AND MOMENTS
Maximum shear force
Shear force due to axial force and imperfection
kN V 80 , 5
134100
900
50937
900
1
1
10000
20 900
1 Ed,
=
− −
×
= π
53
Maximum shear force
kN V 12 , 46
134100
900
50937
900
1
1
10000
10 450
3
2 Ed,
=
− −
×
=
kN V 92 , 51 12 , 46 80 , 5
Ed
= + =
WORKED EXAMPLE – BUCKLING OF THE CHORDS
Out-of-plane (strong axis) buckling of the chords
Non dimensional slenderness
5 , 99
5 , 100
10000
y
y cr,
y
= = =
i
L
λ
06 , 76 81 , 0 9 , 93 9 , 93
1
= × = = ε λ
54
Buckling curve
31 , 1
06 , 76
5 , 99
1
y
y
= = =
λ
λ
λ
b curve buckling
100mm t
1,2 h/b
f

<

EN 1993-1-1 § 6.3.1.3
EN 1993-1-1 § 6.3.1.2
Reduction factor
0,7
0,8
0,9
1
1,1
a
0
a
b
WORKED EXAMPLE – BUCKLING OF THE CHORDS
42 , 0 =
y
χ
0
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,5
0,6
0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1 1,2 1,4 1,6 1,8 2 2,2 2,4 2,6 2,8 3
b
c
d
55
WORKED EXAMPLE – BUCKLING OF THE CHORDS
Design buckling resistance
1 M
y ch y
Rd y, b,
γ
χ f A
N =
kN 1145 10
0 , 1
355 7680 42 , 0
3
Rd y, b,
= ×
× ×
=

N
EN 1993-1-1 § 6.3.1.1
56
Resistance criterion
1 92 , 0
1145
6 , 1049
Rd y, b,
Ed ch,
< = =
N
N
WORKED EXAMPLE – BUCKLING OF THE CHORDS
In-plane (weak axis) buckling of the chords
Non dimensional slenderness
75 , 18
60
1250 9 , 0
z
cr,z
z
=
×
= =
i
L
λ
25 , 0
06 , 76
75 , 18
1
z
z
= = =
λ
λ
λ
EN 1993-1-1 § 6.3.1.3
57
Buckling curve
Reduction factor
1
c curve buckling
100mm t
1,2 h/b
f

<

97 , 0
z
= χ
EN 1993-1-1 § 6.3.1.2
WORKED EXAMPLE – BUCKLING OF THE CHORDS
Design buckling resistance
1 M
y ch
Rd , b,
γ
χ f A
N
z
z
=
kN 2645 10
0 , 1
355 7680 97 , 0
3
Rd , b,
= ×
× ×
=

z
N
58
Resistance criterion
1 40 , 0
2645
6 , 1049
Rd , b,
Ed ch,
< = =
z
N
N
Buckling of the diagonals
Class of the section
et
WORKED EXAMPLE – BUCKLING OF THE WEB MEMBERS
EN 1993-1-1 §5.6 Table 5.2
ε 5 , 11
2

+
t
h b
ε 15 ≤
t
h
15 , 12 81 , 0 15 10
9
90
= × ≤ =
Section is of class 4
59
9
3 , 9 5 , 11 10
90 2
90 90
= ≥ =
×
+
ε
Buckling of the diagonals
Calculation of the effective area
Local buckling coefficient
Non dimensional slenderness and reduction factor
WORKED EXAMPLE – BUCKLING OF THE WEB MEMBERS
0 , 4 =
σ
k EN 1993-1-5 §4.4 Table 4.1
Non dimensional slenderness and reduction factor
60
748 , 0 22 , 0
4 81 , 0 4 , 28
9 / 90
4 , 28
/
< =
× ×
= =
σ
ε
λ
k
t h
p
0 , 1 = ρ
EN 1993-1-5 §4.4 (4.3)
WORKED EXAMPLE – BUCKLING OF THE WEB MEMBERS
Buckling of the diagonals
Maximum compression axial force per diagonal
Slenderness
0
Ed Ed
Ed d,
cos
nh
d V
n
V
N = =
ϕ
61
Slenderness
kN 48
800 2
1480 9 , 51
Ed d,
=
×
×
= N
57 , 84
5 , 17
1480
v
v
= = =
i
d
λ
WORKED EXAMPLE – BUCKLING OF THE WEB MEMBERS
Effective non dimensional slenderness
Reduction factor (buckling curve b)
v eff,v
7 , 0 35 , 0 λ λ + =
13 , 1 11 , 1 7 , 0 35 , 0
eff,v
= × + = λ
52 , 0 = χ
EN 1993-1-1 BB § 1.2
62
Design buckling resistance
52 , 0 =
v
χ
kN 5 , 286 10
0 , 1
355 1552 52 , 0
3
Rd b,v,
= ×
× ×
=

N
WORKED EXAMPLE – BUCKLING OF THE WEB MEMBERS
Resistance criterion
Buckling of the posts (class 4, ρ = 1,0)
kN 9 , 51
Ed Ed p,
= = V N
1 17 , 0
5 , 286
48
Rd b,v,
Ed d,
< = =
N
N
63
kN 9 , 51
Ed Ed p,
= = V N
712 , 0 822 , 0
v eff,v
= → = χ λ
kN N 310
Rd b,v,
=
1 61 , 0
310
190
Rd b,v,
Ed p,
< = =
N
N
WORKED EXAMPLE – WEB MEMBERS IN TENSION
Category A connection
64
mm 40
1
= e
mm 40
2
= e
mm 45
1
= p
2 M16 6.8
WORKED EXAMPLE – WEB MEMBERS IN TENSION
Diagonals in tension
Axial force
Tension resistance (Category A connection)
kN 48
cos
Ed
Ed t,
= =
n
V
N
ϕ
( ) ,N N Min N =
EN 1993-1-1 § 6.2.3
65
Resistance of the gross section
( )
Rd u, Rd pl, Rd t,
,N N Min N =
0 M
y
Rd pl,
γ
Af
N =
kN 551 10
0 , 1
355 1552
3
Rd pl,
= ×
×
=

N
EN 1993-1-1 § 6.2.3
WORKED EXAMPLE – WEB MEMBERS IN TENSION
Resistance of the net section:
Net section area:
2 M
net 2
Rd u,
γ
β
u
f A
N =
EN 1993-1-8 § 3.10.3
n td A A
0 gross net
− =
2 2 2
= × × × − × =
− −
66
Reduction factor:
Resistance of the net section:
2 2 2
net
cm 9 , 13 10 1 18 9 10 1552 = × × × − × =
− −
A
kN 218
25 , 1
490 1390 4 , 0
Rd u,
=
× ×
= N
4 , 0
2
= β
EN 1993-1-8 § 3.10.3 Table 3.8
WORKED EXAMPLE – WEB MEMBERS IN TENSION
Tension resistance (Category A connection)
Resistance criterion
48
N
( ) kN 218 kN 218 kN, 551 Min
Rd t,
= = N
67
1 22 , 0
218
48
Rd t,
Ed t,
< = =
N
N
WORKED EXAMPLE – CATEGORY A CONNECTION
Resistance criteria
Shear resistance F
v,Rd
per bolt:
Rd v, Ed v,
F F ≤
Rd b, Ed v,
F F ≤
ub v
α A f
F =
EN 1993-1-8 § 3.4.2
EN 1993-1-8 § 3.6.1
68
2 M
ub v
Rd v,
γ
α A f
F =
kN 7 , 37 10
25 , 1
157 600 5 , 0
3
Rd v,
= ×
× ×
=

F
EN 1993-1-8 § 3.6.1
WORKED EXAMPLE – CATEGORY A CONNECTION
Shear resistance of the bolt group:
Consideration of the eccentricity (Reference [4]):
( )
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
+
=
1 1
1
6
1
1
p n
e
γ
Rd v, 1 Rd S,
F n N × × = γ
69
Shear resistance:
kN N 0 , 52 7 , 37 69 , 0 2
Rd S,
= × × =
( )
¹ \
+
1 1
1 p n
( )
69 , 0
45 1 2
6 , 24 6
1
1
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
× +
×
+
= γ
WORKED EXAMPLE – CATEGORY A CONNECTION
Bearing resistance F
b,Rd
:
Longitudinal direction
k
1
: edge bolts:
2 M
u b 1
Rd b,
γ
α dt f k
F =
5 , 2 7 , 1 8 , 2
0
2
1
≤ − =
d
e
k
EN 1993-1-8 § 3.6.1 Table 3.4
EN 1993-1-8 § 3.6.1
70
end bolts:
inner bolts:
0
d
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= 1 , ,
u
ub
d b
f
f
Min α α
0
1
d
3d
e
= α
4
1
d 3
0
1
d
− =
p
α
WORKED EXAMPLE – CATEGORY A CONNECTION
k
1
: edge bolts:
α
b
: end bolt:
5 , 2 5 , 4 7 , 1
18
40
8 , 2
e 1
> = − × = k
74 , 0
18 3
40
de
=
×
= α
71
inner bolt:
58 , 0
4
1
18 3
45
di
= −
×
= α
WORKED EXAMPLE – CATEGORY A CONNECTION
Ratio f
ub
/f
u
:
α
b
:
( ) 58 , 0 1 ; 22 , 1 ; 58 , 0 ; 74 , 0 Min
b
= = α
22 , 1
490
600
u
ub
= =
f
f
72
Bearing resistance F
b,Rd
in the longitudinal direction:
kN 5 , 81 10
25 , 1
9 16 490 58 , 0 5 , 2
3
Rd lg, b,
= ×
× × × ×
=

F
WORKED EXAMPLE – CATEGORY A CONNECTION
Transverse direction:
k
1
: edge bolts:
inner bolts:
5 , 2 7 , 1 8 , 2
0
1
1
≤ − =
d
e
k
5 , 2 7 , 1 4 , 1
0
1
1
≤ − =
d
p
k
5 , 2 5 , 4 7 , 1
18
40
8 , 2
e 1
> = − × = k
73
end bolts:
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= 1 , ,
u
ub
d b
f
f
Min α α
0
2
d
3d
e
= α
0
5 , 2 8 , 1 7 , 1
18
45
4 , 1
1
≤ = − × =
i
k
74 , 0
18 3
40
de
=
×
= α
WORKED EXAMPLE – CATEGORY A CONNECTION
Ratio f
ub
/f
u
:
α
b
:
( ) 74 , 0 1 ; 22 , 1 ; 74 , 0 Min
b
= = α
22 , 1
490
600
u
ub
= =
f
f
74
Bearing resistance F
b,Rd
in the transverse direction:
kN 19 , 75 10
25 , 1
9 16 490 74 , 0 8 , 1
3
Rd , b,
= ×
× × × ×
=

tr
F
WORKED EXAMPLE – CATEGORY A CONNECTION
Bearing resistance of the bolt group (Reference [4]):
2
Rd b,tr,
0
2
Rd lg, b,
1
Rd b,
1
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
F F
n
N
β
( )
6e
= β
75
( )
1 1
0
1
6
p n
e
+
= β
( )
09 , 1
45 1 2
6 , 24 6
0
=
× +
×
= β
kN 3 , 105
19 , 75
09 , 1
5 , 81
1
2
2 2
Rd b,
=
|
¹
|

\
|
+ |
¹
|

\
|
= N
WORKED EXAMPLE – CATEGORY A CONNECTION
kN 0 , 52 kN 48 ≤
kN 3 , 105 kN 48 ≤
Rd , Ed v, S
N F ≤
Rd b, Ed v,
N F ≤
76
WORKED EXAMPLE – BLOCK TEARING
Block tearing resistance
0 M
nv y
2 M
nt u
Rd eff,2,
3
5 , 0
γ
γ
A f
A f
F + =
N
Ed
(2)
EN 1993-1-8 § 3.10.2
77
(1) Shear plane
(2) Tension plane
(1)
WORKED EXAMPLE – BLOCK TEARING
Tension Area
Shear Area
Block tearing resistance
2 2 2
nt
cm 79 , 2 10 9 18
2
1
10 9 40 = × × × − × × =
− −
A
( )
2 2 2
nv
cm 6 , 3 10 9 18 5 , 2 10 9 45 40 = × × × − × × + =
− −
A
78
Resistance criterion
kN 5 , 128 10
0 , 1 3
360 355
10
25 , 1
279 490 5 , 0
3 3
Rd eff,2,
= ×
×
×
+ ×
× ×
=
− −
F
kN 5 , 128 kN 48 ≤
CONCLUSION
The buckling verification of a built-up member is based on a
calculation that takes into account an equivalent geometric
imperfection (L/500) and 2
nd
order effects.
Then the resistance of each component has to be checked
(cross-section resistance, buckling resistance, resistance of
CONCLUSION
(cross-section resistance, buckling resistance, resistance of
connections)
A simplified procedure is proposed for built-up members
with closely spaced chords.
80
REFERENCES
EN 1993-1-1 – Eurocode 3 Design of steel structures Part 1-1:
General rules and rules for buildings
EN 1993-1-8 – Eurocode 3 Design of steel structures – Part 1-8:
Design of joints.
A.Bureau/P.-L. Chouzenoux. Méthode simplifiée pour la vérification
de barres comprimées composées de deux cornières assemblées
REFERENCES
de barres comprimées composées de deux cornières assemblées
dos-à-dos.
Simplified method for the verification of compressed built-up
members composed of two closely spaced angles.
Revue Construction Métallique n°4/2010. CTICM.
J.-P. Jaspart, J.-F. Demonceau, S. Renkin, M.L. Guillaume, European
Recommendation for the Design of Simple Joints in Steel Structures,
ECCS, Publication n°126, 2009
82