Journal of Indian Philosophy (2005) 33: 285–319 DOI 10.


Ó Springer 2005



There are various schemes of the path to liberation found in the Buddhist canon. The most prominent scheme is probably the one "na (Pali jha "na) meditation, which consists of four lecentred on dhya vels of meditative attainment. Rahula (1980: 270) describes the four "nas/jha "nas as ‘high mystic or spiritual states of concentration’. dhya These states involve transformation of hedonic and affective experi"nas are concerned with the ences. Heiler (1922: 26) says that the jha reduction of feelings. Other scholars have also discussed feelings in the "nas/jha "nas.1 They rely mostly or exclusively on the Pali sources of dhya the Therav" ada tradition, but there are different interpretations by other traditions, and even some accounts in the canons of different schools disagree with each other. There still remain problems regarding the order in which specific feelings fade away in different levels "na meditation and problems about the nature of these feelings of jha "na that may be feelings. After discussing and the mental factors of jha "na in the earliest Buddhist texts, the main passages on feelings of jha this essay will investigate the interpretations by three Buddhist schools and put forth my personal opinions. Confronted by the divergence among different traditions in their interpretations, this essay will attempt to find out the possibly earliest or authentic teachings on this subject and to elucidate their implications. My research will take account of the plausibility and coherence of doctrinal issues in the earliest texts on the presupposition that these texts are basically, although not totally, the record of the Buddha’s teachings.

"yas and some texts in the Khuddaka Nika "ya of the The four main Nika Therav" ada Canon in Pali are mostly attributed by the tradition to the
1 For example Cousins (1973: 125), Griffiths (1983: 59–61); Gunaratana (1985: 59ff.), Bucknell (1993: 380ff ).



Buddha himself or his immediate disciples with some degree of " certainty. The four Agamas preserved in Chinese translations, which "yas, also represent the earliest correspond to the four main Nika stratum of the Canon. These texts are what I mean by ‘the earliest " , their authority is recognised texts’. With the exception of a few sutras by all Buddhist schools.2 "na/jha "na is often described in the Nika "yas/ The scheme of dhya " " Agamas by the following formula (hereafter ‘the usual jhana formula’), with some variations in wording in different contexts (Tr. ˜ " N an . amoli and Bodhi, 2001: 275f. Pali words in parentheses are mine.):
Quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, he enters upon and abides in the first jh" ana, which is accompanied by applied and sustained "ram thought (savitakkam iti) and pleasure (sukha) born of . savica . ), with rapture (p" seclusion. … Again, with the stilling of applied and sustained thought, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the second jh" ana, which has self-confidence and singleness of mind without applied and sustained thought, with rapture (p" iti) and pleasure (sukha) born of concentration. … Again, with the fading away as well of rapture (p" iti), a bhikkhu abides in equanimity (upekkhaka), and mindful and fully aware, still feeling pleasure with the body, he enters upon and abides in the third jh" ana, on account of which noble ones announce: ‘He has a pleasant abiding who has equanimity (upekkhaka) and is mindful.’ … Again, with the abandoning of pleasure (sukha) and pain (dukkha), and with the previous disappearance of joy (somanassa) and grief (domanassa), a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the fourth jh" ana, which has neither-pain-nor-pleasure and purity ").3 of mindfulness due to equanimity (upekkha

"na formula, p" According to the usual jha iti (rapture) and sukha "nas; p" (pleasure) are both present in the first and second jha iti fades "na; the fourth jha "na is free from sukha, dukkha away in the third jha " (equa(pain), somanassa (joy) and domanassa (dejection); upekkha "nas. It is not clear when nimity) is present in the third and fourth jha ". somanassa and domanassa disappear. The Uppat tika Sutta in the . ipa "ya provides a different forIndriya Sam . yutta of the Sam . yutta Nika mulation of this issue.4 This text says that the arisen dukkha faculty "na; the arisen (dukkhindriya) ceases without remainder in the first jha
Lamotte (1988: 152). "mehi vivicca e.g. M I 181–182; S V 307; A I 163–164; D I 73–75: vivicc’ eva ka "nam upasampajja viharati. The full formula is akusalehi dhammehi … catuttham . jha included in note 5. 4 I am grateful to Mr L.S. Cousins for drawing my attention to this text.
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domanassa faculty (domanassindriya) ceases without remainder in the "na; the arisen sukha faculty (sukhindriya) ceases without second jha "na; the arisen somanassa faculty (somaremainder in the third jha "na; the arisen nassindriya) ceases without remainder in the fourth jha " faculty (upekkhindriya) ceases without remainder in the upekkha "vedayitanirodha, a stage that goes beyond the jha "nas and the san ˜n ˜a "ya all yutta Nika four formless meditative attainments.5 In the Sam . 6 " the above faculties are referred to as feelings (vedana). In sutta 36 of the Indriya Sam . yutta (S V 209), the sukha faculty is defined as "ta) bodily (ka "yika) feeling; the dukkha faculty is decomfortable (sa "ta) bodily feeling; the somanassa faculty is fined as uncomfortable (asa defined as comfortable mental (cetasika) feeling; the domanassa " faculty is defined as uncomfortable mental feeling. The upekkha faculty is defined thus: ‘‘Whatever feeling there is, whether bodily "yika) or mental (cetasika), that is neither comfortable (sa "ta) nor (ka " refers to "ta).’’7 Accordingly, bodily upekkha uncomfortable (asa " bodily feeling free from sukha and dukkha, while mental upekkha refers to mental feeling free from somanassa and domanassa. In the "na, dukkha probably means any unpleasant physical context of jha feelings such as those given by Spiro’s (1982: 55) Burmese informants, including pain and itching. Likewise, sukha probably means any pleasant physical feelings such as a feeling of lightness and a pervading warmth mentioned by Bucknell (1993: 391). Likewise, somanassa and domanassa may refer to any pleasant and unpleasant mental feelings respectively.
5 " S V 213–215: idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vivicc’ eva kamehi vivicca akusalehi dha" . vivekajam " . upasampajja mmehi savitakkam itisukham . savicaram . p" . pat . hamam . jhanam viharati, ettha c’ uppannam . dukkhindriyam . aparisesam . nirujjhati. . . idha, bhikkhave, " anam " . vupasam " ajjhattam " " . " bhikkhu vitakkavicar a . sampasadanam . cetaso ekodibhavam " . samadhijam " " . upasampajja viharati, avitakkam itisukham . avicaram . p" . dutiyam . jhanam ettha c’ uppannam . domanassindriyam . aparisesam . nirujjhati . . . idha, bhikkhave, bhik" ca virag "a " upekkhako ca viharati sato ca sampajano " sukhan˜ ca kayena " khu p" itiya " " " " " pat isam vedeti yam tam ariy a acikkhanti ‘upekkhako satim a sukhavih ar i ’ ti tatiyam . . . . . " . upasampajja viharati, ettha c’ uppannam jhanam . sukhindriyam . aparisesam . nirujjhati. . . "a " dukkhassa ca pahan "a " pubb’ eva somaidha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sukhassa ca pahan " . atthagama " adukkhamasukham " " nassadomanassanam arisuddhim . upekkhasatip . catut" tham jh anam upasampajja viharati, ettha c’ uppannam somanassindriyam aparisesam . . . . . " asan˜n˜ " " nirujjhati. . . idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sabbaso nevasan˜n˜ an ayatanam . sam" atikkamma san˜n˜avedayitanirodham . upasampajja viharati, ettha c’ uppannam . upekkhindriyam . aparisesam . nirujjhati. 6 " ca, bhikkhave, pan˜ca vedana? " sukhindriyam S IV 232: katama . , dukkhindriyam ., somanassindriyam . , domanassindriyam . , upekkhindriyam . . See also S V 209. 7 "yikam " cetasikam " n’ Tr. Bodhi (2000: 1681). S V 209: yam . kho bhikkhave ka . va . va "tam "sa "tam eva sa . na . vedayitam ..

Buddhaghosa explains "na formula thus: ‘he feels sukha with the body’ in the jha "maka "ya). Bodhi (2000: 1935) says. kha "na is inter"n akkhandha ). ‘‘The pleasure faculty (sukhindriya) here is bodily pleasant feeling. .288 TSE-FU KUAN ". tattha katamo kayo? " ". not the happiness (also called sukha) the meditator is said "na. ‘the body’ is defined as the three incorporeal aggregates: the aggregate of apperception "kkhandha). 269. ceases in the second jha ‘‘This seems difficult to square with the usual jh" ana formula. including domanassa. Because he would feel sukha associated with his mental body (na "na as his or because he would feel sukha while emerging from the jha "domanassa " pa "paka " akusala " dhamma ". There are some difficulties with what is said in the Uppat tika .’’ In the to ‘experience with the body’ in the third jha . In his Visuddhimagga. Trying to make the sukha faculty ceases in the third jha sense of this ‘paradox’. . ipa Sutta: (1) Commenting on the statement that the domanassa faculty "na. e. Ven. .10 Thus sukha in the third jha (vin˜n ˜a .9 but the Uppat ip a t ika Sutta says that the usual jha . . sukham . "na according to (2) One feels sukha with the body in the third jha " "na formula. Bodhi (2000: 1935) says. a Therav" ada Abhidhamma text. Ven. sam vin˜n˜an . upasampajja viharati). 10 "yena pat Vibh 259: sukhan˜ ca ka i ti tattha katamam . D I 70: abhijjha "yena pat sukhan˜ ca ka isam vedeti. cet" . Vibhan ga. . which is identical with the definition of somanassa in this text (will be discussed later). . isam . "na. which indicates that the first jh" ana is already free from all unwholesome states. idam " " asikam san˜n˜ akkhandho . jha . satam .g. the aggregate of volitional formations (san ˜n ˜a "rakkhandha) and the aggregate of consciousness (sam . vuccati sukham . . ? yam . preted as mental feeling and ‘the body’ is interpreted as the ‘mental body’. 9 8 . ha"nam "na formam . sukha in the expression ‘he feels sukha with the body’ is defined as mental pleasure. and that the jha mula is often preceded by a formula on sense restraint as a "nas. akkhandho. M I 180. . which includes domanassa in evil preliminary to the jha 8 unwholesome states. vedet" .’’ This remark is in "na formula says accordance with the facts that the usual jha "na having been secluded from that one enters the first jha unwholesome states (vivicca akusalehi dhammehi … pat . kharakkhandho.

. states: ‘‘The dejection (*daurmansya. vedeyya. o. kha.thanen’ .thito pi sukham . The somanassa) faculty ceases without remainder in the third dhya " tassa namak " " " tam Vism 163: yasma ayena sampayuttam . as opposed to rupak 599. and allowed it to be understood as a physical body. The usual before the moment of attaining the fourth jha "na formula. For example." " phut " jhan "a " vut " " " ayo rupak aya . ta(rasa)-s´a A pi tan gan lu wei lun). says that one enters upon the fourth jha "na ‘with the disappearance of somanassa and domanassa’ jha "nam "). To take sukha in the third jha a mental feeling seems to be the only way to explain why one "na while there is no sukha (a can feel sukha in the third jha "na according to the Uppabodily feeling) in the third jha " t ip a t ika Sutta . Pali dukkha) faculty ceases "na. which is attributed to the ( Sarv" astiv" adins by Takakusu (1905: 139). atta .CLARIFICATION ON FEELINGS IN BUDDHIST 289 physical body would have been pervaded by the exceedingly excellent material arising from the sukha associated with his mental body.’11 Here Buddhaghosa was apparently hesitant about categorically explaining ‘the body’ as a mental body. which cease at some stage/stages before the fourth jha "na. . . yukta Agama. tam . including the " counterpart of the Uppat ip a t ika Sutta . ipa "na. many sutras of the Indriya Sam . samut . "nas – a bodily one and a mental one. " "na as faculty ceases in this jhana. Pali without remainder in the second dhya "na. See Vism 598– " aya refers to the mental aspect of an individual. which implies that somanassa still exists in the fourth jha "na. The pain (*duh the first dhya . Pali domanassa) faculty ceases without remainder in "na.. Namak " . are missing in the Chinese . Therefore. . (3) The Uppat tika Sutta says that the somanassa faculty ceases . the *Abhidharma . " " " " atipan " namak ayasampayuttam assa yasma itena rupena . sukham . va . there have to be two kinds of sukha . could be the third jha " Unfortunately. . sukham . . isam . yassa phut . The problems in the jha "nas will with the Therav" ada interpretation of sukha in the jha be discussed in detail later. second jha "na or even earlier. The joy (*saumanasya. pat . however. atthagama parently means that one’s somanassa and domanassa already "na. yam . which ap(pubbe va somanassadomanassa . 11 . but the foregoing account in this sutta is quoted in several later texts of various traditions in Chinese "mr "stra translation. " translation of the Sam . ". This reflects the difficulty "na in the usual formula in interpreting sukha of the third jha " while accepting the Uppat ip a t ika Sutta account that the sukha . yukta.

Cousins for this reference.).. which is dated to The earliest among them is the *Abhidharma .D. 979b: T 32. 15 T 30. and also in the Yoga di lun) of the Yog" ac" ara school. Al.t . 13 12 . faculty and the second dhya 14 antikas according It was composed by Harivarman. 285b: Here the duh . above references to the relationship between the faculties and the jha 16 T 30." " a ntikas according to Ven. but to the B" ahus´ rut" iyas according to Buswell and Jaini (1996: 94). hi bhagavata . the bodily feeling "na. This sukha is expected to be still present in the third jha "na formula. for . . par" itaka Sutra.15 The *Tattvasiddhi indicates that it is "ca "rabhumi " ’ and the Yoga " quotes it from the Avisaid in the ‘Sutra " ( Wu dao jing. This conforms with the usual jha "na formula. (1968: 574).290 TSE-FU KUAN pleasure (*sukha) faculty ceases without remainder in the fourth "na. 17 "ne sukhendriyam caturthe ca dhya . first jha according to which one is free from unwholesome states. dhya "syotpannam ‘atra saumanasyendriyam aparis´es am nirudhyata iti.S. . the account in the Uppat tika Sutta (hereafter ‘Pali version’). including domanassa. .t . does not agree with the order found in the Uppat tika Sutta. nirudhyata’ ity uktam.16 Part of the passage in question par" itaka Sutra ". "na. ta(rasa)-s´a the first half of the second century A. 331a: (‘‘As Bhagavat says thus in the Avi" ’’). t" .’’ (Ak-P 440) The order in which various feelings cease according to these texts ". who belonged to the D" ars .18 the account of though these texts are later than the Pali Nika "nas preserved in the relationship between the faculties and the jha " these texts could date back to the time when the Agamas and the "yas were compiled in that it is cited from a ‘sutra " ’. Yinshun to Lu antika-D" ars t ¨ (1982: 172) or to the Sautr" ." 14 " "ca "rabhumi " ( Yu qie shi Bahus´ rut" yas. Cheng shi lun) of the D" ars antikas or the *Satyasiddhi-s´a .’’12 The same account13 is found in the *Tattvasiddhi (or dhya "stra. and so there is no need to tallies with the usual jha T 28. when entering the first jha (2) According to the Avipar" itaka version. by Kritzer (1996: 489). 331a: . kha "na are not mentioned. 18 "mr "stra. ipa "yas. " is also cited in the Abhidharmakos´abha in the Avipar" itaka Sutra sya: " Avipar" "nam uktva " " ‘‘uktam itakasutre tr iyam . ipa the foregoing three difficulties with the Pali version are not found in " account: the Avipar" itaka Sutra (1) The Avipar" itaka version says that domanassa ceases in the "na. I am grateful to Mr Yuwen Yang and Mr Kin-tung Yit for the "nas. 17 I am grateful to Mr L. This account Nika (hereafter ‘Avipar" itaka version’) appears to be more plausible than ".

) However.tika Sutta and Avipar" Comparison of the usual jha itaka . (3) According to the Avipar" itaka version. Table 1. . ipa "tra Su "na formula usual jha ". somanassa and doma"na. In the usual jha "na par" itaka version and the usual jha formula. I shall investigate how various Buddhist "na as found in the schools interpret the above mental factors of jha later literature.CLARIFICATION ON FEELINGS IN BUDDHIST 291 postulate a mental sukha apart from the sukha faculty. jha "na formula with the passage in (For a comparison of the usual jha " " question in the Uppat ip a t ika Sutta and Avipar" itaka Sutra see . dukkha (somanassa domanassa abandoned previously) 2nd jh" ana 3rd jh" ana 4th jh" ana p" iti sukha " sukha upekkha " upekkha domanassa sukha somanassa dukkha somanassa sukha . This nassa disappear at the stages before the fourth jha "na in the usual conforms with the description of the fourth jha "na formula. TABLE 1 "na formula with the Uppat ". the expression ‘with the abandoning of sukha and dukkha … "na’ seems to suggest that one abana bhikkhu enters the fourth jha dons both sukha and dukkha at the moment of entering the fourth "na. ipa Sutta Abandoned dukkha "taka Avipara " Sutra Abandoned domanassa Present 1st jh" ana p" iti sukha Abandoned akusala-dhammas (including domanassa) p" iti sukha. A similar paradox was discussed by the ceases in the second jha later Buddhist literature. and will return to this paradox. there is an apparent contradiction between the Avi"na formula. a bodily sukha. whereas according to the Avipar" jha itaka version dukkha already "na.tika Uppat .

ikas. Sarv" astiv" adins and Sautr" antikas. Kragh (2002: 149). There are three versions ". " extant in Chinese translations: (i) the *Vibha ".19 The Therav" erature referred to here includes the canonical Abhidhamma works and the Visuddhimagga by Buddhaghosa.D. ka..D. which is closely connected "ya-commentaries. in 383 A. 19 . 22 Willemen et al. the Vibha sa "naprastha "na was compiled 500 years after the with the Jn˜ a 21 Buddha’s death or during the reign of King Kanis .. Kanis . He indicates: ‘‘Cox suggests that the term may be better understood as referring to a variety of ideas that deviate from mainstream Sarv" astiv" ada. According to the tradition. by Lamotte (1988: 585). " literature as the commentary on the Jn˜ a (2) The Vibha sa "na. ".’’ 20 Von Hinu ¨ ber (1997: 125).D. The third translation appears to be based on a rather late version since While Sautr" antika is generally considered to be a school that developed within the Sarv" astiv" ada sect. sa) translated by Xuanzang in 656–659 A. 23 Yinshun (1968: 208). and seems to quote from the old comto the Nika mentaries more extensively than the extant commentaries do.292 TSE-FU KUAN EXEGESES BY LATER BUDDHIST LITERATURE The literature that will be discussed here concerns the opinions of the ada litTherav" adins. Kragh (2002: 149).D. "na". of the Vibha sa sa"stra ( Pi po sha lun) translated by Sam ghabhadra s´a . the last canonical work of the Sarv" prastha astiv" ada ".22 The first translation is only a partial translation. Kritzer (2003: 201–202) emphasises that it is not a sect. ". one of the canonical Abhidharma works. or the *Mahavibha. (1998: 118). (ii) the *Abhidharmavibha sa A pi tan pi po sha lun) translated by Bud( dhavarman in 437–439 A. not to a consistent and formal school.20 The Sarv" astiv" ada works that I will use fall into the following three categories: "da-s´a "stra] ( (1) The [Abhidharma]Dharmaskandha[pa A pi da mo fa yun zu lun).23 and its discussion of our topic seems incomplete. As ". " along Abhidharma. 21 Willemen et al (1998: 116–117). (iii) the *Abhidharma"vibha ". "-s´a "stra ( A pi da mo da pi po sha maha sa " " " lun. ka is dated approximately 128–151 A. "-s´a "stra et al. the orthodox Sarv" followers of the Vibha sa astiv" adins in Kashmir are called the Vaibh" as .

" . cetosamphassaja . bodily pleasure. 567. Yinshun (1968: 493ff.24 the influence of the Maha Therefore. daya treatises as summary digests of non-Vaibh" .t . vedayitam . (3) The Hr as . ikas’’. 27 ´ e Poussin (1988: 3).D. daya-s´a A pi tan xin lun) by Dharmas´ res ) ( . "na factor (an ga). gan lu wei lun) by Ghos aka in the second century A. easeful pleasant feeling Willemen et al. thus in the Vibhan ga. This is called pleasure.D. ika "stra Sarv" astiv" ada doctrine: (i) the *Abhidharmahr .CLARIFICATION ON FEELINGS IN BUDDHIST 293 "ya "na may be noticed there. Kragh (2002: 150). 26 Kritzer (1996: 489). sukha is defined tioned in the usual jha . satam . " idam cetosamphassajam . satam . (1998: 119). Although this treatise describes itself as ‘‘a presentation of the Abhidharma as taught by the Vaibh" as . yukta ."stra is based on this text. easeful pleasant experience born of mental contact. . Thit . ta(rasa)-s´a 26 Ven. a Therav" ada Abhidhamma text: ‘‘That which is mental ease. easeful pleasant feeling born of mental contact. which refers to the sukha menand sukha as a jha "na formula. cetasikam second and third jha . sukham .25 "mr "stra ( (iii) the *Abhidharma A pi tan . "nas respectively): yam " .. I shall refer to the Abhidharmako". I will mainly use the second translation. sukham " sat "a " sukha " vedana.’’28 This definition is exactly the same as the definition of the somanassa faculty (Vibh 123). which will also be referred to in daya-s´a my discussion below. (ii) the "bhidharmahr Za a pi tan xin lun) *Sam . 25 24 ..hin (Dharmas´ r" around the beginning of the third century A.t . Dessein (2003: 291–292)..ila (2002: 335). daya ( by Dharmatr" ata in the beginning of the fourth century A. As a jha "na factor. Sukha The Therav" adins differentiate between the sukha faculty (sukhindriya) .) demonstrates that the *Abhidharmahr . Kragh (2002: 149–150). its author has evident 27 sympathies for the Sautr" atikas. de La Valle 28 Tr.D. easeful pleasant experience born of bodily contact.D. As to the Sautr" antika views. s´abha sya by Vasubandhu in the fourth or fifth century A. vuccati sukham . mental pleasure. Vibh 257–259 (para. 578 and 587 for the first. cetasikam . while the sukha faculty is defined thus: ‘‘That which is bodily ease.

30 "na or complete The later Pali literature makes a distinction between full jha ") and access concentration (upaca "ra-sama "dhi). i. Here arises a question: Which jha "na or jha "nas have the sukha jha faculty? The Visuddhimagga says that the sukha faculty can arise in "na proper because in "na access. not the sukha faculty. dose . is the sukha faculty as bodily feeling and the sukha as a jha which is a mental one. "na. kayas" . See DOP s. sukham . the sukha faculty is present "na. . in the first two jha "nas there and even the first jha "na factor. the first two jha two kinds of sukha: a mental one and a bodily one! However.30 but not in the third jha the third jha "na the condition for the sukha faculty. Making such a distinction between mental sukha and bodily sukha can avoid the following contradiction: Sukha "na according to the usual jha "na formula.’’29 In other words.ila (2002: 161). Gethin stage of concentration preceding appana (1998: 177). it does not seem very clear how the first two jha "na meditation. satam . appana " and upaca "ra. Vibh 123: yam . If this is the case. vuccati sukhindriyam . .t . "nas: Sukha in the first three the Vibhan ga interpretation of the four jha " jhanas refers to the somanassa faculty. satam . that is to say in the second jha "na before one enters the third jha "na. If so.v. the . sukham " " sat "a " sukha " vedana ". the first book of the Therav" not include the sukha faculty in the list of the mental factors of the "nas. kayikam . whereas exists in the third jha " the Uppat ip a t ika Sutta says that the sukha faculty ceases in the third .294 TSE-FU KUAN born of bodily contact. vedayitam . Thit . while sukha mentioned in the 29 " " . "na. The sukha faculty "na in the Uppat ". By inference. ipa bodily pleasant feeling.32 After all. has ceased 31 entirely.. p" the third jha iti. sukha in the first three "nas as stated in the usual jha "na formula is in fact somanassa. which is said to cease in the third jha tika Sutta is a . 31 Vism 166. kayasamphassaj . the preliminary concentration (appana ". We can infer from this that the sukha faculty is present in "nas because p" "nas have the first two jha iti is there. 161. We can find a confusion in . 32 Dhs §§160. jha mental pleasant feeling. Dhammasan gan ada Abhidhamma. idam amphassajam a . The Vibhan ga explains sukha here as the sukha faculty fourth jha and somonassa as the somanassa faculty. kayikam " " Tr. Therav" adins associate the sukha faculty with jha "na formula speaks of the abandoning of sukha and The usual jha the previous disappearance of somonassa in its description of the .

CLARIFICATION ON FEELINGS IN BUDDHIST 295 "na refers to the sukha faculty. also says that sukha in the .33 and somanassa mentioned fourth jha "na is identical with sukha in the first three jha "nas. thus: ‘‘The body refers to the ‘body of the mind’ (*manaska Because the sukha feeling is present in the body of the mind. ska " work.35 The Dharmaskandha. not sukha as text indicates that this sukha is sukha as feeling (vedana astiv" ada distinction of sukha in the three prasrabdhi. dhya . in the fairly short usual jha changes its meaning.34 Another Sarv" astiv" ada tional formations (*sam . whereas [sukha] in the first two dhya "nas is feeling (vedana sukha as tranquillity (prasrabdhisukha). 312c: *Abhidharmavibha ). "na is pleasure as *prasrabdhi rather than pleasure as feeling first dhya "). and belongs to the aggregate of voli"ra-skandha).’’36 The "). " " " " According to the *Vibha. explains ‘he feels sukha with the body’ in the third dhya "ya).sa "-s´a "stra (T 28. 35 T 28.’’ 34 T 28. 484b: See also ". and can even mean the same as another term in the formula! The Sarv" astiv" adins also distinguish the sukha faculty from sukha as "na factor.. that is. Moreover. . the Sarv" astiv" adins also deny that sukha as a dhya "nas is the same as the sukha faculty. a canonical Sarv" astiv" adin Abhid(*vedana "na harma text. sa-s´astra. the body made of the four great elements also becomes comfortable. . dravya "sukham "nayos tu prasrabdhisukham a "dyayoh vedana . 37 T 26. 924b: 36 T 26. 484b: . they even deny that sukha in the first two 33 This shift is recognised by Gunaratana (1985: 95): ‘‘Now the sukha spoken of as "nas is mental pleasant feeling. dhya sya: ‘‘Why is sukha "na said to be a different thing? Because it is sukha as in the third dhya "sukha). but in a different manner from the Therav" a jha adins. the factor of the first three dhya bodily feeling. t" . 484b: Both and are standard translations of prasrabdhi. the *Sam yukt a bhidharmahr daya . sukha of the first two dhyanas as "na formula refers to pleasure as trandescribed in the usual dhya quillity (*prasrabdhi-sukha).’’38 "na Accordingly... a factor of the first three jha "na description the sukha which is said to be abandoned as a … But in the fourth jha "na has undergone a shift in meaning: it now signifies bodily pre-requisite for the jha pleasure or physical happiness. .37 The Sarv" "nas is made clear in the Abhidharmakos´abha ". somanassa or joy. in the fourth jha "na formula the very same term Therefore. 38 "t tr "ne sukham "ntaram ucyate? yasma "t tad Ak-P 438: kasma iye dhya .

the *Maha "vibha ". "pannasya [pan˜ca]vijn˜a "naka "ya "bha "va "t.296 TSE-FU KUAN "nas is feeling (vedana "). ". but it occurs in both Chinese translations of the text (T 29. sukham abhipretam . ka . kos´abha sya: "na attainments. He says that the compilation of this text might have commenced before the first century B. vica iti. ya a . The five factors refer to vitarka. sukha and cittaika This passage implies that all the five factors arise simultaneously.43 The five classes of consciousness refer to the five kinds of consciousness conditioned by the first five sense organs in Buddhist classification of psychology. Because the [five]39 classes of the bodily [sukha] does not apply to the two [dhya consciousness is absent in one who has attained absorption. For pr" iti is saumanasya (joy). a dhya . The translation of a later version of the ". and mental feeling as feeling based on the ground of mind (*mano" bhumikatva ). For Because the sukha faculty does not apply to the [first] two dhya "nas].41 tioned [with reference to the dhya It is necessary to elucidate what bodily feeling and mental feeling refer to here. pr" yujyate. 41 "nasama "pattyoh "yoga "t. the sentence would mean that one who has attained absorption has no consciousness.C. feeling based on the five classes of consciousness is regarded as bodily. categories and controversies of both the Vaibh" a.42 explains bodily *Abhidharmavibha sa sa feeling as feeling based on the five classes of consciousness. sukhendriya . 298b: ). is mental. *Abhidharmavibha The passage referred to here is cited from the fourth chapter. are missing in the translation of the ". The reason is given in the Abhidharmadhya ". the mind (manas). " in a similar context: ma Arthavinis´caya-sutra . being excluded. tongue and the tactile organ) are related to the physical "-s´a "stra. "-s´a "stra. 599a: . but are preserved in the translation of the later version. and there is no coexistence of sukha and saumanasya. feeling based on the ‘sixth sense’. and never alternately. Neither "nas because the five factors40 are mencan they arise alternately in those two dhya "nas]. sama itivacana itir . Ak-S 1142). sika and the Sautr" antika schools’’ (Avs: Introduction 137–140). par"yen "ne vr " pan˜ca "ngavacan _ "d iti. the mindconsciousness. ear. 43 T 27. pr" "grata " (Ak-P 437). 39 The word ‘five’ (pan˜ca) is not found in the two editions of the text available to me (Ak-P 438. na "pi caitasikam "t. ttir yukta 42 The fourth to eighth chapters. na ca . Moreover. na ka "pannasya pan˜cavijn "naka "ya "bha "va "t. pan˜ca is found in a passage in the definitely does not apply to the dhya "nasam "yikam. 40 "ra. with the sixth consciousness. or skandhas. 147a: T 29. na ca sukhasaumanasyayor yaugapadyam asti. Neither is [sukha of the "nas] a mental one because pr" first two dhya iti (rapture) is mentioned [there]. Since the first five sense organs (the eye. On the other hand. Without the word ‘five’. which "nas. (Avs 184–185) This text is attributed by sama ˜a Santati to the Sarv" astiv" ada ‘‘in a broader sense comprising the doctrines. pr" "pi tayoh hi saumanasyam. nose. (Avs: Introduction 65). na hi tat tayoh "yikam Ak-P 438: dvayor dhya .

and it "ya) as mentioned above. Therefore the sukha faculty in the third dhya " whereas the sukha faculty according to the Avipar" itaka Sutra is a bodily feeling. This stiv" adins. 28. and they contend that sukha cannot coexist with saumanasya. 147: 464a: 823c: 823c: 823c: . The reason why they cannot coexist is not clear. including dhya "nas have Neither can it be a mental feeling because the first two dhya pr" iti. in the third dhya can exist there. dhya "na is a mental feeling. . saumanasya. Which levels have the sukha faculty according lower levels of dhya "vibha ". the Abhidharmakos´abha sya reads: ‘‘Because two feelings cannot function simultaneously in a single mind. Here sukha is a mental feeling since the five classes of consciousness related to the body do not work in absorptions.. i. so sukha as a mental feeling pr" iti. not work in one who has attained absorption. says that the sukha faculty ceases in the fourth dhya "na. The a dhya " Avipar" itaka Sutra account. 28. " to the Sarv" astiv" adins? There is no simple answer. or the sukha faculty.47 but the sukha faculty in the first dhya "na is said to be based on the ground of sukha faculty in the third dhya "na). daya-s´a 46 "nas. It cannot be a bodily feeling since the five classes of consciousness related to the body do "nas. 27. is felt with the ‘body of the mind’ (*manaska "nas is sukha as Here arises a question: In none of the first three dhya "na factor a bodily pleasant feeling. The *Maha sa says that the sukha faculty only exists in the realm of sense-desire. the "stra also "nas. the mind (manas).e. Here the mentions the sukha faculty in the first and third dhya "na is said to be a bodily feeling.48 This implies that the sukha mind-consciousness (*manovijn˜ a "na refers to sukha as a factor of the third faculty in the third dhya "na for both are dependent on the sixth sense. which is identified with saumanasya by the Sarv" astiv" adins. daya-s´a "na is a bodily feeling’’ account that ‘‘the sukha faculty in the first dhya 44 45 46 47 48 T T T T T 29.. which is acknowledged by the Sarv" a"na. 28. Xuanzang’s new translation of ".45 The *Abhidharmahr first and the third dhya .’’44 This probably means that it is impossible for two mental feelings to coexist. or even implies that the sukha faculty is present in the third dhya "na. "stra’s Apart from this inconsistency. the *Abhidharmahr . There is no "na. whether bodily or mental.CLARIFICATION ON FEELINGS IN BUDDHIST 297 "nas The Sarv" astiv" adins maintain that sukha in the first two dhya cannot be a feeling.

u. Then they rebut the dhya T 28. anbodily sukha is established as a factor (an ga)’. so there is no bodily feeling. but only the three dhya . See below. including the first dhya "mr "stra. and mind-consciousness.298 TSE-FU KUAN "stiva "da view that the five classes of apparently contradicts the Sarva consciousness related to the body do not work in on who has attained "na. the author of the Abhidharmakos´abha sya has evident sympathies for the Sautr" atika opinions. 55 "huh "sty eva caitasikam Ak-P 439: apare punar a . In the Abhidharmakos´abha sya. tris . 54 T 41. ". … 53 Akvy 673. the Abhidharmakos´abha sya explicitly states: ‘‘There are "na: sukha is three feelings with regard to rebirth in the first dhya 52 associated with three classes of consciousness. Similarly.’’51 The sukha faculty is associated with the first three kinds of consciousness related to the body as mentioned above. 975a: There is a correspondence between Buddhist cosmology and meditative states. sukhendriyam . This is dhya "stra’s exposition of the first implied in the *Abhidharmahr . "naka "yikam Ak-P 442: prathamadhya h: sukham . absorption. vyavastha "pitam iti. and regard it as only bodily. also says The even earlier text. daya-s´a "na. v api hi "nes _ . the *Abhidharma . which mentions the ‘Brahm" ) before saying. body(tactile organ)-consciousness. ta(rasa)-s´a "na there is the sukha faculty associated with three that in the first dhya classes of consciousness.’’55 Thus the Sautr" tikas identify the sukha faculty with sukha as a factor of the first three "nas. ‘others’ (apare) refute the foregoing "nas is prasrabdhi and sukha of views that sukha of the first two dhya "na is mental feeling. ear-consciousness and body(tactile organ)-consciousness. not mental. 823c: 52 "notpattau tisro vedana ".54 As mentioned Sautr" antikas by Yas´ omitra53 and Puguang ". : na . ear‘‘The first dhya consciousness. dhya ayikam eva sukham angam . This text reads: ‘‘Others said. above. The reason is the sukha faculty in the first dhya that although the Sarv" astiv" adins hold that the five classes of con"nas in sciousness do not work in one who has attained the dhya meditation. 423a-b. …’’ ". they contend that one who has been reborn in the first "na as heaven50 can have four kinds of consciousness. trivijn˜ a . namely the eye-consciousness.49 This implies that "na is a bodily feeling. 51 T 28. dhya a world’ ( "na has fourfold mind: the eye-consciousness. ‘In "nas there is no mental sukha faculty at all. k" 50 49 . This refutation is attributed to the the third dhya .

sama "dhivis´es Ak-P 439: sama . sa . 423b.’’60 For the Sautr" T 41.hah . i. The Sautr" antikas also criticise the Sarv" astiv" adins for inter"nas as prasrabdhi (tranquillity). vedayata’’ iti svas´abdena vacana " ko gun sk" ayeneti cet. caitasikam . jn˜akena sukhavedan" . which is named antikas it is not a prasrabdhi and to be felt as sukha. If [one interprets ‘with the body’ as]: ‘‘with the body sukha with the body (ka "yena). the name ‘Sautr" antikas’ come from their position towards the scripture on which they depend " . .’’59 This implies that if sukha in the first two dhya referred to prasrabdhi. what merit [should be] by saying so?58 of the mind’’ (manaska As Yoshifumi (2003: 322–324) points out. katamat? yat … ka . ‘‘sukhendriyam . but do not recognise the authority of the Abhidharwell as sutras "stra. a pa .a 57 56 . preting sukha in the first two dhya "na.e. manapa . u ka ". Why? (1) Because in all other schools the text only reads ‘bodily’. "yikam "tam " uktam Ak-P 439: sutra .CLARIFICATION ON FEELINGS IN BUDDHIST 299 "stiv" " authenticity of a sutra (attributed to the Sarva adins by Puguang56) that defines the sukha faculty as pleasant bodily and mental feeling:57 This text is interpolated. ‘‘sukham "yena pratisam "c ca. where prasrabdhi is saying. ka . ca ka . veditam … ’’ iti. the sutras " . The Sautr" mas´a antikas. .tha "t. but sukha is not there dhya "na formula and the Avipar" " . rabdhisam iyena va . kena . 59 "ne prasrabdhibhuyastve "vacana "c ca. They say. evam uktva ah ? . 58 "ropita es "t "pi? sarvanika "ya "ntares "yikam ity eve Ak-P 439: adhya . " Ak-P 439: caturthe dhya ’pi sukha 60 "pannasya katham "yavijn˜ a "nam iti cet. according to the usual dhya itaka Sutra The Sautr" antikas object that the five kinds of consciousness related "nas and conseto the body are absent in one who has entered dhya quently bodily feeling is also absent. the even higher degree of prasrabdhi in the fourth "na would also be referred to as sukha. and they recognise the authority of the Vinaya as most. It is obvious that the Sautr" antika opinion also disagree "na is a mental with the Therav" ada view that sukha in the third dhya feeling which is to be experienced by the three incorporeal aggregates "maka "ya) as mentioned or is associated with the ‘mental body’ (na above. (2) And because the [canonical] statement in its own words is ‘‘And he feels "yena)’’. ajena pras"yuna " ka "yaspharan "t. reject the Sarv" astiv" ada theory that sukha as a factor of the third "na is a mental feeling which is to be experienced by the ‘body of dhya the mind’. . ‘‘Sukha is not stated in the fourth dhya "nas even greater. ‘‘If [the Sarv" astiv" adins ask]: ‘How is there bodily consciousness in one who has attained absorption?’ [There is bodily consciousness] because the body is pervaded by the wind which is born of special concentration. sticking to the earliest canonical texts.

formula and the Avipar" itaka Sutra Somanassa and p" iti The Sarv" astiv" adins hold that the saumanasya faculty is present in the "nas.63 This is in accordance with first two dhya " the Avipar" itaka Sutra account. p. the Dhammasan gan .62 There does not seem to be any passage in the earliest texts saying that the five senses or the "nas. 161. and the Abhidharmakos´abha sya even equate pr" iti of the first two "nas to the saumanasya faculty. "-s´a "stra64 faculty ceases in the third dhya sa ". 572. the Nika the jha "nas.66 aggregate of feeling (*vedana . but not in the others. a Therav" ada Abhid"vatthu. and thus avoid those complexities and even contradictions found in the Sarv" astiv" ada "nas and Therav" ada exegeses. ta(rasa)-s´a . "nas. *Abhidharmahr "stra (T e. which of the first three jha Kv XVIII 8. 63 "mr "stra (T 28.300 TSE-FU KUAN "nas as they do not accept that problem to have bodily sukha in the dhya the five classes of consciousness pertaining to the body are absent in one "nas. a Therav" ada Abhidhamma text. This conforms with the Vibhan ga. 66 T 28. includes the somanassa faculty in the mental factors . daya-s´a 28. the five classes of consciousness stop working in the jha Sautr" antikas may be right in arguing that there is bodily consciousness "nas. "-s´a "stra explicitly states that pr" *Abhidharmavibha sa iti belongs to the "-skandha).i (§§ 160. 64 T 28. 312 a. The *Abhidharmavibha ". A IV 426-427. M I 293. which are higher than the jha mind free from the functioning of the five senses. Their understanding of sukha of the dhya "na formula and the Avipar" " accords with both the usual jha itaka Sutra "na account.61 However. Like the Sarv" who enters the dhya astiv" adins. *Abhidharma . b: 62 61 . holds that the five senses do not work in hamma text. and identify it with the sukha faculty. To sum up. In contrast. the Katha "yas suggest that the first three formless "nas. The views of different schools compared with the usual jha " are summarised in Table 2.65 It is notable that pr" iti also dhya "na according to the usual jha "na formula. 163).g. The ceases in the third dhya ". are to be perceived by a attainments.. 312 a. 65 Ak-P 440: pr" itir eva saumanasyam . 823c). 975a). which says that the saumanasya "na. the and hence bodily sukha in the first three dhya "nas as Sautr" antikas only recognise sukha mentioned in the three dhya bodily feeling. b: Both pr" iti and saumanasya are translated as but they can be distinguished from the contexts. Therefore.

this account is difficult to square with the usual "na formula’s description of the fourth jha "na. As which says that the somanassa faculty ceases in the fourth jha discussed above. The Visud.CLARIFICATION ON FEELINGS IN BUDDHIST 301 TABLE 2 Three schools’ interpretations of sukha compared with canonical passages 1st jh" ana "na usual jha formula Avipar" itaka Sutra " sukha as mental Therav" ada (where sukha feeling = faculty exists somanassa is not clear) sukha as mental feeling = somanassa sukha as mental feeling (= somanassa) felt with the 3 mental khandhas. In the earliest texts.g. p" iti (= Skt pr" iti) is classified under the aggregate "rakkhandha) in the Therav" of volitional formations (sam kh ada . On defines sukha of the first three jha ". the Dhammasan gan i §§62. kha . . sukha faculty ceases sukha faculty = mental feeling felt with man"ya or aska based on "na manovijn˜ a sukha faculty as bodily feeling sukha 2nd jh" ana sukha 3rd jh" ana sukha felt with the body 4th jh" ana sukha is abandoned sukha faculty ceases sukha as bodily feeling is abandoned Sarv" astiv" ada 1) sukha = prasrabdhi „ feeling 2) sukha faculty = bodily feeling sukha faculty as bodily feeling sukha = prasrabdhi „ feeling Sautr" antika sukha faculty as bodily feeling "nas as somanassa (see above). The foregoing is jha summarised in Table 3. the other hand. Abhidhamma. ipa "na. etc. Vism 158: p" itisukhan ti idam . 67 "rakkhandhasan gahita " p" Vism 145: sam iti. a . While the Sarv" astiv" adins contend that pr" iti belongs to the aggregate of feeling. "nas is included in dhimagga explicitly states that p" iti of the first two jha 67 the aggregate of volitional formations. how. e. . this is also in accordance with the Uppat tika Sutta. vuttanayam eva. 148.

68 Another example can be found in sutta 29 of the Vedana " Sam yutta .69 The Sarv" right in classifying pr" iti under the aggregate of feeling. sukha in the first. For example. . p" iti is apparently regarded as a feeling. he trains thus: ‘I will breathe out "m" experiencing p" iti’.g.’’ (p" itipat i assasissa i ti sikkhati. e. they are treated in a different way and cannot be seen as feelings. is treated as a feeling since these three are with sukha and upekkha astiv" adins are discussed in the same manner in this text. isam . a chapter of the Sam yutta Nik a ya devoted to the discus. ipa Sutta pr" iti & sukha exist pr" iti & sukha exist pr" iti fades away sukha exists saumanasya ceases sukha ceases saumanasya = saumanasya = pr" iti pr" iti somanassa = sukha somanassa = sukha somanassa = sukha sukha ceases somanassa ceases ever. 69 68 . It is evident that p" jha iti. but there does not seem to be any support from the earliest texts for their argument that pr" iti refers to the saumanasya faculty. etc. . when the "na "pa "nasati are correlated to the four establish16 exercises of the a "na).tika Uppat .302 TSE-FU KUAN TABLE 3 Two schools’ interpretations of somanassa and p" iti 1st jh" ana 2nd jh" ana 3rd jh" ana 4th jh" ana "na Usual jha formula Avipar" itaka " Sutra Sarv" astiv" ada Therav" ada ". ha will breathe in experiencing p" iti’. are also discussed in this text. and worldly upekkha iti in the first and second "nas is unworldly (nira "misa) p" jha iti. along ". sukha and upekkha "misa) p" dependence on sensual pleasure are called worldly (sa iti. " of feelings.t . M III 84. . ved" " " " p" itipat isam ved i passasiss a m i ti sikkhati ) is assigned to contemplation . Although worldly liberation (vimokkha) and unworldly liberation. second and third "nas is unworldly sukha (S IV 235–236). the exercise ‘‘He trains thus: ‘I ments of mindfulness (satipat . S V 323–324. ". "). p" worldly sukha. Here p" " that arise in sion of feeling (vedana iti.

Here jha "risuddhupekkha " refers to the upekkha " of the fourth jha "na. I follow Ven. Vibh 261: ya 77 "tam "sa "tam Dhs §§ 153. ‘mental equipoise’ (Aung.’’76 Such a definition. In the Dhammasan gan . and e. i.tika Sutta. Such confusion is due to ").74 The Nika incompatible with upekkha 75 " as specific neu" as feeling.72 It is necessary for the tional formations (sam .’’ misinterpreting this equanimity as equanimous feeling (vedan’ upekkha 75 e. Ven. jhana.a In the later Therav" ada literature a distinction is made between up" as feeling (vedanupekkha ") and upekkha " as specific neutrality ekkha " of the "). " of the third and Vibhan ga. 1910: 230). same as tatramajjhattupekkha 72 Aung (1910: 229 – 230) and Gethin (2001: 157). 73 ".77 In other words. amoli’s translation. sukha of "na is the same as somanassa (see above). is perhaps the first text to define upekkha "nas as something similar to specific neutrality stated in the fourth jha "? That which is upekkha ".g. na . neva sa . the trality or sam . amoli (1975: 167) translates it as " as ‘equanimity as specific neutrality’. is not found in the first book . 76 " upekkha " upekkhana " ajjhupekkhana " majjhattata " cittassa. " and the upekkha " faculty (upekkhindriya) are included in the upekkha "na. cetosamphassaja . This also implies that somanassa is present in the third jha 74 This is suggested by Gunaratana (1985: 90 – 91): ‘‘The statement that both "na might create the impression happiness and equanimity are present in the third jha that two different feelings are present simultaneously. upekkhana " later literature: ‘‘What is upekkha ". i §165. sukham .g. C. neutrality of (also meaning ‘equanimity’). 154: cetasikam . the somanassa faculty ceases in the fourth According to the Uppat . The second book of the Pali Abhidhamma.CLARIFICATION ON FEELINGS IN BUDDHIST 303 "/upeks " Upekkha . since according to their Vibhan ga. Both are said to be the pa ". supreme upekkhana mind. but neither upekkha " nor the mental factors of the fourth jha 70 ˜ a "n "’. distinct from feeling. Rhys Davids translates tatramajjhattata ˜ " ‘balance of mind’. N Literally ‘neutral therein upekkha . Vism 161. N an . kha " of the third jha "na as something Therav" adins to interpret upekkha .70 specific neutrality includes upekkha (tatramajjhattupekkha "nas71 and is placed under the aggregate of volithird and fourth jha "rakkhandha). neither pleasant nor unpleasant.73 which is the third jha "yas do speak of " as feeling. In this text upekkha " and the upekkha " of upekkha faculty are both defined as mental (cetasika) neutral feeling. kha . vedayitam . cetosamphassajam . of the Pali Abhidhamma. but do not mention upekkha upekkha "ra. free from somanassa and domanassa. they refer to the feeling . S IV 232. however. which makes mention " only as feeling. adukkhama" adukkhamasukha " vedana ".F. ipa " "na.A. S V 209. 71 "nupekkha " refers to the upekkha " of the third jha "na. the Dhammasan gan .

the lemmas are from the description of the fourth dhya "na formula. "nas as somanassa. " in the third jha "na in the Pali version is perhaps also upekkha ".a volitional formation in the later version of this text. which is incompatible with upekkha ".a . 82 T 2. upekkha "na formula is interpreted by the Therav" " as usual jha adins as ‘upekkha "rakkhandha). ". "na. . 161 and 163. *Abhidharmavibha sa . and Moreover. i has to " from the first three jha "nas. 150. *nira .79 Similar omission of exclude upekkha " is found in Sutta 29 of the Vedana " Sam upekkha . and upekkha 80 "mis . 416c: . 313a: "na’ does not Although the term ‘fourth dhya "na in the usual occur here. yukta " "’ refers Agama preserved in Chinese translation. whereas specific neutrality’ (belonging to sam . the regard to the dhya " as a " here refers to upeks "-s´a "stra says that upeks ". different types of upekkha " with Similarly. 156 and 157 that somanassa " do not coexist.a "nas. 123b: 78 83 T 28. the Vibhan ga identifies sukha of the first three jha ". while that in the fourth dhya "na is to the upeks . Even upeks a of the third . . the Dhammasagan nassa is incompatible with upekkha . according to which the third . ipa "nas. ipa "na still has somanassa. influenced by the Uppat tika Sutta. Therefore. " as the upekkha " in the fourth jha "na which explains unworldly upekkha " without mention of the third jhana. The omission of unworldly called ‘unworldly unworldly81 *upeks .. ‘unworldly80 *upeks . literally ‘non-food’. Likewise. 81 This probably means ‘even more unworldly’. yutta (S IV 237). the Uppat .a . 147.a 83 " " " volitional formation (*sam sk a ropeks a ). as Gunaratana (1985: 99) has pointed out. 146. along with the fourth dhya "na. it is present in all the four "vibha ". the " faculty.a 82 " a ’. is also said to be upeks " as a dhya . jha " of the third and fourth jha "nas found in the In summary. a.78 Since somasections include somanassindriya in these three jha ". In its interpretation of the fourth dhya "na. kha " as feeling (or the upekkha " faculty) only exists in the fourth upekkha "na according to this school. presumably because these or even third jha "nas. .84 As for the upeks *Maha sa . .a " in the third dhya "na.tika Sutta says that somanassa ceases in the fourth jha "na. upekkha "nas in §§160.304 TSE-FU KUAN " faculty is included in the mental factors of the first. the fourth jha "na has two jha ". second. But according to the Sam . . dhya 84 T 27. so implies that somanassa exists in the first three jha 79 It can also be inferred from Dhs §§1. the Sarv" astiv" adins also posit two kinds of upeks .

CLARIFICATION ON FEELINGS IN BUDDHIST 305 TABLE 4 " Two schools’ interpretations of upekkha 1st jh" ana 2nd jh" ana 3rd jh" ana 4th jh" ana Therav" ada " as upekkha "ra sam . daya-s´a "ra. daya (T 28. ska " faculty 2. upeks . dhya sa .a faculty " as 1.a Sarv" astiv" ada ") "vibha ". and sometimes enters the upeks . 823c: dharmahr . Just as in their interpretations of sukha. 86 924c: . upeks . but still the two schools do not agree with each the upekkha other.a ". 924c). . 823c) and *Sam "bhidharmahr s´a . upeks .a "ra sam . harmakos´abha sya does not discuss the Sautr" antika view on this topic. yukta T 28. kha " as 1. The opinions of the first dhya the two schools can be summarised in Table 4. the Sautr" antikas refute such a ‘differ"na entiating’ approach and identify the sukha faculty with sukha as a jha factor in accordance with the earliest texts. It however. only mention the upeks a faculty in the first three dhya .’’ In other words. the Therav" adins and " as a jha "na factor and Sarv" astiv" adins also distinguish between upekkha " faculty. kha " 2. It " " " as a volidoes not interpret upeks a as a dhy a na factor to mean upeks . upekkha faculty " as 1.a "nas. the saumanasya faculty and the upeks . 463a: "bhiSee also *Sam .a faculty " upeks .85 The *Abhidharmahr "nas according to the *Maha "vibha ". one has manifold mind: sometimes ‘‘Secluded from vitarka-vica " one enters the saumanasya faculty. As demonstrated above.a " faculty in its discustional formation. and therefore they can ‘both exist’ in the "na. ska " faculty 2.a faculty arise alternately. yukta .sa (Maha " upeks . daya (T28. the Abhid". upekkha "ra sam . " "nas. upeks . The same theory is probably also intended to apply to second dhya "na although the text does not specify.a "ra sam .a 86 " faculty.a 85 T 27. Unfortunately. nor does it mention the upeks . ). This is explained in the "stra in its exposition of the second dhya "na: *Abhidharmahr . considering that saumafaculty is present in the first two dhya nasya (= pr" iti according to them) exists there. daya"stra (T 28. "stiva "dins believe that the upeks " seems surprising that the Sarva .

it is possible that upekkha Vasubandhu does not accept the way in which the Sarv" astiv" adins in" of the dhya "nas. the upekkha " Since sukha. somanassa exists in the first two jha 87 . This might be called " the ‘Sautr" antika’ approach.87 just as the usual jha and fourth dhya " in the third and fourth jha "nas. taking sutras/suttas as criteria. uaual jha "na Since sukha as well as dukkha is abandoned in the fourth jha "na formula and the Avipar" " according to the usual jha itaka Sutra "na is devoid of not only somanassa and account.. " instead of . they must be devoid of bodily upekkha "na formula makes no mention of upekkha " in the first why the usual jha "nas as there is neither mental nor bodily upekkha " there.a " (Ak-P 438.a " in the jha "nas by elucidating more plausible interpretation of upekkha the earliest texts through those texts themselves. 146c: of the third and fourth dhya . It only mentions upeks " in the lists of factors of the third sion of dhya . domanassa ceases in the first jha "na. the fourth jha " here can domanassa. Here I would like to propose a possibly terpret upeks . one achieves " in the third jha "na.a . "). " of Since there is no passage in the earliest texts that defines upekkha "na as sam " " jha kh a ra and distinguishes it from the upekkh a faculty . ska . . i. 88 As mentioned above.306 TSE-FU KUAN "na.). bodily feeling. but also dukkha and sukha. both the Therav" adins and Sarv" astiv" adins accept that "nas.a ") rather than "ropeks "). As mentioned above. ska . The usual jha " in its adjective form upekkhako in the third jha "na. mentions upekkha "na. In other words. . while mental upekkha " bodily upekkha "na formula first is free from somanassa and domanassa.a influenced by his understanding of the Sarv" astiv" ada interpretation. upekkha " is free from sukha and dukkha. 298a) translates sam . when one enters the third jha "na. Therefore.a "na formula only mentions "nas. Xuanzang’s translation may have been (*upeks (*sam . let us assume that upekkha " mentioned in the (belonging to vedana "na formula is identical with the upekkha " faculty. ac" can be either bodily or mental: cording to the earliest texts. is present in the third jha " referred to here cannot be bodily. Param" "ropeks artha (T 29. Therefore. Therefore. According to the Avipar" itaka Sutra "na and somanassa ceases in account. We can infer from the Avipar" mental upekkha itaka "nas88 and " Sutra account that somanassa exists in the first two jha ".a . The mentions upekkha "na formula speaks of upekkha " again in the fourth jha "na. one has the third jha neither domanassa nor somanassa. and try to usual jha find out if this hypothesis makes sense. Ak-S 1140-1141).a "nas (T 29. upekkha "ropeks ") to translate upeks " in the lists of factors Xuanzang uses (*sam . This can explain have sukha. ska . but the Sanskrit original only has upeks . Since the first three jha "nas prevents the arising of mental upekkha ".e. but it two jha " in the third jha "na as there is mental upekkha "..

kha "na. In striking contrast with a Therav" ada explanation stated later.CLARIFICATION ON FEELINGS IN BUDDHIST 307 TABLE 5 " according to the earliest texts Interpretation of upekkha Abandoned Present 1st jh" ana 2nd jh" ana 3rd jh" ana 4th jh" ana domanassa dukkha somanassa sukha dukkha. The *Abhidharmavibha ".89 which is elsewhere referred to as desire in the realm of (*ka "madha "tu).91 According to this Sarv" " astiv" ada the formless realm (arupadh a opinion. 313b: T 28. whereas the Aviparitaka Sutra says that the duh . kha still "na. equivalent to the realm of sense-desire and attained the dhya "tu). The feeling (like sam kh a ra ) and distinct from the upekkha . or has attained even higher meditative " realm of form (rupadh a "rupyasam "patti).90 In other words. somanassa " sukha. 313a: In Buddhism. duh kha is already abandoned at the moment of entering the . bodily upekkha " mental upekkha refer to both mental and bodily neutral feeling. the *Abhidharmavibha ". the last 89 T 28. sukha. mental upekkha ". 313b: T 28. which implies that duh faculty ceases in the second dhya . Domanassa and Dukkha " ’ (Avipar" While recognising that ‘the sutra itaka version) says that the "na and that the duh daurmanasya faculty ceases in the first dhya . kha "na. and so upekkha " in the usual jha "na formula may usual jha " faculty. somanassa sukha. equivalent to " states called ‘formless attainments’ (a a "tu). the " Avipar" itaka Sutra account on the feelings fits in very well with the "na formula. 91 90 . including those meditative states. "-s´a "stra proposes exists in the first dhya sa four interpretations to reconcile this apparent contradiction. In conclusion. "-s´a "stra faculty ceases in the second dhya sa holds that both faculties cease when one is secluded from desire "ma). there is a correspondence between cosmology and states of mind. " " " first dhyana. and there seems to be no need to inrefer to the upekkha " in the usual jha "na formula as something other than terpret upekkha " " faculty. for the Sarv" astiv" adins sense-desire (*ka these two feelings disappear as soon as one has escaped from the "nas. See Gethin (1998: 119ff). above points I made are summarised in Table 5.

It says that the dukkha faculty has absolutely . Facing whereas the latter says that dukkha ceases in the second jha ". the practitioner has already abandoned the duh .308 TSE-FU KUAN "ra is spoken of as interpretation is noteworthy: ‘‘Here vitarka-vica duh kha . domanassa). and ceases in the second dhya "na as vitarka-vica "ra is abandoned. kha ceases when one is secluded from [the realm of] sense-desire. atthagama "na. kha and sukha are abandoned when one is secluded from the desire [of the realm of] sense-desire. the *Maha duh . T 28. "-s´a "stra raises this quesa similar paradox.’’92 Therefore. . kha faculty ceases "na according to the Avipar" " . Duh . the duh kha faculty exists in the first vitarka-vica .sa This sukha is not found in the later translation. in accordance with the dukkha faculty ceases in the first jha " Uppat ip a t ika Sutta . Why does "na formula] mention the abandoning of duh [the usual jha . the Visuddhimagga holds that the "na. "na since vitarka-vica "ra is present there. kha when "na93?’’94 Five reasons one is secluded from the desire of the third dhya are given here. the *Abhidharmavibha sa tion: ‘‘When secluded from the desire of the realm of sense-desire. 417a-b: ). while the in the second dhya itaka Sutra "na formula mentions the abandoning of dukkha in the usual jha "na. 96 T 28. in this formula somanassa and attaining of the fourth jha domanassa also form a pair. sukha is absolutely abandoned. and their previous disappearance (pubbe "nam ") is also mentioned in the va somanassadomanassa . 313c: "na’ means surmounting the third ‘Secluded from the desire of the third dhya "na and entering the fourth dhya "na. sukha does not yet cease. . dhya "na As mentioned above. The noble people form the conception of duh . ‘with the abandoning of sukha and dukkha’ in the fourth jha "na. These expressions emphasise that the fourth jha "na fourth jha represents a state free from any pleasant and unpleasant feelings.96 secluded from the desire of the third dhya The same reason can be used to explain why the duh . Likewise. dhya 94 T 28. kha in regard to "ra. whether bodily (sukha.’’ (T 27. Although duh . As for the Therav" ada school. dukkha) or mental (somanassa. 313a: 93 92 . sukha is not absolutely abandoned. kha faculty. there is a paradox between the usual jha " formula and the Avipar" itaka Sutra account: the former mentions "na. When one is "na. 95 ": ‘‘Although "vibha ". kha and sukha are a 95 pair. Sukha in the earlier translation is probably redundent. The second one seems quite plausible: Because ‘the pair is abandoned absolutely’ is meant here. 313a: .

98 Therefore. ipa Sutta Therav" ada "na as the practitioner’s body is showered ceased during the first jha iti and sukha with sukha due to pervasion by p" iti. which have vitakka-vica "na access when its the domanassa faculty may arise in the second jha "ra. but it ceases in the seccondition. which is nassa faculty is causally associated with vitakka-vica "na. 98 " upac " pah" " etam " are Vism 166: dutiyajjhan inassa pi domanassindriyassa yasma . with vitarka-vica tions of dukkha and domanassa can be summarised Table 6. rather than the . na tv eva " are appah" ina " pah" " dutiyajjhane. kha ceases) dukkha ceases domanassa exists.tika Uppat . ena sabbo kayo sut .. and so mental injury. ipa "na by arguing that why the domanassa faculty ceases in the second jha the domanassa faculty only arises when there are bodily fatigue and "ra as their condition. This present in the first jha interpretation is in sharp contrast with the foregoing Sarv" astiv" ada interpretation which associates the duh kha faculty. yattha pana uppajjati. the Visuddhimagga explains ..CLARIFICATION ON FEELINGS IN BUDDHIST 309 TABLE 6 Two schools’ interpretations of dukkha and domanassa 1st jh" ana 2nd jh" ana 3rd jh" ana 4th jh" ana "na Usual jha formula Avipar" itaka " Sutra Sarv" astiv" ada daurmanasya ceases duh . vitakka-vica "na for vitakka-vica "ra is absent there. . conditioned by "ra vitakka-vica duh . " eva ca dutiyajjhan " upac " vitakkavicar "a " ti tatth’ assa siya " uppatti. sukhokkantakayassa " Vism 166: p" itipharan ca . kha exists = vitarka"ra (or duh vica .thu niruddham . hoti dukkhindriyam . of the first jha ". inapaccayatta. "ra. is not abandoned. tattha vitakkavicarabh " " vicar ave. and is abandoned in the second jha "na. Also following the Uppat tika Sutta. " " " ca sati uppajjati.97 This implies that p" "na do not allow the presence of the dukkha faculty. The two schools’ interpretadomanassa faculty. the domaond jha "ra. 97 " sukhokkanto hoti. vitakkavitakkavicarapaccaye pi kayakilamathe cittupaghate " abh " ave " ca neva uppajjati. kha ceases as vitarka"ra ceases vica domanassa ceases domanassa ceases as "ra vitakka-vica ceases dukkha ceases ". kha ceases duh .

the Thersukha faculty (bodily feeling) ceases in the third jha "na with somaav" adins are forced to identify sukha of the third jha nassa. When some terms in the canon occur in contexts that contradict their particular tenets or even passages of their own canon. the Sarv" astiv" adins "nas as prasrabdhi rather have to interpret sukha of the first two dhya than feeling because of their tenets that the five classes of con"nas and that sukha as feeling sciousness do not work in the dhya " cannot coexist with priti. which they identify with saumanasya. but sometimes reach different conclusions. metnal feeling. contradiction. For example. kha to vitarka-vica Similarly. avoid ".310 TSE-FU KUAN EXAMINATION OF THE TWO SCHOOLS’ EXEGETIC APPROACHES It would be worthwhile to have a review of the above interpretations by the Therav" adins and Sarv" astiv" adins and examine their exegetic approaches. since the Uppat tika Sutta says that the . although they seem to disagree as to in which jha . takka-vica astiv" adins equate duh . and to interpret the ‘body’ that feels this sukha as the three mental aggregates. the Therav" adins say that domanassa is conditioned by vi"ra. the Sarv" astiv" adins identify saumanasya with pr" iti. Another approach they use is to associate the faculties of feeling with "na factors that cease simultaneously with them. SOME PERSONAL VIEWS BASED ON THE EARLIEST TEXTS " From the above discussion it is clear that the Avipar" itaka Sutra account. so the sukha faculty ceases in the third jha iti ceases. but the Sarv" "ra. it creates more problems as have been demonstrated above. the way in which "na factors is also different. Interestingly. they use the same approaches to interpret the earliest texts. whereas the Therav" adins maintain that p" iti is the condition for the sukha faculty "na when p" as bodily feeling. This account order in which feelings are reduced in jha "na is largely in accordance with the order implied in the usual jha "na is formula. In a similar way. Since the order in the jha which the faculties cease differs in different traditions. fits in quite well with the usual "na formula. rather than the Pali version. they associate the faculties with the jha Therefore. and there is no need to distinguish the sukha faculty jha " faculty from sukha and upekkha " in the usual jha "na and upekkha " formula. ipa "na. The Avipar" itaka Sutra account provides us with a clear "na meditation. they often assign these terms new attributes that can. as it were. Although such an approach can avoid certain contradictions.

Therefore domanassa (mental displeasure) ceases before dukkha (bodily dis99 " bhikkhave. ‘‘Monks. weeps beating his chest. na cetasikam . ". It is plausible that the secondary mental feelings can be surmounted before their corresponding original bodily feelings are surmounted. 100 " pi bhikkhave purisam S IV 208: seyyatha . the upekkha either bodily or mental feeling. puthujjano dukkhaya " vedanaya " phut " S IV 208: assutava. sallena vijjheyyum .CLARIFICATION ON FEELINGS IN BUDDHIST 311 dukkha abandoned. tam enam . not the mental one. distresses himself’. the sukha faculty and dukkha faculty are bodily feelings.tho " na socati na kilamati na paridevati na urattal " " samano ikandati na sammoham apajjati . the Avipar" itaka Sutra able order with regard to the relationship between different feelings. Johansson (1979: 88) notes that a disIn his discussion of vedana tinction between the mere reception of sensation and the subjective reaction to it was made in Buddhism. vedayati kayikam . laments. when an uninstructed ordinary person comes into contact with a painful feeling. He feels two feelings: a bodily one and a mental one.. vedanam . while somanassa and domanassa may correspond to the secondary mental feelings. .. and is probably expressed in this sutta by the words ‘he sorrows. vijjheyyum . he sorrows. ." " kayikan˜ ca cetasikan˜ ca. yutta (S V 209). which is the mere reception of sensory data. This sutta says that the instructed noble disciple only feels the bodily feeling. in the sensory data. while the mental feeling refers to the subsequent subjective reaction to the original feeling. yutta. " also provides a more reasonFurthermore. so dve vedana . . 101 " ca kho bhikkhave ariyasavako " " vedanaya " phut S IV 209: sutava dukkhaya . This point is illustrated very " Sam well in sutta 6 of the Vedana . As discussed above. while the mental feeling is compared to a further stab by a second dart.. distresses himself.. in which the Buddha says. and becomes bewildered. as it were. just like the pain felt when a man is struck by a dart. While the original feeling is inevitable." " so ekam . the secondary mental feeling can be avoided. the somanassa faculty " faculty can be and domanassa faculty are mental feelings. for the latter are more intrinsic. Therefore sukha and dukkha in the "nas may correspond to the original bodily feelings in the Vedana " jha Sam . there could be no contradiction at all in the light of a Sarv" astiv" ada interpretation. . dutiyena sallena anuvedham . .tho samano " " " vedayati socati kilamati paridevati urattal ikandati sammoham apajjati. yutta. According to sutta 36 of the Indriya Sam .100 In this statement the bodily feeling refers to the original painful feeling (dukkha) he experiences.101 The original feeling may be intrinsic.’’99 The bodily feeling is compared to a stab by a dart.

while upekkha " in the third and upekkha "nas corresponds to upekkha " based on absence of desire. I am grateful to Dr Gethin for indicating to me the problems with this term. upekkha in the third and "nas is also unworldly. but he will not feel domanassa (unpleasant mental feeling) in reaction to such dukkha as he would if he were in a normal state of mind. yatanavibhan ga Sutta of the Majjhima "ya (M III 217–219) expounds somanassa.102 Somanassa.’’ The Chinese translation is ‘absence of desire’ ( cannot stand for *nais T . which means ‘desireless’. ka 1. domanassa and upNika " based on the household life as opposed to those based on ekkha " based on absence of desire. On the other hand. Even the "na. he overcomes such physical pleasure. a practitioner may feel dukkha (unexamples. and ". yutta. p" on sensual pleasure are called worldly p" iti. physical pleasure is abandoned when he attains the fourth jha "na meditation involves reducing feelings. equivalent to Sanskrit *nais . In the first jha pleasant physical feeling) in his legs due to sitting for a long time. nekkhamma) takes this word as a derivation from nikkhamma (gerund of nikkhamati). which supports the latter etymological explanation.312 TSE-FU KUAN pleasure). This does not mean that all somanassa and domanassa are related to sukha and dukkha. but the form should be nikka . 692c–693b). amoli and Bodhi (2001: 1067ff. in the upekkha " Sam " that arise in dependence Vedana iti. sukha in " " the first three jhanas is unworldly sukha. PED suggests that nekkhamma may be a bastard derivation from "ma (= Sanskrit *nais "mya). In his discussion of this term. and gives a meaning ‘renunciation’. This can be illustrated by the following "na. domanassa and upekkha the household life must only exist in an ordinary state of mind. . By fourth jha 102 ˜ N" an . but on entering the third jha somanassa while still experiencing that physical pleasure. p" "nas is unworldly p" worldly upekkha iti in the first two jha iti. while " in the jha "nas must belong to somanassa and somanassa and upekkha " based on absence of desire. kramya. In "na even dukkha is no longer felt. Throughout passing to the second jha "nas he can feel sukha (physical pleasure).v. and The process of jha ". The Sal a . As mentioned above. a state free from pleasant and untherefore achieving upekkha . In the first the first three jha "nas he can feel somanassa as a secondary feeling in reaction to two jha "na. " pleasant feelings. ka nekkamma. PED (s. worldly sukha. but only indicates that bodily feelings (sukha and dukkha) may exist without being accompanied by secondary mental feelings (somanassa and domanassa) as stated in sutta 6 " Sam of the Vedana . sukha and upekkha .) translate nekkhamma as ‘renunciation’. and somanassa (mental pleasure) before sukha (bodily pleasure). Gethin (2001: 192) argues: ‘‘[T]here appears to be no clear reason for thinking nekkhamma – as well as *nekkamma – "mya. yutta. Here worldly upekkha " corresponds to fourth jha " based on the household life.

nassa. unworldly upekkha "na unworldly unworldly upekkha " (both mental and bodily) fourth jha .. ya " cha nekkhammasita " upekkha " ta " nassa "ya ta "a "gamma ya " cha gehasita " upekkha " ta " pajahatha. These points together with the " Avipar" itaka Sutra account can be shown in the following chart "na): (factors in bold type are to be surmounted in the next jha ordinary state: domanassa (worldly and unworldly). unworldly somanassa. 2. worldly sukha. 5. ta "ni samatikkamatha . 5.a 1. ta "ni samatikkamatha . worldly p" iti. and may correspond to unworldly p" iti according to " " the Sarvastivadins as discussed above.. unworldly sukha "na unworldly somanassa.CLARIFICATION ON FEELINGS IN BUDDHIST 313 "nas must be unworldly and refer to analogy.103 depending on upekkha by by by by by "na This passage can provide an explanation for the purpose of jha "na. 3. When one attains the first jha one has developed unworldly somanassa based on absence of desire. worldly upekkha dukkha "na: first jha dukkha. unworldly p" second jha iti. unworldly sukha "na: " (mental) third jha unworldly sukha. nissa "ni cha nekkhammasita "ni somanassa "ni ta "ni nissa "ya ta "ni a "gamma ya "ni cha nekya "ni domanassa "ni ta "ni pajahatha... 2. somanassa in the jha somanassa based on absence of desire rather than that based on the household life. to abandon domanassa based on the household life depending on domanassa based on absence of desire.... ya " cha khammasita " upekkha " ta " nissa "ya ta " a "gamma ya "ni cha nekkhammasita "ni somanekkhammasita "ni ta "ni pajahatha. ta "ni samatikkamatha .. " based on the household life to abandon upekkha " based on absence of desire. to abandon somanassa based on absence of desire " based on absence of desire.. ta " samatikkamatha . worldly soma". "yatanavibhan ga Sutta the Buddha exhorts the monks In the Sal . 3. to abandon somanassa based on the household life depending on somanassa based on absence of desire. 4. unworldly p" iti. 4. nassa 103 . ya "ni cha gehasita "ni somanassa "ni ta "ni pajahatha. "ni cha nekkhammasita "ni somanassa "ni ta "ni nissa "ya ta "ni a "gamma M III 220: 1.. depending on upekkha to abandon domanassa based on absence of desire depending on somanassa based on absence of desire.. meditation with regard to feelings. ya "ni cha ya "ni domanassa "ni ta "ni nissa "ya ta "ni a "gamma ya "ni cha gehasita "ni domanekkhammasita "ni ta "ni pajahatha. ta "ni samatikkamatha.

are "na. are gradually abandoned. See the *Maha "satipa "risuddhi should be translated as 27. this mindfulness is uncovered as pure and clean. from emotions to bodily feelings. This unworldly somanassa of the "na also counteracts unworldly domanassa (point 4). The commentary on the Majjhima Nika "ya takes pa "risuddhi ekkha " and sati: ‘‘Purity of mindfulness means pure (purity) to apply to both upekkha "risuddh" mindfulness. and therefore upekkha Aronson (1979: 6) interprets Spiro’s remark as ‘the destruction of emotion’.sa (T eks .’’ (Ps IV 90: satipa i ti " sati yeva. In the fourth jha "na. or . Rhys Davids indicates that upekkha dividing somanassa and domanassa is emotional (Aung. in the fourth jha "risuddhi: ‘‘By this equanimity.’’ Similarly. and upekkha the supreme state of emotion that should be developed. as distinct from bare feeling.F. 412a) and Ak-P 438. including purity of equanimity (upthe fourth dhya "paris´uddhi) and purity of mindfulness (smr "vibha ". even unworldly sukha is affective state. This is how Rhys Davids (1974: 9) comments on p" iti: ‘‘It connotes emotion. upekha ‘purity of equanimity and of mindfulness’. However. even unworldly pleasant one proceeds to higher levels of jha feelings. " as ‘emotional indifference’ (1931: 166) or She translates upekkha "nas. 1910: 230). "na. When the emotional elements.314 TSE-FU KUAN which counteracts worldly somanassa based on the household life in an ordinary state of mind (point 1). sati ima " hoti parisuddha " pariyoda "ta ". uncounteracted worldly domanassa (point 2). unwordly p" iti and somanassa. tiparis´uddhi). Guenther (1974: 124) translates pr" iti as ‘ecstatic emotivity’. either pleasant or un" pleasant’. "na formula. satipa "satipa "risuddhi’’ (Vibh 261: ayam "ya upekha "ya Therefore this is called upekha . As "na. and thus the term upekha "satipa "risuddhi upekkha might be intended to indicate that these two factors are both further elevated. As Spiro ‘emotional neutrality’ (1931: 35) in the context of the jha " is ‘the only emotional state ultimately (1982: 48) notes. Likewise. the Vibhan ga regards upekha " as the cause of ‘purer’. This seems plausible since both sati and " are mentioned in the third jha "na. upekha " pi parisuddha " upekha "). In the third jha " (point 5). In the course of "na meditation. C. Equanimity is also pure equanimity. upekkha iti can also be regarded as an valued by nibbanic Buddhism’.105 as it is free not eliminated. the fourth jha "na is described as upIn the usual jha "satipa "risuddhi. which has first jha "na.104 P" emotion.a . Griffiths " as ‘a psychological condition opposed (1983: 61) describes upekkha to any kind of extreme emotional reaction. worldly somanassa is abandoned due to unworldly upekkha " is All these feelings can be considered to be emotions. tena vuccati upekha "satipa "risuddhin ti). The Sarv" parisuddha astiv" adins also say that "na consists of four factors. upekkha " is even ‘purer’. vivat . Accordingly. the practitioner achieves the supreme abandoned in the third jha ". one first develops unworldly pleasant feelings and jha abandons worldly pleasant feelings as well as unpleasant feelings.A.a 105 104 .

and to elucidate each other regarding the issue of feelings in jha that a plausible and consistent interpretation can be drawn from the earliest texts rather than from some later literature. feeling and achieving upekkha . upekkha CONCLUSION " The foregoing passage of the Avipar" itaka Sutra preserved in the Sanskrit and Chinese literature provides a plausible account of the "nas. sukha and upekkha from lower to higher meditative attainments. dukkha. In contrast. " cease successively as one proceeds somanassa. some doctrines of the Sarv" astiv" ada Abhidharma also con"na formula. Its Pali counterpart in the quite well with the usual jha ". mity. " stated in the Sal a yatanavibhan ga Sutta : first developing pleasant . ipa three respects and has caused difficulties to Therav" ada exegesis. however. but also from the disturbance of "nas involves a bodily feelings. The process of reducing "na conforms with what is feelings as prescribed in the scheme of jha . Such a ‘Sautr" antika’ approach. and these five terms in "na formula. adopted by this essay shows that the earliest accounts suffice "na. It this account are not different from those in the usual jha "nas to somanassa is not necessary to equate sukha of the first three jha "nas with as the Therav" adins do. contradicts the usual jha . then abandoning pleasant ". or to identify sukha of the first two jha prasrabdhi (a volitional formation. Thus proceeding through the four jha reduction in affective and hedonic experiences to a state of equani". and unsurprisingly the two schools sometimes arrive at different conclusions although using the same approaches.e. the Sautr" antika interpretation of sukha appears to be consistent with the " earliest texts. "na formula in Uppat tika Sutta. taking sutras as criteria. which fits in order in which specific feelings cease in different jha "na formula. Similarly. we " can accept the Avipar" itaka Sutra account that domanassa. In conclusion. Neither is it necessary to interpret upekkha volitional formation as the two traditions do. not a feeling) as the Sarv" astiv" adins " in the jha "nas as a do. feeling and eliminating unpleasant feeling. but by so doing they get into other inconsistencies and complexities.CLARIFICATION ON FEELINGS IN BUDDHIST 315 only from emotional disturbance. The two schools use the same tradict the usual jha approaches to iron out their respective contradictions. i.

1a-373b. Yoga . yutta Nika "stra. "mr "stra (A pi tan gan lu wei lun ). ). Sam (Za a han jing . s´abha sya by Puguang "vatthu. ". T 41. daya-s´a 833b. Cheng shi lun ). yukta Agama " ). T 28. . "stra (A pi tan xin lun ). *Abhidharma . Arthavinis´caya-sutra . "s "-s´a "stra (A pi tan pi po sha lun ). Katha "ya. "stra (Pi po sha lun ). T 27. 966a-980b. ta(rasa)-s´a T 28. 809a*Abhidharmahr . ". Majjhima Nika " ). 416a-523b. T 32. *Abhidharmavibha . which enabled me to improve this essay. .a 1b-414c. Dhammasan gan i . T 28. Abhidharmakos´abha sya (see Ak-P. "ca "rabhumi " (Yu qie shi di lun ). Ak-S). Vibhan ga. *Tattvasiddhi (or *Satyasiddhi-s´a 239a-373b. 453bDharmaskandha (A pi da mo fa yun zu lun [ 513c.316 TSE-FU KUAN ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my gratitude to Mr L.S. D" igha Nika (a Chinese commentary on the AbhidharmakoJu she lun ji ". . *Sam yukt a bhidharmahr daya ( Za a pi tan xin lun . 1a-1004a. 279-881c. T 30. . "ya. T 2. "ya An guttara Nika " (see Avs). Sam . 1a-452b.a ). REFERENCES Primary Sources References to Pali texts are to the Pali Text Society editions. T 28. *Vibha sa-s´a Visuddhimagga. Cousins for directing me to many useful sources and giving me his invaluable advice. T 26. 869c-965c. ). "ya. I would also like to thank Dr William Pruitt and the reviewer of this journal for their suggestions. "vibha "s "[s´a "stra] (A pi da mo da pi po sha lun *[Abhidharma]maha . T 28.

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