# BANSAL CLASSES MATHEMATICS TARGET IIT JEE 2007 XI (P, Q, R, S) COMPOUND ANGLES Trigonometry Phase - / i » : - .

I CONTENTS KEY-CONCEPTS EXERCISE-I EXERCISE -II EXERCISE-III ANSWER KEY

KEY BASIC TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES : 2 2 CONCEPTS -l<sin9<l; -l<cos9<l | sec 0 | > 1 V 9 e R |cosec9|>l V 9 e R ; tann7t = 0 (a) (b) (c) (a) sin 9 + c o s 9 = 1 sec2 9 - tan2 9 = 1 cosec2 9 - cot2 9 = 1 sinn7t = 0 ; ; ; ; ; V 9eR IMPORTANT T' RATIOS : cosn7T = (-l) n where n e I (b) (c) . sin-(2n + l)7i (-l) n & cos (2n + 1)Tt = Q where n e I sin 15° or sin 12 V3-1 __ 5n —r=- = cos 75 0 or cos — 22 V 1 2 cos 15° or cos — 12 —r=~ = sm 75° or sin — V3+1 . _.0 . 57 X

22 V 1 2 tan 15° = sm . — - = 2-V3 V3 + 1 ^ = cot 75° ; tan75°= V3 - 1 = 2+V3 =cot 15° 3tt rz , tan — = V2 + 1 8 (d) (e) 11 v J2 = 71 • 71 1/2 + V 2 71 r— — = J L - — - ; tan - = V2 - 1 ; cos 8 • • sm — or sin 1 0 0 _ V - 1 18 = 5 10 4 P & cos ICO 36 71 or cos — = V J + l 5 4 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS O F ALLIED ANGLES : If 9 is any angle, then - 9, 90 ±9 , 180 ±9 , 270 ±9 , 360 ±9 etc. are called (a) (b) (c ) (d) (e) (f) (g) 4. ALLIED ANGLES sin ( - 9) = - sin 9 ; cos ( - 9) = cos 9 sin (90°- 9) = cos 9 ; cos (90° - 9) = sin

9 sin (90°+ 9) = cos 9 ; cos (90°+ 9) = - sin 9 sin(180°-9) = sin9 ; cos (180°-9) = - c o s 9 sin (180°+ 9) = - sin9 ;cos(180°+9) = - c o s 9 sin (270°- 9) = - cos 9 ; cos ( 270°- 9) = - sin 9 sin (270°+ 9) = - cos 9 ; cos (270°+9) = sin9 sine & c o s e c only + v e All + v e tan & cot only + v e cos & sec only + v e TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS O F SUM O R DIFFERENCE O F T w o ANGLES (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 5. sin (A ± B) = sinA cosB ± cosA sinB cos (A ± B) = cosA cosB + sinA sinB sin2A - sin2B = cos2B - cos2A = sin (A+B). sin (A- B) cos2A - sin2B = cos2B - sin2A = cos (A+B ). cos (A - B) tan (A ± B) : tanA ± tanB 1 + t a n A tanB (f) " cot (A ± B) = ~ ' cotA cotB + 1 cotB + cotA FACTORISATION O F T H E S U M O R DIFFERENCE O F T w o SINES O R COSINES : C + D (a) sinC + sinD = 2sin C + P cos——— D (b) sinC - sinD = 2 cos D sin— sm Sin C D 2 C - D (c) cosC + cosD = 2 cos C + cos (d) cosC-cosD = - 2 s i n Trig.-<t>-1 or , ^ ^ C + D

^Bansal Classes [2]

TRANSFORMATION O F PRODUCTS INTO SUM O R DIFFERENCE O F SINES & COSINES: (a) 2 sinA cosB = sin(A+B) + sin(A-B) (c) 2 cosA cosB = cos(A+B) + cos(A-B) MULTIPLE ANGLES A N D H A L F ANGLES : (b) 2 cosA sinB = sin(A+B) - sin(A-B) (d) 2 sinA sinB = cos(A-B) - cos(A+B) (a) (b) sin 2A = 2 sinA cosA ; sin9 = 2 s i n - c o s cos 2 A = cos2A - sin2A = 2cos2A 1 = 1 - 2 sin2A; cos 6 = cos2— - sin2-^ = 2cos2^- - 1 = 1 - 2sin2^-. 2 2 2 2 9 9 . l-cos2A 2 cos2A = 1 + cos 2A, 2sin2A = 1 - cos 2A ; tan2A = l + cos2A 2 cos2— = 1 + cos 9 , 2 sin2— = 1 - cos9. 9 9 2 2 (c) w (d) W (f) w 8. tan2A= sin2A = ? a 2 t Tn A 1 - tan A 2tanA ? 2 ; tan9= , ^ tanf 1 - tan ~ri T 1 + tan A , cos2A= 1 - t a a [ A 1 + tan A (e) (g) sin3A = 3 sinA-4 sin3A tan 3A 3 tan A - tan 3 A 1 - 3 tan'A cos 3A = 4 cos3A - 3 cosA tanA + tanB + tanC - tanA tanB tanC 1 - tanA tanB - tanB tanC - tanC tanA

, „ , THREE ANGLES : (a) tan (A+B+C) = N O T E IF : (i) A+B+C = n then tanA+tanB + tanC = tanA tanB tanC (ii) A+B+C = ~ then tanA ta nB + tanB tanC + tanC tanA= 1 (i) 2 (b) If A + B + C = 7t then: (ii) v ' sin2A + sin2B + sin2C = 4 sinA sinB sinC 2 2 sinA + sinB + sinC = 4 cos — cos — cos — ABC 9. (a) (b) (c) MAXIMUM & MINIMUM VALUES OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS: 2 2 2 2 Min. value of a tan 9 + b cot 9 = 2ab where 9 € R Max. and Min. value of acos9 + b sin9 are ,j a 2 52 and—^Ja 2 + ^2 If f(9) = acos(a + 9) + bcos(B + 9) where a, b, a and P are known quantities then -•\Ja2 + b2 + 2abcos(ct-p) <f(9)< ^/a2 +b 2 + 2abcos(a - (3) (d) If(x,B e [0,-7 j and a + p = a (constant) then the maximum values of the expression cosa cosp, co sa + cosp, sina + sinP and sina sinp a occurs when a = P = —. (e) A If a,p e fn —J and a + p = a(constant) then the minimum values of the expression seca + seep, tana + tanp, coseca + cosecp occurs when a = P = —. o (f) (g) IfA, B, C are the angles of a triangle then maximum value of sinA + sinB + sinC and sinA sinB sinC occurs when A=B = C = 60° In case a quadratic in sin9 or cos9 i s given then the maximum or minimum values can be interpreted by making a perfec t square. Trig.-(f>-I ^Bansal Classes [3]

10. Sum of sines or cosines of n angles, sin a + sin (a + P) + sin (a + 2p ) + + sin ^a + n - i p j = / \ • B , snn i ^- ( n 1 f sin I a +-—-p sin ^ s i n• n / — cos a + cos (a + P + c s a + -I Q.l Q.2 Q.3 Q.4 Prove that cos2a 2P Prove that cos 2a = 2 sin2P + hat, tan a + 2 tan 2a + 4 tan 4a tan 40° . tan 60° . tan 80° = 3 P ( n1 1- cos a + — — V 2 / (b) tan9° -tan27° -tan63° + tan81° = 4 . (c) Q.5 Calculate without using trigonometric t ables : (a) cosec 10° - S sec 10° (d) 2V2 sin 10° sec 5° 2 cos 40° sin 5° sin 4 ~ + sin 4 ^ + sin 4 ~ + sin 4 ~ = | 16 16 16 16 2 (b) 4 cos 20° - V3 cot 20° . 2sin35 (e) (c) 2 cos40° - cos20° sin20° 27t 4TI 671 c o s — + c o s — + cos 7 (f) tan 10° - tan 50° + tan 70° Q.6 (a) (b) Q.7 Showthat 4 sin 17° . sin 43° . sin 77° = sin 51° Prove that sin2120 + sin221° + sin2390 + sin 2 48°= l+sin 2 9° + sin218° . (a) (b) Q. 8 Q.9 cot7 Showthat: y or tan 82 y = (V3 + V2) (V2 + 1) or V2+V3+V4+V6 t a n l 4 2 y =2 +V2-V3-V6 . 2(m - n) m +n If mtan(9-30°) = ntan(6+ 120°), show that cos20 If cos9= cosu 1-ecosu —— , prove that, tan— = ± 2 ) + + cos la + n-1 p = ) o( p i sn j i EXERCISE + cos2 (a + P) - 2cos a cos p cos (a + P) = sin 4cos (a + P) sin a sin p + cos 2(a + P) Prove t + 8 cot 8 a - cot a . Prove that : (a) tan 20° .

2 V1 _ e tan— . 2 Q.10 If cos (a + P) = j ; sin (a - P) = — & a , P lie between 0 & — , then find the value of tan 2a . Q.ll Prove that if the angles a & P satisfy the relation . 1 + 4 5 7 1 p) = ~ (M > lnl) then tang tana _ 1 - tana tanP Q.12 (a) If y = 10 cos2x - 6 sin x cos x + 2 sin2x, then find the greatest & least va lue of y. (b) If y = 1 + 2 sin x + 3 cos2 x, find the maximum & minimum values o f y V x e R. (c) If y = 9 sec2x +16 cosec2x, find the minimum value of y V x 6 R . mn + mn y'vfl/ < a ses Trig.-(f>-1 [4]

Q.13 (a) Prove that 3 cos (e + y j + 5 cos 0 + 3 lies from - 4 & 10 . (b) Prove that (2V3 + 4) sin 0 + 4 cos 0 lies between - 2(2 + Vs ) & 2(2 + VJ). Q.14 If a + p = c where a, p > 0 each lying between 0 and 7i/2 and c is a consta nt, find the maximum or minimum value of (a) sin a + sin p (b) sin a sin p (c) t an a + tan p (d) cosec a + cosec p Q.15 Let A,., A 2 , A.j A2 , An be the vertic es of an n-sided regular polygon such that ; 1 ^•i + —-— . Find the value of n. .A] A.^ + cosec 2 n " 1 0 = cot (0/2) - cot 2 n " ! 0 Q. 16 Prove that: cosec 0 + cosec 20 + cosec 22 0 + Q.17 For all values of a , p , y prove that ; x , P+Y cos a + cos p + cos y + cos (a + p + y) = 4 cos a+B . cos—— . cos Y+a . 2 .: 2 .2 Q.18 A i n 18 Showthat , _ Sh th t *+ C0Sj^ + C0S ^ 2sinA-2sinB 1 - sinB sin(A-B) + cosA - cosB ( Q.19 IIf tan Q = P t a n a + tan y 1 + tana.tany — , prove that sin 2B = . . s i n 2 a + sin2y 1 + s i n 2 a . sm2y ; 7-^ •

Q.20 Q.21 Q.22 If a + p = y , prove that cos2 a + cos2 p + cos2 y = 1 + 2 cos a cos P cos y . I f a + p + y = | , show that ( l - t a n f ) ( l - t a n f ) |i l - t a n | j ' _ s i n a + sin(3 + siny — 1 c o s a + cosp + cosy (l + t a n f ) (l + tan f)ll 1 + t a n i If A + B + C = 7t and cot0 = cot A + cot B + cot C, showthat, sin (A - 0). sin ( B - 0). sin (C - 0) = sin30 . % 3n 571 IfP= cos— + cos— + cos— + 19 19 19 1T 7C + cos and 19 Q.23 V Q= c s + c s + CS + o— o— O — 271 47t 6tz + cos-^-? then find P - Q. * 20n Q.24 Q.25 Without using the surd value for sin 18° or cos 36°, prove that 4 sin 36° cos 18° — V5 For any three angles a , p and y prove that: ' cos(a + P) cos(a - P) cos(a + y)V co s(a - y )J ( sin(a + P) \ cos(a - P) sin(a + y)^ 2 cos(a - y)> = sec2(a - p) • sin 2(P - y) • sec2(y - a) Bamal Classes Trig.-</>-! [5]

EXERCISE-II Q.l If tana = p/q where a = 6p , a being an acute angle, prove that ; - (p cosec 2 P - q sec 2 P) = ^/p2 + q2 . Q.2 If cosa +— cos a sina = cosa +— sina = 1, where 9 & 5 do not differ by an even multiple of n, then prove +1=0. = (cos O + cos<j)) cos(9 + <> - (sin9 + sin<()) sin(9 + <> j) j) + sin2 * I 3 -—„ x prove^that •siny = •sinx1 + 3 sm . x, that Q.3 ^ ^ Q.4 v Q.5 Q.6 cosB . cos5 i + —— 2 c o s ( 0 sin9 . sin5 sm a Prove that cos 30 + cos3(j) <j)) - 1 T - * fn j- tan3 n A y) IfX tan U— +2J = + iv (4— +/ 2 Show that, J ™ L + cos3x cos9x + cos27x = I (tan27x -tanx) 2 Prove that; cosec x. cosec 2x. sin 4x. cos 6x . cosec 1 Ox = cos3x sin2xsin4x + s—x—~ r r: : in4 sin6x cos5x

cos7x sin6x sin8x + cos9x sin8xsinl0x Q.7 Q.8 Q.9 If 9= - j , prove that tan9 ,tan29 + tan29 ,tan49 + tan49 ,tan9 = - 7 . 7 T C^ D Y For 0 < x < - prove that, — r — — 4 sin x(cosx - sinx) > 8. (b) siny . sin-^- . s i n ^ = (a) If a = prove that, sin a + sin 2a + sin4a = ~ show that cos(sin9)>sin(cos9). Q.10 For all 9 in Q.ll Prove that the value of cos A + cos B + cos C lies between 1 & — where A + B + C = tc. 3 Q.12 If m2 + m'2 + 2mm'cos9 = l , n2 + n,2 + 2nn'cos9= 1 and mn + m' n' + (mn' + m' n) cos 9 = 0, then prove that m2 + n2 = cosec2 9. Q.13 If cos2 9 = m ? 1 & t a n 3 = tan a , prove that cos2/3 a + sin2/3 a = f-^j sin A = sinB-sin 3 B , showthat sin(A-B) = ± i . + a Q 14. If V2cosA=cosB + cos3B & Q.15 Prove thatfromthe equality * sin a = — f o l l o w s the relation; s i " 3 a + a = -— Q.16 Prove that the triangle ABC is equilateral iff, cotA+cotB + cotC= S . Q.17 If cos a ( cos 9 = s 'n(a—= sin3 9 m 1/2 ^ th e n show that m2 + m cos a = 2 . - (3 - V ) ? .

Q. 18 Prove that: 4 sin 27° = (5 + V ) J Q.19 If A+B+C = TT ; provethat t a n 2 Y + t a n 2 | + t a n 2 Y >1. [Hint: E t a n - . t a n | = 1 ] Trig.feBansal Classes [6]

Q.20 If A+B+C = n (A, B , C > 0), prove that sin^ • sinf . sin^ < ^ . 2 2 2 8 Q.21 Show that eliminating x&y from the equations, sinx + siny = a ; cosx + cosy = b & tanx + tany = c gives 8a b 4a' l-cos0 sin 0 =c Q.22 Show that 2 s e c 6 + 3 t a n 6 + 5sin 9 - 7 c o s 0 + 5 2 t a n 8 + 3sec 0 + 5 c o s 9 + 7 s i n 0 + 8 , Q.23 Evaluate : £ tan — 2n . x n 1nC S2 n X =21 O • - l f p+ y-a^| Q.24 If a + (3+y = 7t & tan 1 + cos a + cos P + cos y = 0 . Q.25 Q.l I 4 • tan V J ryn a h 4 • tan I 4 j = 1, then prove that; V x e R, find the range of the function, f (x) = cos x (sin x + ^sin 2 x + sin2 a ) ; a e [0, n] EXERCISE-III (a) sec29 = 4xy (X + y ) 2 , is true if and only if : (B) x = y , x * 0 (C) x = y (D) x * 0 , y * 0 (A) x+y*0 (b)

Find all values of 9 in the interval n ~ s a t i s f y i n g the equation ;; [JEE'96,1 + 2] (1 - tan 9) (1 + tan 9) s ec2 9 + 2tan2 9 = 0 . r= 0 Q.2 (a) Let n be an odd integer. If sin n9 = £ b sinr 9, for every value of 9, then: (A) b 0 = 1, b, = 3 (C) b0 = - 1, bj = n (B) bQ = 0, bj = n (D) b0 = 0, bj = n2 - 3n + 3 (b) Let A0 Aj A2 A3 A4 A5 be a regular hexagon inscribed in a circle of unit radius. Then the product of the lengths of the line segments A0 Aj, A0 A2 & A0 A4 is : (B)3V3 (C) 3 (D) ^ (c) Which of the following number(s) is/are rational ? (A) sin 15° (B) cos 15° (C) sin 1 5° cos 15° (D) sin 15° cos 75° (d) Prove that a triangle ABC is equilateral if & only if tan A+tan B + tan C = 3 V3 • [JEE '98,2 + 2 + 2 + 8 = 14outof200] Q.3 For a positive integer n, let.fn (9) = t 9 (1+ sec9)(1+ sec29)(1+sec49)....(1 + sec2n9) Then tan— (A)/2^]=l Q.4 (a) n (B ) / 3 V32. = 1 , f n WfAm. 1 [JEE '99,3] Let f(9) = sin9 (sin9 + sin 3 9). Then f(9) (A) > 0 only when 9 > 0 (C) > 0 for all real 9 (B) < 0 for all real 9 (D) < 0 only when 9 < 0. [ JEE 2000 Screening. 1 out of 3 5 ] Bansal Classes Trig.-(j>-1 m

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D 571 . then 9 + § e > | 7 71 C 1 1 (A) 3'2 (B) [ 2'T f n 2%^ r (C) 2n T'T 5nx ( ) v6 .5 (a) (b) Q.y = — . prove that. 81s ul2x is minimum. 1 out of 35 ] 71 Q. x . Also find this minimum value. [ REE 2000. cot x + cot y = 2 . 3 + 3 ] If a + ( 3 = — and p + y = a then tana equals (A) 2(tanP + tany) (B) tanp + tany (C) tanp + 2tany (D) 2tanP + tany [JEE 2001 (Screening). 3 out of 100 ] Find real values of x for which.(b) Q. cos < = —. Z* Z* A B C A B C Z i Z i Z i [ JEE 2000 Mains. c o t — + cot — + cot — = cot — cot — cot — .7 If 9 and (j) are acute angles satisfying sin9 = —.6 Ei any triangle A B C . 27 cos2x . Find the smallest positive values of x & y satisfying.

(a) max = 2 sin (c/2). | | = . = sin (c/2).3 A.n.2 (a) B. y min mm (f) fi Q10. (b) max. D Q. 7t].(a> ymax= i ymm (b) ymax= y 2 Q14.[JEE 2004 (Screening)] Q. (c) min = 2 tan (c/2).P) = 1 and cos(a + P)= 1 /e. where a.V + sin2 a ^ y ^ Vl + sin a 1 si n-1 EXERCISE-III Q. B.l (a) B (b) ± Q. Area of the triangle is (A) 4 + 2 V3 (C) 12 + (h) (B) 6 + 4 V3 (D)3 + 73 V 4 73 V 4 ir cos(a . 1 sin2x 2 n_I sin X Q-25 . n = 7 Q23.\ . numbers of pairs o f a.4 (a) C . (c) C Q.' v ' (c)49 Q12. (b) C. (d) min = 2 cosec (c/2) Q 15. 8(a) In an equilateral triangle. 1 EXERCISE -II Q 23. 3 coins of radii 1 un it each are kept so that they A touch each other and also the sides of the trian gle. P which satisfy both the equations is (A)0 (B)l (C) 2 (D)4 [JEE 2005 (Scree ning)] ANSWER SHEET EXERCISE-I Q 5. C. P e [ . (a) 4 (b) -1 11 (c) V3 = 1 (d) 4 (e) 13 .

(b)D ^Bansal Classes Trig.6 C 12 6 Q.5 7Z 71 Q. maximum value = 3 5 .(b) x= — .5 (a) Minimum value = 3 ~5.-1 [8] . y = — Q.8 (a) B.7 B Q.

R.BANSAL CLASSES MATHEMATICS TARGETIIT JEE 2007 XI (P. Q. S) QUADRATIC EQUATIONS CONTENTS EXERCISE-I EXERCISE-II EXERCISE-III EXERCISE-IV ANSWER KEY .

y = ax2 + bx + c .b ± /b 2 . (where pis rational & y'q is a surd) then the other root must be the conjugat e of it i. then . . y > 0 only if a > 0 & b 2 . (i) The graph between x.p = 0i.i q & vice versa . (i) a + p = . If a > 0 then the s hape of the parabola is concave upwards & if a < 0 then the shape of the parabol a is concave downwards. b . Fig.e. q e R & i = 1) .e. = (iv) If p + iq is one root ofa quadratic equation. Remember that a quadratic equation cannot have three different roots & if it has. ax2 + bx + c = 0 is given by x = 2.KEY CONCEPTS The general form of a quadratic equation in x is. A quadratic equation whose roots are a & p is (x . RESULTS : The solution of the quadratic equation. (ii) If a = p + ^/q is one root in this cas e. NATURE OF ROOTS : (B) Consider the quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 where a. (ii) V x e R .4ac 2a The expression b 2 -4ac=D is called the discriminant of the quadratic equation. x 2 -(sumof roots)x+ product of roots = 0 . 2 Fig.4 a c < 0 (figure 3).( a + p)x + a. (p.^/q & vice versa. then the other must be the conjugate p . y is always a parabola . (i) If D > 0 & is a perfect square . . = (iii) D < 0 < > roots are imaginary . c e R & a ^ O then . V x e R .4ac < 0 (figure 6). Consider the quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 where a. 6.P) = 0 i.e. a ^ 0 & a. 3 \\ X Vy o a >0 D = 0 / / . Consider the quadratic expression. (iii) Carefully go through the 6 different shapes of the parabola given below . y < 0 only if a < 0 & b2 . 4. 1 y \ Fig. If a & (3 are the roots of the quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 . = (ii) D = 0 < > roots are real & coincident (equal) . then roots are rational & unequal. 5. ax2 + bx + c = 0 . b. c e R&a^O.b/a (A) ' (ii) a p = c/a (iii) a -B = Vd/a . where a . it becomes an identity.a)(x . b. (i) D > 0 < > roots are real & distinct (unequal) . c e R then . P = p . b. c e Q & a # 0 then . x 2 .

6 y• 0 X / a < 0 \ D=0 y 0 ' X X /I / / a < 0 0\ \ D< Roots are real & distinct Roots are coincident Roots are complex conjugate ii Bansal Classes Quadratic Equations [9] .O x Roots are coincident Fig. 5 Roots are complex conjugate Fig.

By Cramer's Rule Therefore. then the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 has t wo different roots x. x. then roots are equal. 4ac . y) . a. If a j .b 4a if a < 0 Let a be the common root of ax 2 +bx + c = 0 & a'x2 + b'x + c'= 0 . i. 8.Therefore a a 2 + ba + c = 0 . (i) If D > 0. < x 2 . Xj) u (x2.xn"2 + .7.. a < 0 or a > 0 . n 1 f(x) = a0x + ajX"" + a. MAXIMUM & MINIMUM VALUE of y = ax2+. THEORY OF EQUATIONS : 2 2 2 OR h g = 0...b'c a'c . x2) (ii) If D = 0..a c ' be' .b'c a'c-ac' C O M M O N R O O T S O F 2 Q U A D R A T I C E Q U A T I O N S [ONLY O N E C O M M O N R O O T ] : 1 ab'-a'b So the condition for a common root is (ca'-c'a) 2 = (ab'-a'b)(bc'-b'c).a'b be' . a n are the roots of the equation .af . 00 if a > 0 & y -co . Then a > 0 => x e (-co..c'a a b ' . oo) a < 0 => x e (Xj.ch = 0 11. Xj = x2 .bx + c occurs at x = .e. a h g b f f c abc + 2 fgh . a = ca' .) u (x p oo) a < 0 => x e (j) (iii) Inequalities of the form —— 0 > can be quickly solved using the method of Q(x) P(x) < SOLUTION OF QUADRATIC INEQUALITIES : intervals.b 4a 4 ac .. ax2 + bx + c > 0 (a * 0). a'a 2 + b'a + c' = 0 .(b/2a) according as . In that case a > 0 => x e (-co. The condition that a quadratic function f (x.bg .ax2+2 hxy + by2 + 2 gx + 2 fy + c may be resolved into two linear factors is that . a 2 . an are all real & a0 * 0 th . 10. + an_.x + an = 0 where a 0 . y e 9... a 3 .

a) or (x .a) is a factor of f(x) and conversely. a Every equation of nth degree (n > 1) has exactly n roots & if the equation has m ore than n roots.ip is also a root. If there be any two real numbers 'a' & 'b' such that f (a) & f(b) are of opposite signs. (vi) fa Bansa! Classes Quadratic Equations . then a . i. p € Q & p is not a perfect square. a 2 a 3 = . X Oj C Note : (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (V) •. then the polynomial f(x) is exactly divisible by (x . If the coefficients of the equation f(x) = 0 are all real and a + ip is its root. imaginar y roots occur in conjugate pairs. then f(x) = 0 must have atleast one real root between 'a' and 'b'.en.e.a (-If a a„ 0 0 0 0 If a is a root of the equation f(x) = 0. X a. X a2 = + a .^P is also a root where a. then a . it is an identity. If the coefficients in the equation are all ra tional & a + ^P is one of its roots.a O| ( ^ C X . Every equation f(x) = 0 of degree odd has atleast one real root of a sign opposite to that of its last term.

(3 are the roots of the equation K(x 2 -x)+x+5 = 0 . (3 are connected by the relation (a/p) + (p/a) = 4/5 .4 If the roots of the equation Il-q+— p2 one .x cos (A + B) + 1 is a factor of the expression.x2 (cos 2A + cos 2B) + 4x cos A cos B . Then find the other factor.e) i. where a < . f (e) < 0 .4ac > 0 & f (d). 7 Q. (ii) Conditions for both roots of f(x ) = 0 to lie on either side of the number'd' (in other words the number'd' lies between the roots of f (x) = 0) is f (d) < 0. 2x4 + 4x3 sin A sin B . EXERCISE-I Q. Find the least value of — . b. . where a > 0 & a.8 gativeLet a. If = 4q root of the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 be the square of the other.e.2 . show that p + q = 2r&that the product of the r oots is equal to (-l/2)(p 2 + q2). If the quadratic equations. If ax2 + bx + c = 0 has two real roots a & P.2 If the roots of the equation [ 1 /(x+p)] + [ 1 /(x+q)] = 1/r are equal i n magnitude but opposite in sign. & K2 are the two values of K for which the roots a .b / 2 a ) < q . If x2 . x2 + bx + c = 0 and bx2 + cx + 1 = 0 have a common root then prove that either b + c + l = 0 o r b 2 + c 2 + l = b c + b + c.6 P P2^ X2 +p(l+q)x + q(q-l) + — = 0 are equal then show that 2 Q. a . for all real values of x. LOGARITHMIC INEQUALITIES (i) For a> 1 the inequality 0 < x < y & log a x< logay are equivalent. (ii) For 0 < a < l the inequality 0 < x < y & log a x>log a y are equivalent.3 Q. ax2 +2(a + l)x + 9a + 4 Find the range of values of a. d < x < e are b2 . 6x 2 . c be real. prove that b3 + a2c + ac2 = 3abc. c e R . (iii) If a> 1 then log a x<p => 0<x<ap (i v) If a > 1 then logax > p => x > ap (v) If 0 < a < 1 then log a x<p => x>ap (vi ) If 0 < a < 1 then log a x>p => 0<x<ap 13.1 & P > 1 then show that 1 + c/a + | b/a | < 0.9 ii Bansal Classes Quadratic Equations [9] . using the theory of quadratic 5x -18x + 17 equations. such that f (x) = ^ . f Q. (i) Co nditions for both the roots of f(x) = 0 to be greater than a specified number'd' are b2 . b.4ac > 0 . (iii) Conditions for exactly one r oot of f(x) = 0 to lie in the interval (d.l Q. Q. Find the value of (K(/K2) + (K2/Kj) . b2 .2 2 x + 21 .5 Q.4ac > 0 . f ( q ) > 0 & p < ( . f (d) > 0 & (-b/2a)>d. If K. (iv) Conditions that both roots of f (x) = 0 to be confined be tween the numbers p & q are (p < q) .8 x + 32 is a l w a y s ne Q.12. LOCATION OF ROOTS : Let f(x) = ax2 + bx + c . . f ( p ) > 0 .

2.2 ' p-2 q .3 a 2 + 5a .12 Q. (l/an) + (l/b n ) + (l/c n ) = l/(an + bn + cn ) .3a is the other root.15 Q.p 2 + p + 5. P are the roots of x2 . show that a/p. show that . If (1/a) + (1/b) + (1/c) = l/(a+b + c) & n is an odd integer.x 2 +p 2 x + q 2 =0 & x 2 +p 3 x + q3 = 0 has exactly one root common.2 pqrs = 5(p + q + r + s) + 2 (pqr + qrs + rsp + spq).24 Q. show that ( a . prove that the equation — + —'— + x x-a x+b one between a/3 & 2a/3 and the other betw een . p/a are the ro ots of xn +1 + (x + l) n = 0 .ll Q. (PI + P2 + P3)2 = 4 [P1P2 + P2P3 + P3P1 ~ ~ % ~ • Show that the function z = 2x 2 +2xy+y 2 -2x + 2y+2 is not smaller than .3 . then at least one of the equations x2 + px + q = 0.13 Find the least value of (2p2 + 1 )x2 + 2(4p2 . If the roots of x2 . If the quadratic equations x 2 +bx+ ca = 0 & x 2 +cx+ab = 0 have a common root. r3 .IO Q. Q.2 y are collinear if Q.2b/3 & . If a .27 ii Bansal Classes Quadratic Equations [9] . V P s3-5A s .2 / and \ s . then show that (acn)1/(n+l) + (a 1 ^ ) 1 ^ 1 ) + b = 0 . r & s are real numbers & pr = 2(q+s).2 ' q-2 r-2 r . p 3 .21 Q. prove that the equation containing t heir other root is x2 + ax + be = 0 . x 2 + r x + s = 0 has real roots . If the equations x 2 +px + q = 0 & x2 + p'x + q' = 0 h ave a common root.px + 1 = 0 & y. f (x) = (a . If a & b are positive numbers. prove that . = 0 has two real roots.14 Q. a ' are the roots of a a' c c' — — Q.23 Q.26 Q. p are the roots of x 2 +px+q = 0 & x 2n +p n x n + qn = 0 where n is an even integer.1)? If one root of the quadratic equation ax2+ bx + c = 0 is equal to the nth power of the other.(3 are the roots of ax 2 +bx + c = 0 & a ' .5 p . show that it must be equal to (pq'-p'q)/(q-q') or (q-q')/(p'p) • If a.2 .1 = 0 then prove that 4a 3 .p 2 . Prove that the roots are all integral. Show that if p .y ) ( a + 5)(P + 8) = q 2 .1 )x + 4(2p2 + 1) for real values of p and x. showthat -1 -l "b b' 2 + x +"b + b'" + — x — =0 a . prove that b lies between (1/4) (a2 . 5 are the roots of x2 + qx + 1 = 0 .y ) ( P .2) x2 + 2 a x + a + 3 lie on the interval ( .16 If a .22 Q.25 The quadratic equation x2 + px + q = 0 where p and q are integers has rational r oots. p are the roots of the equation x2 .2x + 3 = 0 obtain the equation whose roots are a 3 . If each pair of the following three equations x2 + p 1 x+q 1 = 0 .c2) & (l/4)a 2 .b/3 . q .5 ^ ' s4 q4 ? q J . ~ P are the roots of a'x 2 +b'x + c' = 0. If a .ax + b = 0 are real & differ by a quantity which is less th an c (c > 0). At what val ues of'a' do all the zeroes of the function.Q. If a be a root of the equation 4x2 + 2x .

.

4x + 2 | = 5x .b/bj. x 3 . If ax 2 +2bx + c = 0 & a. ar e inAP. show that a t .c/c.|2X+1 .3 < [ ( x 2 + a x .3 Prove that the minimum value of [(a+x)(b+x)]/(c+x).10 Q. d be distinct real numbers and a and b are the roots of quadratic eq uation x2 .1 | = 2 X + 1 +1 L et a. q EXERCISE-II Q.l (a) (c) (d) (f) (h) Q. determi ne all real roots of the equation x 2 . p and 1 « q are integer. x 4 are in GP. prove that 2 2 Q. (3 23 sin — cos 2 sin Q. Find the values of K so t hat the quadratic equation x 2 + 2 ( K . 25 2 . b ( 1 6 1 > -2 X + ~6 1 x°J \ x.6 Q. x2 be the roots of the equation x2 .x>-c is U a . ( x .12x + B = 0 & X j . If Xj. x 4 be those of the equation x2 . c. bj & c t are in GP .5 Q.2 ) / ( x 2 + x + l ) ] < 2 is valid for all real x. b.8 If x be real.28 Find the values o f ' a ' f o r which .x2 + 2b 1 x + c1 = 0 have a common root & a/a 1 .Q. x 2 .ll Solve the equations. Findtiievalues of *b'for which the equation 2 log .« 2a cos x -2xcosa + l 7 ~ — lies between — and n —r x — 2x co s (3 + 1 . If c and d are the roots of the quadratic equation x2 . Find the minimum value of ™—-—-——r ^ forx>0 / 1\ ' 1 3 1 + X +—rXH xJ V (X H 0 — Q. a quadratic in y is formed whose roots are the same as those of the original quadratic in x . Find A & B . b. If by eleminating x between the equ ation x 2 +ax+b = 0& xy+/(x+y) + m = 0 .l ) x + K + 5 = 0 has atleast one posit ive root.x . .2 Solve the following where x e R . .l ) | x 2 4 x + 3| + 2 x 2 + 3 x .5 6 = 0 then find the numerical value of a + b + c + d. c. (x +1)+12x + 5 | = 0 (g) | x 3 + 1 1 + x2 .4 Q. |x + 2 | + |2x+31 + 1 = 0 | (x + 3) |.4 For a < 0. (bx + 28) = -log 5 (l2-4x-x 2 jhasonlyonesolution.29 0 •30 Let f (x) = ax2 + bx + c = 0 has an irrational root r.2 a | x .2cx — 5d=0.2 = 0 Q.7 has real roots. Find the true set of values of p for which the equation p • 2cosZx + p • 2'cos2x .3x + A = 0 & x 3 . Prove that — < | f (u) |.9 Q. ax +bxy + cy = bx + cxy+ ay = d .5 = 0 (b) 3 I x2 . Q. If u = — be any rational nu mber. where a.3 a 2 = 0.c + 7b-cj .a j . |x 2 + 4 x + 3 | + 2 x + 5 = 0 (e) fx + 3). Then prove either a = 21 & b = m or b + m = a / .2 = 0 2 |x+21 .2a x .

2 2 2 ii Bansal Classes Quadratic Equations [9] .

n an.2 Q.1 x 2 -2x | + (1/2)> 0 & y+1 x . 3 ) . y .8 x 1 / l o 8 x .l Q. a 2 . 7 ' x5'2 (log2x)4. Q.1 = 0 .5 Q. Q. EXERCISE-III Solve the inequality. +nr = 0 & hence find the value of S n .1 1 <2 .2 a) x < 10a. log2 ( x 2 .19 If the coefficients of the quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 are odd inte gers then prove that the roots of the equation cannot be rational number.3" | x ~ 2 ' . Q.2 ) > 1 Q12. (a) has no real solution (b) has one real s olution Find the values of p for which the equation 1 + p sin x = p2 .2p + 2 on the interval 0 < x < 2 is equal to 3. Denoting (i) (ii) il Calculate S7 & deduce that the roots cannot all be real. a 3 .3 Q. log1/2x + log 3 x>l. Prove that Sn + pS2 + qS. 2 y 2 (log 100 x) + (log 10 x) 2 +log x < 14 logx2 .a = 0 for every real numbera.> log2 (cx2 + c) . a f k by Sk.l Q.l o g l T 201og 2 x+148 < 0.ax + 2 = 0 belong to the interval ( 0 . where n > 5 & r ^ 0 has roots a } . x2 + (5 . \ 2) " Find the values of K for which the equat ion x4 + (1 . log2 4x > 1. Where ever base is not given take it as 10.logx<l log 1 / 2 (x+l)>log 2 (2-x).15 .10 (log| x+6 |2).17 Find the integral values of x & y satisfying the system of inequalities.2 K) x2 + K2 .4 Q.4px + p2 . Solve the equation -4.16 Q. 4 x 4.14 Q. log2x2 . 2 Q.sin2 x ha s a solution.13 Find all th e v aiues of the parameter 'a' for which both roots of the quadratic equation x2 .x . lo g x2 (2+x)< 1 Q-9 l o g Q 11Q. 1 + log2 2x2 + 2x + .Q.12 Q.S Q.18 Find all numbers p for each of which the least value of the quadratic trinomial 4x2 .15 Q.20 T he equation xn + px2 + qx + r = 0. Q. log1/5 (2x 2 + 5 x + 1)<0. Find all the values ofthe parameters c for which the inequality has at least one solution.14 Q.6 Q.13 x ^ < . Q. solution of the inequality. log [(x+6)/3] [log 2 {(x-l)/(2 +x)}]>0 ~ < 1 is a l s o a X tX Find out the values of 'a' for which any solution of the inequality.

ii Bansal Classes Quadratic Equations [9] .3 + 2 x log 0 5 y2 . Find the set of values of'y' for which the inequality.Solve the inequality log N (x -10x + 22) > 0 . 2 log0 5 y2 .x2 > 0 is valid for atleast one real value of'x'.

2ax + a2 + a .2 Q. p are the roots of the equation.EXER Q. has : (A) both roots in [a. r e R.a) (x . 1 Prove that the values of the function s i n x cos CISE-IV 3 do not lie from . q.1 / 8 . find the root s of the equation. are the roots ofthe equation.2| + |x . a. The number of news papers is: (A) atleast 30 (B) atmost 20 (C) exactly 25 (D) none ofthe above [JEE'98.2a 4 p4. 0 < a .& 3 for any real x. be a root of the equation x3 + qx + r = 0. [REE'98.6] Q. every student reads 5 news papers & every news paper is read by 60 stu dents. 1 3 sin3x cosx Q. oo) (D) one root in ( . a) (C) both roots in [b.5] [JEE '97.2 = 0 is 2 . (x .1 = 0.9 (a) ( b) If a.oo. b.3 = 0 are real & less than 3 then (A) a < 2 (B) 2 < a < 3 (C)3<a<4 (D) a > 4 [JEE '99. (ii ) Find the values o f a & p . then the equation. c & d denote the lengths of the sides of the quadril ateral. Consider any quadrilateral which has one vertex on each side of S.8 Q. p > 0 if one of the roots is square of the other. then (A) 0 < a < p (B) a < 0 < p < I a | (C) a < p < 0 (D) a < 0 < | a | < p If b > a. satisfying the following equation.b) + c = 0.2] Let S be a square of unit area. (a 2 + p2) (a 3 + p3) & a 5 p3 + a 3 p5 . [JEE '97.2 + 2] Q. (*-<x)(x-P) = c. p are the roots of the equation x2 . Find a real cubic equation. a) & other in (b. [REE 2000 (Mains).4 Q.3 The sum of all the real roots of the equation |x . ZR = ~ . If a.2| . If tan ( ^ j & tan ax2 + bx + c = 0 (a*0) then: (A) a + b = c (B) b + c = a [REE '99.5] In a college of 300 students. P< n/2.2] If a. 3 x2 + px + 3 = 0. x2 + bx + c = 0. where c < 0 < b.5 Q.oo. (x .a) (x . b] (B) both roots in ( .bx + c = 0. prove that : 2 < a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 < 4.3 + 6] are the roots of the equation (C)a + c = b (D)b = c (ii) If the roots of the equation x2 .b) . cos a cos p cos (a + p) = . then find the equation whose roots are. + oo) [JEE 2000 Screening. 3] For the equation. 1 + 1 + 1 out of 35] (c) faBansal Classes Quadratic Equations . Q. p e R. whose one root is 2 a .7(i) In a triangle PQR. [JEE '97.6(i) Let a + ip . then p is equal to: (A) 1/3 (B) 1 (C) 3 (D) 2/3 If a & p (a < P). independent of a & p.

[8] .

then prove that.14 (a) If one root of the equation x2 + px + q = 0 is the square of the other. is (A) 2 (B) 0 (C)4 (D)l [JEE 2001. Mains.10 = R2 — 4 A C A 2 • [JEE 2000. ich x . . (A * 0) for some constant 5.V 2 ) U (V2 . h 2 — 4a r 3. 1 out of 35] Q.|x + 2j (C) (-00. b e R then find the values of 'a' for which equation has unequal real roots for all values of 'b'. test] Q. Screening. Ma ins-4 out of 60] [ Based on M. p.12 The set of all real numbers x for wh + x > 0.3p) = 0 (b) If x2 + 2ax + 10 .(d) If a. 4 out of 100] The number of integer values of m.b) = 0 where a.5 < a < 2 (B) a < — 5 (C)a> 5 (D)2<a<5 [JEE 2004 (Screening)] ii Bansal Classes Quadratic Equations [9] . 11 Let a. R. P are the roots of ax2 + bx + c . b. oo) (1. P + 5. 3] Q. 00) (B) (-oo. Express the roots of a3x2 + abcx + c3 = 0 in terms of a Mains.0. is (A) (-a>. 5 out of 100] 2 Q. then (A) . 00) (D) (V2. uation ax2 + bx .00) [JEE 2002 (screening). Q. p be the roots of the eq + c = 0. for which the x co-ordinate of the point of i ntersection of the lines 3x + 4y = 9 and y = mx + 1 is also an integer.1) = 0 (D) p3 + q2 + q(l . (a * 0) and a + 5. [JEE 2001. -2) U (2. then (A) p3 + q2 . Ax2 + Bx + C = 0. [JEE-03. 13 If x2 + (a .q(3p + 1) = 0 (B) p3 + q2 + q(l + 3p) = 0 3 2 (C) p + q + q(3p . are the roo ts of.a .b)x + (1 .3a> 0 for all x e R.-1) 11 c be real numbers with a * 0 and let a.

2 Q.B) . . ( 1 .2 / V ? or 2/VJ < p < 2 Q 16.9 30 Q.-Q.1 Q.l (a) x = l (b) x = 2 or 5 (c) x = ( l .f i ) a o r (Ve .l ) a (d) x = .3 x + 2 = 0 Q-29ymin = 6 EXERCISE-II Q.9 1 minimum value 3 when x = 1 and p = 0 Q.V 4 + ^ ) where .l or 1 (h) x > .ANSWER KEY EXERCISE-I Q. . .b) = K where K2a (a 2 +b 2 +c 2 . K < . 0 ) .2 Q.2 < a < 1 u{2}u(5.0) Q18.l or x = .18 ae -oo.ca) = d Q 11.3 < a < 0 Q 17.13 (0. ( .0 0 . 1 ) .1 Q 1 5 .5 A = 2 or .7 .2 or . (2.( l + V ^ ) "4 (g) x = .8] Q 12.28 .3 254 * Q. x2 = y2 = d/(a+b+c) .1 Q.1 4 ) u {4} u 14 00 Q 10.3 :. ( 0 . x 1 2 = 2 ± l o g 3 ( 2 .ab be .24 x 2 .7 Q.6] Q.4 o r . 2V2 < a < 11 Q 14.3 B = 32or-288 Q.4 o r . (a) K < .1 or K > 5/4 (b) K = . x/(c .IO 2x 2 + 2x cos (A .1 8 .V l 7 ) / 2 (f) x = .2 Q.a) = y/(a .( 1 + V3) (e) x = ( .2 < p < .

x < .1) u (1. ( .2 ) Q13.nr EXERCISE-III QL.^ . = (b2 .12 B Q.3 . x>2 Qll.V? or — j — < x < 2 1 + V? Q 6. . 101/10) Q 5 . (c) D Q.l < x < 0 . 0 < x < 31/1-1083 (where base of log is 2) Q 8.2c) (b3 .p or y = ap 2 and 8 = a 2 P Q.5 < x < . Q.7 (i) A.13 a > l Q. x < . x 2 = c3 (b2 .ll y = a p and 6 = a. a > | Q. o ) Q.6 .3cb).-2. (ii) a = p = TT/3.10 A Q. (b) B.14 (a) D . x 2 = 0 where x.oo) Q15.1 < x < 1 . 0<x<l. Vio9 < x < 10 Q 4. (ii) A. Sn = . .4c) Q. + x 2 ) x + x. . ( .5)u(0.< x < 1 Q 7.16) V 16 8y Q 2. . (-^0. 2"V2 < x < 2 .5-V3)u(7.5 ) U ( . X 6 r 1 1a 1 1 u (8.| .9 (a) C.V2 or 5 + VlO Q 20. x > 4 T<X<2 Q12. (0.c o .2 4 2 Q 14. xg(3.2 .l . . (b)A m ii Bansal Classes .7 .4 C u(2V2. . S2 = 0.oo) EXERCISE-IV Q.r = 0.00) Q 9. .2 < x < . 2 2 Q. . 1 < x < Q 3. j Q 10.5 x .' .2 V 2 ) u ( .8 (a.(x.a = 1 . b) Q.6 (i) x3 + qx .

Q. S) SEQUENCE & PROGRESSION CONTENTS KEY CONCEPTS EXERCISE-I EXERCISE-II EXERCISE-III ANSWER KEY .BANSAL CLASSES * MATHEMATICS TARGETIIT JEE 2007 XI (P.R.

ar. Thisfi xednumber is called the common difference. (i) nth term = ar n _ 1 (ii) (ii i) (iv) (v) a(r n -l) Sum of the I n terms i. tr=Sr-SM If a. is a GP with a as thefirstterm & r as common ratio.KEY CONCEPTS DEFINITION: A sequence is a set of terms in a definite order with a rule for obt aining the terms. b. any 4 consecutive terms of a GP can be taken as a/r3.1/n. .g. then AP can be written as a. a. a + d. ar4. a+d. where d = an . a. five numbers in APare a . (vii) GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION (GP): GP is a sequence of numbers whosefirstterm is non ze ro & each of the succeeding terms is equal to the proceeding terms multiplied by a constant. Thus in a GP the ratio of successive terms is constant. c are in AP => 2 b = a + c. This consta nt factor is called the COMMON RATIO of the series & is obtained by dividing any term by that which immediately proceeds it. a. a + d.1/3. then the resulting sequence is also an AP. is a sequence. r-1 Sum of an infinite GP when | r | < 1 when n—» oo rn — 0 if | r | < 1 therefore. e. nth term of this AP tn = a + (n . decreased. ar.1 )d. If a is the first term & d the common difference. is increased. The sum ofthe first n ter ms of the AP is given by .3 d. ar3 & so on.d. positive or negative.P. a + ( n .d . AN ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION (AP): AP is a sequence whose terms increase or decrease by afixednumber. a + 5d etc.d . a+d. if r * 1 . four numbers in AP can be taken as a . (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) The common difference can be zero.d . c are in GP => b2 = ac. [2 a+ (n . Any term of an AP (except thefirst)is equal to half the sum of terms which are equidistant from it.ar3. 1. a/r. a+2d & six terms in APare a . Sn = where I is the last term. If a. the resulting sequence is also a GP.a n l . a . a . a . ar .5d. (vi) Bansal Classes Sequence & Progression [2] . NOTES: (i) If each ter m of an A. > st S ^ f l r K l ) . a .1/2.l)d. ar2.1 )d] = ^ [a+/].2 d . a + 2d. b. (ii) Three numbers in AP can be taken a s a . The sum of the two terms o f an AP equidistant from the beginning & end is constant and equal to the sum of first & last terms. Sn = — . multiplied or divided by the same non zero number. a+d. a+3d. If each term of a GP be multiplied or divided by the same nonzero quantity. a + 3d.e.3d. Therefore a. Any 3 consecutive terms of a GP can be taken as a/r.

b2 = ac. where d = — n n+1 : Sum of n AM's inserted between a & b is equal to n times the single AM between a & b n i. G2... an is . a . then111 te MEANS ARITHMETIC MEAN: If three terms are in AP then the middle term is called the AM between the other two... For HP whose first rm is tn = b + (n-l)(a-b) 2ac a + c If a.b d. = ar . a2..HARMONIC PROGRESSION (HP): A sequence is rms are in AP... . Gn. = a(b/a)1/n+1. Here we the n terms of an HP. c are in AP.An= a + n (b . b. Gn are n GMs between a & b . If a. n-GEOMETRIC MEANS BETWEEN a. a 2 .. therefore b = Ja c ..Anare then AM's between a & b .. b is the GM between a & c.A15 b are inAP thenA. NOTE =a+2d . A2. A1 = a + + ^ i l 2 ' . G2 = a(b/a)2/n+1... so if a.. AM for any n positive number a..c . . b. If the sequence a. a > 0. c > 0. ^ .. X Ar = nA where A is the single AM between a & b. G2. b is AM of a & c . c are in HP => b = or — = T c a a . G}. .. b are in GP.b are any two given numbers & a. A = a + nd. b : If a. ' . MEANS BETWEEN TWO NUMBERS : Ifa. n-ARITHMETIC A2. b.. c are in GP.. l/an is an AP & converse... A = a ' + a 2 + a ^ + +a " . r= l GEOMETRIC MEANS:.... G.. Then Gj. said to HP if the reciprocals of its te 3 ..... b are two given numbers & a..An.e. = ar 2 . G 3 . . an is an HP then l/a l5 l/a 2 do not have the formula for the sum of term is a & second term isb.a) n +1 b-a = a + d. A2 = a n + 1 ' n+ 1 .

HARMONIC MEAN : If a. H are respectively AM. (i) G2 = AH (ii) A > G > H (G > 0). fa B ansa/ Classes Sequence & Progression [3] . THEOREM: If A. G. b is the HM between a & c. b. Gn = a(b/a)n/n+1 = arn. where r = (b/a)1/n+1 : The product of n GMs between a & b is equal to the nth power of the single GM between a & b i. HM between a & b both being un equal & positive then. then b = 2ac/[a +c]. G. Note that A. H con stitute a GP.e. c are in HP. GM. ^ G r =(G) n where G is the single GM between a & b.NOTE n .

are in AP& l. r=1 RESULTS (i) (ii) X Y n r= — 9 — (sum of the first n natural nos..ARITHMETICO-GEOMETRIC SERIES: A series each term of which is formed by multiplyi ng the corresponding term of an AP & GP is called the Arithmetico-Geometric Seri es. S tandart appearance of an Arithmetico-Geometric Series is Let Sn = a + (a + d)r + (a + 2 d) r2 + + [a + ( n .l ) d ] r""1 SUM TO INFINITY : If |r| <1 & n —»oo then Limit r n = 0 a . . S . ]T k = nk . 1 + 3x + 5x2 + 7x3 + Here 1..3.g..x 3 areinGP. where k is a constant. SIGMA THEOREMS : (i) (ii) (iii) r=l NOTATIONS Z (ar±br)=£ a r ± £ r= 1 b.x. e.— + • dr (1-r) 2 .x 2 . r r=1 I r=1 ka r • k ± r=1 ar.) 2 n (n + 1) r=l = n ..5.

T j . the first factors of several terms being in the s ame AP.(n+1) ^ s u m 0 f the squares of the first n natural numbers) (iii) £ r3 = T=\ z ( + 1)2 " 4 r= 1 (sum of the cubes of the first n natural numbers) (iv> r=l ' r4 = . nth term of the series is determined & the sum to n terms of the sequence can easily be obt ained.T 2 . T 2 .l ) METHOD OF DIFFERENCE : If T j . divide by the number of factors thus increased and by the common difference and add a con stant. T 3 .( n + l)(2n+l)(3n 2 + 3 n . constitute an AP/GP. T N are the terms of a sequence th en some times the terms T 2 . Remember that to find the sum of n terms of a series each term of which i s composed of r factors in AP. . we "write down the nth term. T 3 . fa B ansa/ Classes Sequence & Progression [3] . affix the next factor at the end. Determine the value of the constant by applying the initial conditions".

The smallest angle is 12 0° & the common difference is 5°. bare consecutive terms of an AP & (iii) the numbers b. Q 16. find the value of p2 !)• Q 12. Thesumofn terms oftwo arithmetic series are in the ratio of (7 n+1): (4 n+ 27).findthe four numbers. Exp ress the recurring decimal 0. c. Q 4.EXERCISE-I Q 1. In a set of four numbers. Show that the common ratio of the GP is q~ Q 8. The first and the ninth term of a geometric progression coincide with thefirstand the ninth term ofthe arithmetic progression. d are in GP. Q 3. Q 2. An AP & an HP have the samefirstterm.a (p + q) q/(p -1). Q 5. Find the seventh t erm of the geometric progression. The first and last terms of an A. u a r e i n H P . if the sum of the 1st p t erms is equal to zero. b. If the 1 Oth term of an HP is 21 & 2 V* term ofthe same HP is 10. Q 6. Q 7. logio x + log10 x 1/2 + log. Given that ax = by = cz = du & a . the same last term & the same number of terms . In an AP of which' a' is the 1st term. th enfindthe value of n. If thefirstnumbe r is the same as the fourth. Q 18. Find the sum of the firs t n terms of the sequence: l + 2(1+—] +3[1+—] +4(1+—] + fa B ansa/ Classes Sequence & Progression . A new series is formed by multiplying each of thefirst2n terms by th e next term. (i) their sum is 25 (ii) the numbers 2. Find the ratio oftheir nth term. are a and b. Q 19.1 )th mean = 5 : 9 . Q l l .1576 as a rational number using concept of infinite geometric series. r If the pth. P the product & R the sum of the reciprocals of a GP. The interior angles of a polygon are in AP.l)(a2 + b 2 ) + (4n 2 + 2)ab 6n Q 13. Q 14. Q 17. Find the sum of the n terms of the sequence 1 1 + 1 +1 2 4 2 1+2 +2 2 4 3 1 + 32 +3 4 Thefirstterm of an arithmetic progression is 1 and the sum of thefirstnine terms equal to 369. qth & rth terms of an AP are in GP. c between 2 & 18 such that .P. Find the sum of the series. If S be the sum. c . 7 + 77 + 777 + to n terms. p-q If one AM 'a' & two GM's p & q be inserted between any two given numbers then sh ow that p3+ q3 = 2 apq . 18 are consecutive ter ms of a GP . Q 15. a.show t hat x . then find the 210th term. b . Show that the sum ofthe new series is (4n2 . Find the number of sides of the polygon. show that the sum of the next q terms is .6 X1/4 + 1+3+5+ +(2y-l) 4+7+10+ +(3y+l) =y 20 71og]0 x There are n AM's between 1 & 31 such that 7th mean: (n . prove that the product of the V th term from the beginning in one series & the rth term from the end in the other is independent of r. Q 10. y . z . Find three number s a. with common difference 6. There are altogether (2n + 1) terms. Q 9. Solve the following equations for x & y. thefirstthree are in GP & the last three are in AP.

[3] .

(i) 1 + 5 + 13+ 29 + 61 + (ii) 6+13 + 22 + 33 + Q 21.6 + 4.5 . Find the numbers.4. y = Z n=0 n=0 oo co s n2n i ^ > z = 1l cos2n (j) sin2n (j) then : Prove that n=0 <) X (i) xyz = xy + z .13 (ii) r_i I r (r+ l)(r+2) (r + 3) n i © I 7^77 r=1 4r . Find the two numbers.+—— + — — + 1. Q 23.Q 20.3. Find the nth term and the sum to n terms of the sequence . For or 0 < 4 < 7t/2. rs rs / (b) i i i i. The harmonic mean of two numbers is 4. if : > x = Z cos2n (j).10.4.3 1.+ .8 — 4 n """"' r=l iti y n <i» ii« s=l rs 02 r s 3 where 5 is zero if r ^ s&8 r is one if r = s. i=i j=i k=i Q 25.1 Q 24. Find the value ofthe sum (a) Y v 1 1.7.10 7. The AM of two numbers exceeds their GM by 15 & HM by 27 . Q 22. Sum the following series to n terms and to infinity: (i) w —5—. T he airthmetic mean A & the geometric mean G satisfy the relation 2 A + G2 = 27.6.7 4.

127 min to solve all the problems except for the last one. The series of natural numbers is divided into groups (1)... (5. that the sum of the numbers in the nth group is (n .6 A geometrical & harmonic progression have the same pth. A computer solved several problems in succession. If there be m AP's beginn ing with unity whose common difference is 1.4). Q 8. Q 5.1 )3 + n 3 . Q 3. + S. (2 . + S. & so on.m + n + 1).c) log a + b (c . then find c & all the roots. The time it took the computer to solve each successive problem was the same number of times smaller than the time it took to solve the preceding problem.1) u (1. c respectively.2. How many problems were suggested to the computer if it spent 63. + 1 3 5 ^ + S7 ! .54x -21 = 0 are in harmonic progression.(ii) xyz = x + y + z EXERCISE-II Q 1. Show The sum of the squares of three distinct real numbers. Show that the sum of the ir nth terms is (m/2) (mn .8. Q 2.3). = — 2n 1-r ar (1-r) (l + r) .3 . and 31.6. Q 7.7.a) log b + c (a . Q.5 min to so lve all the problems except for the first two? If the sum of m terms of an AP is equal to the sum of either the next n terms or the next p terms ofthe same APpr ove that (m+n)[(l/m)-(l/p)] = (m + p)[(l/m)-(l/n)] (n*p) If the roots of 1 Ox3 cx2 . If their sum is a S. m. which are in GP is S 2 . show that a 2 e (1/3 . qth & rlh terms a.. fa B ansa/ Classes Sequence & Progression [3] . then prove that S. Show that a (b .3.5 min to solve all the problems except for the firs t. Q 4.b) log c = 0. b.9). If Sn represents the sum to n terms of a GP whose first term & common ratio are a & r respectively.

d. Prove that : + a 1 1 1 +a a + + a l n 2 n-l a3 an-2 1 n l a a +a l n a 1 1 1 1 h + l a2 a3 1 +a n (b) Show that in any arithmetic progression al. (i) (ii) (iii) Q13. x. S. find all possible values of b.+ and n n+1 2 + (n-i)(n-2) +<nzJ)l _£±2 2 [(n + l)n n(n-l) 3-2 j ' then show that A = B. d. show that the difference be tween the first & the last mean is equal to ac(a . b are in HP . an . + ap + a + S 2 = an+l + an+2 + 3 = a2n+I + a2n+2 + 2n 3n ' is an arithmetic progression whose common difference Prove that the sequence Sj. If a. b. If a = 2 & e = 18 . b. e are in GP .P. c. a 2 . Prove that e = (2 b . d are in GP & c. (l/x)+(l/y)+( l/z) is 5/3 if a.1)] (&12 . .+ . Q 14. y. S 3 . + a22K _ . Q10. Find a & b ... If a.+ 2 3 b 1 1 +.Q 9. d are in GP & c. a3 a an be an AP .2 . z . y . The values of xyz is 15/2 .. e are in AP. Show that e = ab2/(2a .. a2. a^ a3 a.a 2 2K ). c. S 2 . c ar e in HP.c). If n is a root of the equation x 2 (l -ac)-x(a 2 +c 2 )-(l+ac) = 0&if n HM's are inserted between a & c. b are in APwhile the value of.a22K = [K/(2 K . Q15. Let Let a{. 2 is n times the common difference of the given progression. = ax + a2 + a3 + 5 5 be an A.a)2/a . b. x . c. (a) (b) The value of x + y + z is 15 if a . 1 1 If A = 1 + .a42 + . . c. b. c are in AP .b) 2 . Q 12. b. e are in HP then: Prove that a.(a) Let a. d .. z. e be 5 numbers such that a. . a n + i . d.a22 + a32 . c. Q l l .

or 18/5 according as the series a. S how that their (n+2)th terms will be inGP if Q 17. Show that the sum of all the terms ofA. aGP &aHP have' a' & 'b' for their first two terms. An AP. h 2 n + 2 . z. x.P. r >0 and both these progressions have same number of te rms as well as the equal extreme terms. y.. Prove that the sum of the infinite series 13 3.]. fa B ansa/ Classes Sequence & Progression [3] . with thefirstterm 'a'. Consider an A. Q 18. show that the sum of the products of thesemterms taken two&t wo together is [r/(r+1)] [Sm] [S m _. If there are n quantities in GP with common ratio r & Sm denotes the sum o fthe first m terms.P. Q 19.9 2 2 2 2 °o=23 . with the first t erm 'a'. the common difference'd' and a G.a 2 n + 2 n+1 a n+1 ba( b 2n -a 2n ) n —h——~+T+ Q 16.7 7.5 5. d. b is an AP or HP.P . the common r atio 'r' such that a.P. > the sum of all the terms ofthe G. Find the values of a & b assuming them to be positive integer.

( n .(3 are the middle pair ofterms. we get a number whose digits are successi ve terms of an A.18x + B = 0. Q 21. [REE'98. In a GPthe ratio o f the sum of the first eleven terms to the sum ofthe last eleven terms is 1/8 an d the ratio of the sum of all the terms without the first nine to the sum of all the terms without the last nine is 2.6] Q. and B = . x3 satisfying the equation x3 . we get a number written by the same digits in the rever se order.3] Let p & q be roots o f the equation x2 . [JEE '96.1)3 + x = l+3a + 6a 2 + 10a3+ y = 1+ 4b + 10b2 + 20b3 + + (-l)n~1l3 = _ . show that the sum of the cubes of an arithmetical progression is n a {a 2 + (n 2 -1) (32}. — . logb c. If the har monic mean of a & b is 12 and that of b &c is 3 6. [JEE'97. If p < q < r < s are in arithmatic progression. + —— . Find the number.3 Q. then show that 12 < aJ5 < 15. 1 x+1 2x (x + 1) (x + 2) 3x 2 (x + 1) (x + 2) (x + 3) ^ + l + »i (1 + a i)( 1 + a2) (l + a i)(l + a 2 )(l + a3) Q 24. [REE'96. then show that the common difference of the AP must be 3/2. then A = ...4 The real numbers x p x 2 . If n is even & a+(3. a .1] |a|<l | b | <1. c are the first three terms of a geometric series. find the first five terms oft he series.l Q. [ JEE'98. 2. then — (A) AP (B) HP .— .. and let r & s be the roots of the equation x. find S= 1+ 3ab + 5(ab)2 + . c be in GP & logc a.6] Select the correct alternative(s). Sum tonterms: (i) (ii) — . EXERCISE-III Q. 1 Q 22. loga b be in AP. —l + £ny 1 + ftiz (D)0 are in : (D) none ofthe above (b) If x = 1.2 + 2 + 8 ] Le t Tr be the rth term of an AP. If a.2] a. z > 1 are in GP.2 For any odd integer n > l . for r = 1. in terms of x & y. n 3 . b. Find the intervals in which P andy lie . 3. n we have 1 1 T = m ~ & T„ = ' Tmn equals : (A)— mn (B) — + — m n 1 + fnx Q.+ -———— + a. [JEE'96.P... y > 1. If we subtract 792 from it..P.5 Q.Q 20. Given a three digit number whose digits are three successive terms ofa G.x2 + p x + y = 0 are in A.P. an = an_. Find the number of terms in the GP.2x + A = 0. a n-l Q 23. Q 25. b. Now if we subtract four from the hundred's digit of the initial number and leave the other digits unchanged. If ax = 1 & for n> 1.6 (a) (C) 1 .. If for some positive integer s m.

(C) GP (c) Prove that a triangle ABC is equilateral if & only if tanA+tanB + tanC = 3 • fa B ansa/ Classes Sequence & Progression [3] .

[REE'99. If the sum i s 4 and the second term is 3/4. y & 8 are in H..outof 100] The sum of roots of the equation ax 2 +bx+c = 0 is equal to the sum of squares of their reciprocals. If is: (C) 5 (D) 6 [ JEE '99.P. p.? [ REE 2001. y. G. or H. (A) 2 (B) 3 . 4 out of 100 ] Given that a . find values of A and B.13 (a) Let a. 8 be the roots of x2 . 5 the roots of the equation. 5... a . B x2 . If the inverse of its common ratio is an integer.12 +(4y +1) +(2y-l) = 4l0g 4x [ R E E 2001 ' 5outofl0 °] Q. Screening. find all possible valu es ofthe common ratio.P.4x + q = 0 .. c.ll Q. p be the roots of x2 . r = | (C) ^ .P. then the integral values of p and q respectively. y are ro ots of the equation.P. a1 = h 1 = 2 & a ] 0 = h10 = 3 then a 4 h 7 of200 ] The sum of an infinite geometric series is 162 and the sum of its first n terms is 160. be in A.h 2 .6 x + 1 = 0.8 roots of the equation (5+Jl j x2 . [ JEE 2000. 1 + 1 out of 35 ] The fourth power of the c ommon difference of an arithmetic progression with integer entries added to the product of any four consecutive terms of it.9 (a) (B) a = 2 . r = | (D) a = 3.(4 + V5 6 (D) 8 Letajjaj. b. 6 are in G.h 10 beinH. Find whether be2.. Mains. & h. 3 out of 100 ] Solve the following equations for x and y log2x + log4x + log16x + =y 5 + 9 + 13+ 1+ 3 + 5+ (c) Q. Prove that the resulting sum is the square of an integer. ca2 and ab2 in A. A x 2 . n and the first terms ofthe series.P. \ (b) If a. then M = (a + b) (c + d) satisfies the relation: (A) 0 < M < 1 (B) 1 < M < 2 (C) 2 < M < 3 (D) 3 < M < 4 [ JEE 2000.P.6] Consider a n infinite geometric series with first term 'a' and common ratio r. [REE 2000.P. P.x + p = 0 and y. x= Q. then: (A) a = ~ .2 + 2 out Q.4 x + l = 0 and fi.10 Q. d are positive real numbers such that a + b + c + d = 2.. such that a. If a.7 (a) (b) The harmonic mean of the j x + 8 + 2%/5 =0 is (A) 2 (B) 4 (C) .Q. a10..

.8. 3 (C)-6. (b) (D) 13 fa Ban sal Classes Sequence & Progression [11] . 57.P.5.3 (D)-6.61.-32 If the sum ofthe first 2n terms of th e A.59.P. 2.re (A)-2.-32 (B) . then n equals (A) 10 (B) 12 (C)ll is equal to the sum ofthe first n terms of the A.2 .

[JEE 2001 (Mains). Find an expression for the G. b .. H2. [JEE-03. b 2 . If a . the arithmetic mean. Mains-4 out of 60] Q. [JEE 2004.P. a3.4 out of 60] (n + \) V 4 Q. bed are (A) N OT in A. b. Gn. of Gj. [JEE 2001.P.. H j . c2 are in H. be respectively. Hj.P.16 The first term of an infinite geometric progression is x and its sum is 5. b. Mains . (C) in G. then the value of a is 2 2 2 3 (d) Q. then prove that either a = b = c or a. let An .— form a G. c are in A.2] . and a. c. abd. b are in G. . a! .P. b.P./G. Then abc.P. Gn in terms of A p A2 An. geometric mean and harmonic mean of av a.17 Q. For each n.M.. If a < b < c and a + b + c = .P.P.P.P. (D)H. a 2 . b. 5 out of 60 ] Q. show that GJGJ H H A!+A 2 H + H (2a + b)(a+2b) [ JEE 2002 .P.. b are in H.P. and the runs scored in [JEE 2005. 3] (b) Let a.18 If total number of runs scored in n matches is the k match are given by k-2 th n+1 k J " .P. b. c are in G.n . where 1 < k < n. (B) in A. b be positive real numbers. an. acd. H 2 . Then ( A ) 0 < x < 10 (B) 0 < x < 10 (C) -10 < x < 0 (D)x>10 [JEE 2004 (Screening)] I f a. Hn.P. A./H. d be in A.2) where n > 1. Find n.15 c If a.14 (a) [JEE 2002 (Screening). a . G2.(c) Let the positive numbers a. A7 . and a . . c are in A. Screening. Hn.5] Suppose a.P. 1 + 1 + 1 out of 3 5 ] Let al5 a2 be positive real numbers in G.. (2n+1 . b are in A. a2 . .P. then prove that [(1 + a) (1 + b) (1 + c)]7 > 77 a4 b4 c4. c are positive real numbers.

. fa Ban sal Classes Sequence & Progression [11] .

(3. (a) a = 1. (a) (6/5) (6n .5 minutes Q. y > -(1/27) Q 2. x = 2V2 andy = 3 A n ) (Hl5 H2.3 . b = 3 or vice versa R Q 23. 27 Q 10. (a) 1 Q 24. . B = 8 Q 12. a = 108 OR r = 1/81 . (i) sn = (1/24) . A 2 . n = 2 .9n .6 . n = 4 . a = 160 Q9. ( l / 6 ) n ( n + l ) ( 2 n + 1 3 ) + n Q 21. 127. b = 9 O b = 1.30 Q 22.4 .3. p < (1/3) . 9 Q 16. c = 6 . n(n+l)/2(n 2 + n + 1 ) Q 7.8 C = 9 . (14 n . a = 144/180 OR r = ± 1/3 . 2. 8.24. n2 Q20.-3/5) Q 12. . 931 Ql. b = 8 . 3 Q 23.ANSWER KEY EXERCISE-I Ql.1) (b) [n (n + 1) (n + 2)]/6 EXERCISE-II Q6. (d)[(A.4 .y"1/4 Q3. 6 . (a) D Q. (c) D. |(2n-l)(n+l)2 Where a = 1 . n = 1 . D = . y = 10 Q3.6 (2n)(2n + 2) .10} Q 5. (a) D Q l l . Q14 . r = ± 1/9 . c = . 2 n + 2 .216.4. (b) a = 1 .(l + a i ) ( l + a 2 ) EXERCISE-III (l + a n ) Q 25.x"1/3 & b = 1 .5 (2n-l)(2n + l) 2. (a) C (b) B Q 5. 35/2 22 Q6.16 B (b) A Q 10. 120. S = (7/81){10n+1 . Q13.18 n=7 H n )] fa Ban sal Classes Sequence & Progression [11] . Son = 1 " Q 24. S = Q 4.3 n (ii) n 2 + 4 n + l .[l/{6(3n+ 1) (3n + 4) >] j s ^ l / 2 4 (ii) (l/5)n(n+ l)(n + 2)(n+ 3)(n + 4) (iii) n/(2n+1) (iv) Sn = 2 1 2 1.-3/2 . 1 Q 14. 8problems. ( 8 .18 Q 15. (i) 2n+1 3 .. 7 7 Q 6. n = 38 (x + 1) (x + 2) (x + n) (b) 1 . A.72. Q .P. ji= 14 Q 4. (a) B (b) D Q 8. x = 105. d = 9 OR b = . (b)C. 1 Q 2. 8) Q 19. c = 12 Q 18. a = 5 .648 Q 7. A = 3 . (iii) b = 4 .2 .6)/(8 n + 23) Q 11. a = 9 . (a) A.

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R.BANSAL CLASSES MATHEMATICS I TARGETIITJEE 2007 XI ( > Q. S) P r * -yfi i I i n ca csi I Le n CONTENTS KEY.CONCEPTS EXERCISE-I EXERCISE-II EXERCISE-III ANSWER-KEY .

A ide the circle x2 + y2 + 2gx c O 0 . If r is the radius of the circle & p is the length of the perpendicularfrom. Note : The greatest centre C & radius r is AC + 4. -TC < 0 < T where (h.c > 0 2 circle touches the x-axis. + 2fv. Note that the general equation of a circle co ntains three arbitrary constant s. (x-h) 2 + ( y .h)2 + (y . If g2 + f 2 . (!%Bansal Classes Circles [12] CIRCLE : The point (x t . y}) & . (iii) p < r o the line is a se cant of the circle. k) is the centre. 2 2 g + f . (Xi. (c) The equation of ci rcle with (x. 2 2 g + f . => If g2 . yj) & (xj. . Remember that every second degree equation in x & y in which coe fficient of x2 = coefficient of y2 & there is no xy term always represents a cir cle. -f) & radius = ^ g 2 + f 2 . POSITION OF A POINT w. g. EQUATION OF A CIRCLE IN VARIOUS FORM : (a) The circle with centre (h.c & 2 ^ / f ^ c resp ectively. yj) is inside. . passes out side the ci rcle. on or outs + 2fy+ c~ U.r. k) & radiu s 'r' has the equation. (iv) p = 0 => the line is a diameter of the circle. y2). 5. y = k + rsin9 . If g =c 2 => circle lies completely above or below the x-axis. LINE & A CIRCLE: Let L = 0 be a line & S = 0 be a circle. Note that equation of a straight line joining two point a & (3 on the circle x2 + y2 = a2 is a+B . NOTE : circle cuts the x axis at two distinct points.the centre on the line.k ) 2 =r 2 . INTERCEPTS MADE BY A CIRCLE ON THE AXES : The intercepts made by the circle x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 on the co-ordinate axes are 2 vg2 ..t.c < 0 => imaginary circle. e. + & the least distance of a point Afrom a circle with r & AC . PARAME T RIC EQUATIONS OF A CIRCLE: The parametric equations of (x . th en: (i) p > r < > the line does not meet the circle i. = (ii) p = r o the line touches the circle. f & c which corresponds to the fact that a unique circle passes through three non collinear points.X l ) ( x .yi) p\ . C r is the radius & 9 is a parameter. according as Xj2 + y 2 + 2gx.r respectively..y 2 ) = 0.y i ) ( y . If g <C 3.k)2 = r2 are: x = h + rcos9 .c = 0 => point circle.KEY STANDARD RESULTS: CONCEPTS 1. a+B a-B x cos —— + y sin = a cos — .c > 0 => real circle. y2) as its diameter is : ( X .x ^ + ( y . Note that this will be the circle of least radius passing through 2. (b) The general equation of a circle is x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 with centre as : (-g.c .

+2f 1 y+c = Js^. y. a sina) is.)2 + (y . xxj + y y. . + yyj + g (x + X j ) + f (y + yj) + c = 0.axis the equation of the family of circles touching it at (xi»Yi) becomes ( x . Hence equation of a tangent at (a cos a .y 2 ) + K Y 1 = 0 where K is a paramete r. Note that : power of a point Pis positive. a circle. where K is a parameter. L2 = 0 & L3 = 0 is given by.yj .yx)2 + K [y . x cos a + y sin a = a. y^ to the circle S = x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 is given by L= Jx 1 2 +y 1 2 +2gx. (a) TANGENT & NORMAL: The equation of the tangent to the circle x 2 +y 2 = a2 at its point (x t . Equation of circle circumscribing a quadrilateral whose side in order are re presented by the lines Lj = 0.L 3 + A L 2 L 4 = 0 provided co-efficient of x2 = co-efficient of y2 and co-efficient of xy=0.y i ) = 0. y t ) becomes ( x .r. a circle. The point of intersection of the tangents a t the points P(a) and Q(f3) is acos —— 2 a-fl a+ff asrn^-11 a-p .t.+g 7. LENG TH OF A TANGENT AND POWER OF A POINT : The length of a tangent from an external point (x t .2 O —— uo The equation of the tangent to the circle x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2 fy + c = 0 at its point (x t . L2L3 + \x L3Lj = 0 provided co-efficient of xy = 0 & co-efficient of x2 = co-efficient of y2.yL = m (x . y2) can be written y i (x-x 1 )(x-x 2 ) + ( y .X j ) 2 + ( y .x. inside or on the circle respectively. i£ x.Xj) = 0. Using this fact normal to the circle x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 at(x .y ^ 2 + K ( y . y t ) is.x t ) 2 + (y . The equation of a family of circles passing through two given points (x}. y t ) & i n the form: . . = a2.x}) at thefixedpoint (xL. L2 = 0. a+6 (b) (c) C S — x . y = mx + c is always a tangent to the circle x 2 +y 2 =a 2 if c2 = a2 (1 + m2) and the point of contact ( a 2 a 2\ m is c cJ (d) If a line is normal/orthogonal to a circle then it must pass through the centre of the circle.y 1 ) ( y .Xj)] = 0. In case the line through (xj. L 3 = 0 & L4 = 0 is L. i x2 y2 i (d) The equation of a family of circles touching afixedline y . yj) is XX.6. Square of length of the tangent from the point P is also called THE POWER OF POINT w. The equation of the family of circles passing through the point of intersection of a circle S = 0 & a line L = 0 is given by S+KL = 0.vcos . yj) is (x .t. negative or z ero according as the point 'P'is outside. (a) (b) (c) A FAMILY OF CIRCLES : The equation of the family of circles passing through the points of intersection of two circles St = 0 & S2 = 0is : S ! + K S 2 = 0 (K*-l).) is y_y = Z± (X-Xl).axis the equation of the family of circles touching it at (Xj. yj) is parallel to y .m (x . Also if line is parallel to x . LjL2 + A.y^ 2 + K (x .r. Equation of circle circumscribing a triangle who se sides are given by Lj = 0 . Power of a point remains co nstant w.

(!%Bansal Classes Circles [12] .(e) (f) 8.

tangent & polar will be represented by the same equation.yj = .y i ) (y + f) = 0.9.t. CHORD O F C O N T A C T : If two tangents PTj & PT2 are drawn from the point P (x ]. y}) on S = 0. 10.yj)to the circle x2 + y2 + 2g x + 2fy + c = 0 is : S S ^ T 2 . Pole of a given line Ax + By + C = 0 w. yj) is y . yj) be on the circle then the chord of contact. there be drawn any straight lin e to meet the circle in Q and R.r. EQUATION OF THE CHORD WITH A GIVEN MIDDLE POINT: The equation of the chord of the circle S = x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 in terms of its mid point M(xj. (d) (e) (f) Angle between the pair of tangentsfrom(xt. the locus of the point of intersection of the t angents at Q & R is called the POLAR O F THE POINT P . The equation to the polar of a point P (xj.t. yj) = tan 1 ' 2RL ^ vL2-*2/ where R=radius . 2LR (b) Length of chord of contact T. POLE & POLAR: 12. Note that : the shortest chord of a circle passing through a point 'M' inside the circle.Xj). 11.r. & if the circle is general then t he equation of the polar becomes xx1 + yy. The director circle of a circle is the con centric circle having radius equal to V2 times the original circle.) w. the circl e x2 + y2 = a2 is given by xxj + yy t =s a 2 .(x . Xi 2 REMEMBER : (a) Chord of contact exists only if the point 'P' is not inside. the n the equation of the chord of contact T t T 2 is: xx1 + yy1 + g(x + x1) + f(y + y1) + c = 0.1 —. The joint equati on of a pair of tangents drawn from the point A(xj. also P is called the POLE O F THE POLAR.. T2 = • (c) RL3 Area ofthe triangle formed by the pair of the tangents & its chord of contac t = |> 2+T2 Where R is the radius of the circle & L is the length of the tangent from (x1. L = length of tangent. y. Where S s x2 + y2 +2gx + 2 f y + c . any circle x + y = a is 2 2 2 . (i) (ii) If through a point P in the plane of the circle.+g(x + Xj) + f (y + y^ + c = 0. is one chord whose midd le point is M. Sj =Xj2 + y2 + 2gXj + 2fyj + c T= xxj + yyl + g(x + XJ) + f(y + y^ + c. y t ) to the circle S = x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0. This on simplication ca n be put in the form Yj+r xxj + yyj + g (x + Xj) + f (y + yj) + c = Xj2 + Y!2 + 2gx} + 2fyj + c which is designated by T = S.. Equation of the circle circumscribing th e triangle PTj T2 is: (x-Xj) (x + g) + ( y . DIRECTOR CIRCLE : The locus ofthe point of intersection of two perpendicular tangents is called th e DIRECTOR CIRCLE ofthe given circle. Note t hat if the point (x t .

(iii) Aa2 Ba 2 ^ (!%Bansal Classes Circles [12] .

Length of an external common tangent & internal common tangent to the two circles is given by: L e W d 2 (iv) . then the radical axis is the commo n chord of the two circles.t. there are FOUR comm on tangents. both of them being direct. Transver se common tangents meet at a point which divides the line joining centre of circ les internally in the ratio of their radii. The equation of radical axis of the two circles S j = 0 & S2 = 0 is given. If two circles touch each other then the radical axi .( r . the two c ircles are equal. COMMON TANGENTS TO TWO CIRCLES: W here the two circles neither intersect nor touch each other. The direct common tangents meet at a point which divides the line joining centre of circles externally in the ratio of their radii. two direct and one is the tangent at the point of contact. 2 ( g 1 . Two lines L.(iv) (v) 13. RADICAL AXIS & RADICAL CENTRE : The radical axis of two circles is the locus of points whose powers w. NOTE THAT: If two circles intersect. two of them are transverse & the others are direct common tangents. W hen they touch each other: (a) EXTERNALLY : there are three common tangents. S 1 .S 2 = 0 i.e.g 2 ) x + 2 ( f 1 . then the polar of Q passes thr ough P.r. (v) Where d = distance between the centres of the two circles.f 2 ) y + (c 1 -c 2 ) = 0. & L2 are conjugate of each other if Pole of Lj lies on L2 & vice versa Similarly two points P & Q are said to be conjugate of each other if the polar of P passes through Q & vice-versa. (b) INTERNALLY: only one common tangent possible at their point of contact. r 2 ) 2 & L int= A /d2-(r 1 + r2) 2 . (i) (ii) (iii) If the polar of a point P pass through a point Q. ^ & r2 are the radii of the two circles. When they intersect there are two common tangents.

(b) . A system of circles. S 2 = 0 & S3 = 0 are concurrent in a circle which is orthogonal to all the three c ircles.r. The common point of intersection of the radical axes of three cir cles taken two at a time is called the radical centre of three circles. Radical axis need not always pass through the mid point of the line joining the centres of the two circles. the circles S j = 0. every two which have the same radical axis. 14.r. If two circles are orth ogonal. Radic al axis is always perpendicular to the line joining the centres of the two circl es. The condition for two circles to be orthogonal is : 2 g[ g2 + 2 f j f 2 = Ci + C2 . the second circle pas ses through the point Q which is the other end of the diameter through P . Radical axis bisects a common tangent between th e two circles.t.t.s is the common tangent of the two circles at the common point of contact. Note : (a) Locus of the centre of a variable circle orthogonal to twofixedcircle s is the radical axis between the twofixedcircles. Pairs of circles which do not have radical axis are concentric. then the polar of a point 'P' onfirstcircle w. is called a coaxal syst em. Hence locus of a point which moves such that its polars w. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) 15. ORTHOGONALIT Y OFTWO CIRCLES: Two circles St = 0 & S 2 =0 are said to be orthogonal or said t o intersect orthogonally if the tangents at their point of intersection include a right angle. (!%Bansal Classes Circles [12] .

andfindthe equatio n of that circle of the system the tangents to which at A & B meet on the line x + 2y + 5 = 0. Show that the equati on x2 + y2 . Q 2. 5x + 12y = 4 & 8y = 15x + 10 withoutfindingthe vertices of the triangle.2 j 2 t + 2 = 0. One of the diamet ers of the circle circumscribing the rectangle ABCD is4y=x + 7. Q 11. Find the area of the quadrilateral ABCD. x + y = 6. then show that the curve is a circle. touching the lines 4x 3y . Q 7. It is given that the centre of the circle to be determined lies on the radical axis of these two circles.EXERCISE-I Q 1. Q 5. without finding the vert ices of the triangle. (!%Bansal Classes Circles [12] . 10 Find the equation of the circle through the points of intersection of circ les x 2 +y 2 -4x-6y-12=0 and x2 + y2 + 6x + 4y .10 = 0 & 5 x . Prove that aj bj b2.2 Ay .-2) on the circle meet at the point C. 1). Q 14. Then find the area of the rectangle. Q 6. If A& B are the points (-3. Find the equa tion of the circle inscribed in a triangle formed by the lines 3x + 4y = 12.2x .2x + y = 4& x + 2y = 5. Consider a curve ax 2 +2 hxy + by2 = 1 and a point P not on the curve.4y .4) & (5. Suppose that the tangents at the points B(1. PR is independent of the slope of the line.12y-40 = 0 touch a circle Cj of diameter 6. y + Cj = 0 & a2X + b2y + c 2 =0 cut the coordinate axes in concyclic points. Show that either g = 3/4 or f = 2 . The centre of the circle S = 0 lie on the line 2x-2y + 9 = 0 & S = 0 cuts orthogonally the circle x2 + y2 = 4. Q 8. Find the e quation of the circles passing through the point (2.3 = 0 & x2 + y2 + 4x + 2y + 1 = 0.20 = 0. Q 9. Q 4. x + b. Q. Aline is drawnfromthe point P intersects the curve at points Q & R.8).7) & D(4. Find the equations of the circles wh ich have the radius Vl3 & which touch the line 2x-3y+1 = 0at(l. Q 13. x + y = 2. Let A be the centre of the circle x2 + y2 .4) respectively. Find the equation of the circle circumscribing the triangle formed by the lines . The radical axis of the circles x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 and 2x2 + 2y2 + 3x + 8y + 2c = 0 touches the circle x2 + y2 + 2x .8 = 0 represents.2y + 1 = 0.2x . A circ le is described to pass through the origin and to touch the lines x = 1. Prove that the radius of the circle is a root of the equation ^3 . for different values of A.2x . Q 12. Q 15.4 = 0 orthogonally. a system o f circles passing through twofixedpoints A B on the x .2-j2j t 2 .24 = 0 & 4x + 3y . Q 3.2x + 6y . find the equation of the circle C2 which is concentric with C} & cuts interceptes of length 8 on these lines. Find the equation of a circle which is co-axial with c ircles 2x2 + 2y2 .42 = 0 & having x coordinate of the centre of the circle less than or equal to 8.12 = 0 & cutting the circle x2 + y2 . Lines 5 x + 12y .axis. Show that circle S = 0 passes through twofixedpoints &findtheir coordinates. If the cent re of Cj lies in the first quadrant. If the product PQ. If the lines a.

Find the equation of a circle which touches the lines 7x2 . yj) on its circumference is xxt + yy} a + —• = 0.3) & B (2. Q 24. Q 17. a a Q 26.8y = 0 and is contained in the given circle. Q 29. can be drawn to the circle from v ^j Q 27. Find the condi tion such that the four points in which the circle x2 + y2 + ax + by + c = 0 and x2 + y2 + a'x + b'y + c' = 0 are intercepted by the straight lines Ax + By + C = 0 & A'x + B'y + C' = 0 respectively.8x.6y . Q 22. 2 Q 25. b ^ 0). Find the equations of the circles whose centre lie on the line 4x + 3y . Prove that the length of the common chord of the two circles x2 + y2 = a2 and (x . Q 18. If the equations of the two circles whose radii are a & a' be respectively S = 0 & S .2 = 0 at the extremities o f a diameter. x2 + y 2 .Q 16.2 = 0 & to which the lines x + y + 4 = 0 & 7 x .8 y + 10=0 & x2 + y2 + 2 x .6 x . lie on another circle.2y .c)2 + y2 = b2 is -7(a+b+c)(a-b+c)(a+b-c)(-a+b+c) . Find the equ ation of the circle passing through the points A (4. Find the equations to the four common tangents to the circles x2 + y2 = 25 and (x-12) 2 + y2 = 9. Q 30.5m2 + 6/ + 1 = 0. Q 19. If 4/2 .0)&making 45° angle with the tangent at A to the circle (x + 2)2 + (y .4 y .3 = 0 at the point (2. c Q 28. 7x + y = 50 & divide the circumferenc e of the circle x2 + y2 = 100 into two arcs whose lengths are in the ratio 2:1. 1) & whi ch touches the circle x2 + y2 + 4x . Find the centre & radius of the circle. Show that th e equation of a straight line meeting the circle x2 + y2 = a2 in two points at e qual distances d2 'd' from a point (x}.5 = 0.0. Prove that /x + my + 1 = 0 touches a definite circle. each bisected by the x-axis. 3) on it. Q 23.b) = 0.18xy + 7y2 = 0 and the circle x2 + y2 .8y + 64 = 0 and the co-ordinate axes orthogonally.y + 4 = 0 are tangents. 5) & touching the axis of y.3)2 = 25. Find the equations of straight lines which pass through the intersection of the lines x . Let a circle be given by 2x (x . Find the equations of the circles each of radi us 3 whose centres are on these straight lines at a distance of 5 V2 from A. Q 2 0. Find the equation ofthe circle which passes through the point (1. Q 21. (!%Bansal Classes Circles [12] . Find the equation of the circle which cuts the circle x2 + y2 -14x . Find the equation of the circle which cuts each of the circles x2 + y2 = 4 . (a * 0. Find the condition on a & b if two chords. Obtain the equations ofthe straight li nes passing through the point A(2. then prove that S S' the circles — + — = 0 will cut each other ortho gonally. Also find the point P on the y-axis such that the angle APB has larg est magnitude.a) + y (2y .

b2) x2 + (a2 + b2) y2 = (a(a2 + b2))2.a. 0) . CA & CB are perpendiculars from C on x-axis & y-axis respectively.b2 = 0 (b > a > 0) . Show that the cho rd ofintersection ofthefixedcircle with any one ofthe circles offamily passes th rough afixedpoint. Q 2. (a) Find the locus of the middle point of the c hord of the circle. Let S= x 2 +y 2 + 2gx+2fy+c=0 be a given circle. Q 7. Show that th e locus of the third vertex is. C is a point which divides AB in a constant ratio tana. A triangle has two of its sides along the coordinate axes. Explain how the locus of Q can still be regarded as a circle even if thefixedstraight line passes through 'O'. 0) & (.2ax . Q 8. x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 which subtends a right angle at the point (a. Showthat the locus of the centres of a circle which cuts two given circles orthogonally is a straight line & hence dedu ce the locus of the centers of the circles which cut the circles x2 + y2 + 4x 6y + 9 = 0 & x2 + y2 . A(-a. its third side touches the circle x 2 + y2 . b) & touches the x-axis. Q 12. Prove that the locus ofthe feet of the perpendiculars from each of these points upon the strai ght line is a circle. Show that the locus of the centroid of the triangle PAB is a circle with centre at the centroid of the triangle CAB & radius equal to on e third of the radius ofthe given circle. Q 3. Find the locus of the foot of the perpendicular drawnfromthe ori gin upon any chord of S which sustends a right angle at the origin. ' O' is afixedpoint & P a point which moves along afixedstraight line not passing through O. Q is taken on OP such that OP. (a2 . B(a. The sides of a variable triangle touch the circle x2 + y2 = a 2 and two of the vertices are on the line y2 . (b) Q 5. Q 11.2ay + a2 = 0. A point moves such that the sum of the squares of its distancefromthe sides of a square of side unity is equal to 9. show that the locus ofthe other end of the diame ter through A is (x . A variable straight line moves so that the product ofthe perpendiculars on itfro mthe twofixedpoints (a. prove that the equation ofthe locus of P is x2 + y2 + 2ax sec2a + a2 = 0. the same for each.2a2)2 tan2 a = 4a2 (x2 + y2 . Bansal Classes Circles .0) arefixedpoints . Q 6. Q 9. P is a variable p oint on the circle with centre at C.2a (x + y) + 2xy = 0. Sho w that the locus of the point the tangentsfromwhich to the circle x2 + y2 . Q 4.EXER CISE-II Q 1.a 2 ).y2). Prove that th e locus of Q is a circle. Prove that the locus of the circumcentre of the tri angle is : a2 . If AC & CB subtend equ al angles at P. b). Show that the locus is a circle whose centre coincides with centre of the square.5x + 4y + 2 = 0 orthogonally . OQ=K(constant) .y1)andB(x2.a)2 = 4by. Show that locus is a circle. Find also its radius. Q 10.a2 = 0 include a constant angle a is (x2 + y2 . 0) is a constant equal to c2 . Afixed circle is cut by af amilyofcirclespassingthroughtwofixedpointsA(x1. A variable circle passes through the point A (a.

4x . Q 25.3 ^ . Find the equation of the circle which passes through the origin.r. Show that the locus of the mid point of PQ is a circle. * Q 18.19 Find the locus oft he mid point of the chord of a circle x2 + y2 = 4 such that the segment intercep ted by the chord on the curve x2 .3 y ) 2 = . the two p oints in which any line through P cuts the circle x2 + y2 = a2 is xxj + yy} = a2 . 1.a)2 + y2 = b 2 .4y + 4 = 0 is inscribed in a triangle which has two of its sides along the coordinat e axes. Show that th e locus of the harmonic conjugate of a given point P (xl5 y t ) w. B. Find the locus of the centre of the circle passing thr ough A. meets t he x-axis orthogonally & cuts the circle x2 + y2 = a2 at an angle of 45°. Find the locus of the point ofintersection of two perpendicular straight l ines each of which touches one of the two circles (x . If a .t. The circle x2 + y2 .2x . A' & B'. Q 16. TheendsAB ofafixedstraightlineoflength'a'&endsA'&B'ofanotherfixedstra ightlineoflength 'b' slide upon the axis ofx&the axis ofy (one end on axis of x& the other on axis of y).xy + K ^ / P + y 1 = 0.2x = 0 is N. Q 22. The circle x2 + y2 +2ax.Q 13. Q 24.0) & the point of intersect ion of the chords with the circles make equal angle with axis of x. Q 20. Q 1 4.2y = 0 such that the pair of lines joining (0.p = 2 y. An isosceles right angled triangle whose sides are 1. Assume the base of the triangle as x-axis with mid point a s origin & the length ofthe base as 2a. The locus of the circumcentre ofthe triangle is: x + y . V2 lies entirely in thefirstquadrant with the ends of the hypotenuse on the coordinate axes. Find K.2 ay tany = a2. Find the locus of the vertex when one base angle is double the other.2x . Q 21. Find the equation ofthe locus ofN. If it slides prove that the locus of its cen troid is (3x-y) 2 + ( x . Aline through Ameets one circle at P and a parallel line through B meets th e other circle at Q. The foot of the perpendicularfromthe origin to a varia ble tangent of the circle x 2 +y 2 . Find the locus of the mid point of all chords of the circle x 2 +y 2 .c2 = 0 intersect at Aan d B. (x + a)2 + y2 = c2 and prove that the bisectors of the angles between the straight lines always touch one or the other of two otherfixedcircles. P (a) & Q (p) are the two points on the circle having origin as its centre & radius 'a ' & AB is the diameter along the axis of x. Find the locus of a point which is at a least distance from x2 + y2 = b2 & th is least distance is equal to its distance from the straight line x = a.2y = 0 subtends a right angle at the ori gin. (!%Bansal Classes Circles [12] . Q 15.c2 = 0 and x2 + y2 + 2bx. Q. then prove that the locus of intersection of AP & BQ is x2 + y2 . Q 23. Q 17. T he base of a triangle is fixed.

| (B) .7 (a) .V2 a) y = 0. [ JEE ' 99. The angle between a pair of t angents drawn from a point P to the circle x2 + y2 + 4x .3) respectively.0) onto the circle C: x2 + y2 = 1. [ JEE '98.(1+V2 a) x .| (C) 2 or | (D) . Further.9 = 0 2 2 (C) x + y + 4 x .4.3 Atangent drawnfromthe point (4.2 Q.EXERCISE-III Q. 2+5] 2 2 2 2 The number of common tangents to the circle x + y = 4 & x + y . 7) and cuts the circle x2 + y2 + 4x . Determine the circles touchin g C and having T t . Equation ofthe circle with AB as a diameter is . then which of the following equations can represent Lj? (A) x + y = 0 (B)x-y = 0 ( C ) x + 7y = 0 (D)x-7y = 0 Let Tj.2. the radius of C2 being twice that of Cj. The equation of the locus of the point P is : (A) x2 + y2 + 4 x 6 y + 4 = 0 (B) x2 + y2 + 4x . then Z QPR i s equal to : (A) § (b) (B) f (C) f (D) f If the circles. 2 + 8 ] Q. 2 + 3 + 10 (out of200) ] 2 2 The triangle PQR is inscribed in the circle. 5 Q.x + 3y = 0 on L} & L2 are equal. drawn from the point (p. Find the coordinates of the another p oint B on the circle such that AB = 4. then 'k' is: (A) 2 or . then: (A) p2 = q2 (B) p2 = 8q2 ( C) p2 < 8q2 (D)p2>8q2 Let Lj be a straight line through the origin and L2 be the straight line x+y = 1. 6 ] ( a) If two distinct chords.6y + 9 = 0 orthogonally.6 Find the equation of a circle which touches the line x + y = 5 at the point (-2. If the intercepts made by the circle x2 + y2 .2 or . From a point P on C2.6 y . when taken two at a time. T2 as their pair of tangents. — . tangents PA & PB are drawn t o C}. IfQ and Rhave co-ordinates (3. x2 + y2 + 2x + 2ky + 6 = 0 & x2 + y2 + 2 ky + k = 0 intersect orthogonally. 2x 2 +2y 2 . 42 ) • Prove that at the most two rational point can be there on C.2 or \ [ JEE '2000 (Screening) 1 + 1 ] (b) (c) Q.6x . [ REE '98.2 x = 0 isAB .6y . (A rational po int is a point both of whose co-ordinate are rational numbers).findthe equations of all possible common tangents to these circles. Let C be any circle with centre (o.4 = 0 (D) x2 + y2 + 4 x . x + y = 25.4) & ( . Prove that the centroid of the triangle PAB lies on C j.— to the ci rcle.4 (a) (b) Q. V 2 (c) J [JEE'96.0)tothecircle x2+y2 = 8 t ouches it at apointAin the first quadrant. 6 ] (a) (b) The chords of cont act of the pair of tangents drawn from each point on the line 2x + y = 4 to the circle x2 + y2 = 1 pass through the point .8y = 24 is : (A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 3 (D) 4 Cj & C2 are two concentric circles.6y + 9 = 0 Find the intervals of values of a for which the line y + x = 0 bisects two chords drawn from a ' l + V2a 1-V2a 1 rpoint — — — . T2 be two tangents drawnfrom( . [JEE '97. [ REE '96. q) on the circle x2 + y2 = p x + qy (where pq q) are bisected by the x-axis.6y + 9 sin2a + 13 cos2 a = 0 is 2 a.(1 . 1+1+5] Q.l (a) (b) The intercept on the line y=x bythe circle x 2 + y 2 .

^Bansal Classes Circles [10] .

8 (a) (b) Extremities of a diagonal of a rectangle are (0.3xy = 0 be the equation of a pair of tangents drawn from the origin 'O' to a circle of radius 3 with centre in thefirstquadrant.12 The radius of the circle. Find equation of circle. IfPS and RQ intersect at a point X on the circumferenc e of the circle then 2r equals Q. [JEE'2004. Find the equation of the tangents to the circumcircle of a rectangle which are parallel to this diago nal.14 A circle is given by x + (y -1) = 1.2x .1)2 = 4} u {x. another circle C touches it externally and also the x-axis. [ REE '2001 (Mains) 5 out of 1 00 ] If the tangent at the point P on the circle x2 + y2 + 6x + 6y = 2 meets the straight line 5x .-1). Alsofindthe equations of the common tangents of the two circles when the line joining the centres ofthe two circles makes on angle of 60° with x-axis. then the length of PQ is (A) 4 (B)2V5 (C)5 (D)3V5 If a > 2b > 0 then the positive value of m for whic h y = mx-b-Jl + m is a common tangent to x2 + y2 = b2 and (x .3). IfAis one ofthe points of contact. y): y = 0} (C) {(x. Thi s circle is orthogonal to a circle which is drawn having diameter as a line segm ent with end points (0. x2 + y2 + 4 x = 0. Find the locus ofthe centre ofthis outer circle . If the point T lies on the line px + qy = r.a)2 + y2 = b2 is 2b v'a2 .6y + 6 = 0 and x2 + y2 + 2x .6y + 6 = 0 and intersects the circle x2 + y2 + 4x + 6y + 4 — 0 orthogonally.y):y = 0} (B) {(x.3).Q.z T T-Tib [ JEE '2002 (Scr)3 + 3 out of270] Q . then the locus of its centre is (A){(x. y) : x2 + (y . whose one of the chord is a diameter of the circle x2 + y2 — 2x — 6y + 6 = 0 (A)l (B)2 (C)3 (D)V3 [JEE'2004 (Scr)] Q.2. having centre at (2. . [REE '200 0 (Mains) 3 + 5] Let PQ and RS be tangents at the extremities of the diameter PR of a circle of radius r. 10 (a) (b) Q.-1) and (. 11 (a) (b) b W .2y + 6 = 0 at a point Q on the y-axis.findthe loc us of centre of the circumcircle of triangle TPQ.13 Line2x + 3y+ 1 = 0 is a tangent to a circle at (1.y):x 2 = 4y}u{(x. A circle of radius 2 units rolls on the outerside of the circle. [ REE '2001 (Mains) 3 out of 100 ] Tangents TP and TQ are drawnfroma point T to the circle x2 + y2 = a2.9 (a) [JEE'2001 (Screening) 1 out of 35] (b) Let 2x + y .0) & (4. touching it externally. 1).4 b 2 2b (C) 2 2 Q. 4 ou t of 60] 2 2 Q.findthe length of OA [JEE '2001 (Mains) 5 out of 100] Find the equation of the circle which passes throug h the points of intersection of circles x2 + y2 .

y): x2 = y} VJ {(0. y): y = 0} (D*) {(x. y): y = 0} [JEE '20 05 (Scr)] (!%Bansal Classes Circles [12] . y): x2 = 4y} u {(0.

0 Q 7. (b) D.6 (a) D (b) B.3y . x + y . r = 5 . 32 sq.0 = 45° Q 29. {± cy + b(x + a)}2 + { .8 y + 4 = 0 Q 15. x2 + y2 .a) (b .3 0 = 0 Q 22.4 (a) B Q.2x) OR y = (b .^ I J y .b2)2 Q 21. 2 x + V 5 y .3 ) 2 + (y + 7)2 = 32 . x2 + y2 . 2) Q.. x2 + y2 . A B C A' B' c-c' C Q 26.l) 2 + (y .4x + 4y = 0 . x .2 2 y + 1 2 1 =0. x2 + y2 . (a2 > 2b2) Q 28.19y + 50 = 0 Q 5. 4x2 + 4y2 + 6x + lOy. x + ^/ 35 y .1 = 0 2 2 KEY Q 4. (x2 + y2 . x2 + y2 + x . (x .l (a) x— + y—I = .x2 . 4x .4 x .7y = 2. 9 x .25 = 0 OR 3x + 4 y .6y + 3 = 0 2 2 Q 17. x2 + y2 ± aV2 x = 0 2 2 EXER CISE-II I ( n2 f if 1 Q.2 2 + y„2 . al ine 2 2 2 2 Q 14.3 (a) (1/2. unit Q 6.ANSWER Q 1. x2 + y2 .x ) 2 = x2 + y2 Q 22. (2ax . c2 : + +y2= I . 2 x .6y .4 ) 2 + y2 = 9 . ( . x + y 12x -12y + 64 = 0 Q18.00.2 (2.by ± c(x .8 = 0 Q 16.7)2 = 32 . ( x .l l y +38 = 0 Q. 75 sq.y ± 2 a x .y2)2 Q 19.2ay)2 = (a 2 .4 = 0 EXER CISE-II Ql.2x .6x + 4y = 0 OR x2 + y2 + 2 x .V 5 y . centre (2 . x2 + y2 = 64 Q 19. -2) or (2.3 0 = 0. x . x2 + y2 .lOx-4y + 4 = 0 f EXERCISE-I Q 3.17x . (x .6 y .12y + 34 = 0 Q 21. x2 + y2 + 8x . x2 + y 2 .2 0 x .6y + 9 = 0 OR x + y . 3 x . r = 2 Q 4. Centre = (3.3). x2 + y2 + 16x+ 14y.4.2 5 = 0 Q 30.2y = 0 Q 20.9)2 + (y .1 5 = 0 .2x . 1 (radius) = S = 2 2 2 2 I 2' 2 J a-a' b-b' Q 23. 1/4) 2J 2 V 2 y V 2 4. 4) .00) Q.1 5 = 0.10y + 7 = 0 Q 10.units 182 " 2 0 5 Q 10.l) 2 = 32 . (b) 2(x + y ) + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 Q 6. C (c) Cl : ( x .2by)2 + (2bx .2x . 7 x . f _ 1 V Q 12. 0). (x + 5)2 + (y + I)2 = 32 Q 20.3). y = (b + a) (b + a .4x . x + y = 2 Q 25.a 2 = 0 Q 17. P(O. centre Q 8. K = 1 Q 18.a + 2x) Q 15.2y + 1 . x + y . (c) ( .5 x + Q. -2) u (2.12 = 0 Q 14.a)}2 = (a 2 . 7x + y = 14 .

C.8 y + 25 = 0 & 6 x .OA=3(3 +V10) Q.C.) Q. common tangent between c.y + 2V3-4 = 0(D.8 (a) C (b) A (a) 6 x .8 y .ll (a) C . T.12 C Q.9 (a) A .1 0 x . A Q.) T 3 : x + V 3 y .IO (a) x2 + y2 + 14x-6y + 6 = 0 .7 Q. T.12= 0. T2 = 0 and x . T2 = 0 and x + 1 = 0 . common tangent be tween c & c2 : T t = 0.2 = 0.common tangent between c & Cj : Tj = 0. (b) 2px + 2qy = r Q.5 y + 1 = 0 (!%Bansal Classes Circles [12] . = 0 and y = ± -jL= ^x + where ^ : x .T.V 3 y + 2 = 0 and T2 : x + v / 3 y + 2 = 0 Q.1 = 0 . = 0 .T . (b). (b). T4 : x + V3y + 3 = 0 (T. T2 : V 3 x . : V3x-y + 2^3 +4 = 0.2 5 = 0 (b) x2 + y2 + 4 x .13 2x2 + 2 y 2 . & c2 : T.

CONCEPTS EXERCISE-I EXERCISE-II EXERCISE-III ANSWER-KEY .BANSAL CLASSES MATHEMATICS TARGET IIT JEE 2007 XI(PQRS) PERMUTATION AND COMBINATION CONTENTS KEY.

(2n)! = 2 .r + 1)= ( n _ r ) j Note that.2) ( n . If nPr denotes the number of permutations of n diffe rent things. fo r in any one way it is possible to interchange the two groups without obtaining a new n!n!2! distribution. then n! n Pr = n (n . r!(n-r)! rj The number ofways in which (m+n) different things can be divided into two groups containing m & n things respectively is : ( m + n ) if m=n. q of them are similar & of another type.1) ! n 0! = 1! = 1 . if 3 n things are to be divided equally among three people then t he number of ways = . then the total number of different ways of simultaneo us occurrence of both events in a definite order is m x n. COMBINATION: Each of the groups or mber ofthings without d a C O M B I N A T I FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE selections which can be made by taking some or all of a nu reference to the order ofthe things in each group is calle O N . ( n . following which another event can oc cur in'/?' different ways.1) (n . PERMUTATION 2. r of them are similar & of a third type & the remaining I n . CONCEPTS : Each ofthe arrangements in a definite order which can be made by taking some o r all ofa number of things is called a P E R M U T A T I O N .1)] Note that factorials of negativ e integers are not defined. (n!) The number ofpermutations ofn things taken all at a t ime whenp of them are similar & of one type. the groups are equal & in this case the number of subdivision m!n! .. n e N and r e W . nPn = n !. This can be extended to any number of events. p!q!r! The number of circular permutations ofn different . RESULTS: (i) A Useful Notation :n! = n ( n . n! =n.(2n. then n n! p n Cr = . = L where r < n . 1 .l ) ( n . 5. n ! [1. n & p thi ngs respectively is m! n!p! 5 (ii) (iii) (iv) is (v) m ^ n ^ p. If nCr denotes the number of combinations of n different things taken r at a time. 7.(p + q + r) are all different is: -——. 2.2 ) 3. if 2n things are to be divided equally betwe en two persons then the number of (2n)! ways = n!n! Number ofways in which (m + n + p) different things can be divided into three groups containing m. However. 3. taking r at a time.KEY DEFINITIONS: 1. /A \ I If m = n = p then the number of groups^ (vi) (3n)! However.. OF COUNTING: If an event can occur in'm' different ways.

Ifclockwise& anti-clockwise circular perm utations are considered to be same.things taken all at a time is. then it is • Note : Number of circular permuta tions ofn things when p alike and the rest different taken all at a time disting uishing clockwise and anticlockwise arrangement is^——. (n-1)!. p! n!n!n!3!' (vii) (!iBansalClasses Permutation and Combination [7] .

(viii) n Given n different objects. q. This can also be stated as the total number of combinations of n distinct things. Let N = p8. r alike of third kind & so on is given by: (p+ l ) ( q + l ) ( r + 1) -1..(p° + p1 + p2+.. n C 0 = nCn = 1 c r + nCr_! = n+1Cr . Number of ways in which it is possible to make a selection ofm + n + p = N thing s. DEARRANGEMENT: Number of ways in which n letters can be placed in n directed let ters so that no letter goes into its own envelope is = n! . one or more things is. + qb) (r° +r 1 + r 2 +. c are natural numbe rs then: (a) The total numbers of divisors ofN including 1 & N is = (a + 1 )(b + 1 )(c + 1) (b) (c) The sum ofthese divisors is .1. (xiv) (xv) n n n C r = n C n _ r . b.No. b..qb. (ix) Total number of ways in which it is possible to make a selection by taking some or all out of p+q+r+ things. the number of ways of selecting atleast one of them i s . (b) r = o r . +1] if N is a perfect square (xvi) Number of ways in which a composite number N can be resolved into two factors wh ich are relatively prime (or coprime) to each other is equal to 2 n_I where n is the number of different prime factors inN. (x) Note : Remember that coefficient ofx r in (1 -x) _n = n+r_1 C r (n e N)..where p. r.... n+p_1 Cn.r°. c... +p a )(q°+q 1 + q2+.y . q alike of a second kind.28 of Ex-I ] Grid Probl ems and tree diagrams. factors is (d) 4(a + l)(b + l)(c +1).. [ Refer Q. (xi) (xii) (xiii) Number ofw ays in which n distinct things can be distributed to p persons if there is no re striction to the number of things received by men = pn. Number of ways in which N can be resolve d as a product of two „ . where p are alike of one kind. where p are alike of one kind. a..+r°).. n Cx = nCy =>x = y orx + y = n Cr is maximum if: (a) r = y if n is even..if n is odd. if N is not a p erfect square j [(a + l)(b + l)(c +1). C[ + nC2 + nC3 + + nCn = 2n .. are distinct primes & a.. m alike of second kind & n alike of third kind taken r at a time is given by coefficient of xr in the expansion of (1 + X + X 2 + + X ? ) ( 1 + X + X2+ + X m ) (1 + X + X2 + +xn)... Number of ways in which n identical things may be distributed among p persons if each person may receive none.. For exa mple the number ofways in which a selection of four letters can be madefromthe l etters of the word PROPORTION is given by coefficient of x4 in (1 + x + x2 + x3) (1 + x + x2) (1 + x + x2) (1 + x) (1 + x) (1 + x).

Based on certain words / phrases occuring in t he problem we can fairly decide its nature as per the following table: PROBLEMS OF COMBINATIONS PROBLEMS OF PERMUTATIONS • • • • Selections. — v ' n! 1 (xvii) S ome times studentsfindit difficult to decide whether a problem is on pe rmutation or combination or both.1 1 2! + —+ 3! 4! 1 / IV +(-1) . choose Distributed group is formed Committee Geometrical problems • Arrangements • Standing in a line seated in a row IB problems on digits • Problems o n letters from a word (!i Bansal Classes Permutation and Combination [7] .

so that there shall always be 3 out of AB C A' B' C ' . If 4 of the persons are me n and 4 ladies and if no two men are to be in adjacent seats. Du ring a draw of lottery. In howmany ways can they be seated in the cars ? In how many ways can they travel by these cars so as to reach in time.7and8 ifeach digit is to be used atmost once. 5 boys & 4 gir ls sit in a straight line.4. 3 black balls & 4 red ball s.l (a) (b) (c) In how many ways 8 persons can be seated on a round table If two of them (say Aand B) must not sit in adjacent seats.2 Q. A candidate i s required to attempt 8 questions selecting atleast 3fromeach part. are t o be in adjacent seats? A box contains 2 white balls. Part-A contains 7 questions & Part . as well as no two men. Find the number ofways in which they can be seated if 2 girls are together & the other 2 are also together but separatefromthefirst2.4 Q. if the seating arrangement in each car is immaterial and all the cars reach the stadiu m by the same route.6 Q. In how many maximum ways can the candidate select the questions ? A crew of an eight oar boa t has to be chosen out of 11 menfiveof whom can row on stroke side only. B B' or C C' together. Find the number ofways in which 2 identical kings can be placed on an 8 x 8 board so that the kings are not in adjacent squares.7 Q. If 8 persons const itute 4 married couples and if no husband and wife. In how many ways can a t eam of 6 horses be selected out of a stud of 16. In how many ways can you divide a pack of 52 cards equally among 4 players. Four of them re siding in the same town own cars. 6 tickets are dra wn out & then arranged in the descending order of their numbers.2. . 3. 2. the team man ager. but never A A ' .12 faBansal Classes Permutation and Combination [4] . 3 of them having 17 cards each & the 4th with 1 card. In how many ways can 3 balls be selected from the box if atleast 1 black is t o be included in the draw ? How manyfivedigits numbers divisible by 3 can be for med using the digits 0. l.3 Q. In how many ways the cards can be divided in 4 sets. each a four seater which they will drive thems elves. 40.B contains 5 questions. and the remaining two on either side.5 Q.9 Q. How man y on n x m chessboard? The Indian cricket team with eleven players.ll An examination paper consists of 12 questions divided into parts A & B. The bus which was to pick them up failed to arrive in time after leaving the opposite team at the stadium. Q. tickets bearing numbers 1. 8 Q.EXERCISE-I Q. four on the bow side only.IO How many 4 digit numbers are there which contains not more than 2 different digits? Q. How many different sel ections can be made? Q. In how many way s. the physiotherapist and two umpires are to travelfromthe hotel where they are staying to the stadium where the test match is to be played.3. it is possible to have 4th ticket bearing number 25.

l)(n -1) times.22 All the 7 digit numbers contai ning each of the digits 1. Find the number of distinct arrangements. Find the number of ways in which the number 300300 can be spli t into 2 factors which are relatively prime.18 There are n straight lines in a plane.2. Q. A total of m points are taken on the l ine /j. Q.16 Afirmof Chartere d Accountants in Bombay has to send 10 clerks to 5 different companies. 2 blue & 1 red ball. Show that the number of fresh lines thus introduced is n(n-l)(n-2)(n-3) 8 Q. How many maximum number oftriangles are there whose vertices are at these points? Q. Find also the s um of these divisors. Two o f the clerks prefer to work in Bombay while three others prefer to work outside. n points on l2 & k points on /3. In how many ways the number 7056 can be resolved as a prod uct of 2 factors. two cler ks in each. In how many of th ese c's will be together. then excluding the given points. l2 & /3 are parallel & lie in the same plane. Q.7 exactly once.4. 6. Assume that the fruits ofthe same species are ail alike. In how many ways can a train stop at 3 of these intermediate stations if no 2 of these stopping stations are to be consecutive ? The straight lines l x . Q. 24 There are 5 white. Their point of intersection ar e joined. 4 yellow.21 Find the number of ways 10 apples.14 Q. Every participant played 2 games with the other participants. 23 (a) (b) (c) How many divisors are there of the number x = 21600. Find the number of participants & the total numbers of games played in the tournament. The balls are a ll identical except for colour. each receiving none. Two of the companies are in Bombay and the others are outside. (!i Bansal Classes Permutation and Combination [7] . 15 Prove that if each of m points in one straight line be joined to each of n in another by straight lines terminated by the points. 5. The number of games that the men played between themselv es exceeded by 66 as compared to the number of games that the men played with th e women. 5 oranges & 5 mangoes ca n be distributed among 3 persons. 19 Find the number of distinct throws which can be thrown with 'n' six face d normal dice which are indistinguishable among themselves. the lines will intersect — mn(m . These are to be arranged in a line in 5 places. one or more. Q . Q. In how many ways can the assignment be made if the preferences are to be satisf ied.13 There are p intermediate stations on a railway line from one terminus to another .Q. no 2 of wh ich parallel. 20 There are 2 w omen participating in a chess tournament. and not divisible by 5 are arranged in the increasing order. Find the (2004)th number in this list.17 Find the number of words each consisting of 3 consonants & 3 vowels th at can be formed from the letters of the word "Circumference". Q. 3 green. 4 Q. & no 3 pass through the same point.3.

Q.5) (n . his wife has also 7 relatives. A man has 7 relatives. 3 Q. How many of these will have counters of each colour. then show that th e number ofways of selecting four of the things no two ofwhich are consecutive i s n(n . 29 0 If'ri things are arranged in circular order. The number of ways in which the balls. Find the numb er ofways in which an arrangement of 10 counters can be made. 6 persons enter the train during the journey with 6 different tickets of the same class. There are 6 streets running north & south and 10 running east & west. n"1Pr_1 If 20 C r+2 = 20 C 2r _ 3 find 12 C r Find the ratio 20Cr to 25Cr when each of them has the greatest value possible. How many di fferent sets ofticket may they have had? Q. Find r if 15C3r = 15Cr+3 Q. Prove that n_1 C3 + C4 > nC3 if n > 7. EXERCISE-II Q.25 (1) 00 (iii) (iv) (v) Prove that: nPr = n"1Pr + r. 5 (!iBansalClasses Permutation and Combination [7] . How many integral s olutions are there for the equation . then show that the number of such sets of four is (n-3)(n-4)(n-5)(n-6) 4! (ii) Q.6) (n . In how many ways can they invite a dinner party of 3 ladies & 3 gentlemen so th at there are 3 of the man's relative & 3 of the wife's relatives? Find the numbe r of 7 lettered words each consisting of 3 vowels and 4 consonants which can be formed using the letters ofthe word "DIFFERENTIATION". 3 of them are ladies & 4 gentlemen. Q.2 Q.7) 4! If the 'ri things are arranged in a row. Counters are all al ike except for the colour and they are atleast ten of each colour. Q. Find the number ofways in which a man can gofromthe north-west corner to the south-east corner covering the shortest possible distance in each case.27 A train goingf romCambridge to London stops at nine intermediate stations. z > 2 & w>0.4 Q.x + y + z + w = 29 when x > 0. Prove that the g reatest number of selections each ofwhich consists of 5 books on each topic is p ossible only when there are 10 books on each topic in the library. 4 of them are ladies & 3 gentlemen. There are counters available in 7 different colours. 1 There are 5 balls of different colours & 5 boxes of colours same as those o f the balls. y > 1. 3 0 There are 20 books on Algebra & Calculus in our library. 1 in each box could be place d such that a ball does not go to the box ofits o^/n colour. 26 In a certain town the streets are arranged like the lines of a chess board .28 How many arrangements each consist ing of 2 vowels & 2 consonants can be made out of the letters of the word4 DEVAS TATION' ? Q.

Find the number of ways in which they can stand in a row so that no two men ofthe same nationality are next to one another .12 (i) (ii) (iii) Q. 14 In an election for the managing committee of a reputed club. Each box can hold all 5 balls.13 Find the number of ways in which the number 3 0 can be partitioned into thr ee unequal parts. Find the number of differ ent distribution ofthe balls so that there is atleast 1 ball in each urn. In how man y other ways can the letters of the word MULTIPLE be arranged.(4n2 .15 Find the number of three digits numbersfrom100 to 999 in clusive which have any one digit that is the average ofthe other two. (ii) There is no restriction on the number of committees on which a person can serve. Eachof3 committees has 1 vacancy which is to befilledfroma group of 6 people. 10 A party of 10 consists of 2 Americans. What this number would be if equal parts are also included. the number of candidates contesting elections exceeds the num ber of members to be elected by r (r > 0). Q. 2 Chinese & 4 men of other nationalities (all different).6 A shop sells 6 different flavours of ice-cream. Balls are alike except f or the colour & each urn can hold any number of balls. If a voter can vote in 967 different ways to elect the managing committee by voting atleast 1 ofthem & can vote in 55 different ways to elect (r .Q. without changing the order of the vowels keeping the position of each vowelfixed& without changin g the relative order/position ofvowels & consonants. (!i Bansal Classes Permutation and Combination [7] . Q. Show that the number of ways in which the company can be placed is (2n . Find the number of candidates contesting the elections & the number of candidates los ing the elections.2)! . Find also the number of ways in which they can sit at a round table.ll 5 ba lls are to be placed in 3 boxes. (i) balls & b oxes are different (ii) balls are identical but boxes are different (iii) balls are different but boxes are identical (iv) balls as well as boxes are identical (v) balls as well as boxes are identical but boxes are kept in a row. 8 Q. In how many ways can a customer choose 4 ice-cream cones if (1) they are all of different flavours (ii) they are non necessarily of different flavours (iii) they contain only 3 different flavo urs (iv) they contain only 2 or 3 different flavours? 6 white & 6 black balls of the same size are distributed among 10 different urns. There are 2n guests at a dinner party. and that there are two specified gu ests who must not be placed next to one another. In how many diff erent ways can we place the balls so that no box remains empty if. (iii) Each person can serve on atmost 2 committees. Q.7 Q.6n+4). Q.9 Q . Find the number of wa ys the 3 vacancies can befilledi f . (l) Each person can serve on atmost 1 commi ttee. 2 Britishmen.1 ) candidates by voting in the same manner. Q. Supposing that the master an d mistress of the house have fixed seats opposite one another. each part being a natural number.

7.fiveothers have each 2 and the remaining eight have each 1. 2 can row on the bow side. 2 . J. C r-2 > • C r . C 0' A man has 3 friends.0 if (i) repetitions are not allowed (ii) repetitions are al lowed. m^ c c W 0 r 1 r. How many members were there in the club? Assume that for each win a player scores 1 point. except four junior s whose total score were 17. One other person insist s on occupying the middle seat (which may be on any side). 4 . Q. 23 Find the sum of all numbers greater than 10000 formed by using the digits 0 1 . All members scored the same number of points.17 4.20 Q.fin dthe number ofways in which a list can be formed ofthe order ofthe 24 boats. assumin g that all the runs are made off the bat & the batsman can not score more than 4 runs off any ball. 5 no digit being repeated in any number. n/» . An 8 oared boat is to be manned by a crew chosen from 14 men ofwhich 4 can only steer but can not row & the rest can row but cannot steer. 24 The members of a chess club took part in a round robin competition in which each plays every one else once. Find the number of wa ys they can be seated. 8. At the stat ion there are 2 coaches accommodating 4 each & 3 carts accommodating 3 each. three on each side. 6. 2 .21 Q. obs erving that the second boat of a club cannot be above the first and the third ab ove the second. 22 How many 6 digits odd numbers greater than 60. Q.1 r Q. mr 4. Find the number ofways in which India just manages to win the match (i. In how many ways can the crew be arranged.0000 can be formed from the digits 5. for di uw 1/2 point and zero for losi ng. scores exactly 14 runs). Fin d the number ofways in which they can proceed to the village assuming that the c onveyances are always fully occupied & that the conveyances are all distinguisha blefromeach other. 12 perso ns are to be seated at a square table. How many ways are there in which a boat of the club having singl e boat on the river is at the third place in the list formed above? 25 passenger s arrive at a railway station & proceed to the neighbouring village.19 Q.e. . Q.Q. There are 15 rowing clubs. two of the clubs have each 3 b oats on the river. In how many ways he can invite one friend everyday for dinn er on 6 successive nights so that nofriendis invited more than 3 times. 2 persons wish to sit on the north side and two wish to sit on the east side. Of those who can row.16 Prove by combinatorial argument that: n+I (a) C r = »Cr + »C r _ 1 /TA n + nif> — Jif .25 In Indo-Pak one day International cricket match at Shaijah. Q. India needs 14 runs to win just before the start ofthefinalover.18 Q.9.

Q. show that the number of ways the whole is I (m+ l)(2m 2 + 4m + 3).27 The number of of 1 sort. (!iBansalClasses Permutation and Combination [7] 4 papers with a maximum of getting 2m marks on ways in which 2n things divided between 2 perso . 2n of another sort & 2n of a 3rd sort can be ns so that each may have 3 n things is 3 n 2 +3 n + I.26 A man goes in for an examination in which there are of m marks for each paper.Q.

. D. satisfying Xj + X2+. (0. The s mallest value ofn for which this is possible is : (A) 6 (B)7 (C)8 (D)9 How many different nine digit numbers can be formedfromthe number 2233 55888 by rearrangi ng its digits so that the odd digits occupy even positions ? [JEE '2000. 6] Select the correct alternative(s). prove that . is .30 The number of combinations n together of 3n letters of which n are 'a' and n are 'b' and the rest unlike is (n + 2).. +x k =n.4 Q... [REE' 97. then the number of rectangles possible with odd side lengths is (A) (m + n+ l) 2 (B) 4m + n ~ 1 (C) m2n2 (D) mn(m + l)(n + 1) [JEE 20 05 (Screening). 2 out of 60] A rectangle with sides 2m . 3] Q.1 . C.0) [JEE 2003 (Screening). 3 ] (A) 40 (B) 60 (C) 80 (D) 100 Number of poi nts with integral co-ordinates that lie inside a triangle whose co-ordinates are (0. X j > 2. E and F only three of the m appear in the list.l Let n & k be positive integers such that n > kfr+1). x k ) . 2 + 2 ] (D)3 An n-digit number is a positive number with exactly 'n' digits.1 is divided into squares ofunit length by drawing parallel line s as shown in the diagram. (n!) [JEE 2004. then V equals: [ JEE '2001.Tn = 21. Nine hundred dis tinct n-digit numbers are to be formed using only the three digits 2. Q. E and F i s thrownntimes and the list of n alphabets showing up are noted. B.Q.9 (!iBansalClasses Permutation and Combination [7] .3 (l) (ii) Find the total numb er of ways of selectingfivelettersfromthe letters of the word INDEPENDENT. .2 ] Q. (Scr) ] (A) 5 (B)7 (C)6 (D)4 The number of arran gements of the letters of the word BANANAin which the two N's do not appear adj acently is [JEE 2002 (Screening).. 3] (A) 210 (B) 190 (C) 220 (D )None (n 2 ) ! Using permutation or otherwise.. [ JEE '96...xj. .. The number of solutions (xj. 21) and (21.. EXERCISE-III Q. Find the total number ofways in which among the alphabets A. Q. x k > k . Number of divisors of the form 4n + 2 ( n > 0) of the integer 240 is (A) 4 (B) 8 (C)10 [ JEE '98. C. all integers. 2 Q.7 Q.29 Find the number of integer betwen 1 and 10000 with at least one 8 and atlea st one 9 as digits. 28 Six faces of an ordinary cubical die marked with alphabets A. 8 Q. If T n + 1 .6 Q.. 5&7. B. x j > 1.1 and 2n . whe re n is a positive integer. 2". . 5 Q. (Scr)] (A) 16 (B) 36 (C) 60 (D) 180 Let Tn denote the number of triangles which can be formed using the vertices of a regular polygon of ' n' sides.„ is an integer. D. 0).

52 Q.17 22100.19 n+5 C.22 4316527 Q.(mC3 + nC3 + k C 3 ) Q. (b) 23 .4! Q J Q 8 ' n[*C2-(m-l) + m[»C2-(n-l)] 420 Q.4 24 C2 .3 (a) 5-(6!). 78120 .ANSWER KEY EXERCISE-I Q.9 12!.6 43200 111.IO Q.12 145 Q. 156 5400 Q. (b) 3! • 4!.16 13 .21 29106 Q.2 Q.l Q.(3!)42| Q. 15C3 Q.13 P~2C.23 (a) 72 . Q.5 960 Q.20 Q. (c) 32 . Q.ll C 3 .14 576 m+n+k Q. (c) 12 6 if the balls of the same colour are alike & 64 if the balls of the same colour are different 744 Q.

3 (!iBansalClasses Permutation and Combination [7] . (ii) circular: (244). (iii) 60.7 485 26250 (i) 15. (v) r = 3 Q. (iii) 359 Q.3 49 710 .l Q. (iii) 25.13 61. (iv) 105 (i) linear: (47) 8! . (ii) 6 . | — | 10 Q. 216.5 44 532770 Q.27 45 Cfi EXERCISE-II Q. (v) 6 (i) 3359 . 10 2600 Q. (ii) 126. 210 Q.6 Q.28 (ii) 792 .12 (i) 150 .4 Q.9 120. 75 Q.ll Q. 6! Q. (iii) ^ 1638 .26 (14)! 5!9! Q. (iv)2.25 Q.24 2111 Q.2 Q.Q. (ii) 59.14 10.

^ ^ Q.2) Q.15 121 Q.3 Q.k2 + k .3C2] 27 Q.25 1506 Q. where m = (1/2) (2n .15552 Q.17 510 Q.4 Q.5 Q.Q.9 m EXERCISE-III Ck_.18 2! 3! 8! Q.2) .22 240.6 (i) A.l Q.7 C B 72 B C (!i Bansal Classes Permutation and Combination [7] .28 C3[3n . (ii) B A Q.2 Q.29 974 Q.23 3119976 6 Q.24 .

ft BANSAL CLASSES MATHEMATICS TARGET IIT JEE 2007 XI (P. S) BINOMIAL CONTENTS KEY.CONCEPTS EXERCISE .111(B) EXERCISE-IV ANSWER-KEY . R.111(A) EXER CISE .1(A) EXERCISE .1(B) EXERCISE-II EXERCISE . Q.

(i) (iii) (i) (ii) IMPORTANT TERMS IN THE B INOMIAL EXPANSION ARE : General term (ii) Middle term Term independent of x & (i v) Numerically greatest term The general term or the(r+ l) th term in the expans ion of (x + y)n is given by...y + C2 x " y + This theorem can be proved by Induction . equid istant from the beginning and the end are equal. If x. (ii) The sum of the indices of x & y in each term is n .e. then . (ii i) The binomial coefficients of the terms n C 0 . T (b) (iii) (iv) If n is odd.y e R and n e N . CONCEPTS BINOMIAL EXPONENTIAL & LOGARITHMIC SERIES BINOMIAL THEOREM : The formula by whic h any positive integral power of a binomial expression can be expanded in the fo rm of a series is known as BINOMIAL THEOREM . n n n n 1 n n 2 2 + Crx " y + n n r r + Cny = X n C r x n " r y r . n n r0 = OBSERVATIONS : (i) The number of terms in the expansion is (n + 1) i.r . Tr+i = nCr x n .. one or m ore than the index. there is only one middle term which is given by . yr The middle term(s) is the e xpansion of (x + y)n is (are) : (a) If n is even. nC j. there are two middle terms which are : T(n+l)/2 & T[(n+l)/2]+l (n+2)/2 = nf1 .KEY 1. n (x + y) = C0 x + Cj x". 2.

(i) (ii) (iii) BINOMIAL COEFFICIENTS : C 0 + CJ + C 2 + C0 + C2 + C4 + + CN = 2* = CJ + C 3 + C 5 + 2N = 211-1 ^ ( ! (n+ r^ _r). If n is an even integer. + C N 2 = CN = (iv) C0. C 0 2 + C J 2 + C 2 2 + . n e N is the same as the greatest term in (1 +x) n . I f ( A + b)"= I + f where I & n are positive integers. To find the Numerically greatest term is the expansion of (1 + x) n . f = Kn where A . C1x r n-r+ 1 —^ = —r = x . 4..B 2 = K > 0 & V A . 3...f) = Kn.Cr + Cj. + C n _ r . then (I + f) (1 .. Note that the Numerically greatest term in the expansion of (1 . n being odd and 0 < f < l . n e N find n T .y > 1. Hencefindthe value of r for which the expon ent of x is zero.C n ?fe\Bansal Classes Binomial [6] .x) n .C^j + C2.n/2 x Yn/2 'l „n/2 Term independent of x contains no x. x > 0..Cr+2 + . Put the absolute value of x &findthe value ofr Cons istent with the T Cf_jX T.B < 1 .j inequality . then V > (I + f).

| x | > 1 then we may find it con vinient to expand in powers of —..O Note : (i) When the index n is a positive integer the number of terms in the exp ansion of (1 +x) n is finite i.n! [1. ..3 If x < 1.. . .5 5. oo (d) (1 -x)~ 2 = 1 + 2 X + 3X 2 +4X 3 + oo The expansions in ascending powers of x are only valid if x is 'small'. n ( n .1 ) ( n . .2 X + 3 X 2 ..7 & 2. if x be so small that its squares and higher powers may be neglected then (1 + x)n = 1 + nx. where x may be any real or complex & e = ^u^t \ \ + — J 3 (ii) Note: / X (a) ax = 1 + —In a + — / n 2 a + — / n 3 a + 1! 2! 3! 1 1 1 oo where a > 0 (b) (c) (d) (e) 4 e = l1 + . (2n-l)] BINOMIAL THEOREM FOR NEGATIVE OR FRACTIONAL INDICES : . (n+ 1) & the coefficient of successive terms a re : np np np np np M> 2' 3 n (ii) When the index is other than a positive integ er such as negative integer or fraction.2 1.x ) . .x + x 2 . Thus. G Provided | x | < 1. (i) n(n (iv) 6... This is an approximate value of (1 +x)n. a stage may be reached when we m ay neglect the terms containing higher powers of x in the expansion. Its value correct upto 10 places of decimal is 2. (a) (1 +X)"1 = 1 .1 ^ 1 + x + x2 + x3 + x 4 +.+1 + + + V 2! 4! 6! 0 . which then will be small.8 .. EXPONENTIAL SERIES: x x2 x3 ex=l + — + — + — + 2 ( lV oo .2 ) x3 1.4 X 3 + . . e + e" = 2 1 ' 1 —1 1— — . — + — + — + oo 1! 2! 3! e is an irrational number lying between 2.REMEMBER : (i) (2n)!=2 n .e. If x is large i. x* + 7. oo (b) (1 . approximately. (iii) Following expansion should be remembered (| x | < 1 ). the terms of the above exp ansion go on decreasing and if x be very small.7182818284.0 N . the number of terms in the expansion of (1 +x) n is infinite and the symbol nCr cannot be used to denote the Coefficien t of the general term.2.l ) 2 n ( n l ) ( n . then (1 +x)n= l + nx + —^—-x — ^ -x + . X APPROXIMATIONS : (1 +x) n = 1 +nx+ .. oo (c) (1 + x)~2 = 1 .x 3 + x 4 -.2 )J 3s I f n e Q .3.e.

their inventor. so named after Napier. Th ey are also called Natural Logarithm.y -1=0 r i i i 00 e . N ?fe\Bansal Classes Binomial [6] .e"1 = 2 l + _ + _ + _ + ^ 3! 5! 7! J Logarithms to the base 'e' are known as the Napierian system.

.x (1 + x) f 2 2 ^ 1 2 3 4 3 3 4 3 b 4 oo w h e r e ...+ .l < x < l oo where .x /n!0 = 2.x) = .303 2 X+ — + 4 + 00 (o h x3 3 + x5 5 V (a) REMEMBER : (c) 1 . (i) (ii) LOGARITHMIC SERIES: /n(l+x) = x . oo = /n2 2 3 4 /n2 = 0.1 < x < 1 X <1 e/n x .+.~ In v(1.8...693 1 1 1 (b) (d) .

l ) r .EXERCISE-I Q.findr.8 1 3r V 15r — t Find the sum of the series ^ ( . find the values of : a2 + + 8^ . (r + l) th & (r + 2)th t erms in the expansion of (1 +x) 14 are inAP.+ r r0 = 2 2 2 2 up to m terms If the coefficients of 2 .7 Q.2 Q3 If the coefficients of (2r + 4) th .6 Q. find r.2)th terms in the expansion of (1 + x)18 are equal.a 3 + a2n .+ —j. If the coefficients of the rth..a t 2 c 2b |g l 4+ . (ii) a 0 . so that these coefficients are equal. nd rd & 4th terms in the expansion of (1 +x) 2n are in AP.a 1 + a 2 .4 Q.9n + 7 = 0. Find the term independent o f x in the expansion of (a) /x 3 V3 2x' 10 1/3 1/5 (b) —x +x~ 2 Q. Q.5 Q. show that Given that (1 (i)a0 + aj + + a2-ag2 + a x ^o 5 V 4+ 4 + a22 + x + x2)n = a0 + ajX + s^x2 + . 3 2n2 . (iii) a 0 2 .+ a^x 2 ".. n C r — + — h—T. (r .. 1 v a Find the coefficients : (i) x in ' ax +• i ' 7 (A) Nl i (ii) x 7 V bx in ax-bx' (iii) Find the relation between a & b.

b. Q. prove that ^ + Q9 . Q. n e N. c & d are the coefficients of any four consecutive terms in the expansi on of (1 + x)n. 1 + 7 is 336.2n"2CB . n e N . + 2n~2Cnn> n 7 .... n>2 — n~i 1 Binomial te Bonsai Classes [4] .C n . + rCr = nCr+1.z+ 2. Find the value ofx for which the fourth term in the expansion.ll (a)Which is larger : (99 S0 + 10050) or (101)50. 10 Prove that : n"1Cr + n~2Cr + n"3Cr + .If a. v (b) Show that ' 2n 2 4n .

(i-xr)~~'provethatnJ. 21 If the coefficient of a r_1 .25 Find the coeff.16 Given s n = l + q + q2 + prove that a+1 (ii) (3 .X + 3 X 2 ) 6 Q.. C t + n+1C2. of (a) (b) (c) x3r .13 Show that coefficient of x5 in the expansion of (1 +x 2 ) 5 . Q.+ n+1Cn+1. prove that n2 . 19 Prove that for n e N X (~l) r nCr 7 = 0.. a r .. (1 + x) 4 is 60.s2 +.18 Find the term independent of x in the expansion of (1 + x + 2x3) " (l + rlo g 10) Q.24 The expression s 1 + x. equidistantfromt he beginning and end are equal.. Use it to prove £ = Q. afTl in the expansion of (1 + a)n are in arithmetic progression.23 Prove that ^ n C K sinKx.2 = 0. r=0 (l+log e 10 n ) Q. q * 1.n (4r + 1) + 4r2 .17 Prove that the ratio of the coefficient of x10 in (1 -x 2 ) 1 0 & the term independent of x in x-|j is 1 : 32 .sn = 2 n .. (a) how many terms are there in the produ ct.x n )( 1 •.. + ( ^ j .. (b) show that the coefficients of the terms in the product.12 In the expansion of \1 + x + .15 Find numerically the greatest term in the expansion of : (i) (2 + 3x)9 when x = Q.14 Find the coefficient of x4 in the expansion o f : (i) ( l + x + x 2 + x 3 ) n (ii) ( 2 . 1+x + x2. (1 . 1 + x + x2 + x3. cos(n .20 Pr ove the identity + = . 1 + x + x2 + + xn are multiplied together an d the terms ofthe product thus obtained are arranged in increasing powers ofx in the form of a0 + ajX + a^x2 + . Q.= nJn Q.x n_1 )(1 .vn Q. Q.x n " 2 ) Q22 If nJ = r (1 .. 3x 2 2 3 xj Q.J find the term not containing x..S! + n+1C3. S n .. (c) (n + 1)! show that the sum of the odd coeffi cients = the sum of the even coefficients = 2 Q.K)x = 2 n_1 sin nx.x n_r+1 ) "iMO^Xi-x3) K=0 . then. Q.5x)15 when x = j + qn & Sn = 1 + ^ + + .

) S r( .x6 in the expansion of (ax2 + bx+c) 9 . r =0 r0 = x 2 r= b 2n ?fe\Bansal Classes Binomial [6] . a2 b3 c4 d in the expansion of (a . 2n Q.c + d)10.) & a k = 1 for all k>n.by + cz)9 .26 If 2>r( . x2 y3 z4 in the expansion of (ax .b . then show that bn = 2n+1Cn+1.

Not in the syllabus of HT JEE.32 Find x for which the (k+ l) th term of the expansion of (x + y)n is the greatest if x + y = 1 andx>0.30 Prove that (72)1 (36! f .35 If p = q nearly and n >1. then find the value of y2 + 2y. Q. n e N (A) (3V3 + 5 p ' (B) (5V5 + ll)2n+1 p+P where n & p are positive integers and P is a proper fraction show that Q./=k-l /. ^ n Q.27 If P k (x)= 2 x1' then prove that.12 o then F o prove that x2 + 2 x . n e N ( A ) (5 + 2 Ve)" ( B ) (s + 3 V7) n ( C ) (e + V3?) n Q.34 w (a) (b) = j Mr+Mr5 = 1 + (Ji)x+.+ — + HJL + _L11L + 3 3. 9 3. £ n C k P k (x) = 2""1-Pn' /o = \ ^j k1 = Q. show that (n-l)p + (n + l)q (*) Q.±)x or If x = .3 Q.6 3 . y>0.28 Find the coefficient of xr in the expression of : (x + 3)n_1 + (x + 3)n"2 (x + 2) + (x + 3)n"3 (x + 2)2 + + (x + 2)n~l fx 2V Q.9.2 = 0.3 ) 2 ( ~ x)5/a xy+i *Q.4 If (7 + 4-^3 . (b) For which positive values of x is the fourth term in the expansion of (5 + 3x)10 is the greatest.1 is divisible by 73. tfy=! +~if) + *Q. 6 .2 Show that the integral part in each of the following is even. prove that: (l .l Only for CBS E. P U EXERCISE-I (B) Show that the integral part in each of the following is odd. 31 If the 3rd. b.6.29(a) Find the index n of the binomial I •.33 If x is so small that its square and higher powers may be neglected. c & d then prove that b 2 -ac 5a c 2 ~bd 3c' Q. 4th.+ -1 if the 9th term of the ex pansion has numerically the greatest coefficient (n e N). Q. 5th & 6th terms in the expansion of (x+y) n be respective ly a. *Q.

?fe\Bansal Classes Binomial [6] .x 2 + x[x]. n e N & [x] the integral part of x then find the value of : x . If x denotes (2 + V3) .= (1-P)(p + P)=l.

4 v 2! 4! 6! > 2 . + — + — + .l Q2 Q3 ~A Q.Q. 1 1 1 1 1 e2 1 — .IO Prove that C is an integer. 5! 7! 1 e-1 e + 1 —+ — + — +.[P].1 = ( _ + _1 + _1 + . Q. Q.1).1! 3! 5! 1 1 1+ — + — +— +. Prove That: Q. 1 1 1 .l TO Q.9 Prove that the integer next above (v'3 + lj contains 2n+1 as factor (n e N) Let I denotes the integral part & F the proper fractional part of (3 + denotes the r ational part and 0 the irrational part of the same. show that p=|(I+l)and 2 n where n e N and if p a = (I + 2 F .8 Q. 7 Q. .2p+1 is divisible by p.5 If P = (s + 3V7) and f = P .f) = 1 (n e N) If (6V6 + 14)2n+1 = N & F be the fractional par t of N. V n e N . then the difference (2 + V5)P .6 Q. where [ ] denot es greatest integer. P rove that: P (1 ..1 1 — +— + 3! [ 1 1 1 + — +— +. prove that NF = 202n+1 (n e N) Prove that if p is a prime number greater than 2. 11+1.15. e + 1 U 3! 5! 2! 4! . V2! 4! 6! — + — +. n+1 EXERCISE-II (NOT IN THE SYLLABUS OF I IT-JEE) PROBLEMS ON EXPONENTIAL & LOGARITHMIC SERIES F or Q. where [ ] denotes greatest integer function.

12 _L 1 + 1 1.1+2 1+2+3 1+2+3+4 ! + _ _ + — + + 2! 3! 4! °° = \2J 6 Q5 Q.6! 1. = e2. 3 .2.6 07 V Q. ^ — +— + — + — + —+ 1! 2! 3! 4! 5! 2 3 6 11 18 =3 ( e .3 + 1 .7 4! 1.5.e 3 3 4 3 5e &e Q8. 5 .3.4. 1 + 2 1 + 2 + 22 1 + — + 3! + 2! 1 + 2! + 3! +4! + — — — 2 3 1 + 2 + 22 + 23 + .ll Q.1 ) v ' .9 Q.\ . 2 .

+ —^ + — T1+ 1 Q 3 3.3 3.5 Q 10..7 _ + . .3 5.4 5.3 = In 2 [6] ?fe\Bansal Classes Binomial .. 1 +2 — 14t + 3..2 6 1 loge3 1 1 1 — + — + — + .2 2 1 0 = 1 .2 3.2 2.2.4. = .2 5.3 4.3 7.2 + .7 1.In 2 1 1 1 1 4..log 2 0 2 1.5 6. = 1 +1 1 +1 3..6 1 + 5.+ — .6.2 + r +• 7.— +— +— + 2.ln2 nn13.ln3 .

+ + c n 2 =-^ ( n! 2) C0 q + Cj C2 + C2 C3 +.3 Q.Q1 . Cn are the combinatorial coefficients in the expansion of (1 +x) n .+Cn_j Cn = Cj + 2C2 + 3C3 + C0 + 2Cj + 3C2 + C0 + 3Cj + 5C2 + + n . 2n_1 + (n+l)Cn = (n+2)2n~1 + (2n+l)Cn = (n+1) 2n (Cn_j+Cn ) C a _.4 Q. C 2 .6 Q.7 v C + CV + C .4 2 \2 V 4 V2 3 / 6V2 3 3 Q. then prove that x = y + + 2L + + EXERCISE-HI (A) If C 0 .l Q. CJ . + C2 + + Q8 v 0 2 + . 2 (C0+C1)(C1+C2)(C2+C3) C0 + C..5 Q.+ + where|x|< 1. then prove the following : Q.2 Q. . Cn = n ... n s N .15 If y = x .

.C 3 + .C j + C 2 .) (n r 1)s C0 .ll 2 _r^ + r) . 14 C 0 2 -C..13 Q.. 2 + C 2 2 -C 3 2 + (1 _( _ 1! -X n . + (-l) n (n+l) Cn = 0 + (-l) n C n 2 = 0 or (-l) a / 2 Ca/2 according as n is odd or even. r Cn = Q.12 C 0 . 10 C0Cr + CjCr+1 + C2Cr+2 + . Cr< Q.4C3 + ..^ 3 + + n+1 n+1 V ' 0 2 3 4 n+1 ( n n+1 Q..l ) r . + 3 + (-Dn C n+1 " " 1 n+1 r| Q.. ..2Cj + 3C2 . + ( ... + C n .

17 V 1 .' s taken two at a time. ... = 0 . a. E2 = a1 + a 4 +a 7 + E a2 + a + a + ^ ^ g r=o ' & 1-2 Q. 16 (n-1) 2 . be the coefficients in the expansion of ( l + x + x2)n in ascending powers of x..2 ) ! (n+2)! Q. C 2 + 0 1 2 ' = n (n + l)2n~3 l) + V(2n+l) Cn2 = -(n + n n!n! Q.20 If (l+x) = C0 + CjX + C2x + ..j 0 < i < j < n is equal to 22n_1 n 2n! 2(n!) 2 ItBansat Classes Binomial [8] ..2 + 5 . C. represented by 2XC C .18 If a 0 . Cj + (n-3) 2 .2 *2n = an +1 o r an-in-! (iii) Ej = E2 = E 3 = 3 .15 If n is an integer greater than 1.Q. + ( ii) a^-aja3 + a ^ ^n . C5 + Q. + C n x n .n) = 0 Q. then prove that : (1) a0 a. show that .19 Prove that : Z(" c r • ^+2) = x n 2 ( n! 2) ( n ... C 2 + 3 . a . then show that the sum of the products of the C . where E t = a0 + % + a6 + .n Cj(a-l) + nC2(a-2) + ( ~l) n (a . ' ..aj % + % % . a.. C3 + (n-5) 2 .

+2a2 = a0 + a1x + a2x2+. a n p n Q..22 V ^ + V c T + A / c T + •••••• + V c 7 ^ [ n ( 2 -l)] forn>2. +14C n 1 5 If(1 + x + x 2 + .. . EXERCISE-III (B) Q.+anp.. + C15.. x15. + n p . . C r = n ( n + l)2n-2 .4 l 2 .3 Q.... x 2 +. C 2 + 4 2 .. C t + 3 2 . x + C2. . .21 J c ^ + yfc7 + + + Jc~n<2n-l + n-1 2 -il/2 n Q. C 3 + .l If ( l + x y ^ C o + Cj. then find the value of : t. + x P ) a.xnP . .Q. C 0 + 2 2 ... then find the value o f : C Q. + ( n + 1 ) 2 C ^ r 2 .3 a 3 + ..2 2 + 2C3 + 3 C 4 + .

2 r 10 = ^C (2r-n) = n. in the expansion of Q.5 Given p + q = l .nCr. showthat j>>2.p1 .2n w h e r e Cf denotes the combinatorial coeff.= 2n~2(n+1) (n+4) .6 S h o w that (1 +X)n.q'w = n p [ ( n i=0 l)p+l] II Q. t=0 Q.7 v r 0 2 + 3 4 + n + 1 = (1 + x n+ ) ' (n + l ) x .

8 v P r o v e t h a t .3 . C2. 0 2 3 + — 11 .2 23. 24. C n + — .Ct 2.2 n . — — 11 Q.Cn = 31""2 .4 | | 2n+2. C100 = . x ' t h e n p r o v e that .9 If(l+x) n = r0 = | Z c r . c 1 + — .5 . 22.C2 3. + .C0 1.Q. 2 .

n! l+n. + + + 2n n+1 13 Q 1 Si _Sl + Si _ Si + 1 1 5 9 a i ^ -Ca — + —9+ — + Q. then show .13 Si_SL+Sl_Si + 2 3 4 5 + (_!)" .x ) 2 3 4 2 2 3 4 .14 Si _ Si + Si _ Si + v Q. C _ n n+2 v y (n+1) (n+2) Q.13 (4n-3)(4n+l) 4n.Si = I + I + i + A + _) n + Cnx n +I 1 q o .9. .5.12 2 -+ Ci O Ci 2 3 4 5 ( i)" Cn n+2 4n+l 1.(n+1) (n+2) ~ (n+1) ( n + 2 ) QO I .2 (n+1) (n+2) 1 Q. 15 + ( !»i .

+ (-l)n-l I ( l _ n = ( 1 I ( 1 _ X 2 ) + I (1—x3) + + ^(1-X«) ?fe\Bansal Classes Binomial [6] .x ) n that : _ x ) + I f ( l + x ) n = C 0 + CjX + C 2 x 2 + % ( l ..x ) + % (1-x)3 -...

L -i C +• n C x+2 x+n x ( x + l) (x + 2) .2 Q. show that x+1 C. (2nC2n) Q. if the eleventh term is the geometr ic mean of the eighth and twelfth terms. (2nC3)2 + . ( ^ C ^ 2 . \ ... 16 Prove that . 0 EXERCISE-I V Q.C r f »C2+ j »C3n + +^ + (-l)n n+1 n ^ . »Cn= . dx&evaluate the integral.. n s N . + 2n.1! ) [(2n-l)!]2 (r+l)ar+1 =(n-r)ar + (2n-r+l)ar_j. If aj. then prove that 2 n r=0 (4n . (l+x) n = 2 X .19 2n I f(l+x+x ) = X a r x r .17 If n e N . 6] In the expansion ofthe expression (x+a) 15 . Q. (l-x) n + 1 .20 Prove that the sum to (n + 1) terms of n (n+1) (0<r<2n) (n+2) (n+3) (n+1) (n+2) equals J xn_1. % & % are in AP. 1 Q.. ( x + n ) Q. find n ..18 Prove that.3 Q4 Let (1+x2)2. (2nC2)2 + 3 .1 = n+1 n! Q. xK . which term in the expansion is the grea .Q. [REE '96.

2] n n r=0 r <-r equals (C) n a „ / 2 .6 respectively.7(i) For 2 < r < n. ' n ^ \ r .5 Q..1 n +1 r + 1. then r=0 .6] Q. [JEE'97.x)n. th n m is : [JEE '99. (A) Vrj +2 (B)2 n r.oo (A) (n-l)a„ (B) na n (D) None of these [REE '98. 2 (Out of200)] (A) 6 (B) 9 (C) 12 (D) 24 Q.. 6 3 5 9 15 23 Find the sum ofthe series Y[ + 2! + 3 j + 4 j + ' 5 7 + ' If in the expansion of (1 + x)m (1 .2/ 'n + O vr-1/ (C) 2 n +2 r J (D) 'n + 2 V . the co-efficients of x and x2 are 3 an d .test ? [REE '96.6] The sum ofthe rational terms in the expansion of (4l +31/5)10 is 1 If a n = I — .2] [JEE'98.

4 (B) (A) ?fe\Bansal Classes Binomial [6] . 1 + 1 ] n.r (ii) In the binomial expansion of (a-b) n . Then — equals: b [ JEE '2000 (Screening). n > 5.5 (C) n .4 n. the sum ofthe 5th and 6th ter ms is zero.

[JEE'2000 (Mains). the sum of the 5th and 6th t erms is zero. 6] Find the largest co-efficient in the expansion of (1 + x) n . Q. m \ = "Cm .b)n. [ REE '2000 (Mains) ] a Q. n (with n > m).Q.ll Find the coefficient of x in the polynomial . 3] Q. 'n-lN ' nN n_2 l + +3 f +2 K in J n J i V m. let VmJ + 'n-r HJ I + ( n-1 1 \ n \ / + + vm.9 /m \ + ( n . given that the sum of co-efficients ofthe terms in its expansion is 4096 .8 For any positive integers m. 3] [REE'2001 (Mains).m + 1) VrnJ f n + 2l + 2.10 In the binomial expansion of (a . n > 5. Prove that n +1 m +1 m I J m Hence or otherwise prove that. Then — equals (A) n-5 ( ) B 49 n-4 (C) n-4 v»—5 [JEE'2001 (Screening).

N ' x . 3] in the expansion of (1+t2)12 (1+t 12 ) (1+t 24 ) is (B) 12 C 6 + 1 (C) 12 C 6 (D ) none [JEE 2003.oo) Q. Q.l ) + 2 K . Screening 3 out of 60] (B)10 (C)15 i K (-1) K A O K j[JEE 2003 .^ \ r \ / C ' C. where l = nCr Q.( i ' ) ( r .2] [JEE 2004 (Screening)] + 20 30 is.2 . 13(a) Coefficient of t24 (A) 12C6 + 2 nY 2 (b) P r o v e « h a t : 2 K .50 • —^ 2 cA C49y where C = 5 0 C .22 • — x . l S ) ( ^ .3). if KG (B)(-oo. Mains-2 out of 60] (D)(V3.nCr+1.2 ' K n-" 2 2 Q.15 The value of [ q ] ( j q + 301(30 12 wfs: (B)f^ (o CSS" [JEE 2005 (Screening)] (!%Bansal Classes Binomial .14 n_1 Cr = (K2 . V3] (C)(2. 12 The sum (A) 5 i=0 (where ( n = 0 i f P < q ) is maximum when m is (D) 20 [JEE'2002(Screening).32 • — x — -—C2y v C0y v C „ ' V x .-2) ( A ) [ .V 3 .

[11] .

24 (a) n 2 +n + 2 2 Q15.x = 0 o r 2 ( Q a b = l Q2. Consider j [(l+x)n + (l-x) n ] = C0 + C2x2 + C4x4 + Q 12. Inte grate between 0 & 1. putx= 1 to get 21 2993 Q 2.2n~r) Q 29. x = O o r l Q5. (i) n C 5 p . Integrate the result again between 0 & 2 to get the result..+ Cn. (i) 3n (ii) 1. (l+x) n . Integrate between 1 & 0 . Integrate the expn. (iii) an Q 11. x11"1.(i)T?=-^ (ii) 455x3^2 (ii) 455x3 12 Q18< Q18. Determine the value of constant of integration by putting x=0. (i) 990 (ii)3660 Q. 1 + £ u C 2 k .x.C3x2 +.t. (a)10150(Prove that 10150 .9950= 1005° + some+ive qty) Q 12. 2kCk 7k k=1 l Q14. ( J ^ L ) Q 7..4 1 EXERCISE-III 15 (B) (p+l) n Q 1. (a) n = 12 (b) | < x < Q. Differentiate the given expn. Multiply both sides by x the expn. Integrate both sides between 0 & 1. (c) -12600 Q 28. (a) Hint: Add 1 to both sides & compare theRHS series with the expansion (l+y)n to get n & y (b) 4 EXERCISE-I(B) Q. Q 14. r = 5 o r 9 H Q9.(u) (A) Q 4. (b) -1260 . (a) ^ (b) T6 =7 Q10.ANSWER KEY EXERCISE-I Ql. nCr (3n-r . (a) 84b6c3 + 630ab4c4 + 756a2b2c5 + 84a3c6 .32 Q 34. of (1 + x)n. a2b3c4 ~ .r. Note that (1 x) ~ = . r = 6 Q3.. Q 10. divide expansion of (1+x) both sides by x& diff.1 Z Q 25.Cj+ C2x . w. & put x = 1 to get the result Q 9.

4 C Q.3 41 Q.3 Q.7 (i) D (ii) B Q.9 12C6 Q.14 D Q.6 C Q.13 ( a) A Q.l n = 2 or3 or4 Q.(n-1)! (n+1)! (2n +1)! EXER CISE-IV Q.ll -22100 Q.2 Tg Q.12 C Q.5 4 e .15 A ?fe\Bansal Classes Binomial [6] .10 B Q.

EXERCI SE-II EXERCISE-III ANSWER KEY Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page -2 -10 -12 -13 -16 -21 -23 -25 INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS Page -26 . EXERCISE-I. EXERCISE-I EXERCISE-II EXERCISE-III KEY CONCEPT.Q.R.S) FUNCTIONS & INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS Trigonometry Phase .BANSAL CLASSES M II MATH€MAfiC5 TARGET IIT JEE 2007 XI (P.IV . i » H . f : CM T r W MT 1 W • : I : S= : FUNCTIONS KEY CONCEPT.

since it satisfies the equation y2 . T hus : Domain of f = {a | a e A. If to every value of x belonging to some set E there corresponds one o r several values of the variable y. there corresponds one and only onefin itevalue ofthe quantity y. xn_1+a. { } f(x)=y >.g. satisfying the relation.. if not otherwise stated.. Pictorially: x > f input output Everyfonctionfrom A—» B satisfies the following conditions.xn_2+.x 2 =0. ifit is a function that satisfies an algebraic e quation ofthe form P0 (x) yn + Pj (x) yn_1 + + Pr l (x) y + Pn (x) = 0 Where n i s a positive integer and P0 (x). They are : (i) f(x) = xn + 1 & (ii) f(x) = 1 — xn . y is called the image of x & x is the pre-image of y under f. a^O (b) There are two polynomial functions. If only the rule of function is given then the domain of the function is the set of those real numbe rs.e. b) e f & (a. (iii) FRACTIONAL RATIONAL FUNCTION : A rational function is a function of the form. i. : : GENERAL DEFINITION If to every value (Considered as real unless other-wise stated) of a variable x. For a continuous function. + an l x + an whe re n is a non negative integer and a0. then y is called a multiple valued function of x defined on E. x is the argument or independent variable. A function that is no t algebraic is called TRANSCEDENTAL FUNCTION . g(x) h(x) where feBansal Classes . then f is called a polynomial function of degree n. where function is defined. e. Note that al l polynomial functions are Algebraic but not the converse.then the set Ais known as the domain of f&the set B is known as co-dom ain off.. an are real numbers and a0 ^ 0. f(a)) s f (iii) (a. which belongs to some collection (Set) E. f(a)) e f} Range of f = (f(a) | a e A. P. (i) f c AxB (ii) V a e A => (a. f(x) ax. 3.f (l/x) = f(x) + f(l/x). y = | x | is an algebraic function. a p a2. The set of all f images of elements of A is known as the range of f . y = f (x) g (x) & h (x) are polyn omials & h (x) * 0. NOTE : (a) A polynomial o f degree one with no constant term is called an odd linear function.. DOMAIN. CO-DOMAIN & RANGE OF A FUNCTION: and Let f: A-»B.. (i) IMPORTANT TYPES OF FUNCTIONS POLYNOMIAL FUNCTION : : If a function f is defined by f (x) = aQxn+ a. f^x).Conventionally the word " F U N C T I O N " is used only as th e meaning of a single valued function. (x) are Polynomials in x. (a.. f(a) e B} It should be noted that range is a subset of co-domain. the interval from mini mum to maximum value of a function gives the range.KEY CONCEPTS (FUNCTIONS) THINGS T O REMEMBER 1. then y is said to be a function (Single valued) of x or a dependent variable defined on the set E . : (ii) ALGEBRAIC FUNCTION y is an algebraic function ofx. where n is a positive integer. c) s f => b = c 2.

Functions & Trig.-fl-IV .

f(0) = 0 (Vii) GREATEST INTEGER O R STEP U P FUNCTION : The function y = f(x) = [x] is called the greatest integer function where [x] de notes the greatest integer less than or equal to x.1 < [x] < x. [x] = 0 W—1 1<x< 2 .7 is 0.1 <x< 0 .3 It is defined as : g(x)={x}=x-[x]. (c) [x] + [y]<[x+y]<[ x] + [y] + l r (d) [x] + [-x] = 0 if x is an integer -3 x -1 = .(iv) A function f(x) = a = e (a > 0.x if x < 0 : (Vi) SIGNUM FUNCTION A function y= f (x) = Sgn (x) is defined as follows: y = f(x) " 1 for x > 0 0 for x = 0 . Note that f(x) & g(x) are inverse of each other & their graphs a re as shown. . x * 0 . [xj = 2 and so on. The period ofthis function is 1 and graph ofthis function is as shown. It is defined as : y= |x| "x if x > 0 .1 is 2.g. e.1 for x < 0 y y = 1 if x>0 0 y = -1 if x < 0 > y= Sgnx It is also written as Sgn x = |x|/ x .2 (viii) FRACTIONAL PART FUNCTION : -• . g(x) = logax. EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION : x xtaa g(x) = l o g t x (V) ABSOLUTE VALUE FUNCTION : A function y=f (x) = |x| is called the absolute value function or Modulus functi on.3. 0 <x-[x] < 1 1 (b) [x+m] = [x]+m if m is an integer. a * 1.• . The inverse of the exponential function is called the logarithmic function. [x] = 1 2 <x < 3 . graph ofy= {x} ^Bansal Classes . 0 <x< 1 . 2.1 otherwise . yA Properties o f greatest integer function graph ofy= [x] .1 and the fractional part of .• 3 (a) [x]<x<[x]+l and -•2 x . 1-2 = 0. Note that for: .e . the fractional part of the no. x e R) is called an exponential function. i.3.

Functions & Trig.-IV [3] .

( e N n ) R = (set of real numbers) R. ifniseven (iv) l/n x .4. DOMAINS AND RANGES OF COMMON FUNCTION : Function (y = f(x)) Algebraic Functions Domain (i. if n is even 1 " . if n is odd R + u { 0 } .(0}. (n e N ) x R-{0} (iii) x 1/n . + 1] 7 C R ( k 1 . values taken by x) Range (i. Trigonometric Functions © (ii) (iii) (iv) cs ox tanx sec x sinx R R [-1.. R+.. ifniseven R. ifnisodd if n is even B. + 1] [-1. ifnisodd R + u { 0 } . (n e N) R.{0}. ifnisodd R+.kel R n% . values taken by f (x)) C O Xn . e. if n is even R .{0} .kel -2 + ) R-(2k+l) .(n e ) N R . e. if nis odd R+. if n is odd + R u { 0 } . ifniseven R .

k e I (vi) cotx Inverse Circular Functions (Refer a fter Inverse is taught) (i) (ii) sin 1 x cos x tan 1 x (iv) (v) (vi) cosec _1x s ec-1 x cotx 1 [-1.00) (-00.-1 ]u[ 1.00 ) R-bc. 0 ) r O 0 2'2 Tt Tt {0} 7 (. C .-</>.1 ] U [ 1 . .1 07 ) R i&Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.2' 2 T C ]u[l . + 1] R [0.k eI (v) cosec x R-kn.O . . + 1] [-1.1 ] u [ 1 ..IV [4] . 0 ) [ .{ f } O 0 0 ] (.C . 7t] 71 It ' 2 2/ v j (.

) 01 (.(a>0)(a * 1 ) logxa=]^ (a > 0 ) (a * 1) + R R R-{0} R+-{1} F. .1) g. O 1 Q ) H. ex e!/x ax. a > 0 Domain (i. e. Integral Part Functions Functions (i) [x] R I ® ^ R-[0. a > 0 R R. values taken by x) Range (i.Function (y = f (x)) D. e.{ 0 } R R -{ 0} R+ R+. Exponential Functions (i) Cn) (iii) E. values taken by f (x) ) (v i) a1/x.nSI-{0}j Fractional Part Functions 0 ) (*) 1 to R R-I [.{ 1 } R+ R+-{1) Logarithmic Functions () i (ii) logx.

Modulus Functions () i (ii) |x| j^j R R-{ 0 } R+w{0} R+ 1 I.1} =0.x=0 J. R {-1.0.-IV [5] . Signum Function sgn(x)=^. Constant Function say f (x) = c R {c} ^Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.x*0 A.

(ii) If any line parallel to x-axis cuts the graph of the functio n atmost at one point. Many-one function: Afunctio n f: A—>B is said to be a many one function iftwo or more elements ofA have the sa me f image in B . it cannot be many-one and vice versa. * x2 o f(x. if a line parallel to x-axis cuts the graph ofthe function atleast at two points. Diagramatically surjective mapping can be shown as A B A B <!§jBansal Classes Functions & Trig. or x. x x2 CLASSIFICATION OF FUNCTIONS : One-One Function (Injective m apping): A function f: A-^Bis said to be a one-one function or injective mapping if different elements of A have different f images in B . EQUAL OR IDENTICAL FUNCTION : Two functions f & g are said to be equal if: The d omain of f = the domain of g. f(x2) e B. Thus f : A ^ B i s suijective iff V b e B. (i) (ii) (iii) 6. then f( x) is one-one. then f is many-one. x p x 2 e A.-IV [6] . Thus f: A-» B is many one if for . Onto function (Surjective mapping): If the function f: A B is such that each ele ment in B (co-domain) is the f image of atleast one element inA then we say that fis a function ofA'onto'B . Diagramatically a many one mapping can be shown as A B A B Note : (i) (ii) Any continuous function which has atleast one local maximum or local minimum. In other words. = x. th en f(x) is many-one.5. 3 some a e A such that f (a) = b . f(x. Thus for x p x2 e A& f(Xj). If a function is oneone.) * f(x2).) = f(x2) < > x. f(Xj) = f(x2) bu t x] ^ x2 . then the function is one-one. = Diagra matically an injective mapping can be shown as A B A B Note : (i) Any function which is entirely increasing or decreasing in whole domain. 1 x f(x) = — & g(x) = — are identi cal functions . The range of f = the range of g and f(x) = g(x) . eg. for every x belonging to their common domain.

g)(x) = f(x). V x e A.Into function: If f: A -» B is such that there exists atleast one element in co-do main which is not the image of any element in domain. ALGEBRAIC OPERATIONS ON FUNCTIONS : If f & g are real valued functions of x with domain set A. Thus f: A—» B . Thus a function can be one of these four types : (a) (b) (c) (d) Note : (i) (ii ) one-one onto (inj ective & suij ective) one-one into (injective but not surjec tive) many-one onto (suij ective but not inj ective) many-one into (neither suij ective nor injective) If f is both injective & surjective. Note that the range of a constant function is a singleton and a constant function may be one-one or many-one. B respectively. 7. A polynomial of degree even will always be into. then f(x) is into. onto or into . c e B is a constant function. then both f & g are defined in A n B. The bijective functions are also named as invertible.-</>-IV [63] . B Identity function: The function f: A -» A defined by f(x) = x V x e Ais called the identity ofA and is denoted by IA.t g(x) * 0} i&Bansal Classes Functions &Trig. If a set A contains n distinct elements then the n umber of different functions defined from A —»A is nn & out of it n! are one one. it cannot be into and vice versa. (f. It is easy to observe that identity function is a bijection.g(x) (Hi) (-) VJ g g(x) domain is {x | x e A n B s. Diagram atically into function can be shown as B OR Note that: If a function is onto. non sin gular or biuniform functions. f . Now we define f+ g. f(x) = c. g) & (f/g) as follows : (i) (f±g)(x) = f(x)±g(x) domain in each case is A n B (f. then it is called a Bijective mapping. Constant function: A function f: A—> B is said to be a constant f unction if every element ofA has the same f image inB .g.

Then g is said to be inverse o f f. g. The composite of functions is not commutative i. e. COMPOSITE OF UNIFORMLY & NON-UNIFORMLY DEFINED FUNCTIONS : Let f : A — B & g : B — C be two functions . gof ^ fog. PROPERTIES O F COMPOSITE FUNCTIONS : (i) (ii) (iii) 9. For eg. l fig. ty) = t n . f(tx. For exa mple 5 x2 + 3 y2 .xy is homogeneous in x & y. then their exists a unique function g: B A such that f(x) = y o g(y)=x.x') corresponding to y= +Vx . if f & g are two bijections such that gof is defined. If f: A B is a bijection & g : B -> Ais t he inverse of f. 11. f(x)) € f} . B ->A= {(f(x). then fog = IB and gof = I A . y) is homogeneous function of degree n. 3 . 10. Note that the graphs of f & g are the mirror images of each other in the line y = x.e. then g of is also a bijection. 2 fig. INVERSE OF A FUNCTION : Let f: A-»B be a one-one & onto function. Symbolically if. if f. the changed form of x = 1/y . f(x) x Diagramatically + g(f(x)). Thus g = f-i. Thus the image of every x e A under the functi on gof is the g-image of the f-image of x. x) | (x. Then the function gof: A » » C defined by ( gof) (x) = g (f(x)) V x e A is called the composite of the two functions f & g. Note that gof is defined only if V x e A . As shown in thefiguregiven below a point (x '. then fo(goh) = (fog) oh. PROPERTIES O F LNVERSE FUNCTION : (i) (ii) The inverse of a bij ection is unique. The composite off unctions is associative i.8. the range of f must be a subset of the domain ofg.y') corresponding to y = x2 (x >0) changes to (y '. BOUNDED FUNCTION: A function is said to be bounded if | f(x) | < M. f(x) is an element of the domain of g so that we can take its g-image. y) then f(x. FUNCTIONS: HOMOGENEOUS A function is said to be homogeneous with respect to any set of variables when e ach of its terms is of the same degree with respect to those variables . V x e A & y e B . where M is afinitequantity. 12. IMPLICIT & EXPLICIT FUNCTION : A function defined by an equation not solved for the dependent variable is calle d an 3 3 IMPLICIT FUNCTION . Hen ce for the product gof oftwo functions f & g. fig. If y has been expressed in terms of x alone then it is called an EXPLICIT FUNCTION.e. f(x. The composite of two bijections is a bijection i. the equation x + y = 1 defines y as an impl icit function. where I & IB are identity functio ns on the sets A & B respectively. h are three functions such that fo (goh) & (fog) oh are defined.

(iii) (iv) The inverse of a bijection is also a bijection.^ C then the inverse of gof exists and (gof)-1 = f o g " 1 . If f & g are two bijections f : A B.-<j>-IV [8] . " ^Bansal Classes Functions & Trig. g : B .

e. e. then -j— and i/f(x) also has a period p . (b) Inverse of a periodic function does not exist.-<f>-IV [9] . where'T' is the period . The only function which is defined on the entire number line & is even and odd a t the same time is f(x) = 0. ODD & EVEN FUNCTIONS : If f (-x) = f (x) for all x in the domain o f f then f is said to be an even fun ction. PERIODIC FUNCTION: A function f(x)is called periodic if there exists a positive number T(T>0) calle d the period ofthe function such that f(x+T) = f(x). f (x) = sin x . g (x) = x2 + 3 . If f and g both are even or both are odd then the f unction f. (d) If f(x) has a period T & g( x) also has a period T then it does not mean that f(x)+g(x) must have a period T . (b) A function may neither be odd nor even. (iv) f(x + y) = f(x) + f(y) => f(x) = kx.g.g. + f(x) e^f(x)=f(x)+f(-x) EVEN -f(-x) ODD (f) (g) 14.13. f (x) = cos x .f (x) for all x in th e domain o f f then f is said to be an odd function. t (x) if f(x) ha s a period T then f(ax + b) has a period T/a (a > 0) . e. (c) Inverse of an even function is not defined . n e R (iii) f(x+y) = f(x) . f(x) = [ sinx j + | cosx |.g. NOTE : (a) f (x) . f(y) f(x) = x n . (ii) f(xy) = f(x). with no fundamental period. for all values of x within the domain of x. If f(x) has a period p. e. (e) (f) 15.g. (c) Every constant function is always periodic.g will be odd. g (x) = x 3 +x .g will be even but if any one of them is odd then f.f (-x) = 0 => f (x) is even & f (x) + f (-x) = 0 = > f (x) is odd . NOTE : (a) f (T) = f (0) = f (-T). where k is a constan t. (e) Every function can be expressed as the sum of an even & an odd function. y are independent variables. ^Bansal Classes Functions &Trig. The function sin x & cos x both are periodic over 2% & tan x is periodic over n. (d) Every even function is symmetric about the y-axis & every odd function is symmetric about the origin. fl y) => f(x) = a"*. GENERAL: If x. then: (i) f(xy) = f(x) + f(y) f(x) = k In x o r f(x) = 0 . If f (-x) = .

(x). 1 Find the domains of definitions of the following functions : (Read the symb ols [*] and {*} as greatest integers andfractionalpart functions respectively.v/(x2 .5x + 4 & g(x) = x+3.x2 (iii) f(x) = In j^Vx2 .3x -10).5) ) (xv) f(x) = logxsinx \\ (xii) f(x) : (xiv) f(x)= ~^ + log(2{x}_5)(x2 -3x + 10)+-~ (xvi) f(x) = log2 -k>gi/2 1 + + Vlo8io 0°§iox) .24 .7 = 2 + 2 (xviii)f(x) = j(5x-6-x ) [{/n{x}}] + A/(7x-5-2x ) Vn_1 ^ (l /n — x v v2 yy (xix) If f(x)= J x 2 .togio ( 4 . \ 21og10 x + 1 ~ x j (vii) f(x) = (via) f(x)= J o g . thenfindthe domain of .7 f (i) f (x) = Vcos2x + V16 .log!0x) .log10 3 3in ( iw) JJ V v. In2 (x . — (ix) f(x)=Jx 2 -|x| +-j=L= (x) f (x) = .2 (v) y = logiosin(x-3) + Vl6-x 2 —+lnx(x 2 -1) V^x -"1 2 (vi) f(x)= log100.x .3) cosx — •\/6 + 35x-6x 2 (xi) f(x) = ^/logx(cos27tx) (xiii) f(x)= V logj/3 (log4 ([x] 2 .EXERCISE-I Q.14x) (iv) f(x)' 1-5* 7~ x .^ + lo g l _ { x } (x 2 -3x + 10)+ .) (ii) f(x) = log7log5log3log: (2x3 + 5x2 . 2 Find the domain & range of the following functions. (XVii) f ( x ) . (Read the symbols [*] and {* . g Q.5 x .

(i) f(x) = x + [x] (ii) y = (x)M where x=[x] + (x)& x > 0 & x < 3 (iii) y = sgn [x] (iv) sgn (x-! x |) tlBansal Classes Functions & Trig.) (i) y=log^ sin x-cos x) + sj 00 y 2x 1+x + (iii) f(x) = x2 . where [ ] denotes the greatest integer fu nction.IV [10] .[sinx] ) Q.1)(2.[sinx] .-<f>. 3 2 y=^2-x Draw graphs of the following function.3x + 2 x2 +x-6 (iv)f(x)=^|x| (vi) f (x) = l°g(cosecx.} as greatest integers andfractionalpari functions respectively.

g(x) = Vx"2" x The function f(x) is defined on the interval [0. g (x) = sin2x + cos2x (D) f(x) = Q.6 x 8x + 18 (c) f(x) = (x 2 +x+5)(x 2 +x-3) Q.16 (b) f(x) = 2 ^ (c) y = 10 x -10" x 10x+ 10^ is a period o f the function: Show if f(x) = n/a .Find (ii) range of the function fog & gof. Find f3 n(x) where nis a natural number. g(x) = —— logex (C) f(x cosec2x .1].5 Let f(x) = ------. Q. (c) f(x) = x + sinx (a) f(x) = cosVx (d) f(x) = cosx2 (c) fix)= | sinx I +1 cosx | (b) f(x) = sin Vx are not periodic.cot2x . both or none.15 Q. then (fof) (x) = x. xeR K e I . the function f(x) = .6 Q.13 Q. For what values of p e z.tan2x . Let f2(x) denote f[f(x)J and f3(x) denote f[f{f(x)}]. Find also th e inverse of f(x). suij ective . g(x) = tan x . Compute the inverse of the functions: (a) f(x) = In ( x + Vx 2 +l) Q.14 Find out for what integral values of n the number f(x) = cos nx.IO Find the peri od for each of the following functions : (a) f(x)= sin^x + cos'bc (b) f(x) = | cosx! 3 2 (d) f(x)= cos . x > 0 n > 2 .x3 (a) f(x) = log fx+Vl+x 2J) v (d) f(x) = x 2 .x . llowing pairs of functions ) = sec2x .x.8 Q. » (a) f(x) = x ' 2+ 4 x + 3 0 (b) f(x) = x 3 -6x 2 + l l x .ll Prove that the function s. where K is constant (i) f(x)= +\ + 1 A 1/3 _i_ 0x \ (g) f(x)= sinx-cosx (h) f(x) = L _ i _ (j) f(x) = [(x+l)2]1/3 + [(x-l) 2 ] Q. 7 Function f & g are defined (i) periods of fog & gof.| x | (c) f(x) = sin x + cos x (f) f(x) = K. 4 Classify the following functions f(x) definzed in R — R as inj ective. functions of y defined by the following equations and als ofindthe domains of definition ofthe given implicit functions: (a) 10X +10y = 10 (b) x + | y | = 2y Q. (a) (b) Represent the function f(x) = 3x as the sum of an eve n & an odd function. Which of the fo are identical ? (A) f(x) = log e. Q.Q. g(x) = k where (B) sgn (x2 + 1). Find the do main of definition ofthe functions.sin . (a) f(sinx) (b) f(2x+3) Find whether the fol lowing functions are even or odd or none : _ x(a +1 (b) f(x) = -Ax * ) a -1 (e) f(x) = x Sin2x .12 Write explicitly. n e N is ev by f(x) = sin x. n e N . xeR .9 . Q.xn . Also state the domain ofthis composite function . sin (5/n)x.

en.IV [U] . ^Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.-0.

20 Find two distinct linear functions which map the interval [ . Determine f1'(1) Let/(x) be a polynomi al with real coefficient.2 Q.5 Q.x) = 2x . e~J\hi{x}\ Q. 1 ] onto [ 0 .3}. Prove that if the function f(x) = sinx + cospx is pe riodic.1 . f (x) = .x 4 . It is giv en that exactly one of the following statements is true and the remaining two ar e false.Q.z} and range {1. A function f: R—»R satisfies the condition.18 1 A function f: r 2 ^ j -00 . b) denotes the greater of the tw o real numbers a and b. x2 f (x) + f (1 . 7 Prove that the function defined as .6 Prove that the inverse of the linear fractional function f(x) = 3X + _ {x} l \j 1 /n{x} whereeyer it exigts Q.4 j (b) f is odd ? A function f defined for all real numbers is defined as follows for x > 0 : f (x ) = [ *'x°> j*"1 How is f defined for x < 0 if: (a) f is even Q.2. Find f (x) and it s domain and range. the equation f(x + p) = l+(2 .y.l Let f be a one-one function with domain {x. Now if for so me positive constant p. Define the function g(x) = fj[x).19 If f(x) = max ( x ' ~ ) for x > 0 where max (a. then p is a rational number. 2 ] . (where {x} denotes the fractional part function) . If/(x)=/(x 2 + x + 1) for all x e R.17 Q.4 —J Q. EXERCISE-II Q. f f ~ j and plot its g raph. \ (ad-be * 0) is also a linear cx + d fract ional function. f(z) * 2 . then prove that f(x) is a periodic function. {x} f (x) is odd as well as even. f(x) = 1 .3 Q. show that/ (x) is an even degree polynomial.f5 (x)) 1/3 holds good for x e R . Let f be a real valued function with domain R. f(y) * 1 . Under what condition f(x) coincide with its inverse.3 f(x) + 3 f(x) . Q.

y e R is such that f ( l ) = 2 .Pro ve that the function f is periodic.wherekis some constant. . feBansal Classes Functions & Trig.2f V2 sin 7t X + — 2 x v I f(l) = 0 A function f.^ otherwise.9 Q.IO Let 'f be a real valued function defined for all real numbers x such that for so me positive constant' a' the equation f(x+a)=^+-Jf(x)-(f(x))2 holds forall x.) .8 f 7tx n = 4 cos2—— + x cos In a function 2f(x) + xfl 4// Prove that (i) f(2) + f(l/2) = 1 and (ii) f(2) + ned for all x. defi = 8 & f(x+y)-kxy=f(x)+2y 2 x + y ) f P ^ ] =kfor x+y*0 . f(2) .then Q.-<j>-IV [12] .Q. Find f(x) & show that : f ( .

ll If f(x) = . f(x) = 0 then find f (x). Q. g(x) are real valued function .l + i x . For all permissible values of x. b are arbi trary constants. Q. prove that. Q. 5). for all real values of x (i) f(x) + f(-x) = 2a cosx (ii) f(7i . thenfindthe range of g(x). where [] denotes greatest integer function.2b sinx. If the function (fog) (x) exists.3 Q. where [x] [|x-l|] + [ | l 2 . Q. 3y + 2x* = 2 24x Q.b sinx. 8] (c) g has a period tz and (d) g(2) = 3 2x (sinx 4 tsnx) 311 * Q.finddomain & range of f(x).l(a) Fill in the blanks. then prove that ®^ = 3g(x) +1 "S^T + 2 '® 2x ' f 2x +1 •l ^ ^ l J J = 1 > ^ \ 71 = f l 4/ T s( 2x > • I ^ O T T .12 Find the domain of definition of the implicit function defined by the impli cit equation.16 Find a formula for a function g (x) satisfying the following conditions (a) domain of g is ( . ChordsAB and AC divide the area ofthe circle into three equal par ts.x) + f(x) = . Solve 4{x}=x+ [x] Q.oo. then 4 real values of x satisfying the equation x+1 f(x) = f x + 2.| x | .Q.l l EXERCISE-III Q. 2f(u) cosv = f(u + v) + f(u-v). g(f(x)) = fI x ~ ~ I and f(x). -1 Q. (i) If f is an even function defined on the interval (-5. a. 13 Let {x} &[x] denote thefractionaland integral part ofa re al number x respectively.1 < x < 3 Then find fog(x ) & gof(x) .17 Prove that f(x) = — ^ ->. (c os2x + 1) (sec2x + 2tanxj -. oo) (b) ran ge of g is [-2. 0 < x < 4 g(x)= 2 . g(x) = {x} where {x} denotes the fractional part of x.14 (a) (b) 2tanx Iff 1 + tan2x.19 Ais a point on the circumferen ce ofa circle.2 | .15 If f(x) = log ] V -x .18 Find the set of real x for which the function f (x) = denotes the greatest integer function. .Draw rough sketch of the graphs of fog (x) & gof(x). If the angle B AC is the root of the equation. 1 is not defined.i is °dd function. 71 If f (x) = tanx. Deduce that f(x) = a cosx . [x + 2711 2 n . are (ii) If f(x) = sin2x+sin2(x+~-J + cosxcos(^x+^j and t .x | ] .2 0 Iffor all real values of u&v.x) + f(-x) = 0 (iii) f(7i .

1+2] ^Bansal Classes Functions &Trig.-<f>-IV [13] .& =1 . then (gof) (x) = [IIT'96.

f(2) * 2 and f(4) * 4 .2000.y(x-I) . then find functions fog & gof. Then for all x. 6] Q. 2 + 2] -1 (B) f(x) = sinx. x <0 Given x = {1. if x > 0 whether the function (f og) is invertible & the function h is the identity function. [REE '96. (a) . oo) is given by. ^ (A) ( .> [1.8 Q. Alsofindthe domains of fu nctions (fog)-' & (gof)-1. g(x) = i x | (D) f & g cannot be determined If the functions f & g are defined from the set of real numbers R to R such that f(x) = e\ g(x) = 3x-2. find all one-one. f (g (x)) is equal to x>0 (A)x (b) (B) 1 (C)f(x) (D)g(x) If f: [1.g(x)=^~Ti .2. 2X + 2y = 2 is: (A) 0 < x < 1 (B) 0 < x < 1 (C) . x = 0 . g(x) = sin Vx (b) If f(x) = 3x-5. f(x) = x + — .J (B) . h are defined from the set of real numbers R to R such that . y (x) given by the equation.oo < x < 1 Q. [REE '97. » ) . oo) -» [2. then f . g.[x] & f(x) = < 0 { 1 . then f-1(x) is: [JEE'99. It is known that only one ofthe fo llowing statements is true: (i) f(x) * b (ii) f (y) = b (iii)f(z)*a Find the fun ction f.2 Let f: {x. 6] If the function f: [1.b.Q.c}be a one-one function. oo) is d efined by f(x) = 2x(x-1>. g(x ) = Vx (C) f(x) = x2. if x < 0 f(x)=x 2 -l.(l + ^l + 41og2I) (C) . [REE'98.2] / .o o < x < 0 (D) . onto mappings.thenf (x) 1 3x . 3.7 [ JEE 2000 (Screening).9 -1 . then : (A) f(x) = sin2 x. [ REE . r 0. » f(l) = I.y. 1 out of 35 ] Q. 6] If the functions f. thenfind the composite function ho(fog) & determine L x.(l .4(a) If g (f(x)) = | sinx | & f (g(x» = (sin Vx)*. f: X — X such that.Vl + 41og2x) (D) not defined The domain of defin ition of the function.5 (C) do es not exist because f is not one-one (A) is given by Q.6 Q.1 (x) equals : X (A) l l J U l 2 (B) 1 + x" + 2 .5 x+5 (B) is given by —— 3 ( D) does not exist because f is not onto [JEE!98. 3 out of 100 ] [JEE 2001 (Screening) 5 x 1 = 5 j L ©t g(x) = 1 + x . 4}.3 Q.z}->{a.h(x)= .

oo) (C) R\{-1.(C) I z E I l 2 is : (D) 1 (c) W The domain of definition of f(x) = W (A) R \ {-1.-fl.2 } x + 3x + 2 (B) (-2. .3 } (D) (-3. . Q ) \ {-1.2 . .IV [14] .2 } O ^B ansaI Classes Functions & Trig. .

x>-L (C) A/^+T.. x * . 3.x>0 (b) Let function / : R --> R be defined by / (x) = 2x + sinx for x e R .g)(x) is (A) one-one and onto (C) one-one but not onto .co) (C) (D) v1'! defined from (0.12 [JEE 2003 (Screening).O 0.J2 (B)-V2 (C) 1 (D) . * [JEE 2004 (Screening)] Q.4} & F = {1.one and onto (C) Many one but not onto (D) Many one and onto 2 Q.X>-1 (D)V^-L.' (e) Let E = {1.2] (b) Let f(x) is (B)[l. Then for what value of a is f (f (x)) = x ? (A) . Q.1 . g(x) = x e irrational x. If g(x) is the function whose graph is the reflection ofthe graph of f(x) with respect to the line y=X. Thusg(f(x))isi nvertibleforx e (A) •f. 00) — [ 0. 3+3] x 2 +x + 2 Q. 11 (a) Range of the function f (x) = — ~ x +x + l (A) [1. Then the number of onto functions from E to F is (A) 14 (B) 16 (C) 12 (D) 8 a x Let f(x) = — j . (B) ~~2'71 7 T (C) 71 TC 4' 4 R such that x e irrational (D) 0 .00) then by f (x) is > 1+x (A) one. g(x) = x . 3+3] Letf(x) = sinx + cosx. then g(x) e quals (A)-Vx . Then / is (A) one to one and onto (B) one to one but NOT onto (C) onto but NOT one to o ne (D) neither one to one nor onto [JEE 2002 (Screening). x > 0 (B)^-^r. x e rational then ( f . . .1 . . 13 (a) If the functions/ (x) and g (x) are defined on R f(*)= . 2. 2}.L . X.one but not onto (B ) one.(d) .1 . 10(a) Suppose f(x) = (x + l)2 for x > -1. x e rational .

d c Y .IV [15] . then » the true statement is (A)f(f" 1 (b))=b (C) f (f 1 (b))=b.(B) neither one-one nor onto (D) onto but not one-one (b j) X and Y are two sets and f: X — Y. a c x [JEE 2005 (Scre ening)] ^Bansal Classes Functions & Trig. If {f (c) = y. y e Y} and { f ( d ) =x. x c X ) . c <z X. b e y (B) f _ 1 (f(a)) = a (D) f~ ! (f(a)) = a .-<f>.

0 < y < 7t and coty = x . y = se c-1 x where x < . then positive angle should be taken . ~ < Y < a n d siny = x . sin-1 x.1 x where . 3rd quadrant is not used i n inverse functions . cos -1 x.1 or x > 1 .1 or x > 1 .1 < x < 1 (iv) sin-1 (sin x) = x . 0 < x < 7i (ii) cos (cos -1 x) = x . These are also written as arc sinx. 0 < y < 7 t and cosy = x .j < x < ~ . 1st quadrant is common to all the inverse functions .1 < x < 1 (iii) tan (tan-1 x) = x . : (a) (b) (c) and secy = x . arc cosx etc. 2.1 < X < 1 . y = tan . y = cot -1 x where x e R . . ~ y < x < f " an( * tan ^ = x • y = cosec-1 x where x < .e.1 < X < 1 . 3. < y < . x e R (v) cos -1 ( cosx) = x . . y = cos . denote angles or real numbers whose sine is x.KEY CONCEPTS (INVERSE TRIGONOMETRY FUNCTION) G E N E R A L DEFEVITION(S): 1. 0 . . If there are two angles one positive & the other negative having same numerical value. y ^ O and cosecy = x . (vi) tan -1 (tanx ) = x . whose cosine is x and whose tangent is x . tan -1 x etc. 0 < y < 7 t .1 x where x e R . ~ < . y s . PRINCIPAL VALUES AND DOMAINS OF INVERSE CIRCULAR FUNCTIONS : (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) NOTE THAT y = sin -1 x where . 4th quadrant is used in the CLOCKWISE DIRECTION i. PROPERTIES OF INVERSE CIRCULAR FUNCTIONS : P-l (i) sin (sin-1 x) = x . provided that the answers given are n umerically smallest available.

-<f>. x>0 = 7t + tan -1 — . x>l (ii) sec-1 x = cos-1 — X (iii) cot -1 x = tan -1 -X X .cot -1 x . .cos -1 x . .x>l x<-l . x e R cos -1 (-x ) = % .tan -1 x . x e R -1 < x < 1 I x | >1 P-4 (i) sin-1 x + cos -1 x = j (ii) tan -1 x + cot -1 x = y xeR (iii) cosec-1 x + sec-1 x = — ^Bansal Classes Functions & Trig. x<-l.IV [16] . .sin"1 x .1 < x < 1 tan -1 (-x) = .P-2 (i) cosec-1 x = sin-1 x .1 < x < 1 cot -1 (-x) = it . x < 0 P-3 (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) sin-1 (-x) = .

y > 0 J 1 + xy P-6 (i) sin-1 x + sin-1 y = s in-1 x -Jl . y > 0 where x > 0. y > 0 & x y > l tan 1 x-tan~'y = tan -1 ——— where x > 0 .y V l . y > 0 & ( x2 + y2) < 1 71 0 < sin 1 x + sin 1 y < — where x > 0 .yz .P-5 tan -1 x + tan"1 y = tan -1 t.2tan_1 x -(7c+2 tan"1 x) 2tan _1 x 7i+2tan x -(7T-2tan_1x) _1 cos 1-x2 1 + x2 2tan"1 x if x > 0 -2tan"1x if x < 0 tan 2x 1-x2 REMEMBER THAT : (i) (ii) (iii) sin 1 x + sin 1 y + sin 1 z = .x y z If tan -1 x + tan 1 y + tan"1 z = ~ then xy + yz + zx = 1 2x l + x1 : P-8 2 tan"1 x = sin" cos' 1—X 2x = tan"1 • 1 + x' 1-x2 if if if if if if 3 7t jx|<l x>l x<-l |x|<l x<-l x>l Note very carefully t h a t : 2x sin 1 + x2 2 tan"1 x it . z > 0 & xy + yz + zx < 1 (iii) (iv) P-7 sin _1 x-sin -1 y = sin -1 [x^/l-y 2 .sin-1 x J l . y > 0 & x y < l X+V = k + tan -1 -—— where x > 0 . y > 0.2 --^ where x > 0 .y 2 + y J l . y > 0 if.xy .zx No te : (i) (ii) If tan -1 x + tan -1 y + tan -1 z = n then x + y + z . = (ii) where x > 0 . x > 0.y 2 + y -Jl Note that: x2 + y2 < 1 .x 2 Note that: x2 + y2 >1 => 71 — < sin-1 x + sin-1 y < 7t wherex > 0 .x 2 J cos -1 x ± cos -1 y = cos"1 j xy + yjl-x2 yj\-y2 j i x + y + z-xyz "7 tan ' If tan *x + tan ! y + tan 1lz = — ton 1 . y > 0 & x2 + y 2 > l sin-1 x + sin-1 y = % .

IV [17] .-<f>.=> x = y = z = 1 => and x =y= z= -l tan"1 1 + tan"1 J + tan"1 j = j cos"1 x + cos -1 y + cos -1 z — 3% tan"1 1 + tan"1 2 + tan"1 3 = 71 ^Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.

1 1. | x | > 1. |x| > 1. y e 2 .xeR. y=sec _ 1 x. | x | < l . y e [0. y = cos-1 x .7t] y= arc cos x y=stnx x y=sinx y=arc sinx v= cos X 3. y = cosec"'x. y 6. y e (0 . y = cot . x e R . it) y=tanx v= arc cot x y= arc tan x y= arc tan x TT/2 y=arc cot x • x 5. y 2 ' 2 4. y= s k r ' x . y e 7 7 1 C 2 ' 2 2.INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS SOME USEFUL GRAPHS 1. v 2 y1 7t TT/2 1 . y = tan~ 1 x. | x | < 1.

IV [18] .-<f>.y 71/2 . 00 0 —7t/2 1 X -lj o ^Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.

T ] periodic with period 2 it C. (a) V —tt/2 0 1 O 7t 9. y is aperiodic >y /yy y -2% 9. =x xeR periodic with period n y = tan (tan~'x) . j e e R . y e [-1. =x x e [-1. (b) 71 •tiHY it/2 1 -1 y = tair ! (tanx). y e [-1.(a) y = cos "'(cosx).1].7.1] . x e R .1].x e R. y e K 7 Periodic with period 2n ~2 '~2 7. i y e R .1]. =x f y \ V+y-Ic/2 /)45°i\ \ V 3tt/2 // V -2n -2n/2 ~it\ ! 0 / Tt/2 7t\ /2x -TT/2 8. y e [0. 8. y i s aperiodic =x •y %/i •X -in/ O —3k 2 /-Tt f / —1 7 V 2 .(b) y = sin (sin 1 x). y is aperiodic 1 <y\ A/K« i •X O 1 -1 =x y = cos ( c o s x ) . (a) t y = sin-1 (sinx). (b) xV n/21i y x e [-1.

y/ / y O / T t 2n •x / 0 ^Bansal Classes Functions &Trig./ / o n 2 /71 3k 2 /2k •x -Tt/2 10. =x x e R. (b) y = cot (cot_Ix).{n7i} . y e (0. y e R . =x x e R .-<f>-IV [19] . T ) . (a) y = cot"1 (cotx). periodic with it T 10. y is aperiodic T t J y y -2% -K A / / >y •y ^ .

= x 11. (b) y = sec (sec-1*). (a) y = cosec-1 (cosec*). yisaperiodic xsR-{n7i.-<f>-IV [120] . (b) y = cosec (cosecx).11. =* |*| > 1. l. 12. (a) y= sec-1 (sec*). =* y is periodic with period 2n.y is aperiodic j ^Bansal Classes Functions &Trig.vi >l]. lyl >1. =x |*| >1.nsI}.ye y is periodic with period 2n 12.

2 2tc r .cos-1 — = % 63 2 25 (b) tan -1 2 + tan -1 3 = (d) arc cos 3% 76 + 1 _ T C 2V3 ~ 6 (c) cot 1 9 + cosec-1 Q. (Read the symbols [*] and {*} as greatest integers and fractional part functions respectively. ' .EXERCISE-I Q. (iv) cos (vi).+ tan s.) (i) f(x) = arc cos 2x 1 +x (ii) f(x)=-+2 arcsmx + 1 •. tan-1 4Tt c os3 3sin2a 5 + 3cos2a '-VT (ii) cos cos v 2 .•' x yfx-2 (iv) f(x) — sin" . 1 Find the following 1 1 (i) tan cos . -3 x i3 (vi) tan sm — + cot 5 2 Find the following : Tt .3 Prove that : (a) 2 cos-1 -4= _3 Vl3 -i L + cot -1 — + .arc cos Find the domain of definition the following functions.4 =— .V T (i) sin -— sin 2 V2 .tanJ where .— < a < — 2 2 Q.sin (v) cos tan 3 1 (iii) cos-^cos 1% 6 (iv) tan 11 tan Q. -i3 (v) sin cos + tan -1 tana 4 % +— 6 3 it (iii) tan . (ii) sin — .

3 (iii) 7cos(sinx) +sin (v) f(x) = 1 sm x 2 log 5 (l-4x ) z -log 10 (4-x) + cos-1 (1 .log7 (x 2 .2 cos 2 x + 3 cosx+ 1) + e° -1 2 sinx + 1 2«j2si sinx ^Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.{x}) . + log6 (2|x| .sm(cosx) + /n ( .3) + s in-1 (log2 x) (vi) f (x) = x + cos-11 • J (vii) f(x) = logjg (l . where {x} is the fractional part of x.5 x+13)) + cos-1 (viii) f(x)=e l2 2 + sin 97IX '+tan -1 x + in( V ^ W ) (ix) f(x) = v.-IV [21] .

y.tan cot-1x) = tan -1 x (c) tan 2mn / ~ \ 2pq VP .12 X^ 1 x 2 -y2 + z-^l . .q f . N = np+mq.z2 = 2xyz (b) x4 + y4 + z4 + 4 x2y2z2 = 2 (x2 y2 + y2 z2 + z2x 2) (x. n N q <1 <i .15 2 .IO If arc sinx + arc siny + arc sinz = n then prove that : (a) QJ1 Q. 3 cos"1 x = sin Prove that : 71 (a) sin 1 cos (sin 1 x) + cos 1 sin (cos 1 x) = —.c o s . ab b Q.— (c) tan -1 (x-l) + tan-1(x) + tan -1 (x+l) = tan-1(3x) i 1 i TC (d) sin .i Y 7 ^ .cos 'Y^tf Q.7 Find the solution set ofthe equation.nq. f(x) = (sin-1 x)3 + (cos -1 x)3 Solve the following equations/system of equations : (a) sin lx + sin 1 2x .Q. z > 0) Find the greatest and the least values of the function. arc cosx + arc cos [ ~ + ^ V ~ 3x2 j .1 — If cos 1 — + cos 1 — = a then prove that l a b x -d 2.9 3 Find the simplest value of.8x + 4 ) V 5 1 Q.+ tan 1 2 x -1 x +1 2n 1-a 1-b (g) 2 t a n .13 Q.xy y . x e .6 Q. (b) 2 tan"1 (cosec tan_1x .) (i) f (x) = cot -1 (2x-x 2 ) f i—r \ 2 _1 ^2x + 1 (iii) f(x) = cos (ii) f(x) = sec 1 (log3 tan x+ log tanx 3) (iv) f (x) = tan"1 log4 (5x2 .1 x . <1 and m M p (d) tan (tan-1 x + tan"1 y + tan -1 z) = cot (cot 1 x + cot ^ + 001 l z) Q8 Q.l) j .x 2 (4x 2 . (Read the symbols [*] and {*} as greatest integers andfractionalpart functions respectively.1 x= — (f) sin lx + sin ! y = — & cos *x .1 ^ j +cos . 5 Find the domain and range of the following functions. | x | <1 (x * 0) + tan tan 2MN where M = mp . — cosa H—.J l .= sin a . vM2 -N 2 .14 Q.cos 'y= — 3 3 (b) tan"1—1— + tan"1 — — = tan 1 -7 2 1 + 2x 1 + 4x 2x x _i _ (e) cos 1 ~ — .

b>0 If tan-1x. then prove that.t a n — | + cot cot 1971 1 3tc ^Bcmsal Classes Functions & Trig. 1) . Find the value of sin-1 (s in5) + cos-1(coslO) + tan-1 [tan (-6)] + cot -1 [cot (-10)]. y2 (x + z) + 2y (1 -x z) = x + z where y e (0. z >0. • if • 3370 i I 467t^ f 137t | Showthat: sm I sin——J + cos |^cos—— | + tan | . x z < 1 & x > 0 . tan-1y.. tan -1 z are in A.-IV [22] * . P.a>0.

VL .a) be a function defined R -> 0 thenfindthe co mplete set of real v ' 2 values of a for which f (x) is onto. y e Rthen prove that sin-1 (tanx.1] If sin2x + sin2y < 1 for all x. then prove that tan"1 — ^ c+a + tan"1 — V = T a+b 4 Q. 1 Prove that : K 1 K 1 —a + — cos a + tan cos i b 4 2 b (a) tan 4 2 — — — — = 2b a 2J w w c o s -l cosx + cosy = 1 + cosx cosy V1 + X2 .Q.18 where x e (0.17 Prove that: sin cot-1 tan cos-1 x = sin cosec-1 cot tan_1x = x Q. tany) e ' 2 ' 2 Q. tan Jx + cos 1 V ! y : sin +y / VTo' Q.19 Find all the positive integral solutions of. tan X * 2 .16 In a A ABC if ZA = 90°. 20 Let f (x) = cor (x + 4x+a .X2 . 1 2 2 % EXERCISE-II Q.

—f= + sm —1=— t V2 V6 .3 Q.+ + tan . then prove t hat a + (3 = 1+x J-x.b x . what the value of a + P will be if x > 1. 2 „ n . l tan -1 —2— + tan -1 + tan-l. If u = cot -1 i/cos20 .1 + sm 1 — i —LVn(n + 1) + oo Q O (b) (c) (d) w tan-1 ^ + tan -1 .3x) in the form of a cos -1 x + b7t.-<f>.1 1 + ^ cot"17 + cot"113 + cot-121 + cot"131 + to n terms . 2 8 18 32 oo (e) ^Bansal Classes Functions & Trig. Q.Jn . where a and b are rational numbers. Vn .2 Q.v a. 4l . tan— a+b 2 cos b + a cosx a + bcosx Q. Find the sum of the series : (a) sm 1 .x2 for 0 < x < 1.4 If y = tan1 + x +Vl-x 2 2 prove that x2 = sin 2y.IV [23] . .1 1 + tan -1 — + tan"1 ^ + . 2 • + tan"1 •2 to n terms.4x 3 ) + cos -1 (4x3 .1 . .+ tan . 2 x + X+ 1 x' + 3x + 3 x + 7x + 13 x + 5x + 7 tan-1 .5 Ifx e 1 2 ^en express the function f (x) = sin-1 (3x .tan -1 V c o s 2 e then prove that sin u = tan2 9. If a = 2 arc tan 1 + X1 & p = arc sin f 1 .

.

y) satisfy (ii). Xj e [-1. b > 1 .3 > 0 =0 v y J v y . Find the relation between X & Y . a ^ b . cot -1 . where0 < a < 1 .1 x +1 b + tan~' 2X7T = tan ~ 36 2x — 1 23 Q.2 P as an integral polynomial in a & p.sec-1 ~ . Y2 c I . arccosx + (arcsiny) (arcsiny) 2 . y) satisfy (i). y for x e X p y e Yj & (x.{0} are such that Xj : the solution set of equation (i) X2 : the solution set of equation (ii) Yj : the set of all integ ral values of y for which equation (i) possess a solution Y2 : the set of all in tegral values of y for which equation (ii) possess a solution Let: Cj be the cor respondence : Xl Yj such that xC. C2 be the correspondence : X2 -> Y2 such that x C2 y for x e X 2 . = — 3 .8arc tanx + 3 < 0 & 4 arc cotx .x + 1) = cot"1 ( n .4x 4X Q.12 Q.7 Solve the following : (a) cor'x + cot"1 ( n 2 .1 ) (b) sec -1 — .IO Express the equation cot equation is x & y.13 Q. (arccosx) = KTI2 4 possesses solutions & find those solutions. T he sets Xj. then find the value of (A2 + B2 .5 arc c otx + 6 > 0 (b) arc sinx > arc cosx Solve the following system of inequations 4 arc tan2x . Yj.sec_1b . y e Y2 & (x.8 Q9 33 1 1 1 _i a a P F 2 Express — cosec2 -tan" — + — sec^ -tan — 2 a 2 . If A = ~ c o r 1 Q j + | c o r ^ | j H-^cof'f-M .arc cot2 x .sec_1a a > 1 . Express them i n terms of 'a'. Q.15 Q.2 AB)1/2.ll Q.Q. tan -1 . state wheth . 1] .14 Q. sec .16 1 VT x . cos . sin-1 a & Y= sec cot -1 sin tan -1 c osec cos"1 a . (c) tan'-i a x. 1 7 Prove that the equation . State with reasons if C j & C2 are functions ? If yes. B = 1 cot -1 ( l) + 2cot"1(2) + scores).(sin_1x)3 + (cos_1x)3 = a n3 has no roots f o r a < — anda> — Sol ve the following inequalities : (c) tan2 (arc sinx)> 1 (a) arc cot 2 x .y 2 2 = 2 tan r I3 4 x 2 tan"1 V—X— as a rational integral ~ If X= cosec . Find the integral values of K for which the system of equations.

then compute the maximum range ofx. Calculate the range of the function h(x). (i) sin =1 (ii ) cos cos-1 (sin(x + 3-)) f 4 — 1 Given the functions f(x)= e " . Q.er they are bijjective or into ? Consider the two equations in x.-<f>. 1 x ^ are identical functions. If the functions f(x) = sin"1 (3x~4x3) & g(x) = 3 sin-1 x are equal functions. g(x) = cosec"1 I — — 2C0SX^ cos ! x \ / sm • -1 x \ Q. which are common to the domains of the funct ions f(x) & g(x).IV [24] .17 J & the function h(x) = f(x) defined only for those values of x. then compute If the functions f(x) = sin"1 -—— & g(x) = c os-1 z 2 1+x ~" 1+ x their domain & range.18 (a) (b) 2x. ^Bansal Classes Functions & Trig.

1 The number of real solutions of tair ! Jx (x+1) + sin"5 jx 2 + x + 1 = — is: (A) zero Q.3 Q. express the following as a single angle: 3 tan. 6 Prove that cos tan"1 sin cot _1 x = [JEE 2002 (mains) 5] .findall the values of x for w hich f(x) is zero. 3 out of 100] Solve the equation: cos_1(V6x) + cos_I(3V3x2) = x2 x3 If sin"1 | x ~ y + ~ (A) 1 /2 (B) 1 f Q.Q. 3 out of 100] [REE2001 (Mains). X 4 2 X + — 6 4 for 0 < | x | < (D)-l thenx equals to [JEE 2001 (screening)] (C) . Express the values of x in the form a ± Vb where a & b are rati onal numbers. Then from the algebraic function. Solve for x: (» 2 +4 „Y\ 2x sin < T — 3.1 / 2 x2 + l x+2 Q.( ! ) + 2 * * * bx ax sin-1 — + sin-1 — = sin"1 x c c [REE'99. [REE2000(Mains).19 Convert the trigonometric function sin (2 cos 1 (cot (2tan 1x))) into an algebra ic function f(x).5 + cos" 2 . C sin" 1 + x' J) V V 1 f Q. 4 Solve. c * 0.20 EXERCISE-III Q. where a2 + b2 = c 2 .2 (out of200)] i Using the principal values. 6] Q.2 (B) one (C) two (D) infinite [JEE'99.

v (B) "1 3 ^ 1 i r 4' 4_ (D) i r 4'2_ [JEE 2003 (Screening) 3] Q8 If sin (cot 1 (x +1)) .Q. 1 (B)| <> P4 [JEE 2004 (Screening)] ^Bansal Classes Functions &Trig.cos(tan (A) x).-<f>-IV [25] .7 1 Domain of f(x) : ^|sin.(2x)+ 6 % is (C) (A) ( 1 1 2'2. then x = (C)0 .

oo) Q2. 2) (xix) (-oo. Domain = R .o o . 1 ) U { x : x e N .-1 U ( 2 . f(x)* 1} (v) D:-l<x<2 R : [V3 .3 ] ( i v ) ( . x > 2 } (xiv) (> j (xiii) [ . x * . . x * 2 } D : R .T C ) U ( 3 < X < 4 ) (vi) 1 1 '100 J l IOO'VIO u (vii) (-1 < x < -1/2) U (x > 1) (x) { 4 } ^ [ 5 .{0. T'6 6' 3 (xi) ( 0 .1} Q6. -3) u (-3. .1 . n e l | and R : log 2. period of gof i . -1) U (-1.{0} (b) surjective but not injective Q 4.3 ) (xii) A 1 u 5TC . 1 ] R : (f(x)|f(x) e R .0 0 . .3 . a e (0.1] u [4.2 T C < X < 3 . o o ) (viii) 1-V? u i +VJ 00 (ix) (-3. (a) neither suijective nor injective (c) neither injective nor suijective Q5. 0 0 ) (iii) ( . (i) D : x e R (iii) (iv) (vi) (xviii) (1.{1} Range is (-oo. (i) 571 -371 u 7 7t C u 4'4 3 7 5 7t C (ii) T ' T -4.ANSWER KEY FUNCTIONS EXERCISE-I Q l .3 .|2n7i+-|. .l ) u [ 0 . V? ] D: { x l x e R . 1 / 4 ) U ( 3 / 4 .4) (xv) 2KTC < x < ( 2 K + L)7i but x ^ L where K is non-negative integer (xvi) {x | 1000 < x < 10000} (xvii) (-2. 2) u H) V L J R: [0. (2n+l)7t) . f ( x ) * 1/5 . 1) D : x s (2nn. 2n7i+-|.2] (ii) D = R . f3n(x) = x . oo) (v) ( 3 .2 ) u [3. (i) period of fog is 7r. 2n7t+^f. oo). R : (-1.1 ] U {0} U [ 1. 0) U (1. oo) . range [ .

±1.1 < x < 0 ^Bansal Classes Functions &Trig.1 ] Q9. f !(x) = (a-x n ) 1/n Q 17. (ii) range of fog is [-1.1 & . k e l Q 18.1 M (c) . range ofgof is [-tanl.-<f>-IV [26] .1 and x for .1 < x < 0 (b) f(x) = .1]. tanl] Q 7. ±5. 1+X 3 + 3"x 2 X (b) p = 2k.s 2% . ±3. (a) f(x) = 1 for x < . (a) y = l o g ( 1 0 . A. (a) 2KTC < x < 2KTC + T where K e l C (b) [ . (a) TC/2 (b) % (c) TC/2 (d) 70 T C Q 12.1 for x < . x = 1 Q 14.3 / 2 .1 0 x ) .log^ 1-x 1 . o o < x < 1 (b) y = x/3 when .x for . (a) e " e 2 (b) 3X . . (a) odd (b) even (c) neither odd nor even (d) even (e) odd (g) neither odd nor e ven (h) even (i) even (j) even (f) even Q 10.o o < x < 0 & y = x w h e n 0 < x < + oo Q 13. (a) Q 16. ±15 Q 15.3" 2 toga* l0g2x . D Q 8. B.

g(x)= x if 0<x<l Q20. 2 < x < 3 5-x . 0 < x < 1 Q 9. -1 < x < 0 3 <x<4 ' . 1] O x+1 . n <x< 1 0 -x .. f o g ( x ) = . f(x) = 2x2 Q 11.Q19.Q .(i) = y ] Q 4. D = x e R . f ( x ) = 1 .x -0 • .x 2 . x . f(x) = 1 + x or 1 . a+D=0 Q5. 0 <x <2 ' 5f ( x ) = W 3-x .( 1 + X ) J x—1 ' . °<x^2 2 <x < 3 4-x . range = ( .x . f. . 1 < x ^ 2 x-1 .x 2 ifx>l EXERCISE-II Q i . . 3 < x < 4 ' fof(x) = 4 _ x f x .

ll (a) D. (v) | . D : x s R+ and x e (-2.(z.1} (ix) (iii) {1.2 .(y.2] {7/3.3 (hofog)(x) = h(x2) = x2 for XGR. (0.13 x — 0 or 5/3 Q. (b) D INVERSE TRIGONOMETRY EXERCISE-I Q 1.b). (b)A Q. 4). (ii) 1. V3 + 1 1 . 1). 2. 2)} .IO (a) D . Q.a).-IV [27] .6 B Q. 2) .7 D Q.14 Domain [-1.25/9} (viii) (-2. (i) (v) (vii) FUNCTIONS .{-1. (iv) . 12} u (12. 2).l + VI — —A/5 -3 + VS -3-45 1 Q. 2)} Q. (0. Q ) O Q. (e) D Q. (i) | . (vi) j Q 4. (b) A. (ii) -1.. (i) . 4). {(1. (c) D. Q. (b)A Q. n e I Q 19. 10"2) u (10-2. (4. ( gof) (x) = 3 e x .1 ( « ) ( .9 (a) B.1) u {1 . 2] Q 15. (iv) f . n e 1} 6 (!%Bansal Classes Functions & Trig. x * 0 (vi) (3/2 .L ... 1).VT) V2 ' V2 J u (VI . (v) | . 3)} and {(1. (11) 1 Q. (2.2 {(x.1].8 {(1.f . ) _ .. (iii) -1/3 < x < 1 (ii) (j) (not defined for any real x) x €(-1/2. 3).12 C. 10"1) Q 18. Hence h is not an i dentity function.4 (a) A. (3.c)} Q. . (vi) a (iv)l<x<4 Q 2. (3. f(x) = sinx + x EXERCISE-III n t t \ r\ . (2 . (d)A.0.13 (a) A. 3). 1). (2. fog is not invertible Q. . Range [0. (4.5 (fog)(x) = e3x~2. (3 .-1} {x|x = 2n7r + . 1/2). 13) g (x) = 3 + 5 sin(mr + 2x . 4).4). (iii) 5-f.Q 12. (b) B Q. (4.1 V3 + 1 { V2 ' 4i Q 16.

(a) f (b)| (c) arc cot 2n + 5 9tt 9 Q5. 8tc . cos—. s (a)x=iJ| Q8. (iv) . I . . y = 2 & x = 2 .arc tan x (e) — Q 8. e*] .f (b) x = 3 T3 T Q 11. Q12.y .. x = 1. — + | c o r 1 ( 3 ) 24 6 Q15. [e®6. (i) (ii) (iii) D : x s R R : [7c/4. ( t a n i . K = 2.20 1 + Vl7 EXERCISE-II Q 4. y = 7 Q. cotl Q17.j x | x = n7t + -^l n e l R: o. . b = .7c) D:XG V 7t mz.1 & c o s — .21 Vio Q 19.n + 1 or x = n (b) x = ab (c) x = 2 2 Q 9. 6 c o s 2 x .— 7 C (d) arc tan (x + n) . y = 1 Q 14. mi + . R: 2ti" I ' 3 _ 71 7C D:xe R D:xgR R: n 7i 2'4 Q 6. (a 2 + P2) (a + p) 2 (a) x = n 2 .l & — when x = 4 = 8 32 V2 (e)x = 0 . so a = 6. ll^L when x = . -7i Q6.1 4 4 Q12. Q 7.Q5..I a -b (g)x = 1 + ab (d)x 1 (e) x = 2-73 or V3 (f) x = .

is abijective function. 1) Q.1 u .8x2)2 27 V2 Q 11.5B Q. 2] Q.-<f>. n/2] (b) . y2 = — (9 . 1].2 Tt Q. x = .20 x e (-1.4 x = Q.(c) D : [ .8 A ^Bansal Classes Functions & Trig. (a) (cot2.3 x e { . hence it is n ot a function 2 2 1 1 Q 18.. R : [0. Q16. C.l .19 x = 0 ± 7 i .l C Q.7 D Q. 0. 1 ] .< x < .1 ± V 2 EXERCISE-III Q. C2 is many to many correspondence. R : [0.IV [28] . 1} 1 Q.(a) D : [0. x = 1 ± V 2 . cot3) (b) (c) v 2 .1 . oo)u(-oo.Q 10. X = Y = ^ / Q 14.

BANSAL CLASSES M ATH€M ATI C5 TARGETIIT JEE 2007 TRANSIT DPP For Class XI to XII moving students FUNCTIONS AND INVERSE TRIGONOMETRY FUNCTIONS Time Limit: 5 Sitting Each of 60 Minutes duration approx. This D P P will be dis cussed during commencement of class.XII .

cos-1 x . then which ofthe following can be g(x).g(x) is a function having the same time peri od as that off(x). i Let f be a real valued function such that f(x)+ 2f / 2002^ v x J = 3x (D)4000 for all x > 0. (A)1000 Q. Find f (2).4 Which one of the following depicts the graph of an odd function? 10 10(A) -10 o 10 -»x (B) 0 -10 y 10 / -10 10.2 (B)2000 (C)3000 Solution set ofthe equation. Q .sin"1 x .There are 95 questions in this question bank. Only one alternative is correct.3 Q.cos" ] (x y3 ) (B) consists of two elements (A) is a unit set (D) is a void set (C) consists of three elements If f(x) = 2 tan 3x + 5-^1 .y 10o J (C) -10 -10 0 10 (D) .y Q.cos 6x . (A) (sec23x + cosec23 x)tan23x (C) cos2 3x + cosec3x (B) 2 sin3x + 3cos3x (D) 3 cosec3x + 2 tan3x .

-10 7* Q.1 + ^ c o s ' 0 .2) (D)(0. 5 The sum of the infinite terms ofthe series cot"1 [ l 2 + £ j + cot"1 [ 22 (A) tan"1 (1) Q6 (B) tan"1 (2) + cot"1 j+ (C) tan"1 (3) is equal to (D) tan"' (4) Domain of definition of the function f (x) = log (A) [0.x ) is (C)(0.2] 03x~2 .7 The value of tan"1 Q tan 2A\ + tan "' (cot A)+tan (cot3 A) for 0 < A < (k/4) is (A) 4 tan"1 (1) (B) 2 tan"1 (2) (Q0 (D)none fa B ansa! Classes Transit Dpp on Functions & Inverse trigonometry functions [11] .1) Q.1] (B) [1.9X_1 .

6) (C) [0.1} (B){1.t a n P theng(x)iis Q.f 1 + x2 9 9 (C)l The domain of definition of the function. then the range of h(x) is (A) {0.8 Let f(x) = g(x) and h(x) = max.{sint: 0<t<x} min. 50tc> -sin + cos"1 C S O I 9J (B) sec 7 T — 31TIn] 9 J is equal to (D)-l 3x 2 .3 . 5 ] then: (D) tan 06 = .2. 1. is: (A) (l.2 .1 [sin(cos-1 x)j (A) tan a = cot P (B) t a n a = .3} Q.2} (D) { .7 x . 9 The period of the function fix) — sin 2 rex + sin + s i n ^ ~ | is \3 J (A) 2 (B)6 (C)15 The value o f (A)secQ. 0 . where [ *] denotes the (D) ( . {sint: 0<t<x} [f(x)-g(x)] where [ ] denotes greatest integer function. f (x) = arc cos greatest integer funct ion.1] .1 .Q. .IO sec sin f f .o) (B) [0.1.13 Given f(x) (A) periodic with period 7t/2 (C) periodic with period 2n .12 a = sin -1 jcos(sin -1 xjj and P = cos .2} (C) {0.2 .c o t p and g(x)= (C) tan a = tan P f (sin x) + Q.ll 1071 'TCX^ ( 7TX ' (D) 30 Q. .

then range of f (x) is: (A) (0. 2 ] 1 (C) (o. y = cos . two points M & N are onthe adjacent sides o fthe square such that MN is parallel to the diagonal BD. .V 2] (B) ( 0 .1 (1 j + sin 1 ^ .16 cos| cos 1 cos^y-j +tan tan] (A) 1 (B)-l (D)0 fa B ansa! Classes Transit Dpp on Functions & Inverse trigonometry functions [11] .cos 1 [ (A) x = Tty n . .cos (B) y = Ttx (C) tanx = -(4/3)y iJ O 1 then (D) tanx = (4/3)y Q.2V2] j j has the value equal to 7t (C) cos(D) (0.2V3 Q. If x is the distance of MN from the vertex A and f (x) = Area (A AMN).f (cosx) (B) periodic with period Tt (D) aperiodic Q.15 In the square ABCD with side AB = 2.14 If x = tan 1 1 .

24 The period of the function f(x) = sin [ c o s ~ + cos(sinx) equal (A) Q.t If x = cos"1 (cos4) .5 x . If /(30) = 20. h (x) is (A) an odd function (B) a n even function (C) neither an odd nor an even function (D) both odd as well as even function Q.19 Let/be a function satisfying /(xy) : value of/(40)is (A) 15 (B) 20 for all positive real numbers x and y.18 The value of tan< — +2.3 ] u [3. where (0 < a < b).3 . f a^ f« — Q .x . 27 The number of solutions of the equation tan"1 V3y + tan" (A) 3 (B) 2 (C)l = tan"1 x (D)0 is J fa B ansa! Classes Transit Dpp on Functions & Inverse trigonometry functions [11] .Q.20 Number ofreal value ofx satisfying the equation. v 28 9J (D)none Q.25 Tt (B) 2n (C)7t (D) 4. .3 ] (B) (-QO. 7) (C) [ . -3 ] U [ 8 .y = 1 (B) x + y + 1 = 0 (C)x + 2 y . x e R where {x} and [ ] d enotes the fractional part and integral part functions respectively. is Vb^j 2a tc 1 . y = sin"1 (sin3) then which ofthe following holds ? (A) x . J a sin — 2 Kb (C) f(x) vV 2b . . oo) (C) -00.17 The domain of the definition of the function f(x) = sin" (A) (7. .=2T 2 ' (B) 2Tj = T2 (C)Tj-T2 (D)T } =4T 2 Q.« .sin VbJ + tani[4 4 b <A »il (B) 2b (D) Q.7 . arc tan ^x(x +1) + arc sin ^x(x + l) + l = ~ is (A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) more than 2 Q. Also h (x) = In (f (x)) + In (g(x)) then for all real x. then the (C) 40 (D) 60 Q.26 Let f (x) — e {eWsgnx} andg(x)= e [ e ' s g n x ] . 6) + [log10(6-x)]~ is: (B) (-7.2 (D) tan (x + y) = . 3) u (5. . 6) 1 .3 ) u ( .23 2 cor 1 2 + cos-1 (3 /5) = cosec"1 x is (C) 2 (D) more than 2 The domain of definition of the function : f(x) = /n(Vx 2 .21 Let f (x) = sin2x + cos4x + 2 and g (x) = cos (cos x) + cos (sin x) also let period of f (x) and g ( x) be Tj and T2 respectively then (A)T.2 ) is (A) ( .2 4 . 5) u (5.tan7 Q. 7) (D) (-3.22 Number of solutions of the equation (A) 0 (B) 1 Q.

31 K (B) 71 (C)5 CD) 7 .3 x + [x] = 0 is: (A) 6 (B) 4 (C) 2 ( D) 0 Q.+ tan"1 (B) 4 tan -J 1 (C) +-. x e I (D) The rang e of *h' is {1 > t a n -1 Q. the n which of the following holds? (A) The domain of 'h' is (j) (B) The range of 'h * is { .1) Q.f Q. (A) (B)!^!2'00) (C){^2| (D) Q.28 Which of the following is the solution set of the equation 2 cos-1 x = co t _1 (A) (0.3] the number of solutions of the equation. x 2 .tan v2 (A) Q.30 1 The value of tan — .1 } (C) The domain of 'h' is {x / x > 3 or x < .0) 2x2 . Then in the interval [0.is x" (D) sec"1 (-V2) Q 33 Range ofthe function f(x) = tan"> J [ x ] +[-x] + p-\x\ where [*] is the gr eatest integer function. 1). g (x).32 The sum ]T n = 1 4n is equal to: n .{0} ( 9 (-1.l] Suppose that / is a periodic function with period — and that / (2) = 5 and f(9/4) = 2 then 2 f (-3) .2V6 is equal: 1 +V6 (Of (D)none Given f(x) = (x+1>C(2x_8).29 (B)(-l.1 . g(x) = ( 2x ~ 8 )C (x+1) and h (x) = f(x). 3 4 Let [x] denote the greatest integer in x.2 (A) tan"1 .3 .f (l/4) has the value equal to (A) 2 (B)3 Q.1 ^ 2x VT ]_ (D)[-l.2n + 2 4 . 3 5 The range of values of p for which the equation. sin cos-1 (cosOan1 xyj = p has a solution is: (A) _L 1 .

V2'V2. 1) if x is rational if x is irrational (C) and g(x) = 1 ^ (D)(-U) if x is irrational if x is rational Q. r 0 L (B) [0.36 Let f (x) = X Then the function ( f .g) x is (A) odd (C) neither odd nor even (B)even (D) odd as well as even fa B ansa! Classes Transit Dpp on Functions & Inverse trigonometry functions [11] .

1) 1 Q.a. 3 9 The value of tan . 3 7 Number of value of x satisfying the equation sin (A) 0 Q. 1).oo) ( D ) a e ( . b e (-l. b e R (C) a e (-1.42 (B)±V2 (C)± 4V2 (D)±2 Which of the following is true for a real valued function y = f (x).40 (B) (lO + V3 )_1 (C) (3 + V10) (D)(lO+V3) The period of the function cos V2 x + cos 2x is : (A) n (B) K4~2 (C) 2tt — (D) none of these Q. a]? (A) f (x) can be expressed as a sum or a difference of two even funct ions (B) f (x) can be expressed as a sum or a difference of two odd functions (C . 1).38 (B) 1 vx.ef(x) 1 + ef(x) x. l ) .Q. The values of 'a' and V for which ( B ) a s ( . (C)2 + sin-1 Tt v x y = iiS (D) more than 2 Consider a real valued function f(x) such that f(a) + f(b) = f a +b is satisfied are .l .c o r (3) equals 2 (Aj^-Vio)"1 Q. defined on [ .41 f f4Ni 2^ fx +— 1 1 xThe real values of x satisfying tan -tan" -tan" = 0 are V xj V xj — (A)±7J Q.l .o o . 1). 1] 1 . b s ( .1 + ab (A) a e (-oo. b e [-1.

then a belongs to : (A) [2. 44 l Y V. 5} ( C) [4. If f i s periodic with fundamental period %. f(x) = cot-1 log05(x4 .43 (A)sin(4cor 1 3) Q. 5] (D) [4. equals (B) sin(3cor'4) (C) cos(3cor ! 4) (D) cos(4cor13) Let fix) = sin *J[a] x (where [ ] denotes the greatest integer function). 5) Q.2x2 + 3) is: (A) (0.45 The range ofthe function.2)1 (A) (B) (C) (D)i^ [11] fa B ansa! Classes Transit Dpp on Functions & Inverse trigonometry functions . 46 Which of the following is the solution set of the equation sin"!x=cos"1x + sin"1 (3x .3) (B) {4.7i) 3?c" 7C (C) 371 (B) 4 _ T""J I 3' (D) 2'T Q.) f (x) can be expressed as a sum or a difference of an odd and an even function (D) f (x) can never be expressed as a sum or a difference of an odd and an even function cos 1^2 tan " Q.

3'3. 52 If tan-'x + ta n"1 2x + tan~'l3x = T .1] (C)[-l. x .1] Q.3x)? (A) [-1.49 The function f : R . (C) r1 J (D) Q.l] (D) V2' Q. 47 Which ofthe following functions are not homogeneous ? (A) x + ycos.Q. Q.1] (B) 1 l" .> R .3 . 48 Which of the following is the solution set ofthe equation 3 cos_1x = cos-1 (4x3 .V2 x2 + v (A) (B) (C) 4xy (D) none iz holds good is 2 Q.x 2 is: (B) suijective but not injective (D) neither injective nor suijective Q. then C (A) x = 0 (B) x = 1 (C)x = -1 (D)xe| Q.0] (B) [0. 54 The set of values ofx for which the equation cos_1x + cos-1 —+ —V3--3X v2 2 (A) [0. defined as f(x) = II— 6 x (A) injective but not suiject ive (C) injective as well as suijective + 3x .[x+3 ]). 53 If f(x + ay. y) is equal to : 2 X2 . 50 The solution of the equation 2cos_1x = sin-1 (2xVl .55 (B) 8 9-x 2 1S .x 2 ) (A) [-1. (B) x+ y" xy (C) v x + vcosx ' ysinx + y ( D ^ J x V y J * y \x/ x vy. where [ ] denotes the greatest integer function is (A) 2TI+ 3 (B) 27t (C)l (D) 3 Q.ay) = axy then f(x. 51 The period ofthe function/(x) = sin(x + 3 .

-sin 'x (C) [-1.0. 0) U {1} (D) [-1. ( 2 n + l ) . n e 1} Q.(C) 1 0 (D) {-1.{0} (B) (0. 57 The solution set of the equation si n-1 *J\.{(2n+ 1)—. n e 1} ( C ) R . tan 2x a J l o 8 i . 1] U {-1} + 71 + . 7T (D)(-®.1} The range ofthe function y : (A) ( °°) 3} (B) (C) V 9y f +2 cot X \ .0)u r oo Q. 5 6 The domain of definition of the function f (x) = (A) R .{ n i c .X 2 (A) [-1. 1] ..2cosec x + 5.1] fa B ansa! Classes Transit Dpp on Functions & Inverse trigonometry functions [11] .3sec"x + 5y is V 2 (B) R .{mc. n e 1} (D)none cos_1x = cotVT -x V X .

59 The value of sin"1 (sin(2cor1 (V2 -1))) is (A)Q. In the adjacent figu re from point A on the graph of the function y = f(x) corresponding to the given value ofthe independent variable (say Xq).62 1-x4 (A) 5x2 Q. to intersect the line NN' at D .oo) Q.4x + 5 is both one-one and on to if: O (A) Y = R (B) Y= [1. arc cot x . 60 Q.f(g(x0)) Q. 61 7t < B) 7t 4 (C) 3% (D) In The function f: [2. If the straigh t line NN' is parallel to Y-axis. o o ) (D) [5.0)u[0.Q. 58 Given the graphs of the two functions.1) If 2 f(x2) + 3 f(l/x 2 ) = x2 .arc cot (x + 2) = — (A)V3 . (C) (-oo.1 (x * 0) then f(x2) is : (B) " 5x 1-x2 (C) 5x 1-x4 (D) is 2x 4 + x 2 .g(f(x0)) (B)x0. oo) If f(x) = cosec"1 (cosecx) and cosec(cosec"1x) are equal functions then maximum range of values o fx is (A) 71 KJ 71 7 C (B) LJ 0.g(x0) (C)x0.-l]u[l.» Y defined by f(x) . y = f(x) & y = g(x).x2 .3 5x2 n Sum of the roots of the equation. Again a straight line is drawnfromthe point C parallel to the X-axis. 63 (D)[-1. From the point B a straight line parallel to the Y-axis is drawn to interse ct the graph ofthe function y .g(f(x0)) (D)f(x0). then the co-ordinates of the point D are (A)fi :x0). Q ) .g(x) at C. oo) (C) Y= [4. a straight line is drawn parallel to the X-axis to intersect the bisector of thefirstand the third quadrants at poin t B.

1} (B) {-1.x + 1) ] is (A) {-1. 1 -3 7t — is (D) ••I Q.0} (C)-{1> (D){-1.x) . Let / ( x + y) =/(x) + g (y) + 8 for all integer x andy.1} Q. 65 Range of the function sgn [ In (x2 . 67 Let /(x) and g (x) be functions which take integers as arguments.0. 64 Range of the function f (x) : (A) [0. and let g(8) = 17. 66 Number of solution(s) of the equation cos 1 (1 . The value of /(0) is (A) 17 (B) 9 (C) 25 (D) 17 fa B ansa! Classes Transit Dpp on Functions & Inverse trigonometry functions [11] .1) where {x} denotes thefractionalpart function is (C) (B) 0.(B)2 {x} l + {x} (C)-2 (D)-V3 Q. Let / ( x ) = x for all negativ e integers x.2cos (A) 3 (B)2 (C)l (D)0 Q.

The value of/(100).72 (D) 100 .i . 68 There exists a positive real number x satisfying cos(tan-1x)=x.69 The domain ofthe function.70 cos (A) 23tc 20 cos 771 . 27t sin — is equal to 5 5 j (B) 1371 20 (C) 33TC ~20~ (D) 20 1771 Q.Q. c o ) (C) ^ j / 1 3 (B) [1. f(x + y) = x+/(y) and (b) f(0) = 2. f(x) = (x + 0. o o tr\ f ^ l!> . is (A) 2 (B) 98 (C) 102 Q.5)log°5+x 4Xx2+-4x-3 is 1 (A) l .3] Q. 71 Let/(x) be a function with two properties (a) for any two real number x an d y.f. The value of cos -1 (A) 7t 10 v2 y is v_/ (B) 5 _ Tt 2tz 2TZ (C)y (D) 4n Q.

then the value ofg~l (x).Let/be a function such that f(3)= 1 and / (3x) = x +/(3x ~ 3) for all x./ ( x ) is a one-one function and (5. 4) Q.1 (x) + 5 (C)\r\x) +5 (D)/-' x-5 Q.1 (C)0 (D) 1 fa B ansa! Classes Transit Dpp on Functions & Inverse trigonometry functions [11] . Then th e value of /(300)is (A)5050 (B)4950 (C)5151 (D)none 1 Q.l)u(l. The sum ofthe slope and the y-intercept ofg.1) is a point on its graph. is (A) 9/4 (B) 5 (C) . wh ich one of the following statements is correct? (A) (1. -1) u [ 0.2x + 1 and / (g(x)) = x. 73 I f / (x) is an invertible function. 76 Domain of definition of the function f (x). oo) (D)(-oo. (A) (-oo. with/(x) = . then the sum ofthe roots of /(x) = 0. 77 is x -3x-4 (B) [0. 75 If y . 5) is a point on the gra ph of the inverse function y =/ _ 1 (x) (B)/(5) = f ( l ) (C) the graph of the i nverse function y =/"'l(x) will be symmetric about the y-axis (D)/(/_1(5)) = l Q . is (A) 2/~'(x) .9/4 (D)-5 Q.5 (B) 2/.0] (C) ( .4) 3X-4S Suppo se/ and g are both linear functions.oo. is (A)-2 (B) . and g (x) = 2/(x) + 5. 74 If /(2x + 1) = 4x2 + 14x.

(3% _ (A) ( It 371 (B) V 2 71 U Tt 3% 12'~2 (C) Tt Xs r % 37ri (D) [-271.2 sec x (A)-0.75) (B)0. 78 The range of the function/ (x) = Vx+4-3 :— is x-5 (C) ( .-1.r Tt Tt (D) 2nn—2 '. y). Q ) (D) (0.\ ± ~ .(max(x.Q . 1 u 6 ' 3 Q.sinx y = .Q.5 equals (C)l V 1 . Or 2 More than one alternatives are correct. the n . y) .79 I f / ( x . ±~ Q. coincide are 1 + sinx 37C^l . 82 . 80 (D) 1.81 11 + sinx The values of x in [-2k.J -{2mt}.secx and ' 1 .2*]. I I . y) = max(x. r Tt Tt 2'2 % Tt (B)R+.2n7i+— -{2MC}.g(-4. 2k].sinx + secx.min(x. y) . 0) ^ (0. for which the graph of the function y = J T — : — . y)) mm(x ' y) and g (x.[0. oo) O O (A) 4 / f r g vV I i (B) 0 . 2 ' 2 -{0} 2) % r (C) 2mt —2 '.2mt + .5 Q.5 The domain and range of the function f(x) = cosec""1 / l o § 3-4s«x 2 are respective ly (A)R. Q. .

+ 2 + tan x -Jl + cot2x sinx y = sin2x Q.84 2" If f(x) = cos -71" x + sin 2 1 |secx| + |cosecx| |secx cosecxj 1 — 2 (A) f (0) = 1 (B)f ^ V3+1 (C) f (D) f(7t) — 0 faB ansa! Classes Transit Dpp on Functions & Inverse trigonometry functions [11] . cosx -.sin4(sin3) + sin"1 (sin4) + sin"1 (sin5) when simplified reduces to (A) an irrat ional number (B) a rational number (C) an even prime (D) a negati ve integer The graphs of which of the following pairs differ. (A) y — . y (D) none of these Q. v = sinx cosecx (C) y = | cos x | + | sin x i . 8 3 (B) y = tanx cotx.

tan 1 y.90 Which ofthe functions defined below are one-one function(s) ? (A) f(x) = (x + 1). z are in H.y cos GR + x Q.P.P.92 ' y + -11 + f z + .87 (C) y = sin2x (D) y = sin ' x tan 1 x.| sinx | (B) f(x) = [x + Tt] (C) f(x) = cos (sinx) (where [. y.5. then (A) x2 + y2 + z2 + 2xyz . ( x > 0) Q.91 If cos_1x + cos ' y + cos 'z = Tt.0 >6 v yJ v zJ ~ Which of the following homogeneous functions are of degree zero ? (A) — /n—+— In— x y y x (x-y) ' y(x+y) (C) 2 x +y 2 ^ (D) x sin — . 93 The value of tan-l . (B) x.1 ) then (A) x. z are in G. (A) f(x) . (C) x = y = z (D) (x-y) 2 + ( y .Q.cos mJ K 5 Q 86 The functions which are aperiodic are: (A) y = [x + 1 ] (B) y = sin x2 wher e [x] denotes greatest integer function Q. (y 0. 1 Q.88 Which of the following function(s) is/are periodic with period Tt. which ofthe foll owing is invalid? (A) a2x + 2a = x (B) a2 + 2ax + 1 = 0 ( C ) a ^ 0 (D)a*-1.89 For the equation 2x = tan(2tan_1 a) + 2tan(tan_1 a + tan"1 a3).P. (x > 0) (D) f(x) = e "x. and x. y. .^ 7 i —1 (B) sin 10J IS : (C) cos 271 vT (D) .z ) 2 + ( z . ( x > .1 (B) 2(sin~1x + sin_1y + sin'z) = cos_1x + cos_1y + cos_1z (C) xy + yz + zx = x + y + z .85 14tcV The value of cos — cos cos 2 v V 5 J /AN (A) cos ( . ] denotes the gr eatest integer function) Q.l (D) x + X Q. 1 .P.l ) (B) g(x) = x+(l/x) ( x > 0 ) 2 (C) h(x) = x + 4x . y.x ) 2 = 0 (D) f(x) = cos2x Q. z are also in A. tan ! z are in A.

. (D) k(x)= sin (TTX/2) Q.1 ] is the domain of the following functions.94 (A) f(x) = x 2 D = [-1.a Q. state which of them has th e inverse.95 Which ofthe following fimction(s) have no domain? (A) f(x) = logx_ j (2 .) ) fa Bansa! Classes Transit Dpp on Functions & Inverse trigonometry functions [11] .— .Tt f 71 xsina x . x ^1-xcosa J sma J v 2J (A) independen t of x (B) independent of a (D) none of these (B) g(x) = x 3 (C) h(x) = sin 2x . (B) g(x) = cos_1(2-{ x}) where {x} denotes thefractionalpart function.[x]2) where [x] denotes the greatest integer function. is (C) .[ x] .cosa tan-l is. (C) h(x) = In /n(cosx) (D)f(x) : sec ' ( s g n ( e . for a e 0.

C Q.27 Q.4 Q.51 Q.29 Q.2 Q.3 Q.D Q.62 Q.93 A.75 A Q.85 B.B.88 A.28 A Q.C Q.69 Q.42 Q.[ZlJ suoijDuti/iQjdwouoSuj 3Sd3AU] 3p suoijounj uo dd(j j i s u v u j s s s s v j j jvsuvgf^ Q.56 Q.C B.60 B Q.6 Q.B.89 Q.48 D Q.B.D .95 A.66 Q.30 A Q.13 Q.47 Q.57 Q.54 Q.B.35 B Q.64 Q.63 Q.52 Q.l Q.12 Q.55 D Q.IO D Q.7 Q.25 D Q.14 Q.59 Q.73 Q.19 Q.91 AB Q.87 Q.92 C A A C A A D B C B B C D A A C B.24 Q.58 Q.80 C c D B c Q.70 D Q.37 Q.74 Q.39 Q. D A.76 C C A C C Q.15 B Q.43 A Q.C.D Q.C.21 Q.49 Q.B.61 Q. 82 Q.C Q.D A.53 A Q.20 C Q.45 C Q.86 AB.5 B Q.78 C C Q.77 Q.44 Q.9 Q.40 D Q.50 D Q.22 Q.72 Q.31 Q.8 Q.41 B C A B C A D A B Q.33 C Q.65 A Q.71 Q.18 A C A C Q.26 Q.46 A Q.23 A Q.17 Q.81 A.C Q.C.32 Q.ll Q.38 D Q.90 A.D Q. 84 Q.83 A.36 Q.C.C B.67 Q.C.34 Q.68 Q.D Q.94 D D C A D B C A D D B B C D D D A.16 Q.D Q.79 Q.

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BANSAL CLASSES MATHEMATICS TARGET IIT JEE 2007 XI (PQRS) SOLUTIONS OF TRIANGLE Trigonometry Phase-Ill CONTENTS KEY-CONCEPTS EXERCISE-I EXERCISE-II EXERCISE-III ANSWER KEY .

' C-A 2 .a 2 2bc or a2 = b2 + c2 . ' B-C 2 (ii) b = c cosA + a cosC b .. . n.2bc. cos A (iii) cosC : v ' 2 • ~2 b2 c' + a (ii) cosB = 2ca a + b . SINE FORMULA : : In any triangle (i) cosA = sinA = sinB = sinC COSINE FORMULA b 2 + c2 .KEY CONCEPTS ABC.. NAPIER'S ANALOGY . PROJECTION FORMULA: (i) a = b cosC + c cosB (iii) c = a cosB + b cos A .. I.c A cot— b +c 2 a-b C cot— a +b 2 IV...TANGENT RULE : (I) tan—— = v ' A-B 2 (11) tan——— = v v.c2 2ab m.

A = arCa . A j(s-b) (s-c) . B sin— = V be J 7 .a ) ca s (s-b) ca C cos . ' ° f tnangle Area of triangle = Js(s-a) (s-b) (s-c) . . . & 2 . .c-a B cot— c+a 2 (m) tan——— = v TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS O F HALF ANGLES : 0) (ii) (iii) (iv) VI. sm2 cosA (s-c) ( s . cos— be ' 2 = s (s-c) = i t a n A T (s-b) (s-c) V s(s-a) = A 1(^1) Where S = a +b + c . c sin |(s-a) (s-b) = i i s (s-a) B — r — . : In any triangle.

b ) t a n .= (s-c)tan— Z Z ^ (d) r = 4Rsin-j sin— sin— .. r2 = s t a n .b .. (a) a sin I.. C A B C ——.„ 2 COS I (b) r = (s-a)tan— = ( s . r3 = s t a n - . ~ ab sinC= ^ be sin A = ^ ca sin B = area of triangle ABC sinA sinB sinC abc 4 A 2R Note that Vin. r 2 & r 3 are given by : r i = A s-a . B . . R = . 12 r 1 s. A+B+C (a) r = — where s = (c)r = IX. Where Ris the radius of circumcircle & A is area of triangle Radius of the incircle 'r' is given by : A .N RULE (m+n) cot6 = m cota .M .sin-?.. .& soon Radius of the Ex-circles r j . 3 A = A s-c (b) A B C r} = s tan— .n cotp = ncotB-mcotC VII. A .

-t-III [2] .^Bansal Classes Trig.

=4Rsin— . rthocentre ofthe excentral A Ijl 2 I 3 . 2 R cosC cosA and 2 R cosA cosB the sides ofthe pedal triangle are a cosA (= R sin 2A). cos— 3 2 2 2 A JY • C A B A C AT> • B r. % — 2B and TC . EXCENTRAL TRIANGLE : xn The triangle formed by joining the three led the excentral or excentric triangle.& so on „ (d) A B C f j = 4 R sin— . 4Rcos— and 4 R cos— .— 2 2 7 C B excentres I1? I2 and I3 of A ABC is cal Note that: Incentre I of A ABC is the o A ABC is the pedal triangle of the AIM B C 4Rcos— . PCA. circumradii of the triangles PBC. LENGTH O F ANGLE BISECTOR & MEDIANS : If ma and (3a are the lengths of a median and an angle bisector from the angle A then.2C. = .a and B = — 2 b +c Note that m2 + m2 + m2 = . cos— r. cos— . cos— 2 2 2 2 X. the sides ofthe excentral triangle are A 2 ' 2 2 and its angles are — . the distances of the orthocentre from the angular points of t he A ABC are 2 R cosA. b cosB (= R sin 2B) and c cosC (= R sin 2C) and its angles are it — 2A. PAB and ABC are equal. 1 I 2^0084 2 2 m. cos— . 2 R cosB and 2 R cosC the distances of P from sides are 2 R cosB cosC.(a2 + b2 + c2) XL ORTHOCENTRE A N D P E D A L TRIANGLE : The triangle KLM which is formed by joining the feet ofthe altitudes is called t he pedal triangle. = 4 R sin— . cos — .y2b + 2c .(C) acosl-cos5COSy —.

II 3 = 4 R s i n y .-0-III faBansal Classes [132] . 2 2 A B C IIj = 4 R s i n . Xin. T H E DISTANCES B E T W E E N T H E S P E C I A L POINTS : (a) (b) (c) The distance between circumcentre and orthocentre is = R.j .2Rr The distance bet ween incentre and orthocentre is ^2r 2 . II 2 = 4 R s i n y .4R2 cos A cosB cosC Trig.8 cos A cosB cos C The distance between circumcentre and incentre is = VR2 .2 2 and . J 1 .

^ = ^ = — . The symbol L is used to denote these "tabular logarithms". but the true logarithms increased by 10.XIV. one of which is m times the other. 2 2 Q.P. 19 25 For any triangle ABC . BC = p & CD = q. . cosC are in AP. thenfindthe length ofthe arc described by its centre in moving from one extreme position to the other.2 cos A cos B cos C). the logarithms as tabulated are not the tr ue logarithms. cosA+c 3 cosAcosB = a b c ( l . y 4c 2 2 c •v3 Tt In a triangle ABC. Thus: L sin 15° 25' = 10 + log10 sin 15° 25' and L tan 48° 23'= 10 + log 10 tan48° 23' • . b. Determin e the ZABC. a 3 cosBcosC + b 3 cosC. if in a A ABC. If the same circle moves in contact with the original circle of radius R.10 Find the angles of a triangle in which the altitude and a median drawnfromthe sa me vertex divide the angle at that vertex into 3 equal parts. 1 Q. tan— . if B = 3 C. then prove that.9 Q. Inside the crescent shaped area interce pted between these circles.2 Q. If /(BD) = —-/(AB) and Z DBC = ~ . 3R A point'0'is situated on a circle ofradius Rand with centre O. Prove that there Q. show that AB = + q2) sin9 pcosB + qsinG .6 Let 1 < m < 3 . XV. BDisamedian.DC are parallel & BC is perpendicular to them. Showthat cos A. A B C Inatriangle ABC. as in the solution oftriangles. if tan—. a circle ofradius R/8 is placed. show that cosC = J ^ t l & sin^ = -. we often require the logarithms of trignometrical rati os. In a triangle ABC. tan— areinAP. Perimeter (P) and area (A) of a regular polygon of n sides inscribed in a circle of radius r are given by 71 1 < . To avoid the trouble and inconvenience ofprinting the proper sign to the log arithms ofthe trignometric functions. cosB. Show that in any triangle ABC. If sides a. tc P = 2nrtan— and A = n r tan— n n In many kinds oftrignometric calculation.4 With usual notation.5 Q.P. EXERCISE-I Q. 11 12 13 7 = ^ = . another circle of radius — isdescribed. 271 > • P = 2nr sin— and A = — n r sin— n 2 n Perimeter and area of a regular p olygon of n sides circumscribed about a given circle ofradius r is given by n . 2 sin2 — cosec2B . If angle ADB = 9 . then prove that sin2 — cosec2A. 7 Q. sin2 — cosec2C areinH.8 Q.3 Q. » ABCD is a trapezium such that AB. if 2b = (m+1) a & cos A= | are two values to the third side. c of the trian gle ABC are in A.

prove that the triangle ABC is either isosceles cr right angled.ll ABC is a triangle.Q. 12 Ifin a triangle ABC. th en prove that cos A. cos C : 3 ac cos A + 2cosC cosA + 2cosB Q. faBansal Classes Trig. = sinB sinC . D is the middle point of BC. If AD is perpendicular to AC.-0-III [4] .

b.Q. cot A + cot B + cot C + cot a + cot p + co t y = 0. Given the s ides a.19 If atanA+btanB = (a+b)tan—-— . (i) —— = —— (ii) 2 sinAcosB = sinC v cosA cosB A A C (iii) tan2 — + 2 tan — tan — . b. a * tanC + tanA (C 4 > tan'C . 2ab c (a + b + c) A 2 Q.. cosec B (cosec B +cot B) & cosec C (cosec C + cot C) are in A. c * 1) . . B. p3 are the altitudes of a triangle from the vertices A. What can you say about this triangle? DE " c 2 Q.1 = 0. If the area of the quadrilateral is 4 fi. GC makes angles ot. c of the tria ngle ABC are in H. 16 If pj. B. Q. Ai jL JL Sides a.15 Q. find the remaining two sid es. Q.23 In a triangleABC. The triangleABC (with side lengths a. then prove that cosec A (cosec A + cot A). ' . .17 Let ABCD is a rhombus. C are in AP. (a. Then prove that. c of a triangle ABC in a G. GB. prove that (i) => (ii) => (iii) (i). In a triangle the angles A. C & A denotes the area of the triangle.P.21 The two adjacent sides of a cyclic quadrilateral are 2 & 5 and the angle between them is 60°. 1 & it divides the an gle A into y n . b.14 Q. b.22 Ifthe bisector of angle C oftriangle ABC meets AB in D & the circumcircle in E prove that. prove that — + p.13 In a A ABC. l l p2 l p3 2 = ——-—-— cos" —.tanC • ' v = Y ( c 2 . A +B Q. The radii of circumcircle of AABD and AABC are Rj an d Rj respectively then show that the area of rhombus is TTz D 2 x2 . (Kj + K 2 . CE _ (a+b) 2 Q. Find the length ofthe side BC. x = rb2_c2) X tanB + tanC Q. y with each other where G is the centroid ot the AABC then Show that.24 tanB . Show that 2 cos A— C a+c ac + c2 Q.tanA . prove that triangle ABC is isosceles.6V3 angles of 30° & 45°. GA. p2.P.log (2bc cosA). the median to the side BC is of length .P.18 In a AABC. P.20 Q. c as usual) satisfies log a2 = log b2 + log c2 .

Aj and B.P...25 With reference to a given circle.P. are the areas of the inscribed and circumscribed regular polygons of n sides.l ^ A Q. a r 2 ~ r o _ c . Further. sin2-^ .are in H.5 —~ Q .6 abc s . then prove that : sin2-^..2 rj + r2 + r3 . A^ and B2 are corre sponding quantities for regular polygons of 2n sides. Q. b j = l o ^ e & Cj=log z e are the sid es of the triangle A B C Aj Bj Cj.4 I +± +i = i n r2 r3 r b-c r.Z (a b) tanA + tanB tanA-tanB are also in G. 3 — ^ — r +^ — ^ — A -3 (s-b)(s-c) (s-c)(s-a) (s-a)(s-b) r r3 + c-a r„ + a-b r „ „ r i~r + . sin2 .r = 4R =0 „ c Q.7 Q. if a2 = logxe . EXERCISE-II Q. Q. Prove that (1) A2 is a geo metric mean between Aj and B j (2) B2 is a harmonic mean between A^ and B j.

cos— cos— cos— = A A 2 B 2 C' 2 faBansal Classes T rig .III [5] .-(f> .

ll A-B a cot A+ b cotB + c cotC = 2 (R+r) (r 1 -r)(r 2 -r)(r 3 -r) = 4 R ^ Q.9 Q.17 Q.10 4R sin A sinB sinC = a cos A + b cosB + c cosC B-C . . C-A .8 a cosB cosC +b cosC cosA+ c cos AcosB = — R (ri+r2)tan| =(r3-r)cot|=c Q. b 2 . 14 (r3+ fj) (r3+ r2) sin C = 2 r3 Jr2r3 + r ^ + r ^ Q. be | r A r 2 r 3 Q. . . 15 Q.7 Q.16 T .12 (r + fj) t a n — + (r + r2) t a n . . Q. . 19 — 1 be + — .c„2 + 2 + 2 + 2 Q.Q.— + (r + r3) t a n — = 0 L Q.13 _ _L _L J_ 2 + „ v a2 +. .

ca | r3 _ 1 ab r 2R 1 Vr i V vr + — 1 v Vr + — r 3/ 4R r2 s2 Q.18 bc . a semicircle with radius ra is constructed wi th its base onBC and tangent to the other two sides. 4I I 1 1 + —+— r vr. Q. Ifr is the radius ofthe incircle of triangle ABC then 2 1 1 1 prove that. rb and rc are defined simil arly. i % r3.r3 rt _ a b .rt r2 — r 1 1 1 1 T j + — r r2 r3. — .r2 r3 _ ca .1 ca + — 1 1 = ab 2Rr I.20 In acute angled triangle ABC.

3 9 sq. n/2 Q. c are the lengths of i ts sides and A. prove that On 1 + .7 TT/6. (2V3-V2) .R (D)a.4 B Q.b. Mains. a. c (C)a. unit Q. 11 Which of the following pieces of data d oes NOT uniquely determine an acute-angled triangle ABC (R being the radius of t he circumcircle)? (A) a. c. 10 If A is the area of a triangle with side lengths a.5 2.3 120° Q. then show that : A < — ^(a + b + c)abc Also show that equality occurs in the above inequality if a nd only if a = b = c. sinA. 1v « J [JEE 2003. B. 10 cms Q. sinB. tc/3.Q.29 . 3 ] Q.26B=f c Q.7 6. 12 If I n is the area of n sided regular polygon inscribed in a circle of unit radius and On be the area of the polygon circumscribing the give n circle. units Q. 8.ll D . b. — (D) (b-c)cos = 2a sin ' B + C^ v 2 y [JEE 2005 (Screening)] ANSWER KEY EXERCISE-I Q.10 7tiR 12 Q20.2 Q. 14 In AABC. The correct relation is f\ \ B-C B-C^j = asm = a cos (B) (b-c)cos (A) (b-c)sin 2 V^J V 2 . a = 2 EXERCISE-II Q.R [ JEE' 20 02 (Scr).8 (a) A. (b) B Q. The ratio A: B : C is (D) 1 :2 : 3 [JEE 2004 (Screening)] Q.units 2 EXERCISE-III Q. (A) 3 : 5 : 2 (B ) 1 : :2 (C) 3 : 2 : 1 J J — (C) (b + c) sin B + C> 2 = a cos fA> U .l angleABD = 30° Q. C are the angles of triangle ABC.sinA. 13 The ratio ofthe sides of a triangle ABC is 1: ^3 :2. (2V3+V2) . sinB (B)a. [JEE' 2001 ] Q. b. (2V3-V2) & (2V3+V2) sq. 4 out of 60] Q. 3 cms & 2 cms Q 23.

14 D o faBansal Classes Trig.Q.13 D Q.-^-III 15] .

R. S) TRIGONOMETRIC EQUATIONS AND INEQUATIONS Trigonometry Phase-H CONTENTS KEYCONCEPTS EXERCISE-I EXERCISE-II EXERCISE-III ANSWER KEY . Q.ft BANSAL CLASSES MATHEMATICS TARGET IIT JEE 2007 XI (P.

2'2 If cos0 = cosa => 9 = 2n% ± a where a e [0. cos2x = y. b ^ 0 can be solved by changing sinx& cos x into their corresponding tangent of h alf the angle. 7. [Note: a is called the principal angle] TYPES OF TRIGONOMETRIC EQUATIONS : (a) (b) (c) (d) Solutions of equations by factorising.cosx = 0 . .1 =(V2 . n e I If tanG = tana => G = nTt + a where a e -— — . (e) (f) Solving equations with the use of the Boundness of the functions sinx& cosx or b y making two perfect squares. Consider the equ ation : sin 6x . 5.sinx + — = 0 V3 12 TRIGONOMETRIC INEQUALITIES: There is no general rule to solve a Trigonometric in equations and the same rules of algebra are valid except the domain and range of trigonometric functions should be kept in mind. Consider the example : cos 3 x + sin 2 x . cos 2x changes to 2(y+l) (g) =0 by substituting.cos x) (1 + cosx) = sin2x . cos2G = cos 2 a => G = nTt ± a . Tt]. CONCEPTS If sinG = sina => G = n7t + (~l) n a where a e it n . 8cosxcos2xcos4x = —: : sin3G = 4s inG sin2G sin4G sin x Solving equations by a change of variable : (i) Equations of the form of a. V5-2sin2x > 6 s i n x . eg. (2 sinx .cos2x .cotx cosx Solutions of equations reduc ible to quadratic equations . tan2G = tan 2 a => 9 = nTt ± a . . Consider the equation 3 cosx + 4 sinx = 5. sinx + sin5x = sin2x + sin4x Solving equations b y transforming a product of trigonometric functions into a sum. (ii) Many equations ca n be solved by introducing a new variable.cosx = 1 . Consider the equation : 3 cos 2 x. b & d are real numbers & a. V3 cosx + sinx = 2 .2sinx + 4 Consider the examples: log2 sin — < .ne I . cosx + d = 0. 3. sin2x. 4. sinx + b.sin 4 x = 0 . Consider the equations: \ /• „ \ 1+sin—-2cosx . sinx | cos— . I 2'2J If sin2G = sin 2 a=> G = nTt ± a . Consider the equation . n e I .KEY THINGS TO REMEMBER : 1. where a.-II . sin2x + sin22x + sin23x + sin24x = 2. Consider the equation : sinx + cosx = ^[2 . 2.t1 : sin x cos x + 2 V < xV • f O < 0 .10 cosx+ 3 = 0 and 2 shfo + -Js sinx + 1 = 0 Solving equations by introducing an Auxilliary arg ument. cotx .l)tanx Solving equations by Transforming a sum of Trigonometric functions into a product. sin5x. cos3x= sin6x. the equation sin4 2x + cos4 2x = sin 2x. 6. secx.l [2] faBansal Classes Trig. 4 4 11 "7= sin2x + 2tan2x + ~~r= tanx .

& 4 b " Q 17. Q 2. C Solve the inequality: tan2 x . solve : Js sin2A= sin2B & S sin2A + sin2B = 2 Q 14. Solve : 2 + 7 tan2 0 = 3. cos2 9 . Solve for x .V2 cos3x = 0 . Q 8. Solve : sin5x = cos2x for all values of x between 0°& 180° .(V3 + l)tan x + V3 < 0 cos2x + cos 2 2x + cos2 3x= 1. cos 3 9 = 1/4. where -2it<x<2it . Q 12. Q 4. cos2 2x Q 13. If a & P satisfy the equation. Find the principal solution of the trigonometric equation ' Jcot3x + sin2 x-— + J J 3 cosx + s i n x . which satisfy the equati on . cos 9 . Q 7. acos29 + bsin29 = c then prove that : c os2 a + cos2 P = d . Q 3.^ a . Find all va lues of 9 between 0°& 180° satisfying the equation .B are positive acute angle. v 1 + Sin2x . Q 16. Find the general solution of the trigonomet ric equation •^/l6cos 4 x-8cos 2 x + l + ^/l6cos 4 x-24cos 2 x + 9 = 2. Q 15. the equation j 13 . 2 sin |^3x + ^J = + 8 sin2x .3 .— v V 4 2 2 Q l l .c T . between 0 & it. Find all the values of 0 satisfying the equation . If a & p are two distinct roots of the equation. Determine the smallest positive value of x which satisfy the equation. cos 69 + cos 49 + cos 29 + 1 = 0 . Q 10.25 sec2 6 (0° < 6 < 360°) .18tanx = 6 tan x .EXERCISE-I Q 1.2 = sin — . Q 9. Solve : tanQ + secQ = S for values of 9 between 0° & 360°. Find all values of 9 lying b etween 0&2TC satisfying the equations : r sin9 = & r + 4 sin9 = 2 ( S +1).-4-II [3] . Q. a tan 9 + b sec 9 = c then prov e that : tan(a + P ) = . Find all value of 9.+ 2 dt ' i ^ b . <!%Bansal Classes Trig. Given that A. sin9 + sin59 = sin3 9 such th at0< 9 < T .5 Q 6.

For y = 1. sin P = ' tan — + tan . Q 24. cos3x. between 0 & s a t i s f y i n g the equation. find x such that 0 < x < 2 T . Q4.-(f>-II [4] .= 2 2 c Find the least positive angle measured in degrees satisfying the equation sin3x + sin32x + sin33x = (sinx + sin2x + sin3x)3. 3*) . C Q22. Find the general solution of sec48-sec28 = 2. Solve for x : sin3a = 4 sin a sin (x + a ) s i n ( x . sina + sin P = — 2b c a +b a+c c2 — a2 a2+b2 +a (ii) (iv) sin a . 3X) faBansal Classes Trig. C C Q 21.V2 ) cos2x. 3* +! ) . Find the range of y such that the equation. „ (sin6)x2 + (2cos0)x + — is the s quare of a linear function. 3X) + 2 cos (4 T .c o s 26 + s in2 6 = 0. Solve the equation : (1 . Solve for x. Find the general values of8 for which the quadratic function ' cos6 + sin8 . Solve t he inequality sin2x > 42 sin2x + (2 . y + cos x = sin x has a real soluti on. t a n .= 2 2 w tan— . 3X) . Find the value of 9 . Q25.sin 2x (1 + 2 sinx) + 2 cos x = 0. ( . 3x x Q 9.2 sin x. Q 2. find the values o f A in terms of B. Find the general solution of the fo llowing equation: 2 (sinx .tanG) (1 + sin26) = 1 + tanG. Find the values of x.T <x < T ) the equation. Q 19. If a & p are the roots ofthe equation. 3*) + 2 sin(Tt. cos3x + s in3x. Q3. a cos 6 + bsin8 = c then prove that : (i) (1 ) 1 w 1 Q 5.Q 18. 3X) . Solve the inequality: sin3x < sinx. 3 X) T T C C = sin(7t. If sin A= sinB & cosA= cosB. EXERCISE-II Q 1.a ) where a is a constant * nu. 2 (cosx + cos2x) + sin2x (1 + 2 cos x) .2 c o s 6 . cos3x + cos2x= sin-— +skiT-. Find all the solutions of. 3*) + 2 sin2(TC .2 cos2 ( C .cos (7 T . V3 Solve the equation — sinx . Q 10.sin(7TC. 4cos 2 x sinx-2sin 2 x = 3 sinx.4 sin 6 . Q 6. Q 8. Q 20. sin3x = 0. Solve : cos ( C . Q 23.cos 2x) .2 sin(4TC. which satisfy 3 .c o s x = cos2x. 2 2 Q 7.

Solve : tan2 2x + cot2 2x + 2 tan 2x + 2 cot 2x = 6.sin22x = 0. sin5x. Find the set of values of'a' for which the equation. Q 25. Let H be the set of all such solutions which are dependent on k & a. sin4x + cos 4 x-2sin 2 x + . sin 4 x+cos 4 x + sin 2:x + a = 0 possesses solutions. Solve : tan2 x . Solve the equation . 16 29 • Q 17. Solve : sin 10* + cos10* = — cos4 2x.1 . acos2x+ | a | cos4x + cos6x= 1 is also a root of the equation. every root of the second equation is also .:— . sin x cos2x = sin2x cos3x a root of the first equation. Q 16.a) = (1 + k cos 2x) cos(x . tz) in which k = 0. 2x +1 Q 20. Q 22.3 cos7 —3x = 0. Solve the equat ion : c o t x . 2x +1 . state S.2 sin2x= 1.tan2 3x + tan Ax. which are le ss than 100 n 2 . 2x +1 „ . — 3x Q 21. sin—-— + sin—. . xsin3 y + 3xcos y siny = 13 Q 24. Find the condition on k & a such that H is a nonempty set. Find the set of values of x satisfying the equality sin f I X m\ — 4J 3 -cos fX + — ^ 4J 1 and the inequality 2cos7x cos3+sin3 > z eos2x Q 18. Find all values of'a' for which every root of the equation. Also Find the sum of the square roots of these roots. . Solve th e equation : 1 +2cosecx= 3 Q 14. . • . (1 + k)cos x cos (2x . sin Vx = . tan 4x = tan2 x .1 ? J ustify your answer. Now. Find the general solution of the equati on. If a subset of H is (0. can we conclude that all the roots cos Vx = 0 are also the roots of sinVx = .Q 11. Q 12. . 1 1 • n. Solve for x & y . then find all the permissible values o f a. xcos3y + 3xcosy sin2y = 14 Q23. Q 19. 2 . Find the sum of all the roots of the equation. and conversely. Q 13. Solve : sin ' V R V / + COS v2j = V2 sinVx. Alsofindthe general solution for these values o f 'a'. Let S be the set of all those solutions of the equation. sin5x= 16 sin5x.a) which are i ndependent of k & a. Q 15. tan2 3x .1 .

Bansal Classes Trig.-j-II [5] .

27 cos2x . where a. P which satisfy both the equations is (A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D)4 [JEE 2005 (Screening)] faBansal Classes Trig. [REE 2000.t a n 8 ) ( l + tan 8) in the interval [0.5 Q. 5K] sati 0 (B) 5 (C) 6 (D) 10 Find th 5 sinx cosy = 1..6 Q.-j-II . cos(a-{3) = 1 and cos(a + (B) = 1/e.11]. 4 tanx = ta Find real values of x for which. 8 l sin2x is minimum.7 .EXERCISE-III Q. (3 e [-11.4 (1 .6] Q. 3] 2 2 5 (cosec x-3sec y) _ 2 (2cosecx + V3jsecyj) _ 6 4 The nu mber of integral values of k for which the equation 7cosx + 5sinx = 2k + 1 has a solution is (A) 4 (B) 8 (C)10 (D) 12 [JEE 2002 (Screening). Alsofindthis m inimum value. numbers of pa irs of a.3] Solve the following system of equations for x and y [ REE'2001(mains). Q.| . 3 Q. 1 Find all values of 8 in the interval f .2] [JEE'98'2] [REE '98.7 sinx + 2 = 0 is (A) e general values ofx and y satisfying the equations ny satisfying the equation .2 The number of values of x sfying the equation 3 sin2x . 3] Q. [JEE'96. sec2 8 + 2tenS 6 = 0.

ne I 90° 450° 810° 7 7 7 _ jc it 2 it 5 % Q 1 7 -6'7'T'T Q 14. ~.2n7T + . nn . x e 2n7t+—.or (2n+l)7t .2n7t + — u 2tm —. n s l 4 3 Q 5.7t Q 23. 0 = 30° 7t T C 0 4. A= 15°. 30°.nel Q 13. x = TC/6 only Q 12.• .45°.II Q 9. 0 = — ± — or 2n7t± .x = nn± •-. n7t + — 6 3 Q 8. 72c Q6. — .135°.n e l 71 Q 22.150° Q 18. T i W T ' T T 271 57t n7i + — . x = (2n + l ) .. n e l y 71 7 37t 5n 2% 1% . tin + (-l) n ^ or rnt + (-l) n (-—) Q 5. 3 0 ° . 30°. a . ns I Q 24. 2n7t+. 2n7i 4 V 4 4 Q21.90°. 1170° z' _ f 71 371 \ Q 19. n7t or nit — EXER CISE-II Q 1.7t.150°. 0 = 2n7t or 2 n 7 t + .tan-*2. a + T . x = 2n7t +— or 2n7t 12 12 15QO Q l l .| . A=2n7t + B „ _ _ „ 2n7l 7 1 _ 7t Q25. x = (2n + l ) ^ . n7i + — < x < n 7 i + — .B = 30° Q 15. x = 7t/16 . A. n e l u 571 2n7r + 7t. x = 2n7t or x = n7t + (-l) n 7t % 0 7. n7t + — n e l 3 6 71 7 C Q 7. x e n7t+— . n7t+— <x<n7t+ — v 8 4 V or x = n7t + (-l) n ^ „ „ 7 5x 71 13 t 9it "T > 7 > 7 7 Z > > 7 — Trig.. a .ANSWERKEY EXERCISE-I Q 1.2 7t . nic± it feBansal Classes m . x = 2n7t±7t or2n7t + .n e l 3 Q 3. where tan a = ~ C Q 10. -V2 £y<V2 .330° .-<f>.210°.7 7 271 57t 1 1 D Q 2.

^tan 1 ^-. 2 7t . n e l Q 18. value = 3 ~5 for x=(4n+1)^ . x . x = 2mt + — . x= — + — . m. <2n + * n .3 Q. x = nTt or x = nn ± — Q 23. kn .4 or 3n7t + 3(-l) n sin-1 J . n € W. nel 2 4 2 2 4 2 Q.l ) .l ) .2 Q 21.l Q.neI. j [nir + (-l) n sin"1 (l . n e N . x = | + or X = ^ + KTC Kel Q 25. x = l o g 3 ( f 4 j .1 EXERCISE-III Q.m 7i) m e I 6 Q 22.meNu{0} 3 1 2 ' 2 Q 13.2 C f n m n m i \ y = (n-m)— + (-l) — -(-l) — . 765 4 2 . x = l o g 3 Q + | j 11. k e I > 4 3tc Q 17. n e I 4 8 C N% .wherea = sin"V -V . x = — + (~l) n — o — + (-l) n+1 — -8 4 Q 14.V5) n7t k T Q 16. where n e l 4m7i 71V 7t\ 2 +Q 19.max.x = (m+n)-+ ( . a = 0 or a < .7 % 71 x = mr + (-1 )n — and y = mrc + — where m & n are integ ers.5 Q. x = 2n7t Q 15. x = 6nn + 3. k e N . All the roots of cos Vx = 0 are not the same as those of sinVx = -1 where m.7c . x = ± 5^5 & y = nn + tan-1 | Q24. n e I (iii) a e ( . where n. (i) | k sin a | < 1 (ii) S = n 71.| 4n7t + — or x = ^ 3 2 Q 20.Q Q r ^ T 10.+ ( .4 Min.value=3 5 forx=(4n-l)^ ^tan ^ n e l ] Q. x = log 3 (j) . Q.V2a+I) where n e l and a e — Q 12. n7c± \ cos"1 (2 .m7i .6B 6 6 .

-<f>.II m .D feBansal Classes Trig.

BANSAL CLASSES TARGET IIT JEE 2007 MATHEMATICS XII (ABCD) COMPLEX NUMBERS CONTENTS KEY.CONCEPTS EXERCISE-I EXERCISE-II EXERCISE-III ANSWER-KEY .

Z. 'a' is called as real part of z (Re z) and 'b' is called as imaginary part of z (Im z).e. i= ^/-l is call ed the imaginary unit. i3 = . EVERY COMPLEX NUMBER CAN B E REGARDED A S Purely real if b = 0 Purely imaginary if a = 0 Imaginary ifb*0 Note : (a) The set R of real numbers is a proper subset ofthe Complex Numbers. = z2 = 0.g. z7 = a 2 +ib 2 are equal if and only if their real & imaginary pails coincide.l . H ence the Complete Number system is N c W c I c Q c R c C. i 4 = l etc.ib. There is no validity if we say that complex number is positive or negative. b e R & i = /+L.z = 2ilm(z) (iii) z z = a 2 + b2 which is real ( iv) If z lies in the 1st quadrant then z lies in the 4th quadrant and . 3. Also i2 = . However in real numbers if a2 + b2 = 0 then a = 0 = b but in complex num bers. | z | = Vx^ Ty5" & 9 = tan t' ? (angle made by OP with positive x-axis) — 4.z lies i n the 2nd quadrant. i. Note tha t : (i) z + z = 2Re(z) (ii) z . Va Vb = ^rab only if atleast one of either a or b is non-negative. DEFINITION: CONCEPTS Complex numbers are defmited as expressions of the form a + ib where a. 5. REPRESENTATION OF A COMPLEX NUMBER IN VARIOUS FORMS : Cartesian Form (Geometric Representation): Every complex number z = x + i y ca n be represented by a point on the cartesian plane known as complex plane (Argan d diagram ) by the ordered pair(x. 4 + 2i < 2 + 4 i are meanin gless .e.y). + ib. e.i . Ineq ualities in complex numbers are not defined.KEY 1. EQUALITY IN COMPLEX NUMBER: Two complex numbers ^a. z = a + ib. CONJUGATE COMPLEX: If z = a + ib then its conjugate complex is obtained by chang ing the sign of its imaginary part & is denoted by z . (b) (c) (d) 2. Zero is both purely real as well as purely imaginary but not imaginary. z = a . ALGEBRAIC OPERATIONS : The algebraic operations on comple x numbers are similiar to those on real numbers treating i as a polynomial. (a) faBansal Classes Complex Numbers [2] .2 + z22 = 0 does not imply z. length OP is called modulus ofthe complex number denoted by | z | & 9 is called the argument or amplitude. It is denoted by z i. &. z > 0. eg.

Also cos x = e +e „ix . There exists a one-one correspondence between the p oints of the plane and the members of the set of complex numbers. -ix (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (b) z = r (cos 9 . z x +z 2 = z. If 9 is the argument of a complex number then 2 rnt + 9 . Trignometric / Polar Representation : z = r (cos 9 + i sin 9) where | z | = r . Z2*0. z2 e C then . a r g z = 9 . i ~z2 z i ~ Z2 .NOTE (i) (ii) z is always non negative. For the complex n umber 0 + 0 i the argument is not defined and this is the only complex number wh ich is given by its modulus. Any two arguments of a complex number differ by 2nn. z-z=2ilm(z) Z Z z . Note: cos 9 + i sin 9 is also written as CiS 9. amp z implies principal value of the argument. By specifying the modulus & argument a complex number is defined completely. (z) = z h Z \ 2j \z . Unless otherwise stated. The unique value of 9 such that .i sin 9) .n < 9 < n is called the principal value of the argument. (a) Exponential Representation: z = re. z = re IMPORTANT PROPERTIES OF CONJUGATE/MODULI/AMPLITUDE : If z . Zj. arg z = 9 . e & sin x = . Unlike real numbers z [ J & z -z if z > 0 if z<0 is not correct Argument of a complex number is a many valued function. n e l will also be the argument of that comple x number. r \ .. J z | = r .+ z 2 .ie .Jx -e -ix are known as Euler's identities. z+ z=2Re(z) z . 10 (c) 6.

where proper v alue of k must be chosen so that RHS lies in ( u. k e l VZ. tc ]. (b) | z | > 0 . If the point P represents the compl ex number z then. z2) = amp Zj + amp z2 + 2 krc. | . (c) (i) (ii) (iii) z J < I z. <!lBansal Classes Complex Numbers [3] . amp(zn) = n amp(z) + 2k7t. zz = |z |zn| = |z|n . amp (Zj.amp z2 + 2 kn .' 12 i • z2 = zr. — (7) VECTORIAL REPRESENTATION OF A COMPLEX: Every complex number can be considered as if it is the position vector of that point. ! + z. | z | > Re (z) . OP = z & | OP | = | z |.z I. . | z | > Im (z). amp [TRIANGLE INEQUALITY] kel : O amp z.. I z2 z1 + z 2 | 2 + ! z 1 . + z J < z.z 2 p = 2 [ j z i | 2 + | z 2 | 2 ] z. z2! Zj |. | z.

z l z 2 . cos— + i sin— 3 3 3 3 The three cube roots ofunity when plotted on the argand plane constitute the verties ofan equilateral triangle. a3 + b3 + c3 . where r € I but is not the multiple of 3. C & D are four points repre senting the complex numbers z p z 2 . In general 1 +w r + w 2 r =0 .co2b) . AB_LCD if (iii) 8. z3 are the vertices of an equilatera l triangle where zQ is its circumcentre then (a) z] + z 2 + z 2 . ctj. If w is one of the imaginary cube roots of unity then 1 + w + w2 0. In polar form the cub e roots of unity are : 271 In 471 471 cos 0 +1 sin 0 . sin (9/2) cos (ii) sin in(n8/2) n+1 sin 9.3abc = (a + b + c) (a + cob + co2c) (a + co2b + coc) nth ROOTS OF UNITY: If 1 . sin(9/2) Note : If 9 = (2rc/n) then the sum of the above series vanishes. The following factorisation should be remembe red: (a. a = (iv) 1 . cos— +1 sin—. ocj.b) (a . a3 + b3 = (a + b) (a + cob) (a + co2b) .P.) (1 + a 2 ) (1 + a n _. n-1 THE SUM OF THE FOLLOWING SERIES SHOULD BE REMEMBERED : sin(nQ/2) n+1 c os 9 + cos 2 9 + cos 39 + + cos n 9 = 9. The theorem is very useful in determining the r oots of any complex quantity Note : Continued product of the roots of a complex quantity should be determined using theory of equations.cob) (a . a 2 . b. = 0 i f p is not an integral multiple of n = n if p is an integral multiple of n (iii) (l-a. B. si n 9 + sin 2 9 + sin 3 9 + + sin n9 = 11. 4~ Z 3 is purely imaginary ] 2 Z1 If Zp z2.) = n & (1 + a..b = (a .l + iV3 2 -l-iV3 2 9.z 3 z ] = 0 (b) z 2 + z 2 + z 2 = 3 z 2 DEMOIVRE'S THEOREM: Statement: cos n9 + i sin n 9 is the value or one of the val ues of (cos 9 + i sin 9)n ¥ n e Q. (i) (ii) <!lBansal Classes Complex Numbers [4] . a 2 ..NOTE : (i) (ii) If OP = z = re i e then OQ = z1 = re i < 9+ « = z. with common ratio el(2lt/n) & l p + af + a£ + .z 2 z 3 . x2 + x + 1 = (x .co2) . c g R & co is the cube root of unity) 3 3 a . nth root of unity then : (i) They are in G.+a£_. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) 10.e i ( Uf OP and OQ are of unequal magnitude then QQ = OP e^ If A. CUBE ROOT OF UNITY: The cube roots of unity are .z 3 & z4 then AB I I CD if Z is purely real. a 3 1 or . a 3 a n _ j are the n.)(l-a2) (l-an_.co) (x .1 according as n is odd or even..) = 0 if n is even a nd 1 if n is odd.

z = z. which on manipulating tak es the form a s a z + a z + r = 0 where r is real and a is a non zero complex co nstant. B. C of a A represent t he complex nos. 1 Z : 0.z2 . (i)arg—= % or ( z . & z 2 can be expressed in the determinant form as z z. +1 (Zj .a & radius aa-r . z? & z3 are collinear.. b .z Q z + z 0 z 0 . & z..z2 ) . The equation of a line passing through z. c are three real numbers such that azj + bz2 + cz3 = 0 .z2 )+ (z. (1 + it) where t is a real parameter is a line through th e point z. then the complex nu mbers z. The equation of a line joining z} & z2 is given by. (I) Circle will be real if a a . (c) (d) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) amp(z) = 8 is a ray emanating from the origin inclined at an angle 0 to the x axis. | z — a i — ! z — b | is the perpendicular bisector of the line joining a to b.z .divides the joins of z. & perpendicular to oz. wh ere a + b + c = 0 and a.z (zj .r > 0.z 2 ) ( z . Note: (i)I f a .12. z p z2. z3 respectively. Circumcentre ofthe AABC= : (Zj sin 2A + Z2 sin 2B + Z3 sin 2C) + (sin 2A + sin 2B + sin 2C). Z z 1 z. This is also the condition for three complex numbers to be collinear. in the ratio m: n. 2 2 ^ (G) (H) Complex equation of a straight line through two given points Zj & z2 can be writ ten as z (zj .z2) where t is a perameter. (ii) If the vertices A. z3 & z4 to be concyclic is. r is real centre .ZjZ2 )= 0. the number . then : (a) (b) Centroid ofthe AABC = Zj I Z^ Orthocentre ofthe AABC = (a sec A)ZJ + (b sec B)Z 2 + (c sec C)z3 ZJ tan A + z 2 tan B + z 3 tan C asecA + bsecB + csecC tanA + tanB + tanC Incentre of the A AB C = (az. The equation of the circle described on the line segment joining Zj & z2 as diameter is : z-z. z 2 .b. z = z.z 0 z . + bz2 + cz3) + (a + b + c).c are not all simultaneously zero. ) = 0 (J) Condition for four given points z.z j ) ( z z 2 ) + ( z . The equation of circle having centre zQ & radius p is : I z — z0 | = p or z z ..p 2 = 0 which is of the form zz+az+az+r = 0 . (A) STRAIGHT LINES & CIRCLES IN TERMS OF COMPLEX NUMBERS : nZj + mz7 If Zj & z2 are two complex numbers then the complex number z = ——.

z & z can be 2 3 Z 3 Z2 Z4 Z1 (z-z2)(z3-z. Hence the equation of a circle through 3 non collinear po ints z.z 1 j ( z 3 .Z 3 Z1 Z4 Z2 is real.) ..z 2 j [z .jz _ \/_ \ (z-z1J(z3-z2) ( z .Zj )(z3 — z 2 j <!lBansal Classes Complex Numbers [5] . (z-z 2 )(z 3 -z 1 ) (z-z2 xz3-zi) taken as i yj \ is real => i v ? \ .

OQ = p2. P. a.7 Given that x .l|2 + |z + l|2 = 4 .x + 4.r.6 I Q.13.5i) = 9 + 4i (c) x 2 .r.. a circle : Two points P & Q are said to be inverse w. b e R.i (9 + 6 i) (2 ~ i)-1 (c) f 4i . .t.x + x + 3 x . a) v i1 represents a set of positive real numbers given by e 2nn+~ (ii) Q.r. where r is real and a is non zero complex consta nt.2i = 0 (b) 2 (1 + i) x2 . (b) |z . (d) I z .t.( 3 2 i ) y = 2 x . (ii) OP .2y2)i . I Zj z2 2 4 I 2 Z3 Z Z 15.(a) Reflection points for a straight line: Two given points P & Q are the ref lection points for a given straight line if the given line is the right bisector of the segment PQ.PfTC ^slcSS' I J J S Find the square root of : (a) 9 + 40 i (c) 50 i (b ) —11 — 60 i i Ir+Mi) If f (x) = x4 + 9x3 + 35x2 .5 .5 Q. PTOLEMY'S THEOREM: It states that the product of the le ngths of the diagonals of a convex quadrilateral inscribed in a circle is equal to the sum of the lengths of the two pairs of its opposite sides. solve : (a) (x + 2y) + i (2x .3x2)i = 4y2 . & z.2 i | = V7 .9 Q. Note that the two points Z j & z2 will be the inverse points w.z 2 +az 1 +az 2 +r=0.3y + 5i + IV (e) 4x2 + 3xy + (2xy .I z .4 Q. Z + z. a z j + a z 2 + r = 0.5 + 4i) (a) % 4 3 2 If g(x) = x . VERY E L E M E N T A R Y EXERCISE ON COMPLEX NUMBER Simplify and express the res ult in the form of a + bi (a) '1 + 202 2+i (b) ..10 . Note that the two points denoted by the complex numbers z. find g(2 + 3i) (b) iH-J Among the complex n umbers z satisfying the condition z + 3 .l^ A-3 2i + l 2 .(x2/2) + (3xy . a circle with centre 'O' and radius p. Solve the following equations over C and express the resu lt in the form a + ib. (b) Inverse points w. will be the reflection points for the straight line a z + a z + r = 0if and only if.5 .3 Q. (i) LOGARITHM OF A COMPLEX QUANTITY: qA 1 ' -1 Log (a + i p) 2 Loge (a 2 + p2) + i 2 nrc + tan — where n e l .8 Q.3y) = 5 .4 (2 i)x .3 ! . find f ( . . find the number having the le ast positive argument.e .3x .y 2 .l nel. (c) z + 3 3 .i ( 2 x + y) = 2i (d) (2 + 3 i ) x 2 . Q are co llinear and on the same side of O.t.3 i = 0 Locate the points representing the complex number z on the Ar gand plane: (a) | z + l .2 Ml Q. 14.6 Q.S i = S. y e R. if : (i) the point O. (a) ix2 . 3 + 2i 3 — 2i . the circle zz+az+az+r=0 ifandonlyif z.z i.(2 + i) (d) — — + (e) 2 — 5i 2 + 5i 2-i (2-i) 2 2+i Q.4i (b) (x + iy) + (7 .

If a & b are real numbers between 0 & 1 such that the points Zj = a + i.0 form an equilateral triangle. For what real values of x & y are the numbers . 2+ i (i) 6 (cos 310°-i sin 310°) (ii) . argument and the principal argument of the complex numbers. then find the values of'a' and 'b'.3 + ix2 y & x2 + y + 4i conjuga te complex? Find the modulus. z 2 = 1 + bi & z3 .2 (cos 30° + i sin 30°) (iii) 4i + (1 + i)2 <!lBansal Classes Complex Numbers [6] .

Complex Numbers m .

4(a) Let Z is complex satisfying the equation. solve : (a) (x + 2y) + i (2x .i (9 + 6 i) ( 2 1 f . (e) Vi+V-i 2-i 2+i Find the modulus. If z is any complex number such th at the argument of.2y2)i Q.Z + i = 0. c a re real numbers in the polynomial.2 (2 + i)2 (2-i) 2 . = 9y2 . Q. 8 Show t hat the product. (d) rioTt^ poTt^ (i) z = 1 +cos + i sin 19 J 19 J (iii)z=V5TT2i+y5^l2i (ii) (tanl -i) 2 (iv) i-1 271 .. z2 . then z-z.x3 + x2 + 3x . b. 3 + 2i+ 3 —2i (c) r 2 .4 .9i | = 3V2 .3y) = 5 4i 2 2 l + 2i 3 + 2i 8 i . 1 Simplify and express the result in the form of a + bi : (a) .\ 2 (b) 4 i . 271 1 — cos + sin5 V5 + 12i—>/5-12i Q.2i) y = 2x .(3 + i)z + m + 2i = 0.2 i)z = (5i . P(Z) = 2Z4 + aZ3 + bZ2 + cZ + 3 If two roots of the equation P(Z) = 0 are 2 and i.. Q. .(3 . Suppose the equation has a real root.20 i are co njugate complex of each other. I. .l (c) x . y e R.7(a) If i Z3 + Z2 . find i z.l 2i + l . 2-ZjZ 2 z-z 1 • T t (c) Let z. prove that | z . then find the value of m.5(a) Find the real values of x & y for which z. argument and the princip al argument of the complex numbers.3 .y .3x2)i = 4y2 . and z2 be two complex numbers such that Z 1 . (b) Find the value of x4 .5 i 2 + 5i Q. where m e R. then find the value of'a'.(x2/2) + (3xy .10 i x and z2 = 8y2 .i (2x + y) = 2i (d) (2 + 3i) x2 . (b) Let z.3y + 5i (e) 4x2 + 3xy + (2xy . fi+i> i+ 1+ 12 J _ 12 J ri+n 1 1 fi+n 1+ 12 J 22 " fi+n 1+ 12 J 2" ~ is equal to V 2 J (1+i) where n > 2 .3 Given that x. = 10 + 6i & z 2 =4 + 6i. is —. (b) a.(3 .5) (b) | z | + z = 2 + i (b) v y + Q.EXERCISE-I Q. then show that | Z | = 1.5 if x = 2 + 3i Q.6 Solve the following for z : (a) z2 .2 Z 2 = 1 and J z J * 1.7 .

faBansal Classes Complex Numbers [8] .

find the locus of z and interpret it. z2. B = z2.c)"1 then. z 2 = 0.1 )z4 y pure imaginary roots. + z3z. = 0 Q.Q. Q. z2 = z 2 z 3 + z . 9 Let a & b be complex numbers (which may be real) and let.z. 15 Find all real value .2 a c c o s ( a ..4 + Ki i 8i (b) If A. z3 or on its boundry.4z2 + a + 2 = 0 has onl are three complex numbers the origin 'O' is the ort hence showthat the AABC is a right angled triangle <=>ZjZ2 + z.(3) = 0. 16 Let A=z. 4i 8 + i 4 + 3i -8 +i 16i i has pure ly imaginary value. then prove that z . Q & R are represented by the complex numbers Z 1 . If hocentre of the triangle.2 b c c o s ( P . Interpret the follo wing locii in z e C. Z3 cos29. Given a. 12 Pisa point on the Aragand diagram..i) = n/2 (d) t o act fU dw > Q. . 13 Let z. Q.cCi Sy represent three distinct collinear points in an Argand's plane. Q. z2. Z = z3 + (a + b + 3i) z2 + (ab + 3 ia + 2 ib .z 3 = z 3 z.. (a) (c) 1 < | z . Prove that the complex number z = t. z 2 + Z.14 I f a C i S a .2i | < 3 (b) Re iz + 2 <4 (z * 2i) Arg (z .2 a b c o s ( a . c are real. • 1 \$1\ 0 Q. +12 +13 = 1. Q. s of the parameter a for which the equation (a . If 'O' is the origin & P.P ) = 0.2a .y ) + (c CiS y) A / a 2 + b 2 . 11 Prove that the complex numbers Zj and z2 and the origin form an isosceles triangle with vertical angle 2TI/3 if z\ + z\ + z. Z 2 = Z 2 Z 3 + Z 2 Z 3 = Z 3 Z. b. On the circle with OP as diameter two p oints Q & R are taken such that Z POQ = Z QOR = 0. show that: Z 2 2 .a) = n/3 where a = 3 + 4i. find KG R such that -2iA £ iC £ iB D= elC eiB . then prove th e following: (i) Z ab sin (a . (ii) (a CiS a) v / b 2 + c 2 . z3 are three pair wise distin ct complex numbers and t p t2.2) z + 2 abi . bCiSp. B and C are the angles of a triangle e Q.. 18(a) Without expanding the determinant at any stage.l7 If the complex number P(w) lies on the standard un it circle in an Argand's plane and z = (aw+ b)(w . + Z 3 ZJ Q. Z2 & Z3 respectively. (i) Show that Z is divisible by. z + b + i (ii) Find all complex numbers z for which Z = 0 (iii) Find all purely im aginary numbers a & b when z = 1 + i and Z is a real number.10 Arg (z + i) .Arg (z . cos 2 9 = Z. t3 are non-negative real numbers such that t.y ) ± 0> CiS p) ^ / a 2 + c 2 . C s z3 denoting the vertices of an acute angled triangle. + t2z2 + t3z3 lies inside a tri angle with vertices z.

<!lBansal Classes Complex Numbers [9] .e _]B eiA elA e _2iC where i = JZ\ thenfindthe value of D.

q. I f x = l + i V 3 . where x mdy are real numbers.3/2 then prove that : (a) £ cos 2a = 0 = E sin 2a (b) E sin (a + P) = 0 = E cos (a + p) 2 2 (c) £ sin a = £ cos a = 3/2 (d) £ sin 3a = 3 sin (a + P + y) ( e) £ cos 3a = 3 cos (a + P + y) (f) cos3 (9 + a) + cos3 (9 + p) + cos3 (9+y) = 3 c os (9 + a ) .c and d for w hich/(a).23 Q.. Find the area of the square. b. r p q . (b) If w is a complex cube root of unity. Find the area ofthe region A n B. Prove that for all complex numbers z with | z | = 1 <|l-z| + |l+z2|<4 71 Q. cos (9+y) where 9 e R.20 1 + sin 9 + i cos 0 v + sin9-icos9 J .Q.y) + co s (y .19 If w is an imaginary cube root of unity then prove that : (a) (1 .24 Q.w4 + w8) to 2n factors = 2 2n . Prov e that ' . then prove that xp + yp = zp for every prime p > 3.a) = . let the mapp ing f (x) = . (b) For all real numbers x. Let Aa nd B be the sets defined by A = { z | | z | <2} and B = {z | (1 -z')z + (l +/) z >4}.22 Q./(c) and/(d) form a square on the complex plane. Deduce that: 4-sin-p.-cos y = 1.l If q r p = 0 .w + w2) (1 w2 + w4) (1 . w respectively. v. 5 5 y v If cos (a . Tt^ ' : cos .n 9 . where p.21 0 + sin —+ icos — + i 1 + sin — icos— 1 v 5 5. cos (9 + p). Hence deduce that Q.P) + cos (P . EXERCISE-II P q r Q. r are the moduli of non-zero complex numbers u. y= 1 -iV3 & z = 2.25(a) Let z = x + iy be a complex number./(b). Tt Q. nTt -n9 + i sin 7T^ 5 ' / n7t . where i = ^/ZJ. find the value of (1 + w) (1 + w2) (1 + w4) (1 + w8) to n factors . Resolve Z5 + 1 into linear & q uadratic factors with real coefficients. If there exist real number X I a.

3 Prove that X* -3 )' ' 3"C2r-i = 0. State whether these equal roots are real or complex. Q.5 WW*" 1 If co is the fifth root of 2 and x = co + co2. arg — = arg V v —U / Q. r= 1 3n 2 Show that the locus formed by z in the equation z3 + iz = 1 never crosses the co -ordinate axes in the -Im(z) Argand's plane.pp' q' + qp ' 2 = 0 .p ' 2 = 4 q & p p ' = 2q'. where k= — &n is an even positive integer.u A2 w prove that. (i) if the equation has one real root then q ' 2 . with regard to the quadratic equation z2 + (p + ip ') z + q + iq' = 0 where p . p'. q./ w .2 Q. <!lBansal Classes Complex Numbers [10] . q' are all real. Further show that |z|= ^ 2 R e ( z ) I m ( z ) + 1 4. (ii) if the equation has two equal roots then p 2 .4 Q. prove that x5 = 1 Ox2 + 1 Ox + 6 A N ^ ^ T / •« Prove that.

L et z j & z2 be any two arbitrary complex numbers then prove that: ZL + Q.6 if the e q u a t i o n (z + i 7 )7 + z7 = 0 has roots z... 2 sin 2 sin n n v Dividing f(z) by z .i . 10 If Zr.ll If (1 +x) n = c 0 + C .. 9 Z2| > I ( | z .2. I |z 2 Q.= (c) C2 + C6 + C ] 0 + = . m e N are the roots of the equation 2 m 1 Z2m + Z2m-1 + Z2m-2 + + Z + 1 = Q then prove that I ^ _ j = -m + Q.. Hence show that these roots are a lso the roots of the equation \2 ..Q.7 X Re r=l ( r) Z 311(1 ^ n r=l ZIm(Zr) Find the roots of the equation Z = (Z + 1 )n and show that the points which repr esent them are collinear on the complex plane... | + | z 2 | ) z..3. prove that: +2 sm — 4 n7t 2"-' + 2"n cos — (b)C 1 + C5 + C9 + .. r = 1. n t \ 2 Z2 + / u Z + 1 = 0.. we ge t the remainder 1 + i. X + C 2 X 2 (a) C0 + C4 + C R + . we get the remainder i and dividing it by z + i. Find the remainder upon the division of f(z) by z2 + 1.8 Q. 2m. z2. z7...= i 1 2 -2 n / 2 0 .. + c n x n (n e N). find the value of 7 (a) Q..

+ nCn cos (n + 1) x = 2" .ia a e R are real and distinct. + (1....= I n7t 2 .COS — n n (d)C 3 + C7 + C n + . z 2 . i = 0.1 _ 2 n/2 sin — (e) C0 + C3 + C6 + C9 + 2" + 2 cos Q. 13 Show that all the roots of the equation Q..14 Prove that: (a) cos x + nC.ixy 1 + ia 1 . cos" | . 2 Q. B .. cos 2x + nC2 cos 3x + (b) sin x + n Cj sin 2x + nC2 sin 3x + (c) cos 271 2 n + 1. C .i) Zj + (1 + i) z3 Q. z + an = n. D respectively of a squa re on the Argand diagram taken in anticlockwise direction then prove that : (i) 2Z2 = (1 + i) z.. 2n + 1 = . cos + nCn sin (n + 1) x = 2n .1.When n e N. z4 be the vertices A. cos" 671 2n + 1 n + 2 . + COS 1 + ix | 1 .. n-1 where | a-1 < 1.... 15 Show that all roots of the equation a0zn + aj zn " 1 + + an _. sin n + 2 x 471 2n + 1 + cos + + cos 2n7i.i)z3 & (ii) 2z4 = (1. n lie outside the circle with centre at the origin and radius . z 3 .2. 12 Let z.

<!lBansal Classes Complex Numbers [11] .

. z2 are > 4ac > b2 .. Q.z3)2 = 4 (z3 . an & A./ . B. A3 Q.19 An.. z 2 . z3 respectively on a com plex plane & the angle B & C of the triangle ABC are each equal to ^-(rc .20 Q. c > 0 .24 Q. Find also the centre and radius of the circle. If z ] 2 + z22 + z 3 2 -z 1 z 2 -z 2 z 3 -z 3 z 1 — 0. Find N.16 The points A. Find out the limits for 'k' such that the locus of z is a circle. e third quadrant. | z .a) . If the biquadratic x4 + ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = 0 (a. . d e R) ha s 4 non real roots.z 2 &z 3 simultaneously need not be equal. a3.l . with a. A2.z.22 I the roots of the equation az2 + bz + c = 0.z2) sin2 | . P be fixed complex numbers and z is a variable complex number such tha t.) (z.. b. . y e R and i . z2 & z3 are complex number s.z + 2|. where z.18 Q. What is the maximum value of f on » the unit circle | z | = 1 ? Let f (x) = l°g cos3x (cos 2 i x) if x * 0 and f (0) = K (where i = V^T ) is continuous at x = 0 then find the value of f z. Q. Q.. K.Q. Q. f: C — R is defined by f (z) = | z3 . n. Use of L Hospital's rule or series expansion not allowed.. prove that all the three z. z2 e second quadrant in the argand's plane the f z.17 A2 A2 Show that the equation — 1 — + —-— + x aj x a2 A2 + —-— = k has no imaginary root. k are all real numbers.p | 2 =k. given that: ^ <in a. b. two with sum 3 + 4i and the other two with product 13 + i..x.. C depict the complex numbers z. \ arg .25 If a and b are positive integer such that N = (a + zb)3 -107 i is a positive int eger. Let a.21 C is the complex number. a 2 . show that VZ2 f u2\ 1/2 : J 2cos 4ac Q.23 Find the set of points on the argand plane for which the real part of the comple x number (1 + i) z2 is positive where z = x + iy. Show that (z2 . c.a | 2 + | z . 2b2 z. F ind the value of'b'..

where the co-eff icients p and q may be complex numbers. [REE '97.6] Q.k ) cos 2k7t n n 2 where n > 3 is an integer. where O is the origin. 1 Evaluate: flQ / ' f ] (3 p + 2) f f s i n — . If ZAOB = a ^ 0 and OA = OB. [JEE '97 .5] ( n .EXERCISE-III Q. <!lBansal Classes Complex Numbers [12] . Let A and B represent z.2(a) Let Zj and z2 be roots of the equation z2 + pz + q = 0 . Prove that p2 = 4 q cos2 (b) Prove that n-1 k=l \.• cos^H) p=l \q=l 11 . and z2 in the c omplex plane. 5] [JEE'97.

Q. then find the value of. 1 — + — [REE '99. where i = n=l (D) .i Find all the roots of the equation (3z . f rf 1 i V3 + 3 — + -—\ 2 2 . | = | z2 | = | z 3 | = I Zj + z2 + z31 is : (A) equal to 1 (B) less than 1 (C) greater than 3 1 — 1.6 If a = e 2ni 20 7 and f(x)=A 0 + X Ak xk. |z|2 co .arg (z) = (A) 71 2 . equals (D) 0 [JEE' 98.128co2 13 .7(a) If Zj.z) .2+10(outof200)] Q. .5(a) If i = p .|co|2 z = z . k=1 f(x) + f(a x) + + f(a 6 x) independent of a . then arg ( .6] 1 + Q. prove that. z 2 .3 (a) If © is an imaginary cube root of unity.1 (C) .2)4 = 0 in the simplified f orm of a + ib. z — co or z co = 1 [JEE'99. then (1 +00 — co2)7 equals (A) 128© ( B) .1 + iV3 (C) iV3 (b) For complex numbers z & co. then (D) equal to 3 (b) If arg (z) < 0.1 )4 + (z . (A)l-iV3 . 2 + 2 ] (A) i Q. [REE'98. is equal to : (D)-iV3 (B) . r\334 i V3 | 2 Q.4 (B) i . .co if and on ly if.6] then 4 + 5 —+ 2 1 . z3 are complex numbers such that | z.128co (C) 128co2 (b) The value of the sum ]Mi n +i n + 1 ) .

9(a) The complex numbers z.— = — .angled isosceles (b) Let z j and z2 be nth roots of unity which subtend a right angle at the origin. . + z2n.56z -512 = 0 whose imaginary part is pos itive.(B)-TT _ 2 2n + ( O . 3 out of 100 ] <!lBansal Classes Complex Numbers [13] .z 3 l-iV3 Q..— are the vertices of atriangle which is Z2 ^ (A) of area zero (B) right-angled isosceles (C) equilateral (D) obtuse . [ REE 2000 (Mains) 3 out of 100 ] + z2n _ 1 & |3 = z2 + z4 + z. [ REE 2000. z2 and z3 satisfymg — . 10 F ind all those roots of the equation z . Then n must be of the form (A) 4k + 1 (B) 4k + 2 (C)4k + 3 (D)4k [JEE 2001 (Scr) 1 + 1 out of 35] 12 6 Q. find the equation whose roots are. z = cos a = z + z3 + 71 2n + ^ + i sin 71 j . 'n' a positive integer.8 Given.f (D) ~ [ JEE 2000 (Screening) 1 + 1 out of 35 ] Q.

Then the value of the determinant 1 — 1 — co Cis 2 2 . |arg(zl)|<7t/4 (C) z : |z + lj < 2. 14(a) The locus of z which lies in shaded region is best rep resented by (A) z : |z + 11 > 2. 4] Q. but not both together. a * 1.z 2 | is (A) 0 (B)2 (C) 7 (D) 17 [JEE 2002 (Scr) 3+3] (c) Let a comple x number a .z . 3 + 3] the circle |z .-a) = k. then least positive integral value of m is (A) 6 (B)5 (C)4 ( D)3 [JEE 2004 (Scr)] 2m 4 m (b) Find centre and radius ofthe circle determined by all complex numbers z=x+i y satisfying (z. z * 1} [JEE 2006. then the minimum value of ia + bw + cw2| is (A)0 (B)l (C)T V3 (D) 1 [JEE 2005 (Scr).1 1 1 1 . p = P. If (1 + co ) = (1 + co ) . the minimum value of |Zj . +i{32 a r e fixed complex and k 1. (z--P) where a = 04 + ia 2 . be a root of the equation '* ' where p.1 co2 co4 (A) 3co (B) 3co (co .V2) (-i. and z2 are two complex numbers such that j z . z r =1 where | ar | < 2. |arg(z + 1)| < 7t/4 (B) z : jz -1| > 2. j < 1 < ] z2 j then prov e that Zj z 2 (b) Prove that there exists no complex number z such that | z j < — and r=l <1. satisfies the condition th z | = 1} If(B){z:z=z) J ^ w-wz is purely real.ll (a) Let co = — + 1 — .q are distinct primes . z2 Q.11 < 2.1 j = i (Mains).3] (C) {z: z ^ 1} <!lBansal Classes Complex Numbers (1- . V3 2 2 O Q.2 + 2 out of 60] Q.2 out of 60] p(V2-l.o)\ 1TM Q(V2-l. 13(a) co is an imaginary cube root of unity. Q. |arg(z 1)| < T / C2 [JEE 2004. then the set of 1-z (D) {z : | z | = 1.15 If w = at values ofz is (A) {z a (c) s 2 a + : | If one of the vertices of the square circumscribing + V3 i • Find the other vertices of square. [JEE 2005 ip where P * 0 and z * 1. b.-V2f (b) If a. 12( a) If z. c are integers not all equal and w is a cube root of unity (w * 1). [JEE-03. / otse [JEE 2002.1) (C) 3co2 (D) 3co(l -©) (b) For all complex numbers zp z2 satisfying \zx\ = 12 and |z2 — 3 — 4i| = 5. z p+q_ z p_ z q+1 =0 Show that either l + a + a 2 + + aP-1 = 0 or l + a + a 2 + + a ^ 1 = 0 . (5) ] 1 . |arg(z + 1)| < rc/2 (D) z : |z .

[14] (ck\\)l t b^ .

y = 2 (b) (2 .1 6 0 .1)1 Q.2 . 2 ) or (d) (1 .y i 8 . (b) . y j + i) 2 ?? + 0i .6i) (c) ± 5(1 Q. (b) ± (5 .2 7 (a) — 24 i 21 12 . (b) y .A N S W E R KEY VERY ELEMENTARY EXERCISE ON COMPLEX NUMBER Q.7 (a) ± (5 2 + 4i).6 (a) .5 Q. y = — K e R ( a ) x = l .3 Q. 18 . (d) a straight line a = b = 2 -V3 Q.4 ( a ) .l Q.8 Q.i . 9) (c) ( . (d) -.( 7 7 + 1 0 8 i) 2i H 2 1 Q. (c) 3 + 4 i . (b) on a unit circle wit h centre at origin (c) on a circle with centre ( . 0 ) & radius 9/4 . 2 ) . (b) — 3 — 5i 2 or + I 2 (a) on a circle of radius V 7 with centre ( .1 .10 .1 5 / 4 . (e) y i 5K (e) x = K .

^ i j — (b) 3 + 4 i (c) . i .22" (a) (1. ' Q. Principal A r g = .Q. £ v Q.tan~'2 z.9 x = 1. Principal A r g = — ( K e I) (i i) M o d u l u s = 2 .16 (a) V3 i V3 2 2 — .. A r g = 2 k n + — (K e I ) ..= l .17 2 v ^ 6 — +4 8 . y = -4 (i) M o d u l u s = 6 .t a n ' 1 2 (K e I ) . Q .21 A Q. 1 8 4 (c) 64 . (b) n(n + l) EXERCISE-I Q .1).A + 0 i 29 (d) ^ i r ? . l (a) ^ . Principal A r g = 6 (iii) M o d u l u s = — 6 -— 6 . y =-4 18 or x = . A r g = 2 k 7 i + -— .1. A r g = 2 k n . vQ.

— & \ z \ = y . -. 1 lrc 20 Q. — 471 | z | = 2 cos—— 4 7t .— ..jJ . A r g z = 2ri7i + 6 V2 5 20 /•xx. (d) (1. (iii) Principal va lue of A g r z = . . y = 2.2 . (e) x i) . . (b) x = 1 & y= 2 .TT). T Principal A r g = .1) I 0. Arg z = 2 k T .4 x = 1. (c) (a) ( . 1 71 a ^ 11 T . (b) .7 = c o s e c — .— T — k e I Principal A r g = (2 n) (ii) M o d u l u s = s e c 2 l . 2 ) or 2 2 3 .(e) ± V 2 + 0 i or 0±V2i 4tc Q.2 (i) Principal A r g z = .3(a) Q. A r g = 2 n 7 t + ( 2 . Principal v a l u e of A r g z = — & | z | = (iv) M o d u l u s = .. .(77 + 1 0 8 .

9 (a) z = (2 + i) or ( l . . ti where t e R <!lBansal Classes Complex Numbers [15] .5 [(-2.2 i .2 .2 ) ] 3+ 4i Q. 2). ( .(b + i ) . .7 Q. . (b) z = (b)2 (ii) z = . y = — Ke R 3K (a) 2.1 1 / 2 Q. ( b ) .=K.a (iii) 2ti 3t + 5 .3 i ) .6 Q.

3 (a) D (b) B .6 ^ L Q.7 (a) A .y + 4 .2 Z c o s 3 6 ° + l ) ( Z 2 .l 48(1 .w2 if n is odd (Z+ l ) ( Z 2 .23 required set is constituted by the angles without their boundaries.24 198 Q.18 Q.~ ' • 9 Q.+i 2 Q. (c) semi circle (in the 1 st & 4th quadrant) x2 + y2 = 1 (d) a ray emanating from the point Q.i) ^ Q.20 (a) .Q. .6 Q. (b) 1/ 2 EXERCISE-II Q.19 k > ^ !«• ~ P|2 2 | f (z) | is maximum when z = co.b2 = 0 (a) K = 3 .IO (a) The region between the co encentric circles with centre at (0.22 Q.2 Z c o s 108°+ 1) (a) 7t .3/3 = 0 [-3.axis Q. (29+20V2) + i(±l5 + 25\/2) 82 + 7A?X 7 (29-20V2) + i(±15-25V2) 82 (b) A Q.21 K = .15 Q.19 (b) one if n is even. .c2) | z |2 .25 (3 +4i) directed away from the origin & havin g equation Vs x . „ C 2 7t 0 7A 0 + 7AI4X 14 Q.17 (1 .-2] Q.2 .4 Q. (b) .— . where co is the cube root unity and | f (z) | = ^13 4 Q. (b) zero 2 Q. whose sides are the straight lines y = (V2-l) xandy+(V2 + 1) x = 0 c ontaining the x .2) & radi i 1 & 3 units 1 1 (b) region outside or on the circle with centre — + 2i and radiu s —.4 Q.5 (a) ^ *.2(a + be) (Re z ) + a2 .25 51 EXERCISE-III Q.8 2 —+.

(c) z2 = .IO ± l + i V 3 . (b) D Q. Radius = — j — V l a .l ) 1 (k — 1) Q.V 3 i .9 (a) C.13 Q.| (312 -1 a | 2 ) ( k 2 . where (a)B 2n + 1 Q.14 (a) D .V s ) + i . (b) B V2 Q.k 2 p | 2 -(k 2 .H .15 D (a) A. z 4 = ( l + V3)-i <!lBansal Classes Complex Numbers [16] .Q.8 z2 + z+ + sin2 n 0 = 0. (b) B. 2 Q. z 3 = ( l . (b) Centre = k .

ELLIPSE & HYPERBOLA) CONTENTS PARABOLA KEY CONCEPT EXERCISE-I EXERCISE-II EXERCISE-III Page -2 Page -5 Page -7 Page -8 ELLIPSE KEY CONCEPT EXERCISE-I EXERCISE-II .BANSAL CLASSES TARGETIIT JEE 2007 XII (ABCD) CONIC SECTION (PARABOLA. EXERCISE-III Page -10 Page -13 Page -14 Pag e -16 HYPERBOLA KEY CONCEPT EXERCISE-I EXERCISE-II EXERCISE-III ANSWER KEY Page -18 Page -22 Pag e -24 Page -25 Page-27 .

D*0.ch2 . e < 1 the lines will be imaginary. DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN THE CONIC : The nature of the conic section depends upon the position of the focus S w. Two different cases a rise. e>l. or conic is the locus of a point which moves in a plane so that its distance from a fixed point is in a constant ratio to its perpendicular dis tance from a fixed straight line. Focus D O E S N O T L I E an ellipse 0<e<l. A point of intersection of a conic with its axis is ca lled a VERTEX. such that its distanc efromafixedpoint (focus) is equal to its perpendicular distancefromafixedstraigh t line (directrix). The line passing through the focus & perpendicular to the dire ctrix is called the Axis.r.0) FOCAL DISTANCE: (ii) focus is (a.p)2 + (y . CASE ( I ) : W H E N T H E Focus L I E S O N T H E DIRECTRIX. e = 1 the lines will coincident. The constant ratio is called the ECCENTRIC ITY denoted by e. A chord of the parabola. a + b = 0 PARABOLA : DEFINITION: A parabola is the locus of a point which moves in a plane. A conic section.bg2 . 0) (iii)Axisisy=0 (iv) Directrix is x + a = 0 The distance of a point on the parabola from the focus is called the FOCAL DISTA NCE O F T H E FOCAL CHORD : CHORD.0 & the general equation of a conic represen ts a pair of straight lines if: e > 1 the lines will be real & distinct intersec ting at S. Thefixeds traight line is called the DIRECTRIX. CASE ( I I ) : W H E N T H E a parabola e=l. GENERAL EQUATION OF A CONIC: FOCAL DIRECTRIX PROPERTY: The general equation of a conic with focus (p.PARABOLA KEY 1. a hyperbola rectangular hyperbola e>l.t. h2 < ab O N DIRECTRIX.D*0. For this parabo la: (i) Vertex is (0.q)2] = e2 (Ix + my + n)2 = ax2 + 2hxy +"by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 3. POINT. h2 = ab 4. The fixed point is called the Focus.D*0 2 h > ab h2 > ab . CONIC SECTIONS: CONCEPTS ^ 2. Standard equation of a parabola is y2 = 4ax. In this case D = abc + 2fgh .af2 . the directrix & also upon the value of the eccentricity e. which passes through the focus is called a FOCAL DOUBLE ORDINATE: .D*0. q) & directrix Ix + my + n = 0 is : (I2 + m2) [(x .

. Note that: ( i) Perpendicular distancefromfocus on directrix = half the latus rectum. y Hyperbola) . (iii) Two parabolas are laid to be equal if they have the same latus rectum. (ii) Ve rtex is middle point of the focus & the point of intersection of directrix & axi s. • Length of the latus rectum = 4a. x2 = 4ay. 4ax .= .4ax . For y2 = 4ax. • ends of the latus rectum are L(a. 2 Four standard forms of the parabola are y2 = Ellipse.2a). A double ordinate passing through the focus or a focal chord perpendicular to th e axis of parabola is called the LATUS RECTUM.A chord of the parabola perpendicular to the axis of the symmetry is called a DO UBLE LATUS RECTUM: ORDINATE. x2 = .4ay [17] ^B ansaIClasses Conic Section (Parabola. 2a) & L' (a.

2at). vt tJ 2 If the normals t o the parabola y = 4ax at the point t. ..2at). ) a t ( x .t 2 + 2). & t2 are the ends of a focal chord of the pa rabola y2 = 4ax then t. y.(t[ +12) y + 2 at} t2 = 0.2 . on or inside the parabola y2 = 4ax according as the expression y.axis is 4aCo sec2 a. Note: length of the focal chord making an angle a with the x . & t2 is [ at.5.t 2 = -1.am3 at (am2.at2 & y = 2a t together represents the parabola y2 = 4ax. f A 2 6.2am . PARAMETRIC REPRESENTATION: The simplest & the best form of representing the co-o rdinates of a point on the parabola is (at2. TANGENTS TO THE PARABOLA y2 = 4ax: yy1 = 2a(x + Xj)atthepoint(x. a (t2 + 11.t2 = t3t 4 = .) . & t2 passes through a fixed point (-2a. (a) + t. Length of the chord intercepted by the parabola on the line y = m x + c is : -ja(l + m 2 ) ( a . POSITION OF A POINT RELATIVE TO A PARABOLA: The point (x( y t ) lies outside. t4 pass through a point (c 0) on the axis.4ax : y . +12). then h= ' 2^ l 7\ . & t2 is 2x .c/a. t2 a(t. then t.y 1 ) . LINE & A PARABOLA: The line y=mx + c meets the parabola y 2 =4ax in two points real. NORMALS TO THE PARABOLA y2 .j > . 8. Note: If the chor d joining t]512 & t3. (ii) y = mx . c = —. (i) (iii) t y = x + a t2 at (at2. (ii) ' a 2a ^ y = mx + — ( m ^ O ) a t V m2 ' m m 9. The equations x . coincident or imaginary according as a a > c m => co ndition of tangency is. zero or negative. +12) ].x . meets the parabola again at the point t2. (b) THREE VERY IMPORTANT RESULTS: If t. The equation of a chord joining t. . t2 (t.at. t l + ' (c) . t3 = . 0).m c ) .(t j +12) and the line joining t.4ax.y i =-h. & t2 are. ( x .2am) Note : Point of intersection of normals at t. & ^ intersect again on the parabola at the point 't3' then tj t2 = 2. vm . t being the parameter. (0 (iii) 10. \ 7.J v If the normals to the parabola y2 = 4ax at the points t. 2a y + tx = 2at + at3 at (at2' 2at). Note : Point of intersection of the tangents at the point t. Hence the co-ordinates fa 2a) at the extremitie s of a focal chord can be taken as (at2' 2at) & . is posit ive.

Note that the subtangent is bise cted at the vertex. 12.2-4ax1 . y) on the parabola y2 = 4ax equals twice the abscissa of the point P.General Note : (i) Length of subtangent at any point P(x. = T2 wher e : S = = y .). S1=y. Hyperbola) [17] . y.) to the parabola y2 = 4ax is given by : SS.2P + XQ + R = 0 where X is a parameter and P. R are linear functions of x and y then the family of lines will be tangent to the curve Q2 = 4 PR.4 a x . 2 ^B ansaIClasses Conic Section (Parabola. T = yy. Q. (ii) Length of subnormal is constant for all points on the p arabola & is equal to the semi latus rectum. The equation to the pair of tangents which can be d rawn from any point (x. Ellipse. (iii) If a family of straight lines can be represented by an equation A. ~2a(x + x.

any Conic is the locus of the harmonic conjugate o f P w. CHORD OF CONTACT : Equation to the chord of contact of tangents drawn from a point P(x.2at) as diameter touches the tangent at the vertex and intercepts a chord of length a^i + t2 on a normal at the point P.). 2 -4ax s .) is on the parabola the polar is the same as the tangen t at the point. 15.t.)is yy.) lies without the parabola the equation to it s polar is the same as the equation to the chord of contact of tangents drawn fr om (x. Note: (i) The tangent at the extremity of a diameter of a parabola is parallel to the system of chords it bisects.t. (i) 16. In other words the tangent and th e normal at a point P on the parabola are the bisectors of the angle between the focal radius SP & the perpendicular from P on the directrix.r. POLAR & POLE: Equation of the Polar of the point P(x.y j = — ( x . Equation to the diameter of a parabola is y = 2a/m. Also note that th e chord of contact exists only if the point P is not inside.x. .) when (x. y. This reduced to T = Sj where T = y y. y. CHORD WITH A GIVEN MIDDLE POINT : Equation of the chord of the parabola y2 = 4ax whose middle point is 2a (x.r. y. the two points is which any line through P cuts the conic.13.r. the parabola y2 = 4ax is' yy 1 =2a(x + x1) ' . (iii) If the polar of a point P passes through the point Q. 17.. y.2 .t. a parabola when the pole of one lies on the other.t. the parab ola y = 4ax is —. y..) & S . where m = s lope of parallel chords.r. then the polar of Q goes through P.) w. (iv) Two straight lines are said to be conjugate d to each other w. (iii) A line segmentfroma point P on the parabola and parallel to the system of parallel chords is called the ordinate to the diameter bisecting the system o f parallel chords and the chords are called its double ordinate. (v) Po lar of a given point P w.) & the chord of contact is (y.) i s y . =y. y. DIAMETER: The locus ofthe middle points of a system of parallel chords of a Parabola is ca lled a DIAMETER. (i) The polar ofthe focus ofthe parabola is the dir ectrix. 1 Note: vl . 18. IMPORTANT HIGHLIGHTS : (a) (b) (c) If the tangent & normal at any point 'P' of the parabola intersect the axis at T & G then ST = SG = SP where 'S' is the focus. The portion of a tangent to a parabola cut off between the directrix & the curve subtends a right angle at the focus. W 2 (ii) The pole of the line /x + my + n = 0 w. From this we concl ude that all rays emanating from S will become parallel to the axis of the parab ola after reflection. y. Also a circle on any focal radii ofa point P (at2.2a (x + x. and hen ce a circle on any focal chord as diameter touches the directrix.4ax1)3/2 2a. = 2a(x + x. . 14.r. Remember that the area of the triangle formed by the tangents from t he point (x. (ii) The tangent at the ends of any chords of a parabola meet on the diameter which bisects the chor d. DIRECTOR CIRCLE: Locus of the point of intersection of the perpendicular tangents to the parabola y2 = 4ax is called the DIRECTOR CIRCLE.t. (ii) When the point (x. The tangents at the extremities of a focal chord intersect at right angles on the directrix. It's equation is x + a = 0 which is par abola's own directrix.).

Ellipse.^B ansaIClasses Conic Section (Parabola. Hyperbola) [17] .

SQ & • The triangles SPT and STQ are s imilar. 7 .4 Show that the normals at the points (4a. + m = « Then 3 0 .17. If the tangents at P and Q meet in T.5. 18. which are parallel & perpendicular respectively 1 to the line 2 x . k) then k = mh .14. 17. The area of the triangle formed by three points on a pa rabola is twice the area of the triangle formed by the tangents at these points. 2a = • —+—=—.y + 5 = 0.e. their points of intersection being ( . chords OP & OQ ar e drawn at right angles to one another. Exercise-27 (Q. 5 Q. = J 2a 2bc (h) (i) (j) (k) ~h a a where m.23). mjm 2 + m 2 m 3 + m 3 m. • Centroid of the A forme d by three co-normal points lies on the x-axis. 3.a 0) & (3 a 0). 4a) & at the upper en d of the latus ractum of the parabola y2 = 4ax intersect on the same parabola. is the harmonic mean between segments of any focal chord L 1 • o of the parabola is . If normal drawn to a parabola passes through a point P(h.14.26. Note that t he algebraic sum of the: • slopes of the three concurrent normals is zero. 27). ™ gives m. 1 1 1 b+c b c a The circle circumscribing the triangle formed by any three tangents to a parab ola passes through the focus.4. • ordinat es of the three conormal points on the parabola is zero.11. Find the equations Qf the tangents to the pa rabola y2 = 16x. Pr ove that P'Q passes through focus. Show that for all positions of P. 19. 8.am3 i. 24.6 Q. 26. Find the vertex & the l atus rectum of the second parabola. • ST2 = SP. PQ cut s the axis of the parabola at afixedpoint.20. Exercise-26 (Important) (Q. P rove that the locus of the middle point of portion of a normal to y2 = 4ax inter cepted between the curve & the axis is another parabola. m.13. Tangents and Normals at the extremities of the latus rectum of a parabol a y2 = 4ax constitute a square. a (tj +1.2(h + 2a)x .h) + k = 0. + m. k . 10. Alsofindthe locus of the middle point of PQ.38). Prove that the common chord of the circle and parabola bisects the distance between the vertex and the focus. EXERCISE-I — Q. (/) A circle circumscribing the triangle formed by three co-normal points passes through the vertex of the parab ola and its equation is.3 Q. Exercise-30 (2.7.t2t3). m 2 m3 = — . t Q.e. Through the vertex O of a parabola y 2 =4x. 20. 1 Q. Find the equations of the tangents of the parabola y2 = 12x. +13 + t. 26.a.7).22.ky = 0 Suggested problems fro m Loney: Exercise-25 (Q. i. 25. Exercise-28 (Q.2.16.5).(d) (e) (f) (g) Any tangent to a parabola & the perpendicular on it from the focus meet on the t angtent at the vertex.7. am3 + m(2a .7.21).27. 2 Q.34. 2(x2 + y2) . Find also the coordinates of their points of contact. PP' is a double ordinate of the curve and PX meets the curve again in Q. 22. > Semi latus rectum of the parabola y2=4ax. 21.18. 175 if necessary. 21. 13.2am . n ' i ^ / A circle is described whose centre is the vertex and whose diameter is three-qua rters of the latus rectum of a parabola y2 = 4ax. which passes throug h the point (2. m2 &m 3 are the slopes of the three concurrent normals. 6. Exercise-29 (Q.10. 30) Note: Refer to the figure on Pg. Let S is the focus of the parabola y2 = 4ax and X the foot of the direct rix. The orthocentre of any triangle formed by three ta ngents to a parabola y2 = 4ax lies on the directrix & has the co-ordinates .4. then: • TP and TQ sub tend equal angles at the focus S.28.

^B ansaIClasses Conic Section (Parabola. Hyperbola) [17] . Ellipse.

Show that the locus ofa point that divides a chord of slope 2 of the parabola y 2 =4x internally in the ratio 1 :2 is a parabola.9).25 ^B ansaIClasses Conic Section (Parabola. Find the equation of the ch ord of contact. Q. If LH is drawn perpendicular to OL meeting OX in H.b) cannot have a common normal. show that 9PQ = 80 VlO Prove that.30x + 12y .8 Q. P & Q are the points of contact o f t h e tangents drawn from the point T to the pa rabola y2 = 4ax.PG2 = constant. a perpendicular is drawn to any tangent meeting it at P & the parabola at Q.18 Q.20 Q. then — — j + — — j is same for all positions of the chord. Prove that on the axis of any parabola y2 = 4ax there is a certa in point K which has the property that.15 Q. such that two of the three normals drawn from it to the parabola y2 = 4ax are perpendicular is y2 = a(x .12).19 Q. if a chord PQ of the parabola be drawn t hrough it.3a). the normal to y2 = 12x at (3 ' 6) meets the parabola again in (27. 0) and which subtends an angle of 45° at the vertex. (a-c) Find the condition o n ' a ' & ' b ' s o that the two tangents drawn to the parabola y2 = 4ax fromapoint are normals to the parabola x2 = 4by.21 Q.13 Q. Prove th at the locus ofthe middle points of all tangents drawnfrompoints on the directri x to the parabola y2 = 4ax is y2(2x + a) .14 Q. other than the b axis. Show that the locus of a point. Also find the area of the triangle formed by the chord of contac t & the tangents.12 Q.a(3x + a)2. If the normal at P( 18.2) tangent lines are drawn to the parabola y2 = 4x. prove that the length of the double ordinate through H is 4a • The normal at a point P to the parabola y2 = 4ax meets its axis at G. Prove that QG2 . Find the ver tex of this parabola. Show that OP • OQ = constant. Q is another point o n the parabola such that QG is perpendicular to the axis of the parabola.IO Through the vertex O of the parabola y 2 =4ax.2 a • 2a y2 From the point (-1 .-18) & circle on this normal chord as diame ter is x2 + y2 .3 & find the equations of the others. From a point A common tangents are drawn to the circle x2 + y2 = a2/2 & parabola y2 = 4ax. Prove that the locus of the middle points of the normal c hords of the parabola y2 = 4ax is y2 4a 3 — + —T. Find the equation of the circle which passe s through the focus of the parabola x2 = 4y & touches it at the point (6.17 'O' is the vertex of the parabola y2 = 4ax & L i s the upper end of the latus rectum.prove that TP is bise cted by the directrix. Find the area of the quadrilateral formed by th e common tangents. Find the equatio ns of the chords of the parabola y2 = 4ax which pass through the point (-6a. Hyperbola) [17] . unless 7 ~ > 2. Find also the coor dinates of the point K. Q.l l Q. the chord of contact of the circle and the chord of contact o f the parabola.24 Q.27 = 0. Show that one of the no rmals is given by y = x .23 Q.= x . 9 Three normals to y2 = 4x pass through the point (15.22 Prove that the two parabolas y2 = 4ax & y 2 = 4c (x .Q. Q.12) to the parabola y2= 8x cut s it again at Q. If PQ be the normal to the parabola at P. Ellipse. '^ ^ (Q^) Q.16 Q.

Q.4 In the parabola y2=4ax. A variable chord tj t. of the parabola y2 = 4ax subtends a right angle at a f ixed point tQ of the curve. Show th at the tangents to the parabola parallel to the perpendicular lines intersect in the mid point of T T Two straight lines one being a tangent to y2 = 4ax and the other to x2 = 4by are right angles. & that the locus of the intersection of the tangents at P & Q to the parabola on which they lie is y2 ( x + 4a) + 16 a3 = 0. Ellipse. Find the locus of their point of intersecti on.8 Q. y.2 Q. ^Bansal Classes Conic Section (Parabola.y = 1 2 .. 15 A quadrila teral is inscribed in a parabola y 2 =4ax and three of its sides pass throughfix edpoints on the axis. show that the locus of Q is a parabola. Two perpendicular straight lines through the f ocus of the parabola y2 = 4ax meet its directrix in T & T' respectively. Find Q. Prove that PT: PQ = 4:5. If (Xj. Q. prove that the locus of the point of the intersection of the two tangents is y2 = 8 (x + 2 ). y3) be three points on the para bola y2 = 4ax and the normals at these points . C being on the axis. where O is the origin .EXERCISE-II Q. If the parameters of the points P & Q on the parabola are p & q respectivel y. A variable chord PQ of the parabola y2 = 4x is drawn parallel to the line y = x. X7 Xi X-i Xi L meet ma p oint then prove that —1 +— +— = 0. 13 PC is the normal a t P to the parabola y2 = 4ax. If PQ = 4 units. 11 The norma ls at P and Q on the parabola y2 = 4ax intersect at the point R (x. Two tangents to the parabola y2= 8x meet the tangent at its vertex in the points P & Q. whose abscis sa is equal to the latus ractum meets the axis in T & the normal at P cuts the p arabola again in Q. Show furhter that the normal at these three points are concurrent at a point R edetermine the coordinates of R in terms of those of Q.l Q. Alsofindt he co-ordinates of thefixedpoint. Q. Q. 7 Q. (x2. show that there are three points on the parabola at which OQ subtends a right angle. Show that an infinite number of trian gles can be inscribed in either of the parabolas y2 = 4ax & x2 . 14 Show that the locus of the middle points of a variabl e chord of the parabola y2 = 4ax such that the focal distances of its extremitie s are in the ratio 2 :1. . Prov e that PQ is a diameter of the circle. y2) and (x3.16y . /(TP) • /(TQ) = | (x. Also show that the locus of the point of intersection of the normals a t P & Q i s 2 x .5 Q.2ax)2 = 4a2(2x .a)(4x + a). Q.) is an arbitrary point in the plane of a parabola y2 = 4ax. s (b) The vertices of the parabolas lie on a curve. 9 Q. Show that. Hyperbola) [13] . 10 The equation y = x2 + 2ax + a represents a parabola for all real values of a. y. (a) Prove thaj>eacn of these parabolas pass through a common point and deter mine the coordinates of this point. CP is produced outwards to Q so that PQ = CP. Q. Xi X. the tangent at the point P. if R moves on the parabola.48 = 0 meet at the point P(36.6 Q. Show that the fourth side also passes throughfixedpoint on the axis of the parabola. Show that it passes through a fixed point.) on the parabola and the tangents at P and Q intersect at the point T. show that p + q = 2.40x . th e mid point of PQ lie on the parabola y2 = 2a(x + 2a). is 9(y2 .8a) / y f + 4 a ^ Also show that. 16 Prove that the parabola y2 = 16x & the circle x 2 + y2 .4by whose sides touch the other.24) & one other point Q. Q. Prove that this curve is a parabola andfindits equation. 12 If Q (Xj. yj). . ys yi yi Show that the normals at two suitable dist inct real points on the parabola y2 = 4ax intersect at a point on the parabola w hose abscissa > 8a.3 Q.

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[ R EE '98. Q. Q.19 Show that t he locus of the centroids of equilateral triangles inscribed in the parabola y2 = 4ax is the parabola 9y2 . Q. Find the equation t o the locus of the vertex of the variable parabola.a2. Show that the locus of the third angular point is a2y2 = 4(2b a)2.17 A variable tangent to the parabola y2 = 4ax meets the circle x2 + y2 = r2 at P & Q.23 Q. [ JEE '98. 2 Q. 4 Find the locus of the point of intersection of those normals to the parabola x2 = 8 ^ which are at right angles to each other. Q. Q.24 The sides of a triangle touch y2 = 4ax and two of its angular points lie on y2 = 4b(x + c).5(a) If the line x .6 [JEE'2000 (Scr). R on the parabola y2 = 4ax meet in a point on the line y = k. 1+1 ] (D) . 18 Find the locus of the foot of the perpendicular from the origin to chord o f the parabola y2 = 4ax subtending an angle of 45° at the vertex. [REE '2001.1 = 0 is the directrix of the parabola y 2 .1).3 Find the locus of the points of intersection of tangents-drawn at the ends of al l normal chords ofthe parabola y2 = 8(x . 3 Q.6] T he angle between a pair oftangents drawn from a point P to the parabola y2 = 4ax is 45°.2(h + 2a) x .k x + 8 = 0 then one of the values of' k' is (A) 1/8 (B) 8 (C) 4 ' (D) 1/4 (b) If x + y = k is normal to y2 = 12 x. Show that the locus of the point P is a hyperbola.4ax + 32 a2 = 0. Prove that the sides of the triangle PQR touch the parabola x2 . the angle a being variable. Prove that the locus of the mid point of PQ is x(x2 + y2) + ay2 = 0. which passes through the ve rtex of the parabola y2 = 4ax & through its intersection with a normal chord is 2y2 = ax . then' k' is : (A) 3 (B) 9 (C)-9 Q.22 Q. Hyperbola) [17] \ .21 Afixedparabola y2 = 4 ax touches a variable parabola.6] Find the equations of the common tangents of the circle x2 + y2 . k) is 2(x2 + y2) .8] The ordin ates of points P and Q on the parabola y2 = 12x are in the ratio 1:2. Find the l ocus of the point of intersection of the normals to the parabola at P and Q. 1 Q.ky = 0. Assume that the two parabola s are equal and the axis of the variable parabola remains parallel to the x-axis .6 ] Q. Show that the circle through three points the normals at which to the parabola y 2 =4ax are concurrent at the point (h. a b EXERCISE-III Q.7(a) The equation of the common tangent touching the circle (x . [REE '97.6y + 4 _= 0 and the parabola y2 = x. Prove that the locus of the centre of the circle.0 .3] Q. Q. Prove that the locus of the o rthocentre of the traingles formed by the corresponding tangents x2 y 2 is the e llipse — + ~ = 1. Ellipse. [ REE '99.2ky .Q.20 The normals at P.3)2 + y2 = 9 and the parabola y 2 =4x above the x-axis is ( A ) ^ y = 3x+1 (B) V^y = -(x + 3) (C) ^ y = x + 3 (D) ^ y = -(3x + 1) ^B ansaIClasses Conic Section (Parabola.25 Three normals are drawn to the parabola y2 = 4ax cos a from any point lying on the straight line y = b sin a.(ax + 4bc) Q.

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y 2) (C) (x .l ) (D)y = . [JEE 2003.)] (b) Normals are drawn from the point 'P' with slopes m. Let R be the point that divides the line segment QP externally in the ratio 1: 1.(b) The equation of the directrix of the parabola. ( Scr. then the equation of the parabola is (A) (x + y)2 = (x .2) (B)(x-y) 2 = (x + y . If locus of P with m s m2 = a is a part of the parabola itself t hen find a.a Q.2 (C)±l (D)-2. 13(a) The axis of parabola is along the line y=x and the distance of vertex f rom origin is J 2 and that from its focus is 2 v2 • If vertex and focus both lie i n the 1st quadrant. Hyperbola) [17] .0).9 (B)x = .4 out of 60] Q. 12 Let P be a point on the parabola y2 . 3 ] (A) x = . such that the tangent on the parabola at P intersects the directrix at point Q .4) to the parabola y2 = 4x is (A) 7T/2 (B) 7T/3 (C) 7I/4 (D) TC/ 6 [JEE 2004.(x .0) [JEE 2006.l0(a) The slope of the focal chords of the parabola y2 = 16x which are tangent s to the circle (x . [JEE 2004. (Scr. Find the locus of R.| (C) x = 0 (D)x=| [JEE' 2002 (Scr). Q and R lying on the parabola y2 = 4x which intersect at (3.5] (c) Match the following Normals are drawn at points P. y2 + 4y + 4x + 2 = 0 is (A) x = .3] (b) The equations of common tangents to the parabola y = x2 and y = .2 ) (D) (x . m3 to the pa rabola y 2 =4x.2) [JEE 2006.)] Q.). Then (i) Area of APQR ( A) 2 (ii) Radius ofcircumcircle of APQR (B)5/2 (iii) Centroid of APQR (C) (5/2. 11 The angle between the tangents drawn fr om the point (1.4x + 5 = 0 . 3] The equation of the common tangent to the curves y2 = 8x and xy=-1 is (A) 3y = 9 x + 2 (B)y = 2x+1 (C) 2y = x + 8 (D) y = x + 2 Q.2)2 is/are (A)y = 4(x-1) (B) y = 0 (C)y = .. m2. 1+1] Q.0 ) (iv) Circumcentre of APQR (D) (2/3.y)2 = 8(x + y .1/2 [JEE'2003.4 out of 60] Q.6] ^B ansaIClasses Conic Section (Parabola.3 0 x 5 0 [JEE 2006. Ellipse.2y .8 The locus of the mid-point of the line segment joining the focus to a moving point on the parabola y2 = 4ax is another parabola with di rectrix [ JEE'2002 (Scr.4 ( x .y)2 = 4(x + y .1 (B) x = 1 (C)X = ~| ( D ) X = | [JEE'2001(Scr).6)2 + y2 = 2 are (A) ± 2 (B)-1/2.

FOCAL CHORD: A c hord which passes through a focus is called a focal chord.> . . Length of latus rectum 2 (minor axis) 2 x 2 b 2s „ ^ .b = a e . a e NOTE: (i) The sum of the focal distances of any point on the ellipse is equal to the maj or Axis.e. MINOR AXIS: The y-axis intersects the ellipse in the points B ' s (0. STANDARD EQUATION & DEFINITIONS: Standard equation of an ellipse referred to its principal axes along the co-ordinate axes is — + a 2 b2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Where a > b & b = a (l . — a 2 b2 DIAMETER: A chord of the conic whi ch passes through the centre is called a diameter of the conic.a e 0). The line segment B'B of length 2b (b < a) is called the Minor Ax is of the ellipse. b). PRINCIPAL AXIS: The major & minor axis together are called Pr incipal Axis of the ellipse.0) the origin i s the centre of the ellipse _ + X = i. Where e = eccentricity (0 < e < 1).b ) & B = (0.ELLIPSE KEYCONCEPTS 1. Point of intersection of major axis with directrix is called the foot of the directrix (z). EQUATIONS OF DIRECTRICES: a p x =— & x e VERTICES: A' = ( . MAJOR AXIS : The line segment A' A in which the foci S' & S lie is of length 2a & is called the major axis (a > b) of the ellipse. Hence distance of focus from the extremity of a minor axis is equal to semi major axis.a. DOUBLE ORDINATE: A ch ord perpendicular to the major axis is called a double ordinate. (LL) = = = 2a(l .e ) => a .1 & nothing is mentioned' then the rule is to assume Bansal Classes Conic Section (Parabola. LATUSRECTUM: Th e focal chord perpendicular to the major axis is called the latus rectum.e )=2e (dist ance from focus to the corresponding directrix) a major axis 2 2 2 2 = j. (ii) If the equation of the ellipse is g iven as 2L_ + that a> b. Ellipse. . Hyperbola) [10] . FOCI: S = (ae 0)&S' = ( . i. CENTRE: The point which bisects every chord of the conic drawn through it is called the centre of the conic. 0). 0) & A = (a. BS = CA. C = (0.

. . a+B a-B —cos h —sm = cos • a 2 b 2 2 TANGENTS: xx yy. a b Where 9 is a parameter. — a b X V 3. Note t hat if P(9) = (a cos 9.1 . y. Let Q be a point on the auxiliary circle x2 + y2 = a2 such that QP produced is p erpendicular to the x-axis then P & Q are called as the CORRESPONDING POINTS on the ellipse & the auxiliary circle respectively '9' is called the ECCENTRIC ANGL E ofthe point P on the ellipse (0 < 9 < 2 Tt). — + —L. PARAMETRIC REPRESENTATION: y2 The equations x = a cos 9 & y = b sin 9 together represent the ellipse + —j . The line y=mx+ c meets the ellipse —r + —r = 1 in two points real.2. x2 y2 Hence y = mx + c is tangent to th e ellipse — + —j = 1 if c2 = a2m2 + b2. a sin 9) is on the auxiliary circle.t. .r. x2 2 2 6.) lies outside. AN ELLIPSE l The point P(x. i'(PN) _ b _ Semi minor axis Note that *(QN) a Semi major axis Hence " Iffromeach point of a circle perpendicular s are drawn upon a fixed diameter then the locus of the points dividing these pe rpendiculars in a given ratio is an ellipse of which the given circle is the aux iliary circle".1 > < or=0. (i) Note :The figure formed by the tangents at the extremities of latus rectum is rh oubus of area (ii) 2a e y = mx± J a 2 m 2 +b . — i + —J. AUXILIARY CIRCLE / ECCENTRIC ANGLE: A circle described on major axis as diameter is called the auxiliary circle. POSITION OFA POINT w. Q(9) = (a cos 9. LINE AND AN ELLIPSE : x y . a b The equation to the chord of the ellipse joining two points with eccentric angles a & P is given by x a+B y . b sin 9) is on the ellipse then .). coincident or imaginary accordin g a b 2 2 2 2 as c is < = or > a m + b . inside or on the ellipse according as.= 1 is tangent to the ellipse at (Xj y.

(iii) (iv) (v) ®+ = j is tangent to the ellipse at the point (a cos 9.q-p q-3 COS cos ^B ansaIClasses Conic Section (Parabola. q +p cos a+J3 sin 2 Point of intersection of th e tangents at the point a & P is a . b sin 9).2 is tangent to the ellipse for all values of m.e. there ar e two tangents parallel to any given direction. Note that there are two tangents to the ellipse having the same m. Ellipse. i. Hyperbola) [17] . Conversely i f the difference between the eccentric angles of two points is p then the tangen ts at these points are parallel. a b The eccentri c angles of point of contact of two parallel tangents differ by Tt.

e. 15. 34).by cosec 0 = (a2 .Pg = SP.7. PG = b2 (ii) PF. (i) T t. 24. y.6 The circle on any focal distance as diameter touches the auxiliary circle. 16. [where S and S' are the focii of the ellipse and T is the point where tangent at P meet the major axis] H . H . This refers to th e well known reflection property of the ellipse which states that rays from one focus are reflected through other focus & vice-versa. Exercise-33 (Important) (Q. Equation of a normal in terms of its slope'm' is y=mx —( a )"L Va2.5 The portion of the tangent to an ellipse between the point of contact & the directrix subtends a right angle at the corresponding focus. 26.b2 and (ii) least value of Tt is a + b.1 If P be any point on the ellipse with S & S' as its a then i (SP) + i (S'P) = 2a. pole & pola r are to be interpreted as they are in parabola. 25. 15 ) ^B ansaIClasses Conic Section (Parabola. y. 9.The tangents at th ese feet to the auxiliary circle meet on the ordinate of P and that the locus of their point of intersection is a similiar ellipse as that ofthe original one.11. 11.b2).+ b 2 m 2 DIRECTOR CIRCLE: Locus of the point of intersection of the tangents which meet at right angles is called the Director Circle. S'P (iv) CG.16. a circle whose centre is the centre of the ellipse & w hose radius is the length of the line joining the ends of the major & minor axis . called its diameter an d has the equation y = —-r— x.3. 7. foci b H . 5. chord with a given middle point. CT = CS2 (v) locus ofthe mid point of Gg is anothe r ellipse having the same eccentricity as that of the original ellipse. H . Exercise-35 (Q. H . 4.2 The product of the length's of the p erpendicular segments from the foci on any tangent to the ellipse is b2 and the feet of these perpendiculars Y.) is a2x x. DIAMETER: The locus of the middle points of a system of parallel chords with slope'm' of an ellipse is a st raight line b2 passing through the centre of the ellipse. H . 12. (i) (ii) (iii) 8. IMPORTANT HIGHLIGHTS : Refering to an ellipse —r. a~m X2 V 2 11. 6. NORMALS : Equation of the normal at (x. ax sec 0 .Y' lie on its auxiliary circle. 8.+ Ar = 1 • 2 2 H . 6.b2 = a2e2. b2y = a2 .24). The equation to this locus is x2 + y2 = a2 + b2 i.3 If the normal at any point P on the ellipse with centre C meet the maj or & minor axes in G & g respectively & if CF be perpendicular upon this normal' then (i) PF. A lso the lines joining centre to the feet of the perpendicular Y and focus to the point of contact of tangent are parallel. pair of tangents. 10.7 Perpendicularsfromthe centre up on all chords which join the ends of any perpendicular diameters of the ellipse are of constant length.2. 19.2 to 7.12.8 If the tangent at the point P of a standard ellips e meets the axis in T and t and CY is the perpendicular on it from the centre th en. Equation of the normal at the point (acos 0' bsin 0) is. Pg = a2 ( iii) PG. P Y = a2 . H .4 The tangent & normal at a point P on the ellipse bisect th e external & internal angles between the focal distances of P. Ellipse. Suggested proble ms from Loney: Exercise-32 (Q. Hyperbola) [17] . Chord of contact. Hence we can deduce that t he straight lines joining each focus to the foot of the perpendicularfromthe oth er focus upon the tangent at any point P meet on the normal PG and bisects it wh ere G is the point where normal at P meets the major axis. 18.

X2 y 2 Find the equations of the lines with equal intercepts on the axes & which touch the ellipse— + — = 1.4 Q. Find its equation.1) & (2. a b then show that sin a sinP siny cos a cosp cosy sin 2 a sin2p sin2y Q. y. having double contact with the ellip se X h — = 1 at the ends of a 2 b2 2 2 3 2 2 4 a latus rectum. /uj Q. p. -2) & its principal axis are along the coordinate axes in order.R with eccentric angles a. S are the eccentric angles of the extremities of the chords.CH<?CKl \r\ IVe n r o S n The tangent at P 4 co s 6. show that tan — -tan — -tan — -tan— = 1. + f^aJ.f indthe ratio of inner: outer radii &findalso the eccentricity of the ellipse. 2 2 W o © (£ . QI12 ABC is an isosceles triangle with its base BC twice its altitude. • 11 4 x y "cKeQk i d .l VI1 y ft J a c k p o t ©J x + y . 3 Q.j = s i n 9 to the ellipse 16x2 + 1 ly2 = 256 is also a tangent to the ci rcle v .3. If any two chords be drawn through two points on the major axis of an ellipse equidistant from the a B v 8 centre.ll ' 'O' is the origin & also the centre of two concentric circles having radii of th e inner & the outer circle as 'a' & 'b' respectively.9 Tr r. 1 Q.IO A t angent having slope to the ellipse — + — = 1.2 . Find 6. Q.2) and passing through the point (4.5 . Show that the eccentricity ofthe ellipse is (1 + sin2a)"1/2. Q.2). Apoint P moves within the triangle such o * • that the square of its distancefromBC is half the rectangle contained by its distancesfromthe two sides. PR is drawn parallel to the y-ax is & QR is drawn parallel to the x-axis.2 Find the equation of the ellipse with its centre (1. An ellipse passes through the points ( .EXERCISE-II Q. The tangent at the point a on a standard ellipse meets the auxiliary circle in t wo points which subtends a right angle at the centre. Ifthe focii of this ellipse lie on the inner circle. B.2ae x = a (1 . ^Bansal Classes Conic Section (Parabola. the other end of the diameter through A. 7 2 V2 Prove that the equation to the circle. ' 16 V . Prove that the locus of R is an ellipse touching the two circles.Q. If O is the origin. .e ). intersects the axis of x & y in points A & B 3 18 32 respectively.6). focus at (6. A line OPQ is drawn to cut the inner circle in P & the outer circle in Q. 2 2 2 2 Q.2x . 0) in T and T is joined to B. The tangent at any point P of a circle x2 + y2 = a2 meets the tangent at a fixed point A (a. Find also the equat ion to the common tangent. w here a. Ellipse. [2 Show that the loc us of P is an ellipse with eccentricity J— passing through B & C.6 x2 y2 Ifthe normals at the points P.15 = 0.findthe area of triangle OAB. prove that the locus of the intersectio n ofAP and BT is an ellipse whose ettentricity is Q. yon the elli pse— + — =1 are concurrent. 8 Q.e . is x + y . \\ . Hyperbola) [13] .

.

GP is produced outwards to Q so 2 2 that PQ = GP Show that the locus of Q is an ellipse whose eccentricity is a . Q 1 6 x2 y2 Prove that the length of the focal chord of the ellipse — + ~ = 1 which is i nclined to the maj or axis at a" b angle 9 is ^ 5 ~ 5—.= 1 a b touches the circle x2 + y2 = c2. Q. a sin 0 + b cos 0 2ab2 . y. Show that the circle on NT as diameter intersects the auxiliary circle orthogon ally. (CG)2 + b2. . G being on the maj or axis.) to the ellipse — + ~ = 1 intersect at right angles.14 Common tangents are drawn to the parabola y2 = 4x & the ellipse 3x2 + 8y2 = 48 t ouching the parabola at A & B and the ellipse at C & D.PF2)2=4a*'1\ \ Xz y Q. then show that (PF.^ Q. 2 2 v Q.j = 1 intersects the m ajor axis in T & N is the foot of the a b perpendicular from P to the same axis. Also prove that CG = e2CN. Yi x i x 2 y2 Find the locus of the point the chord of contact of the tangent drawn from which to the ellipse — + . > x 2 v2 Q.b2)2. o)' Q-l 5 If the normal at a point P on the ellipse of semi axes a.18 x2 y 2 The tangents from (x. & F2 are the two foci of the ellipse. b & centre C cut s the major & minor axes at G & g.17 The tangent at a point P on the ellipse — + . (Cg)2 = (a2 . Find the area of the qua drilateral. where c < b < a. where PN is the ordinate ofP.l PG is the normal to a standard ellipse at P. .If F. Show that the normals at — a b x y the points of contact meet on the line — = — .20 Prove that the three ellipse —j + —j = 1 af bf 2 a2 b2 x2 y2 1 and — + --— = 1 will have a common tangent 1 if a a2 2 b 1 = 0. b2 1 EXERCISE-II Q.. show that a2.13 Let d be the perpendicular distance from the centre of the ellipse — + ~2 = 1 to the tangent drawn at a a2 ' b point P on the ellipse.

3 P & Q are the corresponding points on a standard ellipse & its auxiliary circle. Hyperbola) [17] . x2 y 2 : 1 is joined to the ends A. Prove that QT touche s the auxiliary circle.2 Q. Ifthe lines through The point P on the ellipse— + a b" P perpendicular to PA. ^B ansaIClasses Conic Section (Parabola. A' ofthe major axis. The tangent at P to the ellipse meets the major axis in T.b & find the equation a 2 +b 2 of the locus of the intersection of the tangent s at P & Q.. Ellipse. PA' meet the major axis in Q and R then prove that /(QR) = length of latus rectum. Q.

If P divides AB in the ratio 3 :1 find the equati on of the tangent. prove that a2p=e2hx. (3 are the eccentric angles of the points P and Q. a b A focal chord ofthe ellipse. x2 a nd b 4 q=. k) & the normals in (p.e2ky. P'. parallel to AB intersects the circle in P & Q.ll . show that the area o f the parallelogram formed by the tangent at P.4 X2 V 2 Let S and S' are the foci. SL the semilatus rectum of the ellipse + and L S' produced cuts the a b (1-e 2 ) ellipse at P. show that the length of the ordi nate of the ordinate of P is y a. find the length ofthe perpendicular drawn from the centre of t he ellipse to PQ.PQ is — sq. units. Prove that they •b2 intercept on the ordinate through the nearer focus a distance equal to the major axis.9 x2 v 2 If (x^ y.y2a2 where 'e' is the eccentricity. where a > r > b.5 Q. X2 V 2 A tangent to the ellipse — + Ar = 1 touches at the point P on it in the first quadrant & meets the a b coordina te axis in A & B respectively. Prove that the square of a b its length is equal to 32aV + Q. V a +b .) & (x2. show that the area of triangle C. If C is the centre ofthe ellipse. 2(a +b ) fa2 Q.IO -b2)2 Q. 14 5 show t hat cos 9 = .(2/3). y2) are two points on the ellipse — + 2 = 1. where 2a is the length l + 3e of the major axi s and e is the eccentricity of the ellipse. It meets the x-axis & the y-axis in P a b & Q respectively. Hence show that PQ = 2b. the tangents at which meet in a2 b (h. a2 b2 x 2 v2 P and Q are the points on the e llipse — If the chord P and Q touches the ellipse a b 4 X 2 y 2 4x .6 Q. Q & Q' is 8a2b where (j) is the eccentric angle of the point P. (a-b)sin 2<j) x2 v2 If the normal at the poi nt P(9) to the ellipse— + — = 1. x2 y2 A normal chord to an ellipse —y + Ar = 1 makes an angle of 45° with the axis.8 Q. X2 V 2 PCP' is a diameter of an ellipse — + — = i (a > b) & QCQ' is the corresponding diameter of the a b~ auxiliary circle.7 Q.e sin 9) sq. q). prove that se ca+sec(3=2 where a. where 9 is the eccen tric angle of the point to which the line is drawn through the focus & e is the eccentricity of the ellipse. Tangents are drawn to the ellipse 2 + . units.Q. a2 b2 a x 2 y2 A straight line AB touches the ellipse — + 2 = 1 & the circle x2 + y2 = r2 . intersects it again at the point Q(20). Show that the area ofa sector of the standard ellipse in thefirstquadrant between the maj or axis and a line drawn th rough the focus is equal to 1/2 ab (9 . x2 y 2 A normal inclined at 45° to the axis ofthe ellipse — + = 1 is drawn.

14 ^B ansaIClasses Conic Section (Parabola..2 = 1fromthe point .2 a 2 \ 2 Q..12 Q. Ellipse. . Hyperbola) [17] .13 Q.

17 In an ellipse —j + — = 1. .1 > ' 2 1N ' 2 O '2 (A) (B) ~ (C) . b2 2a .4.6 ] A tangent to the ellipse x + 4y = 4 meets the ellipse x + 2y = 6 at P & Q. Find the values of t & <> {. 16 If p is the length of the perpendicularfrom the focus' S' of the ellipse —. x3 as well as y. 5 ] Q.y 3 ): (A) lie on a straight line (B) lie on on ellipse (C) lie on a circle ( D) are vertices of a triangle.2 + 2 ] Q.+ = 1 on anv tangent at 'P'. y2.0 (D) 12 [ JEE '98..y 2 )&(x 3 . 2 p *(SP) a b x2 y2 Q.a2b2) = c2 (y2 . An ellipse with 'a' & 'b' as the lengths of it s semi axes slides between two given straight lines at right angles to one anoth er.. nt and n^ are the lengths of two perpendicular normals terminated at the maj or a b 1 + 1 a2+b2 axi s then prove that: ~T ~2 ~ z— n. 0) and 16x2 + 25y2 = 400. cos a x2 y2 Q.0) is incident on the ellipse 9x2 + 2 5y2 = 225 at the point P with abscissa 3.b2)2. (x 2 . then PFj + PF2 equals (A) 8 (B ) 6 (G)1. Hyperbola) [21] . x2 y2 Q. > | j.(D) 5 5 5 5 5/ v5' \ 5 5 J -> fa B ansa I Classes C onic Section (Parabola. EXERCISE i n Q. with the same common ratio. 2 2 2 2 2 [ REE '96.20 If tangents are drawn to the ellipse — + = \ intercept on the x-axis a constant length c.. (b) On the ellipse. prove that a2 b the locus of the point of intersection of tangents is the curve 4y2 (b2x2 + a2y2 . 19 Using the fact that the product of the perpendiculars from either foci of an ellipse — + ~ = 1 upon a a b 2 tangent is b . x2.Q. then the points (x. Prove that the tangents at P & Q of the ellipse x2 + 2y2 = 6 are at right angles. 0). y3 a re in G. x2 y2 Q. i . yj).4(a) If Xj. Ellipse.3(i) The number of values of c such that the straight line y = 4x + c touches the curve (x2/ 4) + y2 = 1 is (A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) infinite (ii) If P = (x. .. 2t) on the parabola y2 = 4x is same as the normal drawn at a point (V5 cos <> 2 sin < ) on the ellipse 4x2 + 5y2 = 20. F2 = (-3. 4x2 + 9y2 = 1.2 If tangent drawn at a point (t . = (3. 18 If the tangent at any point of an ellipse— + ~ r = 1 makes an angle a with the major axis and an angle a b P with the focal radius of the p oint of contact then show that the eccentricity 'e' of the ellipse is given by c osP the absolute value of . Find the equation of the reflected ray after first reflection. (x2 + y2) (x2 y2 + b4) = 4 a2 x2 y2. Show that the locus of its centre is a circle & the locus of its foci is the curve. then sh ow that—T = 1. the points at which the tangents are parallel to the line 8x = 9y are: / 2 1 \ . deduce the following loci. y). [ J EE '97. 15 A ray emanating from the point ( . n 2 b x2 y2 Q. F.l Q.P.

units a 2 +b 2 .y = 1.5] 2 2 x y Find the condition so t hat the line px + qy = r intersects the ellipse —y + —y = 1 in points whose a b 7t e ccentric angles differ by —. Q. Also find the length of the intercept of the tangent between the coordinate axes.6 Find the equa tion of the largest circle with centre (1. C to the major axis of the ellipse. R lie on the same side of the major axis as A.7] Q. and C2 be two circles with C2 lying insi de C r A circle C lying inside C. (b) The value of 6 for which the sum of in tercept on the axis by the tangent at the point 0 < 9 < 7t/2 on the ellipse — + y = 1 is least.units (D)none cos 9. Prove that the normals to the ellipse drawn at the points P. then find the equation of the locus ofthe mid-point ofAB. Suppose perpendiculars from A. in an ellipse. is <B>i?V=l < c >l?v =1 (D) 2?+7=i = 1 and coordinate axes is [JEE 2004 (Screening)] x2 y2 Q. / T a 2 + a b + b2 (B) — . units (D) sq. is : <A)? Q.units (B)27-\/3 sq. .2 + 3 + 10 (out of 200) ] Q. 5 ] Q.7 Q. units (C) — sq. 12(a) The minimum area of triangle formed by the tangent to the ellipse —y + • (A) ab sq. units [JEE 2005 (Screening)] (b) Find the equation of the common tangent in 1st quadra nt to the circle x2 + y2 = 16 and the ellipse x2 y 2 — + — = 1. Q.ll Tt X2 2 <B)? Tt (QTt (D)[JEE'2003 (Screening)] Tt The locus ofthe middle point of the intercept of the tangents drawnfroman extern al point to the ellipse x2 + 2y2 = 2. . [ JEE '99.units (C)27sq.y + . the common tangent to a circle of the family and the ellipse 4 x2 + 25 y 2 = 100 meets the co-ordinate axes at A & B. [ JEE' 2002. x2 y 2 B. [ JEE '2001.— sq. Q and R are co ncurrent. C respectiv ely. 9 Q. B. touches C j internally and C2externally. [ JEE '2000. between the coordinates axes.(c) Consider the family of circles. sin 9). R so that a b P.l0(a) The area of the quadrilateral formed by the tangents at the ends of the latus rectum of the x2 y2 ellipse— + — = 1 is 9 5 (A)9^3 sq.6] Let ABC be an equilateral triangle inscribed in the c ircle x2 + y2 = a2.0) that can be inscribed in the ellips e x2 + 4y2 =16. [JEE 2005 (Mains). the perpen dicular from a focus upon any tangent and the line joining the centre of the ell ipse to the point of contact must on the corresponding directrix. Ident ify the locus of the centre of C.3 ] Prove that. If in the first qu adrant.8 Let C. x2 + y2 = r 2 . ^ (a + b)2 .5 Q. (a > b) meet the ellipse respectively at P. [ REE '2001.2 < r < 5. [REE'99.

Ellipse.4] fa B ansa I Classes Conic Section (Parabola. Hyperbola) [21] .

||PS | . The distance SS' = focal length.e. : V = (ae. A . Whereb2 = a 2 ( e 2 .A. Note: / (L. The T. & the C. O F T H E HYPERBOLA. 2.ae. 0 ) / (Latus rectum) 2b2 _ (C. e & A ' = ( .1). CONJUGATE AXIS : The line segment B'B between the two points B' = (0. V2 V 2 * —. 3.+ — = 1 are conjugate hyperbolas of each. STAN DARD EQUATION & DEFINITION(S) Standard equation of the hyperbola is 2 2 2 L _ l L = i.A.A S ' = ( . of the hyperbola are together called the Principal axes of t he hyperbola. b) is call ed as = t h e C .e. .|PS' 1 = 2a.A. 0).a. FOCAL PROPERTY: The difference of the focal distances of any point on the hyperbola is constant and equal to transverse axis i.1) a b or a2 e2 = a2 + b2 i. a b a 2 b2 Note Tha t: (a) If e.b) & B s (0. b /a) x 2 FOCI: S s (ae. O F T H E HYPERBOLA.R. . 2a (e2 .& e2 are the eccentrcities of the hyperbola & its conjugate then ej 2 + e2 2 = 1. (e > 1). 1 CONJUGATE HYPERBOLA: Two hyperbolas suc h that transverse & conjugate axes of one hyperbola are respectively the conjuga te & the transverse axes of the other are called CONJUGATE HYPERBOLAS of each ot her.KEY CONCEPTS (HYPERBOLA) The HYPERBOLA is a conic whose eccentricity is greater than unity. 0) & EQUATIONS OF DIRECTRICES: x= e & x= V E R T I C E S : A = (a. A .)2 T.A. e2 = 1 + 1+ CA T. a . (b) (c) 4.) = 2e (distance from focus to the corresponding directrix) TRANSVE RSE Axis : The line segment A'A of length 2a in which the foci S' & S both lie i s called the T . 2 2 & X2 V 2 eg. 0).

Note that the eccentricit y of the rectangular hyperbola is -fl and the length of its latus rectum is equa l to its transverse or conjugate axis. RECTANGULAR OR EQUILATERAL HYPERBOLA: The particular kind of hyperbola in which the lengths of the transverse & conjug ate axis are equal is called an EQUILATERAL HYPERBOLA. Two hyperbolas are said to be similiar if they have the same eccentri city. Hyperbola) [21] . fa B ansa I Classes Conic Section (Parabola.The foci of a hyperbola and its conjugate are concyclic and form the vertices of a square. Ellipse.

a" b"1 TANGENTS AND NORMALS : TANGENT S: xx. 6.5.0) J A hyperbola & the auxiliary circle. '9' is called the eccentric angle of the point 'P' on the hyperbola.) & y . as a diameter is called the AUXILIARY CIRCLE of the hyperbola.) is i.b z ' "* a' b Note: In general two tangents can be drawnfroman external point (x.y. = m. then no tangent can be drawnfrom(x. (0<9<2tt). „ (-aA 1 Xe i c (0.2 2 = b or without the curve. y. AUXILIARY CIRCLE: y A circle drawn with centre C & TA.. & m2 are roots of the equation (x.x2) .) lies within. y}) to the hyperbola. Equation ofthe auxiliary circle is x2 + y2 = a2. y. = m2(x . upon LINE AND A HYPERBOLA: X 2 " V 2 8.a2)m2 . (a) The straight line y=mx + c is a secant. Equation of .y.x.2 . zero or negative according as the point (x. where m. The parametric equations: x = a cos h <> j. i is positive.t.r. If D < 0.(x . a.2 x ^ m + y ^ + b2 = 0. Equation of the tangent to the hyperbola x : 1 at the point (x^y.) to the hyperbola and they are y .b2. Note : The equations x = a sec 9 & y = b tan 9 together represents the hyperbola X V — =1 a 2 b2 where 9 is a parameter. POSITION OFAP OINT'P'w. J > General Note : Since the fundamental e quation to the hyperbola only differs from that to the ellipse in having . y = b sin h < also represents the same hyperbola.0) N . Note from the figurethat P & Q are called t h e "CORRESPONDING POINTS " o n t h e / P(a sec0.b2 in stead of b2 it will be found that many propositions for the hyperbola are derive d from those for the ellipse by simply changing the sign of b2. AHYPERBOLA: The quantity M . b tanB) \(a. a tangent or passes outside the hyperbol a — + = 1 according as: c2 > = < a2 m2 .

Hyperbola) = 1.bz can be taken as the tangent to the hyperbola X" a z b2 Note th at there are two parallel tangents having the same slope m. b tan 9) is 2 xsec9 ytan9 = 1. fa B ansa I Classes [21] . (c) (d) y = mx ± Va2m2 . Ellipse. 6 9 sin cos i " 2 Note: Point of intersection ofthe tangents at 9.y=b 9.~ = 1 at the point (a sec 9.B y . & 9? is x = a .+9 2 9j+9 2 cos cos 9J + 9 . a + B11 a+B — cos --—sm = cos a 2 b 2 2 Conic Section ( Parabola.the tangent to the hyperbola 2 (b) . Equation of a chord joining a & p is x a .

.= a . Ifb 2 <a 2 this circle is real. 2 2 2 + —. pair of tangentsfroman external point is to be interpreted as in ellipse. The equation to the director circle is: x2 + y2 = a2 . •3/ * S' ""pf\ J \ S v2 I = 1 (a > k > b > 0) Xare confocal k2-b2 H-4 11. This spells the reflection property of the hyperbola as "An incoming light ray " aimed towards one focus is reflected from the outer surface of the hyperbola towards the other focus. HIGHLIGHTS ON TANGENT AND NORMAL: H-1 H-2 H-3 x 2 y2 Locus of the feet of the perpendicular drawnfromfocus of the hyperbola — — = 1 upon any tangent a b is its auxiliary circle i.1 and the hyperbola a 2 b2 a2-k2 and therefore orthogonal. the radius of the circle is imaginary. CIRCLE: DIRECTOR The locus of the intersection of tangents which are at right angles is known as the DIRECTOR CIRCLE of the hyperbola. polar. x2 y 2 The equation of the normal to the hyperbola — z . chord with a given middle point.e. so that there is no such circle & so no tangents at right angle can be drawn to the curve. x 2 +y 2 = a2 & the product of the feet of these perpendiculars is b2 • (semi C A)2 The portion of the tangent between the point of contact & the directrix subtends a right angle at the corr esponding focus..D sec B tan 9 Equation to the chord of contac t. b tanG) on the hyperbola — . 10. x 2 y2 x2 Note that the ellipse — + . The foci of the hyperbola and the points P and Q in which any tangent meets the .NORMALS: (a) (b) (c) 9.b =a e • x i Yi x2 y2 The equation of the normal at the point P (a sec9. The tangent & normal at any point of a hyperbola bisect the ang le between the focal radii. ifb 2 =a 2 the radius ofthe cir cle is zero & it reduces to a point circle at the origin.= 1 at the point P(x. In this case the centr e is the only pointfromwhich the tangents at right angles can be drawn to the cu rve. It follows that if an ellipse and a hyperbola have the same foci. 2 H a . ) on it is a b 2 2 ax by 2 . y. they cut at right angles at any of their co mmon point.2 _ = i is a 2 b 2 ax b X y = „2 + L2 = a2 e . y Light ray f Tangent 0 . If b2 > a2.b2.

To find the asymptote of the hyperbola: x2 y2 Let y = mx + c is the asy mptote of the hyperbola — = j = 1... ASYMPTOTES: Definition: If the length of the perpendicular let fallfroma point on a hyperbol a to a straight line tends to zero as the point on the hyperbola moves to infini ty along the hyperbola.a2m2) x 2 . then the straight line is called the Asymptote of the Hy perbola.. £L 1) Solving these two we get the quadratic as ( b 2 . Ellipse.a2 (b2 + c2) = 0 .tangents at the vertices are concyclic with PQ as diameter of the circle. Hyperbola) [21] .2a2 mcx .(1) fa B ansa I Classes Conic S ection (Parabola.

Perpendicular from the foci on either asymptote meet i t in the same points as the corresponding directrix & the common points of inter section lie on the auxiliary circle. H-l H-2 H-3 HIGHLIGHTS ON ASYMPTOTES: If from any point on the asymptote a straight line be drawn perpendicular to the transverse axis.In ch 2b y y=o B A' yc \ A order that y = mx + c be an asymptote. the product of the segments of this line. x2 y2 The tangent at any point P on a hyper bola —y . x2 .y2 = a2 are. A hyperbola and its conjugate have the same asymptote. (vi) The asymptotes of a hyperbola are the diagonals of the rectangle formed by the lines drawn through the extremitie s of each axis parallel to the other axis. The equation ofthe pair of asymptotes differ the hyper bola & the conjugate hyperbola by the same constant only. y) = 0 represents a hyperbola. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Equilateral hyperbola < > rectangular hyperbola. ( a. The asymptotes pass th rough the centre of the hyperbola & the bisectors of the angles between the (v) asymptotes are the axes of the hyperbola. meets the asymptotes in Q and R a b and cuts off a A CQR of constant area equal to ab from the asymptotes & the portion of the tang ent intercepted between the asymptote is bisected at the point of contact. This implies that locus of the centre ofthe circle circumscribing the A CQR in case o f a rectangular hyperbola is the hyperbola itself & for a standard hyperbola the locus would be the curve. (vii) Asymptotes are the tangent to t he hyperbola from the centre. x y equations of asymptote are — + — = 0 a and a b combined equation to the asymptotes —j -0. Then the po int of intersection of — = 0 & — = 0 ox dy ox dy gives the centre of the hyperbola.b2y2) = (a2+b2)2. both roots of equation (1) must approa infinity. 4(a2x2 . If the angle between the a symptote of a hyperbola 1 is 20 then e = secG. 0) Note PARTICULAR CASE: When b = a the asymptotes ofthe rectangular hyperbola.~ = 1 with centre C. Find — & — . y = ± x which are at right angles. the conditions for which are: coeff of x2 = 0 & coeff of x = 0. intercepted between the point & the curve is always equal to the square of the semi conjugate axis. 12. [21] . = If a hyperbola is equilateral then the conjugate hyperbola is also equilateral. b b a2m2 0 o r m = + — & a a2 mc 0 => c = 0. ( ii A simple method to find the coordinates of th e centre of the hyperbola expressed as a general equation vi) of degree 2 should be remembered as: Let f (x.

Ellipse. Hyperbola) .H-4 fa B ansaI Classes Conic Section (Parabola.

x.) for one asymptote and (x2. 7.l to 6. 9 Find the equation ofthe tangent to the hyperbola x2 —4y2=36 which is perpendicular to the line x .7 If a rectangular hyperbola have the equation. A triangle is inscribed in the rectangular hyperbola xy = c2. (a) (b) (c) RECTANGULAR HYPERBOLA: Rectangular hyperbola referred to its asymptotes as axis of coordinates. Suggested problems from Loney: Exercise-36 (Q. 10 Ascertain the co-ordinates of the two point s Q & R.87 = 0 and a 2 b2 5x . 3 2 V 2 Q. 2 Find the equation to the hyperbola whose directrix is 2x+y= 1. 5.13. the foci.) is — + — = 2 &atP(t)is —+ ty = 2c. Exercise-37 (Q. 2 2 Q. then prove that x2y . the directrices. the length & the equations of the axes & the asym ptotes of the hyperbola 16x2 . If the point of concurrence is (x.axis at A & B. Show that the eccentricity is equal to the square root of (1 X Q. y. Prove that the circle on AB 2 a b2 as diameter passes through the foci of the hyperbola. 4 Q. y. t he length of the latus rectum. k) is kx + hy = 2hk. t (d) (e) Equation of normal: y — = t2(x . For the hyperbola Find the centre.4) inter .1)&eccentricity V3 • Find also the length of its latus rectum. 3. where S & S' are the foci & Ais the vertex. Prove that the perpendiculars to the sides at the points where they meet the asymptotes are co ncurrent.6 Q. t. xy = c2. Find 'a' & V. wrhere the tangent to the hyperbola = l at 45 20 the point P(9. 2 y2 The hyperbola = 1 passes through the point of intersection of the lines. 7x +13y . 22). prove that the locus of t he middle points of the chords of constant length 2d is (x2 + y2)(x y .l. 16.{0}. 2 v2 The normal to the hyperbola x — = 1 drawn at an extremity of its latus rectum is parallel to an a 2 b2 asymptote. v The tangents & normal at a point o nx = j cut the y .l Q.t 2 X V X Equation ofthe tangent at PCXj'y.y+4=0. • — = 1 prove that 2 100 25 (i) eccentricity=75/2 (ii) SA. 12) EXERCISE-I Q. S'A=25.5 Q.c2) = d2 xy. +12) with slope m = — — . t e R . x2 2 v Q. 8 Q..9y2 + 32x + 36y -164 = 0.8y + 7 = 0 & the latus rectum is 32 V2 /5. y = c /t. focus (1 .ct) Chord with a given middle point as (h. Equation of a chord joining the points P (tj) & Q(t2) is x + tj t2y = c(t. y2) for the other. Equation is xy = c2 with parametric representation x = ct. = c2.

0) of a hyperbola x 2 v2 °i e-1 . Ellipse.+e—1.2 —2 = 1.=0.ll If 6j & 9. Hyperbola) [21] . Q. Also c ompute the area of the triangle CQR where C is the centre of the hyperbola. are the parameters of the extremities of a chord through (ae.sects the two asymptotes. Finally prove that P is the middle point of QR. — 2 + a b fa B ansa I Classes Conic Section (Parabola. then show that tan-2L -tan^f.

Q. a 2 b2 S being the focus of the hyperbola.1). S.22 Prove that infinite number of triangles can be inscribed in the rectangular hyperbola. y. Its one directrix is the common tangent.~ = 1 at the point P meets the trans verse axis in G & the conjugate a b axis in g & CF be perpendicular to the norma l from the centre C. Q. to the circle x2 + y2 = 1 and the hyperbola x2 .2y2 = 6 an d are inclined at angles 9 and < to the x -axis.25 The tangent at P on the hyperbola —— — = 1 meets one of the asymptote in Q.— = 1 meets the x .x2)3 = 4 a2x2y2. then prove that IPF. Find their equations. Pg=a2 where a & b are the semi transverse & semi-conjugate axes of the hyperbola. a2 b 2 2 Prove that SP. x y=c 2 whose sides touch the parabola. Q. tan (j) = 2.16y2 = 144 in the ratio S'P : PS = 2 :3 where S & S' are the foci of the hyperbola.5/2). (3) to the hyperbola 3x2 . Find the points of intersection of this li ne with the asymptotes of the hyperbola.y2 = 1. Q. x2 y2 Q. 2 2 Q. and y7 then prove that — + — = — . Hyperbola) [21] ..12 If C is the centre of a hyperbola —— 2 = 1. Ellipse.13 Tangents are drawn to the hyper bola 3 x2 .2 2 ordinates are y. y2 = 4ax. fa B ansa I Classes Conic Section (Parabola. If tan 9.2y2 = 2 5 from the point (0.20 An ellipse has eccentricity 1/ 2 and one focus at the point P (1/2. ) | Q. 2 2 Q.17 The perpendicular from the centre upon the normal on any point of the hyp erbolax R.18 Ifthe normal to the hyperbola —. Through P a straight line is dr awn at an angle of 135° to the axis OX. S' its foci and P a point on it. Find the locus of R.axis at G. PG | = b2 & PF.23 A point P div ides the focal length of the hyperbola 9x2 . Q. y2 k Q. Show that the locus of a 2 b2 the mid point of PQ is a similiar hyperbola.Q. Find the equation of the ellipse in the standard form. then prove that —— + —-— = — —.24 Find the length ofthe diamet er ofthe ellipse — + — = 1 perpendicular to the asymptote ofthe hyperbola 25 9 • X2 V 2 — .16 If two points P & Q on the hyperbola X2 V 2 — = 1 whose centre is C be such that CP is perpendicular a 2 b2 2 Q.7. CP2 CQ2 a 2 b2 2 v— = 1 meets at b2 x2 y2 Q. S'P = CP .~ = 1 passing through the first & third quadrants. show that SG = e.21 Show that the locus of the middle points of normal chords of the rectangular hyperbola x2 . 2 2 Q. prove th at p2 = 2a 2 . a2 to CQ & a < b.19 If the normal a t a point P to the hyperbola .a + b2.y2 = a2 is (y2 . nearer to the point P. k) to the hyperbola X V = 1 cuts the aux iliary circle in points whose a 2 b2 . SP .14 Ifthe tangent at the point (h.15 Tangents are drawn from the point (a.

14 A line through the origin meets the circle x 2 +y 2 = a2 at P & the hyperbola x2 . makes angles a. Find the area of the triangle that these tangents form with th eir chord of contact. If a chord joining the points P (a secG. then sh owthat tan c) = tan G (4 sec2G . If the ratio of their eccentricities is 3/7. 3 v The chord of the hyperbola x 2 — = 1 whose equation is x cos a + y sin a = p subtends a right angle a b2 at the centre. 7 Q. Show that the tangents at P & Q meet on the curve ( 2 2^ 4xz y4 y = —— and tha t the normals meet on the axis of x. C will meet in a point if cot2a + cot2p + cot2y = 0 Q. s uch that its distance from the transverse axis is equal to its distance from an asymtote.2) & it passes through (5.y2 = a2 is a normal to it at P.2 Q. Q'. 13 The sides of a triangle ABC.9 Q.2). is the curve (x2 . the differe nce of their focal semi axes is equal to 4. P' and the asymptotes in Q. and V2 Q. 2 2 Q. 2 2 Q. 3). show that the other d iagonal passes through the centre.y 2 = a2 at Q. 15 A straight line is drawn parallel to the conjugate axis of a hyperbola X v = \ to meet it and the a 2 b2 conjugate hyperbola in the points P & Q. Find the equation of these curves. (3.y + 8 = 0.y2 + 6 x + 16 y .y2)2 = 4x2(x2 . B. Prove that it always touches a circle. a tanG) & Q (a sec<j). Tangents are drawn from any point on the rectangular hyperbola x2 .2y2 + 3x . Prove that the locus of the point of intersection of the tangent at P to the circle and the tangent at Q to the hyperbola is curve a4(x2 . 12 A paral lelogram is constructed with its sides parallel to the asymptotes ofthe hyperbol a a 2 b2 one of its diagonals is a chord of the hyperbola.5 Q. Its centre is (1.y2 = a2 . X2 " — = 1.10 Find the equations of the tangents to the hyperbola x 2 . ( Prove that the locus of the middle point of the chord of contact of tangents from any point of the circle 2 2 f-2 (x 2 + y 2 ) x y_ X V 2 2 2 x + y = r to the hyperbola — . a b Prove that (i)PQ = P'Q' & (ii)PQ' = P 'Q Find the asymptotes of the hyperbola 2x2 . Find the equation of the hyperbola. Prove that the locus of a point P on each hyperbola. 1 Q. Q. Compute the sum of the distances of these four points from t he point (-3. y with an asymptote. 11 A series of hyperbolas is drawn having a common tran sverse axis of length 2a.EXERCISE-II Q.8 Q. i 2 b a 2 J a" ^Bansal Classes Conic Sectio n (Parabola.a2) + 4 x 2 y4 = 0.1). The asymptotes of a hyperbola are pa rallel to 2x + 3y = 0 & 3x + 2y = 0. inscribed in a hyperbola xy=c 2 . a b Th e graphs of x2 + y2 + 6 x .9y2 = 9 that are drawn from (3. An ellipse and a hyperbola have their principal axes along the co ordinate axes and have a common foci separated by a distance 2-Vl3 .2).2 = 1 is given by the equation 2 i2 — b r2 a2 b va j x2 v2 A transversal cuts the same branch of a hyperbola — = 1 in P.3xy .6 Q.24 y + 72 = 0 & x2 . Q. Hyperbola) [24] .46 = 0 inters ect at four points. Also f ind the equation to the conjugate hyperbola & the equation of the principal axes of the curve. Ellipse.a2). Prove that the nomals at A.4 Q. Prove tha t these tangents are equally inclined to the asymptotes of the hyperbola.b2 to the ellipse x2 y2 —j + —r = 1. a tan<j>) on the hyperbola x2 .

meeting k a 2 b 2 (l + m 2 ) the asymptotes in Q & R. Showthat QM • Q' M' = PN2. R on a rectangular hyperbola xy = c2 intersect at a p oint on the curve.2 Find the locus of the mid points of the chords of the circle x2 + y2 = 16. Q. z. tana • tanp • tany • tanS = 1. p .17 Prove that the part of the tangent at any point of the hvperbola —— — = 1 intercepted between the a 2 b2 point of contact and the transverse axis is a harmonic mean between the lengths of the perpendiculars drawnfromthe foci on the normal at the same point.25 Through any point P ofthe hyperbola ^ = l a line QPR is drawn with afixedgradient m.20 Chords of the hyperbola = \ are tangents to the c ircle drawn on the line joining the foci as a 2 b2 diameter.= 1 is parallel to the tangent at P. Show that the product.23 If four points be taken on a rectangular hyperbola xy = c2 such that the ch ord joining any two is perpendicular to the chord joining the other two and a. y. (QP) • (PR)=—. x = t2 +1 + 1.= 1 to the tangent drawn at a point R on the hyperbola.+y 2 + y3 + y4 = 0 ( C) Xj x2 x3 x4 = c4 (D) y i y 2 y 3 y 4 = c4 [ JEE'98. S(x4. y4). y.6 ] If the circle x2 + y2 = a2 intersects the hyperbola xy = c2 in four points P(x1. tangents are drawn to another hvperbola which has the — a 2 b2 same asymptotes. b -a m a 2 2 EXERCISE-III Q. 1 Q. Show that the chord of contact c uts off a constant area from the asymptotes. Q.). + X 2 + X3 + X4 = 0 (B)y.24 The nor mals at three points P. QM & Q' M' are a 2 b2 perpendiculars to an asymptote.19 P & Q are two variable points on a rectangular hyperbola xy = c2 such that the tange nt at Q passes through the foot of the ordinate of P. Prove that the middle point of PQ lies on a parabola. . Hyperbola) [21] . then show that ( (RS + RS')2 = 4 a2 V P j Q.3 (a) The curve described parametrically by. Q. Prove that the centre of the hyperbola is the centroid of the triangle PQR. Q. x2 y2 Q.2 J Q. [ REE '97.22 The chord QQ' of a hyperbola . Find the locus of t he point of intersection of tangents at the extremities of the chords.18 Let 'p' be the perpendicular distance from the centre C of the hyper bola — . R (x3.1 + 1 rep resents: (A) a parabola (B) an ellipse (C) a hyperbola (D) a pair of straight li nes fa B ansa I Classes Conic Section (Parabola. y = t2 . Q.— ^ . z .Q. PN. 5 be the inclinations to either asymptotes of the straight lines joining th ese points to the centre. Q. y2).y3).16y2 = 144. then ( A ) X . Then prove that. 2 2 Q.—. If S & S' are th e two foci of the hyperbola. which are tangent to the hyperbola 9x2 . Ellipse. Show that the locus ofthe point of intersection of tangent at P & Q is a hyperbola with the same asymptote s as the given hyperbola.21 From any point of the hyperbola X V = 1. Q(x2.16 A tangent to the parabola x2 = 4 ay meets the hyperbola xy = k2 in two poin ts P & Q. X2 V 2 2 2 ^ 2 2 Q.

If (h. 8(a) If a hyperbola passes through the focus of the ellipse -— + — = 1 and its transverse and conjugate axis 25 16 coincides with the major and minor axis of the ellipse. k) is the point of intersection of the normals at P & Q.0) (D) focus of hyperbola is (sV3.7 Tangents are drawn from any point on the hyperbola — locus of midpoint of the chor d of contact.)] The line 2x + p y = 2 is a tangent to the curve x2 . is the circle touching all the sides of the square ABCD.l) V [JEE 2004 (Scr.y2 = 9.9 = 0 (B) 9x2 .-2V6) (C) (2.8y2 .)] 2 Q.3) X Q. then (A) equation of hyperbola — .(b) Let P (a sec 9.— = 1 X2 y2 (B) equation of hyperbola — .8y2 + 18x + 9 = 0 [ JEE '99.9 = 0 (D) 9x2 .6 (D)(^.5 Q.2 + 2 + 2 (out of 200)] The equation of the common tangent to the curve y2 = 8x and xy=-1 is (A) 3y = 9x + 2 (B)y = 2x+1 (C)2y = x + 8 (D)y = x + 2 [JEE 2002 Screening] 2 2 x y Given the family of hyperbols r — = 1 for a e (0. is: (A) 9x2 . 4 Q. T he point of contact is (A)(4. b tan 9) and Q (a sec <j). B.5] Com prehension: (3 questions) Let ABCD be a square of side length 2 units.8y2 + 18x . — = 1 to the circle x2 + y2 = 9. L is a line through A PA 2 +PB 2 +PC 2 +PD 2 (a) If P is a F . 4] 2 X2 V 2 Q. rt/2) w hich of the following does not cos a sin a change with varying a? (A) abscissa o f foci (B) eccentricity (C) equations of directrices (D) abscissa of vertices [ JEE 2003 (Scr. o) [JEE 2006.18x . then the equation of the corresponding pair of tangents. C2 is the circle through vertices A.18x + 9 = 0 2 2 (C) 9x .8y . then k is equal to: — a 2 b2 a +b a 2 +b 2 (A) ———• (B)(C) — — (D) 7 1 (c) If x = 9 is the chord of contact of the hyperbola x2 . and product of their eccentricities is 1. D and C. C. be two p oints on the hyperbola X2 V 2 = 1. b tan <j>).-V6) (B)(7.2y2 = 4.— = 1 X2 y2 (C) focus of hyperbola (5. Find the [JEE 2005 (Mains). where 9 + (j) = —.

75 (B) 1. Point S moves such that its distances from the line BD and the vertex A are equal. and Q in anotherFpoint on C. then — — — " ~ r 1 2 Q A ' + QB + QC + QD ( A) 0. units (C) lsq. units (B) 2/3 sq.point on C.25 (C) 1 (D)0.unit (D)2sq. then the locus of centre of the circle is (A) ellipse (B) hyperbola (C) parabola (D) parts of straight line (c) A line M through A is drawn parallel to BD. If locus of S cuts M at T 2 and T ? and AC at T P then area of A T j T 2 T 3 is (A) 1/2 sq. externally such that both the circles are on the same side of the line.5 is equal to (b) A circle touches the line L and the circle C. Ellipse..5 marks each] ^Bansal Classes Conic Section (Parabola. Hyperbola) [26] .units [JEE 2006.

(b) a = 2 Q.5 y = 48 .units Q. (2a.16 Q(4.l Q. 1 2 x .7 (a) C . 8 V2 sq.9 3x2 + 5y2 = 32 0 or y .y + 2 = 0.32 = 0 + z l = _L a4 b4 c2 Q.3 x = 3 2 y 2/3 +2 1 .21.5 (a) C .2a).b2 Q. a Q.ay)2 = 0 Q.5 (ax + by) (x2 + y2) + (bx . y2 = 2a(x . 2y. units Q.ll B Q. B.2y + 5 = 0 Q.9 7y±2(x + 6a) = 0 Q.( x 2 + x) Q.6 (x + 3)y2 + 32 = 0 Q. (1.2xy + x .IO (a) ' 1 P 4 EXERCISE-II Q.4a) y = -4x + 72.700 = 0 x + y .2 y + 12 = 0 Q.3 [a(t2o + 4).23 a 2 >8b 2 ' <^ 8 2 y -9 4f 2^ (2 8^ 2 x — .ll 4=v4= V2 V2 2 2 EXERCISE-I Q. (iii) D.3 2 x .ANSWER KEY PA RABC)LA EXERCISE-I Q. vertex Q.180y . ( c) (i) A.IO 24 sq.2 Q.6 (4 .IO (a) C.8 20x + 45y .12 ( (x. y = mx +-— where m 4m -5±V30 10 Q.9 D Q.5 bx + a V3 y = 2ab Q. 1 (a2 .19 Q.5 Q.y + 3 = 0 Q. (b) B Q. (ii) B.18 Q.(b)y = . y = 3x .33 Q. -8) / .28y + 27 = 0 Q. .15 12x + 5y = 48.13 (a) D. 0).5 = 0. (b) A.19 EXERCISE-II Q.4ax)2 = 16a(x3 + xy2 + ay2) EXERCISE-III Q. 0) Q.l x .2 y + 4 = 0 .15 x2 + y2 + 1 8 x .4) .40x . (b) D Q. units 15a2/4 Q.20 v9 9y V 9j Q.2at0] Q. 0).18 x .4 Q. 4x ± V33 y .13 ^/r2 .12 xy2 + y2 .4 x .8 C Q. x .2 y + 1 = 0.x + 2y+ 16 = 0. . ) (x2 + y2 . (iv) C ELLIPSE Q.y = 1.b2)2 x2y2 = a2 (a2 + b2)2 y2 + 4 b6x2 Q.14 55 V2 sq. x + y+ 5 = 0 Q.-16) 3x .21y2 = 8ax v ^ Q.(16. Q.8 (a.

= .7 Locus is an ellipse with foci as the centres of the circles C}a nd C2.t = 0 > j -v 5 V5 2 Q. Ellipse. < = Tt + tan_12.12(a)A. Hyperbola) .tan"1 2.2 V 2 ) r 2 Tt Q.D . (ii)C Q. (b)A Q.10 (a) C . Q.4(a)A.= ( 4 .11C Q. (c)25y 2 + 4x 2 = 4x 2 y 2 Q.(b)AB= 14 [21] fa B ansa I Classes Conic Section (Parabola.8 a 2p2 + b2q2 = r 2 sec 2 .<|>=±—.3 (i)C.5(x-l) 2 +y 2 11 1 1 Tt Q. t = . (b)B.EXERCISE-III Q. t =—-= .l (j) = Tt .

y .37y . ft* Q.9y2 Q.21 ab J— a 4 b4 a +b Q. 2).l (x2 + y2)2 = 16x2 .2 a2 = 25/2 .2y + 5 = 0 .5 = 0 . (c) C fa B ansa I Classes Conic Section (Parabola. b2 = 16 V 5 (-1. 2x2 . 8 sq.HYPERBOLA^ EXERCISE-I Q.4 Q.2 = 0.6 V x . 6 .3xy . 3x . (c) B ( x 2 +y2 2 ' Q.l Q. (b) D . D 2 A Q. C. (4. 2) & (-6.4 D (a) A.6 Q.7 Q.20 EXERCISE-III Q.2).98 = 0 .3 = 0 . 4x + 3 y .6 = 0 . (b) C.2 = 0 .9 7x 2 + 12xy-2y 2 -2x + 4 y . Ellipse.3 (a) A. 2x + y + 1 = 0 .2 Q.7 = 0 .13 3x + 2y .y . x+1 = 0 .10 6x2 + 13xy + 6y 2 . x + 3y = 0 —+ ^=1 49 36 2 2 -^-=1 9 4 2 2 Q. 8 . x + y±3V3=0 (x-i) 2 ( y _l) 2 f 4 Q.19 xy = —c 9 2 Q. unit 2 2 Q.17 (x2 + y2)2 (a2y2 . ~ . B.7 Q.8 Q. Hyperbola) [21] .y + 2 = 0 . 5 x .2y + 1 = 0 .3 y + 10 = 0 .38x .9 40 Q.10) and (3.2 A.5 A Q.-2) and 30 sq. 4 x .2y2 + 3x .5 Q.b 2 x 2 ) = x2y2 (a2 + b2) =3 EXERCISE-II Q. 3x . x . units 3 'x 2 y2^ Q.4 = 0 & 5x+ 14 = 0 . 10 (15.

.

TARGET I1T JEE 2007 P ) Y \ ft RfeV" S o i ft t v \ K £ o S ] 06 / o j MATHEMATICS XII (ALL) QUESTION BANK ON DEFINITE & INDEFINITE INTEGRATION .

3 (D)(sinl)-1 •/2 Value ofthe definite integral j ( sin '(3x-4x 3 ) ..cos '(4x J -3x) )dx -V2 n In n (A)0 (B)-(C)y (D)~ r_at_ dt Let /(x) = J I j and g be the inverse off.7 g- . (A) 1 £ Q.In (e2x + 1) + +x +c x 2 e 1 .x 2 e +c Q.x + c 2 e 1 1k Lim —J f(l + sin 2x) x dx k->0 k 0 ^ i .4 Q. J(ex+1 + e3~x)"' dx is l n tz 1 f NR 7t _1 1 \ 1 (A)tj (B)(C) ^ .2 The value ofthe definite integral.y — . I dx is equal to : e 1 .6 (A) 2 /n5ex / " ^ d x (A) 4-7t (B) 1 (C) e2 (D)nonexistent Q..t a n " 4e 4e e 2^ 2 x J cosfe x j-2xev dx is 0 (B) 1 +(s in 1) (C)l-(sinl) T C (D) 2e 2 Q. Then the value of g'(0) is 2 Vl + t^ (A) 1 (B) 17 (C) V n (D) none of these x Q. cot" 1 (e x ) (A) 7 In (e2x + 1) +x+ c x 2 e 1 . corV) (D) ~ / n ( e 2 x + l ) + ^ . cot _1 (e x ) (B) .l The value ofthe definite integral. Select the correct alternative : (Only one is correct) 00 Q.5 (Ve rcot _1 (e x ) . 2x cor 1 (e x ) (C) — /n(e + 1 ) .Question bank on Definite & Indefinite Integration There are 168 questions in th is question bank. .— .

B.(B) 6-71 (C) 5-71 (D)None feBansal Classes Q. on Definite & Indefinite Integration [2] .

then the 2 +2tcosa + l { t2' + l \-3 J I }c —f> 2 sin a a — a _ I a (C)± sina (D)± 2.IO Q.2/9 is equal to 1 10 (D) .4/9 Q.8 S'^f \es \qOVi If x satisfies the equation value x is (A)± a 2 sin a (Jl dt ^ 3 rt 2 sin2t ' -t smz x2dt x .12 The value of Lim ]>] n->oo r=i Vr(3Vr + (A) b-c 35 (B) 1 14 (C) (D) Q. sma a ( B ) ± Q.13 J / ( x + c)dx = b-2c V '" (A) Jf(x)dx (B) |f(x+c)dx (C) Jf(x)dx a-2c (D) Jf(x+2c)dx .ll J (x-sin 2 x-cosx)dx o (B) 2/9 (A)0 r=4n (C) .9 x . 1.2 = 0 (0 < a < TC).fx Q.sin 9) d9 equals : (A) .etan 9 sin 9 + c (B) etan 9 sin 9 + c (C) etan 9 sec 9 + c (D) etan 9 co s 9 + c Q. If/(x) = eg(x) and g(x) = J j then f' (2) has the value equal to : 2 1 +t (D) cannot be determined (C)l (A) 2/17 (B)0 J etan 9 (sec 9 .

n/2 . r f./n (1 + x7) + c t (C)/nx. 2n n/2 1 / ./n(l . B. •> r I I 6 Q. on Definite & Indefinite Integration . .. I3 = J(sm x)dx & I 4 = f/ n . f Sinx-COSX . = I2 = I4 = 0 but I3 * 0 f — —7 d x equals : x(l + x ) ( B ) / n x .1 dx then £ Q. l 2 = j(cos x)dx . =I 3 = I4 = 0 but I2 * 0 J (B) lj = I2 = I3 = 0 but I4 * 0 (D) I.In (1 + x7) + c 7t/2n Q..15 r o 1+ s i n x -cosx o _„/2 0 Vx (A)I1 = I2 = I3 = I4 = 0 (C) I. t./n(l .14 Let lj = j " : dx..x 7 ) + c (A)/nx+ . 3 N .x 7 ) + c (D)/nx+ .16 £ 0 dx l+tannnx (A)0 T t (B) 4n (C) nTt Tt (D) 2n [14] fe Bans aIClasses Q. s ..

2 (D)x = 3+ S £ Q.V l + / n | x | ( / n | x | 2 ) + c (C) ^ l + ln\x\ ( / n | x | .2 0 J.2 (C) x = 0 . 1 a (B) x = 1.3 (C)~(e-3) (D)e . w JI\x V T T ] ^ d x e < i u a l s : A 2 (A) .2 ) + c 3» 2 j | i ( | x .19 Let f (x) be a function satisfying f 1 (x)=f (x) with f (0) = 1 and g be the fun ction satisfying f (x) + g (x) = x2 l The value of the integral jf (x)g(x) dx is (A)e-^e2-^ (B) e .e2 .x | 4 ) | dx equals: (B) —^l + ln | x | (/n | x | + 2) + c (D) 2-yJl + /n | x | (3 /n | x | .18 Jf(x)dx = -a a a a (A) J[f(x)+f(-x)]dx (B) J[f(x)-f(-x)]dx (C) 2 Jf(x)dx (D)Zero Q.2) + c £ Q. — Q.17 f(x) = Jt(t—l)(t—2) dt takes on its minimum value when: o (A) x = 0 .Q.21 (A)-(B) 8 (C) (D) .3 | + | l .

23 / \ _ \ / 7t 2 71 2 + Lim — sec + sec 2 n >o 6n —o UnJ V 6n. B.cos— dx has the value: X Xy 24 V2 32 V2 (B) (C) (D) None Q.Where {*} denotes the fractional part function. 2. Q. 7t 4 + sec (n-1)—. on Definite & Indefinite Integration [14] .+ — has the value equal to 6n 3 (C)2 (A) V3 (B)V3 fe Bans a I Classes Q.22 0 ^ (A) J 3x 8V2 1 P 1—x.

— 7 X +X+1 x 4 +x+l Q.26 7t 27 1 Lim — 1 + cos— + cos— + 2n 2n 2n (A) 1 (n-l)7t + cos. x> 0 then J i can be expressed as (B) ~ (F (6) . +c x (B) .F (2)) Cl^ec^ + c (C)— +c x +X+1 x+1 c ^ ^ ^ (D) X+ 1 3x4 .F ( 1 ) ) (D) 2( F (6) .1 Q. equal to 2n J (C)2 (D)none (B) ('ogx2)2 dx : tn2 1 Q.25 Primitive of — t • w x t X is: > v (x + x +1) a £ "tK^ +c tcppaootCfr) (A) X X 4 +X+1 .24 Suppose that F (x) is an antiderivative of f (x) = (A) F (6) .F (2) smx X fsi"2x .F (2)) (C) | ( F ( 3 ) .27 J iog x 2(A) 0 .Q.

T m (D) none £. where c is the constant of integration then : (C)A=1.1 J (A)l-/n2 Q.1 .(B)l (C)2 (D)4 Q.30 If | Q.sin x Q. on Definite & Indefinite Integration [14] . then the value of.32 Let f: R — R be a differentiable function & f (1) = 4.ipGi-^o.28 If m & n are integers such that (m .B = 1 y (C)l + /n2 foe (D)none f(x) (A)A=4JB = .1 .31 dx= 1-cosx it/2 (B) A = .n) is an odd integer then the value of the definite integral cos mx -sin nx dx o (A) 0 2n ( ) „2 B n —m 2 ( Qn ^.Wm /f (A) 5/6 .1 D)'-ff O ^ 0 1 .29 Lety={x}M where {xjdenotes the fractional part ofx&[x] denotes greatest int eger <x. £>. B. Lim f 2 —l is: » X-»l J x — 1 Y 1 (B)4f'(l) (D) 8 f ' ( l ) (C)2f'(l) (A)f'(l) fe Bans aIClasses Q. then Jydx = (B) 2/3 ' dx=A/n x + B 1+x (C) 1 • (D) 11/6 ix4+l x(x 2 +l) 2 + c. U Q. B = . B = 1 ^ (B)/n2 ^ (D)A = .

is Q.41 If / ( a + b ./n(cosec x .38 + -i ftan x . l -A J °g(x+i)^x + 1 (C) 2 (D)3 (B) 1 n/4 .{0} (D) 4B + 3A = 1 . x is: (A) 2 In c o s .x) dx = a ( D ) R .33 If j o f(x) t2dt = x cos roc.t.40 If J e3x cos 4x dx = e3x (A sin 4x + B cos 4x) + c t hen: (A) 4A = 3B (B) 2A = 3B (C) 3A = 4B b Q.d x J 0 smx n/2 (C) ± J — d x 2 * smx 1 1 7t/4 (D) | J — d x 2 £ sinx ) dt Q.^ .1 (C) is equal to (D) is non existen t 1 (A) is equal to .— (it/2)I/3 Q. (A) J ^ d x * x 7t/2 (B) J .36 P ^ V cA L If/(x)= | x | + | x— 1 | + | x . 3 9 Domain of definition of the function f (x) = j ~T=2 2 is 6 o Vx +t ( A)R (B)R+ (C) R+ u {0} Q.x e Rthen j / ( x ) d x (A) 9/2 (B) 15/2 V ( C) 19/2 (D)none .35 Integral of ^/l+2cotx(cotx+cosecx) w.34 Jx 5 sinx 3 dx = o (A) 1 (B) 1/2 (C) 2 (D) 1/3 Q. 3 7 Number of values of x satisfying the equation (A)0 Q.+ c 1 x (C ) — In cos — + c 3 X (B) 2 In sin~ + c (D) In sin x .f (a + b .2 i . then f'(9) 1 (B) is equal to .cot x) + c x Q. then jx.x) = f (x). j dx = o x 1 N +.r. 2 28 8t + 3 —-1 + 4 dt= .Q.

on Definite & Indefinite Integration [14] .(A) 0 (B) | (C) J / ( x ) dx a (D) ~ J / ( x ) dx a fe Bans aIClasses Q. B.

x) & g (x) + g (a .x) = 4 then a Jf(x).x tan"1 x + .g(x)dx = 0 . a] satisfying f (x) = f (a . then the set of x for which the primitive of f(x) vanishes is: (A) {1.2.5) dx 2 (A) / 7V3 + 3V? ^ ^ (B) 4 V2 4 (C) 4 V 3 + (D) 7V7-2V5 Q . —— — dx is equal to : J tan x+cot x 4 2 (A) .46 Variable x and y are related by equation x = j / 7 . The value of —y is equal to oVl + t dx ( A ) ^ (B)y 2y < p ) j — (D)4y 1 x+h dt Q.x tan"1 x + . .In (1 + x2) . 2 IS 21 a y 0 (A)aeR (B)aeR+ (C)a<2 (D)a>2 Q.47 Let /(x) = Lim . 4} Q.x + c 7 1 7t 4 2 (C) . .In (1 + x2) + x + c 7 1 7 T y 4 2 (B) .48 If the primitive of f (x) = 7t sin 7ix + 2x .4... 3.x tan"1 x . b) satisfying simultaneously the system o f equation b b 3 2 jx dx = 0 and Jx2dx = .f r = = 2.44 Number of ordered pair(s) of (a.x tan"1 x ./ n (1 + x2) . a a a a (A) — J f (x)dx 9 fe Bans aIClasses (B) 2 J f (x)dx 0 . Q.42 The set of values of'a' which satisfy the equation j(t . has the value 3 for x = 1. then Lim x • / ( x ) is h->o h ^ t + Vl + t (A) equal to 0 1 (B) equal to — (C) equal to 1 (D) non existent Q.is a a (A) 0 _ .45 (B) 1 (C)2 (D)4 ftan -1 x-cot _1 x .log2 a) dt = log.3} (B) (2.x + c 7 T 7 1 f dt d2y Q. 3) (C) {2} (D) {1.43 The value ofthe definite integral J ^2x --J5(4x .49 If f & g are continuous functions in [0.5) + ^2x + V5(4x .2..Q.In (1 + x2) + x + c 7t 7t 4 2 (D) .

B.(C) j f(x)dx 0 (D)4_[ f(x)dx 0 [14] Q. on Definite & Indefinite Integration .

0<x<1 . In f +x" +c (C) | . — 7=—7—.dx equals : V1+? (A) ^ ^ / n f x + V l + x 2 -x +c 2 (B) J .52 The value ofthe definite integral je6" (l + x-e x )dx isequalto (A)ee 1 . In2 Q.1 (D)e Q-53 V X xj dx has the value equal to 3 (B)T (A) 0 (P>4 2x (D)2 .51 If/(x) = 31 (A) ~7 f Vl^ (7x-6)~ 1/3 + +c (D) /n (x+V^?) +x + c z.Q. then J/(x)dx is equal to 1 <x <2 (B) 32 21 i (D) 55 42 Q.e (C) e e .50 In f x+^/l+x2 J x. J " sin 1/2 ' (B) e e .

2 0 (sin2x + cos2x)dx = (C) 1/2 (D) zero Q. B. Given/(2) = 1 the n the value of/(3) is (A) 3/^4 e (B)3/^ (C)6 (D)2 Q. ^ Q. n e N.57 For I n = J (/n x)ndx.n In 2 (D) Tt /n 2 (B) ~/n2 ft . 5 5 The value of definite integral j — — (A)--/n2 Tt f Ze -z A dz . (C) .1) ln = e fe Bans aIClasses Q. 5 6 A differentiable function satisfies 3/ 2 (x)/'(x) = 2x. on Definite & Indefinite Integration [14] . which ofthe following holds good? (A)I„ + ( n + l ) I n + 1 = e (C)In + 1 + (n+l)I n = e (B)I n + 1 + nl n = e (D) I n+ j + (n .5 4 The value ofthe integral f e o (A) 1 (B) .Q.

l-ex x if x > 0 if x < 0 if x > 0 (B)f(x) = .60 (A) (B) 12 f'(2) (C) 32 f' (2) (D) none dx .1 if x < 0 . Then the value of » 2 j — X _ 2 dtis (A)6f'(2) 71/2 Q.r 1 Q.e x .e x . 2 .59 Let f: R — R be a differentiable function such that f (2) = 2.1 if x > 0 f(x) 4t 3 Q. 5 8 Let f be a continuous functions satisfying f (In x) defined as if x < 0 (A) f(x) : for 0<x<l and f (0) = 0 then/(x) can be x for x > 1 .2 has the value: 1+a sin x 2-Jl + a (B) +a (C) 2 it V+a i .1 if x > 0 r x if x < 0 (C)f(x) = ex (D)f(x) = .

64 (B)IO. B.si n qx)2 dx where p. on Definite & Indefinite . is equal to: (A)10. x is ve x y 1 (A)-ex-/nx + C 1 (B)-/n x-ex + C > 0 is equal to tan ! (x) tan '(x) 2^ 1 0 (C)-/n2x-x + C (D) — + C 2x Q.r.11 (C) 10 ~7 (D) 10 -9 I! Q.(x) 1 (C) (D) Q.63 2cos2x sin(2x) -sinx n/2 2 Let f (x) = sin2x 2sin x cosx then J [f(x) + f'(x)]dx 0 sinx -cosx 0 (A) 71 (B) %/2 19 (C)2n (D) zero Q. q are integers.62 Lim Y n-*»£rjn _1 y-j +kx n x (A) x tan (x) (B)tan.(D) none Q. 6 5 The value of the integral J (cos px .1 0 -J T The absolute value of f s i n x is less than: J 1i 10 1 -f~ x (A)-7i fe Bans a I Classes (B)0 (C) 7t (D) 27t Integration [14] Q.t. 61 1 Let f (x) = — /n — then its primitive w.

. x is 2/n(x2+l) (A) J-" + C v .70 Letin= (B) atleast one root in (0. c be non-zero real numbers such that: l J (1 + cos8x) (ax2 + bx + c) dx = J (1 + eos8x) (ax2 + bx + c) dx . then the qua dratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 has : (A) no root in (0.. 2(x + 1) ( x 2 + 1 ) /n2 + l ( B ) ( x ^ 1 ) 2 ^ /n2 + l + c (C) 2(/n2 +1) \n (x 2 +l) / n 2 (D) +C 2(/n 2 + 1) dt is equal to (B)e 2 (C) e2 .2) (C) a double root in (0.r.then .67 n->=o Jl Lim f| 1+ n+1 (A)0 x+h Jfti 2 t dt . b.2) Q . are in: (D) none .j>n 2 t dt Q..1 (D) does not exist Q.t.Q.68 S (A)0 (B) ln2x ( C ) mx (D) does not exist Q.69 Let a.66 Primitive o f / ( x ) = x • 2 /n(x2+1) w.2) (D) none 1 I2 + I4 I3 + I5 I4 + I6 jc/4 J tan"xdx..

ll J (cos 2x)3/2.71 (B) G.P. (C) H. Then In(i + (g(x)) 2 ) is an antiderivat ive for 2/(x)g(x) (A) ji/4 2/(x)g(x) (B) 2/(x) (C) l + (/(x)) 2 l + (g(x)) 2 l + (/(x)) 2 (D)none Q.73 The value of the definite integral x 2 dx (A) Tt + ' 4 7J (C) . Let g (x) be an antiderivative for/(x). Q.P.P. cos x dx : 0 (A) 3tc 16 (B) 3tx 32 1/V2 \6\ 2 ^ f IS o v 1 — X2 (1 + V1 — X2 ) 1 ! (D) 3 7 a/2 1 16 Q.(A) A.

Tt 1 4 V2 (D) none Integration feBansa I Classes Q. B. on Definite & Indefinite [14] .

then 0 (A)l n/2 (B)ju/4 (C) 1 (D) In 2 .Q.x/ nx r x->°o •> (A) / m = / (B)/m = m (C)/ = m /n3 jf (x) dx = fa 2 (D) / > m Q. 7 5 The value of the definite integral jV tan x dx.^ [ / n ( 6 x 2 ) ] 4 + C to d0 (C) 7C .76 Evaluate the integral: Jf / n ( ^v6 x (A)^[/n(6x 2 )] 3 +C o (C) ^-[/n(6x2) ] +C Q..79 If f (x) = e"x + 2 e"2x + 3 e~3x + + 0 . is (A) V2tt (B) 7T VI (C) 2V2 7 T (D) 7t 2V2 Q.74 The value ofthe definite integral j({x}2 + 3(sin 27tx))dx where { x} denote s thefractionalpart function.( l + sine) 71/6^ (A)TT-V3 2 (B) |[/n 2 (6x 2 )] +C 1 (D) .2-\/3 (D) 71 + V3 (B)n ?dt m Q.77 j .78 Let /= L™ J—t and m= L ix->co 7 — j/ntdt then the correct statement is .( 3 s i n 9 ) 2 . 19 (A)0 (B)6 IT/2 (C)9 (D) can not be determined Q.

81 The value of Jj [ ] ( + ) 0 Vr=l Z— j Vk=i x + k y dx equals (C)(n+ 1)! (D) n•n ! (A)n Q. B.2 dx • sin x+sm 4 x (B)n! (A) sinx-6tan 1 (sinx) + c (C) s i n x .80 If I = J ^n(sinx) dx then J &i(sinx + cosx) dx : jc/4 (A)i I ( n (B) x r I (C) 1 7J (D)I ^ / n Q.Q.2 (sinx)" 1 -6 tan"1 (sinx) + c fe Bans a I Classes (B) s i n x .82 rcc 3x+cos5x cos J.2 (sinx)-1 + 5 tan"1 (sinx)+ c [14] Q. on Definite & Indefinite Integration .2 sin *x + c (D) s i n x .

+ 2 2 (D)none The value ofthe function f(x)= 1+x+ J (ln2t + 2 lnt) dt where f' (x) vanishes is : i _1 (A) e (B) 0 (C) 2 e_1 (D)l+2e"1 n n n Limit I 1 +. Also j/z(x) • / ( x ) dx = f (0). 1 +J +J + n \n + 1 yn + 2 \n + 3 Q-85 + (C) 2 n + 3 (n . for all x ^ 0.87 . is -00 (A) equal to zero jc/4 (B) equal to 1 (C) equal to .1 (D) non existent Q.84 w w (C) In .4x + 4 5 3 (B)ln.Q.1) has the value equal to Q. Then the value of the definite integral J/?' (x) • sin x dx.83 J ^x 2 + 4x + 4 + yjx2 . for every (A)2 V2 OO —CO (B) 2V2 — 1 function f (x).+ — 2 2 dx = CA)hf-f Q.86 (D)4 0 0 Let a function h(x) be defined as h(x) = 0.

89 Which one ofthe following is TRUE.88 Lim J(l + x) x dx vo (A) 2 /n 2 is equal to 4 4 (C) In ~ e (B)(D)4 Q.1 (D) none of these Q. Jf — = x/n | x | + Cx x (D) —-—• Jfcosx dx =x + C fnc v (C) cosx jcosx dx = tanx+C fe Bans a I Classes Q.J (tan11 x + tan11 0 (A) 1 n-1 (\ x)d(x — [x]) is: ([• ] denotes greatest integer function) (B) 1/x n+ 2 (C) n . Jf — = x / n | x | + C x (B) x. B. on Definite & Indefinite Integration [14] . (A) x.

91 The true set of values of 'a' for which the inequality J (3 ~2x . x2 Q.90 j x 2 n + .95 If the value of the integral { ex dx is a . then the value of | Jinx dx is: (A) e4 .oo) Q.1] (B) ( .94 J ( x 2 + 4 x + l) 3/2 3 X +c (A) ( X 2 + 4X + 1)1/2 x2 „ (C) 2 1/2+C ( X + 4x + 1 ) 2 ru\ B D X 2 TT 7 2 ( >(X + 4X + 1)1/2 +c I ( )(X + 4X + 1)1/2 2 + C Q.92 If a e (2. o (A)n! (B)2 (n!) (C) ^ n 2 i (D) (n + 1)! o Q. -e _ x dx is equal to (n e N).a V3 r i1d d J 2 dx{ tan 2 dx ji ~ 7~ (A) 3 71 (B)2e4-e-a 2x H 1 -x 2 / equals (B)-71 . .9 3 If x • sin nx = Jf (t) dt where/ i s continuous functions then the value of f (4) is o n (A)(B) 1 1 (C) (D) can not be determined Q.-l]u[0.oo) a (D)(-oo.e .2.l ] (C)[0.3) then number of solution of the equation J cos (x + a 2 ) dx = sin a is : o (A) 1 (B)2 (C)3 (D)4.3"x) dx > 0 is true is: a (A) [0.Q.o o .

B. on Definite & Indefinite Integration [13] .' (C)2(e4-e)-a e (D)2e4-l-a Q96 (O71 (D)? n Q.97 Let A= f e d t then f-—— has the value J o 1 +t . t-a-1 o a~ l (A)Ae-a (B)-Ae _ a (C)-ae" a (D)Aea (feBansal Classes Q.

l 00 Ifp + 2 Jx2 e""2 dx = Je-"2 dx then the value of p is (A)e -1 (B)e (C)l/2 e (D) can not be determined Q.98 j V s i n 2 e sin6 d0 is equal to : (B) 7t/4 (C) 7t/2 CD) 71 (A)0 Q.103 I f f ( x ) tsintdt .r t (C) f is continuous and differentiable in (D) f is continuous but not differentiable in H H v .7t)? x (B)g(x)= | t sin . 7t — S i n ( X + 7t) .dt (A) f(x)= cotx 1 (C) h (x): L L 0<x< 2 371 (D) I (x): x sin x . r. 0<x< 7t O • 2 sin — x 9 371 < X < 7t 7t . 101 A quadratic polynomial P(x) satisfies the conditions. • T for0<x< 2 o yj 1 + tan" x sm t (A) f (0+) = .99 rx2 +2 —j dx is equal to x +4 2 1 2x 2x (B) | tan -1 (x 2 +2)+ C (D) ± tan"1 2 +C 2x Q. The leading o coefficient of the quadratic polynomial is: (C)2 (B) -6 (A) 6 (D) 3 Q.ji/2 Q. 102 Which one of the following functions is not continuous on (0. — < X < 7 t 2 2 JV Q. P(0) = P(l) = 0 & J P(x) dx = 1.

on Definite & Indefinite Integration [14] . B.z (B)f 7t 7t {4) 8 y V L J fe Bans aI Classes Q.

Q. J -^ydx is equal to (A)y(l-e-10) ( B) 2(1 . b = b a Q-111 j [x]dx+ j [—x] dx where [.l 0 7 The value of (A) 1 2 C dx (B) In 2 is (B)2 (C)4 (D) undefined (C) e2 (D) 2/e x Q. 3 7.b .2 .e~10) (C)|(e-10-1) (w | (./ n — 4 2 54 1 . b = 1 b a (B) a . Ifg(l) = 0 then g(x) equals (B)^n f 1+ x A ' I ^ V 3 (D) .l 09 The evaluation of J x2p+ 2q (A) x p + q +l +C (B) pXP+2"-' -qx"-' dx is + +2xP 1+l +C (C) x p + q +l +C (D) x p + q +l x +l p+q +C Q.110 J\ xx ++1x1 ++11 dx = a In 2 + b then: 2|x| 1 3 2 (A) a = 2 .3 /n2 2 2 3 1. b = . 104 Consider f(x) ( A ) ^ n ( l + x3) 1 + x3 .a (C) a .-) Q.108 J x f a f l.1 (C) —+ .l 05 The value ofthe definite integral.2 (D)a = 4 . ] denotes greatest integer function is equal to : (A) a + b (B) b . b = 0 (C) a = 3 . 27 3 (D) .f t i V ^ V (C) 2 100 Q. + • dx 2) o r (A) 3s] 1-2/n-j 2J (B) v .106 J [2 e x] dx where [x] denotes the greatest integer function is (A)0 Q.-./ n ^ 2 2 4 Q. g(t) = J f(t) dt.

l 12 If J 375 x5 (1 + x2) ~4 dx = 2n then the value of n is: (A) 4 (B)5 (C)6 ( D)7 fe Bans a I Classes Q.(D) a +b Q. on Definite & Indefinite Integration [14] . B.

116 "'f —: =/n 2.. then the value ofthe def. Q.2 x 2 + 5 ) e 3 x d x = e3x (Ax3 + Bx2 + Cx + D) then the statement wh ich is incorrect is (B)A+B +2/3 = 0 (D) A + B + C = 0 dx (A) C + 3D = 5 (C) C + 2B = 0 Q.^/n2 (D)^+/n2 A function f satisfying f' (sinx) = cos2x for all x and f(l) = 1 is: x3 1 X3 2 (B) f(x)=— + — (A)f(x) = x + — .113 f ^ n .V3-1 )-(sinv3-sinl J X cos X o^ydxisequalto: (B) .— dx is equal to : (j 1-x 2 1-x (A) M (B) ^ In2 3 (C)-^ln23 (D) cannot be evaluated.— x3 1 (C)f(X) = X . J • sin x + cos x (B)--/n2 7t sinx dx is equal to ( C ) 7 .l 14 If J ( x 3 .(2 + 7t) (C) zero (D) 2 Tt .117 ForO<x<^. J ln(e cosx ). d (sinx) is equal to : 2 1/2 (A) 12 (C) ^-[(n/3-1 )f (sin-v/3-sinl) f Q118 O j 7t Tt <B) ¥ (D) .1/2 j j + x 0.l 15 Given J (A)^/n2 Q.y + V3/2 x3 1 (D)f(x)=^-y + Q. integral.

120 x/2 (B) e V x [ x .(x + Vx) dx vx (A)2e Vx [ x .2 V ^ + l (D) e ^ ( x + V^ + l ) + C (x + Vx) + C dx is equal to: cos x + sin6x 6 | (A) zero (B) Tt (C) TT/2 (D) 2 Tt fe Bans aIClasses Q.2 Q. B.119 Jf —?=. on Definite & Indefinite Integration [14] .V ^ + l ] + C (C) Q.(A) Tt .

l) (D) (2.124 Jsec2G (secG+tanG)2 dG (A) ( s e c 9 + t a n e ) [ 2 + tanQ(sec6 + tane)] + C (B) (C) (SeC 6 ^ t a n 9 ) [2 + 4 tan 6 (sec 6 + tan 6)] + C + &!£Q±^>[2 tan0(secG+tanG)] + C (D) r X +1 [2 + tanG(secG + tanG)] + C Q.125 1 X ii J ~ T T dx is equal to: (A) ± tan"1 V2 X 1 X (B) ~ cor 1 2 (C) | tan-1 | (D) tan"12 .x 2 dx = k f In (1 + cosx) dx then the value of k is : oV o (A) 2 (B) 1/2 (C) .3) V /?nx * Q. The value of 'a' in terms of 'c' if the value of integral J(acxb+1 + a 3 bx 3b+5 ) dx i s independent of b equals 0 <A)Jf m j f (C)| (D)JJ Q.6) (C)(-6.l23 Let a.l 22 If J r1 . 121 The true solution set of the inequality.2 I (D)-1/2 Q. b and c be positive constants.Q. 0 dz>x j sin 2 xdxis: o (A)R (B) (1.

B.x4/3 + 6 f(x) = — x4/3 . f" (x) = x1/3. 127 Which of the following statements could be true if.4 4 4 (C) II & IV only (D) I & III only fe Bans aIClasses Q. on Definite & Indefinite Integration [14] . x i f (x ) Q.Q.126 V™ 1 — 1 J f(t) dt is equal to : x i (B)Xjf(Xj) (C) f(Xj) (D) does not exist f (A) -L-12.9 -x 7 / 3 + 9 28 (A) 1 only II f'(x)=—x7/3-2 28 (B) III only III IV f ' ( x ) = . I f(x) =.

1 sec~*l Vl + x z I I + C X .x)n dx n e N.130 Number ofpositive solution ofthe equation.tan.(tan' 1 x) 2 + c (D)e tan-lx f cosec A \ Vl + x 2 I I + c 2 Q. Vn = J xn (1 . (A) 2V2 (B) V2 .it/2 Q.129 (1 + x ) 2 'l-x^' dx V 1 + x 2 ] + cos 1 : vl + x y (B) (A) e tan_ x .l 28 The value ofthe definite integral J sinx sin2x sin 3xdx is equal to: (A) j TO-3 sec 1 2 (Q( X >0) (D)tan ' x Q. which ofthe following statement(s) 0 is/are ture? (B) Un = 2 .Vn (C) Un = 22" Vn (D) Un = 2 " 2« Vn (A)Un = 2"Vn . .tan -1 x + C tan 1 x [ -1 (C) el£Ul A .dx=Asii V / v .l32 If jJ 1 + s i n .l 33 For U = j x (2 . f (t ~ {*}) d t = 2 ( x .y then value ofA is: (C) ^ 1 (D) 4V2 1 1 n n Q.1 .x) then the value of the integral Jx f "(x) dx is 3-V2 (B) 3 + V2 (C)l 1 (A) Q.131 If f(x) = cos(tan.x) dx.1) where {} denote s the fractional o part function is: (D) more than three (C) three (B) two (A) o ne i Q.

-1 f r 1 1 (D)/n tan x +— A V v JJ fe Bans a I Classes Q. on Definite & Indefinite Integration [14] .Q. B.134 (A) In x + — V X J J (x ~ ! ) d x 1 (X 4 +3X 2 +1) tan x2+l V x = /n | f (x) | + C then /(x) is V ' V (B) tan 1 ^ x +— X J (C) cot x + — v X.

b > a> 0.^ .2rc] cosx 7 1 371 (A) a maximum at — & a m inimum at — (C) a maximum at ~ & a minimum at ~ 371 771 (B) a maximum at — & a minim um at — (D) neither a maxima nor minima Q. sec 2 9d0& 7t/6 7l/3 j 2 I2 = I f (tan 6 + cot 9). 140 The value of x that maximises the value of the integral jt(5 .l39 Letf(x) = + -—. d f dt r .J -—-y =2 v2 in [0. re] is " X sinx COSX t (A) 4 (B)3 (C)2 (D)0 1. Q.142 Thevalueof Jt./ x 2 s i n 2 x .1 ) dt is X (A) 2 (B)0 (C)l (A) ex tanx + c (B) excotx + c (D) exsec2x + c (D) none Q.l35 Let f(x) be integrable over (a. b). then the rat io j . Q. cosec 0 d 9. 13 8 Number of solution of the equat ion —.1 cosx(2sinx + l) Q. + + sjr3+ (B)|n3/2 +vn approximately equal to (C)~n 1 / 3 (D)|n 1 / 3 (A)V/2 f dx Q.7/ 13 Q. T h e n H ( x ) i s .e.141 For a sufficiently large value of n the sum of the square roots of the fir st n positive integers i.137 LetS (x) = J I n t d t ( x > 0 ) a n d H ( x ) = ^ .136 f(x)= J (1 . x2 X (A) continuous but not derivable in its domain (B) derivable and continuous in i ts domain (C) neither deri vable nor continuous in its domain (D) derivable but not continuous in its domain.t + 2t 3 )dt hasin[0. ZT is o (A) -2 (B) 0 . If Ij = j f(tan0 + cot 9). : then cosx 1 + sinx j e x (f(x) + f'(x))dx (where c is the constant of integeration) (C) ex cosec2x + c x+3 Q.: ti/6 2 (A) is a positive integer (C) is an irrational number sin x (B) is a negative integer (D) cannot be determined.

B.(C) 15 (D) indeterminate fe Bans aIClasses Q. on Definite & Indefinite Integration [14] .

c os In (2x + 2) + C f 2 ^ (C) cos yX + \J +C —r Q. »af dx "r8 2 tan 9 Q. Q.& 0 7 1 tc/2 2 k/1 2 V2 2 e_x X Q.~ . then ( j f (x) f — .d x [ s (A) .= J sin(x)dx . 143 If 1 —7= = ——-d6 . j = J V dx . I = Je~ x i (l + x)dx 0 and consider the statements I n III Ii<I2 h<h Which of the following is (are) true? (A) I only (B) II only (D) Both I and II (C) Neither I nor II nor II I sinx x I.l45 If f(x) =Asin respectively. f vX + ly +C . ( A) —& — 2 2 7IX ' X + ly +c / O \ (D) sin + B.] = V2 and { f(x) dx = — . 147 Let f (x) = 2 .148 Let u — J — j dx and v= J/n(sin2x)dx then x +1 0 0 (A) u = 4v ( B) 4u + v = 0 (C) u + 4v = 0 . Then the constants A and B are (B) ! & ! 7 T 1 t (C) 0& . then the value of 'a' is equal to (a > 0) „ Vx + a+Vx > sm20 h \ j 3 ( ) 4 A ( ) B Tt 4 of f (B) In sinV \ (D) 16 _ r sin(/n(2 + 2x)) .x dx = J n V2 (B) | f ( x ) d x 0 (QTtJf(x)dx 0 (D)-Jf(x)dx (A)-Jf(x)dx 1 71/2 V/n(x +1) Q. 144 The value ofthe integral J T~--j.l 46 Let I..-I3 Q.— 7t (D) .

_ 2. ^ tT/16 l + cosW0 (B) — Tt (C) 2ti .1S (D)0 fe Bans aIClasses Q. on Definite & Indefinite Integration [14] .de then the value of/!.(D) 2u + v = 0 Q. B. 149 If / ( x ) = (A) ft (ft sinx sin Ve f —" .

jt/2 . 151 Jsgn x dx = (where a.l 50 The value ofthe definite integral. J f ( s i n x ) d x 2 n.tan-1 nrtan + C then: 5 + 4cosx V 2 (A) X = 2/3 (B) m = 3 (C)X=l/3 Q. f(sinx) dx =—. b e R) a (A) | b | -1 a | (B) (b-a) sgn (b-a) (C) b sgnb .1 * .t e n .a sgna (D)|a|-|b x^ Q.154 Thevalueofl —T-r v dxis: 0 (x+l)(x2+2x+2J ( A ) j +21n2-tan. * Jf(cos 2 x)dx (B) Jf(x)2 dx = 2.cot x + cot -1 x _i (A) c o t x .l55 Jf x + x (B)j +21n2-tan-1| (D) .152 Jf— =A.7 + ln4 + cor 1 2 4 1+x cosec2x dx is equal to : (B) c .c o t _ 1 x + c COS CC X (C) ._.t (C) Jf(cos 2 x)dx = n. _ _f Z +JX + X Q. c r sin 5x Q.e' n tan~ .cor 1 3 Q. J bin x • 0 (A)0 (B) | dx is (D) 2it (C) 71 Select the correct alternatives : (More than one are correct) b Q. Jf(x) 2 dx 0 a b-c b (D) Jf(x + c) dx= f f(x) dx 1 2x2 +3x+3J _ .l 53 Which ofthe following are true? Jt-a Jt .1 2 (C) 2 ln2 .+ c (D) .a a (D) m = 2/3 (A) Jx .

3...4.6.x -cotx + c where 'c' is constant of integration.5... 156 Let f(x) = J — dt (x > 0) then f(x) h as: 0 t (A) Maxima if x = n7t where n = 1. Q. on Definite & Indefinite Integration [14] .. (C) Maxima if x = n7t where n = 2.. B.6.4. (D) The function is monotonic fe Bans aIClasses Q. (B) Minima if x = n7t where n = 2.

164 Letu= JX4+7X2+1 (A) v > u .1) x n/2 sm.l62 I f f ( x ) = n j ^ n ( 1 + x s i " 2 9 ) d 0 . An + 1 =A 0 ^ 1 .B n = A n + 1 (QA n + 1 . x > 0 then: 0 sin 0 (A)f(t )=--7C ( V T T T .2 sin x) Q.l 57 If I = J / dx 0 (l + X | vn .+c v (B) 7 In2 j. Q. .In2 +c (A) \ In2 j.158 J .^ y equa ls: T T 1 — 1 .+c v(C) 4 ' 2 x+1 ' 4 x+1 ' 2 x— 1 n/2sin (2n .1) (D) no root in (-1.1) x 2 dx &V = Q.2 sin x) + c (A) 2 sin-1 Jsinx + c (C) c .i ) (C) f (x) cannot be determined (D) none of these. n e N.A n = B n + 1 Q. x+1 . then Q.l 63 If a.l61 J V1 + cscx dx equals (B) V2 c o s V c o s x + c (D) cos (1 .In2 v y = J d x .Bn N .1) In 7t _ J_ (C)I 2 = 8 .Q. v 4 x-1 for n e n (D)Bn x+ 1 + c (D) .1) (C) at least two roots in (-1. nx \2 ( dx.0) (B) atleast one root in (0.159 IfA n = J sin x o v sin x y (B)B n + 1 = Bn (A) + 1 . then which of the following statements hold good ? (B)I2=^ + 4 8 + (A) 2n I n+ j = 2 _n + (2n . . the equation ax4 + bx 2 + c = 0 has (A) atleast one root in (-1.2 sin -1 (1 . c e R and satisfy 3 a + 5 b + 15 c = 0 . b.160 } J (1 + x) (1 + X2) dx: (B) 71 (A)? (C) is same as J j 0 dx (1 + x) (1 + x 2 ) (D) cannot be evaluated Q.T o 4 Q.

B.JX4+?X2+1 V = 71 then: (C) 3u + 2v = 5n/6 (D)U + V= (B) 6 TI/3 fe Bans aIClasses Q. on Definite & Indefinite Integration [14] .

X j f (t) d t = f 2 (x) .. on Definite & Indefinite Integration [14] . fe Bans aIClasses Q. B.dt where x > 0 the n the value(s) of x satisfying the equation. 167 A polynomial function f(x) satisfying the conditions f(x) = [f' (x )]2 & J f(x) dx=— can be: o 12 .sin2x dx can be found in terms of known functions of x then u c an be: (A) x (B) sinx (C) cosx (D) cos2x Q. Then: o (A)'f'ismonotonicincreasing V x e R (B)' f' is monotonic decreasing V x e R (C)1 f' is non monotonic (D) the graph of y=f (x) is a straight line. f 19 Q.Q.1 for all real' x'.. _v x (C>T-X _ + 1 .l 65 If J e u . x 3 9 A + X + ( )T 2 4 ( B ) x J T"2X + 9 ? . x (D)T + X + 1 Q. 1 ' + * f(x) + f(l/x) = 2is: (A) 2 (B) e (C) e "2 (D)e 2 . 166 If f(x) = | -—. 16 8 A continuous and differentiable function1 f1 satisfies the condition.

Z/b 3 3r b 3 L9 t> 3 39 b 3 z. on Definite & Indefinite Integration [14] .8'b 3 38 b a Z.orb A 30 rb a Z.ANSWER KEY a osrb a swb 3 OWb v serb a oerb a S3rb a 03ib 3 sirb a oirb a sorb v oorb a S6b 3 06'b 3 S8'b V 08'b a srb v orb a S9 b V 09 b v ssb v osb a st?b 3 Ofr'b a s£b D orb a S3b v orb d srb a orb d sb a'3 99I'b a'v 39lb a'a ssrb a'D'v frsrb V 6Hb Vw b V 6erb a Krb 3 63ib 3 pzrd V 6irb 3 wrb 3 6orb a wrb a 66 b a wb a 68'b a P8d a 6Lb a w/b a 69 b 3 wb 3 6Sb 3 wb a 6Pt) a ppb a 6eb a Kb a 63"b V pzd a 6lb 3 wb V 6b 3 pd a'3' a'v S9I'b a'v I9ib a'v LS rb a'3'a'v £srb a 8H"b a ewb 3 8£lb 3 ££lb a 83I'b V £3l'b a sirb V £irb V sorb 3 £orb a 86 b V £6'b a 88 b 3 £8b V 8r b 3 £rb a 89 b V £9b a 8S'b V £sb 3 a 3 8£'b V ££'b a 83 b V £3'b V 8fb V £I'b a 8b a £b a'D'a P9 rb 3'V 09lb a'v 9srb a'v 3srb V /.irb a nrb 3 /.sb V 3S b a z.3l'b a zz r b V z.rb a 3t?'b a z. B.3"b 3 33'b 3 z.Hb a 3H"b a z.rb 3 3ib V r b 3 rb a'V 89 It) a'a L9i'0 3'a'v £9lt> a'v 6srb a'3'a ssrb 3'V isrb a 9Wb a iwb a 9£lb a i£r b a 93l"b a I3I'b 3 9irb 3 urb a 9orb a lorb V 96 b a i6b 3 98'b a i8b a 9r b a trb 3 99 b 3 i9b a 9Sb a isb a 9t?b 3 3 9£b V irb V 93 b 3 irb a 9rb a irb 3 9b V rb fe Bans aIClasses Q.£b a 3£'b V z.£ib a 3£I'b a Z.6b a 36 b V Z.

8 BANSAL CLASSES TARGET ITT JEE 2007 MATHEMATICS X I I (ABCD) DEFINITI 7 & INDEFINITE INTEGRATION CONTENTS KEY-CONCEPTS EXERCISE I EXERCISE-II EXERCISE-III EXERCISE-IV ANSWER KEY .

e a ax+b +c r x+ 1 npx+q (iv) I aP i dx = — (a > 0) + c .coth x + c xx) J cosechx. cothxdx= . = dx STANDARD RESULTS : (ax+b)n (ax + b)°dx= .c o s e c h x + c xxii) J „ dx „ = . x and is written symboli cally as 2.sin(ax+b ) + c a (viii) f cot(ax+b) dx = . tan (ax + b) dx = — sec (ax + b) + c a xii) J cosec (ax + b) ./n sin(ax+b)+ c a (x) j cosec2(ax + b) dx = _ 1 cot(ax + b)+ c v) f sin(ax+b) dx = -— cos(ax+b) + c a vii) j tan(ax + b) dx = — In sec (ax + b) + c a ix) J sec2 (ax + b) dx = — tan(ax + b) + c a xi) J sec (ax + b) . DEFINITION: CONCEPTS OR If f & g are functions of x such that g'(x) = f(x) then the function g is called a PRIMITIVE ANTIDERIVATIVE O R INTEGRAL of f(x) w. i) r J f ci I f(x) dx = g(x) + c < > — (g(x) + c) = f(x).r.t.KEY 1.cotx) + c a cosec (ax + b) + c OR In tan { +yj + c OR In tan ^ + c OR . cot (ax + b) dx = xiii) J secx dx=In (secx + tanx) + c xiv) J cosec x dx = In (cosecx . \ a(n+l) ax+b \n+l +c n*-l (ii) j ax+b =a /n(ax + b) + c iii) f e dx = .tan -1 — + c a +x2 2 .In (cosecx + cotx) xv) J sinh x dx = cosh x + c (xvi) J cosh xdx = sinh x + c (xvii) J sech2x dx = tanh x + c xviii) J cosech2x dx = . where c is called the constant of integration. p fna (vi) J cos(ax+b)dx= .

a+x In +c 2a a-x 1 .sech x + c (xxi) j" (xxiii) J dx dx x-v/x -a 2 2 .+ c a (xxvii) j dx x -a2 2 OR xxvi) | dx a -x 2 2 l . x-a In +c 2a x+a [2] <!SBansal Classes Definite & Indefinite Integration . = sin 1 — + c 1 -l x = — sec 1 —^+1 a xxiv) JJ ' xxv) J 72 =ln + L x + a2 dx Tn x + x2 + a2 OR sinh-1 . tanh x dx = . x .+ c a cosh"1 . .(xix) J sech x .

sin bx dx = —-—x. INTEGRALS OF T HE TYPE: j [f(x)]"f'(x)dx j J OR { dx putf(x) = t & proceed ax' + bx + c > 1 I .y]a2-x2 dx = 2 (xxix) { *Jx2+a2 A/a 2 .+ c 2 a (xxx) j J x 2 . (iii) 4. spiliting a biggerfractioninto smallerfractionby known methods. choose u & v such that (a) J v dx is simple & (b) / du f vdx r)v J dx dx is simple to integrate. T-Trigonometric function & E-Exponential function Partial fraction . ("0 f J —?PX ^— dx.{ dU du f A . L-Logarithmic function. ax2 + bx + c ' ^/ax2 + bx + c (v) J [f(x) + xf'(x)] dx . by keeping the order of u & v as per the order of th e letters in ILATE.a 2 dx= .x f(x) + c Express px + q=A (differential co-efficient of denominator) + B. Jf i = q = dx . TECHNIQUES OF INTEGRATION: (i) Subst itution or change ofindependent variable. Integral 1= j f(x) dx is changed to } f(4> (t)) f'(t) dt.b cos bx) + c a +b (xxxii) J e ax . vd? r1Y J dx f ax dx where u&varedifferentiable function. A-Algebr aic function. cos bx dx = — — .a 2 v 2 v f e3* (xxxi) I eax. where . (iv) (vi) (vii) j ex [f(x) + f'(x)] dx = e x .x 2 + — sin"1 . I-Inverse function.+ c 2 2 a . dX > f Vax2 + bx + c <k yax + bx + c J y Express ax2 + bx + c in the form of perfect square & then apply the standard res ults.— cosh"1 .J x 2 .vdx=u j" vdx. 0) (") This is generally obtained. Note: While using integration by parts. by a suitable substitution x = (J) (t) provided the later in tegral is easier to integrate. (ii) Integration by part: { u. f(x) + c J J f dx ns N x(x n +l) Take xn common & put 1 + x n = t .+ c 2 a dx= — ^ x 2 + a 2 + — sinlr1 .(xxviii) j .(a cos bx + b sin bx) + c a +b 3. J r dx x2'(xn+l) "^ (n l ) / n .(a sin bx .

n e N . take xn common & put 1+x n = tn (ilZ?a«sa/ Classes Definite & Indefinite Integration [18] .

a dx or p-x —^ °r I V(x ~ a ) ( x ~ P) > . . . J x 4 + K x 2 +1 x+Kx+1 Hint: Di vide Nr & Dr by x2 & proceed . put tan — = t (xi) (xii) a.sin x + c ^ Lcos x + m. put x = a cos2 0 + P sin2 0 put x = a sec2 0 0 tan2 0 (xv) x.cos x + b. dx a+bcos x OR i dx a + bsin x + ccos x Hint: Convert sines & cosines into their respective tangents of half the angles. put px + q = t .a) (p . dx x+bsin xcos x + ccos 2 x dx a+bsin z x r dx J a+bcos " 2 x OR Jasin 2 Multiply N" & D 00 dx a+bsin x OR by sec2x & put tanx = t . put ax + b = -1 .(viii) dx c»(l + x f n take xn common as x and put 1+x OR r n = t. (ax • j-u 1 ( dx • 1 dx . dx „ r dx 1 + q & J(ax2 + bx + cj \^px + q 7—t—. dx where K is any constant . — i (ax + b) Vpx (xiii) (xiv) . putx=1 (ax + bx + cj yj px + qx + r + b) J-px + qx + r J . .sin x + n Express Nr = A(Dr) + B — (Dr) + c & proceed . dx x2+l x2-l dx OR | —.x) .

a = t2 or x .a) (x .P = t 2 J(x . put x .dx .p) (ilZ?a«sa/ Classes Definite & Indefinite Integration [18] .

x) = f(x) 0 0 0 0 = 0 if f( 2a . 0 b b a a P-5 P-6 J f(x) dx = j f(a + b . = 2 j f(x) dx if f(x) is an even function i.e. a INTEGRAL f f(x) dx = F(b) .2 f f(x) dx = .e. b] . f(x) = . where'a'is the period ofthe function i.x)dx j f(x) dx .f(x) na a P-7 P-8 P-9 J f(x) dx = n Jf(x)dx .x ) . . f(a+x) = f(x) 0 0 b+nT b j f(x) dx = J f(x) dx where f(x) is periodic with period T& n e l .x) = . where c may lie inside or outside the inter val [a. This property a c to be used when f is piecewise continuous in (a. b) . b). 2. f(x) = f(-x) .J f(x) dx • a b P-3 J f(x) dx= J f(x) dx+ J f(x) dx.J f(x) dx + J f(2a . a P-4 J f(x) dx = 0 if f(x) is an odd function i.e. PROPERTIES O F DEFINITE INTEGRAL : b b b a P-L b a j f(x) dx = J f(t) dt provided f is same a c a b P .x) dx.DEFINITE 1.f ( . b) provided f is a continuous function in (a.F(a) where J f(x) dx = F(x) + c b VERY IMPORTANT N O T E : If F a f(x) dx = 0 => then the equation f(x) = 0 has atleast one root lying in (a. In particular J f(x) dx = J f(a .x) dx = 2 J f(x) dx if f(2a .

(ilZ?a«sa/ Classes Definite & Indefinite Integration [18] . P-LL P-12 If f(x) >0 on the interval [a.a+nT na a j f(x) dx = (n . then J f(x) dx > 0. 0 b b ma P-10 If f(x) < ())(x) for a < X < b then J f(x) dx < J 4 (x) dx > Jf (x)dx < ] I f(x) I dx. b].m) aj f(x) dx if f(x) is periodic with period 'a'.

. (b . n e N) otherwise -1 4.a = nh f=0 h f(rh) = If a = 0 & b = 1 then. 0) (iii) .5 ) .a) & a b For a monotonic increasing function in (a. h'(x) . c o s ^ dx .a) < j f(x) dx < f(b).a) < J f(x) dx < f(a). 1 1 1 1 00 .WALLI'S FORMULA: ji/2 J sm-x.a) a SOME IMPORTANT EXPANSIONS : .] = J f(x) dx . .l ) ( n . .. m -dx g(x) m d t . Limit Limit 6. lot 2X(m-1)(m-3). lor2 Where K = 7C K 2 if both m and n are even (m.. g'(x) p 1 5.f [ h (x)].. DEFINITE INTEGRAL AS LIMIT OF A SUM : b J f(x) dx = Lmut h [f (a) + f (a + h) + f (a + 2h) + a + f ( a + n-1T»)] = h I f (a + rh) where b . f(a). l o r 2 j (m+n)(m+n-2)(m+n-4). v .. J f(x) d x . (i) (ii) 7. b).[ Q . DERIVATIVE OF AN TIDERIVATIV E FUNCTION : If h(x) & g(x) are differentiable func tions of x then..(b .( b . where n h = l 0 R 2 f f . r=i v n y o ESTIMATION OF DEFINITE INTEGRAL: b For a monotonic decreasing function in (a. b).. v n . (b . f(b).f [g (x)].3 ) ( n .. ..

. -5-+—T+~T+—T+ l2 22 3 4 -r-+—+—+. (u) (iv) . . „ ..—+ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 00 : 7 T 6 co=7t2 1 2 1 -+ — 3 00=7— 12 .2 — 1 1 3 1 4 1 5 4 -+ = In 2 7t2 . ...

1 3 5 7 (v) —2~I 2 1 1 2 2 4 6 2 2" -1 1 71 2 8 2 24 (ilZ?a«sa/ Classes Definite & Indefinite Integration [18] .

r.21 .15 j sin(xa) d x V sin(x+a) 1-Vx dx !l+Vx ^/x2+l[ln(x2+l)-21nx] X Q.16 j sin" dx l+ X Q.19 j x+1 4+xe*)2 dx Q.ll J V x ^ + 2 dx cot xdx Q.13 J (sinx)"11/3 (cosx)"1/3dx -l Q.4 J tan 20 Vcos6 9 + sin6 0 dx K-'f Q.tan 2x.y ^ J sin ^x + sin 2x x Q.6 j eJ + d0 Q2f 5x4 + 4x5 (x + x + l) 5 2 dx dx cos X dx 1 + tanx by the substitution z=x + ^/x'2 +2x-1 Q. In cos 0-sin 9 Q./ n ^ l ^ ( Vx + l)dx j Vx(Vx+1) cosec x-cotx secx ]j cosec x+cotx^/l+2secx dx Q.EXERCISE-I Qll Q.7 | cos 20 .14 j (1-sin x)( sec x+1) a 2 sin 2 x+b 2 cos 2 x dx Q.28 J tan x.18 j ln(lnx)+ (lnx) dx Q.2 i a sin x+b 4 cos2 x Q.12 f Q.9 j 4 .t.tan 3x dx \2 dx Q. x4 .17 | dx Q.20 Integrate ^ f'(x) w.5 Integrate j I s lx X^X2 + 2 X ./cos3 ^ cosx-sinx dx 7-9sin2x Q.1 ^nxdx cos 9+sin 9 d0 Q.IO J dx (x + Vx(l + x) ) 2 dx Q-8 f .22 f sin^ .27 j sinx+s ecx ^Q-30 Q. where f(x) = tan -1 x + /n^/l+x .

3 x j1+x }Ei Q.44 { J x 2 ( x 2 +1)2 2 .32 J[ —^ ~ dx sm x Q 35 \ Q. r Q. ^n(cosx+Vcos2x] Q.43 f J Q.26 j dx dx secx+cos ecx dx Q.33 f ^ dx V sinx + V cosx r e cosx v sin3 x + cosx) (x Q.7 dx Q.29 j — f — sinx Jsin(2x + a) .Q.36 j • ' dx sin2 x Q.2x 2 + 4x .23 J 3 J: + l) (x-l) V(x 2 dx „ _.40 Q.31 J : 3+2sinx+cosx Q.38 r 3x2 +1 (x2-l)3 e \z—a /= (l-x)Vl dx \ x cosx-sinx S m X dx r 3+4sinx+2cosx dx Q.7x 4 + 8x3 .42 j 2 + 3x 1-x x f " " dx 1 + 3sm2x ^Bansal Classes Definite & Indefinite Integration m .„ \ (7x-10-x ) 2 3/2 dx q.34 Jf — ^ sin x +1 x -tan Q 37 Q.3' 9 j V ' r (ax2 -b) dx J xVc2x2-(ax2+b)2 xlnx J (^J dx dx .41 Jf J i z * dx v Ali+x X 4x 5 .

.

g(x) S W n/2 Q. T ) C vQ.x f Jf 2 dx Q. sin 6xdx Q.8 Q.5 J cos 3x.47 J (x-a)V(x-a)(x-(3) J < (l + x 2 )dx • S — rae(0.X 2 Q 4 5 1 ( 2+3x+3> r ~ T (x I Vj^/x+1 J 2 Q.6 j c o s x _ o • o (cosx + sinx) dx (h(x)) = ^ ^ — then compute the cos (cos x) !/n3xdx Let h (x) = (fog) (x) + K where K is any constant.4 J sin2x.49 v Jcos2x —i n x dx s EXERCISE-II 7 1 q'!^™ ji/2 Q. where f and g are trigonometric functions.10 I f P = (a) Q.4 + Jx-2 ^2x^4 j dx 3 00 Q.xx.cos 2n+1 x) dx where n e N -it/2 Evaluate the integral: J (jx + 2 yflx . Q = j l+x J 1+ X 0 2 00 .50 J I V J l-2x2cosa +x4 ^ r Q.9 j 7(cos 2n_1 x .ll 0 i x r xdx -dx.46 j ^ . If f(x) value of j (0) where j (x) = j" —— dt .7 QIVTH3I d 2 x Q J 0 T/ I2 T/ I4 x dx 4 2 Q.48 dx 3 Y x V(l + x)3 Q. arctan(sinx)dx o Q.

a f(x) + bf —j = f — I .18 Q. dx Q. h)x + n a h ) ^ ^ b n . q.15 f ^ . (C)P-V5Q + R = ^ Provethat ? J a . 14 Evaluate: J 7 2 _" X +4 2V ^ Q. where a ^ b then evaluate j f(x) .16 n/2 J 0 sm(f+xj f V2 dx 21 7n 2 .12 rx i i . ( n .20 If for non-zero x.1f+ x d x j 0 Q.oo and R = r j 0 dx T 1+ X then prove that Q= (b) P = R.b) 2(a + b) .l K a .Invx 2 Q. l 0 . 17 J j 2+sin2x ^ 0 2ti / \ ' 7T X N x J e cosf — + — dx 2/ v4 Q 19 2X7+3X6-1 0X 5 -7X 3 -1 2X 2 +X+1dx X2+2 Q.5. _ a n-! (x+ a) (x-t.13 J 2LJE2L dx 22 n ff vx l.x x(l-x)4 J 1+X . dx 0 Jl-x rf y x 2 " x dx Q.

21 J c o s x .22 f ( a X + b ) s £ C X t a n X dx (a.b >0) v J V 7 0 10 +sin 2x 4 + tan x ' 0 (ilZ?a«sa/ Classes Definite & Indefinite Integration [18] .s m x d x Q. vx ji/4 Q.dx.

3 2 j | x .35 Showthat J e " .34 Provethat J = J .28 * a sin 2—72 cos — dx (a > 0.36 .^1-sinx Q. b > 0) J q < m x+b rr\c y 2 4 a V4.dx .23 Evaluate: f f dx. sinTtxl dx Q.25 Show that J | cos x| dx = 2q + sinp where q s N & -— < p <— o 2 2 "5 2/3 Q. (b) p « ^ J 2 // 2 2 v.27 dx v Q.e " o dz = e ^ f e ' ^ 4 dz o dx 2 x 4 Q. I (1 + cos x) p+qn (2x+ 3 ) x 3/2 Q.26 S how that the sum ofthe two integrals J e (x+5 ^dx+3 J Q9(x-2/3f dx is zerQ 1/3 i t/4 7/ 12 smx+cosx r sin x Q.cos7it dt where 'x' is any real number o Q. 1 -t.33 j x sin-1 1 2 V 2a-x a dx (n> 1) Q.x I + X X.Q.31 (a) J Vto^dx.1.J * n 0 1 +x 0 (l-x ) X X zi Q.h ' ' x " cos x+sin x o 0 n/2 _ f ./l-sin x I Q.3 x Vl +sinx+ ..t ! . 2 Vlx -a Ab x.30 j tan" dx ^/l+sm x .24 J |x.UA H ) 2a 1 Q.

4 4 271 (a+b) V^ab (a 2 +ab+b 2 ) ' if . 3 7 ( a ) | l ^ .(x-u)du.ic) O O 1 1 Q.J r x 2 sin 2x.40 Q. X r Prove that J f f (t) dt du= J f(u)..38 Showthat f — o x + 2xcos9 + 1 — =2 n x + 2xcos9 + 1 0 2 9 . n J o V O J X .sin (y.41 s.2k) j J x2(sin2x-cos2x) dx (1+sin 2x)cos2 x dx Q.u o (5+ 4 cosx)2 .39 Prove t h a t j (x +ax+a ) (x2+bx+b V Q.2 7i sin 9 ? dx 2 2 Q. 0 g (k.cos x ) 2x-7t dx Q . J » . (b) f o l+x'Vx+x^x 3 ' 0 1+x '^ sinB dx if 0 s (0.42 Q.

16 Q.43 Evaluate J /n(Vl-x + Vl + x)dx 27t . 2 (a) j t a n " 1 d x . (b) Evaluate J d0 a>b>0 [18] (ilZ?a«sa/ Classes Definite & Indefinite Integration .

a x x a x -(2x332 egral. Je/ntan_ x -sin _1 (cosx)dx.3 If the derivative of f(x) wrtx is — . dx = lna. j 1 + x666 (a) } V ( x . lnx .dx 4 cos x Q. f(x)= f .2 Q. dx Q.) .x ) .49 If f(x) = (cosx-1) 2 (cosx + 1)2 1 Q. f(x) Find the range of the function.A Q.+ . x +x 998 +4x 1668 -sinx 691 ) dx Q. -2f 71 _ X 4 2 -x/n2.Jf(-+-). Hence evaluate J sec t dt ~ .l Q.j /n cos y dy then prove that f(x) = 2f Jt/2 v4 2.then show that f(x)is a periodic function. o EXERCISE-III Q. 47 Evaluate the definite int -l Q.50 Evaluate: -1 1 (cosx + 1)2 (cosx + 1)2 1 (cosx-1) 2 .45 Let f(x) = .46 Showthat J f ( .a ) 1 0» IM p V^P p (c)5 { dx xA/(x-a)()3-x) x. r x.48 Prove that ( P .^ . r a x. find Jf(x) dx cos 2 x /ntan x -1.

l) n dx= 16 .cos — . Q.5 Prove the inequalities : (a) 0 < J 0 1 8 Ml /3 (b) 2 e~1/4 < } ex2"x dx < 2e2.4 Let f(x) = [ -1 if . Define g (x) as a function of x and test the x -* 1 if 0 < x < 2 _2 continuity and differentiability of g(x) in (-2 . (ilZ?a«sa/ Classes Definite & Indefinite Integration [18] . Discuss the continuity and derivability of f at x=0. 1 ] as f (x) = 2 x sin — .2). f(0) = 0 . dx (d) ^ < J 2 + x2 " 6 —2 0 2s (c) a< f — < b then find a & b.2 < x < 0 I and g(x) = J f(t) dt. X X f (I/71) — 0 . x ^ 0 . A function f is defined in [ .1 .6 Determine a positive integer n<5. x 7 dx_ Q.6e.SmX 1 — 2t c o s x + t —7 . such that J e x ( x . i 10+3cosx Q.

13(a) Let g(x) = x c . (312 + 1)1/2 dt. 14 If f: R -> R is a continuous and differentiable function such that. 11 If f(x) = x + j [xy2+x2y] f(y) dy where x and y are independent variable.U * If l . Determine the value of'c' and the limit. J -1 x O x x .tan l x + 77 tan If (j)(x) = cos x .2cot 2x Prove the identity f (x) = tanx + .J (x -1) cj)(t) dt. 9 A^t* a * 0 " dx X Q. Thenfindthe value of <|>" (x) + cj)(x).+ 2 x -r4 x 3 + 4 x 3 -8x 7r + r 1-x+x 1 —x +x 1-x+x x + 1 x tan^j + 8x? + 1+x 8 Q .8 Q.9 Using calculus If | x | < 1 then find the sum of the series _ L + 2 x + 4 x 3 + 1 + X 1 + X 2 1 + x4 1. dx 1 Q.sinx 2 X Q. Lim : — = 1.f f (t) • sin a(x -1) dt then prove that —^ + a 2 y =/(x). F or a certain value of'c'.2 l+x + x l x = — 7 cot ^77 .7 (a) /N U (b) (c) Q. x-»o b x . O .. cos 9 = ~ r f' fx") Q.1|x|I <1 provethat /! . Q.10 If y = x 1 jlntdt . Show that f' (9). Find f(x). 12 If fw = — (9) de I dx ~ COS0 cosx .Q.2 x .at x = e. find 7^. 1x d2 If y = . sin 9 + 2 f(9). the limit of — ^ 0 g' (x) as x ->• 00 isfiniteand non zero. e2x & let f(x) = J e 2t . f t2 dt J JaTt (b) Find the constants 'a' (a > 0) and 'b' such that.00 = 1 + 2X .

V n + 2n(2n.3).17 Let f(x)= = 71 2 %£n2 4 ( x > 0) then show that there can be two integral values of 'x' satisfying this "1-x if 0<x<l 0 if l < x < 2 • Define the function F(x) = J f(t) dt and show that F is 2 (2-x) i f 2 < x < 3 ° continuous in [0. U n dx.2 0 X ~F~ T equation.J e x .2 n(2n . Q.V n _ r n(n-1) Vn_2 = 0 0 f J?nt Ait Q. (ilZ?a«sa/ Classes Definite & Indefinite Integration [18] .n (n . prove that when n > 2.f ' (1) 3 J (t ) dt + f " (2) 2 x J (t) dt 3 thenfindthe value of f' (4). 16 If J —2—2 . Q. 3] and differentiable in (0. 15 Given that Un = {x(l .l)Un_p 1 further if Vn .f (t) dt + f ' " (3) | dt j 1 (t ) dt .x)}n & n > 2 prove tha t .l).1) Un_2 .

22 Solve the equation for y as a function ofx. Q.x)n dx = (m+n+1)! (b> I m ..1) x : prove that.29 Prove that k = o k k 1k +— T 1 S = ( " ^ ( i f\) / . Prove that.19 Evaluate : (a) ^ A (c) Lim I 1 + 2 + n+1 n+2 3n +— 4n . where x > 0. 28 < Show that for a continuously thrice differentiable function f(x) f(x)-f(0) = x f ( 0 ) + ® ^ .Q. . b].V f (k) i k=i where [• ] denotes the greatest integer funct ion and x > 1. l/n 1/n Lim 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ (b) Q. U 3 .— sin 2kx sinx k e N and h ence Q. . where a < c < b 7t f dx Q.26 Let f be a function such that | f(u) .18 Let f be an injective function such that f(x) f(y) +2 = f(x) + f(y) + ffay) for all non negative real x& y w ±th £' (0) . 24 Find a positive real valued continuously differentiable functions/on the r eal line such that for all x X ! 2 f (x)= / ( ( / ( t t f + C / ' W ^ j d t + e Q. Q.21 If Un= J dx. b]. k + n + 1 £ ("l) VK/ m+ = k o k m o . f f(x) dx . o o 1 m!n! m. Find f(x) & s how that. + 1 2k-l .v | fo r all real u & v in an interval [a.x (f(x) + 2) is a constant. (ii) Assume that f is integrable on [a.. I 1 = jox m .+ i}f"'(t)(x-t) 2 dt 2 n / v I 1 Q. 3 J f(x) dx .23 Prove that: (a) Iffl n = j x m . ( l n x ) n d x = (-l) n (m+1 n! ^n+i m.f(v) I < | u ..20 Prove that sinx + sin 3x + sin 5x + .0 & f'' (1) = 2 # f(0).. Q. Q. bf dx 1 1 (d) Using ab initio prove that J — = — . Then: (i) Prove that f is continuous at each point of [a. + sin (2k. . U 2 . J [t] f ' (t) dt = [x]. n s N. 7/ 1 2 1 1 1 j £HL^dx=: i+-+_+^+ sin x 3 5 7 . (1 .27 Establish the inequality : — < I 7 = =f 6 o V4. f(x) . "J? • 2 Q. Un constitute an AP . then show that U. satisf ying X X x • J y (t) dt = (x +1) j t • y(t) dt. q sin x Hence or otherwis e find the value of Un.x . n s N.x Q. b].(b-a) f(c) (b-a) 2 .25 Let f(x) be a continuously differentiable function then prove that..

(ilZ?a«sa/ Classes Definite & Indefinite Integration [18] .

Q.2 (a) If g (x) = J c o s 4 tdt . (iv) g( 0)=1 EXERCISE-IV Q 1 Ftad SJsn.6] X Q. [REE'97. then g (x + %) equals : (B) g(x)-g(7C) a l s : (A)g(x) + g(7C) (b) Limit i g _ ^ e q u r=l Vn 2 +r 2 (A)l + V5 (c) (d) (C)g(x)g(7C> (D) [g(x)/g(7l)] (B) .1 + VJ .30 Let / and g be function that are differentiable for all real numbers x and that have the following properties: (1) /'(x)=/(x)-g(x) (ii) g'(x)=g(x)-/(x) (ii i) f ( 0 ) =5 (a) (b) Prove that/(x) + g (x) = 6 for all x.if: Sn=^ +T ^ +7 4 = + V4n -1 y4n -4 +— V 3 n '+2n-l = = = = . Find/(x) and g (x).

( Q . then the value o f / ( l ) is (B) 0 (C) 1 (D) -1/2 i f \ i Y 1 Prove that f tan"1 2 dx = 2 f tan x dx . If f — dx x ' x values ofkis . e valuate the integral i U-x+x .1 + V2 (D)l + V2 e" The value of J ————— dx is I 4 H e sinx ? Let — F(x) = .3 (a) If ff(t)dt = x + f t f ( t ) d t . i i Jtan _1 (l-x+x 2 )dx [JEE'98.2 + 8] (A)° 1/ 2 (b) Q 4 E r a l u a t e [ R E E ' .2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 5] Q. Hence or otherwise. x > 0 .F (1) then one ofthe possible (e) Determine the value of J „ 2x 0 +sinx) d x 1 +CS X O [JEE '97. dx = F (k) .

9 8 6 1 (ilZ?a«sa/ Classes Definite & Indefinite Integration [18] .

[y] is the greatest integer less than or equal to y.Q. Then g(2) satisfies the inequality: (A)-|<g(2)<I (c) (B) 0 < g (2 ) < 2 (C)^<g(2)<| (D)2<g(2)<4 2 2 (d) .2 R (A) 2 /N (c) Integrate: J ii (C) T x3 + 3x + 2 .1/4 (B) 0 (C) 2 (D) * 2 (b) rlY f — — — is equal to : L 1+ cosx (B) .7 Evaluate the integral J V 3 c o s 2 x cosx (a) The value of the integral j (A) 3 /2 x [REE'99.2]. -cosx -dx e +e 71/6 Q. 6] logex dx is: (C) 3 (D) 5 (B) 5/2 (b) r 1 ' 1 Let g(x)= J f(t) dt. where f is such that . th en the value of the 3 12 7/ integral j [2 sinx] dx is: (A) . — dx (x 2 +l) (x + 1) [JEE '99.6\\ Q.< f(t) < 1 for t £ (0.n 3. 1] and0 < f(t) < o for t G (1. 2 + 2 + 7 + 3 (out of200)] (d) Integrate: J „cosx .5 (a) If for al real number y.

10 (a) cos x r r3~ d x .8 (a) (b) Sn . find the value of — d t in terms of a . 3 + 3 out of 100] r sm t u Q. Evaluate } — 53 0 cos x + sin x (b) / (ilZ?a«sa/ Classes Definite & Indefinite . 1 + 1 + 1 +5] f(e) + f(l/e)= 1/2.9 Evaluate f sin 2x + 2 W 4 X 2 + 8 X + 13 it/2 IT/: 9 dx. 1 1+t [JEE 2000. 3 + 5] Integration [18] 51 Q. (B) 1 (D)3 (C) 2 x t> t For x > 0. r xdx Evaluate J : 0 1 + cos a sinx [REE2001.— l ~r= + Given f sin t 0 1+t 1 + + n + Vn 471 i Find Ln m i tc S_ n — o > d t = a . sin x for |x| < 2 If f (x) = { 2 otherwise Then j f(x)dx : (A) 0 .j ecosx . let f (x) = j dt. Q. Mains. 41 .2 4 7 + 2 t 7 C [ REE 2000. Find the function f(x) + f (1/ x) and show that.

dx then the value of J ' j W dx is 3 0 (A) | I ( c) (B)21 (C) 3 I (D) 61 The integral JI [x] + / n j j . 3+3+3] (d) For any natural number m. °2s ® D ^en Q i+sin Ve -dx. 11 (a) Let f(x) = j ^ 2 .)] cosxc (c) If y(x) = J f 2.t 2 dt Then the real roots ofthe equation x2 .^ t 5 .f ' (x) = 0are (A)±l (B) ± -"" (C)±(D) 0 and 1 (h) Let T > 0 be afixedreal number.X Q.4] n/2 n/4 Q. (Scr. find dx . Suppose/ is a continuous function such that for all x e R T 3+3T / ( x + T) =/(x).^ J dx equals (A)-(B)0 (C)l (D) 2/n [JEE 2002(Scr.(Mains) 2 out of 60] l Q-i3 (a) f^dx o (A)f + 1 = (B)f-. t > 0 . If I = f /fx. (C)7t (D)l (b) r4\ If j x f ( x ) d x = . evaluate J (x3m + x2m + x m ) (2x2m +3xm + 6)m dx. whe rex>0 [JEE 2002 (Mains).12 If f is an even function then prove that J f (cos2x) cosx dx= V2 J f (sin2x) cosx dx 0 0 [JEE 2003. t h e n f v25y 0 2 (A)7 2 (B) 5 (O-f (D)l [JEE 2004.).

s i n x ) . C [JEE 2004 (Mains). 2] (d) Evaluate J -it/3 2-cos [JEE 2004 (Mains).)] (D)V3 [15] (A) 1/3 (B) i/V3 feBansal Classes Definite & Indefinite Integration .14 (a) If Jt 2 (f(t))dt = ( 1 . t h e n / sinx vV3y is (C)3 [JEE 2005 (Scr.at x = T . 4] X T C +Q.

^ 2sin . V Q15 ^W5?^TdXisequalt0 (A) V2x4-2x2+l+c x -2xz+l (B) V2X 4 -2X 2 +1 +C (D) 2x 2 [JEE 2006.a _ 2 ^ (f (a) + f (c)) + — .c o s x +3 cos v2 jj v2 . 2 ^ (a) | sin xdx is equal to o (A)|(l + V2) + 71 ( C ) ^ + f ( a)) 71 (D) 4V2 jf(x)dx_i_i(f(t) (b) If/(x) is a polynomial and if Lim— t->a . Mains.3] (C) +C Comprehension Q.2] (A)-4 (c) Evaluate: fe 0 |cos (B)0 f (C)4 x'N — cosx sin x dx.16 Suppose we define the definite integral using the following formula (f(x)dx = mo re accurate result for c e (a.(f (b) + f (c)). b) F(c) = b ^ ^ (f(a)+f(b)). When c = p p .for Jf(x)dx = ^ ( f ( a ) + f ( b ) + 2f(c>) a it/2 ib .)] (D)6 [JEE 2005.(b) J (x3 + 3x2 + 3x + 3 + (x +1) cos(x + l))dx is equal to .2 [JEE 2005 (Scr.

then/'(c) is equal to (A) f(b)-f(a) b-a (B) 2(f(b)-f(a)) b-a (C) 2f(b)~f(a) 2b-a (D)0 [JEE 2006. 5 marks each] 5050 } ( I . b) and c is a point such that a < c < b.6] [18] (ilZ?a«sa/ Classes Definite & Indefinite Integration .x 5 ° R < dx [JEE 2006. 17 Find the value of J ( I .0 for all a then the degree off (x) can atmost be (A)l (c) (B)2 (C)3 (D)4 If /"(x) < 0. V x s (a.x 5 ° R dx Q. and (c./(c)) is the point lying on the curve for which F(c) is maximum.

.sec2 .— +c 0 2 o 8 4(x . arc cos v cosa y 1 • .3 .I all / .— +1 + ~/n(l + t ) .tan 1 + C where t = x1/6 4 2 2 Q./n(cosx + sinx) + .+ .23 +C Q24.e/ 1 Q.17 Q. x x Q.25 —In—+c 24 (4-3sin x-3cos x) Q 27 1 2V3 .12 cos a. 7 \ -— In .13 —^ +c 8(tan x) + arc cos Vx+c .iN 1 x j o x 3 1 Q. ^x-sin 2""^ + C .ycosi vx-ly + C ~ 1 .ll J ( x + V ^ " ) ' f Q. (4+3sin x+3cos x) Q. 2 2 1 + -yjcOSj .14 .sin9j 2 +c 1/2 + C tanx +c tanx+2 whent = x + V ^ / -1 a tanx x + tan JJ V Q. +2tan" 1 Jcosf -In +c v ycosf 1 .16 (a + x) arc tan .In +c cos9 + sinG ] 1 .+tan .20-/n(l-x4) + c t4 t2 1 z -1 Q.21 6 — .1 . sin"1 —sec — v.4 —ta n -1 x X -—— .In tan..2 x+1 7 x + x +1 + C f x .sin a In (sinx + Jsin 2 ^ 3(l+4tan ttt 1 x) Q.+ c Q.l In l + Vl + 3cos 2 20 +C cos 20 ^ _ Q.(sin 2x + cos 2x) + c Q.ANSWER KEY EXERCISE-I Q.IO + (x+VX 2 + 2 cosx \ Q.(sin 20) In f Q.8 .6 I * ./n(sec20) + c cos9 .+ .5 2 tan -1 (x+Vx 2 +2x-l) + c Q.19 /x 2 (x 2 + l \l +1 2-31nfl+-^ 9x V x In xe" x x + c v l+xe j l+xe Q.7 (c) .— + c — lnx Q.15 V^Jl^x-2-Jl^ Q.^ax + c Q.2 2j F Q.18 xln (lnx) .1 ) 16 VX + V Q.

Q.32 ' x ^ Q.31 2x-3arctan tan—+1 +c v 2 . In (e (cosx + Vcos2x)j + smx Integration (ilZ?a«sa/ Classes Definite & Indefinite [18] .x .28 -^n(secx) .30 x sin x +cosx — +c xcosx-smx c Q.^ ^n(sec2x) +^n(sec3x) + c +c Q.291 In cotx+cota+^/cot 2 x+2cotacotx-l V sina Q.cos x —p=ln tan V2 X 71 ^ + C VT+sin x-cos x + arc tan (sin x+cos x)+c V3 -sm x+cos x Q.cotx .2« 2 sin x . Vcos2x .

45 —i=arctan—p —+c V3 V^+i) Q.49 Q./n(l +1*) + ^ /n t2 + _ 1. + c .40 arcsecx—. X 1 2X Q.36 c .tan t + —r= x 2V5 vv5t + 1 Q.42 .ecos x (x + cosec x) Q.J — .|sin 1 x .^/l-x 2 j + c where t = h^~7= Q.38 ex J ^ cx J + c Q.— Vcotx Q.43 tan 2 .x -x x -2 .39 20>> 9^7x-10-x 2 +c i I 2— /r l+2u + c where u = 3 Q. ' + V3tr~ 1 V3tan 4 2 V 1+x V3 Vu +u + l 1+x 1 . +c sin-1 -Jit + 1 + 1 1t a n ..j * (x2-l)2 where 1= .46 +— 4 V2 „ f 4 .1 „ 1 t2 Q.^2 sin 2x +c v sinx + cosxy x 7 Q.34 —lntan tan —+c 2 2 4 2 Q.+ c a-p y x-a Q. sin (2x+l +c ^ 3 Q.47 — .x + 2V2 J 2 .41 In .37 _ lnx Q. f V51 .44 4 / n x + .1 ( x ) + X J2-X-X2 x 6x ITX j +C .+ 6 t a n .1 .33 /n(l +1) .35 c ax +b +k Q.

22 15 .x^ Q.24 371+1 7t2 Q 27 l" arc tan3 .2 /n2 Q.i +c + — In 8 71 + X + 1 4x2 y l + x V2 l V 2 .15 ^ Q.l — ft Q.2V2) Q.2e Q.. V T + x .1 2 Q.8 — Q .16 Q.6 £ In2 8 Q.5 ^ 64 Q.18.3 6 . 2x EXERCISE-II 2 Q.21 i arc tan 3 3 Q.13-(l-ln4) Q.—/n 2 vl + ty where t = cos9 and 9 = cosec'(cotx) \ a cosec— 2/ y Q.t n '1-0 .12 17 f 22 7t J ^ 7t Q.50 a cosec— tan -1 2 v.17^=Q.^ ( e 2 * + l ) _ 71 16V2 _ (aln2-5a+^) 7t(7t + 3) V2 Q. 9 2n + l 2 V2 + | (3 V3 .48 1 n x4 .sec(l) Q.7 1 .14 4V2-4/n(V2 + l) Q.4 .x .

Q.22 (a7t + 2b)7t 3V3 Q.23 (ilZ?a«sa/ Classes Definite & Indefinite Integration [18] .

37(a)f ( b ) ^ Q.28 71 2a(a+b) Q.50 —--(l+/n2) + 8 4 2 EXERCISE-III Q.44 (a) — 2V3 (b) Q.7 /n2 16 4 Q.31 (a) ^=[rc+21n(V2-l)] (b) 12 Q.47 4 666 32 Q.4 .42 ^ 27 Tt Q. .43 .32—5-cos7ixforO<x< 1. 71 2 for x> 1 & — 2 f o r x ^ ° 71 2 Q.29 57t 3 2 71 Q.2 Q.49 -2ti .45 .40 ^ .3 3 — 4 Q./ n 2 Q.36% 1 2 Q.30 ^ L 16 Q.Q.— Q.In 2 + 71 + 2 167t _ rr 271 i-J^b2 Q.

21 U n = ^ 2 M .ll f(x) = x + 119 119 Q.^ ^--x-1 for .17 F(x)= -T \ x2 if if 0<x<l l<x<2 2<x<3 Q. lOl+e R 2 Q.2 + x . Note that. & der.4 ) (c) 3 .5 a= — 2TI &b= — 27T Q. g(x) is der./ n 4 e f (X) = e x + 1 .18 f(x) = l + x 2 Q.16 x = 2 or 4 Q. 2).13 (a) c = 1 and Limit willbe (b) a = 4andb =1 X Q. -(x + 2) 2 g(x) = . at x = 0 .8 .cos x Q. in (-2. . at x = 1 & not der..(• 71 T .6n=3 Q..2 < x < 0 for 0 <x< 1 for 1 <x< 2 Q.(b)2e( 1/2 )(". C Q.7 (a) -—1 x — Q. 1 k if 3 2 Q. at x = 0 g(x) is cont.19 (a) .3 cont..14 10 Q.

22 y = ^ e"1/x Q.30 f (x) = 3 + 2e2x. g (x) = 3 .Q.2e2x (ilZ?a«sa/ Classes Definite & Indefinite Integration [18] .24 Q.

( b ) . (b)I sin a 7t if a e (0.6 y .ll (a) A (b) C./n 2 x Q.4 Q.10 (a) 4 3 Q.7t) sin a Q.1 ^ j ^ " ^ n ( 4 x 2 + 8x + 13)+C 7ta .5 2vn I rln -C1I vn-i I 3 1 1 x n (a) C.8 (a) 2/n2.3 (a) A (b) hQ.a 1 57t_J.27i) if a e (71. (b) B. (d) (a .2 tan-1 V2 Q. (d) 47t ^ tan -1 . (c) C.7 (a) B. Q.9 ( x + l ) t a n . (c) B. Q.Q.71 . (b) A. (d) Q./n(l +x 2 ) + y f r + c.l ti/6 I EXER CISE-IV Q. (d) .27:) m+l + 6 x 1 m 1 •+ C Q.t a n ^ x . (c) 2%. (c) .13 (a) B.. (b) A.2 (a) A (b) B (c) 2 (d) 16 (e) %2 „ VN+I Q./ n ( l +x) + .

(c) ^ ecos V f f 1 \ e .Q. (b) A. (b) C.16 (a) A. (c) A (ilZ?a«sa/ Classes Definite & Indefinite Integration [18] .15 D Q. fi\ A -1 + —sin 2 k2J J Q.14 (a) C.17 5051 Q.

. X H (ALL) :: | QUESTION BANK ON DETERMINANT & MATRICES T i m e L i m i t : 4 Sitting Each of 75 M i n u t e s duration approx.MATHEMATICS 1 ...

x+by+z = 0 & x+y+cz = Q (a.1 (C) cos a + cos P + cosy cos9 -sin 6 sine cose}A-lissivenby (B)AT (C)-A T (D)A (B) cos a cosp cosy (D) zero Q.3 (A) 2 A -l (B) -1 4 then the inverse of — will be 2 4 (C) (D)A2 Q.l 102 questions in this question is correct) a2 a 1 The value o is independent of: sin(nx) sin x 0 1 A is an involutary matrix given by A= 4 . then the value of a -1 + b -1 + c_1 is 1 1 1+c (A) abc (B) a"1 b"1 c"1 (C) .3 3 . b. Out of the given matrix products Q.6 IfA (A)-A Q. c ^ 1) has a non-trivial solution. on Determinant & Matrices [4] . then the value of (A) .4 If A and B are symmetric matrices.5 Q. B.1 Q. then ABA is (A) symmetric matrix (B) skew sym metric (C) diagonal matrix (D) scalar matrix 1 cos(P~a) cos(y-a) If a.2 (B) a (Ox (D) a.a .c (D) .3 1+a 1 1 If a. b. 3 & y are real numbers. Select the correct alternative : (Only one fthe determinant cos (nx) cos (n+1) x cos (n+2) x (n+l)x sin(n+2)x (A) n Q.b .1 1-a (B) 0 + T~R + T— IS : 1-b 1—c (C) 1 (D) none of these . 8 4 Consider the matrices A= 3 3 6 -1" [2 4"! 0 2 . n and Q.B = 0 1 . c are all different from zero & 1 1+b 1 = 0.7 Ifthe system of equations ax+y+z = 0.Question bank on Determinant & Matrices There are bank.c= 1 2 1 -2 5 -1 2 (i) ( A B ) T C (ii)CTC(AB)T (A) exactly one is defined (C) exactly three are de fined (iii) CTAB and (iv)ATABBTC (B) exactly two are defined (D) all four are defined (IBansal Classes Q. then D = cos(a-p) 1 cos(y-P) cos(a-y) cos(p-y) 1 (A) .

1 0 3 5 (B) . 9 The value of a for which the system of equations .3 x+4 .x x .1 x+3 If px + qx + r x + s x + t = x+1 2 .ll l+sin 2 x cos2x Let f(x) = sin2x l+cos 2 x cos2x sin2x (A) 2 "3 1 4" -6 (B)4 4sin2x : 4sin2x . a x + ( a + l ) y + (a+2)z = 0 & x + y + z = 0 has a non-zero solution is : (D) none of these (A) 1 (B) 0 (C) . (C) (\ na^ vo o.1 0 (D)none of these Q.IO (A) (B) 0 v (\ nM 1 . a 3 x+(a+1 )3 y + (a+2) 3 z = 0.1 2 0 2 3 (A) .13 x + 3x x .12 IfA= andB = "-2 5" 6 1 then X such that A + 2X = B equals 5 (C) . then the maximum value of f (x) l+4sin2x (C) 6 (D) 8 Q. then An (where n € N) equa ls '1 v0 na^l \j Q.1 1 a^i IfA= q j j.Q.3 then t = x . CD) V° n 2 Q.

(a + d)x+k = 0.14 (B) 0 (C) 21 (D) none IfA and B are invertible matrices. B. which one ofthe following statements is not c orrect (A) Adj.3x 4 3 2 (A) 33 Q. then (B) k = ad (C) k = a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 (D)ad-bc (IBansal Classes Q.= B+ A~ (D) (AB)-1 = B"1 A"1 a" +1 ab ac 2 ba b +1 be then D = ca cb c2 +1 (B) a2 + b2 + c2 (C) (a+b +c) 2 (D) none Q. c (A) k = be b^l ^ j satisfies the equation x2 .16 IfA= . on Determinant & Matrices [4] . A = | A| A-1 (B) det (A-1) = |det (A)|_1 1 1 ! (C) (A + B).15 If D (A) 1 + a2 + b 2 + c2 Q.

A+Adj. (AB)is (A) Adj. {adj (KIn)} is equal to (A) K" ~1 (B)K n ( n _ 1 ) (IBansal Classes Q. X * 0 1 logxy logxz l lOgy is Q. A) (C) Adj.y ) 2 1 (c z +c" z ) 2 (A) axbycz (B) a-xb-yc(C) a2xb2y c2z (c z -c" z ) 2 1 (D) zero Q.21 If a + 2 a + 3 a + q= 0. then p. c> 0 & x. (A ) (Adj. 18 Identify the incorrect statement in respect of two square matrices A and B conformable for sum and product. B) (Adj. y & z the numerical value ofthe determinant lOgy X logzx logzy (A) 0 Q. 19 The determinant (0 + (j)) —sin (9+4>) cos 2^) cos 6 sin4> is : sinG sin9 cos(f) -cos© (B) independen t of 9 (D) independent of 9 & (j) both (A) 0 (C) independent of (f) Q. z e R. B.20 IfAandB are non singular Matrices ofsame order then Adj. B) (B) (Adj. (A) x 0 (C) 3x + X * 0. (A) tr(A + B) = tr(A) + tr(B) (B) tr(aA) = a t r (A\ a s R (C) tr(AT) . y. B (D) none of these a+1 a+2 a+p Q.24 (B) 1 (C) 3 (C) Kn (D) none (D)K 1 If K g Rq then det. q. 23 For positive numbers x.22 LetAX x x+X X x+X . 17 If a. b. on Determinant & Matrices [4] . then A -1 exists if (B) X * 0 (D)x*0. r are in : a+3 a+4 a+r (A) AP X-rX X (B) GP X X (C) HP (D) none Q. then the determin ant (by + b~y)2 (b y -b.(ax + a~x)~ (a x -a" x )" 1 Q.tr(A) (D) tr(AB) * tr(BA) COS Q. .

c. c X y Cj z c C: C. Z C: (B) ~ xyz(x+y-z) (y+z--x) (D) none (A) \ xyz (x+y) (y+z) (z+x) (C) ™ x y z ( x .z ) ( z . Cj a2 b2 c2 (A) a 3 b3 c3 a i b i ci (B)2 a2 b2 c2 a3 b3 c3 a i b i ci (C)3 a2 b2 c2 a3 b3 c3 a i b.25 bj + Cj Cj + aj aj + b.y ) ( y . + c2 c2 + a2 a2 + b2 b3 + c3 c3 + a3 a3 + b3 i b. 2 8 Which o f the following statements is incorrect for a square matrix A. (D)4 a2 b2 c2 a3 b3 c3 a Q. A -1 will also be a diagonal matrix (B) IfA is a symme tric matrix.(ab + bc + ca) (D) none of these Q. A-1 will also be a symmetric matrix (C) IfA -1 = A => Ais an idempo tent matrix (D) IfA-1 = A => Ais an involutary matrix Q.3 (ax+by+cz) (B) a(x+y) + b(y+z) + c (z+x) . 29 The determinant c1 y c. 27 The determinant b+x 1+b+y b + z c+x c+y 1+c+z (A) (1 +a + b + c) (1 +x+y + z) . z x X y C.x ) Which ofthe following is a nilpotent matrix "1 0" (A) 0 1 cos9 (B) sin 9 -sin9 cos 9 "0 0" (C) 1 "1 1 (D) 1 1 . (| A | ^ 0 ) (A) IfA is a diagonal matrix.(xy+yz+zx) (C) x(a + b) + y(b + c) + z(c + a) . The determinant b.Q.26 Which ofthe following is an orthogonal matrix 6/7 (A) 2/7 3/7 -6/7 (C) -2/7 7 3/ 2/7 3/7 -6/7 -2/7 3/7 6/7 -3/7 6/7 2/7 -3/7 6/7 2/7 6/7 (B) 2/7 3/7 "6/7 (D ) -2/77 6/ 2/7 -3/7 6/7 -2/7 2/7 2/7 3/7 6/7 -2/7 3/7' -3/7 3/7 1+a+x a+y a+z Q.

B.(IBansal Classes Q. on Determinant & Matrices [4] .

and AB are all defined. 3 6 A and B are two given matrices such that the order ofA is 3 x 4.37 faBansal Classes Q.Q.31 a3 a .1 3 4 If a.. x+py+2z = 3.32 (B) (a + b + c) (ab+bc + ca) = abc (D) none of these Give the correct order of initials T or F for following statements. p = 4 (C) 3p = 2 p (D) none of these Q. then the value ofthe determinant ( O 1 a o2 C 1 O (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) none Q. then coefficient matrix is n on angular 1 (C) IfA"1 exists. x+4y+pz = 3 has an infinite number of solutions.34 Identify the correct statement: (A) If system of n simultaneous linear equations has a unique solution. c are all different and b b b . (adjA)"1 may or may not exist b C c <)f. . 3 5 If the determinant b+q m+y v+g splits into exactly K determin ants of order 3. B. is J r °£ f (A) 6 (B)8 (C)9 (D)12 J Q. then F(x) . (A) TFFF (B)TTFF (C) TFFT (D)TTTF O O 1 C3 C2 3 If co is one ofthe imaginary cube roots ofunity. Statement-3: Every matrix none ofwhose entries are zero is invertible. F(y) = F(x . Use T if sta tement is true and F if it is false. Statement-1: IfAis aninvertible 3 x 3 matri x and B is a 3 x 4 matrix. each element of c+r n+z w+h r l n n . then : (A) p = 2 . then A"'B is defined Statement-2 : It is never true t hat A+ B.B.y) 0 a+p 1+x u+f Q. which contains only on e term. if A' B and B A ' are both defined then (A) order of B' is 3 x 4 (B) order of B'A is 4 x 4 (C) o rder of B'A is 3 x 3 (D) B'A is undefined Ifthe system of equations x+2y+3z = 4.1 = 0. Statement-4: Every invertible matrix is square a nd has no two rows the same. then coefficient matrix is singular (B) If system of n s imultaneous linear equations has a unique solution. p = 3 (B) p = 2 . then : a (A) abc(ab + bc + ca) = a + b + c (C) abc(a + b + c) = ab + bc + ca Q.33 Q. on Determinant & Matrices [10] .tXL ^ J A ' I -"> Sivnpl« ( I aJjJJLscosx . A . then the value of K. b.s i n x 0 (D) F(x) = sinx 0 cosx 0 0 .

sin9x . X e R . 40 For a given matrix A= (A) A = A -1 V9eR which of the following statement holds good? 71 (C) A is an orthogonal matrix for 9 6 R (B) A is symmetric.{0} (B) 9 = 2mr. is (A) 9 = mr. for 9 = nTt.44 IfA is matrix such that A 2 +A+2I = 0 . n € I 1 + a x (1 + b )x (1 + c )x 2 2 2 Q.42 Matrix A= 1 y 4 . B = cos 2 p sin P cos P sinP cosp sin 2 p are such that.39 Let Dj = c d c + d and D. then which of the following should necessari ly be an odd integral (B)P (C)a-p (D) a + p a b a+b a c a+c b + d then the value of Ei where b * 0 and Q.2b (D)2b Q. n e I Tt (D)9 = (2n+ 1)—. AB is a null matrix. X e R. X for which the following equations . then A (adj A) is equal to 2 2 z 64 0 0 (A) 0 64 0 0 0 64 88 0 0 0 (B) 0 88 88 0 0 68 0 0 (C) 0 68 0 0 0 68 34 0 0 (D) 0 34 0 0 0 34 Q. X e R+.cos9y + (A+ 1 )z = 0.38 cos a If A = sina cosa multiple of —.Xz = 0. X is any rational number (C) 9 = (2n + l)7t.41 If a + b + c =-2and f(x) = (l + a )x l + b x (l + c )x then f (x) is a polynomial of degree (l + a 2 )x (l + b 2 )x l + c 2 x 2 2 2 (A)0 (B) 1 (C)2 (D)3 x 3 2 Q. if x y z = 60 and 8x + 4y + 3z = 20. n e I Zi Q. 43 The values of 9. for 9 = (2n + 1) — . then which of the following is INCO RRECT? (A)Aisnon-singular (B)A ^ O (C) Ais symmetric (D) A -1 = -— (A+1) [4] (Where I is unit matrix of order 2 and O is null matrix of order 2) faBansal Classes .Q. (A) a 7t sina cosa sin a . n e l (D) A is a skew symmetric. +1 )y + cos9 z = 0 have non trivial so lution. Xx +(A. cos9x + sin9y . is (A)-2 (B)0 cos0 -sin 9 sin 9 cosO (C) .= b d JL D„ a b a-b a c a +b+c ad * be.

on Determinant & Matrices [10] .Q. B.

1 (B) a = .I = 0 1 . . then the values of a is (A)-4 (B)0 (C)2 (D)4 "l 3" "l o" Q. satisfying the system of equations (sin30)x-y + z = O (cos20)x + 4y + 3z= 0 2x+7y+7z=0 then the numbe r of principal values of 0 is (A) 2 (B)4 (C)5 (D)6 1 2 6 .trivial solution (C) have infinite solutions (B) not have a solution (D) have a trivial solution 1 1 z 3 v2 J / (C) 1 Q. b = l (C) a = 0. 45 The system of equations: 2x cos20 + y sin20 . z are not all simultaneously equal to zero.Q.ay = 1 . b = .4 = 0 (C) X2 + 3X + 4 = 0 (D)X 2 -3X~6 = 0 Q. b c Q.l . on Determinant & Matrices [10] .y cos0 = 0.1 5 3 an d 2 A .3 -5 3 0 2 . a2 x .B = 2 .2sin0 = 0 x sin20 + 2y sin20 = .48 Let A+2B then Tr (A) . 51 Ifthe system of equations.2 cosO x sin0 .2b) y=3 + a possess a unique solution x = 1. b and c a c u2 . B. for all values of 0. IfA .3A.Tr (B) has the value equal to (A) 0 (B) 1 z u2 a 2 +.zero.XI is a singular matrix then (A) X e < J > (B) X2 .49 For a non . b = 0 (D) none faBansal Classes Q. y.a & bx+(3 . 46 The number of solution ofthe matrix equation X2 (A) more than 2 (B)2 IS (D)0 Q. Jl b +c a b c a _2 . y = 1 then: (A) a= 1. real a.1 6 1 0 1 2 (C)2 (D)none Q.50 Given A= 2 2_ . 47 If x. c +_2 a = a abc. can (A) have a unique non .

a ) . c = . a2 x + (2 . 4] (D)DetAe [2. 3x + y + 5z .5 6 D is a 3 x 3 diagonal matrix.7 and 2x + 3y + 5z = 5 are (A ) consistent with trivial solution (B) consistent with unique non trivial soluti on (C) consistent with infinite solution (D) inconsistent with no solution A2n_| are n skew symmetric matrices ofsame order then B = ]T(2r~ l ) ( A 2 r l ) 2 r i will r=l at f' Q.1 Q. where 0 < 9 < 2n. ax .b and (c + l)x + cy = 10 .1 X+3 X-2 (A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 3 has no inverse (D) infinite which the system of equations. is: (A) exactly one (B) exactly two (C) exact ly three (D) infinitely many Q.a + 3 b has infinitely many solutions and x = 1. oo) (B) Det A e (0.1 -1/2 3 -3/2 1/ 1 . y = 3 is one of the solutions. 59 The numbe r of real values of x satisfying 7x-2 (A) 3 (B)0 (B) skew symmetric (D) data is adequate 3x + 2 4x 17x + 6 2x-l 3x + l = 0 is 12x -l (D)l X+ l X+l (C) more than 3 X-l X Q. then 1/2 1 (C)a = . then (C) Det (A) e [2.s~n A ine 6 S1 D sin6 1 " 1 .54 IfA= 1 2 3 .2 possess no solution is (B)l (A) 0 (0)2 "0 1 . 53 Number of value of 'a' for y = 4 + a2 ax + (2a . Which of the fo llowing statements is not true? (A) D' = D (B) AD = DAfor every matrix Aof order 3x3 1 (C) D if exists is a scalar matrix (D) none ofthese Q.1. 5 5 Number of triplets of a. 57 The following s ystem of equations 3x .60 Number of real values of X for which the matrix A= 2 . A -1 = 2] c .52 Let A ~S1\11U (A) Det (A) = 0 sinB 1 * . c = 1 1 (D)a=-.58 IfAj.4 3 a 1 5/2 (A) a .c=Q.i ) y = a5 2 [1/2 Q. A3.1.7y + 5z = 3. Q ) O Q. b & c for which the system of equations. c= (D) infinite (B) a = 2. be (A) symmetric (C) neither symmetric nor skew symmetric x 2x-l Q.by = 2a .

on Determinant & Matrices [9] . B.tl Bansal Classes Q.

5 1 1 (B)-l (B) a straight line parallel to y.1 ) 1 ( C ) n A .l ) I (D^^A-I faBansal Classes Q. 66 The set of equations Xx-y + (cos9)z = 0 3x + y + 2z =0 (cos9)x + y + 2z = 0 0 < 9 < 271. z Q. y.65 If D(x) = then the coefficient ofx in D(x) is 2 (x + 1) (x + 1) (A) 5 (B)-2 (C)6 (D)0 Q. An is equal to (n s N) (A)nA-I (B) 2 n _ 1 A . has non. the incorrect statement is (A) D is independent ofx (C) D is independent of z (B) D is independent of y (D) D is dependent on x.( n .axis (D) a straight line with negative slope 2 2" 0 a .67 Matrix A satisfies A2 = 2A-1 where I is the identity matrix then for n > 2.62 If every element of a square non singular matrix Ais multiplied by k and th e new matrix is denoted by B then | A-11 and | B_11 are related as (A)|A. | = k|B. If B is the inverse of matrix A. on Determinant & Matrices [10] .61 IfD = 1 z (y + z) x2 y(y + z) x2z 1 z 1 x + 2y + z xz X (x + y) z2 1 y(x + y) xz2 X then.6 3 Iff'(x) = mx + 2n mx + 2n + p mx + 2 n . then a is -2 3 (C)2 (D) 5 2 „3 x — 1 (x-1) X x-1 x2 ' (x + 1) Q.1 | (B)| A_1| = B_1| (C)| A -1 | = k n |B _ 1 | (D) | A_1| =k _ n |B _ 1 | where n is order of matrices. B.trivial solutions) (A) for no value of X and 9 (B) for a ll values of X and 9 (C) for all values of X and only two values of 9 (D) for on ly one value of X and all values of 9 Q.64 Let A= 1 1 (A)-2 "4 1 .3 and 10B = . mx mx-p mx+p n n+p n-p theny = f(x) represents Q.( n .Q.p (A) a straight line parallel to x« ax is (C) parabola 1 -1 2 1 Q..

Q. (D) All the four statements are INCORRECT. 72 The number of positive integral solutions of the equation x3 + l xy xz2 (A )0 x2y x2z y3 +1 y2z = 11 is yz z3+l (B)3 (C)6 (D)12 Q. log3x • log4x • log5x=(log3x • log4x ) + (log4x • log5x) + (log5x • log3x) is true for exactly for one real value of x. (cos0)x+(sin0)y = 0. (B) e xactly two statements are INCORRECT. Which of the following is true? Q. I V. y.3 . c are real then the value of determinan t = 1 if ac be c2+l (A) a + b + c = 0 (B) a + b + c = 1 (C) a + b + c = . (B) Ax=b h as exactly three solutions.1 (D) a = b = c = 0 Q. (C) exactly three statements are INCORRECT. If x.a 2 +1 ab ac 2 ab b +1 be Q. 68 If a. then 1 ( x ~ y) (y-z) in. (cos9)y + 2z = a has (A) no unique solution (B) a unique solution which is a function of a and 0 (C) a unique solution which is independent of a and 0 (D) a unique solution which is independent of 0 only "1 2 3" 0" 2 0 5 andb = . z are all different real numbers. Number of possible orders it can have is six. (C) Ax=b has infinitely many solutions. A matrix has 12 elements. (A) exactly one statement is INCORRECT. (D) Ax = b is inconsistent. 70 The system of equations (sinG) x + 2z = 0. b. but the area of the firsttriangle is larger than the area of second triangle. det(B) = 3 and det(C) = 5. then the value ofthe det(A 2BC~') is equal to (A) 7 (B) 12 (C) 18 CD) 24 faBansal Classes .73 If A B and C are n x n matrices and det(A) = 2.71 LetA= 0 2 1 1 (A ) Ax=b has a unique solution. +1 1 l x-y — + l y-z — + — l \ z-x 2 Q. There can exist t wo triangles such that the sides of one triangle are all less than 1 cm while th e sides of the other triangle are all bigger than 10 metres. Now i ndicate the correct alternatively. n. 69 Read the following mathematical statements carefully: I.

on Determinant & Matrices [10] .Q. B.

then its other two roots are a-x (B) real and coincident (D) such that one is real and other imaginary -1 2 1 ^ 2 and A J j = ^ . 'A(BC) 3 ^ 8 + + 00 = (D)none (B) 9 1 . 76 Let three matrices A= 4 1 . are divisible by a fixed x 3 1 constant k. B = 2 3 andC = -2 tr(A) + t r ( A) 6 Q. z are integers from 0 to 9 .74 The equation 2x + l x+1 (1-x) 3x 2x (1 + x)2 2x + l x + 1 -(2 + x ) 2 3x 2x l~5x + (1-x) l-2x 3x-2 2x-3 2-3x (B) has 4 real solutions (D) has infinite number of solutions.3y6 and 12z where x. 81 Three digit numbers xl7. b eR) f (x)= b b (A) real and differ ent (C) imaginary Q.(1 + x)2 Q. 75 "3 "3 4" "2 l" Q. ' A ( B C ) 2 ^ + t.80 A is a 2 x 2 matrix such that A J j = (A)-l (B)0 b a-x b b b =0. y. 78 P is an orthogonal matrix and Ais a periodic matrix with period 4 and Q= P AP T then X = p T Q 2 0 0 5 p will = PAP be equal to (D)A4 (A)A (B)A2 (C) A3 a-x Q. 77 1-X 2 -3 X 2 -2 (A)0 'ABC N + t. The sum ofthe elements ofA.2 = 0 is 1+X (B)2 ( Q 12 The number of positive integral solutions (C)3 (D)l Q. real or non-real a + 2b a+b is a (C) 3b2 (a + b) (D) 7a2 (a + b) -4 3 _then (A) has no real solution (C) has two real and two non-real solutions a a+2b The value of the determinant a+b (A) 9a2 (a + b) (B) 9b2 (a + b) a+b a a+2b Q.79 If x = a + 2b satisfies the cubic (a. is (C)2 (D)5 Q. Then the determinant 7 6 z must be divisible by 1 y 2 (A)k (B)k2 (C)k 3 (D) None faBansal Classes .

B.Q. on Determinant & Matrices [10] .

a. 87 Give the correct order of initials T or F for following statements. 84 If A B.88 Let A 1 + x 2 .(x +1)) K + l)-[X + l)) (B) Involutary (C) Non singular (D) Nilpotent (A) Idempotent Q.86 Ifthe system of linear equations x + 2ay + az = 0 x + 3by + bz — 0 x + 4cy + cz = 0 has anon-zero solution. B. Statemeat-2: If the system of equations ax + by = 0.Q. c = Lim —^ and ->o 4x + x x-^o x x a b (X+1) — — r then the matrix c d is x->-i 3(sin( x +1) . then sin A + sin A sin B +sin B sin C + sin C (B) an isosceles (D) any triangle 1 x/nx 3 T. Statement-3: The system x + y + z= l. x — 16x /n (1 + sin x) T.'s are the sum of the roots of the equ ation x2 . d= T• Lim — j — (C)9 (D)16 1 1 1 1 + sin A 1 + sinB 1 + sin C = 0. j + 5's are the product of the roots. Ais equal to 2 2 2 2(zx + y) 2(yz-x) 1+z -x -y (B) (1 +x 2 + y2 + z2)3 (D) (1 +x 3 + y3 + z3)2 Q.P. b.(a + b)x + ab= 0. then the whole system is inconsistent. (A) FFTT (B)TTFT (D)TTTF (C) TTFF Q . a.85 x L L e t a =x—/nx ^ .x = y.P. then a. Statem ent-4: Iftwo of the equations in a system of three linear equations are inconsis tent. y = l + z i s inconsistent. c (A) are in G .83 Let N = 42 38 65 . C are the angles of a triangle and the triangle is (A) a equilateral (C) a r ight angled triangle Q. P. (A) is equal to (A) 0 ' (B) (a + b)3 (C) a3 . Q. . then there is a unique solution to the system. then it has infinitely many solutions . cx + dy = 0 has a non-zero solution. Statement-1: If the graphs of two lin ear equations in two variables are neither parallel nor the same. Use T if statement is true and F if it is false. on Determinant & Matrices (A)(l +xy + yz + zx)3 (C)(xy + yz + zx)3 faBansal Classes [10] . (C) satisfy a + 2b + 3c = 0 (B) are in H. Lim . (D) are in A.y2 ~ z2 2(xy + z) 2(zx-y) 2 2 2 2(xy-z) 1+y -z -x 2(yz + x) then det. The value of the det.82 In a square matrix A of order 3. {_ j's are all unity and the rest of the elements are all zero.b3 (D) (a2 + b2)(a + b) 28 25 38 Q. then the number of ways is which N can be resolved as a produ ct of two 56 47 83 divisors which are relatively prime is (A) 4 (B) 8 Q.

with at * 0.94 IfAB =AandBA=B. ia2 ia2 a..a ) Q. 9 7t 2 sin 40 2 sin 40 = 0 are l+2sin40 (B)A=^=e "i 71 I (C)ABA=A (D) BAB = B Q. then which of the following ar e true? (A) | AB | = 0 => | B | = 0 (B) j AB | = 0 => B = 0 -1 _1 (C) | A | = |A | (D) | A + A| = 2 | A| TC 7T It Q. x . on Determinant & Matrices [10] .(c-a) 2 ca is divisible by : c2 c2 .x + a ^ + agZ = 0.y + z = 4 . 91 The determinant b2 b2 . 95 The solution(s) of the equation a x a = 0 is/are : b b x (A) x = . where i .( a + b ) (B) x = a (C) x = b (D) . j is non singular.(b-c) 2 be Q.b faBansal Classes Q.90 Suppose al5 (A)A= i a4 a5 a a real numbers.2 y + az = 3 has (A) unique solut on only for a = 0 (B) unique solution for a * 8 (C) infinite number of solutions for a = 8 (D) no solution for a = 8 Q.b ) ( b . B.P. 92 IfA and B are 3 x 3 matrices and | A | * 0.(a-b) 2 ab (A) a + b + c (C) a2 + b2 + c2 (B) (a+b) (b + c) (c + a) (D) ( a .y + 3z = 2 . then (A) A2B =A 2 (B)B 2 A=B 2 x a b Q. are in A. 9 (C) A = . If a1? 2 a5 a6 a aj. a4x + a5y + a6z = 0.93 The value of 9 lying between -— & — and 0<A< — a nd satisfying the equation 1+sin2 A cos2 A sin2 A l+cos2A sin2 A cos2 A (A) A= . 2 x . ayX + a8y + a9z = 0 has infinite number of solutions (C)B a.Select the correct alternatives : (More than one are correct) Q. then 3 a6 is singular a7 (B) the system of equations a.c ) ( c .89 The set of eq uations x .V-l (D) none of these a2 a2 .

D2 = D2Dj 2 2 (C) D j + D2 is a diagonal matrix (D) none of these 1 a a2 2 Q.P.1 + sinx such that { f(x)dx = . and f(x) 7 1 (D) 24 p + sinx q + sinx p .101 If p.4I3) (D) A2 is invertible Q. s areinAP. then = _c d_ (B) k = | A| (C) k = |A| (D) none of these (A) a + d = 0 Q.r + sinx q + sinx r + sinx .97 If 1 x x = 0.4 then r + sinx s + sinx s . then b2 ab a2 (A)x = a (B) x = b (C) x = a (D)x=Q.q + sinx the common difference of the A.4 A . can be: (A) .c 0 b-c c-b 0 1 ab a + b (B) 1 be b + c 1 ca 1 + 1 c a logxxyz logxy logxz 1 logyz (D) logyxyz logzxyz logzy 1 "a b" (where be 7 0) satisfies the equations x2 + k = 0.5I3 = 0 (C) A3 is not invert ible (B) A -1 = .Q.(A . B.a c-a Q.100 The value of 6 lying between 9 = 0 & 9 = 7t/2 & satisfying the equation : 1+sin 2 9 COS29 4sin49 2 sin 9 1+COS 9 4sin49 = 0 are: sin 2 9 l+4sin49 COS29 lb t (C) 24 Q. then 2 2 1 (A) A2 .1 (B) 1 (C) 1 (D) none 1 2 2 Q.r.l02 LetA= 2 1 2 . on Determinant & Matrices faBansal Classes [10] .b a. 96 If Dj and D2 are two 3x3 diagonal matrices.99 IfA= a. q.98 Which ofthe following determinant(s) vanish(es)? 1 be bc(b + c) (A) 1 ca ca (c + a) 1 ab ab(a + b) 0 (C) b . then (A) DjD2 is a diagonal ma trix (B) D.

6 b a'3'aV £6b a'a 68 b a 98*6 V I8b V 9 Lb v irO V 99t) a t9b a 99 b v isb V 9t>b o irb a 9£b v irb V 9c'b v irb a 9i b D D'V 66 b a'3'aV 86 b a'3'aV a 3 a 3 3 a 3 3 3 a 3 V P6'b 3'8'V 96 b O'V 36'b a £8'b a 08'b a 9Lb 3'aV 96 b a'3'v 16 b a 88 b a £8 b v 8 Lb a £L'b 3'aV 06 b LVb a a a 3 V a 3 a 3 a wb a z:8b LLb ZLb L9b Z9'b L9'b Z9'b LVb zvb L£'b zzb LZ'b zzb Lib zvb Lb a 6//b t>fb a 0 L'b v 9 9"b a 09'b a a a a a 99t) 09 b 9Vb V 69'b P9b 69 b P9b 6Vb wb a 89 b V £9b a 8S'b 3 3 a £9b 8Vb £Vb 3 orb 9£'b tb V 6£b nb 6Zb pzb 3 8£'b 3 ££'b 3 srb V 3 o .ANSWER KEY a'aV sorb o'v 00 It) D'V lorb aV /.

9Zb £rb 3 a a 3 V a orb V a 6rb 3 Mb 3 6b V rb a srb 3 £ib 3 a 8b rb crb irb 9b rb V orb a 9b a v rb faBansal Classes Q. on Determinant & Matrices [10] . B.

BANSAL CLASSES TAR GET TIT JEE 2007 MATHEMATICS XII (ALL) mimmemm & MATRICES C O N T E N T S DETERMINANT KEY CONCEPT. EXERCISE-I EXERCISE-II EXERCISE-III ANSWER KEY Page -13 Page -18 Pa ge -20 Page -22 Page -23 . EXERCISE-I EXERCISE-II EXERCISE-III Page -2 Page -5 Page -9 Page -1 0 MATRICES KEY CONCEPT.

(2) a3x + b 3y + c3 = 0.b. C3 . The symbol bl CONCEPTS D E T E R M I N A N T is called the determinant of order two.KEY 1. bi Ci C Its value can be found as : D = a b c . bj q 2.«2 b c + ag b 3 3 3 3 2 b2 = a 2 OR c2 i c3 2 . a 3 a c 2 c3 + a2 Cl a b2 b 3 3 and so on. In this manner we can expand a determinant in 6 ways using elements of. a3 bj c3 b2 c2 bx c. ' = 0 . (ii) Condition for the consistency of three simultaneous linear equations in 2 variab les. Its value is given by : D = a 1 b 2 -a 2 b 1 a. The symbol a 2 b2 02 is called the determinant of order three. R j . (1) (0 a2X + b2y + c2 = 0. ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy+ c = 0 represents a pair of straight lines if . R^ . R3 or Cj. 3. (3) are concurrent i f . C 2 . Following examples of short hand writing large express ions are: The lines : ajX + bjy + Cj = 0.

2 . COFACTOR : If Mjj represents the minor o f some typical element then the cofactor is defined as : Cy = (-1 )1+J. 3 is : •H (iv) y2 1 y3 1 7i 1 If D = 0 then the three points are collinear.ch = 0 = h b f g f c 2 2 2 (iii) Area of a triangle whose vertices are (x r . »3 c3 3 3 Hence a determinant of order two will have "4 minors" & a determina nt of order three will have "9 minors".af .) & (x^ y2) is Xl yi 1 = 0 y1 2 MINORS : The minor of a given element of a determinant is the determinant of t he elements which remain after deleting the row & the column in which the given element stands. r = 1 .: a h g abc + 2 fgh . y r ). x Equation of a straight line passsing through (Xj. the minor of a} in (Key y 1 i c. Note th at the value of a determinant of order three in terms of 'Minor' & 'Cofactor' ca n be written as : D = anM n . For example. Wh ere i & j denotes the row & column in which the particular element lies.2 + a13M13 ORD = ajjCjj + a12C12 + a13C13 & s o on Concept 2) is b c a & the minor of b2 is fc Ban sal Classes Determinant & Matrices [2] .bg . y.a12M. Mjj .

3 : A A bi Cl b2 c2 b3 C 3 A 2 B2 BI B3 other . e. = A 2 A 3 BI CL b2 b3 c3 C 2 : D' D & D' are transpose of each terminant but D' = D => 2D = rder has the value zero.g.D then it is S K E W SYMMETRIC de 0 => D = 0 => Skew symmetric determinant of third o 2 : If any two rows (or columns) of a determinant b determinant is changed in sign only. If D' = . A I 2 e.6.g. P-l PROPERTIES OF DETERMINANTS : The value of a determinant remains unaltered. CL b2 c2 b3 c3 A. P e interchanged. the value of a i 2 3 Let D = P . if D = A a3 b. . if th e rows & columns are inter changed.

Let D = I3 B. P .D . e. e.4 : If all the elements of any row (or column) be multiplied by the same num ber. If a determinant has any two rows (or columns) identical. AJ+X FY+Y C. KB. then its value is zero . + Z a2 a 3 b2 b3 c2 c3 = l b. B. then the determinant is multiplied by that number. B3 then it can be verified that D = 0. Cl 2 b2 C a 3 b3 C a 2 3 a X .C2 CJ C3 & D' = i A3 a Then D' = . KC.g. KA.g. egP-5: If D 2 b2 3 b3 and D' = 2 t)2 Then D'=KD If each element of any row (or column) can be expressed as a sum of two terms th en the determinant can be expressed as the sum of two determinants.

6: The value of a determinant is not altered by adding to the elements of an y row (or column) the same multiples of the corresponding elements of any other row (or column). fc Ban sal Classes Determinant & Matrices [3] . MULTIPLICATION OF TWO DETERMINANTS (i) bi li m. Let D = and AJ+MA.+ a2 a3 y Z b2 c2 b3 C 3 P . P . e. 7. in.7: If by putting x = a the value of a determinant vanishes then (x-a) is a factor of the determinant. A1l1+B1L2 A1M1+B1M 2 A2lj+B2L2 A2M1+B2M2 Similarly two determinants of order three are multiplied. B1+MB b 2 CJ+MC^ C D' = a 2 2 2 2 Then D ' = D A3+NA2 B3+NB C3+NC2 Note : that while applying this property ATLEAST ONE ROW (OR COLUMN) must remain unchanged .g.

.

B ? C3 A2 B2 A3 B3 b. . A2 B2 C2 A3 B3 C3 A. C L Consider 2 b2 c2 PROOF : b3 c33 Note : ajA2 + bjB 2 + CjC2 = 0 etc. A I 1) 0 0 0 D 0 D A B. c.(ii) If D = A2 A 3 b.. CI A c2 c3 0 0 A. D C3 2 = Aj B. b2 b3 C L then. A 2 B2 c 2 A3 B3 AI X where A.

=D 2 OR A2 CA3 = D2 c.. D x BI CI = D => 3 B. a ^ + b2y + c2z = d2 . X x -Bl D a ' y-^1 Y Defini No sol [ Iden + b2y + . ajX + b3y + c3z = d3 . C2 therefore. ^ 0 £L = i ^ i i B.'j bo C n & bi & a2X c2 = 0 then : Given equations are inconsistent Given equations are dependent CRAMER'S RULE : [ Simultaneous Equations Involving Three Unknowns ] Let .z = dj .A2 B2 A3 B3 C3 AI B> B2 B3 c.(I).(II). c2 c3 SYSTEM OF LINEAR EQUATION (IN TWO VARIABLES) : (i) Consistent Equations : te & unique solution. [ intersecting lines ] (ii) Inconsistent Equation : ution . tical lines ] Let ajX + bjy + 0 ...ajX + b jy + c.(III ) Then... [ Parallel line ] (iii) Dependent equation : Infinite solutions ..

D3 is not zero then the equations are inconsistent and have no solution.D ' z-D^ D a a d. = d2= D3 = 0 but the system is incon sistent. then the given system of equations are consi stent and (a) have unique non trivial solution. a2x + b2y + c2z = 0 & i W Cj a3x + b3y + c3z = 0 to be consistent in x . . D 2 . ajX + bjy+ C!Z=d! a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2 z=d 2 In case represents these parallel pl anes then also a 3 x + b3y + c3z = d 3 d=d. i bi Cj Where D = a2 b2 c2 . z is that a2 b2 c2 =0. th en the given system of equations are consistent and have trivial (b) solution on ly. D 2 . D i = d2 b2 c. then the given system of equations are consistent and have infinite solutions. D3 ? 0 . I f D ^ O & Dj = D2 = D3 = 0. z are not all zero . y . a 3 b3 c3 Remember that if a given system of linear equations have Only Zero Solution for all its variables then the given equations are said to have TRIVIAL SOLUTION. = D 2 =D 3 = 0. (c) (d) 10. the cond ition for aLx + b. If x . If D = 0 but atleast one of Dj. If D = D.y + CjZ = 0 . D2 = a2 d2 c2 & D3 = a2 b2 d2 d3 b3 c3 a3 d3 c3 a3 b3 d3 a3 b3 c3 NOTE: If D * 0 and alteast one of D t . y . a (!IBansal Classes Determinant & Matrices [4] . bi Cl i di ci i bi d.

2 Without expanding as far as possible.EXERCISE-II Q.p r-p p-q 0 r-q p-r q-r = 0 0 (c 5 + 3i —-4i 3 5 — 3i 8 4 + 5i is real —+ 4i 4 .5 i 3 9 -7 ax by cz 2 2 2 (d) x y z a = X 1 I 1 yz c z zx xy b y 1 a a2-be 2 (e) 1 b b .l ) 3 3 1 1 (b) x 1 1 y x 3 y . prove that : (a) a 2 +2a 2a+l 3 2a+l 1 a+2 1 = ( a .ca = 0 1 c c2 . 1 Without expanding the determinant prove that: 0 b 0 -a (a) -b c -c a -o 0 0 (b) q .ab Q.

1 + a2 .2 b b+c = 4 [(a+b) (b+c) (c+a)] c+b . z3 + l z 2 z Q. y . z are all different then.4 18 40 89 Using properties of determinants or otherwise evaluate 40 89 198 89 198 440 a-b-c Prove that 2b 2c a b c 2a b-c-a 2c 2a 2b = (a + b + c)3 c-a-b a+b c+a b+c Q. C.3 z3 z = [(x-y) (y-z) (z-x) (x+y+z)] Q.2 c -2b 2a = (1 +a 2 + b2)3 2 2 1-a .3 If x 3 +l x 2 x y 3 +l y 2 y = 0 and x .l . Prove that a+b a+c .6 If D = c a b b c a -2a b+a c+a b+c c+a a+b b+c and D' = c+a a+b then prove that D' = 2D.b Q. Q & R where A + B + C + P + Q + R = 0 (!^Bansal Classes Determinant & Matrices [5] .9 Prove that (a + b + c) (a2 + b2 + c2).b 2 2ab 2ab 1-a 2 +b2 Prove that 2b -2a a a+c a-b b-c b b+a c+b c-a c Q. prove that x yz = .5 Q. P. Q.10 tan(A+P) tan(B+P) tan(C+P) Show that the value ofthe determinant tan(A+Q) tan(B+ Q) tan(C + Q) vanishes for all values of A tan(A+R) tan(B+R) tan(C+R) B.

8) 2 1 Q. Q.1 abc (ab + be + ca) = a + b + c.5) (y.ll be be' + b'c b'c' Factorise the determinant ca ca' + c'a c'a' ab ab'+a'b a'b' (( 3 + y .1 If a. Q.20 (a) ab b +X be 2 ac be is divisible by A.a .5)2 1 (Y+OC-|3-8)2 4 Q. prove that qc ra pb = pqr c a b b c a rb p c qa Q.'l8 a a3 a 4 .x Q 15 If a + b + c = 0 .6) (a + p Y .(3)(a .2 andfindthe other factor. a c.5)(P .2 .y)(a .l)2 .y) (P . 3x + 5 5x + 8 10x + 17 a-x c b c b b.16 If a2 + b2 + c2 = 1 then show that the value of the determinant a 2 +(b 2 +c 2 ) cos9 ba(l-cosG) 2 .I)2 b2 (b + l)2 (b-1) 2 a 2 b2 c2 (c + l)2 = 4 a b 1 1 (c . b. /_2 ab(l-cosG) b +(c 2 +a 2 )cos0 ac(l-cosG) bc(l-cosO) c a(l-cosQ) cb(l-cosG) c2 +(a 2 +b 2 )cosG simplifies to cos2G. 13 n! (n+1)! (n+2)! .a .x a = 0. c 2 +X 1 a 2 a3 1 b2 b3 1 c2 c 3 be a a 2 2 Without expanding prove that ca b b ab c c2 a2 (a + I)2 (a .19 Showthat a 2 +X ab ac Q.Q. a b c pa qb rc Q.64(a. c are all different & b b3 b 4 .12 Prove that (Y+A-p-8)4 1 = .14 x + 2 2x + 3 3x + 4 Solve for x 2x + 3 3x + 4 4x + 5 = 0. 17 If p + q+r = 0 .5)4 (p + y . solve for x: --—r).5) (a + p Y .4 (n+1)! (n+2)! (n+3)! then show that For a fixed positive in teger n. if D = (n!)3 (n+2)! (n+3)! (n+4)! is divisible by n. then prove that: c c3 c 4 .1 = 0.

c2 c 1 = (b) fc Ban sal Classes Determinant & Matrices [6] .

4 2x .4 x-8 2x .27 3x .22 X -C 2 2 = 0 where a.Q. 2x .a2 x2-b2 (x-b) 3 (x+b) x-2 3 Q. show that 2x + 3 x .23 Solve (x-a) 3 (x+a) 3 (x-c) (x+c) Q.24 Solve for x : x .21 x +x Without expanding a determinant at any stage.3 3x . b.16 = 0. c are non zero and distinct Q.l x 2 +2 x+3 2 x+l 3x 2x-l x-2 3x-3 = Ax + B. 2x-l where A & B are determinants of order 3 not involving x.9 3x . prove that y a+z 1 . -be b2 + be c2 + be 2 -ac c2 + ac = (ab + be + ca)3 Prove that a + ac a 2 + ab b 2 + ab -ab x 2 .25 If a+y 1 a+x 1 b+x b+y b+z 1 1 1 c+x c+y c+z 1 1 where Q is the product of the denominator.64 1 Q.

determine condition under which tan| + tan-| tan-.c) (c .29 Show that ba(b 2 +c 2 ) ' -c 2 a 2 ca(b 2 +c 2 j Q.b) (s-c).y) (y .b) (b .a) (s .x) 2r_1 2^3r_1j 4(5 r -') y 3 -l n n Q.+ tan|. r= l Q.28 In a A ABC.30 Prove that be-a2 ca-b2 ab .a b = 3 .tan^ + tanf -b 2 c 2 ab(c 2 +a 2 ) cb(c 2 +a 2 ) ac(a 2 +b 2 ) bc(a 2 +b 2 ) = (a b + b c + c a ) .a) (x .c a + ab bc + c a .c2 ~bc + ca + ab b c . -a 2 b 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 Q.P = (a .26 If Df = x 2 -l n z 5 -l then prove that X Dr = 0.27 If 2 s = a+b + c then prove that (s-b) 2 (s-c) 2 (s-a) 2 b2 (s-c) 2 (s-a) : (s-b)' = 2 s3 (s . cotf cot£ = 0 cotf Q.(b-c) (c-a) (a-b) (a+b + c) (ab + bc + ca) (a+b) (a+c) (b+c) (b+a) (c+a) (c+b) fc Ban sal Classes Determinant & Matrices [267] .z) (z .

38 If ( x r x 2 ) 2 + ( y r y2)2 = a 2 .-^) 2 + (y 2 -y 3 ) 2 = b 2 and (X3-Xl)2 + (y 3 .36 Prove that 1 2 cos ( B . 13 + bj m3 a2 li + b2 m i a2l2 + b2m2 a 2 l 3 +b a 3 l 1 +b 3 m 1 a 3 l 2 +b 3 m 2 a 3 l 3 +b 3 m 3 (ai-bi)2 (ai-b 2 ) Q.3) (P .A ) Q. then prove that a h g h b f =0.a Q.y)2 (y .b 3 )(b 3 . u' = a'x2 + 2 b'xy + c'y2.37 If x cos2 ( A .c*0) (a + b + c) (b + c .B)sin2(B . Pr ove that ).B ) 1 2 cos (C .) 3 -b 2 ) 2 a p + y8 m] a! 12 + bj m2 a. 50 Sj S2 Q.3 abc)2.b2)(b2.Yl ) 2 = c2 xi yi 1 prove that 4 x2 y2 1 x3 y 3 1 d + 2f abc 1/2 (a. 2 (aj-b. 52 S3 S4 Q.C) cos2 (B-C) 1 : 2sin2(A. g f c Q.33 ^rove that (a 2 -bi) 2 (a 2 -b 2 ) 2 (a 2 -b 3 ) (a 3 -bi) 2 (a (a 3 -b 3 ) 2 Q. 40 y2 -xy x 2 a b c a' b' c' ax+by bx+cy a'x+b'y b'x+c'y u u ax+by a 'x+b'y .a) (c + a . + b) 2 m 3 = 0.b. a+p+y+8 2 (a + P)(y +5) aP(y+5) + y 8 ( a + P) Q.A ) cos2 ( C .35 If ax2 + 2 hxy + by2 + 2 gx + 2 fy + c = (lLx + rrijy + n1) (l2x + ir^y + n 2).40 If u = ax2 + 2 bxy+cy2 . then prove that i yi z i x2 y 2 z2 = (d-f> x3 y3 z3 Q.83X83.34 Prove that oc + p + y+5 2 ( a r a ^ .a) 2 .a j X S . (x.A) axj2 + byt2 + czj2 = ax^ + by22 + cz22 = ax32 + by32 + cz32 = d and ax^xg + by2y 3 + cz2z3 = ax3xt + by3yj + cz3zj = axjx2 + byjy2 + CZ[Z2 = f.c' a! 1.b t ) ap + y5 ap (y+5) + yS ( a+P) = 2aPy8 0.31 Show that „2 2ac-b 2 b2 = (a3 + b3 + c3 .c ) .2bc .C)sin2(C .B ) cos2 (A .b) (a + b . a2 2ab .39 If Sr = a r + pr + y r then show that 51 s2 S3 = (a .

fc Ban sal Classes Determinant & Matrices [8] .

sin q x cos(p + q) y sin (p + q) + z = 2 thenfindthe value of x2 + y2 + z2.2z + 3 = 0 (b) 3x + y + z = 6 x + 2y = 0 (c) 3x + y + z = 6 5x + y + 3z = 3 (d) 3x + y + 5z = 7 2x+3y+5z =5 Q.4 z + ay + a2x + a3 = 0 Solve the system of equations . 1 Q. y.5 . 2 x + 3 y . Investigate for what values of A . Solve the following using Cramer's rule and state whether consistent or not.z .y where x. x + y + z . y. Given x = cy+bz . Q. y. B and C are the an gles of a triangle then show that sin 2A-x + sin C*y + sin B-z = 0 sin C x + sin 2B-y + sin A-z = 0 sin B x + sin A-y + sin 2Cz = 0 possess non-trivial solution .4 z = 0.3 Q.EXERCISE-II Q. find all the solutions of the system.7 If sin q ^ cos q and x.x x .6 = 0 x + 2y + z = 1 x . z are not all zero . Given a = —— .e. prove that : 1 + ab + be + ca = 0. u the simultaneous equations x + y + z = 6 . z + by + b2x + b3 = 0 z + cy + c2x + c3 = 0 For what value of K do the following system of equations posse ss a non trivial (i. prove that a2 + b2 + c2 + 2 abc = 1. c = y.2 z = 0 .2 Solve using Cramer's rule : 4 x+5 y + 7 + —— = .5 Q. IfA.7 y + 5z = 3 (a) 2x + y .y sin p + z = cos q + 1 x sin p + y cos p + z = 1 . 3 x + K y . y = az + cx . z satisfy the equations x c os p . For that value of K.z X Y Z Q.1 & — x+5 y +7 — =.1 = 0 x + y .3 y + z = 2 7 x . not all zero) solution over the set of rationals Q? x+Ky + 3 z = 0 . z = bx+ay wher e x. z are not all zero. b = —— .6 z .

4x + 2 K y .8 Q. Q. ( t .l ) x + ( 3 t + l ) y + 2tz = 0 (t .l ) z = 0 has non trivial solutions and in this contextfindthe rati os of x: y: z. Q.1) x + (41 .2) y + (t + 3) z = 0 2 x + ( 3 t + l ) y + 3 ( t .ll Q. (c) No solution . the equations : x + y + z = l . when t has the smallest of these values. (a) A unique solution .2 z = l .z = p. (!^Bansal Classes Determ inant & Matrices [9] . x + 2 y + 3 z = 1 0 & x + 2 y + A.13 Find all the values of t for which the system of equations . Solve the system of equations: ax + = m s x + ay + z = n and x + y + az = p 2 x+4 Solve consi y + z Q. x + 2y+4z = p & y+10z = p have a solution ? Solve them completely in each case .12 the equations : K x + 2 y . (b) An infinite number of solutions .z = 2 .9 Q.IO For what values of p.. 6x + 6y+Kz = 3 dering specially the case when K = 2 . have .

x + 2y + qz = 5 & x+y + 3z = 4 has .Q.3 has atle ast one solution for any real number X. R show that cos(B-P) cos(B-Q) cos(B-R) =0. Q. 16 If x. 1 Using determinants solve the equations. where© is one ofthe complex cube root of unity.i -i+CD-1 .17 If the following system of equatio ns (a . Q. y & z. x + 2y + 3z = 6 2x + 4y + z = 17 3x + 2y + 9 z = 2 [REE'94.15 If bc + qr = ca+rp = ab + pq = . c positive numbers.1+1] fc Bansal Classes .3z = .a and (a+b)(x+y)-cz = a b where a + b + c^O. Q.2 Q. y. (c + a)(z+x)-by = c .1 equals : . cos(C-P) cos(C-Q) cos(C-R) [ IIT '94.t)y + az = 0 and cx+ay+(b . (i) no solution (ii) a unique solution (iii) infinitely many solutions [REE'95.6] cos(A-P) cos(A-Q) cos(A-R) For all values of A. The fo llowing system of equations in x. 4] For what values of p & q. the system of equations 2 x + p y + 6 z = 8 . Q. bx + (c . 6] Let a.1 (A) 0 (B) 1 (C)i (D) co [IIT '95. then prove that x: y: z= 1 : 1 : 1 OR 1: co: © 2 O R 1 : CD2: co. z are not all zero & if ax+by + cz = 0. 2 '2 a2 + b2 c2 (A) no solution (C) infinitely many solutions Q.14 Solve: (b + c)(y+z)-ax = b . then show that we can express pro duct of these values of t in the form of determinant.4 (i) x! . b.c . Find the set of solutions of X = -5. C & P. x + 2y . EXERCISE-III Q.2 and 6x+5y + A-z = .y + 4z = 3 . iL _Z_ + ±_ 2 x2 y2 z2 (B) unique solution (D)finitelymany solutions (ii) 1 l+i+o 2 <d2 If co 1) is a cube root of unity. B. ap a p Q. then 1-i -1 Q 2 . bx+ cy + az = 0 & cx + ay + bz = 0.1 showthat bq b q cr c r = 0.3 Q.t)z = 0 has no n-trivial solutions for different values of t. 18 Show that the system of equations 3x .t)x + by + cz = 0 .

Determinant & Matrices [10] .

w satisfy the system of equations. 6 ] Q.6 Find those values of c for which the equations : 2x+ 3 y = 3 (c + 2)x+ (c + 4)y = c + 6 (c + 2)2x +(c+4) 2 y = (c + 6)2 are consistent.9 6i -3i If 4 3i 20 3 1 . 12 6u + 9v f(x) = 2x then f(100) is equal to : x (x-l) (x+l)x 3x (x-l) x(x-l)(x(x-l) (A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 100 (D) -100 Let a. y = 1 Q. y = 3 1 x x+1 If 2) (x+1) x G. x + 3y + 4z = k.8 Q. . u + 2v + 3w = 6 4u + 5v + 6w = = 4 then show that the roots of the equation.IO (i) (B) x = 1. Find the value of determinant 1 (a + d) (a + 2d) a (a + d) 1 1 (a + d) (a + 2d) (a + 2d) (a + 3d) 1 (a + d) (a + 2d) (a + 2d) (a + 3d) (a + 3d)(a + 4d) 1 1 [ IIT '96 . onwhich the value ofthe determinant cos(p-d)x cospx co s(p+d)x doesnot depend sin(p-d)x sin px sin(p+d)x upon is: (A) a (B)p (C) d (D)x [ JEE '97. 5 Let a > 0. [ REE' 97. the system of equations x + 2y + z = 1. x + 5y + 1 Oz = k2 has solution ? Find the solution in each case. c. 5 ] 1 1 Q. [ REE'96. Also solve above equatio ns for these values of c. If u. d > 0 . 2 ] (A) x = 3 . 2 ] Q. 6 ] 1 a a The parameter. y = 0 [ JEE '98 .Q.7 For what real values of k.1 = x + iy.P. d be real numbers in v. y = 3 (D)x = 0 . i then : (C)x = 0 . b.

a)2 + ( d .U (ii) i + i + 1 ] x2 + [(b .•.d)2 x . 2+10 out o f200] fc Ban sal Classes Determinant & Matrices [271] .c)2 + ( c . [JEE'99.b ) 2 ] x + u + v + w = 0 and V wJ 20 x2 + 10 (a .9 = 0 are reciprocals of each other.

1 has infinitely many solutions is (A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 bx + ay -ax + by .y . 2 (B) 1.2 a" sin(n + l)x cos(n + l)x a 1 sin nx sin(n . 3] Q.ll Ifthe system of equations x . K x . the following system o f equations for all values of A: x+y+z =1 x + 3y-2z = A [ REE 2001 (Mains).l)x cos nx cos(n .z = 0 ha s a non zero solution.c cy + b cx + a cy + b -ax . sin + ^-J 0 sin [o Q. 5 ou t of 100 ] 3x + (A + 2)y-3z = 2A + 1 Q.14 Solve for x the equation . 6 out of 100 ] (D)inifinite [JEE 2002 (Screening).l)x =0 [ REE 2001 (Mains). 3 out of 100 ] Q.c bx + ay cx + a represents a stra ight line.16 Let a. then the possible values of K are (A)-l.17 The number of values of k for which the system of equations (k+ l)x+ 8y = 4k kx + (k + 3)y = 3k . Show that the equation ax . c be real numbers with a2 + b2 + c2 = 1.z = 0 .2 (C)0.2y + 3 z = 0 x + ry + 2z .K y .l [ JEE 2000 (Screening)] sin 9 cos 0 cos 1 0 + ^ cos f9 sin 20 sin j^29 + ^ sin (^29 [ JEE 2000 (Mains).y . 3 out of 100 ] 2x + rz = 0 Q. x . Also find the non-trivial solutions: 2 rx .by + c = 0 [ JEE 2001 (Ma ins).z = 12. x+y + Az = 4 has no solutionis (A) 3 (B)-3 (C) 2 (D)-2 [JEE 2004 (Screen ing)] fc Ban sal Classes Determinant & Matrices [12] . 3 out of 100 ] = Q.z = 0 and x + y .Q.0 [ REE 2000 (Mains).by .13 Find the real values of r for which the following system oflinear equations has a non-trivial solution.15 Test the consistency and solve them when consistent.18 The value of A for which the system of equations 2x . b. 1 (D)-l.12 Prove that for all values of 6. Q.2y + z = -4.

1 < j j denotes the column is called a m atrix of order m x n. Unlike determinants it has no value. (b) having one column. a12. Ml 21 a 12 Mn l "22 2n or i2 a 2*! a22 a a l in^ 2n l ml a m2 < 'm/ n. 2. (m x 1) matrix l ml (c) Zero or Null Matrix: (A = Om x n)' An m x n matrix all whose entries are zero v . (or row vectors) Column Matrix : (or column vectors) A= »2I a ln ] having one row. ECONOMIC SAND ENGINEERING Definition : Rectangular a rray of mn numbers. i denotes the row and Abbreviated as :A = [ a ^ j 1 < i < m . (a) Special Type Of Matrices : Row Matrix : A = [ a n .KEY CONCEPTS MATRICES USEFUL IN STUDY OF SCIENCE. (1 x n) matrix.

a33. e gfaa n a 12 ^ V a21 a 22 y (ii) The elements a n . (e) (1) Verical Matrix: A matrix of order m x n is a vertical matrix if m > n. "1 2 3 4" 2 5 11 2 5' 1 1 3 6 2 4 a square matrix. are called Conjugate Elements. tr A . am are called Diagonal Elements .0 0 0 0 0 0 (d) 0 0 0' is a 3x2 null matrix & B= 0 0 0 0 0 0 is 3 x 3 null matrix Horizontal Matrix: A matrix of order m x n is a horizontal matrix if n > m. & a. i. a22.e. Square Matrix : (Order n) If number of row = number of column => Note (i) In a square matrix the pair of elements a. The line along wh ich the diagonal elements lie is called "Principal or Leading" diagonal. The qty E a H = trace of the matrice written as.

fc Ban sal Classes Determinant & Matrices [13] .

( same order) (a) Addition of matrices is commutative. B = 2 3 0 diagonal Matrix Unit or Identity Matrix . Note that: Minimum number of zeros in Scalar Matrix Note: (1) If d l = d2 = d3 = a a triangular matrix of Unit Matrix (2) If d1 = d2 = d3 = 1 order n = n(n-l)/2 Note: Min. ] are equal if. Equality Of Matrices: A = [a . A = 0 2 4 . j ] & B = [b i . 5.Square Matrix all elements except the leading diagonal are zero 0 '1 3 ! . Note : A. A=mxn B=mxn i. B & C are of the same type. = 0 V i > j 0 d2 0 0 if ij 0 0 d.1) d Triangular Matrix I Diagonal Matrix denote as dia ( d i ' d 2' > dn) "It is to be noted that with square matrix there is a corresponding determinant formed by the elements ofAin the same order. A+B = B + A (b) Matrix addition is associative. I Lower Triangular Upper Triangular d. Let both have the same order. A=mxn & B = nxp 2x3 3x 3 AB exists. number of zeros in a diagonal matrix of order n = n(n. (A+ B) + C = A + (B + C) (c) Additive inverse..4 3 3. 0 0 1 if i = j" a." 3.0 0 5 . 6. (ii) (0 Algebra O f Matrices: Addition : A + B = [ a . 4.e. = 0 V i < j a.. but BA does not => AB * BA \ A = pre factor Note: In the product AB . ( i> 2> a a a n) & B "b 1xn AB = [a1b1 + a 2 b 2 + . . A = mxn If A + B = O = B + A Multipli cation Of A Matrix By A Scalar a b ka kb kc kA= kb kc ka If A= b c c a kc ka kb Multiplication Of Matrices: (Row by Column) AB exists if.j + b. [ B = post factor A = ai j = b for each pair of i & j.j j where A& B are of the same type.

= I a ir . b If A = aAj j m x n & B = [ b^ ] ^Bansal Classes Determinant & Matrices [14] . then (ABX.nx1 + anbj n x p matrix.

Note that A=A . the matrix is said to be an involutary matrix. Nilpotent Matrix: A square matrix is said to be nilpotent matrix of order m.A . Properties Of Matrix Multiplication : Matrix multiplication is not commutative.zero matrices such that AB = O then A and B are cal led the divisors of zero. Note that for a unit matrix I of any order. A m_1 ^0. Then.. note that A & B have the same order. k is a scalar . . B & C are conformable for respective products (A + B) C = AC + BC_ For a square matrix A. A & B are conformable for matrix product AB. if Am = 0 . ] for 1 < i < n & 1 < j < m of order Properties of Transpose: If A & (a) (A± B)T = AT ± BT IMP.. "-1 1 B = 1" -1 . A j . A = a. T T POSITIVE INTEGRAL P O W E R S O F A 2 SQUARE MATRIX : 3 (a) (b) (c) (d) 7. for some positive integer K. is a periodic m atrix. (b) (AB)T = B T A T (c) (AT = A (d) (k A)T = kAT General : (A^A^. MATRIX POLYNOMIAL: If f (x) = a0xn + a jX"-1 + a2xn_2 + + anx° then we define a matrix polynomial n n n 2 f (A) = a0A + a tA -' + a2A " + + aV where A is the given square matrix. . Note that A" = A V n > 2 .1 for an involut ary matrix. Also if [AB] = O => | AB | =>|A| | B | = 0 = > | A | = 0 or | B | = 0 but not the converse. IfA and B are two matrices such that (i) A B = B A => A and B commute each other (ii) AB = . Note that period of an idempotent matrix is 1. A= . then (A. m e N. The Transpose Of A Matrix : (Changing rows & columns) Let Abe any ma trix. n e N. The period of the matrix is the least value of K for which this holds tru e.j of order m x n T => A or A' = [ a. Periodic Matrix: A square matrix is wh ich satisfies the relation AK+1 =A. AB = BA = AB * BA (in general) 2. A^ (reversal law for transpose) An)T = A j . "l 1" AB = _2 2_ "0 0" 0 0 => AB = O =t> A = 0 or B = 0 Note: IfA and B are two non. Im = I for all m e N.(B. n xm B denote the transpose of A and B . DEFINITIONS: Idem potent Matrix: A square matrix is idempotent provided A 2 =A.C) Distributivity : A (B + C) = AB + AC" Provided A. ^Bansal Classes . 6.B A => A and B anti commute ea ch other Matrix Multiplication Is Associative: If A.B). Involutary Matrix: IfA 2 = I . If f (A) is the null ma trix then A is called the zero or root of the polynomial f(x). A A = (A A) A = A (A A) .C = A. B & C are conformable for t he product AB & BC.1.

Determinant & Matrices [15] .

number of distinct entries in a symmetric matrix of order n is — .A= |A| I n . V i & j (the pair of conjugate elements ar e additive inverse of each other) (NoteA = . P .. symmetric if.5 Every square matrix can be uniquely expressed as a sum of a symmet ric and a skew symmetric matrix. Properties Of Symmetric & Skew Matrix : P .8. If Abe a square matrix of or . Consider (A+A T ) T = AT + (AT)T = AT + A = A + AT A + AT is symmet ric.. = 0 V i . V. and skew symmetric if. Let AT = A . a. &. .AT) P Symmetric Adjoint Of A Square Matrix : Let ll A . A = ^ (A + AT) + ~ (A .AT is skew symmetric.4 If A& B are symmetric mat rices then. then a11 = . Theorem: A (adj. a.. = a. Imp.[ ij ] = 21 ^31 a a / J Skew Symmetric a i2 22 a 32 a a a a 23 33> be a square matrix and let the matrix formed by the c Ml C21 IC31 r cofactors of [a ] in determinant !A| is = f Ml c r Then (adj A) = C 12 c 13 V C 21 C 31^ r 22 r 32 C 23 c 33 J ^12 22 ^32 c 13^ C23 C 33. but not the converse..= -&. n (n +1) Note: Max. (a) A B + B A is a symmetric matrix (b) AB .— . A) = (adj. (A+B) T = A + B Similarly we can prove the other P .A P . V i & j (conjugate elements are equal) (Note A=A 1 ) .a11 => .3 The sum oftwo s ymmetric matrix is a symmetric matrix and the sum of two skew symmetric matrix i s a skew symmetric matrix. BT = B where A & B have the same order.A T ) Hence If A is skew symmetric.1 A is symmetric if AT = A A is skew symmetric if AT = .j j is said to be. Symmetric & Skew Symmetric Matrix : A square matrix A = [ a . li Thus the digaonal elements of a skew s ymmetric matrix are all zero.AT is a skew symme tric matrix. Similarly we can prove that A . P .2 A + AT is a symmetric matrix A ..BA is a skew symmetric matrix. A).

der n. (!%Bansal Classes Determinant & Matrices [16] .

Note : If A and B are non singular square matrices of same order. We have. This is reversal law for inverse. A). Imp. (b) (A*)"1 = (A"])k = A-k.1 A.1 = A T .' .Z > 10 (\ 1 o 1 -1 1 1 -ij u AX = B f \ X y w ( 2 10 A' 1 A X = A 1 B (adj. Note (0 (ii) If A be an invertible matrix. 1 I A"11 = 7T7 S Y S T E M O F E Q U A T I O N & C R I T E R I A N F O R C O N S I S T E N C Y (iii) (iv) (v) GAUSS . then AT is also invertible & (A 1 ) -1 = (A_1)T.JORDAN METHOD x +y+ z = 6 x-y +z=2 2x + y — z = 1 or ' x+y+z N (6} x-y+z _ 2 . A. AB = I = B A B is called the inverse (reciprocal) ofA and is denoted by A . Theorem : If A & B are invertible matrices ofthe same order. (adj A) = | A | IN A. then ® | adj A| = | A| n ~' (ii) adj (AB) = (adj B) (adj A) (iii) adj(KA) = K""1 (adj A). (a) (A"1)"1 = A . k e N IfA is an Orthogonal Matrix. I f A is invertible.B X = A1B = fa BansaIClasses Determinant & Matrices [17] . A . AAT = I = ATA A square matrix is said to be orthogonal if.1 A (adj A) = A .2x+y. then (AB)"1 = B 1 A -1 . K is a scalar Inverse Of A Matrix (Reciprocal Matrix) : A square matrix A said to be i nvertible (non singular) if there exists a matrix B such that. Thus A-' = B O A B = I = B A .1 = (adj A) |A| | A | In Note : The necessary and sufficient condition for a square matrix Ato be inverti ble is that IA | * 0.1 In |A| In ( a dj A) = A .

B * O 1 Consistent (Infinite solutions) Inconsistent (no solution) EXERCISE-I Q.3 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 andF = 1 0 0 calculate the matrix product EF & FE and If. If | A | * 0 & (adj A) . So lve the matrix equation Ax=b.Note (1) (2) (3) (4) If IAI * 0. B * O (Null matrix). If A is an orthogonal matrix and B = AP w here Pisa non singular matrix then show that the matrix PB_1 is also orthogonal. matrix method fails If (adj A) . If IAI = 0 . B = null matrix = O r 1 If (adj A) . system is cons istent having trivial solution. B = O (Nullmatrix). system is consistent having unique solution If | AI * 0 & (adj A). 0 1 Define A= 3 0 0 Find a vertical vector V such that (A8 + A6 + A4 + A2 +1)V = 11 Q.2 "l 2 Given that A= 2 2 1 -1 2 3 3 10 2 1 1 2 2 1 D= 13 and that Cb=D. E = 0 1 0 0 0 0 showthat E 2 F + FE2 = E .l Q. c= 9 1 1 1 ^ ? ? Find the value of x and y that satisfy the equations 3 3 2 -2" 0 4 r y X y ~i X "3 3" 3y 3y 10 10 Q.4 . system is consistent having unique n on-trivial solution.

Q.5 (where I is the 2 x 2 identity matrix). If. cos 0 sin 0 sin 0 co s<j)sin<j) sin < > | matrix when 0 & <|) differ by an odd multiple of Q.7 TC 2" 1 0 2 0 2 1 .Q. 6 cos2 0 sin 0 cos 0 cos2 <|) sin<J>c os(j) is a null & 2 Prove that the product of two matrices.6x2 + 7x+2. then show that the maxtrix Ais a root of the polynomial f (x)=x 3 . A= 2 0 3 fa B ansaIClasses Determinant & Matrices [18] .

10 Prove that (AB)T=BT. use induction to prove that: (Only for XIICB SE) 1 ol 1 _ 0 X n XD (a) X 0 0 nAT1 A" 0 X 0 0 n(n-l) 2 nXn~ Xn . b. the value of K for which KA . find the value of n. _ 5 —_ 3 Q.t r (A) and determinant of A respectively. 11 Express the matrix -10 4 in its leading diagonal. (iii) A= 0 b 0 w 0 0 c '2 4" 3 -1 "2 l" A "3 2" Q.2B"1 +1 = 0 (ii) WithoutfindingA-1. 8 For a non zero X.A. where I is a unit matrix of order 2. then (aI+bA) = a I + na"~ b A. c. i s l o r . find the order of the matrix. AT. the matrix X satisfying A~'XA= B (iii) the matrixA using A -1 fa B ansaIClasses .13 Find the matrix A satisfying the matrix equation. V n € N. (iii) a n a21 + a12 a22 = 0 Q.1 . a b Q. A= 0 0 . Al so verify the result for 1 2 the matrices.3 1 2 2 5 3 1 2 5 2 3 . 12 Find the inverse of the matrix: cosa -sina (i)A= sina cosa 0 0 0" "1 1 0 1 w . Find (I) withoutfindingB" 1. _3 2_ . 14 A is a square matrix of order n. 9 n n 1 1 If. 0 Find the number of 2 x 2 matrix satisfying (i) a . Q.Q.17 Matrices A and B satisfy AB = B"1 where B = 2 0 . 16 IfA= c d then prove that value of f and g satisfying the maxtrix equation A2 + f A + g I = Oare equal to . n e N. Given a.(ii) 1 1 w2 "a 0 0" 1" 2 w where w is the cube root of unity. (ii) ^ + a 2 2 = a221 + a222 =2 . 15 IfA is an idempotent matrix and I is an identity matrix of the same order. A= -1 2 -3 and B = 2 . Q. such that ( A+ I )n = I + 127 A. I = maximum number of distinct entri es ifAis a triangular matrix m=maximum number of distinct entries if Ais a diago nal matrix p = minimum number of zeroes ifAis a triangular matrix If / + 5 = p + 2m. for every n € N (b) Q. where A& B are conformable for the product AB .6 asa sum ofalower triangular matrix& an upper triangular matrix wit h zero Q. o = _0 0 2 -1 Q. Also Express the matrix as a sum ofa symmetric & a skew symmetric matrix. d a re non zero reals and 1= "l 0" "0 o" .

Determinant & Matrices [19] .

18 For the matrix A= 3 . x+y+z=6 (ii) x-y+z=2 2x+y-z=l x+y+z=3 (iii) x+2y+3z=4 2x+3y+4z=7 x+y+z=3 (iv) x+2y+3z=4 2x+3y+4z=9 EXERCISE-II Ql "9 3" "2 l" GivenA 2 1_ . 3" [1 1 2 -5 & B = 3 2 1 and use it to 2 1 3 1 Q.A) are idempotent and i(I+A)^(I-A)=0.6 C O (ii) Q.3 find A_: 4 Q. where | A| denotes the determinant of co-efficient mat rix.5 a-p p 2p/3" a d-b .8 1 2 If A = 2 4 then. Find P such that BPA = 0 1 0 Q.20 Use matrix to solve the following system of equations. show that B' AB is also symmetrical. find a non-zero square matrix X of order 2 such that AX = O . c. (ii) XA = I (!) XB = 0 butBX^O.7 Prove that | adj (adj A) | = | A / „ I . Also show that the a + c-b 1 1 If the matrix A is involutary. 2x + y + 3 z = 2 . 1 2] fa BansaIClasses Determinant & Matrices [20] . find the value of matrix which commutes with Ais of the form Q. x + y + 2z = 1 . (l) AX = A If A& B are square matrices of the same order & Ais symmetrical.B= 3 1 .19 1 0 1 2 3 B = 3 4 . -l 1 -tanf tanl 1 cos 8 -sinG Show that. If A= 2 3 J. d not all simultaneously zero) commute. Q. Is XA = O.2 Q3 Q. adj (adj A) = |A|n 2 . where Ais a non-singular matrix of order 'ri. is it possible tofinda square matrix X such that AX = O.4 (a. I is a unit matrix oforder 2. "-5 1 Find the product oftwo matrices A& B. where A= 7 1 1 -1 solve the fol lowing system of linear equations.3 1 1 1 2 4 1 Given A = 2 3 1 x+y+z=3 (i) x+2y+3z=4 x+4y+9z=6 5 . Give reasons for it. Find all possibl e matrix X in the following cases. A. b. 3x + 2y + z = 7 .4 -2 3 Q. show that — (I + A) and — (I .4 . tan§ sinG cosG 1 -tanf 1 1 2 If the matrices A = 3 4 a b and B = c d Q.

x2. where f(x)= x. F(y) = F(x + y) Hence prove that [ F(x) ] 4 = F(.ll If A is a skew symmetric matrix and I + A is non singular. a b Q.a is an idempotent matrix.5° 0 Q.18 If A= .12 If F(x) cosx sinx 0 -sinx cosx 0 0 0 1 then show that F(x).10 If c 1 . Find the value of f(a).B = 1 0 . whereA= 4 . (ii) has no solution and (iii) has infinitely many s olutions 0 1 Q.C= 2 4 andX= (a) AX = B . Q.17 IfA= y . Use this tofinda matrix B given A= . 0 s R .9 cosa .3 -1 4 and I is the corresponding 4 unit matrix a n d x c N thenfindthe minimum value of ^ ( c o s x 6 f sm x 0).3 3 .A)(I + A)1 is an orthogonal matrix.(k + n)A + (kn . y and kn * Im . Q .s i n a cos2p sin2p 7 1 If A= sina cosa .Q. then prove that the matrix B = (I .15 Let X be the solution set ofthe equation AX = I.16 Determine the matrices B and Cwith integral element such that A= 0 2 P a B a -p k m / n -1 0 1 .x).B= sin 2p -cos2p Where 0 < P < then prove that BAB = A-1. then s how that A2 .2 = B3 + C3 Q. P.8 2 1 y z b 3 -1 (i) has a unique solution . Q. Hence otherwise evaluate a.1 (b) (B .findthe values of a . Q. Also find the least positive value of a for which B A4 B = A-1.I)X = IC X 1 X 2 X3 X4 then solve the following matrix equation./m) I = O. (c) CX = A 1 9 a X "3 . y.2 Q 14 Determine the values of a and b for which the system 5 .y is an orthogonal matrix.13 1 2 3 1 1 2 IfA : 3 4 . when be = 1/4.

20 Given matrices A= 5 z -3 1 y 3_ Obtain x.3 2 Q.B = . 1 X Q. 19 Evaluate Lim n 1 X n f " 3 -3 2 y .Hence find A 1 . y and z i f the matrix AB is symmetric. X X ~1 z -3 1 <!IBansal Classes Determinant & Matrices [21] .

1 1 T T 2005 P. such that AX=U has infini tely many solution. then x is equal to > A= 0 1 and Q = PAP and x = P Q 4 + 2005V3 6 015 2005 4-2005a/3 2005 2-V3 2 + V3 2005 [JEE 2005 (Screening)] (A) 0 (C) 1 2005 1 1 2-V3 (B) (D) 1 2 +a/3 -1 Comprehension (3 questions) Q.4 out of 60] Q. b. then the value of c and d are 1 4 .1 1 [JEE2005(Scr)] Q. B = 0 d c > u = g . 11 2 (C)-6. [JEE 2004.1 = 0 0 1 (B) 6. U2.-11 "V3 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 and A 1 = •g (A2 + cA + dl) . [JEE 2004. 11 (D) 6.3 IfA = a 2 (A) ±3 and | A31 =125. Mains-2 out of 60] 2 a value of a3 + b3 + c 3 . abc = 1 and A T A = T . If afd * 0.AU2= 3 0 0 . U3 then answer the following que stions (a) (b) (B)-3 1 (C) 3/2 (C)l is (C)4 (D)2 (D)3 The sum of elements o f U is (A)-l (B)0 The value of [3 2 o]U (A) 5 (B) 5/2 . c are real positive number s. 1 If matrix A a b c b c a where a. U2 and U3 are columns matrices s atisfying.2 Q. then prove that BX=V has no solution. 2 out of 60] "a2" "f" a 1 l" a 0 ll A = 1 c b .AU3= 3 1 2 and U is 3 x 3 matrix whose columns are Uj. U. then prove that BX=V cannot have a unique solution. AU5 3 2 1 The value of | U | is (A) 3 1 0 0 1~ 2 0 . Q.EXERCISE-III Q. then a = (B) ±2 (C ) ± 5 (D) 0 [JEE 2004(Scr)] If M is a 3 x 3 matrix.6 IfP = 1 2 A 2 .7 A = 2 1 0 .. then find the c a b " [JEE 2003.5 1 0 0 1 A= 0 -2 (A)-6. where MTM = I and det (M) = 1.V= 0 0 f g h h 1 d b If there is vector matrix X. then prove that det (M -1 ) = 0. .

(c) (D) 3/2 [JEE 2006.5 marks each(-2)] ^Bansal Classes Determinant & Matrices [22] .

If a = . y = . .y : 1 : . unique solution. If ab+bc+ca<0.y = -~ andz = 0 .2 & m + n + p ^ 0. y = ab + be + ca. Triangle ABC is isosceles. infinite solution if m = n = p . z=Kwhenp = 2 . z = l . x = -(a + b + c). EXERCISE-II Q 1.— . y = — . ( a ) x = l .3 K . If a * 1 or-2.— . If ab+bc+ca >0. 2(K+6) ~ 2K+3 ~ 6(K-2) ~ 2(K +2K+15)' If K=2. x = 2K. z = -abc Q 4. If X = 5 then x = — . y = . consistent (d) inconsistent Q 3. K= y .4 Q 2. z = . x = a+b+c 1-2X a b c y= 4 9 If X*-5 thenx= ~. Q14. p=10 (c)X = 3.. y = . then x =0 is the only real root.2 & m + n + p = 0. (ab'-a'b)(bc'-b'c)(ca'-c'a) x = ± Q 14.y =—-— andz = 0 where X e R Q 12. \x± 10 Q 10. b c a c a b .m Q13. z = K. whenp = 1 . infinite solu tion. x = . y = 2 .2 ( a2 + b2 + c2 + A) Q 23..l .A N S W E R K E Y DETERMINANT EXERCISE-I Q4. 4-5K 13K-9 . no solution . x = . x = 0 or j | ( a 2 + b 2 + c2) Q19.l orx=-2 ab + be + ca Q 15. consistent (c) x = y . X. whereK G R x _ y z 1 2 Q l l .. If a = . 2 Q9. x= 1+2K. (a) X±3 (b) 1 = 3. z = 3 . If K*2. then x =0 or x = ± Q 24.7 .3 Q7. If a = 1. . x :y : z = 1 : 1 : 1 Q18. x: y: z = . If a = 1.then x = X. t = 0 o r 3 .— and z = K where K e R .3 K . y= 1 . consistent 13 7 35 (b) x = 2 .1 Q l l . x = 4 Q28. a+b+c z= a+b+c Q17. y = . no solution if m * n or n ^ p or p t.

EXERCISE-III Ql. x = .k fa B ansa I Classes Determinant & Matrices [23] . x = k . D =-10.3 . for B Q9.{ 0 } k Q 13. Q 4. t).y y= j Qll. (i) A where k e R . Q6. r = 2 .1 -31. z = . Q 8. Q 5. k = 2 : (5t-1. c ( i ) p * 2 . y = 4 . q = 3 ( i i ) p * 2 & q * 3 (iii) p = 2 4d4 a(a+d) 2 (a+2d)3 (a+3d)2 (a+4d) for c = 0 . no solution Q10.1 (i) d (ii) a Q 3. z = .x =. Q 7.. -3t. y = . x= 1. x = n7t.D Q 14. y = 3 . nel k = 1 : (5t+l. t) for t e R .

y = 2.).19 -4 7 3 5 -7 5 1 " . c e R and3a + c*0. where c.(a + d).15 n=7 l/a 1 0 w > (iii) w2 0 0 0" 1/b 0 0 1/c ? 1 2 2 3 2 -3 "0 2 -3 + 0 -3 4 0 3" 0 -3 3 0 cosa Q.17 (i) K=2. y=2 "0 0 o" 1 0 o" 0 1 0 .ll -1 0 4 0 0 0 1 1 1 w2 1 w Q. (ii) X does not exist.3EF = 0 0 1 0 0 0 ? ~0 2 5 " 1 0 0 2 3 0 + 0 0 -6 Q. d G R-{0}. z = k where k s R .3 -19 13 25 Q. y= 1.2 Q. Q.5 V = J_ Q. 2K Q. B MATRICES EXERCISE-I Q .18 D **************************************************** Q17. hence no solution EXERCISE-II a Q.(5K + 2) where K e R 2 1 1 5.Q 15.l Q. (ii) x = 1. b G R. (iv) inconsistent. ( iii) X = c -2c c -3a . z = .18 -21 .14 4 sina 0 cosa 0 0 1 J_ 48 Q.4 2_ Q. (iii) x = 2 + k.3 c a.4 1 Q. l x 1 = l .2 a 3b + d * 0 a b l .2 2" Q.20 (i) x = 2. X2 = . y= — ( 3K + 4) and x = .2 b for a.(b)X = 1 . g = ad .be 17 4 -10 0 Q.. system is consistent with unique solution given by x= -(1-X.2x=|. If A = 5.x= ~(A + 2) andy = 0.1 .13 19 -70 -25 42 Q.9 .2k . NO -3 2 .12(i) -sina 0 Q.11. (ii) X = B. y = 1 . z = 0 . z = 3 .7 x = 2.. (iii) A = ~ . system is consistent with infinite solution given by z = K.16 f = . X = l 3 0 Q. Q. FE = 0 1 0 Q. y = 1.8 X -2d d .l(i)X= 2 .9 8 .1 2 .

a= 1/2 Q.b e R.3 ./ sinx Q.2 A Q.1 and C = 0 cosx -sinx 0 -1 Q.15 2 0 Q.b = 1/3 Q. (c) no solution Q.1 -12 Q. (b)B.20 cosx 3 3 .3.-1) EXERCISE-III Q.ll 13 5 -3 -5 ® -12 Q. (c)A fa B ansa I Classes Determinant & Matrices [24] .17 a = ± ^ J_ s * y=± 1 ^ ^ n 1 kn-/m .l Q. 13(a) X= 2 .3 and b * 1/3 .5 C Q.IO f(a)= 1/4. (ii) a = .19 1 -1 . (iii) a = -3 .14 (i)a * .7 (a)A.6 A Q.(3.16 B = 0 -m k Q.

67 t o Q.82 are of 10 Marks Problems Q.30 to Q. 100 are Objective type problems. 1 to Q.66 are of 8 Marks Problems Q.29 are of 6 Marks Problems Q.83 to Q.2 0 0 7 . Advise: Do not spend more than 10 minutes for each problem and then read the sol ution and then do it. ALL TH€ BEST FOR JEE .5 BAN SAL ^ TARGET IIT JEE 2007 CLASSES XII & XIII (With Hints and Solutions at the End) • • • • Q.

H e agrees to run the buses if atleast 200 persons travel by his buses. [6J Let x(t) be the concentration of glucose per unit volume of blood at time t.3 ci ^ . [6] Find the num ber of 4 digit numbers starting with 1 and having exactly two identical digits.8 n/2 .0) and (3. If the length of this chord can be expressed as .findx(t). Show that the tan gents at the extremities of the chord meet on the parabola by2 = 4a2x. where g is in its lowest form. C and D each with radius unity and centres (-3.0) respectivel y are drawn. y= g2 ^ X -r. r 1 — sm 2x a If J " ^ s j n 2 x ) 2 d x = — where a. 11 Find the value (s) of the parameter 'a' (a > 0) for each of which the area ofthe figure bounded by the straight line. The fare p er person is to be Rs. 3 Q. A chord PQ of the circle S touches the circle B and passes through the centre of the circle C. 596 + K are the squares o f three consecutive terms of an arithmetic progression. 300 + K. b) lies on the curve 9 y2=x3 such that the normal to the curve at P makes equal intercepts with the axe s.& the parabola y= 1+ a + 2 & X -f. is the greatest. (1. B.9 Q.l If the sum ofthe roots ofthe equation 2 3 3 3 x _ 2 +2 l l l x + 1 = 2 222x+2 +1 is expressed in the form q find 2 S j + S2.0). If the glucose is disappearing from the blood at a r ate proportional to the concentration of glucose (K being the constant of propor tionality). p being the amount of glucose being injected per unit volume per unit time. Ltd. fi nd x. Find the value of (a + 3b). How many passengers will give th e contractor maximum daily revenue? [6] If the point P(a. b are relatively prime f ind a + b + ab. [6] Q.2 Q. Four circles A. Q. [6] A chord ofthe parabola y2 = 4ax touches the parabola y2 = 4bx.7 Q. Find K.SUBJECTIVE: Q. (-1. [ 6] Q. [6] A bus contractor agrees to run special buses for the employees of ABC Co.10 Q.0). Also find the ultimate concentration of glucose as t —> oo. 10 per day if200 travel and will be decreased for everybo dy by 2 paise per person over 200 that travels. 1 +a [6] fa B ansaIClasses Determinant & Matrices [2] . [6] Consi der a circle S with centre at the origin and radius 4.6 x72 s Integrate J (j _ x ) dx t6l Q. 5 [6] Let K is a positive integer such that 36 + K.4 Q.

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13 Five persons entered the lift cabin on the ground floor of an eightfloorhou se. Show that v v' w w' = 0 .22 Q. B. F ind the probability that Mr. However a clue to his validi ty is that his ears droop 2/3 ofthe time when he is telling a lie. [6] Q.5z = 1 and5x-1 3y + 3z + 2 = 0cuts the plane 8x . prove that.19 Ifthe normals to the curve y = x2 at the points P.12 Mr. v and w are twice differentiable functions of x that satisfy the relations au + bv + c w = 0 u u' where a. A is a compulsive liar. [6] Suppose u.1 Ox2 + 9 < 0. .2(3 + i)x2 + (5 . z= [6] -~t to the plane x + 2y+6z= 10. [6] Q. A was telling the truth. Q and R pass through the poin t 0.11 y + 2z = 0. Find the maximum value o f f (x) = xJ — 3x on S.4. (x4y2-y)dx + (x2y4-x)dy = 0 (y(l) = l) . b and c are constants. not all zero. Suppose that each of them.findout the probability of all 5 persons leaving at different floors.17 If 9 is the angle between the lines in which the planes 3x .15 Find the distance from the line x = 2 + t .21 Q. y = l + t .Q.findthe radius v 1) of the circle circumscribing the triangle PQR.18 (A) (B) fc} In any triangle ABC.7y .findsinB.. Find the value of Y a 2 . independently & with equal probability can leave the cabin at any floor beginning with the first.16 Q. B th at "certain event has occured" and his ears were dropping as noticed by Mr. [6] Q. [6] Solve the differential equation.23 Find the equation of a line passing through (. [6] Q.14 Let u and v be non zero vectors o n a plane or in 3-space. Q. [6 j f TN Q. They only dro op 1/10 ofthe time when he is telling the truth. Mr.20 Let A = {a e R | the equation (1 + 2/)x3 .4i)x + 2a2 = 0 } has at least one real root. He lies 2/5 ofthe time. aeA [6] Q. Show that the vector w =] u | v+1 v | u bisects the ang le between u and v . -2) having equal intercepts on the coordinate axes. [6] Let S be the set of all x such that x4 . cos A • sin2 + cosB sin2 + cos C • sin2 12 J k2) U J — — — Q. A tells his friend Mr.

[6] Bansal Classes Problems for JEE-2007 .

y + — = 1 precisely at three points A.findp. c. Find a vert ical vector y such that (A + A + A + A +1) y = 11 where I is a unit matrix of or der 2. Find the four numbers. 27 Circles A and B are externally tangent to each other and to line t.a = 30.24x + b = x Q. [6] [ e • N > ^ x 2 y2 Q. The su m of the radii of the two circles is 12 and the radius of circle A is 3 times th at of circle B. c are in A. b. b. [8] fa B ansaIClasses Determinant & Matrices [4] . [6] Q. interior to the triangle.Q.4 and 5. A sec ond circle. -ft / f (t) = -—— where t e R . is tangent to the first circle and to both sides of the larger acute angle of the triangle. From the remaini ng pack half of the cards are randomly removed without looking at them and then randomly drawn two cards simultaneously P(38C2Q) from the remaining. Find the number of ways in which P and Q can be selected so that P n Q has at least one common ele ment. C as shown in the figure. [8] Q . d.x + 1 at the points A. 29 A circle is inscribed in a triangle with sides of lengths 3.P. [6] Q. Also find their equations and the co-ordina tes of the feet of the normals onto the curve. [6] Q. B & C on the curve are concurrent at the point P (7/2. c. 3 3 If the normals drawn to the curve y = x2 . / a b v / B. b.32 Let the set A = {a. [8] Q. 20r . 2 8 Define a matrix A r Q.30 If the equation 5 > has exactly two distinct real solutio ns and their sum is 12 then find x2-l the value of (a-b). and b. If the prob ability that two cards drawn are both aces is 40 r . find the length of the diameter AB in terms of a. AB is a diameter of the circle and is perpendicular to the major axis of the ellipse. If the radius of teh second ci rcle can be expressed in the form (0. e} and P and Q are two non empty subsets ofA. find the value of k + w. If the eccentricity ofthe ellip se is 4/5. c an d d are positive integers and a < b < c < d such that a. [6] 0 0 1 8 6 4 2 3 0 .25 A circle intersects an ellipse . d are in G.~ thenfindthe value of a + b.31 If a. [8] Q.26 Suppose R is set of reals and C is the set of complex numbers and a function is defined as f: R -» C.90°). prove that / is injective. sink where k a nd w are in degrees and lie in the interval cos w [6] ax2 .P. and d .24 All the face cards from a pack of 52 playing cards are removed.9/2) then compute the s um ofthe slopes ofthe three normals. The area in between the two circles and its \l brc external tang ent is a v 3 .

\2 5050 n 2 7 1 I 0 a <x — V x.f " (1). for a=3. Two litres ofbrine each litre containing 5 gms of dissolved salt are run into tank per minute.42 Consider the equation in x. y) on the conic and the point of intersection of the normal at P with the abscissa axis is bisected by the y . cos B) lies on a unit circle centred at origin.axis.findthe values of b for which the equation has three solutions.40 [8] Let f: [0. Sho w that the equation has only one solution for x if a < 0. 3 6 Let A. If a face card is drawn. then compute the value of f"' (1) . b e N.3 5 y k hyperbola has onefocusat the origin and its eccentricity = Find the equation to its asymptotes. continuous everywhere such that g( 1) = 5 and j g ( t) dt = 2. given that the ball selected was red. where k.4) and passing through i its focus. find the value ^ o f a 3 + b3" ' 1*1 Q. a ball is selected from Urn-II. Find the val ue of a.sinA)2 (cot C . |8] MBansal Classes Problems for JEE-2007 fSJ . a ball is selected from Urn-Ill. f8] Atank consists of 50 litre s offreshwater. C be real n umbers such that ^(i) (sin A. A card is dra wnfroma well shuffled back of 52 playing cards.4) is such that the segment j oini ng a point P (x. If an ace is drawn. if the value of the definite integral f — equals " . Urn-Ill contains 10 red balls and 2 black balls. find the value of (kw). [8] Q. Find the equation of the c onic and also the equation of a circle touching the conic. J / . (i i) tan C and cot C are defined. ' I ^ If the minimum value of (tan C . express'm' in terms of t andfindthe amount of salt present after 10 minutes.— . 41 [Bj Q.1) such > that Jf(x)dx =f(c). and runs out at the rate of one litre per minute.J (x -1) 2 g (t) dt. If a ny other card is drawn. [8] Q.„ 1tanO w 71/4 J [8] 1 Q.43 Urn-1 contains 3 red balls and 9 black balls. 3 4 A conic passing through the point A (1. Find (a) the probabilit y that a red ball is selected.Q.cos B)2 is a + bV2 where a. Urn-II contains 8 red balls a nd 4 black balls. 0 Q. Prove that there is c e (0.38 If and one ofits directrix is x + y + 1 =0. B. w e N. If'm' grams of salt are present in the tank after t minute. (b) the conditional probability that Urn-I was on efromwhich a ball was selected. the mixture is kept uniform by stilting.ax + b = 0 in which a and b are constants. 3 9 Given a function g. 0 1 x If f(x) = . [8] f (7t 4 6 ) t a n 6 d0 = rc /n k .37 For a > 2. Q. a ball is selected from Urn-I. .at A (1.1 ] — R is a continuous function such that Jf(x)dx = 0. [8] Q. x j . 20 Q.

sin— sin— sin — 2 2 2 2 2 2 Q. 2.48 ABCD is a tetrahedron with A(.2000}. "1 2 2 2 1 1 10 2 2 3 2 2 1 and D = 13 and that Cb = D. The hunter having a ri fle containing 10 bullets decides to fire them all at bush-I or II.51 [8] Find the parametric equation for the line which passes through the point (0.Q . Find AB x FEE x BE)) • What can you say about the values of (AB X BE) X B D and (AB X BD) X BC. If the maximum and minimum value ofthe expression 3 x +xy + 4y 2 M and m.44 The digits of a number are 1 . c+a a+b 2 2 x 2 +y 2 31-2 Given x. [8] Q . 5 twenty five paise coins & a certain fixed number N (> 2) of ten &fivepaise coins.5. C(4. 1802. . b. 7 . If the number chosen represents a calende r year. [8] x2+y2+a2 2ax + xy 2ay + x 2ax + xy a2+2x2 2ax + xy 2ay + x 2ax + xy x2+y2+a2 [8] Q. (Assume that the bullet hitting the bush also hits the animal). 22. x + y > 0.1 . r. 1 & 50 paise . and r.47 A hunter knows that a deer is hidden in one of the two near by bushes . 2 .2) and is perpendicular to the line x = 1 +1. Find the pr obability that the total value of these five coins is less than Re. independently of the other with pr obability 1/2. [8] Q.55 a b+c 2 [8] [8] b c 3 + 7~T > T for a. 3). 1900} & B = {1901. 2 [8] fa B ansaIClasses .4. need not be real).8x .—— = — a n d —-— = —-— . Q.1999..1902. Find the probability that the order is divisible by 11. * r2 and r ^ = 2 (r. D(. Five coins are taken out of the box at random. . [8] Q. [8] A B C A B C cos— cos~cos— .—— 2 1 4 3 2 -2 Also find all points on this line the square of whose dist ance from (1. A = {1801.46 A box contains 2 f ifty paise coins. If r. 2 .1. c > 0. y e R.1899 . Calculate the volume of the tetrahedron ABCD and the vecto r area ofthe triangle AEF where the quadrilateral ABDE and quadrilateral ABCF ar e parallelograms. C = 1 1 1 9 Solve the matrix equati on Ax = b.45 A number is chosen randomly from one of the two sets. [8] Q. Find the probability that it has 53 Sundays. [8] Suppose that r .3).52 Express as a product of two polynomial. 8 & 9 written at ra ndom in any order.54 Prove that Q. and A denotes the average value of M and m.x3 + ax2 . 3.4.49 Find the equation ofthe line passing through the poin t (1. 2).8 = 0 find r . 6 .. y = 1 .3) which is perpendicular to both of the lines x— 1 y+3 z 2 x+2 y-4 z+l -—— . 4 . the probability of its being hidden inbush-I being 4/5. B(l. • [8] Q. Q. Q. r2 and a. 3 . c ompute (2007)A.3) is 357. 5).50 Q. are the roots of the biquadratic x4 . 5 .1 and z = 2t and also inters ects this line. How many bullets must he fire on each of the two bushes to hit th e animal with maximum probability. It is known that each shot may hit one of the two bushes.56 Prove that the triangle ABC will be a right angled triangle if J. .53 Given the matrices A = 1 -1 3 .

Determinant & Matrices [6] .

[8] Q. =123. medians AD and BE are m utually perpendicular.=i . (iv) Area of quadrilateral ADBC and the AD AB.68 If £ » 2 x .58 In AABC. Prove that J a / _eb/x dx = 0 x [81 Q. =12 and £ ( z + 2) 2 x. Two tangents intersect line I at the point B and C respectively. What is the largest possible area ofthe triang le. Find all the com posite divisors of N. A person can go up the steps one at a time. max {ZA./ ( 3 ) isequalto N. a = 4 . [8] Q. Find ZC in degrees. . where n e N. Find 'c' and 'A'. L and the y -axis.59 The lengths ofthe sides of a triangle are log.66 In triangle ABC.b (where m is a positive constant and b is real) at the point T. and the distancefromA to / is 3. [8] 2 Th e parabola P: y = ax where 'a' is a positive real constant. (ii) Coordinates of the points A and B. 64 A triangle has one side equal to 8 cm the othe r two sides are in the ratio 5:3. then the value of / ( 9 ) . find the value of — . (i) Equat ion of the tangents at A and B. [8] Q. [8] Q.62 Let/(x) = 2 kx + 9 where k is a real number. = l and ]T(/ + l) 2 x. Find the total number ofways in which the person can go up the stairs. Point A and the circle S are on the same side of I. [10] Q. two at a time. where R is the radius of th e circumcircle and r is the radius of the incircle. [8] b fe x a Q. Let Q be the point of intersection of the line L and the y-axis is such that TQ = 1. where N is a natural number. If 3/(3) =/(6).61 Let a and b be two positive real numbers. Find the distance of the point Pfromthe vertex of the given angl e in terms of x and y. 6 3 Line / is a tangent to a unit circle S at a poi nt P. b = 3 .60 A flight of stairs has 10 steps. . (v) Equation of the circle circumscri bing the ADAB and also the intercepts made by this c ircle on the coordinate axe s.3). If A denotes the 1 maximum value of the region surrounded by P. Find the value of (PB)(PC). [8] Q.=i .65 Q.67 A point moving around circle (x+4)2 + (y + 2)2=25 with centre C broke awayf romit either at the point A or point B on the circle and moved along a tangent t o the circle passing through the point D (3. or any comb ination of 1 's and 2's. (iii) An gle ADB and the maximum and minimum distances of the point Dfromthe circle. .=i then find the value of ^T(/ + 3) 2 x. [8] R Q. Find the number of possible values of n.Q. is touched by the li ne L: y = mx . ZB} = ZC + 30° and — = V3 + 1. 11 = 7 7 7 7 [10] fa B ansaIClasses Determinant & Matrices . [8] Q. log1075 and logj0«. Find the following.012. 5 7 A point P is situated inside an angle of measure 60° at a distance x and y from its sides.

[7] .

find the value a2 + b2 + c2.24 y + 153 = 0 respectively. BE lies along the line y = 2x + 4.c e N. y e R and [10] f x) f(x) Q. find the value of c [10] a + b + c + abc.73 If f . l dX Q. find [p + q). 2 2 2 2 q [10] Q. f(y) ^ 0) V-x. Let m be the smallest positive value of 'a' for which the line y=ax contains the centre of a P circle that is externally tangent to W2 and internally tangent to W. AD lies along the li ne y = x + 3.Q.87 = 0 and x + y . [10] Q.Vb --JL where a. BE and CF. and W2 denote the circles x + y + lOx . c are relatively prime.. 76 Let f be a differentiable function satisfying the condition f ^ ^ J = .b.71 Let W.24y .75 [10] Let f (x) be a differentiable function such that f (x) +/(x) = 4xe~x • sin 2x and/ (0) = 0.72 If 3 rdx = a 5j J 6 (l + sinx) n b-j3 where a. Find the value ofLim ^f(kTi).69 The normals to the parabola y2 = 4x at the points P.12). c e N and b. Moreover. Furthermore. b. Q & R are concurrent a t the point (15. VC [10] Q. Given that g(f(0)) = 1. Q. k=i [10] (y ^ 0. If the value of g{ f(4)) = e"k where k e N. right angled at C. [10] Q. find k. Find (a) the equation of the circle circumscribing the tria ngle PQR (b) the co-ordinates of the centroid of the triangle PQR. J / ( g ( x ) ) d x = 1 o ^ for all reals a. find the area of the triangle ABC.70 The triangle ABC. has median AD. Given that m1 = ~ wherep and q are relatively pri me integers. r~= V J Vl + x + Vl —x + 2 = Va . 74 Suppose/(x) and g (x) are differentiable functions such that xg(/(x))/'fe( x)k'(x) = /(g(x)M/(x))Ax) for all real x.lOx ./(x) is nonnegative andg(x) i s positive. If the length of the hypotenuse is 60.

C7 + )2 = 2n [81 [10] Problems for JEE-2007 .. then find the area enclosed by y = f(x). If the integers an = C0 + C3 + C6 + C9 + bn = c. + c4 + c7 + c10 + and cn = C2 + C5 + Cg + C.bn)2 + (bn ..77 The equation Z10 + (13 Z .C3 + C5 . + . a2 .78(i) Let Cr's denotes the combinatorial coefficients in the expansion of (1 + x)n. a5.an)2 = 2. )2 + (Cj .axis. x2 + y2 = 2 and x .3anbncn = 2" . then prove that (a) a 3 + b3 + c3 . Each pair a.cn)2 + (cn .C2 + C4 . bi are complex conjugate. b5.C6 + (b) (an . n e N. a3.. b2. (ii) Prove the identity: Bans a/ Classes (C0 .l)10 = 0 has 5 pairs of complex roots a p b. Find i i • [ 10] Q. b4. b3.f ' (1) = 2. a4. Q.

2 2 .298 where ( rj = e( *mls (D) 249 (B) 298 (C) .1 3 1 -3 . probability that logab is an integer.85 . 24.e. hexagon. wood). c [10] . 4 colours (blue. [10] 1 ^ sin(nx) For x g (0. if Zu 3 3 n=0 where a.83 A child ha s a set of96 distinct blocks. c are positive integers. 225}. n/2) and sin x = —.2 3 . (. green. Find the [10] Q.5 and X be the solution set of the equation Ax = A. (Only one is correct): Q. b. medium. b. triangle).^ ( i k j (A) . 5 where the continued pr oduct extends V x e X. Each block is one oftwo material (plastic. Find the value of sin A + sin B + sin C. square. c are the sides of triangle ABC satisfying log Q. Also V a/ a(l . How many blocks in the set are different from "Plastic medium red circle" in exactly two ways? ("The wood medium red squ are" is such a block) (A) 29 (B)39 (C) 48 (D)56 Q.79 Given the matrix A = . large).Q.1 3 5 .1 c) [10] where x e N .80 + log a .249 Q. OBJECTIVE Select the correct alternative. and 4 shap es (circle. yellow).log b = log 2. 3 sizes (small.82 /Two distinct numbers a and b are chosen randomly from the set {2.x 2 ) + 2bx + c(l + x ) = 0 has two equ al roots. red.{1}. „ix „ e . Evaluate J v x3-ly Q.81 = a + bVb ~~ then find the value of (a + b + c).84 The sum ^ ( .i x (You may Use the fact that sin x = ) 2i If a.

4x + 1 = 0. The units digit of 31 001 • 71002 • 131003 is (A) 1 (B) 3 Q.4) and ( 3. d.If A > 0. Which one of the foll owing statements describes correctly the solution set of this equation? (A) four non real complex zeroes. and the graphs of / (x) = j Ax + c | + d and u+c g (x) = . (D) two real and two non real complex zeroes.87 (C)7 (D)9 fa B ansa I Classes Determinant & Matrices [9] . u.2x + 3x . (B) four positive zeroes (C) two positive and two nega tive zeroes. 8 6 Consider the poiynomial equation x . v are non-zero constants. c.1) then the value of ~ ~ ~ equals ~~~ (A) 4 (B)-4 4 3 (C) 2 2 (D)-2 Q.j Ax + u | + v intersect exactly at 2 points (1.

P. In original A. is equal to 3 times its common difference.P.y = 1 intersect the parabola y2 = 4x at the points A and B and the normals at A and B intersect each other at the point G. The balls in each box are well mixed. (D) normal at C has the gradient . B and C respectively. if the largest number is inc reased by two.31 (D) . also becomes a G.f ( x . 9 3 The value of tan 5J 1 13 J / \ — — 25 (A)3 (B)-33 ( Q .92 Three bxes are labelled A.l) 2 forallx.2.91 The polynomial function f(x) satisfies the equation f ( x ) . is 8 (D) The sum of thefirstthree terms of an A. B and C and each box contains four balls numbere d 1. 15] then a + b + c (C) 10 (D) 11 Q.89 If the sum 2L ^ equals (A) 6 + 1 o ) ^ +fc-^/k+ 2 (B) 8 = Va+ Vb 7 c — where a. Q. A child chooses one ball at randomfromeach of the three boxes. 94 Three positi ve integers form thefirstthree terms of an A. (More than one are correct): Q. becomes a G. The area of triangle ABC in sq. then p + q is equal to (AO 0 (B) 5/6 (C) 4/3 (D) 1 Q. (B) the normal at C passes through the lower end of the latus rectum ofthe parabola.arc cosf is equal to Q. (A) sum of the abscissa and ordinate of the point C is .90 Triangle ABC is isosceles with AB =AC and BC = 65 cm. The odds in favour of the child to receive the toy helicopter are (A) 3:32 (B)3:29 (C)1 : 15 (D)5:59 \ f ( arc sin 41 . (C) centroid of the triangle ABC lies at the focus of the parabola. fa B ansaIClasses Determinant & Matrices [10] .y2 = 23 then the value of k is (A) 31 (B) 24 (C) . 8 8 The polynomial f (x) = x4 + ax3 + bx2 + cx + d has real coefficients and /(2/) = / (z + /) = 0.P. b.2 ) = (2x.1. cm is (A) 1254 (B) 1950 (C)2535 (D)507 0 Q. P is apoint on BC suc h that the perpendicular distances from P and AB and AC are 24 cm and 36 cm resp ectively.P. is 36. If a.16 CD)Select the correct alternatives. and c are the numbers on the balls chosen from the boxes A. (B) Sn = n( n+ 11) (C) Smallest term of the A.3 and 4. If a third normal to the parabol a through G meets the parabola at C then which of the following statements) is/a re correct.P. the A.P The statements which does not hold go od? (A) first term ofA. 96 The line 2x . Ifpandqarethe coefficient of x2 and x respectively in f (x ).Q.9 5 If the line 2x + 9y + k = 0 is normal to the hyperbola 3x2 . the child wins a toy helicopter w hen a = b + c.24 Q. c e N and lie in [1.P. The value of (a + b + c + d) equals (A) 1 (B) 4 (C) 9 (D) 10 ^ Q.1.P. If the smallest number is increa sed by one the A. b.P.

B : their product is divisible by 5. b) such that a and b are positive.[xl > — Sis —.a) equals Bansal Classes Problems for JEE-2007 [U] .1) and (x. Number of values of k less t han 31.— where 0 < x < n. is (B) (C) Let z be a co mplex number of constant non zero modulus such that z2 is purely imaginary. Tw o events A and B are defined as A: units place in their product is 5. cos 271 cosx 3 it (A)^ 5n (B)77t ( O 1 Itc (D) — MATCH THE COLUMN: Q. If B c A then P(A/B) equals A real number x is chosen at random such that 0 < x < 100.99 Column-I (A) The smallest positive integeral value of n f or which the complex number (l + j s i j 1 ' 2 is real. o)u (l/V2. f > (B) (j) (x) increases in (. If p.1 = 0 are written in the form of a+ib then the number of distinct ordered pairs (a.l/V2 .98 If tan — ~ = . o)u ( l / .97 If (j) (x) =/(x 2 ) +/(1 .l 00 (A) Column-II 0 (P) (Q) (R) (S) i 2 e (B) (C) (D) Let A. 1 a The probability that x .x2) and/" (x) > 0 for x 6 R then which ofthe fol lowing are correct? (A) (j) (x) attains its extrema at 0. then the value of x is V 3 . x3) be k. is Lim ( e x + l ! * x-»oo Column-II (P) 4 (Q) (R) (S) 6 8 9 (D) Q.00) (D) (j ) (x) decreases in \/4l.Q. lit (in x \ sm 3 sin x Q. and p2 are the probabilities ofthe events Aand B such that p9 = kpj then 'k' equals For positive integers x and k. ± ^ (C) c (x) attains it s local maxima at 0. then the number of possible values of z is 3 whole numbers are randomly selected. let the grad ient of the line connecting (1. is Column-I For real a and b ifthe solutions to the equation Z9 . B be two events with P(B) > 0. where a and b are relatively 3i b b primes and [x] denotes the greatest int eger then (b . 00) .

. a.d .d) = 264 .(1) y k k Since (1) touches y2 = 4bx.(tj + t2)y + 2atj t2 = 0 t... 1 Mx|y UMy|x|. x[y j 1 | any one place out of 3 block for unity can be taken in 3 ways and the remaining two blo cks can be filled in 9 • 8 ways.4 = 0 sum of the roots of the given equati on is iog2 yj + log2 y2 + iog2 y3 _ l o g ^ y ^ y g ) X..t2) k = a(t 1 +t 2 ) Equation to the variable chord 2x .+t 2 2a 2h V -— x + —a .8 = 216 Total of both case = 432 Ans.4 rejected) 2a = 70 => a = 35 Case-I: When the two identical digits are both unity as shown. using the condition of t angency 2ah _ bk k ~ 2a Locus is by2 = 4a2x ] fa B ansaIClasses Determinant & Matrices [12] .3.] iog 2 4_ 2 ill i l l Sj + S2 = 113 Ans...) 2at..296 .... a + d d>0 2 2 .300 1225-300 = 925 Ans.3 d = 4 (d = .+t 2 + A(t.(4) (3)-(2) gives d(2a + d) ...(5) (5)-(4) gives 2d2 = 32 => d2 = 16 Hence from (4) 4(2a .4 = 66 => K = 352 .HINTS AND SOLUTIONS Let 2 1Ilx = y lo g2y so that ]og2y= 111 X 111 equation beco mes + 2y = 4y2 + 1 4 y3 .+X2 + X3 = ill ill Let t he 3 consecutive terms are a .4) = 264 => => 2a .t2 t.16y2 + 8y ..li|y|x|x| two x's can be taken in 9 ways and filled in three ways and y can be taken in 8 ways. Total ways in this case = 3 • 9 • 8 = 216 Case-II: Wh en the two identical digit are other than unity.(3) a2 + 2ad + d2 = 596 + K now (2)-(1) gives d(2a . Total ways in this case = 9. ] h = a(t...] .(1) hence a .2ad + d = 36 + K a2 = 300 + K .

V63 Equation of large circle as x2 + y2 = 16 1 now C = (1.^ U d x (x-'-l) 1 Put x "2 .x ' ) J f 2 \ 5 dx = J .J -1 _1 xz 1 -l J .5. N will be mid point of chord PQ P 1 now = I 2 P= 1 R = 2-\jr2 .2 r dt "2 t5 J 2 . Note that triangles BCM and OCN are similar now let ON = p.10 i .1 = t = —r dx = dt X .p2 for large circle = 2Vl 6 . 0) with slope PQ = .^ (think !) Alternatively: equation of PQ : ^ y + x ^ l 1 P (from origin) = — result ] Taking x2 out of the bracket J( 1 .(1/4) .v -dx .

= r ( l . b = 3 => l +3 + 3 = 7 Ans.-j . Using sin2x n/2 l2 tanx I + tan"x *?(!-tanx) 2 sec xdx / (l + tanx) 4 2 tan x 7t /2 . .. nu _ .+ C] 7. dx Q (cosx +sinx) 4 Determinant & Matrices [13] fa B ansaIClasses . a I = f .— — — m . ] n/2.J 2 tanx ' (I + tanx) o l+ l + tan2 x put y = tan x => dy = sec2x dx -Ci .t a n x )V ( l + tan 2 x)dx " 2 l + tan~ x dx i 4 i.y) dy io+y)" now put l + y = z dy = dz = l Alternatively: f (2-z) -dz C O -6z + 4 I1 i_3 JZ 1 13 a = l .

2x' = lOx .sin x) (sin x + cos x) dx 1 (cos x +sin x)~ 0 + 0 (cosx + sinx)3 using sin 2x : > 2 3 2tanx 1 + tan x 2 i3 3 1 °fdt 2 1 i 3f ? . .— ( x .= 4 + 8 = 12 Ans.2 0 0 ) = lOx + 4x 100 100 =0 x = 350 x = 350 gives maxima] => Given 9y2 = x3 Let the point on the curve be x = t2 and y : — = /t • dt ' d x — = +2 t' dt d y dy _ dy dt _ t 2 t dx dt dx 2t 2 normal makes equal intercept hence .sin x) • i J» ' v d x v (cosx + sinx)J J) integrating by parts rc/2 ti/2 (cos x .1 => t=2 slope of the normal = . ] Let the number of passengers be x (x > 200) Fair changed per person = 10 (x -100 ) Total revenue = x f(x)= 14xf'(x) = 14 f"(x) <0 2x 100 4x 100 2 100 10-(x-200) 100 2x . ] ^Bansal Classes Problems for JEE-2007 [14] . b = 3 => 1 + 3 + 3 = 7 Ans.— f (cos x .) a + 3b = 4 + 3 • .— + 3 3 3 h j + jtWMD */2 {(-!)-(!)}+ J dx + sin 2x t r l V2 sec2 x .tc/2 1 dx I = . dx 3 ^ (1 + tanx)2 2 1 3 ~3 a = 1.~ Hence P = ( 4 .

)= 1/10 P(A/B2) = 2/3 3 J_ 5 10 P( B.a or x = .: Mr A was telling a truth P(B. Amount of glucose in blood at time t is x (t) dx p-Kx dt hence dx dt p-Kx 1 /n(p-Kx) = t + C K /n(p-Kx) = -Kt + C p . 512 (u • v) 1 u j + I V j I u j UI w! G-fioor u • (j u 1 v+1 v|u) I u II w! ..2 a A= a3 dA 4 6(1+a ) da 0 gives a = 3I/4Ans.(1) .(x2 + 2ax + 3a2) | 11./A) = 3 J_ 2 2 5 10 + 5 3 3+ 40 49 Ans.a x x = .K x = r K t+ c p . ] 13. E: all the 5 persons leave at different floors n(S) = 85 n(A) = 8C5 • 5! j m 14.. A: ears of Mr A formed to be drooping B.10.) = 3/5 B . x2 + 2ax + 3a 2 = a 2 ..) = 2/5 P(A/B. A = dx where Xj & x7 are the roots of.a x ) .: Mr B was telling a false P(B.e -Kt+C x: K Lim x(t) = ^ ] t-»00 K "2r (a2 . ] 12. U-W cos a = wjjuj cos a cos j3 C 5 -5! 105 ans.

(u • v)+ j V 1 u 1 v•w Iw V v-(|u| v+| v|u) [ Vi2|uI +(v-u) I VI |w||v| ~ ! W11 VI Determinant & Matrices [1 5] fa B ansaIClasses .

= nj xn.. The line is — 1 =^ 1 A A z' = —2... = 3 8 j -7 -11 k . ... V41 line (1) is 1 to the plane 1 Ans | A A A J A' (2.— k vector nor mal to the plane x + 2y + 6z = 10.(2) w from (1) and (2) cos a = cos p a = p] COS P 15..(1) line passes through 2i + j——k and is parallel to the vector V = i + j .-1/2) / ] Vector v..5 = -23(3i+ 2 j .v||u|+(v-u) .. along the line of intersection of 3x . Given and au + bv + cw= 0 -.5z = 1 and 8x ..1 ly + 2z = 0 is given by i v.3 2+2—3—10 d= V l + 4 + 36 16.1 . -v2 = 0 => angle is 90° => sin90° = l 17.(I) a u' + bv' + cw' = 0 .t \ 2 .(3) ..7y .k ) 2 |||ly vector v2 along the line of intersection of the planes 5x-13y + 3z = 0 and 8x .(2) au" + bv" + cw" = 0 ...n = 1 + 2 .11 y + 2z = 0 is i J k v2 = n 3 x n 4 = 5 -13 3 8 -11 2 7 (i + 2j + 7k) ] now v... is n = i + 2 j + 6k V.

.cos C)] = — [(cosA .— I 2J 4 <f cosB 2 —0 _ I 2J 4 — < » — < I ( cosC I —0 2y 4 fa B ansaIClasses Determinant & Matrices [16] . C = — [cos A (1 .2.u v w u' v' w' For non trivial solution (non zero) solution of a.cos2A) + (cosB .cos2B) + (cosC . b and c . Let y = cos A • sin2f A = 0] l + cosB sin2 + cos C sin2 f ' <2.cosB) + cos C (1 .cos A) + cosB (1 .cos2C)] cosA-— ] . We m ust have u" v" w" 18.

(1) 3 2 an d 2x .2 ) .-V3} S = 0 + 6 + 6 + 3 + 3 = 18 Ans.V3. y = x2.2=4+c => Class es c= -6 Problems for JEE-2007 117] ^Bansal . For non zero intercepts slope = .] 21.6x2 + 5x + 2a2 = 0 .— 2 cosC .2)(x + 1) = 0 the given x = 0.4 . y = t2 dy = 2x = 2t dx slope of normal m equation of normal 1 y 1 2 = .x +1 2t '3 2 2 t=0 2t — t v2 or 3 . y = or 2t(y -1 2 ) = . x = t.1 hence one of the point is origi n and the other two are (-1. Equating real and imaginary part x3 .x . Let x be a real root.-a/6.— (x -1) 2X if x = 0.1 y=.(2) 2x(x2 . . 2 or .1 if x=0 a =0 x = .y= cosA-cosB. 1) => PQR is arighttriangle radius of the circle is 1 its equation is x2 + (y .x+c point ( .4x = 0 . \2 now y will be maximum if cosA = cos B = cos C = — hence y max =3/8 ] 19.V6.2x .1 )2 = 1 x2 + y2 .2t2 = 1 => t= 1 or .2) = 0 2x(x .2y = 0 ] 20.1 => x=2 => a2 = 6 = > a2 = 3 = > a= ± V6 a = ± V^ a e {O. l)and(l.

y = 1 5 Ans.linesisy = .) = P(E0) • P(E / E0) + P(Ej) • P(E / Ej+ P(E2) • P(E / E2) = 40 ( f E0: 4 aces 36 other 36. +C C = 5.) + P(E n E. now if x = 1. E: event that 2 drawn from t he remaining 20 cards has both the aces P(E) = P(E n E0) + P(E n E.9)(x2 . x .1 or 3 now f ( when x = 3 f (3) = 18 ] x4y2 x2dx + y2dy = d(xy) . 3 3 xy (x3 + y3) + hence x3 + y3 + 3(xy) 24 52 face card removed = C. 20 cards randomly removed has exactly 2 aces. (xy)2 Integrating.3 = 0 x=±1 maximum occurs dx + x2y4dy = xdy + ydx x2y2(x2dx + y2dy) = xdy + ydx 18 / "V \ -3 / -1 2 / ~" V ' / 23. a 40.x . ] 40 20 drawn randomly Let 20 cards randomly removed has no aces. r 2 r . '20 4p ' 20 p 2 + 40 . fd(xy) Jx dx + Jy dy = j. 20 cards randomly removed has exactly one ace.6 x + y+ 6= 0 • for zero intercept lineisy=mx .3 < x < .2 = m(.1 Ox2 + 9 < 0 (x 2 . 36p 19 20 p "20 = xandx + y +6 = 0 ] 22.4) => m= 1/2 2y = x lines are 2y 4 .3x f'(x) = 3 x 2 .1 ) < 0 1 <x<3 hence x) = x .

4 + 2 C. 2' 2' 18' fa B ansaIClasses Determinant & Matrices [18] . "20 20 "20 c„ 36 'C 20 2 1 40 c 20 19' 20.3 6 C 18 40..

cos 9)(1 + cos 9) a2(l .n + 36C18] "19 40.8 40 C20 20. sin 9 15 17 3a 15 5 ' 17 18 AB = 2b sin 9 = 2 • 26.0l)(a.25 cos 9 = 9 + 9 cos 9 16 = 34 cos 9 1 ^° ^a cos 8. Let a.6. ] 25.X (where X.36C. 6[ 36 C 20 + 36C 19 + 36C.0) 3 — — i 8 cos 9 = — . 0 is the centre of the circle) also r=AC = b sin 9 a .j6 C 19 +6.X = b sin 9 where X = a cos 9 a(l -cos9) = b sin 9 a2(l .. e= b _ JL _ 2 .co s 9) = b2(l + cos 9) 1 -cos9 _ 9 l + cos9 ~ 25 25 . "20 20/ => p = 6 Ans.36C20 + 12. 20 '20 C6( 37C 20 + 37C 19' 40.(1) a" 25 ~ 25 ' a ~ 5 now radius of the circle r = a . such that f(a) = f(b) 17 a Ans. ] => .. '20 20/ 6( 38 C 20 ) 40.cos 9)2 = b2(l .. C(X. b e R.

R = 3 and r = 9 1 Area of trapezium ABCD = .bz 1 .ai + ab 2ai = 2bi = a=b f i s injective.(3 + 9) ^(\2) 2 .bi + ai + ba =1 + bi .1 + ai 1 + bz 1-a/ 1 .6 2 = \ A fi Q -i 6 Vl08 = 36^3 \ 3 j IE ^THs. 3J 1 T 27rc t Area of arc ADC = ~ x 81 x — = — 2 3 2 fa B ansaIClasses Determinant & Matrices [19] . Let r be the radius of circle A and R be the radius of circ le B r + R = 12 and r = 3R 4R= 12. 27.

b = 33 a + b = 69 Ans. fa B ansa I Classes . ] Cross multiplication and rearranging gives the cubic... b = 11' A 6 Radius of the first circle = — = — = 1 S 6 sur also now 1-r . x3 .. . ^ ^ o i o i .. .(3) .(1) (r < 1) 1+r sin C : 2sin2 • sin2 c = 1 . = 27tt + 371 = 36V3 33tt "o" 11 "121 . "0" _11_ => a = 0.r)2 = (1 + r)2 ^ j< — ——— V5(l-r) = 1 + r ..ax2 + 23x .r \2 l+tj 5(1 .b = 0 <—ct 2a + (3 = a a 2 + 2ap = 23 and a2P = p Also given a + P = 12 from (2) and (4) a 2 + 2a(12 .x 9 x — = 3TI 2 3 required area = 36-73 a = 36. V5 . Vs-i V5+1 sin 18s —„. A6 = 2 7. "3 0" "o r "0 1" A2 = _3 0_ 0 0 0 3_ = 31 A4 = 91.2a 2 = 23 .cos C = 1 i I 5 1 ..1 = ( V 5 + l ) r 30.. => cos 36° k + w = 54° Ans. A8 = 811 (A8 + A6 + A4 + A2 + I) = 121 I "1 0" hence 121 0 1 V "121 & 121 b_ 29.(1) ••(2) .W ... ] 28.1 _ 271 Area of arc BCE = . 0 121 0" a _ A V= "0" 11_ 0 ]_ 11.a) = 23 a 2 + 24a .(4) J i .

Determinant & Matrices [20] .

1) + 5C2 (23 .(2) Also since '3 ' is prime and A is an integer D2 must be divisible 3 .D ) = 30 D2 + 3AD = 30 A D2 = 3A(10-D) => (A + D)2 .P.6.1) + 5C4(2' . A . + 5C2 + 5C3 + 5C4 + 5C5) = (5C0 • 25 + 5C.(35 . A.(5C.a = 30 => => . p =—11 a = 35 from (4) b = a 2 p = 529 x .27..and => 31.=> D must beoftheformof3K possible values of D are 3.D .26 + 1) = 45 . ] fa B ansaIClasses Determinant & Matrices [21] . ] Total number of ways in which P and Q can be chosen simultaneously = (25-l)(25-l ) = 45 ..1) + 5C5(2° .25) .] Let the numbers be G.(25 .24a + 23 = 0 a = l (rejected) since a = 23.1) = (35 .(25 . • 24 + 5C2 • 23 + 5 C3 • 22 + 5C4 • 2 + 5C5 .36..b = 35-(-5819) = 5854 Ans.'.A(A-D) = 30A D2 A ~ 3(10-D) •'" (1) since A' is a + ve integer 0 < D < 10 .(24 . A + D. 32. a 2 .25) .l l b =-5819 => a .1) + 5C3(22 .( A . ^ ± D ) 1 A .48 Ans.9 D = 3 => 3 A = . (a) (b) (c) .35 Ans. (d) Given d .1) = 5Cj • 24 + 5C2 • 23 + 5C3 • 22 + 5C4 • 2 + 5C5 .26 + 1) .(rejected) D = 6 => A = 3 (rejected) D = 9 => A = 27 Numbers are 18.26 + 1 number of ways when P and Q have no common element = 5C.1) = 35-2fi+ 1 Hence P and Q have atleast one common element = (45 . .

3m2 + 1 Slope of the normal m = Yl 4m 2 ' 2x. 9/2) => 12 m .3y + 10 = 0 & 2x + 8y . x .cos B)2 denotes the square of the distanc e PQ now d (tan ( .l d2 => .4): C-9 1 • • *2 y2 1 focii are (0. passes through (1. (x .1 . 5m2 -2m 3 + 1 equation of the norm al in terms of slope of the normal is y = mx + 4 m2 3 2 It passes through (7/2.1). 3 ) .4)] Equation to the hyperbola where S = (0. m3 = -1/4 => the normals are x .33.19/4)] x = i1 m-1 2m 34. B ( . Equation of normal. d2PQ yj (tan2 C + cot2 C) . Y-y = 1 m (X-x) x + m1 y m Y=0 gives X = x + my and Hence x + x + my 2 X = 0 gives Y= x2 + = -=0 =>2x + y-^-=0 dx „ dy C .1) (4m + 1) = 0 => m x = 1 . => x + 1 = 0 and y + 1 = 0 ] cotC) / Note that2pQ = CQ -sin A)22 + (cot C .1 )2 + (y . directrix is x + y + 1 = 0 and e = J 2 is x + y + lN V2 2 2 x + y = (x + y + l) 2 2xy + 2x + 2y + 1 = 0 Let the combi ned equation of the asymptotes is 2xy + 2x + 2y + c = 0 put D = 0 to get c = 2 h ence combined equation of the asymptotes are xy + x + y+ l = 0 ^ 7 = ^2' (x+l)(y +l) = 0 36.9 = 0 is the tangent to the ellipse at (1.4)2 + A (x + 2 y . Also (m . .c o t C ) 2 + 2 .0). 3) & (0.3) conic is — + — =1 with e 9 18 V2 Equation of t he circles are.OP) Q(tanC.9) = 0 where x + 2 y . cosB) d2pQ= [ V ( t o C .1 I ^-^(sinA. m2 = 1/3 .43 = 0 Point A(0.13 m + 1 = 0 sum = 13/12. C (5/2.1) (3m .y + 1 = 0 .

b = 2 => a3 + b3 = 27 .8 = 19 Ans.2V2 a = 3.min= (V2-1)2 ^ 3 . ] fa B ansaIClasses Determinant & Matrices [22] .

l ) dx 1 21 x4+kx2+l 2 q x + (l/x ) + k 0 2 q^x 2 + (l/x 2 ) + k now proceed. I.J .49 = .2 = k > 0) 4 1 co f (x 2 +l) + ( x 2 .+ (a2 .X d0 = dx ^ or 46 = n + 4x 7i .1 = — and L = 0 1 2a 1= 71 71 2a 7 1 2a 5050 a = 2525 Ans.tan x U 4 0 °f x(l + tanx) ( 1 . ] 38.x l° + jJ Tij 2 ' */2 t a n X 71/2 2 / .4x x(l + tan x) .t a n x ) ^ tan: -Ti/2 1 ~ t a n x (-2) tan x 2 f^i±^ldx=9 f + x dx j L tan x J V tan x -t/2 -ji/2 o X -dx I .+x 4 o (-4x) tan ^ 71 —+. dx = .1 + t a n x -V2 1-tanl — x + 1 .2 ) x x z dx . d x M -J/2 1 .x4+kx2+l dx x 2 dx I-x 4 + (a2 -2)x 2 +1 (a2 . i-Jo x 2 + ^ .4 °f ^ " .37. Let G=.

— 2 4 4 => k = 2.J / n 2 ..X \ x I= n „ f +2 -dt 4 J 0 tant n/2 x =—t n/2 now k/2 1 = f t cott. ] fa B ansa I Classes Determinant & Matrices [23] .dt = t/nsint n/2 0 oi n I.— = 7 i / n 2 .In 2 2 71 J/n sin t dt o Hence 2 . w = 4 kw = 8 Ans.1 = 0 + .

] x 40.f " ( l ) = 5 . Jf(t)dt =f(c)] Consider f (x) = x 3 .e ^ Jf(t)dt =0 41.ax + b f'(x) = 3 x 2 .39. g (x) = e~ Jf (t)dt in [0.2 = 3 Ans.e c x _x Jf(t)dt o c g'(c) = e .2 x / g(x) + Jtg(t)dt A + x2g(x) 2 f'(x) = 2x Jg(t)dt. 1) such that g' (c) = 0 x Consider a function x now g' (x) = e~ f (x) .2 Jt g(t) dt 0 0 x x f" (x) = xg(x)+ Jg(t)dt-xg(x)= Jg(t)dt hence f " ( l ) = jg(t)dt = 2 o also f"'(x) = g(x) f"' (1) = g (1) = 5 f ' " ( l ) .1 ] o obvious continuous and derivable g(0) = 0 and g( l) = 0 (given) hence 3 some c e (0. g(l) = 5and j g(t)dt = 2 o X X X 2f(x)= J (x .f ( c ) .a if a < 0 then f' (a) > 0 for all x hence f is strictly increasing hence f (x) = 0 has exactly one root for a = 3 .2xt +1 ) g(t) dt = x Jg(t)dt-2xJ" tg(t)dt+ Jt 2 g(t)dt 2 2 2 0 x 0 0 0 Differentiating X 2 f'(x) = x2 g(x) + Jg(t)dt-2x .

2)(b + 2) < 0 or .a + b)(.3 = 0 x = 1 or .1 + a + b) < 0 put a = 3 (b .1 in order that f (x) may have 3 roots f(Xj) • f (x 2 )<0 where Xj and and the roots of f' (x) = 0 hence (1 .2<b<2 ] Problems for JEE-2007 [24] ^Bansal Classes .f'(x) = 3 x 2 .

m = 0. x .5 ( 50)2 2 5(50y m = 5(50 +1) 50 + t m(t= 10) = 5 .6 0 5(50^ 60 6 25x11 2 m= — = 91-=50 43. C = -5. Let m gms of salt is present at time t differential equation of the process is d m T dm "dT I.y = l l = > x = 28. y = 17 Now to reali se a sum 17 using 4 digits we can have different cases.F = e = 10 / m(l) 50+ t 1 m = 10. 3. ] 107 ~ 107 1. t = 0.(50) 2 m(50 +1) = 5(50 +1)2 . m(50 + t)= f(50 + t)dt = 10 J (50+ty + 2 +C m(50 +1) = 5(50 +1)2 + C. 8. 6. 7./A) = 44. 250 11 = 50 60 A : red ball is selected Bj : Face card is drawn B 2 : ace card is drawn B 3 : n either face nor ace is drawn 12 3 12 B2 A^JJJ / 4 8 36 10 107 Bi iff 83 P(B. 5.9 x + y = 45 .2. v 50 + t dt 50+1 = 50 +1. 4.42. 9 4 3 1 9 5 2 1 If we us efivedigits then . 52 12 156 9 Ans.

2. 1902.2.4 6. 6 5 4 2] (9 cases) 7. .1999.5. . 1900} B = {1901.3. 1802. 2000} • 24 leap year B 76 ordi nary (2 cases) 11 x 5 ! x 4 ! 9! U_ 126 45.1899. 7 5 4 1 7 5 3 2 .1 4!x 5 !x 9 + 5!x4!x2 Hence p = 9! [ odd in favour 11 :115] A ={1801. 25 leap year 75 ordinary [25] fa B ansaIClasses Determinant & Matrices .3.8 8 5 3 1 8 4 3 2 6 2 1 7 6 3 1 .1.

+ 3 distance of P from Q (1. >.. 20 .P (value of 5 coins is more than or equal to Rs.E: randomly chosen year has 53 sundays P (E) = P (E n L) + P (E n O) = P (L). 2) 50. —10 16 1 now any po P on (2) can be taken as 1-10X .3) x—1 y-4 z-3 x+2 y-4 z+1 .BC . BC.50) = 1 . 16X + 4 ..3) (10X)2 + (16^.— — and 7 1 hence 2a + b + 4c = 0 and 3a + 2b . units 6 J Vector area of triangle AEF = — AF x AE = ~ BC x BD = .4.(2) feBansal Classes Problems for JEE-2007 . Equation of the line through (0. P(E/0) 24 2 76 1 100 7 100 7 249 Ans.-12.AB.1 Hence Q is (-9. Note that AB .P(A A B B B or A A B B C or A B B B B ) ] 6 on bush-I & 4 on bush-II AB X(BC x Box • A A ( 5 0 P) B B B B (25 P) •CCC DD N coins (10P+5P) 47 48.3 i + lOj + k ] 49. P( E/L) + P (O).] now given line x — 1 y-1 ...l 1400 46. Equati on ofthe line passing through (1.4..(2) Ans.(AB X BE)) xBC = 0 .(AB X Be) XBD = 0 . 1.BD are mutually perpendicular E BC x BD is collinear with AB a nd so on > 1 r -> -» -» 1 220 Volume = .2) x-0 y-1 z-2 z-0 =t Ans. BE>) = 0 ..)2 + X2 = 357 (100 + 256+l)X 2 = 357 X=l or .2 x—1 y+3 z-2 since (1) is perpendicular to —r~ = —:— .2c = 0 •2-8 12 + 4 4-3 -10 16 1 x— 1 y-4 z-3 hence the equation of the lines is —— = —— = —— .1. BD = — cu. + 1 25 2-+• 75 1 2 100 7 100 7 P(E) = 1 . 4) or (11.

[26] .

r2 = 2... required equation is 51.8x . = 0<T and ^ r => r r t 2r3r4 = 8 => r 3r4 x4 . ] x2 + px + 2.8 => q .4 .(3) since (1) and (2) intersect.(4) a : b : c = .8 = (x2 + px + 2)(x2 + qx .(2) is along the vector V = i .2 on comparing coefficient of x2..(2) => p = 1 and q = . t Ans. Since r.2 a b c 1 -1 2 =0 .3 : 1:2 y-1 -3 z-2 : 2a + 4b + c = 0 solving (3) and (4).4 p = l => x2 + x + 2 = 0 ru 2 = X -l±iV7 a X X _ Ans.2 p = .j + 2k a .b + 2c = 0 ..x3 + ax2 ...4) compare coefficient of x3 an d x => p+q=-1 (1) and 2 q . ] X = y a X X X X a X X X . a = .4 p = ... hence must be coplanar hence 1 0 ..

ax) .2ay) (2x2 .a2)2 ] 53. J a a _ 10 13 9 "10" 13 9 2a.ax) ]2 = [2x2 (y . a2 = 3 .52.a (y . a 3 = i = 2 a3_ 1 .a) .a)2 [2x2 . a a i a2 _a3 _ a.a) (y + a) ]2 = (y . 2a.a(y2 . a3 = 5 Determinant & Matrices [27] fa B ansa I Classes .a2) + x (xy . Let [2 2 1 f 2 1 1 1 1 2 2a.a(y + a)]2 Hence D = (y2 + a2 . a X a y y a a y y a a y = [x (xy .e. _ai i.ay .

2X2 2X2 ~ X x [l] 3 5 [l] 3 5 2x. TPT a+b+c a+b+c a+b+c 9 + + > b+c c+a a+b 2 M 3 Consider AM between the numbers x.. = 1 Ans. x. x2..1 2 2 2 1 -1 X 2] i 3 X2 3 _X3 . = . x. x2. X I 2X3 3X3 3X3_ = I 2 i. = 1 . + _ .e. x3 1 1 1 +. x.. x3 .(1) a +b +c b+c a+b+c AM > HM a+b+c 3 c+a a+b+c 1 b+c 1 c+a — a+b a+b+c 1 3 > — a+b ~ 2 3(a + b + c) _ 3 2(a + b + c) 2 • + .1 .. ] 54. b+c c+a a+b now HM between the numbers Xj.

= 1338 Ans. = — (5 . tan 0 = x N: y 0 e (0. 1 b+c .VlO) = 5 + VTO 15 M + m _ 2vK ) _ 2 » "15-2-3 m 2007 x .— + (a + b + c) 55.cos 20) 5 + sin 20 + 3 cos 20 Nmax = — " 7 = = — (s + VTo) = M 15 " ' N„ A= 56. B+C B-C A —+C S O -sinCOS" cos cos B-C cos B+C fa B ansaIClasses Determinant & Matrices [28] . n/2) r 2 [cos2 0 + sin 0 cos 0 + 4 sin2 0] (1 + cos 20) + sin 20 + 4(1 .+ 1 c+a + 1 a+b Hence proved ] Letx = rcos0 and y = rsin9 r2 = x2 + y2.] Transposing 2 on RHS using 2 cos A • cos B relation.

B.c o s y A tan— = 1 2 A = 90° B-C A B = 90° 57.C =A => B=C+A B . OAMB is a cyclic quadrilateral using sine law in A OBM and A OAM x sin 90° and d sin 90° r^ w sin(6O-0) y sin© .C = . A = sin—) ( cos.(2) •d) B/> 'P (l)and (2) x y 2x . A B-C coscos sin — COS" 2 2 cos A 2 cos A 2 A 2 . A A coscos sin — + cos—• sin— -cos z — = 0 2 2 2 2 2 A .. A A . 2 2 B-C A .A => B + A = C = 90° hence triangle must berightangled.or cos— sin— + cos-y cos B-C ..sin— =0 2 2 COS" — . A sin— 2 cos B-C ' 2 COS— r if A A cos— . A B-C sin—cos+ sinz 2 2 1=0 B+C .. A sin — 2 .

sin(6O-0) V3 2 : sin© sine 1 2 y / /Pf „ d ^ X sin(60 - 6) sin© + 1 = V3cot6 )60°-e 2x + y V3y y from (2) d = y cosec 6 2 2 cote d = y (l + cot 6) ,, 3y + 4x + y +4xy dz = 3 2 d =y 2 2 1+ (2x+_y) 2\ 3y 2 d2 = y:, , (2*+yr ,2 ,, 4x +4y +4xy dz = 3 d= ^ V x 2 + y 2 + xy Ans. ] fa B ansaIClasses Determinant & Matrices [29]

58. Let G be the centroid : AD = x ; BE = y 2x x 2y y AG = — ; GD = — ; BG = ; GE = ir 3 3 3 3 4x z yz 9 , , , „ , „, • + — = - or 16x2 + 4y2 = 81 In AAGE : 9 9 4 • 2 ..(1) .(ii) „.. x.2 4v 2 In ABGD : — + — = 4 or 9 9 x2 + 4y2 = 36 '2 D (i)-(ii) , 15x2 = 45 In AADC, cosC = 9+4-3 2(2)(3) or 5 6 9+16-c 2(4)(3) 20 = 25 - c2 c = V5 1 1 5 A=-absinC=-(3)(4) J1=VlT sq. units ] v6y 59. From triangle inequality log1 012 + log1075>logI0n log]0900>log10n => also log1012 + log10n>log1075 log1012n>l og1075 12n> 75 n> 75 12 6.25 n < 900 ....(1) or n> 25 0 60. 900 Hence no. of values = 900 - 7 = 893 Ans. ] x + 2y= 10 where x is the number of t imes he takes single steps and y is the number of times he takes two steps Cases Total number of ways I: x = 0 and y = 5 II: x = 2 and y = 4 III: x = 4 and y = 3 IV: x = 6 and y = 2 5! = 1 (22222) 5! 6! 2!-4! 7! - ^ J j =35 (1 1 1 1 222) ^ 8! 2 8 (1 1 1 1 1 1 22) = 15 (1 1 2 2 2 2 ) 9 V: x = 8 and y = 1 Ct = 9 ( 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 ) VI: x= 10andy = 0 1(1111111111 ) hence total number of ways = 1 + 15 + 35 + 28 + 9 +1 = 89 Ans. ] fe Ban sal Classes Problems for JEE-2007 [30]

61. -e re 1= J b x/a _eb/x a V , dx dx = a dt let x = at => at V-ea/t 1= J T put t= a J dt ....(1) , dt = - —r dy a (where b/a = a) y => y 1 f(ey -e a/ - v )dy a y from(1)and(2) or I= f (e l -e a / t )dt ~ i 1 = 0 Ans.] ....(2)

21 = 0 => 1 3; 62. => f(3) 23k +9 J ^ j = 2^+9 = /(9) ~/(3) = ^ + 9) ~(23k + 9) = ^~23k "" ( 1 ) 3(23k + 9) = 26k + 9 26k-3(23k)-18 = 0 23k = y y2 - 3y - 18 = 0 (y-6)(y + 3) = 0 y = 6; y = - 3 (rejected) 2 3k = 6 now f (9) - f (3) = 29k - 23k = (2 ) - 2 3k 3 3k { from (1)} = 63 - 6 = 2 1 0 hence N = 210 = 2 • 3 • 5 • 7 Total number of divisor = 2 • 2 • 2 • 2 = 16 number of divisor s which are composite = 16 - (1,2,3,5,7) = 11 Ans. ] 63. Radius of the circle is 1 B t£U1 A _ _L _ T ~ PB ~ s(s-b) A |||ly PC = (s - c) (PB)(PC) = (s - b)(s - c) = s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c) s(s-a) Problems for JE E-2007 [31] fe Ban sal Classes

A'A s(s-a) r (s-a) r = —= 1 => s = A A _ A (s-a) A-a 3a J 3a 2 a I 2 64. 3 = 3 Ans. ] 3-2 5x + 3x> 8 => x>l 5x + 8 > 3x => x>-4 and 3x + 8 > 5x => x<4 Hence, x e ( l , 4 ) . Now perimeter of the triangle = 8(x + 1) s = 4x + 4 2 A ( X ) = ( 4(x + 4)(4 - x)(4x - 4)(x + 4)) = - 16(x 2 - l)(x 2 - 16) A2(t) = -16(t - l)(t -16), where x2 = t, t e (1,16) A2 (t) = - 16[t2 - 17t + 16] = f (t) f'(t) = 0 A 2 (t) = => 17 - 1 6 t: 1 17 2 17 V •16 = 1 6 x y x Y = (2 X 15)2 15 15 (Area)max = 30 sq. units ] 65. From the identity .A B . C r=4R sin— - sin—- - sin — 2 2 2 or let A B C 4(V3+l) r-sin— -sm— - sin— or 2 2 2 ZA>ZB ZA - ZC = 30° V3-1 4 V3-1 cos A-C cos A+ C B sinA C . B sin—sin — sin— 2 2 2 then V6+V2 4 . B B sm — sm— 2 2 x V6+V2 •X + Let B siny =x yields V3-1 = 0, whose solutions are x =

V6-V2 V2 B B and x = — . It follows that — = 15° or — = 45°. The second solution is not acceptable, because A > B. Hence B = 30°, A = 90° and C = 60° ] Bansal Classes Problems for JEE-2007 [32]

66. y = ax2 dy dt , = 2ax0 = m hence line is y = (2ax0)x - b •d) T(x0, ax 0 2 ) (x0' a xo ) lies on parabola and the line (1) 0, 0 9 0 axQ = 2ax 0 - b b = ax 2 . Hence Q = (0, - b) = (0, - ax 2 ) now using (TQ)2 = 1 x2 + 4a2 Xq = 1 •2 = 4x4 •(2) now u ax 3 A = J(ax2 - m x + b)dx = 3 axQ mx2 + bx axn 3 mx„ 5. + bxo 2 = —- - ax^ + ax„ = —^ o o 3 3 , a 2 ,x6 3 3 ax„3 f1 V 2^ ) A 2 4x 4 36 let _ A2 = f (x0) = 36

This is maximum when x^ = — A l ••max i7 ' 2 36 1 144' Amax = — |2 = 12 Ans. ] ? 67. (i) Equation of tangentfrompoint (3,-3) to the given circle is y + 3 = m(x - 3) mx 3 m - y - 3 = 0 Problems for JEE-2007 [33] fe Ban sal Classes

and also => -4m-3m+ 2-3 vr+m 2 =5 (1 + 7m)2 = 25(1 +m 2 ) => 1 + 49m2 + 14m = 25 + 25m2 => 12m2 + 7 m - 1 2 = 0 (4 m - 3)(3m + 4) = 0 m = 3/4 or m = -4/3 equation of tangent at point A and B are 4 y+3=--(x-3) and 3 y+3= -(x-3) 4y+12 = 3 x - 9 3x-4y = 21 4 y + 2 = - - ( x + 4 ) 3y + 6 = - 4 x - 1 6 4(4x + 3}= - 22) 16x+ 12y = — 88 9 x - 12y = 63 y: (ii) 3y + 9 = - 4 x + 1 2 4x + 3y = 3 Equation of normals to these 2 tangents are 3 y + 2 = - ( x + 4) 4y + 8 = 3x + 12 3(3x-4y+ 4 = 0) 9 x - 12y = - 12 16x + 12y = 12 x = 0; /. y= 1 and 25x = - 2 5 x = - 1; points A and B are (0, 1) and (-1,-6) Ans. (iii) angle betw een the 2 tangents = 90° ZADB = 90° I AD |max = CD + radius CD = V50 !AD|max=5V2 +5 (iv) IAD | min = 5V2 " 5 Area of quadrilateral ADBC = AC x AD A D = V 7 2 + l 2 - 2 5 =V25 =5 area of quadrilateral ABCD = 5 x 5 = 25 sq. units. 1 area of trian gle DAB = — x 25 =12.5 sq. units. (iv) Circle circumscribing A DAB will have point s A and B as its diametrical extremities x2 + y2 — x(—1) — y(—5) — 6 = 0 x2 + y2 + x + 5y - 6 = 0 Ans. x-intercept = 2-yJg2 - c = 2 ^(1/4) + 6 = 5 y-intercept = 2-s/f 2 c = Ans. 2 -7(25/4)+ 6 = 7 Ans. ] fe Ban sal Classes Problems for JEE-2007 [34]

68. Let, f (x) = x2 X + (x +1 )2X2 + J + (x + 6)2x7 [if x = 1, we get 1st relation, and so on] note that degree of f (x) is 2 hence f (x) = ax2 + bx + c where f (1) = 1, f (2) = 12 and f (3) = 123 to find f (4) = ? hence a + b + c = 1 4a + 2b + c = 12 9a + 3b + c= 123 solving a = 50, b = - 139, c = 90 f(4) = 16a + 4b + c = 800-556 + 90 = 334 Ans. ] Suppose, circle x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 Solving w ith x = at 2 , y = 2at a ¥ + 4a2t2 + 2gat2 + 4aft + c = 0 0 ....(1) t l + t 2 + t3 + t 4 3 N : y + tx = 2at + at passing through (h, k) at3 + t(2a - h) - k = 0 .. ..(2) t, +12 +13 = 0 ....(3) from (1) and (3) t4 = 0 hence circle passes through the origin = > c = 0 = equation of the circle after cancelling -at at3 + 4at + 2gt + 4f =0 at3 + 2(2a + g)t + 4f = 0 ....(3) Now (2) and (3) must be represent the same equation 2(2a + g) = 2a - h => 2g = - (2a + h) 4 f = - k => 2f = - k / 2 and equation of circle is x2 + y2 - (2a + h)x - (k/2)y = 0 x2 + y2 - 17x - 6y = 0 Ans. Centroid of APQR X 69. a(tf + t 2 + t | ) 2a (t[ +t 2 +t 3 ) a = T [(tl+t2 + t 3 ) 2 - 2 X t l t 2 ] 2a 26 Z4!12 = ( 2 a - h ) 2a a '3 (2a-h) (a = 1 ; h = 15) 26 n C: I y.0 70. 1 Area = - ab ; also a2 + b2 = 3600 AD:y=x+3 solve to get G = (-1,2) BE : y = 2x + 4 acute angle a between the medians is given by tan a • i~m2 l + m,m-, m 2 - 1 _ ]_ 1+2 ~ 3 tan a = ~ ^ Bansal Classes Problems for JEE-2007 [35]

In quadrilateral GDCE, we have (180 - a) + 90° + 0 + p = 360° => a = 0 + p - 90° cota = -tan(0 + P) tan 0 + tan p 1 - tan 0 tan p 9ab = 2 x 3600 Area = 400 sq. units ] 71. 2b 2a _a b_ j_2b.2a a ' b — + — or -3 9= 2(a +b ) ab 1 - a b =400 W2: C2 = (5, 12) W,: Cj = (-5,12) r2 = 4 r, = 16 now, CC2 = r + 4 CCj = 16 - r l et C(h, k) = c(h, ah) CC, 2 = (16 - r)2 (h + 5)2 + (12- ah)2 = (16 - r ) 2 CC22 = (4 + r)2 => (h - 5)2 + (12 - ah)2 = (4 + r)2 By subtraction 20h = 240 - 40r => h'= 12-2r - => 12r = 72-6h ...(1) By addition 2[h2 + 25 + a2h2 - 24ah + 144] = 272 - 24r + 2r2 h (l + a ) - 24ah + 169 = 136 - 12r + r = 136 + (6h- 72) + => => 2 2 2 \2 12 — h [using (1)] 4[h2(l + a2) - 24ah + 169] = 4[64 + - 96ah + 105 • 4 - 36 • 4 = 0 h2(3 0 2 2 (96a) - 4 • 4 • 69 (3 + 4a ) > a- > — 0 ' ; hence m (smallest) = 100' 2 4 So, p + q = 169 Ans. ] 72. n 1 = 3 [(1-sinx) sec xdx = 3 J(l-2sinx + sin2 x)sec4 xdx 5n/6 5JC/6 Jsec2 x(l + tanz x)dx - 2 jsec x tan x - sec2 x dx + jsec2 x(tanz x)dx 5n/6 5n/6 5n/6 =3 n '( j((l + 2tan 2 x)sec2 x)dx-2 j(secxtanxsec 2 x)dx 571/6 \ 5U/6 fe Ban sal Classes Problems for JEE-2007 [36] 6h] + (12 - h)2 = 256 + 144 + h2 h2(3 + 4a2) + 4a2) - 96ah + 69 • 4 = 0; for 'h' to be real D > > 0 576a 2 -69.3 -276a 2 >0 o 69 13 300a2 >207 = 10 10 m2 = 69

=3 o -1 j"(l + 2t 2 )dt-2 j ? d t - 1/V3 -2/V3 (0)1 a/3 1 IV3 + V 3 J-1/V3 --(t3)"1 3 " >-1IS =3 2 1 3 3V3 '.JL^ V 3V3j 11 9a/3 11 + 6V3-16 2 3V3-8 =3 9V3 3 3V3 a = 2, b = 5, c = 9 =>a + b + c + abc= 106 Ans.] 9V3 } + 3 3^3 bV3 6V3-5 _ 3V3 1 73. dx 5V3 0 Vl + X + Vl-X +2 put x = cos20 1= 2 dx = - 2 sin 20 d0 T /4 T = a 2 Jt/4 j sin 26 d6 j V2 cos 6 + V2 sin 0 + 2 J 0 cos0 + sin0 +V2 7c/4 sin 20 d0 tc/4 J J 0 sin 20 d0 ^CQS V4 y + V2 71/4 1= sin 20 d0 v4 + V4 1 71/4

0 cos TT/ 4 j COS0 + Q ^ j Q 111 71/4 l-2sin 2 0 d0 JQ 1 + COS0 n/4 r 1 2 = J(1-C°s8>de n_ m 1 9 = J ' sin" 0 ' ~ 2 l(1-cos9>de jt/4 7/4 1 it/4 = {(cosec2 0 - c o t 0 cosec 0)d0 - 2 J(l-cos0)d0 = - cot 0 + co sec 0 — 2[0 — sin 0 ] | n ^ 1-COS0 = til - l ) - Lim Q->o eos0 2^2-17t n 4 1_ = ( V 2 - l ) - - + V2 V2 ' 1 a = 8, b = l , c = 4 => a2 + b2 + c2 = 81 Ans. ] 74. x • g (f(x))f'(g(x))g'(x) = f(g(x))g'(f(x))f'(x) x g ( / ( * ) ) £ f(g(x)) = f ( g ( x ) ) £ g ( / ( x ) ) £a*o0) /fe(*)> £g(/(x)) *(/"(*)) x ^Bansal Classes Problems for JEE-2007 [37]

x-A/ dx n (/( a g (x))) = —/n(g(/(x))) dx ...(1) -2a l n o w ,, j/(g(x))dx = 0 a))=e-2a d i f f e r e n t i a t e w.r.t. 'a' f{g( /fe(x))=e-2x /n/(g(x))=-2x ....(2) f r o m (1) and (2) w e get -2x=f-(/ng(/(x))) dx put x = 0, C = 0 In ( g ( / ( x ) ) ) = - x 2 + C g(/(x))= 75. Let f(x) = y dy dx I.F. e 5 Hence g ( / ( 4 ) ) = e~ 1 6 k = 16 A n s . ] + y = 4xe • sin 2 x (linear d i f f e r e n i a l e q u a t i o n ) yex = 4 | x s i n 2 x dx I yex = 4 x I T cos2x + — Jcos 2x dx yex = 4 x xcos2x• + sin2x 2 => 4 C = 0 ye = (sin 2x - 2 x cos 2x) + C f(0) = 0 x

y = e~ (sin 2 x - 2 x cos 2 x ) now f ( k u ) = e~k7C ( s i n 2k7t - 2k7t • c o s 2 k r t ) = e""k7t ( 0 - 2k7i) f ( k u ) = - 271 ( k • e _ k 7 t ) J]f(k7t) =-'271 jTke" kn k=l = 1 • S e-* -3 1 + 2e~ 2 7 t + 3e~ 3 7 t3 + . +e ,-2n + oo + oo + 2e~ 371 + S ( 1 - e _7C ) = e~ n + e ~ 2 n + e ~ 3 n + S ( 1 - e" 71 ) 1-e"* oo 1 e71-! 1 S (e 71 - l ) ( l - e _ 7 t ) (e71-!)2 -2nan (e 71 - l ) 2 Ans. ] fe Ban sal Classes Problems for JEE-2007 [38]

76. f ' ( x ) = Limit f(x + h ) - f ( x ) h^o h f(x) Limit h->0 f(x + h) f(x). ' = f (x)- Limit h-»0 x + h^ _ i VX -1 f(X)T . . f(l + t ) - l xj = Limit -i '-— h x t->0 t x x Now putting x = 1, y = 1 in functional rule : f(x) • Limit I h->0 J 1+ f — f(l) f(x) f'(x)= — -f'(l) x 2f(x) = —— x f(x) _ 2 f(x) ~ X /n (f(x)) = 2/nx + C x = 1; f(l) = 0 => C = 0 Now solving y = x2 and x2 + y2 = 2 y2 + y - 2 = 0 (y + 2) (y - 1 ) - o y=l A= 2j(V2r7-Vy)dy - |V y dy ; f(x) = x2 = 2 i 2 d 2 = now JVy y = -y^ n 3 3 i y 2 ^ 7 dy y=V2sin0 0 x/4 JV2 cos Q-Jl cos 0d9 n/4 jr/4 2 J2 cos 9 de = J(1 + cos29) d0 7 1 1 4 2 + 9 + — sin 28 2 Hence feBansal Classes A=2 4 I_2 2~3 — — fn 1 A = + U " J , sq. units ] [39] Problems for JEE-2007

77. Z +Z 10 10 slO 1 13 =0 Zy NIO '.3-2 V = - 1 = cos Tt + i sin Tt (cos(2m +1)71 + i sin 2mTt + 7t)1,/10 ,(2M+L)7T 13 J_ Z =e J_ Z 13- e 10 .(2M+L)FL 10 substituting m = 0,1,2, 1 . Tt 9 we get = 13- e 10 ,3rc = 1 3 - e ' 10 1 F 3= /,3Jt — , 10 r- note — and — are complex conjugate — ^10 1 3 J io = 13- e 1 a i— ! 10 Let J_ and v J io .T C and so on . TI 1 10 10 169-13 [e 'To + e 'To ] + 1 ab. 1 1

1 1 and a2b2 aibj : 10 .O O 850 .3JI 170-26 Ree' 10 etc Tt 3ti 5n 3u 9Tt 1 C S + C S + COS— .26 cos — + cos 10 10 10 10 10 850 .b.3+TT _ 3+7T : 169-13 [e 10 +e 10 ] +1 = 170-26 Ree a. ] ^Bansal Classes Problems for JEE-2007 [40] .26[cosl8° + cos54° + cos90° + cos 126° + cos 162°] 850 Ans.

..(i) now put a n + bn + cn = C0 + C1 + C2 + C3 + C4 + + C a (1 + x) = c0 + Cj x + c2 x2 + c3 x3 + n n + bn n= 2 " --(I) X=C O (1 + co)n = c0 + Cj CO + c2 CO + c3 OD + c4 CO + 2 3 4 llliy (1 + co)n = an + cobn + co2cn (1 + co2)n = an + co2bn + cocn a = (C 0 + c 3 + c 6 + ) + co(C.78. + c 4 + c 7 + ) + CO2(C2 + c 5 + c 8 + .(2) ..(3) + b n + b n + Cn 3a b C n n n = (an n n + C n) ....

bn )2 = 2(an + cobn + co2cn) (an + co2bn + cocn) n also 78.b n ) 2 = 2 Ans.co)n = 2n X (an . / + c2 i + c3 / e quating the real and imaginary part = c x + c4 /4 + n + y n = 0 + 0" n n/2 | xn + iyn | = | 1 + i | = 2 ••• ^ I = hence proved ] -1 1 -1 3 5 -3 -5 3 5 =A oo -1 1 -1 3 5 -3 -5 3 5 .4. 3. -1 A = 1 -1 2 3 5 -3 -5 3 5 A = > matrix A is idempotent 5 Hence A 2 =A 3 =A 4 = x = 2. . x Cq C2 + C4.K + ®bn + ® 2 c n ) (an + ®2bn + ®Cn) now = 2 (l + co) (1 + co2)n = 2 n (. 5.C6 + y i c.3 x=2 =2 X +X +1 3 1_ \3 7 13 21 9 \ n -n +1 n +n + l ] r3 4 5 Lim n->co 1 2 3' Lim Given log => log n(n +1) 1-2 n(n + l) ' (n-1) 3 n + n +1 2 n->oo .l n >o —o . + c.co2)n (. now Lim f l x J 3 + 1 X=2 x .(ii) Let and Z ( a n .c77 + 1 j 5 3 (1 + if = c0 + C. hence x 2 + y 2 = 2 n 79.

a + c^ + log a j ''a + c^ = log2 log 2 fe Ban sal Classes Problems for JEE-2007 [41] . 80.Ans.

=> also a + c = 2b (1) a .e~ix 2/ sin x 3 3 "(3--e~ i x )-(3-e i x )~ ix ix 2i 9--3(e +e~ ) + l ~ 2i 10-6cosx 3 sin x 2(5-3 cosx) .(3) 2 triangle is a right at C.sin A) = s in B C = 90° • sin C = 1 A + B = 90° => B = 90° ..a) 2b 2(c .4(c2 .I n=0\ _1_ 2i 1— _3 3 . n=0 sin(nx) -jn sin (nx) = emx put _ glllX 2i I n=0 sin(nx) 1 00 „n..x J_ 2i \ n n=0V I ..A sinB = cos A = 4/5 and sin C = 1 12 3 4 sinA+sinB + sinC= — + — + 1 : Ans.eix 3 3 .ax2 + 2bx + c + cx2 = 0 (c .A 2(1 . ] 81.a) = b .. fro m (2) c a + b2 => Z C = 90° A + B = 90° from (3) using sine law 2(sin C .x e 2l n=0 -e 3n „n.A) = cos A s quaring both sides => 4( 1 .a2 .a2) = 0 b2 = c2 ..sin2A) 4(1 .a)(c + a) from (1) and (2) b2 = (c .a)x2 + 2bx + (c + a) = 0 has equ al roots D=0 4b2 .(2) b2 = (c ..sin A)2 = cos2 A=(1 .sin A) = sin(90 .sinA) = (1 + sin A) 3 = 5 sinA sin A=3/5 B = 90 .

= 1 2(5-3^/1-(1/9)) = 1 2(5-2V2) [42] fe Ban sal Classes Problems for JEE-2007 .

v) \ 0 . 18. and (6) colour and shape. c = 37 logb log a (let b = 2m and a = 2" where m and n denotes the exponents on the bas e 2 in the given set) m n hence logab is an integer only if n divides m now tota l number of ways m and n can be chosen = 25 x 24 = 600 For favourable cases let n=1 hence m can take values 2. 25 n=6 m = 12. (2 x 3) an d (3 x 3). (4) size and colo ur./ . 16. (2 x 3). (1 x 3). 24 m = 1 for each n = 9. 12 = 24 = 11 = 7 = 5 = 4 = 3 = 2 = 2 = 4 62 Hence P : 62 600 31 Ans.. log b = a = 5. 12. 15.24 n=5 m = 10.= 5+2V2 34 a + b + c = 5 + 2 + 37 = 41 Ans. . 10. D ( M K j / d . 2 choices for different size. There are 4C 2 = 6 ways a block can differ from the given block in exactly two ways (1) mater ial and size. 12.20.24 n=4 m = 8.14. 11.85 [Sol.c / A d) -c/A -u/A figure is parallelogram and diagonals bisect each other fe Ban sal Classes Problems for JEE-2007 [43] . (l x 3). 16. (2) material and colour. 24 n=3 m = 6.6. ] 300 Select the correct alternative. (5) size and shape. and 3 choices for a different shape. 3 choices for a different col our.83 A [Sol. 24 n=7 m =14. 20. 8. 18.24 if n=2 m = 4.] => 82.5. b = 2 . 9.21 n=8 m = 16.20. (3) material and shape. 12. C Consider the expansion of (1 + x)99 and put x = i and equ ate the real part to get C] B f (x) = | Ax + c | + d g (x) = -1 Ax + u | + v (-u/A.10 .4. respectively.^ ( . 6.84 [Sol. The answer is the sum of these six numbers = 29 Ans ] Q .3. Since there is only 1 choicefo rdifferent material. Q. (Only one is correct): Q. 22.21. 18 . it follows that the number of blocks i n each of the above categories is (1 x 2). 15.

f(l ) = .2i)(x .7. so therefore 3 • 9 • 7 = 9 ] C If a polynomial has real coefficients then roots occur in complex conjugate an d roots are 2i.u\ + A Q.7.Also f ( l ) = 1 + a + b + c+ d l + a + b + c + d=10 => a + b + c + d = 9 Ans.4x + 1 = 0 f 1 (x) = 4x3 . .9. = .4 Ans. 2 + i.W k + 2 Fk k(k + 2)2 . 00. V5.6x2 + 6x .2 .3. 2 .87 D [Sol.9.i hence f (x) = (x + 2i)(x .i)(x 2 + i) f ( l ) = ( l + 2 i ) ( l .1 Power of 7 go like this : 7.86 [Sol.9.12x + 6 = 6(2x 2 -2x + 1)>0 => / i s concave up f" (1) > 0 => x = l is minima also f (0) > 1.2 i ) ( l .89 D [Sol. (k + 2 ) V k .2i. (k + 2)Vk-kVk + 2 2k(k + 2) 1 Vk Vk + 2 T _1 i = I . ] D f (x) = x4 .l => two positive and two non real complex roots VxeR => (D) ] Q.88 [Sol.2 + i) f (1) = 5 x 2 = 10 .vr 2 = . ( V c A u+c = 3 + 1.2 .x + l ) f' (x) = 0 only at x = 1 also f"(x) = 12x 2 .2x3 + 3x2 .1 Power of 13 go like this : 3. Notice the patterns Power of 3 go like this : 3.1 so knowing that we can s ee that 31001 ^ -71002 1 3 3 9 ^ 7 1003 Q.4x + 1 = 2(x l)(2x2 .k 2 ( k + 2) 1_ V3_ i_ V4.i ) ( l . ] Q.

= — 1 2 and so on 1+ as k -» sum V2 1 + V2 _ Vl+V2 => a + b + c = 11 Ans.T j 2 . ] 2V2 ~ V8 Problems for JEE-2007 [44] fe Ban sal Classes .V2 J V3 T 3 .

4 x +1 compare the coefficients to get a = 5/6 Ans.] 13 13 Q. A = — b2sin29 = b2 sin 9 cos 9 . ] Q.Q. n(S) = 4 x 4 x 4 or 422 6 3 3 P(E) = 77 = 64 32 3 + 29 odds tan •sin = ..90 C [Sol. ... q = . from(l) 65 sin 29 A= 13 b= 65 2 sin 9 65-13 2-5 132 2 65-x sin 9 12 = 169..B) where sin a = — and cosy B = — 5 13 4 _ 12 3 "5" '' tan a .— 3 5 N 20-36 63 ^6 Ans.f ( x .tan r A \ J • n + cos r« Vl3 j) . ] 63 fe Ban sal Classes Problems for JEE-2007 [45] r nowuse f ( x ) .93 D [Sol.5 + sm — cos — 5 13 v T C 4 5 = . 4 12 1 + tan a tan P 1 + .2 ) = x 2 = 2/3.92 B [Sol.t a n p = .1/6. 4 .(1) now x 65-x 24 36 60 x = 24 • 65 sin 9 x=26 12 5 sin 9 = — and cos 9 = — again. hence p + q = 64 n(A) = 211 or 312 or 413 or 431 in favour 3 : 29 Ans.91 B [Hint: Let f (x) = ax3 + px2 + qx + . p = 1.tan(a . ] Q. .15 = 2535 Ans.

(2) (2)-(l) 2 a-2d-a-d =0 a = 3d => 2nd term ofA.d . is 8. l ine 2 -9 3Xj yi ZL .— 2x.. a + d ( a . (a + d) inGP. y j) lies on the hyperbola 3x2 .d).. Let the line is normal to the hyperbola at P(x.2) \ y 2 =4ax fe Ban sal Classes Problems for JEE-2007 [46] . a.D [Sol. a..P. (a .Select the correct alternatives. (More than one are correct): Q.2y ..C [Sol.95 B. ] y2 .B. a .2 putting in y2 = 4x x3 = 1 B.) hence 2x 1 + 4y 1 +k = 0 .d. Let the numbers are a .1 solving it v2 = 4x y2 = 2(y+l) = but y.16 a = 12 ] Q. + y2 + y3 = 0 but y} + y2 = 2 ••• y3 = .3 hence Pis (3. D Ans..12.. y.-2) k = 24 or .d2) + 2(a .d)(a + d + 2) = a2 (a2 . = 3 times its common difference 2 2 from(l ) d .. Eq uation ofAB y = 2x .2) or (-3.P.24 = Q.d) = a2 .(1) dy differentiate the curve dx slope of normal = _ZL _ ~3x.(1) and (a . and (a .94 A 3 [Sol.2 = 0 (1.d + 1).d2) + (a + d) = a2 ..y 2 =23 3x^ 4x 23 23 xf =23 • 9 => Xj = 3 or .3d = 0 => d=4 d=4 A. = 3y( (x j. 2 slope of line=.P..d + l)(a + d) = a2 hence (a2 . (a + d + 2) also in G.96 A..

0) Xj + x2 = 2.X : 7 7 1 1 tan .97 A.l/V2. ] Q. .^ 1 so (j)' > 0 -1/V2 (. S =-cot .x2)] now / ' (x) is an increa sing function then/" (x2) >f (1-x 2 ) => 2 1 X2 > 1 -2X2' => => x > ^ 1 or x < .98 B. <j)' (x) = 2x[/"' (x2) . 0 t max. tan . min.8x + 1 = 0 2+1 (1.+ X / ^7 ^ 1 7t X 2 sin —+ X sin J J ~ 2 •y [Sol.1 with y2 = 4x (2x.1 :> x-y-3 =0 hence gradient of chord at C is 1 => Q./ ' (1 . also x3 = 1 centroid of the AABC = again equation of the normal at C y+2 = v ^y (x-1) (D) is incorrect ] y + 2 = x . 4—h 1/V2 t.hence coordinates of c are (1. obviously normal at C passes through the lower end of the lat us rectum => (B) is correct again centroid of AABC = now solving X| X3 y = 2x .B.l) 2 = 4x 4x2 .2) sum of the x and y coordinates of C are .C [Sol.00) increasing t min.+ —+ X 2 3 tan — + X 6 y 571 ^ 5tt 2n — + x = n7t+ — .x x= n7t T t ~ 12 n = .1 => (A) is correct.D 27 1 f fn 7t X 2 cos — + x sin 7 1 J ~ 2 13 . o ) u (l/ V2.

. (C) R. (A) P. . (B) Q. 7T 7^ 2 cos— + isin — 3 3 2n/2 is real n7t . (A) T T ' 71 . (D) P [Sol. nTt cos— + zsin— is real 6 6 Problems for JEE-2007 [47] fe Ban sal Classes .2x = n7t + 571 r 1 ITC Ans ] 12 ° 1 Y MATCH THE COLUMN: Q.99 Ans.

(B)S.'.(C)Q. ./ n ( e x + l ) = L i m ^ ^ .1 +i there are four values of z which are ± 1 ± i => (P) • 3 k = x --1l =x 2 + x + l < 3 1 x (D) x2 + x . :. n = 6k 6 o smallest positive n is 6 Ans. x.1 z is 1 + i or . P(A n B) = P(B) P(AnB) P(B) P(A/B)= p ( B ) => ^ j ^ = lAns. (A) R. (D)Q [Sol.1 or 1 z is 1 .y2 + 2xyi = 0 + ki keR-{0} x2 = y2 and 2xy = k [If k = 0 thenx = 0andy = 0] let k > 0 say 2 x y = l => y=l/x x4 = 1 => x2 = 1 = > x = 1 or ..] 2 2 (D) Break the interval into 100 identical cases favourable length — => Probability = — a . (A) z = 1 is one solution remaining 8 li e on a circle 2 in each quadrant symmetrically situated on a circle => number of solutions are 2 Ans.i or .^ — . y < R = and x2 + y2 = 2 (say) 2 z is purely imaginary (x + iy)2 is purely imaginary x2 .(B) mi mi hence s i n — = 0 . => (Q) Let z = x + iy./ n e x ( l + e~x) = Lim 1 + C x-»oo X x->oo x x-»oo x = Lim[l+/n(l + e" x ) 1/x ] X->00 [x+/n(l + e~x)] (C) In I = 1 B c A => / = e Ans.6 < x < 5 => numberof+vehitegeris4.b = 1 Ans. -X (B) Let / = Lim (ex +1) ^ X >0 —0 In I = L i m .] Q. y= -l/x 4 2 x = 1 • => x =1 x = 1 or -1 y = .1 . — =kn . ] fe Ban sal Classes Problems for JEE-2007 [48] .2 then xy = .l00 Ans.3 0 < 0 (x + 6)(x-5)<0 => .i if k < 0 say .1 y = 1 or .1 .

XII (ALL) QUESTION BANK ON FUNCTION. CONTINUITY & DERimBILITY Time Limit: 4 Sitting Each of 75 Minutes duration approx.MATHEMATICS . LIMIT. .

1 (C) 1.3 & b = 9/2 (B) a = 3 & b = 9/2 (C) a = . The value of c and the value Lim ^ ' ofthe limit is (A) 1/5.9 / 2 x msin-i x # 0 . Q2 If L im (x -3 sin 3x + ax -2 + b) exists and is equal to zero then: X> —0 (A) a = .3 (C) 3 (D) none are relatively prime integers Q. Q ) Limit X->°0 (A) In (B)0 . Select the correct alternative : (Only one is correct) Q. m e N The least value ofm for which f'(x)is A function f(x) is de fined as f(x) = 0 if x = 0 continuous at x = 0 is (A)l (B)2 1 Q.9 / 2 (D) a = 3 & b = . Q ) O (C) h(x) is discontinu Q ) O (D) h(x) is not derivable for all xin (0.4 For x > 0.xl is finite & non zero.3 & b = . 1 If both f(x) & g(x) are differentiable functions at x = x0. . (C) is differentiable at x = x0 provided f(x0) * g(x0) (D) cannot be differentiable at x = x0 if f(x0) = g(x 0 ).7/5 ( D)none Q. (B) The function is rig good? (A) h(x) is discontinuous for all x in (0. O .7 Consider the piecewise defined function r /(x) L if 0 x-4 x<o x>4 if 0 < x < 4 if choose the answer which best describes the continuity of this function (A) The f unction is unbounded and therefore cannot be continuous. then the functi on defined as.Question bank on function limit continuity & derivability There are 105 question s in this question hank. let h(x) = ifx=£ where p&q>0 q q 0 if x is irrational then which one does not hold ) (B) h(x) is continuous for ous for each rational in (0.x Q. h(x)=Maximum (f(x). g(x)} (A) is always differentiable at x=Xq (B ) is never differentiable at x = x 0 .3 .5 The value of n V (where n e N )is (C) n In V-V (D) not defined -J For a certain value of c. X—>-00 |Yx5 + 7X4 + 2) c . oo each irrational in (0.7/5 (B) 0.

B. onVector.3D&ComplexNo.&Misc. [2] . but is continuous on the rest ofthe real line.ht continuous atx = 0 (C) The function has a removable discontinuity at 0 and 4. (D) The function is continuous o n the entire real line feBansal Classes Q.

9 (B)^(a-p)2 (C) y (a-P) 2 (D)-^-(a-P)2 2 Which one of the following best represents the graph of the function f(x) = Li m — tan (nx) n—7t y ( .cosjax2 + bx + c) (x-a)2 2 equals (A) 0 Q.IO Lim 2 x^x" ( -0 1 (Q(D) none (A)i Q.l) .ll ABC is an isosceles triangle inscribed in a circle of radius r.-1 > •(D) 0 Q. (0.(0.8 If a. P are the roots of the quadratic equation ax + bx+c = 0 then Lim 2 1 .1) (0. (A)' 0 >(0-1) (B) 0 1 .1) ( fO.3x + X 1-x3 (B)3 3 x4 (C) 0 (0.Q.1) . IfAB = AC & h is .

3D&ComplexNo.1 < x < 1 and x * 0 for x—0 for .1 < x < 1 and x * 0 for x =0 h(x) = |x| 3 for . B.&Misc.the altitudefromAto BC and P be the perimeter ofABC then Linl —equals (where A is the area of the triangle) (A) 32r (C) 128r (D)none Q. [2] .13 If [x] denotes the greate st integer < x.12 Let the functionj.1 < x < 1 Which of these functions are differentiable at x = 0? (A)/and g only (B)/and/i only (C) g and h only Q.\ g and h be defined as follows x sin 0 x 2 sin 0 m vxj r) for . then Limit -L jjy x j +123 x] + (A) x/2 (B) x/3 (C) x/6 (D)none + [n3 x]j equals (D) x/4 feBansal Classes Q. onVector.

16 If f(x) = H GOS 2x ~ . I sin x I "I-1 cosx I Q.Q. {f(0)} =-1.2 (C) {f(0)} = -0 . (D) / is continuous at all x for which h (x) is not equal to zero. Then L i m (A) 3 . then x2 (B) m ] = . 18 The function g (x) = r . (B)/ is continuous at all x for which g (x) = 0 (C) / is contin uous at all x for whichg (x) is not equal to zero.5 (A) f (0) = | where [x] and {x} denotes greatest integer andfractionalpart function \ Q. x ^ 0 is continuous at x = 0. 15 The period of the function f (x) = 1 — -1 is | sinx-cosx | (A) 7C/2 X — (B) tc/4 (C)TC (D) 27t Q.5 (D) [f(0)]. b).17 The value ofthe limit ^ J n=2 — — is X (A)l (B)7 x + b. 14 Let /(x) = g(x) where g and h are cotinuous functions on the open interval (a. cosx. (B) if b is not equal to zero (D) for no val ue of b (A) if b is equal to zero (C) if b takes any real value Q. Which of the following statements is true for a < x < b? (A)/ is continuous at all x for whic h x is not zero. 19 Let / be differentiable at x = 0 and/' (0) = 1. x > 0 can be made differentiable atx = 0. x < 0 (C)^ (DW Q.

B.1)— . k e I K (C) neither continuous nor differentiable for x = (2k .20 If f(x) = sin-1 (sinx) . x e R thenfis (A) continuous and differentiable fo r all x Tt (B) continuous for all x but not differentiable for all x=(2k + 1) — . [2] ./ ( h)-/(-2h)_ h-»0 h (B)2 (C)l (D)-l Q. k€ I (D) neither conti nuous nor differentiable for x e R -[-1.&Misc. onVector.1] feBansal Classes Q.3D&ComplexNo.

1) (D) v (x ) = sgn (coHx) Q.("cosx + sinx) 3 . x /nx Q.g(x)=l Vx>0 Q. (C) 0 Q. 0 < x < 1 (A) is differentiable for all x (B) is differentiable for all x excetp at one point (C) is differentiable for all x except at two points (D) is not differentiable at more than two points. Q.25 f ( x ) = — and g (x) = — . then (A) 6 (B) 4 . is 2 (A)4 (Q^ v a l u e i g (D) does not exist Q.22 If Lim fa(3 + x ) . _ 2V2.x ) x->0 x (A) | (B)-j (C)-| (D)0 x2n-l Q.Q.1 ) 2 .f a ( 3 .sm 2x 4 (A) VI (B)-jL (C) 3 J 2 (D)-jt . 28 The limiting value of the function f(x) = when x — — is > 1 .23 The function / (x) = Lim — — i s identical with the function n->co +1 (A) g (x) = sgn(x .2x (1 x)}.26 If f(3) = 6 & f' (3) = 2. 27 Which one of the following functions is continuous everywhere in its domai n but has atleast one point where it is not differentiable? (A) f (x) = x1/3 (B) f (x) = (C) f (x) = e~x (D)f(x) = tanx „ . % .1) (B) h (x) = sgn (tan^x) (C) u (x) = sgn( | x | . (D) none of these. 24 The functions defined by f(x) = max {x2 (x .21 Limit x ~*2 c o s sin x — ^-(3sinx-sin3x) (B) 1 = where [] denotes greatest integer function. T hen identify the CORRECT statement 1 (A) ^ ^ I and f(x) are identical functions V x>0 xf 3 1 (B) y ^ y and g (x) are identical functions (D) ( )~3f(*) isgiyen by = 1 (C)f(x).

[2] .3D&ComplexNo.feBansal Classes Q.&Misc. onVector. B.

» R f(x) = x3 + 2 x 2 .4 x-V3x-2 if x<2 (B) f (2) = 16 => f is continuous at x = 2 (D) f has a removable discontinui ty at x = 2 hH] (x*0) (x = 0)(A) f (2) = 8 => f is continuous atx = 2 (C)f(2-)*f(2 + ) f is discontinuous Q.34 The graph of function / contains the point P (1. is (A) 2 (B)3 (C)4 (D) non existent feBansal Classes Q. [2] . The equati on of the secant line through f si r+. b] where { } denotes fractional part function (D) f (x) is constant Q.2) & f(2) (D) has a maximum value equal to 3/e.2 s .2]. lo then which one of the f ollowing does not hold good? (A) is continuous for all values of x e I (B) is co ntinuous for x e I . b] and that/(x) is an integer for each x in [a.(0) (C) assumes all intermediate values from f(.» R f(x) =X 4 + 2 X 3 .3 P and Q is y = s — 1 x . b] (A) / is injective (B) Range of / may have many elements (C) {x} is zero for all x e [a. Then in [a. Q. 3 2 Co nsider the function f (x): L 1.29 Let f(x): LL-X if x>2 then x2 .2 x + 2 3-X _ 6 _ i: Q.x + l if l < x <2 if x = 2 if 2 < x < 3 where [x] denotes step up function then at x = 2 function (A) has missing point removable discontinuity (B) has isolated point removable discontinuity (C) has n onremovable discontinuityfinitetype (D) is continuous Q. the function f(x) = J .3D&ComplexNo. f(x) = x 3 + x + 1 (D) f : R .2) and Q(s.3 0 e On the interval I = [-2.s.X 2 + 1 (B) f: R ^ R (C) f: R R+ f(x) = V n V x w Q. The value of / ' (1). B.31 Which ofthe following function is suijectivebutnotinjective ( A ) f : R . b]. 3 3 Suppose that / is c ontinuous on [a.&Misc.1 . r). onVector.

3 8 Let [x] denote the integral part of x e R. .I + 5\/x jl-x4 + lx2 sjx . (A) f is contin uous & differentiable at x = n/2 (B) f is continuous but not differentiable at x =%/2 (C) f is neither continuous nor differentiable at x-%/2 (D) none of these Q .40 I f / ( x + y ) = / ( x ) + / ( y ) + | x | y + xy2. V x.41 For sin(x-10} (10-x ) (where {} denotesfractionalpart function) (B) RHL exist but LHL does not exist .42 tZ • I2 n+22 (n-l)+32 (n-2)+.1 +3x + 2 then: (A) the function is continuous but not d ifferentiable at x = 1 (B) the function is discontinuous at x= 1 (C) the functio n is both cont. & differentiable at x = 1 (D) the range of f(x) is R+.[x].oo) (Q 3 2'" (D) Q.l I 3 + 2 3 + 3 . g(x) = x .. y 6 R and/' (0) = 0.2) is : (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D ) 4 Q.0.sin3xj + sinx .+n2.sin 3 x smx .sin 3 x . Q.. f(x) = | x .5 | + I x .e x /nx5 ( x 2 + 2 ) (x 2 -7x + 10) . Q. x* for x e (0. Q.3 5 The range of the function f(x) = 5 i s 2x .1 l x + 12 (A) (-00.36 Consider f(x) = 2 2 sinx .00) (B)[0. tt) f(n/2) = 3 where [ ] denotes the greatest integer function then. Let f(x) b e any continuous function with f(0)=f(l) then the function h(x) = f(g(x)): (A) h asfinitelymany discontinuities (B) is discontinuous at some x = c (C) is continu ous on R (D) is a constant function . (D) both RHL and LHL exist and equals to 1 (A) LHL exist but RHL does not exist (C) neither LHL nor RHL does not exist T Q.sin3xj sinx .1 | + tanx does not have a derivative in the interval (0.37 The number of points at which the function..39 Given the function f(x) = 2x^x3 . then (A)/ need not be differentiable at every non zero x (B)/ is differentiable for a ll x e R (C)/ is twice differentiable at x = 0 (D) none Q.

3 + + N 3 is equal to : (A)j feBansal Classes CB)f (Qj <P)j [2] Q. onVector. . B.&Misc.3D&ComplexNo.

3} (D) 1 4 ^ j Where [x] denotes greatest integer function. and/(a.)<0</(bj).x .1 2n . Then Lim f(x) is equal to x-2 x-»2 (A) 16 (B)-16 (C) cannot be determ ined from the given information (D) does not exists sinxcosx n T .Q. b] n.2). J X r =0 2n+1 + 1 2n+1 . then there is a number c such that aj<c< bj and/(c)=0 (A) I and II only (B) I and III only (C) H and III only (D) only HI cot 1 Q.2) R satisfies the inequality cos(2x-4)-33 x I 4x-81 1 < f(x) <—1 .b x + 25 Q 44 If/(x) = —— — forx^ 5 and / is continuous at x = 5.7 x + 10 (D)2 5 (C)10 (A) 0 (B) 5 Q. V x e(l. b) III. If a< aj<bj<b. / is bounded on the open interval (a. 43 The domain of definition ofthe function f (x) = log 3 .1 (D) 3-2n .3} (C) {2. b). x 2 .48 Let a = min L 2 + 2x + 3. Q. then/(5) has the value equal to x .61 + 16_xC2x-i + 20_3xP 2x-5 IS ' V (A) {2} (B) 4'°° -{2. / is continuous on t he closed interval [a. Which of the following statements must be true? I. x s R] and b = Lim —X _ — Then the value of Y arbn~r is [x .46 v The value of LimU \ ( a > l ) is equal to v 7 H s e c " 1 ^ log x aj v (x a log a X) (A) 1 (B) 0 (C) Till (D) does not exist Q.1 4n+1 .47 Let f: (1.45 Let / be a differentiable function on the open interval (a.

i s given by: (A) [-4.4] (B) [0. (n e N where [ ] denotes the greatest i nteger function is : (A) 1 (B) 1/n (C) n (D) none of these (\ l 1 .4] (C)[-3.49 Period of f(x) = nx + n .3] + COS 1 "xl \ J j .5] feBansal Classes Q.[nx + n].Xh Q.50 Let f be a real valued function defined by fix) = sin-1 v 3 .3D&ComplexNo. onVector. [2] .&Misc.Q. B. Then domain of J(x) (D) [-5.

x+ 2 ^ (A) f (2) = 112 and f is continuous at x =2 (C) f can not be continuous a t x = 2 T.53 The function f(x)= • x2 . oo) Q.on (-oo. 57 The domain of the functionfix) = .j±Vn : n eI + u {0}j 3T0 COtX VM J .51 For the function f (x) = Lhn ^ ^ ^ ^ (A) The range of f is a singleton set (C) fis discontinuous for allx s i .56 Which one of the following is not bounded on the intervals as indicated -11 (A) f(x) = 2X_1 on (0.52 Domain of the function f(x) = .cotl) (D) (-oo. x g Q (A) continuous no where (B) differentiable no where (C) continuous but not diffe rentiable exactly at one point (D) differentiable and continuous only at one poi nt and discontinuous elsewhere Q.is: (A) R (C) R . O 55 LIM x-cos(sin _1 x) l-tan(sin x) — ^ x->i/V2 (A)^ (B)-"jj (C)V2 (D)-V2 Q.{cotl} r 2x (C) (-oo.xeQ is Q. cotl) +l .0)u(O. oo) x (C) h(x) = xe~ on (0. 1) (B) g(x) = x c o sX. ' x. 2 ^ which of the following holds? (B) f is continuous on R (D) fis discontinuous f or somexeR Q.2 x + 5 .54 For the function f (x) = —. is -y/Zncot-1 x (A) (cotl.Q.1/2 and fis continuous at x = 2 (D) f (2) = 0 an d f is continuous at x = 2. x * 2 which of the following holds? (B) f (2) ^ 0. oo) (B)R. oo) (D) I (x) = arc tan2x on (-oo.

&Misc. onVector.3D&ComplexNo. B.x rx 2 ' .{0} (D)R-{n:neI} feBansal Classes Q. [2] . where [x] denotes the greatest integer not greater than (B) R .

Q.58 If f(x) = cosx. = 3. then vtanx.59 Let Lim sec"1 x-»0 Vsmxy = / and Lim sec 1 x—>0 (A) I exists but m does not (C) I and m both exist Q.l)u{2) Q. n = 0. where [*] denotes the greatest integer ' o . otherwise and x 2 + 1 when x^3. 1.61 Lim sin '[tanx] = I then { / } is equal to x-»0~ (A) 0 .60 Range of the function f (x) = function and e= Limit(l + a) a— (A) = m.l]u{2} (D)(0.1) (C)(0. x^O m= (A) 1 3 5 when x = 0 when x = 3 then Limit f ( ( K x )) = (C) 5 (D) none (B)3 ' X ^ Q. 3. £ ± r w{2} v e j (B) (0. (B) m exists but / does not (D) neither I nor m exists + 1 /n(x + e) l/a 1 Vi+ x is.2. x = n7t. 7 1 .

x 0 1 .1 ) | x2 .y (C) p 6 R. is equal to (A) 1 (B)0 if x < x 0 (C) TC/2 (D) non existent Q.x-l -x 2 .1 . .2x0 2llX (P)2xjj .21 + sin( | x |) is not differentiable. (D) p e R feBansal Classes .x .2 x = 2 • If f(x) is discontinuous at x= — . .63 T.{4} ( B ) p s R . 62 N umber of points where the function f (x) = (x2 .ax + b if x > x 0 derivable V x e R then the values of a and b are respectively (C) . cor^Vx+T .sin 7tx x < 2 Q. .2x0 . Q.65 Let f(x) = J4 + [l2x .X sec .i <P)2-ft where [ ] and { } denotes greatest integer and fractional part function. is (A) 0 (B) 1 (C)2 (D)3 Q. XQ (A) 2x 0 .V x 7 ) Limit \ ' r X->00 ^2x + lV.xc 1 + cos (B)-x0.64 I f f ( x ) = .(C) I . then x> 1 (A) p e R .

B.Q.&Misc. onVector. [2] .3D&ComplexNo.

Q. 66 Let f(x) be a differentiable function which satisfies the equation f(xy) = f(x) + f(y) for all x > 0, y > 0 then f'(x)is equal to (A) f(l) (B) • 1 x (C)f'(l) (D)f'(l)(lnx) Q.67 Given f(x) = b ([x]2 + [x]) +1 for x > - 1 = Sin (k (x+a)) for x < - 1 where [x] denot es the integral part of x, then for what values of a, b the function is continuo us at x = -l? (A) a = 2n + (3/2); b e R ; n e l (B) a = 4n + 2; b e R; n e l + ( C) a = 4n + (3/2); b e R ; n e I (D) a = 4 n + l ; b e R+ ; n e l /n(x2 + e x ) Q 68 Let f(x) = . If Limit f( x ) = / and Limit f( x ) = m then : /n(x + e ) (A) l=m (B)/=2m (C) 21=m (D) / + m = 0 Q.69 Lim cos( W n 2 +n I when n is an integer: n->00 ^ J • (A) is equal to 1 . ™ x^o (B) is equal to - 1 (C) is eq ual to zero (D) does not exist Q.70 x Ll lt; (sin x - t a n x) 2 - ( l - c o s 2 x ) 4 +x 5 — _! 7 _i . 5— is equal to H 7.(tan x ) +(sin x) +3sin x (A) 0 (B) 7 (C) v y 3 (D)l Q.71 Range ofthe function, f(x) = cot"1 (log4/5 (5x2 - 8x + 4)) is : (A) ( O . t c ) (B) ~4 X 7 C ' (C) K

0, (D) [ 0 , ^ • • rxi2 Q. 72 Let y ^ f ~ ~ = / & • • Tx12] = m, where [ ] denotes greatest integer, then: X (A) / exists but m does not (C) I & m both exist (B) m exists but / does not (D) neither / nor m exists . tan x _1 sin x Q.73 The value of limit1 ( (;{ , }/ f ) /) . { ) where { x} denot es thefractionalpart function: t1"1' ; {x}({x}-l) (A) is 1 (B) is tan 1 (C) is sin 1 (D) is non existent In (V 2 + 2Vxj Q.74 If f(x) = — p is continuous at x = 0, then f (0) must be equal to tan (A) 0 (B) 1 (C) e2 (D) 2 feBansal Classes Q. B. onVector,3D&ComplexNo.&Misc. [2]

Q.75 2 + 2x + sin 2x is: (2x + sin 2x)esu! (A) equal to zero (B) equal to 1 Lim (cos ax ) cosec2bx is 8a" (C) equal to - 1 (D) non existent Q.76 The value of 8b (A) (B) (C) A2 l 2b J (D) Select the correct alternative : (More than one are correct) Q,77 Lim f(x) does not exist when: x->c (A) f(x) = [ [ x ] ] - [ 2 x - l ] , c = 3 (C) f(x)={x} 2 -{-x} 2 , c = 0 where [x] denotes step up function & {x}fractiona lpart function. (B) f(x) = [x] — x, c = l (D)f(x)=^^,c=0. sgnx tan2 {x} for x > 0 x2 - [x]2 for x = 0 where [ x ] is the step up function and { x} is the fractional Q.78 Let f(x) = 1 V{x} cot {x} for x < 0 part function of x, then: (A) x L ™l f (x) = 1 \2 (B) =1 s L ™t f(x) = 1 (C) cot" Limit f(x) V.X H> 0 " (D) f is continuous at x = 1 Q.79 If f(x)= x . t a (cosx) 2

[0 '"(i + x ) x*0 " ' " then: x=0 (A) fis continuous at x = 0 (C) fis differentiable at x = 0 (B) fis continuous at x=0 but not differentiable at x=0 (D) fis not continuous a t x = 0. Q. 80 Which ofthe following function (s) is/are Transcidental? (A) f (x) = 5 sin ^ 2sin3x ® - ? + 2 x - l (D) f (x) = (x2 + 3).2X , W ( Q f ( x ) = Vx2 + 2x+ 1 Q. 81 Which ofthe following functions) is/are periodic? (B) g(x) = sin(l/x) , x ^ 0 & g(0) = 0 (A) f(x) = x - [ x ] (D) w(x) = sin-1 (sinx) (C) h(x)=xcosx ^Bansal Classes ft B. on FLCD [12]

Q. 82 Which of following pairs of functions are identical: (A) &g(x) = sec-1x (B) f(x) = tan (tan-1 x) & g(x) = cot (cot1 x) ) & g(x) = sgn (sgn (x)) (D) f(x) = cot2 x.cos2x & g(x)= cot 2 ich ofthe following functions are homogeneous ? (A) x siny + y y e ^ (C) x2 - xy (D) arc sinxy

f(x) = e' nseo_lx (C) f(x) = sgn (x x- cos2x Q. 83 Wh sinx (B) x ey/x +

Q. 84 If 0 is small & positive number then which of the following is/are correct ? (A) — , . . sinG e =1 (B) 9 < sin0 <tan0 (C) sin0 < 0 < tan6 (D) — 0 > Sm6 6 Q.85 Let f(x) (A) Limit (C) Limit x . 2X - x . (to. 2 & g(x) = 2xsin —- then: 1 - cosx . V 2 J f(x) = /n 2 f(x) = /n 4 (B) Limit (D) g(x) =/n 4 Limit g(x) = /n 2 Q.86 Let f(x) = (A) Limit x-1 . Then: 2x - 7x + 5 2 f(x) =_I (B) Limit f ( x ) = _ I

(C) Limit f ( x ) = 0 (D) Limit does not exist Q.87 Which ofthe following limits vanish? (A) Lhmt x i sin Vx 1 ( B ) x L ^2 ( l - s i n x ) . t a n x Limit [x]2 - 9 (D) x x -9 2x + 3 • sgn(x) x +x- 5 where [ ] denotes greatest integer function (C) Limit 2 Q. 88 If x is a real number in [0,1 ] then the value of Limit Limit [l +cos 2m ( n! % x)] is given by (A) 1 or 2 according as x is rational or irrational (B) 2 o r 1 according as x is rational or irrational (C) 1 for all x (D) 2 for all x. Q. 89 If f(x) is a polynomial function satisfying the condition f(x). f(l/x) = f(x) + f(l/x) and f(2) = 9 then: (A) 2 f(4) = 3 f(6) (B) 14f(l) = f(3) (C) 9f(3) = 2 f(5) (D) f(10) = f(ll) Q. 90 Which of the following function(s) not defined at x = 0 has/have removable discontinuity at x=0 ? rx n 1 (D) f(x) = (B) f(x)=cos sinx (C)f(x) = x s i n (A ) f(x) = C in |xi 1+ 2 x feBansal Classes Q.B.onFLCD [13]

Q.91 The function f(x): "|x-3| , x>l (A) continuous at x = 1 (C) continuous at x = 3 (B) diff. at x = 1 (D) differentiable at x = 3 Q.92 If f(x) — cos continuous at : (A)x = 0 cos ( J ( x ~ OJ ; where [x] is the greatest integerr function of x, then f(x) i s (B) x = 1 (C) x = 2 (D) none of these Q. 93 Identify the pair(s) of functions which are identical. jl _ x2 (A) y = tan (cos x); y = ^ — x (C) y = sin (arc tan x); y = , X V1 + x2 1 (B) y = tan ( c o t x ) ; y = x(D) y = cos (arc tan x); y = sin (arc cot x) Q. 94 The function, f (x) = [ | x | ] - | [x] | where [ x ] denotes greatest int eger function (A) is continuous for all positive integers (B) is discontinuous f or all non positive integers (C) hasfinitenumber of elements in its range (D) is such that its graph does not lie above the x - axis. Q.95 Let f (x + y) = f (x) + f(y) for all x, y e R. Then: (A) f(x) must be continuous V x e R (B)f(x) may be continuous V x e R (C) f(x) must be discontinuous V x e R (D) f(x) may be dis continuous V x e R Q. 96 The functionf(x) = A/] _ V l - x 2 (A) has its domain 1 < x < 1. (B) hasfiniteone sided derivates at the point x= 0. (C) is continuous and differentiable at x = 0. (D) is continuous but not differentiable atx = 0. Q. 97 Let f(x) be defined in [-2,2] by f(x) = max(4-x 2 , 1+x 2 ), - 2 < x < 0 = min(4-x 2 , 1 + x2), 0 < x < 2 The fix) (A) is continuous at all points (B) has a point of discontinuity (C) is not differentiable only at one point. (D) is no t differentiable at more than one point feBansal Classes Q. B. onVector,3D&ComplexNo.&Misc. [2]

Q.98 The functionf(x) = sgnx.sinx is (A) discontinuous no where. (C) aperiodic (B) an even function (D) differentiable for all x Q .99 The functionfix)= x / n x (A) is a constant function (C) is such that lim it f(x) exist x-»l Q. 100 Which pair(s) of function(s) is/are equal? (A) f(x) = co s(2tan 1 x); g(x) / 1 X (B) has a domain (0, 1) U (e, oo) (D) is aperiodic (B) f(x) = 1 ~~ X F ; g(x) = sin(2cot-'x) (C)f(x)= e ^ - " 1 * ) ; g(x)= e ^ (D)f(x) = %fa , a>0; g(x)= a », a > 0 where {x} and [x] denotes the fractional part & integral part functions. Fill in the blan ks: where c is a known quantity. If fis derivable at x = c, then the values of'a' & 'b' are ax+b& if x > crespectively. Q. 102 A weight hangs by a spring & is cause d to vibrate by a sinusoidal force. Its displacement s(t) at time t is given by an equation of the form, s(t) = — 2 c -k2 i smx x<c (sin kt - sin ct) where A c & k are positive constants with c^k, then the limiting value of the displacement as c — k is » ^ T IMIT Q 103 Limit v (cosa) x - v(sina) x - cos2a W H ,E R E / / x- 4 O< a < n is . 2 . Q.l 04 Limit ( cos 2x) has the value equal to Q.105 If f(x) = sinx, x * m t , n = 0, ±1, ±2, ±3,.... = 2, otherwise and g(x) = x 2 + 1, x * 0 , 2 = 4, x=0 = 5, x=2 th en Ljmh g [f( x )] is feBansal Classes Q. B. onVector,3D&ComplexNo.&Misc.

[2]

[91] (LYIJ uo a f ) S3SSVIJ jvsuvqlj) Q.l Q.6 Q. 11 Q.16 C A C D Q.2 Q.7 Q.12 Q.17 Q.22 Q.27 Q.32 Q.37 Q.42 Q.47 Q.52 Q.57 Q.62 Q.67 Q.72 Q.78 Q. 82 Q.86 Q.90 Q.94 Q.98 A D C D A A B C A B D C C A B A, C B, C, D A, B, C, D B, C, D A, B, C, D A, B, C Q.3 Q.8 Q.13 Q.18 Q.23 Q.28 Q.33 Q.38 Q.43 Q.48 Q.53 Q.58 Q.63 Q.68 Q.73 C C D D C D D C A D D B A A D Q.4 Q9 Q.14 A Q.21 A Q.26 C Q.31 D Q.36 A Q.41 B Q.46 A Q.51 C Q.56 B Q.61 D Q.66 A Q.71 Q.76 Q.77 Q.81 Q.85 B C B, C A, D C, D A. D Q.19 A Q.24 C Q.29 C Q.34 c Q.39 B Q.44 Q.49 Q.54 A B C A Q.5 Q.10 Q.15 B B C B Q.20 Q.25 A Q.30 A Q.35 A Q.40 B Q.45 D Q.50 A Q.55 B Q.60 D Q.65 A Q.70 Q.75 C D Q.59 Q.64 A Q.69 Q.74 Q.80 Q.84 Q.88 Q.92 C D A,B,D C, D B,D B, C Q.79 A, C Q.83 B, C Q.87 A, B, D Q.91 A, B, C Q.95 B, D Q.99 A, C Q.l02 : -At Q.89 B, C Q.93 A, B, C, D Q.97 B, D Q.96 A, B, D Q.100 A, B, C coskt 2k Q.lOl cosc& sinc- C COSC Q.103 cos4 a / n cos a - sin4 a / n sin a Q.l05 1 Q.l04 e •6 A 3)1 V3ALSNV

MATHEMATICS XII (ABCD) HOME ASSIGNMENT Objective: Vector, 3D & Complex Subjective: Misc. Topics NOTE: This assignment w ill be discussed on th<£very first day after Deepawali Vacation, hence come prepar ed.

Question bank on Vector, 3D and Complex Number & Misc. Subjective Problem Select the correct alternative : (Only one is correct) Q.l If jaj = 11, |b| =23, |a-bj =30,then |a + b| is : (A) 10 Q.2 (B) 20 (C) 30 (D) 40 The position vector ofa point P moving in space is given by OP = R = (3cost)i+ ( 4cost) j + (5sint)kThe time't' when the point P crosses the plane 4x - 3y + 2z = 5 is (A) — sec TC (B) — sec 71 (C) — sec 71 (D) — sec 71 Q. 3 Indicate the correct order sequence in respect of the following: I. x - 4 y+6 y+ 6 x-1 y-2 z-3 The lines —— = —— = —— and —— = ^ are orthogonal. ? II. The planes 3x The function f (x) the inverse of the TFF (B)TFTT (C)FFTT 2 2 2y - 4z = 3 and the plane x - y - z = 3 are orthogonal. III. = /n(e~2 + ex) is monotonic increasing V x e R . IV. If g is function, /(x) = /n(e-2 + ex) then g(x) = /n(ex - e~2). (A)F (D)FTTT Q.4 Zj +z 2 rh. If is purely imaginary then ZJ Z

is equal to : (C) 3 (D) 0 (A) 1 Q.5 (B) 2 In a regular tetrahedron, the centres of the four faces are the vertices of a sm aller tetrahedron. The ratio of the volume of the smaller tetrahedron to that of the larger is —, where m and n are relatively prime n positive integers. The valu e of (m + n) is (A) 3 (B)4 (C) 27 (D)28 Q.6 Q. 7 If a, b, c are non-coplanar unit vectors such that a x (b x c) = -4= (b+c) then the angle between a & b is V2 (A) 3 TT/4 (B) TI/4 (C) 7i/2 (D) n The sine of ang le formed by the lateral face ADC and plane of the base ABC of the tetrahedron A BCD where A s (3, -2,1); B = (3, 1, 5); C s (4, 0, 3) and D = (1, 0, 0) is 2 5 ^ Q.8 (C) 3^3 v^

(D) -2 7i? Let z be a complex number, then the region represented by the inequality | z + 2 | < | z + 4 | is given by : (A) R e ( z ) > - 3 (B) Im(z)<-3 (C) Re(z) < - 3 & I m ( z ) > - 3 (D) R e ( z ) < - 4 & I m ( z ) > - 4 The volume of the parallel piped whose edges are represented by the vectors a = 2 i - 3j + 4k, b = 3i - j + 2k , c = i + 2j - k is : (A) 7 (B) 5 (C) 4 (D) none Q.9 feBansal Classes Q. B. on Vector, 3D & Complex No. & Misc. [2]

Q.10 Let u,v,w be the vectors such that u + v + w = 0 , if |u j= 3 ,|v j= 4 & |w u.v + v.w + w .u is : (A) 47 (B) -25 Q.ll Let a= i - j , b= j - k , c= (A) (C)0 (D)25 5 then the value of . If d is aunit vector such that a.d=0= [b,c,d] then d ( C ) ±-^(i+j+k) 1 (D)± k (B)±^(i+j-k) Q. 12 If z be a complex number for which (A) +1 (B) V3 + l z + Z = 2, then the greatest value of | z | is : (C) 2V2 - 1 (D) none Q.13 If the non - zero vectors a & b are perpendicular to each other, then the s olution ofthe equation, ? x a = b is : (A) ? •= xa + —— fa x b) v 7 a. a V > (C) r = x a x b where x is any scalar. Q.14 K(B) J r = xb b.b \ (a x b) ' (D) r = xb x a x-2 y-3 z-4 x—1 y-4 z-5 Thelines—:— = —:— = —— a n d - — = -—— = ——are coplanar if 1 1 K K 2* 1 (A) k = 1 or - 1 (B) k = 0 or - 3 (C)k = 3 o r - 3 (D)k = 0 o r - 1 Q. 15 Which one ofthe following statement is INCORRECT ? (A) l f n . a = 0 , n . b = 0 & n . c = 0 f o r some non zero vector n, then[ a b c J = 0 (B) there exi st a vector having direction angles a = 30° & P = 45° (C) locus of point for which x = 3& y = 4isa line parallel to the z - axis whose distance from the z-axis is 5 (D) In a regular tetrahedron OABC where'O'is the origin, the vector OA + OB + O C is perpendicular to the plane ABC. Q. 16 Given that the equation, z 2 +(p+iq)z +r+is = 0 has a real root where p, q, r, s e R. Then which one is correct (A) pq r = r2 + p2s (B) prs = q2 + r2p (C) qrs = p 2 +s 2 q (D) pqs = s 2 + q2r Q.17 Th e distance of the point (3,4,5) from x-axis is (A) 3 (B)5 (C)V34 (0)^41 Q. 18 Gi ven non zero vectors A, B and C, then which one of the following is false? (A) A vector orthogonal to Ax B and C is± (AxB)xC (B) A vector orthogonal to A+B and A - B i s ± A x B (C) Volume of the parallelopiped determined by A, B and C is | A x B • C | (D) Vector projection of A onto B is AB ^ feBansal Classes Q. B. on Vector, 3D & Complex No. & Misc. [2]

Q.19 Given three vectors a , b , c such that they are non - zero, non - coplanar vectors, then which of the following are non coplanar. (A) a + b , b + c , c + a (C) a + b , b - c , c + a 0.20 (B) a - b , b + c , c + a (D) a + b, b + c, c a The sum / + 2/2 + 313 + + 2002/2002, where i = A/_i is equal to (A)-999+ 1002/ ( B)- 1002+ 999/ (C) - 1001 + 1000/ (D) - 1002 + 1001/ Q.21 Locus of the point P, for which OP represents a vector with direction cosin e cos a = ( ' O' is the origin) is : (A) A circle parallel to y z plane with cen tre on the x - axis (B) a cone concentric with positive x - axis having vertex a t the origin and the slant height equal to the magnitude of the vector (C) a ray emanating from the origin and making an angle of 60° with x - axis (D) a disc par allel to y z plane with centre on x - axis& radius equal to OP sin 60° Q.22 A line with direction ratios (2,1,2) intersects the lines f = - j + X(i + j + k) and f = - i + p(2i + j + k) at A and B, then / (AB) is equal to (A) 3 Q.23 (B)V3 ( Q 2V2 (D)V2 The vertices ofa triangle are A (1,1,2),B(4,3,1) & C (2,3,5). The vector represe nting the internal bisector ofthe angle A is : (A) 1 + j + 2k (B) 2i - 2j + k (C )2i + 2 j - k (D)2i+2j + k Lowest degree of a polynomial with rational coefficie nts if one of its root is, V2 + 1 is (A) 2 (B)4 (C)6 (D) 8 7T Q.24 Q.25 A plane vector has components 3 & 4 w.r.t. the rectangular cartesian system . This system is rotated through an angle — in anticlockwise sense. Then w.r.t. th e new system the vector has components : <A)4,3 (B)^.jj (Q-j-.j. (D) none Q.26 Let a =xi+ 12j - k; b = 2i + 2xj + k & c = i + k. If the ordered set b c a ] is left handed, then: (A) x e (2,00) Q.27 (B) x e (-00, - 3) (C)xe(-3,2) (D)xe {-3,2} If cosai + j + k , i + cospj + k & i + j + cosyk (a ^ p * y * 2 n Tt) are coplan ar then the value of cosec —t-cosec — + cosec — equal to 2 2 ot ?p y 2 2 2 (A)l (B)2 (C) 3

(D) none of these Q.28 The straight line (1+2/)z+(2/-l)z = 10/ on the complex plane, has intercept on the imaginary axis equal to (A) 5 Bansal Classes (B)| (C)-| (D)-5 [4] Q. B. on Vector, 3D & Complex No. & Misc.

z = 5 + i has an argument which is nearly equal to: (A) 7t/32 (B) 71/16 (C) 7t/12 (D) 71/8 a. c = 3 i . is (A)V3a (B)V2a (C) a . 3D & Complex No. the poi nt P is its : (A) centroid (B) orthocentre (C) circumcentre (D) incentre Q.b c.B=(b) .j + k .8 j + 6k ( C ) . . t h e n f is (A) — 61 — 8j — 6k (B) 61 .j . Let A = i + 2j + 3k and B = 3i + 4 j + 5k AxB| 2 +(A-B)2 is eq ual to (B)7V!0 (C)10V7 (D)64 Q.a = 2i—j—3k . a (Zj .34 If a = i + j + k .a b.z0) + b (z2 . then the value of b. is (A) r = (A.37 Equation ofa line passing through the point with position vector 2i + 3j an d orthogonal to the plane containing the vectors A and B.36 to Q.30 Which one of the following does not hold for the vector V = a x (b x aj? (A) per pendicular to a (C) coplanar with a & b (B) perpendicular to b (D) perpendicular to a x b.b =i + 2 j 4 k .29 The perpendicular distance of an angular point of a cube of edge 'a'fromthe diagonal which does not pass that angular point.2 k .40.t.c = i + 2 j . A vector r is parallel to the altitude drawn from the vertex A. the triangle ABC.31 Let z. on Vector.k (C) f = XI+ (2X . Q. If I r | -2V34 .b b. B.z0) = 0. b e R has a non real root whose cu be is 343 then (7a + b) has the value (A) 98 (B) .3) j . C = (c). (D) a Q. A=(a) . & Misc.a a.6 i . + 2)i-( 2?i-3)j + A.c equal to c.Q.b = i .98 •'(D) 49 Direction for Q.k .c (A) 2 (B)4 (C) 16 (D) 64 Q.36 The value of the scalar (A) 8 Q. making an obtuse angle with the positive Y-axis.49 (C) . If P is a point representing the complex number z0 satisfying. then w.c Q.35 If the equation x2 + ax + b = 0 where a.8 j + 6k (D) 6i+8j + 6k Q.z0) + c (z3 ..b a.32 Given the position vectors ofthe vertices ofa triangle ABC.Xk ^Bansal Classes (B) r = (X (D) none [5 ] 2)1 .z 2 &z 3 be the complex numbers representing the vertices ofa triangleABC respectively.r.a c.(2X-3)j + Xk 0.33 The complex number.

42 The vectors a .2y + z .41 If a. (C) the line joining th e points A & C divides the line joining the points B & D in the ratio 1:1 (D) th e four vectors a .i. then: (A) A.2 y .Q.-fij <D)(4.2 d=0. b. B & C then: (A) centroid of tria ngle ABC is — . c & d are linearly independent set of vectors & K. A +J} + C !/r a b+c A T + j + kj J. c &d are the pv's of the points A. Q. the pv's of c can be : (A.— .40 Vector component of A perpendicular to the vector B is given by (A) Bx (Ax B) (B) Ax(AxB) \ 2 Bx(AxB) CP) Ax(AxB) pi Select the correct alternatives : (More than one are correct) Q. If a = i + j & b = j + k. * (B) i + j + k is equally inclined to the three vectors (C) perpendicular from th e origin to the plane of triangle ABC meet at centroid (D) triangle ABC is an eq uilateral triangle.3 8 Equation of a plane containing the point with position vector (i ..i | If a . c ar e different real numbers and ai + bj + ck .z . b . a + K2 b + K3 c + K4 d =0 then: (A) K. c are ofthe same length & pairwise form equal angles. b . B.H Which of the following locii of z on the complex plane represents a pair of stra ight lines? (A) Rez 2 = 0 (B) Imz 2 = 0 (C)|z|+z =0 (D) | z .3 9 Volume of the tetrahedron whose 3 coterminous edges are the vectors A.4 = 0 (B) x . b . c & d are linearly dependent . C & D respectively in three dimensional space & satisfy the relation3a . + K3 = K2 + K4 = 0 (C) K.) Q.2 = 0 (D) 2x + y + z .0. C & D are coplanar (B) the line joining the points B & D di vides the line joining the point A & C in the ratio 2:1. + K4 = K2 + K3 = 0 (D) none of these Ifa .1 = 0 Q. + K2 + K3 + K4 = 0 (B) K. is (A) x + 2y + z = 0 (C) x -.4k is (A) 1 (B) 4/3 (C) 8/3 (D) 8 Q. .0.j + k) and parallel to the vectors A and B .-i) (C)Q. B.1 | = I z . bi + cj + ak & c i + a j + bk are po sition vectors of three non-collinear points A.2 b + c . b . B a nd C = 2i + j .(B)(-i.43 .

3D & Complex No.i feBansal Classes Q. on Vector.Q. B.2 i z .46 If z3 .2 = 0 then z can be equal to : (A) 1 . & Misc.1 .45 Q.i z2 .i (B) i (C) 1 + i (D) .44 Q. [2] .

1 1 y / ' n Q.1 . [~4i + j + kj are such that: (A) they are coplanar (C) th ey are skew Q.y b form a trian gle. y = 1 & 2 cos a_b v 2 j x = .0) t he position vectors of the vertex Aj can be: (A) (2.1 .k and i .1).1. x a . y = 1 (D)none y Q. 2) (D) (0.-(a + b) k / f A > a b f A I =-2 cot 2 COS (aAb^ v 2 &x = . r.Q.48 The lines with vector equations are.0. r2 =-2i + 7j + p.47 If a & b are two non collinear unit vectors & a . = -3i + 6j + A (-4 i + 3 j + 2 kj a nd .ib| = e R then which of the following statement(s) hold good? (A) (a = a .ix) (a + ib)"1 = y 1 Q. If the positio n vectors of the vertices of the base ABC are A( 1.-2.50 The acute angle that the vector 2i .51 (B) s iff (C)tan-'(V2) (D)cot"1(V2) The volume of a right triangular prism ABCA.Cj is equal to 3. x.49 (B) they do not intersect (D) the angle between them is tan"1 ( 3/7) Given a. B(2.ib ^ a2 + b2 (a . B .52 (B) Limit Re f" > r u Vr.ib =>x2 + y 2 = l (B) (1—ix) (1 + ix)"1 = a .j + 2k is given by: (A) cos"1 Q. n e N then: — V I for I? / R e F K = .2.0) I f x i= C i S (»/ / 1 for 1 < r < n r.-2. y + ib) (x + iy)-1 = 1 (C) (a + ib) + ix |a . b.2. then: (A) x = .2) (B) (0. y = 1 & cos a b + 1I a + b I cos i.ib)-1 = x .2j + k makes with the plane contained by the two vectors 2i + 3 j .0) (C) (0.iy => |x + iy| = 1 (D) (y .1 ( » ^ .0.l .0) and C(0. b.

B.= 0 Im n * r | V= l y . [2] .r (D) L™* Im r i M = 0 \r = 1 / feBansal Classes Q. on Vector. & Misc. 3D & Complex No.

v.l (B) (C) I ^ H (D) = 1 is Let a = V 3 i . Find the distance of Pfromthe plane OQR. 5 5 The greatest value ofthe modulus of of the complex number ' z' satisfying the equality z' (A) SUBJECTIVE: Q.(a A bjj c and a vector q = ac cos [ft . Q & R have position vect ors. non-collinear vectors such that a vector p = ab c os^rc .5 jV(cos 2n-1 x . i .k and c = 2 i + k are all dra wn from the point with p.3) |dx 1 Q.A /A. r2 = i + 3j + 4k & r3 = 2i+j-2k respectively. 3 Q. 3D & Complex No.6 Evaluate: f| (x . say p =f(g).54 If a .j and b = .7 Given that vectors A. c are non-zero.3j) then which of the f ollowing statements holds good? (A) the line is parallel to 2 i + 6 j (C) the li ne passes through the point i + 9 j (B) the line passes through the point 3 i + 3 j (D) the line is parallel to xy plane Q.j .2 v Q.2k.1 Using only the limit theorems Lim = 1 an d Lim = 1. Find the equation of the plane containing th eir end point in scalar dot product form. b.2)(x . B = di + 3j + 4k & C =3i + j .c.53 Ifa line has a vector equation. & Misc.2 j + k . then express.2i . /nx-x + 1 Q. ij = 3i — 2j — k.l)(x . EvaluateT 6 1 7 x->o x x->i x .3 The three vectors a . relative to an origin O. (p^O&q^O) and find the interv als of monotonicity of /(q). B. .1 x -x 7 77. /nx ex .j .finda.cos2n+1 x) dx where n e N Let points P. feBansal Classes Q.? as a function of q.4 Q. b .d such that the area of the triangle is 5-^6 where A = ai + bj + ck.C form a triangle such that A = B + C .(a (A) parallel to a (C) coplan ar with b & c A cjj b then p + q is (B) perpendicular to a (D) coplanar with a and c + z Q. on Vector. B. Q.i + — j and x = a + (q 2 -3)b.b. ^ Q. y = .p a + qb-If x l y . r = 2i + 6j + X i .4 i .

[2] .

k+1 Q. [2] . on Vector. & Misc.15 If z-axis be vertical.14 Lim n-»co + n -1 n Q.13 Find the equation of the line pass ing through the point (1.V n n n-1 Q. Vsin4 x + cos4 x dx smxc os x r~rVsm 4x + cosr x v sir dx . where a> 0 and b> 0.3) is 357.12 Integrate: f.i l f -x dx n— J k=o k W n . meets the line ?=b + tc and is parallel to the plane r. tc/2 k/2 • f cosx f sinx .8 n k+1 Lim n V f f x . B(i + 2j + k). Also find the pv of the foot of the perpendicular from P on the plane L. dx Q.9 Find the distance ofthe point P(i + j + k) from the plane L which passes through the three points A(2i + j + k).0) on the plane 2x + 3y . C(i + j + 2k).4.4. 3D & Complex No.16 Let I = J f dx and J = j — d x . x Q.s i •n 3 x Q. -1.IO Evaluate: (a) J : sm xcosx Q. Q.3) which is perpendicular to both of the lines x-1 y+ 3 z-2 x+2 y-4 z+1 _ = —:— = —:— and —-— = —— = —— 2 1 4 3 2 -2 Alsofindall points on this li square of whose distance from (1.3 cos x . B.ll H \ 1 j Find the equation ofthe straight line which passes through the point with positi on vector a. \2 +n-l Q. find the equation of the line of greatest slope thro ugh the point (2. feBansal Classes Q. ii = 1. 0 acosx + bsinx 0 acosx + bsinx Compute the values of I and J.4z = 1.

i (b) s 2 4 ' z where t = corx.10 (a) 1m V t C i .2 (2i + 2 j .8 _ q(q3-3) .D B.28 Q.b ) .12 Q.D Q. 2.3 Q.45 Q.B A.32 Q.decreasing in q e (-1.37 B A D D B A •jsijtf y 'Otf xajdtuoj y (j£ Uops/i uo 7/ Q sdssvjj psuvfj^ Select the correct alternative : (Only one is correct) Q.C.24 Q.5 Q.C. Vt + l + l ( 1.41 A.53 A.1 + -/n + C.38 C B D B D C Q.31 Q .40 D A A C B A Q.39 A A D B A B Q.B.8 Q.4 Q.16 Q.42 Q.43 A.17 Q.B.D Q.4.35 B B B A A Select the correct alternatives : (More than one are correct) Q. where t = tan2x 2 4 Vt +1-4-1 Q. c.l 8 Q.25 Q.6 Q 9 .5 Q.D B.D SUBJECTIVE: Q.2 Q.D A.51 Q.C.C Q.7 3 units n 2n +1 (-8.14 Q.l Q.44 Q.26 Q.15 Q.2 Q.50 Q.9 Q.l Q.10 Q.D B.D B.ll r = a+A ( i .29 Q.^ c ' . 1). 2.20 Q.55 A.C.4 7 Q.21 Q.B.3 3 Q.7 Q.49 Q.27 Q.36 B A B A D C Q.D A.19 Q.30 Q.B Q.[oil Q.54 A.4 Q.-11) or (8.6 Q.C B.48 Q.22 Q.3 Q. q • • 0 * Q.13 Q.C.34 A A D B C Q.ll Q.46 Q.D Q.23 Q. 5) 8 ' Q.52 A.C.D B. 4.n In .k ) . i r + 1 . r = 3 1/2 '4 4 4X T P v3'3'3y Q.

cos x Q.14 e" 1 bn Q. .15 16 z-3 .Q.13 Q.16 2 x-2 y+i 12 1 an + b/n a 2 a +b v /y V3MSNV -a/n v a yy A 3)1 .12 2 [tan_1(sinx + cosx) + x—1 y-4 -10 2V2 V2+ si x +cosx sin +C A/2 -• sin x . (-9. 20. 4). (11. -12.2) 1 z 13 Q.

z>y oz^ " oa ©a 3. then we write logb rather than log10b . = (iv) log.303 If a= 10. log M logb a. If a = e. a*l)and log1/aa = .M log M log b x NOTE: Y y log. b > 0 . N) = loga M + logaN (iii) log M a = a . From the definition of the logarithm of the number N to the base 'a'. This number is designated as logaN. The existence and uniqueness of the number logaN fo llows from the properties of an experimental functions . 0 2 = 0. log c = 1 y eIn a y logv x. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) M (vi) PROPERTIES OF MONOTONOCITY OF LOGARITHM : For a> 1 the inequality 0 < x < y & lo g a x< logay are equivalent. This is known as the FUNDAMENTAL LOGARITHMIC N O T E :log a l=0 (a>0 .47 71 In 2 = 0. log7 y.3010 logI03 = 0. a ^ l . logab = I o logba=T/logab. Hence: log N = x < > a = N = x REMEMBER log.KEY CONCEPTS THINGS T o REMEMBER : L LOGARITHM OF A NUMBER : The logarithm of the number N to the base 'a' is the exp onent indicating the power to which the base 'a' must be raised to obtain the nu mber N.a>0.a*l&N>0 In 10 = 2. For 0 < a < l the inequality 0 < x < y & log a x>lo g a y are equivalent. THE PRINCIPAL PROPERTIES OF LOGARITHMS : Let M & N are arbitrary posiitive numbe rs. loga(M/N) = lo gaM .a. b ^ l and a is any real number then . a > 0 . log b. x > p => => x > ap x > ap 0 < x < ap NOTETHAT: y . a * 1) 2. we wri te In b rather than loge b . a * l ) l og a a=l ( a > 0 . we have an identity: a log a N =N a>0 . => 0 < x < ap If a > 1 then loga x < p If a > 1 then logax > p If 0 < a < 1 then log a x<p If 0 < a < 1 then log.l (a > 0 . a*1 & N>0 IDENTITY .' loga z = logx.693 .logaN (ii) C O loga (M.

The base of the logarithm 'a' must not equal unity otherwise num bers not equal to unity will not have a logarithm & any number will be the logar ithm of unity. y For a non negative number 'a' & n > 2. If the number & the base are on different sides of unity. n e N Va = a1/n. then the logarithm is posi tive. Bansal Classes Logarithm [2] .If the number & the base are on one side ofthe unity. then the logarit hm is negative.

l oti . V Q. find the value of log10(2.EXERCISE-I \ / / 1.2 v Q.3010. °s x -210 = 0 . Q. i f the base of the logarithm is 2401. log(8/45) + 3 .17 81 (a^ j ^ ^ -J [ v 7 .75.4y Q.25).3010 & log]03 = 0. ^ j Prove that logjS is irrational. log 7 7 b(logbN) '°g»a Jj V A V (b) a Solve for x : (a) If log4 log3 log2 x = 0 Which is smaller? 2 or (logn2 + log27i ).l J Show that : 0.5 ^ .4771.15 Calculate: (a) Q. 0 8 .8 Q.3 2.10 Q. Q. Q. logI03 = 0. Find the number of positive integers which have the characteristic 3. where base of log is 3 .7J Q. (b) 615 & (c) the number ofzeros after the decimal in 3-100.56= 1. Q. log4 log5 x = 0 Q. log N Prove that -——— = 1 + log b & indicate the H permissible values ofthe letters.12x + 36) = 2 Simplify: 1.y + l o g y 4 .14 Q.456 . 4 ^ +9 3 =10 " . Find the number of integers in : (a) 5200 If log102 = 0. N • (a\f (b) Given: log1034. find log103.12 If. log(25/8)-4.l 6 Q.9 Q. _ (b) Simplify the following : (b) 5 .13 Find a rational number which is 50 times its own logarithm to the base 10. ^ T ^ (b) 9 1+1 °s x -3 1+.5386. when the base ofthe logarithm is 7.log(5/6) = log2. (a) l o g ^ f o . then find x.003456. log100.3456 & log1 00.67 Find the antilogarithm of 0.5 J If log102 = 0.ll (a)jlf log 10 (x 2 . Solv e for x : Q.47 71. )og 4 lo8 9 log S3 (b) If log.

where the base of log is 10.l 8 Express log4a + log s (a) . Q. 1/2 v 7+V3 10+2V2T ' Show that logic =20. then find the value of x. Q. [v'2x~..2 / :+log. If loge log. express the logarithm ofthe number 63 to the base 140 in terms of 3./3 + [l/loga8] as a logarithm to the base 2. log72 = c.2 + 3] = 0. QBansal Classes Logarithm [3] . 19 Find the value of Q. log35 = b.20 + 5~ logs4 . b & c. Given that log23 : a .

IN= — ~T7— 8 abc Q. (1 -5X"3) = -log5(0.1og10(l +x)] = 0. log N. b > 0 & a . a > 0. lo gcN + logcN . log 4 + 2x ' .8 Q. Q. loghN + logbN . XIOGX+4 = Q.6 x+log 10 (l+2 x ) = x. Q.6)2 = 4 iogarithm 22.2-5X"4) 1N .0x) logx+1 (x2 + x .log^N Q. where base of log is a. (xyz) = 12 . b * 1.22 Prove that ax .9 log5120 + (x-3) .9. 192 =3. 24 log. log. a > 0 . where base of logarithm is 2. l o g J x 2 _ 2 1 ) .b>' = 0 where x = ^og^b & y = / l o § b a .l Q.2.21 Prove that log. __ l + log 2 (x-4) where the base of is 10 Q 7 ' log (VTTs-^i) = 1 Q.24 log ]0 (x-3) _ 1 (a) S o l v e f o r x . Q.3 log ]0 [3 + 2.23 Prove the identity : logaN . log'z loga(xyz) = 84 « d EXERCISE-II Note : From Q.4 (1 /12) (log. + — log 3 = log ( ^ + 2 7). y log. log2x2 = log4x2 (d) 5logx + 5 x'°e5 = 3 (a > 0) . solve the equation for x : Q.log N. Iog.l to Q. where base of log is 10 everywhere.25 Solve the system of equations: log a x loga(xyz) = 48 log.0x)2 = (1 /3)-(1 /4) (log.5 Q. a * 1.2 Q. (c) logx2 . 5iogx_3iogx-i ^3iogx+i _5iogx-i.log 10 5 + log106..Q.2 (b) log(logx) + log (log x 3 -2) = 0 .

If logba. 10 Prove that log710 is greater than log. b-c c-a a-b s h Q w t h a t aa bb Cc=1 If a = log1218 & b = log2454 then find the value of ab + 5(a-b). then prove that pqr = p + q + r + 2.13.15 If ^ U ^ g b . b i i . Q. logb c = 3 (Where a. then find the value of abc. c are different positive real numbe rs * 1).12 Q.ll Q.Q. . Q. z = 1 + logcab.13 If x = 1 + logabc. If p = logabc. then prove that xyz = xy + yz + zx. b. q = logbca. r = logeab. logcb + logac.14 Q. 43Bansal Classes Logarithm [4] . logca + l ogab. y = 1 + logbca.

17 If loga log c N N_ lo g l l logbN-logcN N -• logfcN where n >o & N 1. where base of logarithm is 10.7 ) = 2.ogx = a'°s-v where a > 0. 18 Find all the s o l u t i o n s of the e q u a t i o n Q.c> 0 & not equal to 1.b * l . logc. Find x satisfying the equation log' S olve : log-(Vx + V x .20 Q. b > 0 .ab*l.b.21 Q. log c+b a. a. Solve the system ofthe equations log9(x2 + l) r log 3 (y-2) = 0and log 2 (x 2 -2y 2 + 1 0 y .l o g x 2 . c > 0 .ba. c .Q. b > 0 and a*b. then prove that b2 = ac. Q. c + b * l .1 ) = log9 M 4 +log 2 V X+4 2 log" —1 x —1 Vx-1 ) 2 2 a r V .19 Q. Solve the system ofthe equations (ax)loga = (by)logb. 16 Given a2 + b2 = c2 & a > 0 . Q. b. Prove that: logc+ba + logc_ba = 2.22 1x | ~ (log m'°8 x f .

1) = lug 2 (x-3) is (A) 3 (B)l (C) 2 " (D) 0 [ R EE '99.6] ' feBansal Classes Logarithm •1•»•—w I [5] .q. N umber of solutions of log 4 (x. Q. then compute the value of log!0 P .log1 0Q in terms of p and q.l Solve the following equations for x & y : log 1 0 y-log 1 0 lxblog 1 0 0 4. Q. and Q the number of integers the logarithms of whose reciprocals to t he base 10 have the characteristic .24 Q.log b Q.2. EXERCISE-TII Q. 6 ] [REE 2000.2 Find all real numbers x which satisfy the equation. 5 out of 100] [JEE 2001 (screening)] logi001 x+y | 2 [REE'96.4 log3/4log8 (x2 + 7) + log1/2 log1/4 (v + 7)"1 = . 21og 2 log 2 x + log ]/2 log 2 (2V2x)= 1.25 Prove that : 2 Solve for x: log 2 (4-x) + log (4-x) .3 Q.23 Q. ~J •2 log2! x If P is the number of integers whose logarithms to the base 10 have the characte ristic p . log if b>a>l if l<b<a 0.

2c + a b c + 1 (d) x = 2"losa where base of log is 5 1 + 2ac Q 24. a 7 ) EXERCISE-II Q l .5386 (b) 2058 Q 5. a 18 Q 20. 25 9 KEY Q 4.5386 . b > 0 . x = 1 Q 7. b * l / a Q 3. (a) x = 5 (b) x = 10 (c) x = 2 r i or Q 25. (a) x = 16 or x = . 1.3522 Q7.4 (b) x = 5 Q 9. (a ) 0. 0. J_ l_ J_ 4 ' a 'a 7 J Va (a4. x = a & y = b Q 2. (a) 8 (b) 625 Q 12. a. N * l .5386 .9 Q 4. a * l . 343 Q 8 . ( a ) . x = 3 Q19. — . (a) 0 (b) Q 17. a > 0 .iEM JPll ANSWER EXERCISE-I Q 2. 1 Q 19. x = 10 or 10~4 Q3. x = -0. Q 5. x = 5 Q12.log.(a) 1 (b) 6 2 Q 18. N = 100 Q 15. (a) 140 (b) 12 (c) 47 Q 6. 2 Q 13. x = 2 or ^ . N > 0 . 3. x = 10 Q 14. 32 x —1 Q .1 (b) logbN Q 10.

x = 1 Q 15.25 p . x = V2 or V 6 Q. x s (j) 1.6. x = 100 Q 8.l {-10.3 x — 3 or . Q 20.3 Q. {10/3.20/3} Q. . abc = 1 Q 9.q Q22. [0. y = 4 x V3 or x = S Q 21.2 x = 8 Q.20}. y = 4 Q 18.4 B 43Bansal Classes Logarithm [6] . 1] u {4} EXERCISE-III Q. x = 2 or — or 1000 .

EXERCISE-II EXERCISE-III ANSWER KEY Page—25 -27 . « Page -2 Page -3 Page -4 Page -6 Page-7 Page -9 Page -13 Page -16 Page Page Page Page -17 -18 -20 -23 CONTINUITY DIFFERENTIABILITY KEY CONCEPT EXERCISE-I. EXERCISE-II EXERCISE-III KEY CONCEPT EXERCISE-I EXERCIS E-II EXERCISE-III .BANSAL CLASSES TARGET IIT JEE 2007 MATHEMATICS XII (ALL) LIMIT..OF FUNCTION LIMIT KEY CONCEPT EXERCISE-I.... CONTINUITY & DIFFERENTIABILITY W.

x—>a when Limit f j .h ) n = 0 . x-»a i = Limit 1 Limit t a n . where k is a constant. provided fis continuous at g (x) = m.) = Limit ^ = finite qua ntity.o) x->0 s m x = X x->0 „ X = x-»0 = L i m i t x> —0 [ Where x is measured in radians ] (b) Limit (1 + x)1/x = e = Limit and ( note Limit however there h-» o (1 . For example /n(f(x) = /n Limit f (x) /n/(/>0)..' X SUT'X 3.» oo . Limit of a function f(x) is said to exist as. If / & m exists then: ^ f ( x ) ± g ( x ) = /±m (ii) Limit f(x) g(x) = /.KEY CONCEPTS (LIMIT) THINGS T O REMEMBER : 1.m f Cx) g Limit ^ = . L-it f [g(x)j = ffLimit g(x)] = f(m). FUNDAMENTAL THEOREMS O N L I M A ' S : Let Lx™11 f (x) = I & ^ 0) (iii) (iv) (v) L t g (x) = m. 2. STANDARD LIMITS : Limit V"/ . Limit (1 + h ) n . provided m * 0 k f(x) = k f(x) .

continuity & Differentiability of Functions [5] ^<§BansalClasses .. oo-oo and l00 0 0 0 Note : (i) We cannot plot oo on the paper . 00° .. then. — . 5. ln[f(x) ] = e —a x 1 T * . Oxoo .. if a 0. (ii) oo + oo = oo (iii) o o x o o = oo (iv) (a/00) = 0 if a is finit e (v) (vi) ^ is not defined.if&onlyifa = 0orb = 0 and a & b are finite. Limits. INDETERMINANT FORMS : . Infinity (oo) is a symbol & not a number. (e) m v 2 L !t BlnA j =A B x > [f( x VJ x™ > x5? I." j o^ . Limit = In a (a >0).. V )] = e where z = x->a < (x). > | +(x)[f(x)-i] (d) If Limit L = A > 0 & Limit < ( X ) = B ( a f in i te quantity)then > | . ab = 0. (c) If Limit f(x) = 1 and Limit [ f ( X ) f 0 0 = e x ™ a < (x) = oo. SQUEEZE PLAY THEOREM : If f(x) < g(x) < h(x) V x & L«mt f(x) = / = Limit h ( x ) then Ljmit g(x) = /. It does not obey the laws of element ry algebra.. In particular Limit £ _ J = i ~ Limit x-a 4. 0°.

expansion of sinx . v ' 1! 2! 3! 3 5 7 (iii) In (1+x) = (V) cosx=l v + 2 for-l<x<l 6 (iv) sinx=x v ' ' 3! + 5! 7! 2x5 15 + / \ ^ X ' 2! + X X . exponential & logarithmic expansion..6. tanx should be remembered by heart & are given below: (i) ax =1 + —— + w 1! xlna x 2 ln2a 2! x3 ln3a 3! .a >0 (ii) ex =1+—+—+—+. cosx. appropriate substitution and using standard limits Expansion offunction like Binomial expansion. (a) <b) (c) (d) The following strategies should be born in mind for evaluating the limits: Facto risation Rationalisation or double rationalisation Use of trigonometric transfor mation .

.. .x p Q/7.4 X 4! 3 6! 5 + X 7 (vi) tanx= x+—+—+. . . -i a q Tjm . 3! 7! 2 4 2! 4! 6! EXERCISE-I Q/ Lim Vx-1 2 Lim x -x. v + •i2 o2 c2 •>'v .3'. ^ X ) 06) _ i-x .lnx +lnx .1 X->1 x—1 r „ Lim x—>1v i .. x 5x 61x® (ix) sec"1x = l+—+-—+ = ^ x3 3 / (vii) * -1 v 7 tan'x=x 3 +X 5 7 (vm) sin *x= x+—x3+ .. V 3 12.32 51 lz..5" 7 -x +x +.

continuity & Differentiability of Functions [31 .cos 0 .2 cos x 1 +A/tanx Lim tan where a eR ^ Plot the graph ofthe function f(x) = Lim — tan .) e' + e"1 L^m ( x _ / n cogh x ) w here cosh t : Lim Lim 1 ~ t a n x cos-1 [cot x] where [] denotes greatest integer function ^ Q 12.r vn t y "100 s * k -100 _K=1 .sin 0 (49 — 7i)2 16. . L im x-»l X—1 tanx-sinx — as x—>0 and whose common ratio is the limit ofthe function sin x 1 -Vx "(cos-1 x)2 as x Find the sum of an infinite geometric series whosefirstterm is the limit of the function f(x)= g(x) ^10.2-v/x + 3x1/3 + 5x1/5 x X 6 ' Lim 1 . cot In2 (1 + x)] x—>0 i 0 . Lim f [2] ^Bansal Classes Limits.> f Lim V2 . x_>| ~ — ^ s i n x sec 4x-sec 2x sec3x-secx -COSX 1 0 1 x(x-f) Lim [/n (1 + sin2x).^HL >bey the x L (U se °f series expansion or L' Hospital's rule is not allowed.

Let'f(x) = .2) x2 . l<x<2 x >2 =x-5. & ^ limit LfoocL' y f Lim (ln(l + x) .ln2)(3. find LHL and RHL of g( f (x)) at x = 0 and hence find Lim g( f (x)).2 cos— + cos—cos— 4 2 4 X2 2 X X2 . x<0 x <1 =x -2x-2. Lim ^ 2 8 . g(x) = Lim s in 2n xandsin(h(x))=-[cos7t(g( x))+cos(2f(x))] Find the domain and range ofh (x).4x~1 . Using Sandwich theorem to evaluate 1 1 ^TT + J 2 + j + 2+ Vn 2 +2n jt 1 021. V n = 2. Let P = a "" . sm ( x _l) + f. = a .9 T im 27*-9*-3*^1 x->0 7 2 . Givenf(x)= Lim tan"1 (nx). 2 T im (x3 +27)In (x. If Lim a sinx-sin 2x .OT17. 3. finite t h e n f m d t h y a l u e Lim A 1-cos X x->0 x8 2 . g(x) = x+3.1 X—>2 x-2 and 0^25. L im (cosa) x + (sin a ) x .29 (3x + 2x )sinL+| x | +5 |x|3+|x|2+|x|+l 4 2 3 and Let P.V l + cosx 1 / 0 2 6 .1 where a e R+ then evaluate Lim — x->0 X x If f(x) = /ncosec (xn) 0<X<1 = /nsin(2x7i) l<x<3/2 1 1 find tan. -sr-^n * _ tan 3x_ n 1S 15..3x) x-^1 [ ( 7 + x ) l_ ( 1 + 3x )i].(g(l~)) and sec . x-»0 1 1 n Q 27.r — . Lim ->/l-V sin2x 7C-4x ^24. X-^-W Lj Q. x > 0 sinx =2-x.1 .

Lim Vx. 02. ^ 2f(x)+l g( ) 3 f ( x ) + 1 x = then . At the end-points and the midpoint of a circular arc AB tangent lines are drawn. and the points^ are joined with a chord." (g(l + )). Prove that the ratio ofthe areas of th e two triangles thus formed tends to • arc AB decreases indefinitely.c .l + x. aeR 5 Lim x sin £n jcos tan-* / 71 X -V Lim x-^00 cos 271 tan • . EXERCISE-II ^ L JjS 2x2 + 3 2x2 +5 sm' 8x +3 2 X +c =4 thenfindc .21 (1+x1 f \l/x Tt 2-bx V^ n 2-axJ ' x ^ .

83.l + cosx^ t-/V x-»0 ^<§BansalClasses x . + a. + +ar x->co 1 \nx where aj. continuity & Differentiability of Functions [5] .* +a.83.7tX f\ q Lim ^ x . V Limits.t Lim a.

where {x} denotes the fractional « Find the values of a. sin x + sin 2x + sin 3x + Limit s i + s 2 + Q 19. Without using series expansion or LHospital's rule evaluate. If sn be the sum of n terms of the series. {x}) c ° S 1(1 {x}) thenfindx x j f(x) and ^ / V2{x} .x ]+ [3. f(x). ^ 2 + sin nx then show that n 1+x \l+x in (1 + x) X + sn = 1 1 X cpt | .L 2 W.x ]+ [2.x] ^ where ^ denotes the greatest Q 16. +[n.2 sin ax U — J ~ b cos x + ce" • = 2 ~ x. (l-{x» part function. Lim [1. b & c so that Lim x->0 2n ) ))] Lim tan 2 x-x 2 x2tan2x Q p . Lim x—>1 1 — x "f" /n x 1 + COS71X exp(xln(l + LimitX-><» j -expfxln(l + Q 18. Letf(x)= sm " 1(1 .x ] + f aeX a 2 +x 2 . sin x N ^ TlX ^ sin U J y where a is an odd integer T im X n f ( x ) + g ( x ) n—>0 ° x n +l xsR integer function.

£2k7t)kGl) 23 -1 33 . Let P„ = n 2 + 1 3+1 4 + 1 n3-l . then compute Lim / ( n .xa where a > 0.The point C is the intersection of the two ta ngent lines at A& B. If / = m thenfindthe value of ' a'. Let/=Lim e x.a . 0 fljk ^ ' Lim ^x + Vx+Vx -Vx L If f(n.a e'+e" 1 2 Lim 2 (t anx . 0 < x < — as shown in itsAandB to 4 as the thefigure.(x.1 43 -1 5 ^ 0 i. Compute: (b) S(x) -|l/x & (c) the limit of j I = yx + yx + Vx & S(x) as x -> 0. Let T(x) be the area of triangle ABC & let S(x) be the area of the shaded region.sinx) . A circular arc of radius 1 subtends an angle ofx radians.x3 x 11 x -° f Q 2 y Lim >0 ^ V cosh — cos— X 7t where cosh t = .2 & m = Lim x-»a ax . 9 ) = n ^ " t a n 2 ^ r j .Evaluate Lim p n >o —o n 3 +l 7T Q 21. x. 6) Q 24.

continuity & Differentiability of Functions [5] .XJ <§Bansal Classes Limits.

0 < a < b (v ' Lim (ii) X-»-00 x+ l -ax-b 2 Lim x +l .b = 0 ^ j Q 29. a chord AP is drawn & on the tangent at A a point T is taken such t ^ AT = AP. Lim vx + 2j (B)e-' (A)e Lim x-»0 sin(7tcos2x) —2 equals (B) % ^tanx _ gSinx (A)-71 0. j j m xtan2x .*. evaluate v* n 1 2 2 + ^2 + n2 +.2xtanx (1 . -*=° 1 + n^ n 2 + ^n + n2 ' im w (b) Ln^00 a n + b n ) n .^2 (A) exits and it equals ^2 (C ) does not exist because x .cos2x)2 (A) 2 1S : [JEE'99. Find a & b if :Ji) X-»00 X + l Q30.f[ Q 27^ Through a point A on a circle.3 out of 100] ^ v/ Evaluate Lim . Screening] (C)e(D)e5 [JEE2001. J^f28.6 JQ.3 F o r x e R .1 ] [ IIT '98. Screening] ^£4 rx . 2 (out of200)] (B)-2 (C)I [JEE2000. Using Sandwich theorem. prove that the limiting value ofAQ whe moves upto Ais double the diameter of the circle. 2 ] j]-cos2(x-l) X-^l x-l (B) exits and it equals . 7 (Of (D)l [REE 2001.a x . x->o tanx-sinx ^cos x lVcos X The integer n for which Lim . If TP produced meet the diameter through Aat Q. a > 0.1 -» 0 (D) does not exist because left hand limit is not equal to right hand limit. Showthat Lim (sm(x + h))x + h \x + h (sinxf =(sinx)X[xcotx + /nsinx] EXERCISE-III l + 5x2 _l + 3x A ^ Lim l [ IIT'96.

& n x ^ is afinitenon-zero number is (D)4 [JEE 2002 (screening). 0f8 If Lim x-»0 sin nx (B)2 ( )[(a-n)nx~tanx] (B) n +1 2 = 0 (C)3 ( n >0) then the value of'a'is equal to (A)i n (C) 1 n 2 +1 n (D) None [JEE 2003 (screening)] Find the value of Lhn — (n + l)cos f .n 7t ^<§BansalClasses [JEE'2004. 3 ] (A)l .1 . continuity & Differentiability of Functions [5] . 2 out of 60] Limits.

v (CONTINUITY) 7 il 1. if Limit f(x) = f(c). h > —0 * h-»0 i. Symboli cally x—>c 2. the graph ofthe function will exhibit a break at x= c.c if Limit f(c-h)=Limit f(c+h) = f(c). A function f(x) is said to be continuous at x = c.e.2] (ii) (iii) f(x) is not defined at x= c Limit f(x)*f(c) x-»c 0 rf 3 4 Geometrically. 2 and3. Reasons of discontinui ty: Limit f(x) does not exist x->c . 2\~ 1 i. (Removable type of discontinuities) In case Limit f(x) exists but is not equal to f(c) then the functionis said to have a removable discontinuity or discontinu ity of the first kind. It should be noted that co ntinuity of a function at x=a is meaningful only if the function is defined in t he immediate neighbourhood of x=a.ikensuchtl ofAQ wher KEY CONCEPTS THINGS T O REMEMBER : _ _ . In this case we can redefine the function such that Limit f(x) = f(c) & X-K.1] 5. 3. LHL at x = c = RHL at x = c equals Value of ' f at x = c.e. (i) fis continuous at x . The graph as shown is discontinuous atx = 1. : of200) ] . Types of Discontinuities: Type -1. not necessarily atx=a. Limit f(x) ^ Limit f(x) x-»c x->c + .

x = 0 if x e l Similarly f(x) = [x] + [-x] = has an isolated point discontinuity at all x e I. x->a x— it of 100] e x 2 -.g. continuity & Differentiability of Functions [5] .[x] at all integral x. f(x) = x . Non-removable type of discontinuity can be further classified as: . f(x) =tan — at x = 0 and f(x) = — at x = 0 ( note that f(0+) = 0 .f ( ) — .g.l if x e I ning). 3] Type-2: (Non . x-»a n xlf9 x ^ e.16 -g. 1 1 Finite discontinuity e. f(0") = 1) 1+2* ^<§BansalClasses Limits.make it continuous at x= c. and (1-x) discontinuity at x = 0 (b) ISOLATED POINT DISCONTINUITY sinx fix)= has a missing point x ening] : Where Limit f(x) exists & f(a) also exists but. L . x—>c ning)] it of 60] (a) Such discontinuities are known as non . x 4 & f (4) = 9 has an isolated point discontinuity at x = 4. f(x) = -—Ji—_—L has a missing point discontinuity at x = 1. Removable type of discontinuity can be further class ified as : :ening] (a) M I S S I N G P O I N T DISCONTINUITY : Where Limit f(x) exists finitely but f(a) is not defined.removable discontinuity or discontinuity of the 2nd kind.Removable type of discontinui ties) In case Limit f(x) does not exist then it is not possible to make the func tion continuous by redefining it. Limit * f(a).

and f(x) 2 at x = 4. 5. Trigonometrical functions.rn (b) tanx Infinite discontinuity e. F3(x) = f(x).g(x) are also continuous at x= c. f(x ) = 2 (x-4) x-4 atx = 0. exponential & Logarithmic functions are continuous in their ») domains.1 . I. Further. A function having afini tenumber of jumps in a given interval I is called a PIECE WISE interval. If f & g are two functions that are continu ous at x= c then the functions defined by: FJ (x) = f(x) ± g(x) . then F4(x) = f(x) 6.b) takes on every value between f(a) and fib) . «) In case of dis-continuity of the second kind the non-negative difference between the value ofthe RHL at X=c & LHL at X = c is called THE JUMP O F DISCONTINUITY.g. thei r exists a number c between a and b such that f(c)=y0The function f.fis continuous at x = . K any real number .f has isol ated discontinuity at x = 1 . being conti nuous on [a. 7t COSX CL . F2(X) = K f(x). f(x) = sin J. The intermediate value theorem: Supposefix)is continuous on an interval I. 7.g. if g (c) is not zero. is also continuous at x=c. Then ify0 is a number between f(a) and f(b). CONTINUOUS or SECTIONALLY CONTINUOUS function in this i) All Polynomials.f has missing point discontinuity at x = 2 . x In all these cases the value off(a) of the function at x= a (point of discontinuity) may or may not exi st but Limit does not exist.atx=0. x d) (c) e) Oscillatory discontinuity e.f has non removable (finite type) discontinuity at the origin. x-»a y? a) b) i) x 1 2 Nature of discontinuity Note: From the adjacent graph note that . and a and b are any two points ofI. f(x) = or g(x) = at x —.

g.NOTE VERY CAREFULLY THAT : (a) If f(x) is continuous & g(x) is discontinuous at x = a then the product function <j>(x) = f(x) g(x) is not necessarily be discontinuous at x = a. V2 sinf x * 0 f(x) = x&g(x) = 0 x= 0 Iff(x) and g(x) both are discontinuous at x=a then t he product function <|)(x)=f(x). e. f(x) = -g(x) = 1 -1 x> 0 x< 0 Limits. e. continuity & Differentiability of F unctions [5] (b) ^<§BansalClasses .g(x) is not necessarily be discontinuous atx= a .g.

If K ber between f(a) & f(b). hence the composi te (gof) (x) = 2 2 x +2 x +2 <0 not exist but be continuous at x = 0. A function fis said to be continuous in a closed interval [a. f(x) = ^J1 . b] if: f is continuous in the open interval (a. b). SINGLE POINT CONTINUITY: Dntinuous at Functions which are continuous only at one point are said to exhibit single poin t continuity e. b] possesses the erties: If f(a) & f(b) possess opposite signs.x + -^x-1 i s not continuous at x = 1. f(x) =f x i f x e Q and g( x ) =[* * . Ab) id f(b) :)• g(x) is not Q^r. fis left continuous at 'b' i.f(x) = cosx c) Point functions are to be treated as discontinuous. L-xifxgQ LOirxgQ EXERCISE-I /ncosx 5K.. Note that a function fwhich is continuous in[a. b). then there exists lution ofthe equation f(x) = 0 in the open interval (a. b) & f is right continuous at' a' i. CONTINUITY IN A N INTERVAL : a) b) i) :«) "0 ftheRHLat ber of jumps iction in this. Suppos e that f(x) = x -3x -4x+ 12 and h(x) followiiig prop at least one so is any real num of the equation . then there exists at least one solution f(x) = K in the open inetrval (a.fix)= xsinx xsinx will also & g(x) = I x I are continuous at x = 0 . b). J) IUOUS in their!") A function fis said to be continuous in (a. e. If yes wha t is the value of f(0).e. If fis continuous at x = c & g is continuo us at x=f(c) then the composite g[f(x)] is continuous at x = c. il A Continuous function whose domain is closed must have a range also in closed interval. )t necessarily Let f(x): VT^-i i if x>0 sin4x _ j /n(l + tan2x) if x <0 Is it possible to define f(0) to make the function continuous at x=0.. eg. if not then indicate the nature of discontinuity. b) if fis continuous at each & every point e(a. f(x) = f(b) = afinitequantity. are both continuous onl y atx = 0. f(x)=f(a) = afinitequantity. eg.g.

3 2 : f(x) _ —— , x * 3 x-3 then K , x= 3 find all zeros of /(x) JJo)findthe value of K that makes h continuous at x=3 ^j( e)using the value of K found in (b), determine whether h is an even function. ^ <§Bansal Classes Limits, continuity & Differentiability of Functions [5]

Q-3. Let yn(x) = x + 7 • ,, 2x2 J 1 + x2 (l+x?) and y(x) = Limit y n (x) 2 X2 x2 .+ -, 1 (1+x ) 2 11 1 Discuss the continuity of yjx) (n = 1,2,3 n) and y(x) at x = 0 Draw the graph of the function f(x)=x-1 x - x 2 | , -1 < x < 1 & discuss the continuity or discont inuity fin the interval - I < x < 1. i-sinTix l+cos2nx X< 2 Letf(x) = x = j . Determine the value ofp, ifpossible, so that the function is P y/2x-l 2 ^ V ' X> 2 XT 2 continuous atx= 1/2. 6. t Given the function g (x) = V6-2x and h (x) = 2x2 - 3x + a. Then M evaluate h (g( 2)) Let f(x) = g(x), J b ) If f (x) = - h(x), x<l x > 1,find'a' so that fis cont inuous. t^jrr. 1+x , 0<x<2 . Determine the form of g(x) = f [f(x)] & hencefindthe point of 3-x , 2<x<3 discontinuity of g, if any. ^jX8. Let [x] denote the greatest integer function & f(x) be defined in a neighbourhoo d of 2 by (exp {(x+2)ln4}) 4 -16 ,x<2 4X-16 f(x) = . l-cos(x-2) ,x>2 (x-2)tan(x2) Find the values ofA& f(2) in order that f(x) may be continuous at x=2. kn x t S Un<X [x+l] if if 0<x<f The function f(x) = (ijtanxl^ (l+|cosx|)m if b+2

x=f ' §<X<7T Determine the values of'a' & 'b', if fis continuous at x=tc/2. J^IO Let / ( x ) : 2 1 r x sin—, i f x , ^ 0 0 if x = 0 Use squeeze play theorem to prove that/is continuous at x=0. Q.ll Let f(x)=x + 2, - 4 <x < 0 2 = 2- x . 0<x<4 thenfind f ( f ( x ) ) , domain of f ( f ( x ) ) and also comment upon the continuity of f ( f ( x ) ) . * j ' x>o ; g Q 12. Let f(x) = ^ = {(x + ij,/2 ! x > 0 • Discuss the continuity of g(f(x)). ^<§BansalClasses Limits, continuity & Differentiability of Functions [5]

3cos x n Determine a & b so that f is continuous at x = —. f(x) = a At b(l-sinx) ( it-2x)J if if if X<f * X=*§ X>f scontinuity o sin(a+l)x+sinx 4 Determine the values of a, b & c for which the function f (x) = (x+bx^'-x" bx 2 for x<() for x=0 for x>0 is continuous at x = 0. • && sin 3x+Asin 2x+Bsin x (x* 0) is cont. at x = 0. Find A& B. Also find f(0). Iff(x )=Do not use series expansion or L' Hospital's rule. -L- for 0<x<2 x-l Discuss t he continuity ofthe function T defined as follows: f(x) x+1 for 2 <x< 4 and draw the x+1 x-5 for 4<x<6 : of graph of the function for x e [0,6], Also indicate the nature of discontinuities if any. yr j^8 If f(x) = x + {-x} + [x], where [x] is the integral part & {x} is the fractional part of x. Discuss the continuity of fin [ - 2 , 2 ]. Find the locus of (a, b) for which the function f (x) = is continuous at x = 1 but discontinuous at x=2. ax - b for x<1 3x for 1 < x < 2 bx - a for x >2 Prove that the inverse of the discontinuous function y=(1 + x2) sgn x is a conti nuous function. Ol9 sin2(7t-2x) x n f (x) + h(x) +1 Let g (x) = Lim _ , x ^ 1 an d 5g(l) = Lim —f ' x \ be a continuous function W 2x + 3x + 3 /n(sec(7i-2 )j at x = 1, find the value of 4 g ( l ) + 2 f ( l ) - h ( l ) . Assume that f (x) and h (x) are continuous at x = 1. If g: [a, b] onto [a, b] is continous show that th ere is some c e [a, b] such that g (c) = c. 2 + cosx is not defined at x = 0. Ho w should the function be defined at The function f(x) = 3 v x sinx x 4 ^ Q.22 x = 0 to make it continuous atx=0. Use of expansion of trigonometric functions and L' Hospital's rule is not allowed. „sinx „tanx for x > 0 ^ 3 f(x) : a -a tanx-sin x /n(l + x + x,2 ) + / n ( l - x + x ) for x < 0, if fis continuous at x = 0, fin

d 'a' sec x - c o s x r xN cot (x - a) for x a, a ^ 0, a > 0. If g is continuous at x = a then show th at now if g (x) = In 2 - v g(e 1 ) = - e . ^Bansal Classes 1101 Limits, continuity & Differentiability of Functions 111]

Q.24 (a) Let f(x+y) = f(x) + f(y) for all x, y & ifthe function f(x) is continuous at x = 0, then show that f(x) continuous at all x. If f(x- y)=f(x)- f(y) for all x, y and f(x) is continuous at x = 1. Prove that f(x) is continuous for all x exce^ a tx=0. Given f ( l ) * 0 . J) Givenf(x)=Z i t a n ( J J s e c ^ J ; r , n e N tn |( f ( x ) + t a n | - ) "I (f(x) + t a n ^ (b) ^.25 g(x)= 1 +(f (x) + tan 7 1 = k for x = — r-i n [sin(tanf)] W and the domain of g (x) is (0, tc/2). where [ ] denotes the greatest integer function. f Find the value of k, if possi ble, so that g (x) is continuous at x=nJ4. Also state the points of discontinui! of g (x) in (0, n/4), if any. , 0 f(x) Let f (x) = x 3 - x2 - 3x - 1 and h (x) = where h is a function such tha,t (a) it is continuous every where except when x = - 1 , Find Lim (3h(x) + f(x) - 2g(x>) x-»0 £ (b) Lim h(x) = oo and (c) Lim h(x) = -p> X—>00 X->-L 2 :27 Let f be continuous on the interval [0,1] to R such that f (0) = f (1). Prove th at there exists a point c i' such that f(c) = f c + v 2y 1 - ax + xa x ^na for x <0 axx2 where a >0. Consider the function g(x) = x x 2 a - x^n2 - x^na - 1 for x >0 Q.28 9 Without using, L 'Hospital's rule or power series,findthe value of'a' & 'g(O)' s o that the function g(x) i continuous at x = 0. (j ^-sm-l(l-{x}2)).sm-l(\-{x}) L et f(x) n 2 V2({x}-{x}3) for x * 0 for x = 0 where {x} is the fractional part of

Consider another function g(x); such that g(x) = f(x) for x > 0 =2V2 f(x) for x < 0 Discuss the continuity of the functions f(x) & g(x) at x=0. Discuss the cont inuity of f in [0,2] where f(x) = |4x-5|[x] for x > l . w here [x] is the greate s' [cos7tx] for x < l integer not greater than x. Also draw the graph. [14] Bansal Classes Limits, continuity & Differentiability of Functions [15]

t+r iowthatf(x)i ,, . EXERCISE-II (OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS) ^ forallxexce,* 1 a). State whether True or False. If f(x) = for x* , then the value which can be give n to f(x) at x = j so that the function becomes continuous every where in (0,n/2) is 1/4. b) The function f, defined by f(x) = —2" — is continuous for real x. ] 1+ v cK fix) ' = L' 01 ^ 1+nsin — is continuous at x = 1. W n-)-« 7tx yy :>f discontinue 2x+l if The function f(x) = -x—1 if x+2 if -3<x<-2 -2<x<0 is continuous everywhere in (-3,1). 0<x<l The function defined by f(x)= [T^TF for x * 0 & f(0) = 1 is continuous at x=0. ^ im h(x) = 1 / The function f(x)=2" 21/(1-x) i f x ^ 1 & f(l) = 1 is not continuous at x = 1. '£ istsapointci Q 2. ftf The functionf(x) = 2xA/(x3 -1) + sVx V(l-x4) + 7x2 V(x-l) + 3x+2 is continuous a t x = 1. There exists a continuous function f: [0,1] [0,10], but there exists no continuous function g: [0, l]-^4(0,10). Fill in the blanks Given f(x)=L~ c o s ( c x ) , x ^ 0 & f ( 0 ) = If fis continuous at x = 0, then the value of c is x sinx 2 & removable discontinuity at x (h>C The function f(x)=-7-7 has non removable discontinuity at x= / ln|xj = resp ectively. function g(x) i If f(x) is continuous in [0,1 ] & f(x) = 1 for all rational numbers in [0,1 ] th en f f i fi. ^ mal part of yijpf x + aV2sinx , 0<x<-| , -J < x < The values of'a' & 'b' so that the function f (x

) = 2x cotx + b acos2x-bsinx , - | < x < 7 t „. is continuous for 0 < x < n are & it 4 y (e}r 7 If ffx)= ~^ cosx —1 is continuous at x = 4 thenf v ' cot x ~ l is the greatesi [14] Bansal Classes Limits, continuity & Differentiability of Functions [15]

Q3, Indicate the correct alternative(s): The function defined as f(x) = Limit C0S7tX 'f"51"^ l +x -X 2 2n+1 1} rff (A) is discontinuous a t x = 1 becausef(l + ) * f ( l - ) (B) is discontinuous a t x = 1 because f(l) is not defined (C) is discontinuous at x = 1 because f(l + ) = f(l")^f(l) (D) is continuous at x = 1 J&f Let T be a continuous function on R. If f (l/4 n ) =(sinen)e"n2 + - J - J then f(0) is : (A) not unique (C) data s ufficient tofindf(0) x (B) 1 (D) data insufficient tofindf(0) Indicate all correct alternatives if, F(x) = — - 1 , then on the interval [0, T ] C (A) tan (f(x)) & are both continuous (B) tan (f (x)) & —-y are both discontinuou s (D) tan (f(x)) is continuous but —j— isnot t (xj Y (C) tan (f(x))&f _ 1 (x) are both continuous ' f i s a continuous function on the real line. Given that X2 + (f(x) - 2) x - V 3 • f(x) + 2 V3 - 3 = 0. Then the value off( S ) (A) can not be determined (C) is zero ^J&f (B) is 2 ( i - V s ) (D) is 2(V3 - 2) v ' 3) If f(x) = sgn (cos 2 x - 2 sin x + 3), where sgn ( ) is the signum function, the n f(x) (A) is continuous over its domain (B) has a missing point discontinuity ( C) has isolated point discontinuity (D) has irremovable discontinuity. Let g(x) = tan-1 |x| - cot -1 |x|, f(x) = J-J JJJ {x}, h(x)=jg(f(x))| where (x) denotesfr actionalpart and [x] denotes the integral part then which of the following holds good? (A) h is continuous at x = 0 (B) h is discontinuous at x = 0 (C)h(0~)=! ( D)h(0 + ) = - | ^ ^/f) J g T x n - sinx 11 Consider f(x) = Limit T for x > 0, x * 1 m=o then (A) f is continu ous at x = 1 (B) f has a finite discontinuity atx = 1 (C) f has an infinite or o scillatory discontinuity at x = 1. (D) fhas a removable type of discontinuity at x= 1. [14] Bansal Classes Limits, continuity & Differentiability of Functions [15]

4 Given f ( x ) = ^ - ; e x - 1 sgn (sinx) =0 for x = 0 for x * 0 where {x} is thefractionalpart function; [x] is the step up function and sgn(x) is the signum function ofx then, f(x) (A) is continuous at x = 0 (B) is disconti nuous at x = 0 (C) has a removable discontinuity at x = 0 (D) has an irremovable discontinuity a t x - 0 x[x]2 log(1+x) 2 for - 1 < x < 0 i)X Consider f(x) /n(e x2 + 2 x tanVx for 0 < x < 1 where [ * ] & {*} are the greatest integer function & fractional part function r espectively, then (A) f(0) = /n2=> fis continuous at x = 0 (B) f(0) = 2 => fis c ontinuous at x = 0 2 (C) f(0) = e => f is continuous at x = 0 (D) f has an irrem ovable discontinuity at x = 0 Consider f(x) = Vl + x - V l - x — x*0 {x} g(x) = cos2x - -^f(g(x)) )nal part and h(x)-- 1 _ f(x) for x<0 forx =0 forx >0 K - - <x<0 4 then, which ofthe following holds good, where {x} denotesfractionalpart function . (A) 'h' is continuous at x = 0 (C) f(g(x)) is an even function x^ jX) (B) 'h' is discontinuous at x = 0 (D) f(x) is an even function 2x — 1 The function f^x) = [x], c o s — — x , where [•] denotes the greatest integer fun ction, is discontinuous at (A) all x (C)nox (B) all integer points (D) x which i s not an integer [14] Bansal Classes Limits, continuity & Differentiability of Functions [15]

EXERCISE-III Q.l Letf(x) = [x] sin-—— , where [•] denotes the greatest integer function. The domain of fis &the 1. [x + l] [ JEE '96, 2 ] B points of discontinuity of f in the dom ain are (i Let f(x) be a continuous function defined for l<x<3. If f(x) takes ra tional values for all x and f (2)= 10, thenf(l,5) g. = . [JEE'97, 2] The functio n f(x) = [x]2 - [x2] (where [y] is the greatest integer less than or equal to y) , is discontinuous at: • (A) all integers (B) all integers except 0 & 1 (C) all in tegers except 0 (D) all integers except 1 [JEE'99, 2 (out of200)] (1 + ax)1/x fo r x < 0 Determine the constants a, b & c for which the function f(x): b for x 0 is continuous at (x+c)173 - 1 - * > n X 0 ",1/2 (x+l) - 1 x = 0. Discuss the c ontinuity ofthe function [e 1 / ( x - 1 ) -2 l/(x-l) +2 ' atx= 1. X^l X = 1 % rX2 JT3 [REE'99, 6] [ REE 2001 (Mains), 3 out of 100 ] fe Bansal Classes Limits, continuity & Differentiability of Functions [23]

KEY CONCEPTS THINGS T o R E M E M B E R : IS (DIFFERENTIABILITY) &the 1. Right hand & Left hand Derivatives; lflt exist f(a+h) T imit f(a + h ) - f ( a ) [ JEE '96, 2 ] By definition: f ' ( a ) = h " 0 — — u (i) and f (2) =10, [JEE'97,2] discontinuous (ii) ut of200)] The right hand derivative of f ' at x = a denoted by f'(a + ) is defined by: 1 , , , a _Limit f(a + h)-f(a) v ; ^ ' t provided the limit exists & is finite. The left hand derivative: of f at x = a d enoted by f'(a + ) is defined by: , , , a . L i m i t+ f ( a - h ) - f ( a ) v ; - h > —o _h Provided the limit exists & is finite. We also write f'(a + ) = f' + ( a) & f'(a") = f'_(a). * This geomtrically means that a unique tangent withfinite slope can be drawn at x = a as shown in the figure. * 1 continuous at (iii) [REE'99, 6] Derivability & Continuity: (a) If f '(a) exists then f(x) is derivable at x= a = > f(x) is continuous at x = a. (b) If a function f is derivable at x then f is c ontinuous at x. For:r(x)= Umitf(x + h)-f(x) + h) ^ Also f ( x + h ) - f ( x ) = f ( x out of 100] Therefore: S ^ x Therefore +hHW] " f ( x ) - , h [ h * 0] h f ( x + h } f(x) *=f'(x).o=o h [f (x + h )-f (x)] = 0 => f (x+h) = f(x) => fis continuous at x. Note : If f(x) is derivable for every point ofits domain of definition, then it is continuous in that domain. The Converse ofthe above result is not true: " IF f IS CONTINUOUS AT x , THEN f IS DERIVABLE AT x " IS NOT TRUE. e.g. the function s f(x) = | x | & g(x) = x s i n i x x = 0 but not derivable at x = 0. N O T E CAREFULLY :

& g(0) = 0 are continuous at (a) Let f '+(a) = p & f ' (a) = q where p & q are finite then: (i) p = q => fis deri vable at x = a => fis continuous at x = a. (ii) p * q => f is not derivable at x = a. It is very important to note that f may be still continuous at x = a. In s hort, for a function f: Differentiability => Continuity ; Continuity = > derivab ility; £ Non derivibality =£• discontinuous ; But discontinuity => Non derivability [14] Bansal Classes Limits, continuity & Differentiability of Functions [15]

,vf (b) 3. If a function fis not differentiable but is continuous at x = a it geometrically implies a sharp corner; x= a. DERIVABILITY OVER A N INTERVAL: * (i) (ii) NOTE f (x) is said to be derivable over an interval ifit is derivable at each & every point ofthe interval f(x) is sai to be derivable over the closed interval [a, b ] if : for the points a and b, f'(a+) & f'(b - ) exist & for any point c such th at a < c < b, f '(c+) & f (c - ) exist & are equal. : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. If f(x) & g(x) are derivable at x = a then the functions f(x) + g(x), f(x) - g(x ) , f(x).g(; will also* be derivable at x = a & if g (a) * 0 then the function f (x)/g(x) will also be derivable at x = a. If f(x) is differentiable at x = a & g (x) is not differentiable at x = a, then the product function F(x)=f(: g(x) can still be differentiable at x = a e.g. f(x) = x & g(x) = | x |. If f(x) & g(x) bo th are not differentiable at x = a then the product function; F(x) = f(x)- g(x) can still be differentiable at x = a e.g. f(x) = | x | & g(x) = | x |. If f(x) & g(x) both are non-deri. at x = a then the sum function F(x) = f(x)+g(x) may be a differential function, e.g. f(x) = | x | & g(x)=-1 x | • If f(x) is derivable at x = a f'(x) is continuous at x=a. e.g.f(x) = x 2 sin-L if x ^ 0 0 if x = 0 A surprising result: Suppose that the function f (x) and g (x) defined terval (xL, x^ contain the point Xq, and if fis differentiable at x=Xq q) = 0 together with g is continuous asx = xQtl the function F (x) = f is differentiable at x=x 0 e.g. F (x) = sinx • x2/3 is differentiable EXERCISE-I V^ 1 Discuss the continuity & differentiability ofthe function f(x)=sinx+sin | x | , x s R. Draw a rough ske of the graph of f(x). Examine the continuity and differe ntiability offix)= | x | + | x - l | + i x—2 | x e R . Also draw the graph of f(x) . } Given a function/ (x) defined for all real x, and is such that f ix + h) - f (x) < 6h2 for all real h and x. Show that/(x) is constant. 1 for —o6<x<0 ^OfiQ. 3 s^jzrfi Aftinctionfis defined as follows: f(x) = 1+sinx for 0<x<-| f<x<+oo 2+(x-f) 2 for 0T5 6 Discuss the continuity & differentiability at x = 0 & x = %/2. Examine the origi in the in with f (X (x) • g (x) atx=0.

n for continuity & derrivability in the case of the function f defined by f(x) = xtan _1 (l/x) andf(0) = 0. Let f (0) = 0 and f' (0) = 1. For a positive integer k, show that c \ 1 1 1 A Lim — f(x) + f (-] + f 1. = 1+- +- + 1 +— o x-»o x V 2 3 k y -T-L+i] x Let f(x) = xe ^ ; x ^ 0, f(0) = 0, test the continuity & differentiab ility at x = 0 ^ . 7 [14] Bansal Classes Limits, continuity & Differentiability of Functions [15]

a sharp corner a (ft iterval f(x) is sai(^9 jC If f(x)= I x -11. ([x] - [-x]), thenfindf'(1 + ) & f'(!") where [x] denotes grea test integer function. Iff(x) = ax2 - b if Ixl<1 -R if N-1 is derivable at x = 1. Find the values of a & b. -1 x-1 g/ip Let f(x) be defined in the interval [-2,2] such that f(x): , -2<x<0 0<x<2 & g(x) = f( IX |) + | f(x) |. Test the differentiability of g(x) in ( - 2,2). g(x) , f(x).g(x 2[x] ivableatx=a. 1 where sgn (.) denotes the signum fimction& [.] d enotes the greatest sgn r Givenfix)= cos ctionF(x) = f(x v 9^ V V3x - \x]J) , in teger function. Discuss the continuity & differentiability of f (x) at x=± 1. J&2 e a differential Examine for continuity & differentiability the points x = 1 & x = 2, the function f defined by f(x) = f(x) = ~x[x] , 0<x<2 where [x] = greatest integer less than or equal to x. ( x - l ) [ x ] , 2<x<3 m , x * 0 & f(0) = - 1 where [x] denotes greatest integer less than or equal to x. Test the differentiability off(x) at x = 0. x^) containin |2x-3|[x] for x>l >us as x=Xq t h e ^ ^ 4 Discuss the continuity & the derivability in [0,2] of f(x): sin-jfor x<l where [ ] denote greatest integer function. w a rough sketc If f(x) = - 1 + | x - 11, - 1 < x 3 ; g(x) = 2 - | x + l | , - 2 < x < 2 , then calcula te (fog) (x) & (gof)(x). Draw their graph. Discuss the continuity of (fog) (x) a t x = - 1 & the differentiability of(gof)(x)atx= 1. The function ax(x-l) + b whe nx<l f(x) = x - 1 px + qx+2 C O ® (iii) 2 X 16 whenl<x<3 whenx>3 Find the values of the constants a, b, p, q so that f(x) is continuous for all x f ' ( l ) does not exist f'(x) is continuous at x = 3 l/x _ -l/x — , J f f t Examine the function, f(x) =x. a l/x 0 for continuity and existence of the derivative e continuity on 0 < x < 1 & differentiability at x.sin —.sin — — r wherex*0, x * l / r 7 t & f(0) 2, 3, fl8J ^Bansal Classes + a—l/x , x * 0 (a > 0) and f(0) = at the origin. J^A 8 Discuss th x = 0 for the function. f(x) = = f ( l / r a ) = 0, x x.sin L= r 1,

continuity & Differentiability of Functions • [19] .Limits.

f((3-h ) If f(x) is derivable. Let/(x) be a function defined on (-a. If . (0<x<l) 5. J^23 t A function f : R -> R satisfies the equa tion f(x + y) = f(x).x . y in R If t he ^"24 Q. f(x + yn) . (2<x<4) y = f [f(x)] for 0 < x < 4.25 function is differentiable at x = 0 then show that EXERCISE-II Fill in the blanks: ^ f Limit f (3+h2) . where k e (0. (l<x<2) Discuss the continuity & differentiability of 4 .at x = 3 & f'(3) = 2. Assume that/(x) is continuous at x = 0 am Lim x->0 J f(x)~ w X f(kx) —. then h->o 2h2 Iff(x) = | sinx | & g(x)=x 3 thenf[g(x)] is & at x= 0. Let the fu nction be differentiable at x = 0 & f (0) = 2. f(y) for all x. (State continuity and deriv. Let f(x) be a function satisfying the condition f(. Let f(x) be a real valued function not identically ze ro satisfies the equation. cos2x 7t if x * 0 if x = 0 Q. Afunctionf: R->RwhereR isasetofrealnumberssatisfiestheequation f(ii±I) = f(x)+f^)+f(0).20 Consider thefianction.1) then compute f' (0+) and f ' (0").x) = f(x) for all real x. For what values of x. ^ J Z f l 1 Discuss the continuity & the derivability of 'f where f (x) = degree of (ux'+ u2 + 2u . Show that f (x) = 2f(x) 1 all x i n R.1-x .f(x) + (f(y))n for all real x & v and f ' (0) > 0 where n (> 1) is an odd natural number. for a l l x diffe rentiable for all x in R.3) at x = V2./(x) = Show that/' (0) exists andfindits value yjo) (c) Showthat/' does not exist. f(x) x+2 . / ' (x) fails to exist. a) with a > 0.= a . F f(10). Hence determine f(x). and comment upon tb differentiability of / a t x= 0. y in R f(x) * o for any x in R.

f'(0) exists. b}. then its1 ^QrzT For the function f(x) = 1 + el/x ' from the left. f(0~)=_ . f (0+) = x=0 & the de QCS ^ The number of points at which the function f(x) = max. {a-x. CO<X<QC. continuity & Differentiability of Functions . the derivative from the right. a+x. 0 <a< limits. * be diffe rentiable is .

at x = 0 (C) f(x) is discont. (^•K) [x] denotes the greatest integer less than or equal to x. a * 0 } (C) {(a. then: . x * 0. (A) f(x) is conti. Find A function f defined as f(x)=x[x] for . a + b + c= l } al number. c) with a * 0 the function "x x<l is differentiable for a ll real x ? otherwise (B) {(a. b. c) I a. y in R & :f (x) = 2f(x )for part function. a) I a s R. at afinitenumber ofpoints but not derivable at all points in the domain of f (D) discont. at x = 0 (D)none 5. _n . For what triplets of real numbers (a. l-2a. l-2a. & also non-derivable at afinitenumber ofpoints of f. at x = O (B) f(x) is conti. at x = 0 (C) neither derivable nor cont.7 Givenfix)= loga(a|[x] + [ . at x = 0 (B) cont. a * 0 } f(x) =ax2 + bx + c (A) {(a. c s R .2 and derivability) then its value is £T3 & the derivative if x<0 if 0<x<l thenf(x)is: if x>l (A) derivable & cont. Iffix)= [x] [ sin Ttx] in (-1.1 < x < 3 where [x] defines the greatest integer < x is: (A) conti. a > 1 for x = 0 where [ ] represents the integral 3) at x=V2. at x = 1 Iffix)= (B) derivable at x = 1 but not cont. & diff. & not diff. b.1) (D) none A functionfix)= x [ 1 + (1 /3) sin ( lnx2)]. at x = 0 (C) the differentiability o f f at x = 0 depends on the v alue of a (D) f is cont. at all points in the domain of f but non-derivable a t afinitenumber of points (B) discontinuous at all points & hence non-derivable at all points in the domain of f (C) discont.x f . & not d iff.0)| a s R . at x = 0 and for a = e only. at x = 1 (D) not derivable at x = 0 but con t at x = 1 x + {x} + xsin{x} for x * 0 where (x) denotes thefractionalpart function.[ ] = integral part f(0) = 0. at x = 0 (B) is monotonic v (C) is derivable at x = 0 (D) can not be defined for x < -1 -x The function f(x) is defined as follows f(x) =xx3-x+l . c) I a. in(l.1: W J 3 + aA for xl * 0 . c s R . Then the function: (A) is cont.Select the correct alternative : (only one is correct) ^ Let f(x) sinx for x 0 & f(0) = 1 then. l-2a. & diff. b.1) then f(x) is: n show that it is (A) cont. then: (A) fis continuous but not differentiable at x = 0 (B) fis cont. •us at x — u and (^8"" nment upon the 1 x. . a ^O } (D) {(a. 0) (C) differentiable in (-1. & diff.

0 for x = 0 (A)'f is cont. & diff. atx = 0 (B) 'f is cont. at x = 0 (D) none ofthese (C) 'f is cont. 00) (D) (0. & diff.00) 0 < a < b cannot-Q^ (B) [ 0. at x = 2 The set of all points where the function f(x) = y ^ y is differentiable is: (A) (-00. 00) (E) none [14]BansalClasses Limits. 0 ) ^ ( 0 . but not diff. 00 ) (C)(-00. continuity & Differentiability of Functions [15] .

f(0) = 0. 18 f(x) = (Sin-'x)2 Cos(1/x)ifx^0. atx = 2 1. no where in . where [x] is greatest integer < x then f(x) is : (A) cont. no where (C) Differentiable no where . at x=TC/2 (D) Max. but not diff. at x = %!2 (B) H(x) is cont. y j .1 < x < 1 (C) differentiable no where in . * (A) It is continuous in 0 < x < 7t/2 (B) It is differentiable in 0 < x < T / C2 (C) Its maximum value is 2 (D) It is not differentiable in 0 < x< %/2 Q. & deri.3 ] is 1 [14] Bansal Classes Limits. every where in . x e R IfSin"1x+ | y | = 2y then y as a function of x is: (A) defined for -1 < x < 1 (B) continuous at x = 0 (C) differentiable for all x (D) such that—= & yj^h 9^4 *— for-1 < x < 0 3Vl-x* * Let f(x) = Cosx &H(x)= Min[f(t)/0<t<x] for 0<x<f for f <x<3 ' Lf-x ^ (A) H (x) is cont. at x = 2 but not differentiable < (D) not derivable at x = .f(x)is: (A) cont.1 < x < 2 . where [ ] denotes greatest integer functi on then. (A) f(x) is cont. but not deri.3 ] (C) H(x) is neither cont.1 < x < JZ. at all the points (C) discontinuous at x = . at x = .1 / 2 & x = 2 f(x) = I [x]x | i n . 7 f(x) = 1 + x. bu t not cont. nor deri.Select the correct alternative: (More than one are correct) If f(x) = 12x+l | + | X .x*0andf(0) = 0 then. every where (D) Differe ntiable everywhere except at x : (B) f(x) is diff. [cosx] in 0 < x < %/2. at x = 0 (D) f(x) is diff. value of H(x) in [0.19 7C % f(x) = | x | + |s inx| i n ( ~ .1 < x < 1 (B) cont.itis: (A) continuous no wh ere (C) differentiable no where in its domain (B) Conti. jrfS) If f(x) = 3(2X+3)2/3 + 2x+3 then. in [0. at x = -3/2 (C) f(x) is cont.21 then f(x) is: (A) cont.3/2 (B) continuous everywhere in its domain (D) Not differe ntiable at x = 0 ^^21 ^#22 If f(x) = x2 sin (1/x) . at x = 0 Iff(x) = 2+ | sin^xl . (A) f(x)is continuous a t x = 0 (B) f(x) is derivable atx = 0 (C) f (x) is continuous at x = 0 (D) f'(x) is not deri vable at x = 0 A function which is continuous & not differentiable at x = 0 is: (A) f(x) = x for x < 0 & f(x) = x2 for x > 0 (B) g(x) = x for x < 0 & g(x) = 2x for x > 0 (C)h(x) = x | x | x s R (D)K(x) = 1 + 1 x | .1 / 2 & x = 2 * (B) conti. atx = 0 (B) discont. l t i s : (A) Conti. x = 0 (C)notdiff. a t x = 2 (D)diff.1 < x < 1 (D) differentiable everywhere in . continuity & Differentiability of Functions [15] .

.

1 out of 3 5 ] ^C^T" Discuss the continuity and differentiability ofthe function. for all x (B) his diff. f (x) = max [ x . 6] v The function f(x) = (x2 . x ].a) for all xeR.5 Let f: R — R be any function. 1} 3 The left hand derivative of.2 ] 2 + . x <1 (1-x) (2-x) . x2 }.1) | x2 . continuity & Differentiability of Functions [23] .1) 71 (B)(-l)*-i(k-l)7t (C)(-l)kk7t ( D ) (— 1 ) k ~ 1 k T T Which ofthe following functions is differentiable at x = 0 ? (A) cos (! x | ) + | x | (B) cos ( | x j .l ) k (k . x> 2 [JEE'97.2000(3)] [JEE 2001 (Screening)] Let f : R -» R be a function defined by . yfi Discuss the continuity & differentiability of the function f(x) : [JEE'98. Screening. [JEE 2001. for every real number ofx. 2 (out of200)] Q. for all x (C) h' (x) = 1.1 . 3.7 vK |x| < r |x|<1 [REE.5] Let h(x)=min {x. for all x > 1 (D) h is not diff.x . k an integer is: (A) ( . at two values of x. 1 } (B) ( .EXERCISE-III ^J^st Determine the values of x for which the following function fails to be con tinuous or differentiable fW 1-x .8 ( D ) s i n ( | x | ) . Then g is (B) one one if f is one one (D) differentiable iffi s differentiable./(l-x2) _2e(1"x)2 |x| < 1 . l < x < 2. Ixl > 1 f(x) = 1 -ix! ' Q./ ( a ) = #(x) (x . 0 .3x + 21 + cos (| x |) is NOT differentiable at: (A)-l (B)0 (C)l (D)2 [JEE'99. f (x) = [ x ] sin (TT x) at x = k.\x\>l [REE'98.|x| Let a e R. Prove that a function / : R R is differentiable at a if and only if t here is a function g : R -> R which is continuous at a and satisfies /(x) . (mains) 5 out of 100] fe Bansal Classes Limits. Then: (A) his cont.1} (P) { . Justify your an swer. The set of all points where f (x) is NOT differentiable is: (A) { . [JEE 2000. Define g: R > (A) onto if fis onto (C) continuous iffis continuous R by g (x) = |f(x)| for all x.x (C)sin(!xi) + |x| Q. 0 } (C) {0.1 .1 .

for these values of a and b.a. 2a] and the left hand derivative atx= a is 0 thenfindthe left hand derivative at x = .1.-1} (B)±l ' ous and differentiable function and f (A) f (x) = f" (0). then differentiable for all real fl) (b) If f (x) is a continu x e (0. Mains-2 out of 60] ^ ^ Q. 9 The domain of the derivative ofthe function ' tan"1 x f(x) = ' (A)R-{0) |(W-i) i f |x| < 1 if M > 1 ^ is (B)R-{1} ( C ) R . determine the values of a and b.l ) + b if x > 0 x = Where a and b are non negative real numbers.l numbers except the points (A) {0. The Limit (A) 1 .5 out of 60] Q/i2 If a function f: [ -2a.{-1} f St V /(1) ( D ) R . If (gof) (x) is continuous for all real x. is gof differentiable at x=0? Justify your answer. 1 3 ^ T h e function given by y= | | x | . f ' (0) = 0 (D) f (0) = 0 and f 1 (0) need not to be zero [JEE 20 | is (C)l = 0.x) for x e [a. Q 1 5 (D)-l Q8 ' (B) f (0) = 0. 1] (C) f ' (0) = 0 Q 11 Q 14 .l | if x > 0 = ^ Jx + 1 if x < 0 2 g ( ) | ( x . Determine the composite function go f. 1] I = 0.Q. *• (B)e 1/2 (C)e 2 ) equals (D)e 3 [JEE 2002 (Screening). V n > 1 and n e l . [JEE 2002. 2a] -» R is an odd fun ction such that f (x) = f (2a . [JEE 2003. 3] \\ J^TO Let/: R -> R be such that/(1) = 3 and/'(1) = 6.1} [JEE 2002 (Screening). 3] J ^ 1 f Jx + a if x < 0 ^ | | x .{-1. F urther. x e (0.

Find the equation oftangent to the curvey = f(x) at the point (1. forallXjjXj eR. 3 + 3] (c) If |f(x 1 )-f(x 2 )|<(x 1 -x 2 ) 2 . 2] Q21./r [14] Bansal Classes Limits. Q l.05 (Screening). Q 22. Q 26. continuity & Differentiability of Functions [15] . [JEE 2005 ( Mains).2).< Q6.

8V2(ln3)2 Q29. limit = 1 Q 19. Range./n2 Q 14. does not exist Q 12. cos 2 a/nCosa + Sin2a /nSina Q27. 0 if a = 0 and -TC/2 if a < 0 Q 8. a = 2 .3 Q.30 4 Q21.5 .S= Z f i £ (b) f(x) = | x | Q11. e 8/1. c = ln2 Q 3. (a) TC/2 if a > 0.r=-. . .ANSWER KEY EXERCISE-I Q1.0 EXERCISE-II Q 20. — 16V2 tc Q 18. .3. — 2 Q 1 5 . 52 Q 17.3 45 Q ^Y 2 Q 3 ' 2 Q4 P-q ' 2 2 Q 5 VF Q 6 ' 1 ~3 Q 7.2 Q 1. e s Q 8.3 .(/na) n Q 28. 0. does not exist Q 25. x nC T Q 24.. 2 Q 23. e1/2 Q 2. . Domain. — Q 1 6 .I n 4 e ns I Q 22. e"'1 Q 4. x s R.5050 Q 13. 9 Q 26. 1 1 1 2 Q9. .z Q. a=-.2 J Q10.

- — 4 Q 6. ^ ^ Q 7. e 1 Q 9. (a,.a2.a3....an) TC2a2+4 Q12.-—416a Q 13. w henx= Q l O . f , 71 2 ' 2V2 2 3 Q 11. a = c = 1, b = 2 Q 14.f(x)when | x | > 1 ;g(x)when | x | < 1 ; Q 15. 2 x 1 1 & not defined whenx=-l Q 19. 1/2 Q 20. i 2 Q 16. - — T C Q 17. a - b l i 2X~2 s nx x x sinx Q21.T(x)= :: - tan 2 -, sinx or t a n , S ( x ) = Q 22. (a) 1 (b) ^ 2 Q 26. j Q 23. J L tanG Q28. (a) 1/2, (b)b 3 i ,linfit=Q 25. e*2 Q 24. a = e2 Q 29. (i) a = l , b = - 1 (ii) a = - l , b EXERCISE-III Q l . e2 Q6./na Q2.D Q7. C Q 3. C Q8. C Q 4. C Q 5 . B Q.9 1— T C [25 ] 2 (!^Bansal Classes Limits, continuity & Differentiability of Functions

CONTINUITY EXERCISE-I Ql. Q 2. Q 3. Q 4. Q 6. Q 7. Q 8. Q. 11 Q 12. Q 13. Q 15. f(0 ) = - 2 ; f(0-) = 2 hence f(0) not possible to define (a)-2, 2, 3 (b)K = 5(c) even yn(x) is contin uous at x = 0 for all n and y(§) is dicontinuous at x = 0 fis cont. in - 1 < x < 1 Q 5. P not possible. (a) 4 - 3V2 + a, (b) a = 3 g(x) = 2+xfor 0 < x < 1, 2 - x f o r 1 < x < 2 , 4 - x f o r 2 < x < 3, g is discontinuous at x = 1 & x = 2 A = 1 ;f(2)= 1/2 Q9.a = 0;b = -1 f ( f (x) ) is continuous and domain of f ( f (x)) is [-4, ] gof is dis-cont. at x = 0, 1 & -1 a = 1/2, b = 4 Q14. a = -3/2, b * 0 , c = 1/2 A = - 4 , B = 5, f(0) = 1 Q 16. discontinuous at x = 1,4 « 5 & + iiS Q 17. discontinuous at all integral values in [-2,2] Q 18. locus (a, b) — x, y is y = x - 3 excluding the points where y = 3 intersects it. » Q 20. 5 Q22. txv (tan x) if 60 — Q 25. k = 0; g(x) = 0 0<x<-| % n • Hence g(x) is continuous everywhere. 11 ^x 39 Q26. g (x) = 4 (x + 1) and limit = - — Q28. a = - L , g ( 0 ) = ( ^ Q 29. f(0+) = ^ ; f(Q-) = —'•= => f is discont. at x = 0; 2 4V2 + g(0 ) = g(O-) = g( 0) = TC/2 =^>g is cont. at x = 0 Q 30. the function fis continuous everywhere in [0,2] except for x = 0, i , 1 & 2. EXERCISE-II Q 1. Q2. Q 3. (a) false; (b) false; (c) false; (d) false; (e) false; (f) true; ( g) false; (h) true (a)c = ± l ; ( b ) . x ± l , - l & x = 0 ; ( c ) . l ; ( d ) . a = | , b = - ~ (e). 1/2 (a) D (b). B, C (c). C, D (d). B (e). C (f), A (g). B (h) A (i) D (j) A (k) C EXERCISE-III Q.l Q.2 Q.5 R - [ - l , 0 ) ; discontinuous for all integral values in domain ex cept at zero 10 Q.3 D Q.4 a=/n| ; b= | ; c=1 Discontinuous at x = 1; f(l + ) = 1 and f(l~) = - 1 [14] Bansal Classes Limits, continuity & Differentiability of Functions [15]

DIFFERENTIABILITY EXERCISE-I Q 1. f(x) is conti. but not derivable at x x = 0,1 & 2 Q 4. conti. but not diff.at x cont. but not diff. at x = 0 Q 9. a= 1/2, x = 0 Q 8. f(l + ) = 3 , f ( l ~ ) ~ - l Q

= 0 Q 2. conti. V x e R, not diff. at = 0; diff & conti. at x=Tt/2 Q 7. fis b = 3/2 Q 5. conti. but not diff. at 10. not derivable at x = 0 & x = 1

Q 11.fis cont. & derivable at x = - 1 but fis neither cont. nor derivable at x= 1 Q12. discontinuous & not derivable at x = 1, continuous but not derivable at x = 2 Q 13. not derivable at x = 0 Q 14. fis conti. at x = 1,3/2 & disconti. at x = 2, fis not diff. at x=1,3/2,2 Q15. (fog)(x) = x+1 for - 2 < x < - 1 , -(x+1) for - 1 < x < 0 & x - 1 for 0 < x < 2. (fog)(x) is cont. at x = -1, (gof)(x) = x +1 for - 1 < x < 1 & 3 - x for 1 < x < 3. (gof)(x) is not differentiable at x= 1 Q 16. a * 1, b = 0, p = — and q = - 1 Q 17. If a e (0, 1) f ' (0+) = - 1 ; f ' (0 ") = 1 => continuous but not derivable a = 1; f(x) = 0 which is constant => cont inuous and derivable If a > 1 f ' (0") = - 1 ; f ' (0+) = 1 => continuous but no t derivable Q 18. conti. inO<x< 1 &notdiff. atx = 0 Q.19 fis conti. but not diff . atx= 1, disconti. a t x = 2 & x = 3 . cont.& diff.at all other points Q.20 (a) f ' (0) = 0, (b) f ' v 3 Tt y Q.21 continuous but not derivable at x= Q.23 f(x) = e2x Q.24 f(x) = x ^ = — ,v(c) x= 7n s I 2 ' ' 2n + l 3 v y a Q.22 f ' ( 0 ) = 1-k f(10) = 10 71 1 EXERCISE-II Q.l 2 Q.5 2 Q.9 D Q.13 D Q.17 A, B Q.21 B, D Q.25 A, D Q.2 conti. & diff. Q.6 C Q.10 B Q.14 A Q.18 B, D Q.22 A, B, D Q.3 0 Q.7 B Q.ll A Q.15 A, B, D Q.19B, D Q. 23 A, B, D Q.4 f'(0 + ) = 0 , f ' ( 0 - ) = l Q.8 A Q.12 D Q.16 A, C Q.20 A, B, C Q.24 A, B, D EXERCISE-III Ql Q.3 Q.5 Q.7 Q.12 f(x) is conti. & diff. at x = 1; f(x) is not conti. & not diff atx = 2 Q.2 A C, D conti. but not derivable at x = 1, neither cont. nor deri. at x = - 1 Q.4D Q.6 Discont. hence not deri. at x = 1 & - 1 . Cont. & deri. at x = 0 (a)D, (b) A, (c) D Q.9 D Q.10 C Q.ll a = 1; b = 0(gof)'(0) = 0 Q.13 (a) A, (b ) B, (c) y - 2 = 0 f'(a~) = 0 [14] Bansal Classes Limits, continuity & Differentiability of Functions [15]

J s BAN SAL CLASSES YJI K 7 k..!^ . MATHEMATICS Daily Practice Problems TIME: 50 Min each DPR DPP. NO.-25 TIME: 50 Mitt 1 8 T a r g e t SIT JEE 2 0 0 7 CLASS : XII (ABCD) DATE : 28-29/06/2006 DATE: 28 -29/06/2006 Q.l tan 9 = 2+ — —j 2 + '--oo where 0 e (0,2%), find the possible value of 0. [2] Q. 2 Q.3 Find the sum of the solutions of the equation 2e 2 x ~ 5ex + 4 = 0. [2] Suppose that x and y are positive numbers for which log9x = log12y = log15(x + y ). If the value of - =2 cos 0, where 0 e (0,n/2) find 0. [3] Q. 4 Using L Hospitals rule or otherwise, evaluate the following limit: Limit Limit + x->0 n->«> l2 (sinx)" ] + [22 (sinx)x ] + I /b-a . . + [n2 (sinx)x ] n3 where [.] denotes the [4] greatest integer function. Q.5 1 Consider f ( x ) = - j = , V~T~ S1»2x b-a . -j— smx 1 \ 2 Vb I Va + b t a n x , , f o r b > a > 0 & t h e functions g(x)&h(x)

are defined, such that g(x) = [f(x)] - j-^y-j & h(x) = sgn (f(x» for x e domain o f f , otherwise g(x)=0=h(x) for x < domain o f f , where [x] is the greatest int eger function of x & {x} is the fractional £ 7 C part of x. Then discuss the conti nuity of'g' & 'h' at x=— and x = 0 respectively. Q.6 Q.7 J f ^ d x Using substitut ion only, evaluate: jcosec 3 xdx. [5] [5] [5] TIME : 50 Mitt. [2] DATE: 30-01/06-07/2006 Q.l Q.2 12 A If sin A = — . Find the value of tan ~ . x y The straight line - + - = 1 cuts the x-axis & the y-axisinA&Brespectively& a straight line perpendicular to AB cuts them in P & Q respectively. Find the loc us of the point of intersection ofAQ & BP. [2] Q.3 tanO 1 cot0 If -———-—— = —, find the value of . tan 0 - t a n 30 3 cot0~cot30 1[3] J

Q.4 If a A ABC is formed by the lines 2x + y - 3 = 0 ; x - y + 5 = 0 a n d 3 x - y + l = 0 , then obtain a cubic equation whose roots are the tangent of the interio r angles of the triangle. |4] r dx Integrate: J / 2 2 x f~r~ 2 (a - t a n xK/b tan x (a>b) [5] Q.5 Q.6 Q.7 J xsinx cosx dx (a cos^ x + b z sin2 x)2 z [5] d dy Let — (x2y) - x - 1 where x ? 0 and y = 0 when x = 1. Find the set of values of x for which — dx is positive. IS] S 3 55 s? ^ ^ \$ J j C S ^ S j c ^ DATE : 03-04/07/2006 Q. 1 TIME; 50Min. Let x = (0.15)20. Find the characteristic and mantissa in the logarithm of x, to the base 10. Assume log in 2 = 0.301 and Iog103 = 0.477. K O l o c / 3 f Z P I ^ o -M^ZPI Two circles of radii R & r are externally tangent. Find the radius of the third circle which is between them and touches those circles and their exter nal common tangent in terms of R & r. [2] Let a matrix A be denoted as A=diag. 5 X ,5 p Q.2 Q.3 Q. 4 ,5 then compute the value ofthe integral J( det A)dx. [3] Using algebraic geometry prove that in an isosceles triangle the sum ofthe d istancesfromany point of the base to the lateral sides is constant. (You may ass ume origin to be the middle point ofthe base of the isosceles triangle) [4] Eval uate: Q.5 J' - x dx Vx + X2 + X3 a2-3 a-1 f / + x [5] b -3 b-1 ' b-1 U3 ( „3

Q.6 'a3 If the three distinct points, a-1 \ c—1 c — 1 are collinear then [5] [5] 2 vAV show that abc + 3 (a + b + c) = ab + be + ca. Q.7 Integrate: j\/tanx dx 3 jVv^ot d 2{.l 1 4 -t & AX* G

MATHEMATICS A XII (ALL) : I V: • . • . . • M .: ..::. : . • • . : i: ".V. ' i• '• iiP f •• ' ; "••:•;•••• • : : . . .. . • : • 1 ; , V METHOD OF DIFFERENTIATION Time Limit: 3 Sitting Each of 70 Minutes duration approx.

Question bank on Method of differentiation There are 72 questions in this questi on bank. Select the correct alternative : (Only one is correct) Q.l If g is the inverse of f & f ' (x) = (A) 1 + [g(x)]5 ' 1+x 1 5 then g' (x) : (C) 1 1 + [g(x)f (D) none (B) 1 + [g(x)] Q.2 DfT^o If y = tan"1 (A) 2 Ai-O xz 2 + tan-l3 + £ v ^nex y 2fnxthend^ 1 - 6£nx dx (C) 0 dy dx (B) - 2 tan (D) none 3x + 4 5x + 6 1 (5x + 6) ( D) - 1 (B) 1 & f'(x) = tanx 2 then Q.3 ^3x + Ify = f ' v 5x + (A) tanx 3 (C)f 3tanx2 + 4 tanx 2 z 5tanx + 6 1 Q.4 If y = sin (A)0 xJ 1 - x + Vx J l - x 2 l & = —7 + p, then Fp : • ^ J dx 2yjx(l - x) (B) sin"1 x (C) sin-1 Vx (D) none of these Q.5 If y = f ^2x & f ' (x) = sinx then dx vx + \j sm Z (A) 1 + x - x2 x2 + l j 2x-JX vx2 + ly

2 (l + x - x 2 j . f 2 x - l X L sin oi (B) ^ x2 + l j 1+X f T (C) 1 - x + x2 sin (D) none .10 Q.6 Let g is the inverse function of f & f ' (x) = 1+a 30 (l + x2) . If g(2) = a then g' (2) is equal to .10 (A) j, Q.7 (B) (C) 1+a (D) 1 + a10 £ If sin (xy) + cos (xy) = 0 then dy dx (C) (D) (A) x i| Bansal Classes Q. B. on Method of differentiation [9]

Q.8 If y = sin-1 (A) dy 2x 2 then dx 1+x (B) is x = - 2 Vs (C) ~ 5 (D) none Q.9 The derivative of sec (A) 4 2 1 J_ ' 1 A 2 w.r.t. - j i c2 at x = — is v2x -1. (B) 1/4 (C) 1 / (D) none Q.10 If y = P(x), is a polynomial of degree 3, then 2 l^—J ^ Q.ll (A) P "' (x) + P ' (x) (B) P " (x). P "' (x) . — j j equals : (D) a constant (t,!v£(* i v ^ v * " ^ r ,w (C) P (x). P "' (x) Let f(x) be a quadratic expression which is positive for (x) + f' (x) + f" (x), then for any real x, which one is B) g(x) > 0 (C) g(x) = 0 (D) g(x) > 0 dy If xP.yi = (x + ndependent of p but dependent on q (C) dependent on both p but independent of q (D) independent of p & q both. Q.12 Q.13 Let f(x) = g(x). cos^ if x jt 0 x " where g(x) is an even function differentiable at x = 0, passing 0 if x = 0 (C) is equal to 2 + through the origin. Then f' (0): (A) is equal to 1 (B) is equal to 0 Q.14 t ^ Q. 15 If y = (A) e + (D) does not exist all real x. If g(x) = f correct. (A) g(x) < 0 ( y)P+c! then ^ is: (A) i p & q (B) dependent on

l +x " +x mnp n m p m • l +x ~ +x , (B) e'mn/p m n p n then — at em" is equal to: l +x - +x " dx np/m (D) none (C) e m p n p logsm2xcosx Lim , — x-»0 X log. x COSsin 2 the value equal to (B)2 (C) 4 f (4) - f (x 2 ) A, X 2 (A) 1 (D) none of these Q. 16 If f is differentiable in (0,6) & f ' (4) = 5 then Limit (A) 5 Q.17 Let / = ^ (B) 5/4 xm (In x)n where m, n e N then: (C) 10 (D) 20 (A) I is independent of m and n (B) / is independent of m and depends on m (C) I is independent of n and dependent on m (D) / is dependent on both m and n i| Bansal Classes Q. B. on Method of differentiation [ 9]

Q.18 x 1 Let fix) = 2 sinx x2 2x . Then Limit0 x -> tanx X 1 (A) 2 (B) then f ' (C) 4 (D) 12 (C) - 1 (D) 1 cosx Q.19 cosx sinx Let fix) = cos2x sin2x cos3x sin3x (A) 0 (B) - 1 2 Q.20 People living ne a new kind where f 2 (x) ue (A)e (B)2e Q.21 If f(4) = g(4) = 2 ; f ' (4) = 9 ; g' (4) = 6 then Limit (A) 3V2 (C) 0 Vx - 2 VeOO ig £ q u a l tQ . (D) none Q.22 (H If fix) is a differentiable function of x thenLimit f(x + 3 h ) - f ( x - 2 h ) = h 0 h (C) 0 (D) none & , (A)f'(x) (B) 5f'(x) If y = x + ex then (A) ex dy2 is : (B) (C) 2 Q.23 M M (D) -1 M Q.24 dy If x2y + y3 = 2 then the value of ~ z atthepoint(l, l)is: dx (A) - 4 3 (B) (C) 12 at Mars, instead ofthe usual definition of derivative D f(x), defi of derivative,D*f(x) by the formula f2(x + h)-f2(x) D*f(x)= Limit means [fix)]2. If fix) = x /nx then h—>0 h D*f(x)| x = e has the val (C)4e (D)none

(D) none Limit 8(x).f(a)-g(a).f(x) x- a (D) none Q.25 If f(a) = 2, f ' (a) = 1, g(a) = - 1 , g' (a) = 2 then the value of (A) - 5 (B) 1/5 (C) 5 i| Bansal Classes Q. B. on Method of differentiation [9]

Q.26 ^ ji If fis twice differentiable such that f"(x) =-f(x), f'(x) = g(x) h'(x) = [f(x)]2 + [g(x)]2 and h(0) - 2, h(l) = 4 then the equation y = h(x) represents: A (A) a curve of degree 2 ' (C) a straight line with slope 2 (B) a curve passing throug h the origin (D) a straight line with y intercept equal to - 2. j - ^ L (2cosx + 3sinx)j Tf Q.27 The derivative ofthe Rmction, f ( x ) = c o s " 1 ( 2 c o s x - 3sinx)| 3 I 7 • w.r.t. yj l + x at x = — is : + sin -i (A) Q.28 (B)(C) 10 (D) 0 A , , £ ca J ' X •,< t ^ ^' H q ^ c>| f • 1 A,©*' i * ^ * ) ' s Let f(x) be a polynomial in x. Then the second derivative of f(ex), is: (A) f " (e x) . ex + f ' (ex) ). e(B) f " (e x ). e2x + f ' (e x ). e2x i (D) f " (e x ) . e 2x + f ' (e x ). ex (C) f " (ex) e 2x Q.29 The solution set of f ' (x) > g' (x), where f(x) = - (5 2x+1 ) & g(x) = 5X + 4x (In 5) is : 2 Co*H (A) x> 1 (B) 0 < x < 1 (C) x < 0 (D) x > 0 it you Q.30 s jw (A) If y = sin-1 x2-l + sec x2 + l 1 x2 + 1 l I dy , 1 , I x | > 1 then — is equal to : xL — 1 dx „2 " T X X X X (B) x4 - 1 X (C) o (D) 1 Q.31

If y = X a+ b+ a+ b+ a+ b + a _ b (A) (B) ab + 2ay ab + 2 by o then ^y = o dx ( Q 77 + 2by (D) ab + 2ay Q.32 Let f (x) be apolynomial function of second degree. If f (1) = f (-1) and a, b, c are in A.P., then f'(a), f'(b) and f'(c) are in (A) G.P. (B)H.P. (C)A.G.P. (D) A.P. y yi y2 y 3 y4 y5 y6 y? y8 (A) independent of x but dependent on m (C) depe ndent on both m & x (B) dependent of x but independent of m (D) independent of m & x. Q. 3 3 If y=sin mx then the value of (where subscripts of y shows the order of derivatiive) is: £ i| Bansal Classes Q. B. on Method of differentiation [9]

\ Q.34 If x2 + y2 = R2 (R>0) then k= v" J where k in terms of R alone is equal to W-jT Q.35 (B)4 <C>f <P>"£ If f&g are differentiable functions entity function then f' (b) has the /2 x3 Given f(x) = - — + x2 sin 1.5 then: (A) f(x) is not defined at x n 8 (B) f ' (sin 8) > 0 (D) f' (sin Q.36 Q. 3 7 A function f, defined for all positive real numbers, satisfies the equati on fix2)=x3 for every x > 0. Then the value of f ' (4) = (A) 12 (B) 3 (C) 3/2 (D ) cannot be determined Q.38 Given: fix) = 4x3 - 6x2 cos 2a + 3x sin2a. sin 6a + Mn (la - a 2 ) then: (A) fix) is not defined at x = 1/2 (C) f ' (x) is not defin ed at x = 1/2 d2v Q.39 Jx^fCcJ• Q.40 If y = (A + Bx) e ^ mx (B) f ' (1/2) < 0 (D) f ' (1/2) > 0 dv - 2m ^ + m2y is equal to : (D) (C) v-vv^ e^L + (m - l)" e then (B) e^L \-'t*\ 2 x n^J Q.41 Q.42 A>25 Suppose/(x) = eax + ebx, where a * b, and that f (x) - 2f (x) - 1 5 / ( x ) = 0 for all x. Then the product ab is equal to () B9 () 1 C 5 " <) 9 D " Let h (x) be differentiable for all x and let/(x) = (kx + ex)h(x) where k is som e constant. Ifh(0) = 5, h' (0) = - 2 and f ' (0) = 18 then the value of k is equ al to (A) 5 (B)4 (C)3 (D)2.2 f Let e W = In x. If g(x) is the inverse function o such that g'(a)=2& g(a)=b andif fog is an id value equal to : ; (A) 2/3 (B) 1 (C) 0 (D) 1 a - x sin a. sin 2a - 5 arc sin (a2 - 8a + 17) = sin 8 (C) f ' (x) is not defined at x = si 8) < 0

f fix) then g' (x) equals to : (A) ex (B) ex + x (C) e<* + eX> (D) e(x + /nx) Q. The value of — for x = . on Method of differentiation [9] .43 dy The equation y2exy = 9e-3-x2 defines y as a differentiable function of x. B.1 and y = 3 is (A)-y (B)-| (C)3 (D)15 £ i| Bansal Classes Q.

(B) r ? 3 J (C)2 dy ^en — wherever it is defined is equal to : dx (O(a + b) 2V(a-x)(x-b) . has a different iable inverse f '(x).48 d2y dy If y is a function of x then —7 + V 7 . AX d 2 x dx (A) . If x is a function of y then t he equation becomes : dx dx .Q.X + ( a + b ) V(a-x)(x-b) ?X"(a+b) 2V(a-x)(x-b) (D) 2x + (a + b) 2A/(a-x) (x-b) Q.r + x 7 = 0 dy dy (C) d2x ^dx^3 =0 Vdy. the number of points of discontinuity of f in (A) 0 Q. The value of — (f_1) at the point f(Vn2) is dx (A) 1 £n2 (B)i (C) (D) none Q. .44 v Let f(x) = (xx)X and g(x) = x ^ ' then: (A) f ' ( l ) = l and g ' ( l ) = 2 (C) f ' ( l ) = l and g ' ( l ) = 0 (B) f ' ( l ) = 2 and g ' ( l ) = 1 (D) f ' ( l ) = 1 and g ' ( l ) = 1 Q.46 I f / ( x ) = J°gsinMCQS 3 ^ l°gsin|3x| COS" for l x | < | x ^ 0 v2y for x = 0 / % x % is (D)4 then. dx \ dy. being differentiable and one to one.47 If y = — — (A) (B)3 — x ) Vx yja-x + yjx-b .45 rl&xl The function f(x) = ex + x.= 0.

then Q. then f (x) is: 2 (A) e^ (B) ex (C) e2x (D) e4 x cos6x + 6cos4x + 15cos2x+10 cos5x + 5cos3x +10 cosx (A) 2 sinx + cosx (B)-2sin x dy dx (C) cos2x . If f (0) = 1.x vdyy d2x 'dx^ 2 Q.2 (D) dy2 .50 If y = (D) sin2x i| Bansal Classes Q.49 A function f (x) satisfies the condition. on Method of differentiation [9] . f (x) = f ' (x) + f " (x) + f " ' (x) + co where f (x) is a differentiable function indefinitely and dash denotes the order of derivative. B.

Q. 5 4 Diffrential coefficient of V x n-l m-n ' m+nN i-m ( V n+C 1 .52 If f(x) = 2sin"1 + sin-1 (2 A /x(l-x)) where x e >^ then f' (x) has the value equal to 2 ( ) Vx(l-x) A (B)zero if x * 0 CO" Q.53 Let y = f(x) = 0 if x = 0 Then which of the following can best represent the graph of y = f(x) ? 1(0.51 2 cTx ^dy^ 3 d y " H 7 = K then the value of K is equal to dx I f ^ r vdxJ (C)2 (B)-l (A)l (D)0 Q.1) (A)"" ^ f Q.

55 (x+h) f(x) .w. on Method of differentiation [9] .t.b2 3a 2 b2 i| Bansal Classes Q. then {.b 2 ) (Q6a 2u2 b (D) a 2 .2hf(h) • im — is equal to Let f (x) be diffrentiable at x = hthen Lim X h (A) f(h) + 2hf'(h) (B) 2f(h) + hf'(h) (C) hf(h) + 2f'(h) (D) hf(h)-2f'(h) Q. x is / V (A) 1 (B) 0 (C)-l imn (D)X' Q.56 If y = at2 + 2bt + c and t = ax2 + 2bx + c. v equals (D) 24 a2 (ax + b) ' ' 1 ' ' (A) 24 a2 (at + b) f\\vt\V ^e^i^jcnce a arc tan (B) 24 a (ax + b)2 Vx a (C) 24 a (at + b)2 b arc t a n — has the value equal to b ) Vx a-b (A)" (B)0 (a2 . B.r.

g(2) = 5 ./ ( y ) for all x.y& Let f(x) be defined for all x > 0 & be con tinuous.65 i| Bansal Classes Q. (C) domain of / ' (x) is the range of f (x). f'(2) = . (B)/(x) is self inverse. ( D ) / (x) is always positive.f(x)-> 1 asx-^0 (B) fQ) -> 0 as x -> 0 (D) f(x) = /nx Q. 5 9 Suppose the function /(x) -/(2x) has the derivative 5 at x = 1 and deriva tive 7 at x = 2. (B) If f (x) and g (x) both are defined on the entire n umber line and are apenodie then the function = f (x).64 dy x tan 2x tan 3x then — has the value equal to : dx (A) 3 sec23x tanx x tan2x tan3x + 2 sec22x tan3x tanx (B) 2y (cosec 2x + 2 cosec 4x + 3 (C) 3 sec2 3x . then (A) F'(2) = 11 h'(2) (B) F'(2) = 22h'(2 ) (C) F'(2) = 44 h'(2) (D) none Q. (D) Every function f (x) can be represented as the sum of an even and an odd function Select the correct alternatives : (More than one are correct) Q. (C) Derivative of an even differentiable function is an odd function and deriv ative of an odd differentiable function is an even function. has the val ue equal to t (A) 19 * (B) 9 (C) 17 (D) 14 x4-x2+l dy Q. .Q.. B.62 Let /(x) = x3 + 8x + 3 which one of the properties of the derivative enable s you to conclude that/(x) has an inverse? (A)/(x) is a polynomial of even degre e.60 If y = ?= and — = ax + b then the value of a + b is equal to x + V3x + 1 dx .sec2 x (D) sec2 x + 2 sec2 2x + 3 sec2 3x + e " ^ then — equals dx Vx -Vx V^ -V^ i n. g'( 2) = 4 . Q. where/(2) = 3 . g (x) can not be periodic . Then : (A) f(x) is bounded (C) x. on Method of differentiation [9] s If y = tan tan2x + sec2 cosec 6x) Ify = e ^ .61 Suppose that h (x) =/(x)-g(x) and F(x) = /(g(x)).2 and f'(5) =11.— 1 p^ Q. Let f(x) satisfy / yj f(e) = 1.2 sec2 2x .63 Which one ofthe following statements is NOT CORREC T ? (A) The derivative of a diffrentiable periodic function is a periodic functi on with the same period. J>^ ^V ( A ) C O t 571 T 571 (B)cot— 571 (C)tan5T 7 (D)xmj Q. The derivative of the function/(x) -/(4x) at x = 1.58 rx \ = / ( x ) .

y dx (A)2/nx.In ex2 2y .x x (D) x x2+1 . f(0)= ^ .= 2 v (D) none of these 2*(l-2') TO^nj The functions u = ex sinx.70 Let f(x) = . g"(0) = 5 f"(0) = 6f(0) = 3 then : g(0) (A) if h(x) = ® then h'(0)= ^4 gOO (C) L™^ V . v = ex cosx satisfy the equation: (A)v d2v (C) —5.67 Let y= ^x + Jx + Jx + (A) .72 f'(x) = 2 .1 (D) none Q.69 du 2» (B)— dv 2.' f'(0) = 2g'(0) = 4g(0). then .2 u — = u 2 + v^ 1 (C) 1 .68 If 2X + 2y = 2X+ y then ~ dy has the value equal to : dx (A)-? Q. 71 Two functions f & g have first & second derivatives at x = 0 & satisfy the relations.66 d x2 If y = x x then .f1= L x = 4 V + (D) 2x + y Q.Q. x then: VxM-1 (A) f (10) = 1 (C) domain of f (x) is x > 1 (B) f ' (3/2) = .± oo then ^ = (B) (2/nx + l).2 u dx Q.= .2* d2u _ (B) —.x x 2 (C) (2 In x + 1). xx2 + 1 Q.1 (B) .4 x + 2y (C) . Q.

g(x) sin x then k' (0) = 2 (D) none . B.1 (B) if k(x) = f(x). If y= x ( ' nx) (A) I v W ^ ( dx is equal to : (B) ^ (In x)ln{lnx^ (2 In (In x) + 1) x x + 2£nx in ((nx)) ' (C) x lnx ((In x)2 + 2 In (In x)) (D) x tnx (2 In (In x) + 1) i| Bansal Classes Q. on Method of differentiation [9] .

£'b it?b 9£'b 0 a D V a a a zzb irb irb 9ib irb 9 b rb orb 62 b a a a a D a .ANSWER a'a KEY oz/b 99 b £9b 8S'b D'a'v D'V a a a a 69 b S9b a'D'a'v D'a'v a a a 89 b i?9b I9b 9S b i sb ZL'b D'a'v a'D'v iz/b a'v a'D a 196 Z9b Lib zsb LVb a V a a 09 b SS'b OS't) V a V a 6Sb a WD 6rb t^b 6£b D £S'b 3 a a a 8t>-b £t>'b 8£'b ££b 83'b £rb sib £ib 8 b £b D 91?b D a a ivb Ofr'b S£'b D zvb a a z.

D LZ'b a V a a 3 D 9 zb V a a a V D SZ'b D Orb zzb Lib zvb Lb zb D 6rb D srb D orb a s-b a wb V a 6 b vb i| Bansal Classes Q. B. on Method of differentiation [9] .

BANSAL CLASSES TARGET IIT JEE 2007 MATHEMATICS XII (ABCD) METHOD OF DIFFRENT1ATION AND L' HOSPITAL'S RULE CONTENTS EXERCISE-I EXERCISE-II EXERCISE-III EXERCISE-IV ANSWER KEY .

DERIVATIVE OF f(x) FROM THE FIRST PRINCIPLE /ab INITIO METHOD: Iffix)is a deriva ble function then. . ™ | Z = Limit = f ( x ) = | 4. —^— IF IT EX ISTS . Limit f(x + h)-f(x) 2. THEOREMS ON DERIVATIVES : If u and v are derivable function of x. Note that alternatively.KEY 1. f (x) = dy . DEFINITION: CONCEPTS If xandx+h belong to the domain of a function f defined by y = f(x). (i) v/ ( . The derivative of a given function f at a point x = a of its domain is defined a s : Limit f(a + h)-f(a) h "»° h . We have therefore. then l i m i t f(X + h*) — ffxl h-To . provided the limit exists. IS called the DERIVATIVE of f at x & is denoted by x f (x) or ^ . then. we can define f (a) = 3. provided the limit exists & is denoted by f'(a).

cosecx.iii) v 7 (iv) (v) — (u+v) = — + — dx dx dx ± .u (—) 2 where v * 0 known as " QUOTIENT T" = • ~ " CHAIN R U L E " RULE " If y = fiu) & u = g(x) then dx du dx 5. In a a > 0 (vi) D (sinx) = cosx (ix) D (secx) = secx. x > 0 (ii i) D (ax) = ax.cosec2x (ii) D(e x ) = ex (iv) D (In x) = (v) D (log x) = .sinx (viii) D = tanx = sec x (x) D (cosecx) = . DERIVATIVE OF STANDARDS FUNCTIONS: (i) D (xn) = n. where K is any constant dx dx v (u.7 v 7 (ii) dx —(K u) = K ^ . tanx (xi) D (cotx) = .xn_1. cotx (xii) D (constant) = 0 where D = . n e R. x e R .log e X X 2 (vii) D (cosx) = . v) = u ^ ' dx v ^ dx known as " PRODUCT R U L E " — (Jj = d ( 1A v (—) .

This result can also be written as. if — exists & dy (b) Results : (i) D(sin.O. -1<X<1 (ii) D(cos _1 x ) = .L < x < l VL-X2 VL-X ^Bansal Classes M.^ L = .6.1 x)= . 1 2 . . INVERSE FUNCTIONS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES : (a) Theorem: If the inverse functions f & g are defined by y = fix) & x=g(y) & if f'(x) exists & f'(x) * 0 then g'(y) = 1 . andL'HospitalRule [2] .D.

IMPLICIT DIFFERENTIATION: <J>(x.y) = 0 (i) In order to find dy/dx. This is called LOGARITHMIC DIFFERENTIATION . — . we differentiate each term w. |x|>l (vi) D (cot-1 x) = -1 1+x 2 .R.(iii) (v) D(tan-1 x)=1+x . both x & y are present. then dy dy / dx DERIVATIVE OF A FUNCTION W. it will be found co nvinient to take the logarithm of the function first & then differentiate. in the case o f implicit functions.r.t. In answers of dy/dx in the case of implicit functions. ANOTHER FUNCTION: Let y = f(x) . dyMO PARAMETRIC DIFFERENTIATION: If y = f(9) & x = g(0) where 6 is a parameter. x regarding y as a funct ions of x & then collect terms in dy/dx together on one side to finallyfinddy/dx . dx dx LOGARITHMIC DIFFERENTIATION: Tofindthe derivative of : (i) a function which is t he product or quotient of a number of functions (ii) s:x) OR a function ofthe form [f(x)] where f & g are both derivable. xeR Note : In general if y = f(u) then — = f'(u). xeR (iv) D (sec-1 x) = [x| V ^ l > X>1 D (cosec 1 x)=-1 . 10.T. z = g(x) then ^ = f'(x) dx dx / d9 g'(x) . (ii) 9.

if it exists on (a. f(x) g(x) v(x) h(x) w(x) f(x) u(x) g(x) v(x) h(x) + w(x) f(x) l(x) g(x) m(x) h(x ) n(x) rd d3y d / dy n \ vdx2/ It is also 12. L' HOSPITAL'S RULE: Iff(x) & g(x) are functions of x such that : Limit _ n _ Lim it Limit Limit g(x) (0 x-ia f(x) = 0 = g(x) OR — 1 m = 00 = _ (ii) (iii) Both f(x) & g(x) are continuous at x = a Both f(x) & g(x) are differentiable at x = a & & and ^Bansal Classes M. n. b). t. b) is a certain function f'(x) [or (dy/dx) or y ] & is called the first derivative ofy w. u. g.and L 'Hospital Rule m .O. x. w are differentiable fu nctions of x then u(x) f'(x) g'(x) h'(x) F'(x)= l(x) m(x) n(x) u(x) v(x) w(x) l'(x) m'(x) n'(x) u'(x) v'(x) w'(x) 13. m.t. It's derivative.D. b) then this derivative is called the second derivative ofy w. is def ined by denoted by f"'(x)ory"'. x. t.11. DERIVATIVES OF ORDER TWO & THREE : Let a function y = f(x) be defined on an open interval (a. If it ha ppens that the first derivative has a derivative on (a. v. where f. x & is denoted by f"(x) or (d2y/dx2 ) or y". r.r. h. Similarly. if it exists. 1. the 3 order derivative of y w. r. If F(x) = l(x) m(x) n(x) .

(iv) Both f'(x) & g '(x) are continuous at x = a.1 HIGHLIGHTS : (a) Domain is x € R & range is % % (b) T'T f is continuous for all x but not diff.(x) x-*a g "(x) & so on till indeterminant form vanishes. ANALYSIS AND GRAPHS OF SOME USEFUL FUNCTIONS: (i) y = f(x) = sin-1 ' 2x 1 + x2 N 2 tan"1 x W<1 1 7t . 14.2 tan x x>l 1 .(rc + 2 tan" xj x < . Limit f(x) _ Limit f(x) _ Limit f"( x) x^a g ( x ) Then x^a g . at x = 1 -1 for x < 1 1+X non existe nt for |x| = 1 2-r for Ixl > 1 1+x 2 1 1 tl/2 > y /1 \D 1 (c) dx = .

oo) & D in (.1 } & range is f TZ % 1/ -1 (b) f is neither continuous nor diff.2 tan x) x > 1 It/2 y y = f(x) = tan 1 j—^j HIGHLIGHTS : (a) Domain is R .7t) Continuous for all x but not diff.-1) u (l. .oo.-1 D\ 0 I -1/2 (d) (ii) I in(-1.oo) l l + XJ 2 Consider HIGHLIGHTS : 2tan _1 x if x > 0 1 . at x = 1.2 tan" x if x < 0 y< 7t / T (a) (b) Domain is x e R & range is [0. at x = 0 dy dx for x > 0 1+X non existent for x = 0 .-2-sfor x < 0 1+x 2 D \ 7t/2 (c) (d) (iii) -1 0 I in (0.{ 1 . -1 dy dx 1x1*1 1 +-x non existent Ix l = 1 (e) 2 (c) (d) y r .(71 .1) & D in(-00. 0) 2x |x|<l 2 tan"1 x 1 7i + 2tan x x<-l -1 .

and L 'Hospital Rule m .0 1 A -n/2 ' I Vx in its domain It is bound for all x ^Bansal Classes M.O.D.

i) (d) (v) Continuous everywhere in its domain 3cos_1x-27i 1 3 _1 if •1<X<-1 y = f(x) = cos" (4x .4 x ) = 3sin x n . 1 ] & range is 71 71 2'2 2 (b) Not derivable at Ixl = 11 (C) dx = 3 if *6(-W)uft.+ 3 sin 1 xj if _1 -l<x<-^ (iv) y = f (x) = sin" (3 x .3sin-1x HIGHLIGHTS 1 3 if if 4<x<i |<X<1 (a) Domain is x e [ .1 .3 x) = 2 7c — 3cos x i f 3cos _ 1 x if HIGHLIGHTS : ..

-— 2 2 (c) Iin|-i.D..O.and L 'Hospital Rule m .i) GENERAL NOTE : Concavity in each case is decided by the sign of 2nd derivative as : ^ T > 0 => Concave upwards D = DECREASING I = INCREASING d2y dV dx:2 < 0 => Concave downwards ^Bansal Classes M. 7t] Continuous everywhere in its domain but not derivable at x = .1] & range is [0.IJ& Din U (d) £ = dxlf * e (-W)ufc.-|<x<I ^<x<l (a) (b) Domain is x e [-1.

logaC wherea = x x & Cis constant.y 6 6 3 dy dx' 3 3 = dy = a • (x -y ).. (sinx)cosx. If /(0) = 1 .4x . \ If x = cosec 9 . find the value of (d2y/dx2) when t = (n/2).x 6 Find the derivative with respect to x ofthe function : (lo§cosX s i n x ) Oogsinx C0SX ) _I + arcsin at X= j . Q.3.. Vl-x 4 .sin 9 . x from thefirstprinc iple: cos(Znx). . prove that dx x 2 11 — y6 1 y 2 lV l . h (0) = 3 and the derivatives of their pair wise products at x = 0 are (f g)' (0) = 6 .ll If y=tm'1-7J= & x = sec-1 2 2 2u Vl-u .cos2t & y = 2sint .x 2 Q ^ ..6 Q.EXERCISE-I Q. x > 2 and let g be the inverse of f. (b) Let / . prove that —= dx 2 Z x+ — x_ 1 x_l x+.7 Q. Q. Provethat x>0.t.l / Find the derivative of the following functions w. Q. Vl + x 2 W l . (g h)'(0) = 4 and (hf)'(0) = 5 then compute the value of (fgh)'(O). ^sin Vx and cos"1 (x2).8 Q.10 If x = 2cost ..t.sin" 9.r.x + V l .4 If v .. 2 ^ 2 Q. dx (x-y) Q. .3 (a) Let f (x) = x2 . s.sin2t. Find the value of g' where f (x) = 2. rcsin y o 2 2 Q.5 Ify = x + x+ 1 x+ 1 x+. g and h are differentiable functions.g(0)=2 .9 c .r. then show that ( x 2 + 4) dy .n 2 (y 2 + 4) = 0 vdxy Ify = (cosx) /nx + (lnx)x find If V l . y = cosec" 9 . Differentiate ^ w. US ' V2 J -1 u f 1 VV 2 ' .

6 t 2 +t 4 ) 2 ^Bansal Classes M. -i Vl + sinx + Vl-sinx dy Q. f ~ _.19 u ^ 71 ^ dy + sin 2 tan" IIZi . O. dy prove that 2 — + 1= 0. find jd-x if XG Vl + s i n x . If .D.14 16t(l-t 4 ) ( l . and L 'Hospital Rule [6] .12 T y= cot . prove that dt 1 Q.V l .s i n x Q. then find — forx e (-1.1).\ . 1+x dy I f y = sec4x and x = tan (t).

where' denotes the derivativ e.x3 then f " (x) + If y = = 0. (x-b) 4 (x-c) 3 1 (x-c) 4 nx [f(x) f (x-a) 2 (x-b) 2 (x-c) 2 1 1 .Q 15=v Q.f ( 0 ) . Find the value of X. 1 If [ f (x) ]3 = 3 K x2 .20 I f f : R-»R is a function such that f(x) = x3 + x2 f'(l)+xf"(2) + f "'(3) fo r all x e R. 7/ d^y _ bsinx . 18(a) Find the derivative of cos-l when .tan — .1% Ify = tan V 1+ x . prove that cos(x+x 2 ) sin(x+x 2 ) cos(x-x2) 0 1 1 x(x + 1) ^T d2y + dy = y_1 • -cos(x+x2) sin(x-x2) sin2x 2 . vl + x y (b) Iff(x)= sin"1 V 'J Also draw the graph of y= f(x) and state its range and monotonic behaviour. Q. clearly stating the point(s) where f(x) is not derivable. 1-x2 Q. r Q. Find the value of n in terms of K. then show that 2 'a + b 2/ y dx (a + bcosx)2 v r Q. + xVx 2 +1 + ZnVxWx^+T prove that 2y = xy' + In y'.16 Q.17 If (x-a) 4 4 f W = (x-b) (x-c) 4 (x-a) 3 1 (x-a) 4 (x-b) 3 1 then f ' (x) = k.— .oo < x < 0. then prove that f(2) = f ( l ) .21^Ify = x/n[(ax)" + a . using the substitu tion x=tan 9.findf'(x) V x e R .].

23 1 2x + 1 2x + 2x + oo Compute the value of /(100) • / ' (100). and L 'Hospital Rule m .O p . Ifflx) sin(x-x2) sin2x then find f*(x).25 EXERCISE-II Q. O.l e ex ex dv x If y = e x +e x +x e . D.24 Q. show that — = l .2 x cosa+x 2 ' dx dx ^Bansal Classes M. If (a + bx) e y / x =x. then prove that If y-2 = i + 2V2 cos 2x.2 dx = [x^-y = y(3y:2 +1) (7y2 -1) Let f(x) = x + 1 Q.2 sina dy If sin y = x sin (a + y). prove that . Q. Find Q.

B(x).6 (l + tan|)2 tanf Show that —. A(x) B(x) A (a) B(a) A'(a) B'(a) C(x) C(a) C'(a) is divisible by f(x).and y = f(x). then \al+2al + 3n3 + + na n | < 1 .In 2 + cqs4x . 4 & 5 respectively.7 Q.sin y (1 + sin y + cos y). sinx>0.4 If y = tan"1 x +x + l + tan"1 x +3x + 3 2 + tan"1 ——2 x +5x+7 + tan"1 ——l2 x +7x + 13 + to n terms.Q. dy dx 1 2 Q. then show that denotes the deriv ative.8 d2f = 2 z 3 ^ + z4d2y If x = . C(x) be t he polynomials of degree 3.3 If a be a repeated root of a quadratic equation f(x) = 0 & A(x). expressing your answer in 2 terms. show that : 2 z dx dz dz2 Prove tha t if | aj sinx + ajSin 2x + + ansin nx ] < | sinx | for x e R. si Q. E xpress explicitly and then show that — = J c q s 2 x VCSX O V If x = tan— .5 cos3x dy If y = arc cos J — . Find dy/dx. Q.= . where dash Q.

x d2y dy 2 Show that the substitution z = / n tan— changes the equation —J— + cot x — + 4y cos ec x = 0 to dx v 2y dx' (d2y/dz2) + 4 y = 0.15 If . 3/2 1+ Q.10 If x 4 + 7 x 2 y 2 + 9 / = 24xy 3 .13 V2 + Xy sinx if x * 0 and f (0) = 1.12 Let f(x) : Q. Define the function f" (x) for all x andfindf" (0) if it exist. if x=a sin2O(l+cos20) & y=acos20 (1.Q. x <0 x>0 Q. of degree one&/(x) be defined by f(x) = Find the continuous function f(x) satisfying f'(l) = f(-l) Q.cos20) then the value of R equals to 4a cos39.14 Show that R = d^y dx 2 can be reduced to the form R2/3 = 1 d^y dx 2 2/3 • + 1 2/3 dy 2 Also show that.9 Ify = /n x e find dy dx' Q. 11 Let g(x) be a polynomial. X„ .2 + y = = . X Q. showthat ^ = dx x r g(x).

+ + xn-x x Xj X X2 X X3 X <§Bansal Classes M..1 + ^ + (x-x7xx^-x 2 ) (x-x 1 )(x X -x X 2 )(x-x 3 ) + U P t0 ( n + Dtermsthenprovethat dy dx x. y + +..O.D. andL'HospitalRule [8] .

t2 f x + y\ Q. t.+ (2n . Q.b2 .18 Ify= cos l< dy 1 &9 = a + bcosx + csinx.eI and deduce from IN • /O i\ [(2n+1)sin(2n-1)x-(2n-1)sin(2n+l)x] 1 4 sin x sin2nx 2sinx this: sinx +3sin3x+5sin5x +. Iff (x) is differentiable and f'(0) exists for all Pro ve that f (x) is positive for all real x. Q.%. x then prove that X Y Z X.a 2 ..20 Find a polynomial function /(x) such that /(2x) = / ' (x)/M (x). Q. real permissible values of'a' and is equal to ^ 5 a .l . Y.c 2 aG .K. find 1 . Q.1) x = 1 r .. 22 Let f: R -> ( .1) sin (2n .21 IfY=s X and Z=tX. k * 0.1 .19 Prove that cosx + cos3x + cos5x + + c o s ( 2 n ./a 2 . y e R&fix) is differentiable everywhere then find f ix).f ( x ) 2 Q. Q. where u = sec2x.a 2 + b2 + c 2 e Vb2 + c2 dy dx x=-7t/ 6 a+x Q..x*K7t. Z. where all the letters denotes the functions ofx and suffixes denotes the differentiation w. Show that fix) If f(x+y) = fix)-fiy) for x.16 Let f(x) = £+x m+x n+x .23 Let fix) be a derivable function at x = 0 & f[ is either a zero or an odd l inear function. n) be a derivable function such that f (x) + f (y) = f .17 If y = logu | cos4x | + | sinx | . Showthat f "(x) = 0 and that f(x) = f(0) + k x where k denotes p+x q+x r+x the sum of all the co-factors of the elements in f (0). f(x + y ) .t.r.25 Let f(y)-a 2 +xy for all real x and y.24 x + y) f (x) + f (y) (k e R.2).xyj Iff(l)=^ & LhmtM=2> findf(x)_ Q.b+x c+x Q.provethat — = —.l ) x = —:— L . Y2 Zj X3 s 2 s.

3 Lim x -»0 1. ^Bansal Classes M.and L 'Hospital Rule m .2 Q.ln(l+x) Q.x xsin ' x L j m xcosx .D.EXERCISE-III Evalute the following limits using L'Hospital's Rule or otherwise : Ql Q.O.4 x-»0 1 Lim 1 • x-*0 x 2 sin 2 x im If L—a V J.T x > x a = -1 find'a'.

1 2 . find the values of a.7 Determine the values of a. If "to 1 —o 5 j exists & is finite. 1 + sinx-cosx+ /n(l-x) x™ ^ Q. fsinxV 3x £n\ | + x3 ^ x ~ 0 Lim sinx-(sinx) sinx . „ . . where h(x) = sin"1 (sgn(x))& 2sin™-i+cos2 ™ j-i .. .cos(2x2-x) r\ „ t i m a s i n x . .12 j• Lim sin(3x ) — /n.6 T. b and c so that Tim (a + bcosx)x-csinx 5 = 1 X .13 Given/(x) = forx>l .10 Find the value of J{0) so that the function /(x)= 1 x e2x ./n(l + x) . ^ ^ . n 11 ^ Q.Q 5 T. c & the limit. 2x .b x + cx 2 +x 3 . "2 1-sinx + In (sinx) (x-sinx) (l-cosx) Q.2x + x l-sin Q. . b. . x * 0 is continuous at x = 0 & examine the differentiability of f(x) at x = 0. ( t a n ^ x ) Q.

+ y xVa-x b . [x] is the integral part ofx & sgn (x) is the signum of (x).1 . c Ify= — + — +— + (x-a)(x-b)(x-c) (x-b)(x-c) (x-c) 2 y'. Prove that £ . 2). andL'HospitalRule [10] . M. 6 ] <§Bansal Classes and its domain. 8 ] \ Q. 6 + 6] 2 Q. Discuss the continu ity of f in ( . 1 [REE'97.t.14 Given a real valued function f(x) as follows: f(x) = x 2 + 2co<?x — 2 -4 for x<0. b & c so that Lim — — b / n ( l + x) + c xe— _ ^ x->o x sin x Find the differential coefficient of the function f(x) = log^ sinx2 + (sinx2)1082" w.D. where {x} is thefractionalpart ofx. f(0)= — & f(x) = 1 sinx .2 bx .r. EXER CISE-IV Q.O.= .= .x c-xj [ JEE'98. Alsofindthe function [ REE '99.l (a) (b) Find the values of constants a.co.3 If f (x) = ^ ^ 'then find t h e d o m a i n 311(1 t h e r a n 8 e o f f • Show that f is one-one.&i(ex cosx) 1 ^ forx>0.lg(h(x)) forx<l g (x) = I x I + {-x} + [x]. Test the continuity and differentiability of/(x) at x=0.1/ a b c 1. Q.

Find derivative of g (x) at x = 0. a e (0.y) =/(x) • g (y) .1]. 4] Q.6(a) If y = y(x) and it follows the relation x cos y + y cos x = n. 0 < a < l [JEE2005 (Scr. 3 (-1)] <§Bansal Classes M. andL'HospitalRule . Screening. y e R. [JEE 2005 (Mains). (b) f(x) = 2 (B) (D) y y " + (y')2 y y " + 2 (y') + 1 .c2./ ( y ) • g (x) and g (x . -J x + c bsin I 2 .< x <0 2 at x = 0 0<x < — 2 If f (x) is differentiable at x = 0 and | c | < 1/2 thenfindthe value of'a' and prove that 64b2 = 4 .0 2 + 1 = 0 [JEE 2000. theny' (0) = (A)l (B)-l .a)x + ax. .a)x2 + ax.)] —.O. P(0) = 0 and P'(x) > 0 V x e [0.2 (y')2 + 1 = 0 (C) y y " .5( a) If In (x + y) = 2xy. Lim((sinx) 1/x + ( l / x f 1 x ) is v x—MD ' (A)0 (B)-l (C)l (D)2 [JEE 2006.l = 0 (b) Suppose p (x) = a0 + a t x + % x +. ax/2_1 (D) — n (b) If P(x) is a polynomial of degree less than or equal to 2 and S is the set o f all such polynomials so that P(l) = 1.1 | for all x > 0 prove that [ JEE 2000 (Mains) 5 out of 100 ] (C)2 (D)0 [JEE 2004 (Scr.)] (c) I f / ( x . 0 < a < 2 2 (C) (1 .a)x2 + ax.Q. If | p (x) | < | ex 1 .( y ' ) 2 . t h e n : (A) yy" . Q. 4 out of 60] Q. oo ) (D) S = {(1 . I f right hand derivative at x = 0 exists for/(x). [JEE 2004 .y) = g (x) • g (y) +/(x) -/(y) for all x.D. the n (A) S = c|) (B) S = {(1 . 1 out of 3 5 ] + an x n . \al+2a2 + + n an | < 1 .7 Forx> 0.4(a) If x2 + y 2 = l . then y"(0) (A) 1 (B)-l (C) 7t 2 e ]_ .

[11] .

— or. ( a ) . (b) 16 Q 7. — = e ^ V —+eX! +exX x e_1 x x6 [l + elnxj+x®6 eeX dx l l Q4 Q 5 Q9 'l+(x + n ) 2 T ^ ' >' = s i n _ 1 ^ t a n x > ' 1 X1 —he lnx x y x inx + x Aix Iny + l x" £nx (1-x-y^na) i .12 f'(x) = 1 3 r x cos x . (b){0).x if x < 0 / 6 2 Q 11.— Q13.+ . -— 2 1 1 Q 1 2 .23 100 Q 18. n = 2K2 Q. Dy = (cosx)1 ln(cosx) .~ .tanx lnx (Hx lnx + ln(lnx) 32 16 + 7t l +x 8 1n2 2 3 Q 10. f(x) = U+x. Q9.22 2(1 + 2x). if x Tt 0 if x = 0 . range n n 2'2 Q. Q.lnx Q 3. 3 Q 1 6 .sin x . cos 2(x + x2) EXERCISE-II 6 lnx Q 1.f"(0) = .ANSWER KEY EXERCISE-I Q 2. -or 2 2 l-2x Q 15. (a) 1/6. n .1 7 dy -V3(12 + ln2) & = ln4 if x > 0 4x Q. lWl-x4 .

Range off(x)= R .{ .6 (a) C.7 C <§Bansal Classes M.6 Q 13. fis con t.1/2. (b) a = 1 (1 Jx)2 Domain of f" 1 (x) = R .2. andL'HospitalRule [12] .1/2. f(x) = 0 or f(x) = ekx EXERCISE-III 5 QL1 Q2. b = 60. c = 180 Q 8. (c)g'(0) = 0 Q.Q. 1 Q 6. 1} Q.l (a) a = 3. but not derivable at x = 0 Q.{ . c = 9 Q 11. b = 6 . f(0 + ) = -(1/3). — 40 Q 14. f(0") = -(1/3) Q12. . 1 Q 7. ^ [ f ( x ) ] = Q. differentiable atx= 0 .5 (a) A. 0}. f is discont. /nx (co t x2) . a = 120. b = 12.1 Q3.-? Q 4.O.In (sin x2)] 'l xln x Q.D. 2) EXERCISE-IV (b) 2^x + x [/n2(x) • (sin x2)/n x (2x2 /nx.1} . f(x) = 2 tan"1 x Q 24.20 1 Q 22.3 Domain of f (x) = R . c = 0 .10 f(0) = 1. only at x = 0 in (-co. 2 Q9-2/5 Q.(b)B.4 (a) B Q. a= 1 Q5. a = 6 .( . cot x2 + In (sin x2)) + 2x2 .

| BAN SAL CLASSES ^ TARGET IIT JEE 2007 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY XII & XIII FINAL PRA CTICE PROBLEMS FOR IIT JEE-2007 (With Answers) ALL THE BEST FOR JEE .2 0 0 7 .

When started with equimolar amounts of A and R. As gas decomposes.303R T^T AH0 v B)-TTT^r ( 7 2. the pis ton moves up against constant external pressure of 750 mm Hg.303R T AS° (Q— R ASo v(D) ' 2. it is found that the conc.45 eY (D) none The maximum number of electrons in a subshell having the same value of spin quantum number is given by (A) 1 + 2 (B ) 21 + 1 (C) 2(2/+1) (D) None 1 When a graph is plotted with log (Keq) v/s —.55 eV (C) 4.6 I)' Nil.The H 2 0 2 decomposes to H 2 0 and 0 2 (g) in a first order process with half life 10 hrs at 300 K. at equilibrium. the attainment of equilibrium is predicted by which curve: N2( g) + 3H2(g) >2NH.8 What is the net work done by the gas from the start of sixth hour till the end o f 10 hrs? (A) 100 J (B) 120 J (C) 130 J (D) 150 J If AH for decomposition of H20 2(aq.Q. The maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectrons will be (A) 0.5 L rea ction vessel which is equipped with a movable piston is filled completely with a IM aqueous solution of H 2 0 2 .5 x 102 M 1 sec"! (D) none of these Question No.55 eV (B) 2. 1 Q. N 2 The reaction A(g) + B(g) ^ C(g) + D(g) is elementry 2nd order reaction opposed b y elementry second order reaction. Specific r ate for forward reaction is 2 x 10"3 mol 1 Lsec ! . how much heat has been exchanged with surrounding to maint . The specific rate constant f or backward reaction is (A) 5.0 eY).303R Q. 7 to 8 ( 2 questions) A 0. t. then intercept on log (Keq) axis will be AH° ( A )2.7 Q. ' H n NH3 -NI I.2 Wave number of the second line of Paschen series of hydrogen atom is (RH = 10970 0 cm ! ) (A) 18750 A (B) 3452 A (C) 7801 A (D) 1542656 A Radiation corresponding to the transition n = 4 to n = 2 in hydrogen atoms falls on a certain metal (wo rk function = 2.3 Q.) is X K J/mole. of Ais twice that of C. Q.5 For the synthesis of NH3 from the Haber process starting with stoichiometric amo unt of N2 and H2.0 x 10"4 M"1 sec"1 (B) 8 x 10"3 M"1 sec"1 (C) 1.(g) t: (A) Q.4 Q. (D)L (C)lN ft 2 -H.

2070 X (C)-0.86 x iO^M sec(D) 2 xio^Msec.1 0.052 X (D) 0.271 1 The in itial rate of reaction was? (A) 1.ain temperature at 300 K (in KJ) from the start of 6th hour till the end of 10th hour.19 0.1 Q.76 x lo-4 M sec"1 (B) 2.9 (feBansal Classes Problems for JEE-2007 [7 ] . (A) -0.76 x lO^M sec"1 1 (C) 3.1035 X (B)-0. (B) mole/L 0 0.026 X During study of a liqu id phase reaction A (aq) > B (aq) + C (aq) the variation in concentration of B w ith time is given t/min 0 10 20 30 oo conc.

The mixture reacts completely with 128 gm 0 2 to produce C0 2 and H2Q. (D) The osmotic pressure of 0. NaCl Solution I CaCl-.821 li tre closed vessel at 527°C.21atm (C) 20 K Q. Q.17 Q.2 M a q . The basicity of the acid is (D) data insufficient (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 SPM Study the following figure and choose the correct options.0.5 (D) 0. (A) 0. (B) CaCL will flow towards the NaCl solution.14 A sample of phosphorus that weighs 12.0001 Q _1 . If volume enclosed between two electrode contain 0. what is the molar X conductivity(Scm2mol_1) of salt at same conc.ll Y400cm2 Q.IO A catalyst increases the (A) rate of forward reaction only (B) free energy chang e in the reaction (C) rates of both forward and reverse reactions (D) equilibriu m constant of the reaction The conductance of a salt solution (AB) measured by t wo parallel electrodes of area 100 cm2 separated by 10 cm was found to be 0. The molecular formula ofthe phosphorus vapour is (A)P 2 (B)P4 (C)P 6 (D)P g For a gas deviation from ideal behaviour is maximum at (A) 0°C and 1.8 100 cm3 of a solution of an acid (Molar mass = 82) containing 39 gm of the acid per litr e were completely neutralized by 95. .15 Q.12 Arrange the following electrolytes in the increasing order of coagulation power for the coagulation of A S 2 S 3 solution.0 atm (D) .0 cm3 of aq.4 gm exerts a pressure 8 atm in a 0. assuming complete dissociati on of electrolyte.16 Q.15 M CaCl2.6 (B) 0.1 0 ° c a n d 4 0 a t m An ideal gaseous mixture of ethane (C2H6) and ethene (C2H4) occupies 28 litre at STP. If dP (Pd) (A) 40 K (B) 400 K 10. (I) Na 3 P0 4 (II) MgCl2 (III) A1C13 ( A ) I < II < III (B) III = II < I ( C ) I <111 < 1 1 (D) III < I < II If Pd v/ s P (where P denotes pressure in atm and d denotes density in gm/L) is plotted f or H2 gas d (ideal gas) at a particular temperature.0 atm (C) -10°C and 1.13 P=8.5 mole of salt.18 ^ .Q. i (A) There will be no net moment of any substance across the membrane 0.02 X 5 10cm (C) 2 x 10" (D) none of these Q.4 (C) 0. Solution (C) Na Cl will flow towards the CaCl2 solution. NaOH containing 20 gm of NaOH p er 500 cm3.0 atm (B) 100°C and 2.01 (B) 0. then the temperature will be (D) none Q. Mole fraction at C2H6 in the mixture is (A) 0.15Maq.2 M NaCi is lower than the osmotic pressure of 0.

K sp (Ag 2 Cr0 4 ) : 4 5 6 (A) 2.19 What is [Ag' J in a solution made by dissolving both Ag 2 Cr0 4 and Ag 2 C 2 0 4 until saturation is x 10 ! 2 reached with respect to both salts.80 x 10(B) 7. K sp (Ag 2 C 2 0 4 ) = 2 x 10 n .52 x (feBansal Classes Problems for JEE-2007 [7 ] .Q.6 x 10" (C) 6. 63 x !0" " (D) 3.

3 J/K mole.17 J/K (D) None What is ArG (KJ/mole) for synthesis of ammonia at 298 K at following sets of partial pressu re: N2(g) + 3H2(g) ^ 2NH 3 (g).1 M metal ions i Ag(OH) (K sp = 5 x l Cr3) II Ca(OH)2 (K sp = 8 x l (r 6 ) 11 ffl Mg(OH)2 (K sp = 3 x 1CT ) IV Fe(OH)2 (K sp = 8 x 10"16) (A) I.0 J/(mol. 10 .27 Kcal/nioi (C) -1. NaY and NaZ had pH 7. 3 NH3 0.. II. (III) (IV) The value of (PV) / (RT) at critical state is 0.44 Kcal/mol (B) -2. ( A)FFTT (B) FTFT * (C) TFTF (D)FT TT . IV " (B) IV (C) III and IV (D) II.325 Tr 8 The ratio of Critical Constants -—.5 Give the correct order of initials T (tru e) or F (false) for following statements. (I) Two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of three quantum numbers (II) The lowest energy configuration for an atom with electrons in a set of degenerate orbital s is that having the maximum number of unpaired electrons with the same spin..5 (C) + 60.5 (B) .26 (A)+ 6. 9. ArG° = -33 KJ/mole.K2)..0.3. [Take R = 8. (i) The ratio of the radii of the first three Bohr orbit of hydrogen atom is 1 : 8 : 27 (ii) (iii) (iv) A m (molar conductivity) for a strong electrolyte decreases as the electrolyte con centraton increases. Let 2 mole of this gas go from 300 K and 2. AS.0 and 11.23 Q. IV From s eparate solutions of four sodium salts NaW.is — — — p Rxb r c (A) TTFF (B) FTFT (C)FFTT Q.6.2 atm is (A) -9.5 (D)-60.02 Q. Which of the following hydroxides could be precipitated when the solution is added to 1 litre solution of 0. The ratio ofthe molar concentration of B3~ to the solubility product of the s alt is x5 1 M4 1 M4 Q. When each solution was 0.0 litre .0 litre volume to 600 K and 4.25 Q. NaX.20 A3B2 is a sparingly soluble salt of molar mass M (g moH) and solubility x g lit1.0. K) and b = 0.08 J/K (B)-1-2 08 J/K (C) 64. III. is gdS (A) 32. where a = 25.. then its wa velength is 500 nm The mass of an equivalent of H 3 P0 4 when it combines with NaOH using the equat ion H3PG4 + 2NaOH > Na2HP04 + 2H 2 0 is 49 g. the strongest acid is: ( A) HW (B) HX (C) HY (D) HZ AG for the conversion of 2 mol of C6H6(f) at 80°C (norm al boiling point) to vapour at the same temperature and a pressure of 0. log3 = 0.135 Kcal/moi (D) zero A certain i deal gas has C v m = a + bT. 27 (D) TTTF Give the correct order of initials T (true) or F (false) for following statement s.0 respectively.24 Q.21 A 1 litre solution containing NH4C1 and NH4OH has hydroxide ion concentration of 10~6 mol/lit.03 J (mol. The frequency of a green light is 6 x io 14 Hz.22 Q.48] Gas Pressure (atm) N2 1 H.1 M.0. log2 = 0.

^Bansa I Classes Problems for JEE-2007 [4] .

An azeotropic solution of two liquids has a boiling point lower then either of them when it shows negative deviation from Raoult's Law. I. (A)FFFT (B)FFTT (C ) TFFT ' (D) TTFF Q. III. The equivalent weight of 3M Br2 is .30 Give the correct order of initials T (true) or F (false) for following statements. 10 mi solution of NaOH (pH = 11) and 60 ml water will be 3.y where M = Molecular weight. If the equilibrium constants for the reaction Br.28 Give the correct order of initials T (true) or F (false) for following statement s I. KL = 1 Statement (d) : If the partial orders are equal to corresponding coefficients in the balanced reac tion. An aqueous solution of an alcohol (B P 56°C) in water (B. In the nuclear reaction p 5 U » 7 Pb.P.1. 100°C) has vapour pressure more than that of water. d (C) Statement a. III. the reaction must be elementary (simple) (A) Statement a (B) Statement b. d (D) All Q. then t he general formula of the compound is X0Y3(present in 2 : 3). (A)TFTT (B)FFFT (C) FFTF (D)FFTT (feBansal Classes Problems for JEE-2007 [7 ] . the radius of atoms in terms V'3a of edge length (a) of unit cell is —— IV.29 Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct: Statement (a) : For the reac tion Br. IV. When a solution prepared by mixing 90 ml of HQ solution (pH = 3). + QH~ > B r + BrOT + H2G. II. Statement (b) : For an aqueous solutio n to be neutral it must have pH = 7 Statement (c) : For the reaction 1 1 — N2 + NO equilibrium constant is KL and 2NO ^ N 2 + (X equilibrium constant is K2 then K2. The fraction of volume occupied by atoms in a body centered cubic unit cell is 0. If the anions (Y) form hexagona l closest packing and cations (X) occupy only 2/3 octahedral voids in it.Q. then reac tion is exothermic. the total number of a and (3 particles lost would bell.74. II. In th e face-centered cubic unit cell of closest packed atoms. b. ^ 2Br at 500 K and 700 K are 10"10 and 10~5 respectively.

3 Q. 2 = 2~ Aq = 0 . B D A B k = k / e£ k K c b i eq At the end of 5 hours A A ° at the end of 10th hours \ .4 Q.ANSWER Q. 2 1 An A0 r V2-1 0. E2 = 13.6 eV/atom _1 3 2 _ 1_ 52 y = 7801 cm"1 AE = E4 . Q.5 Q. Q.9 I A Heat exchanged (q ) A C B G* / a 10 100 0. Q.= Rt Q. G = 0.0001 S .E.(0.E.2071 mole/L amount decayed in 0.E2 = 2. V = 100 x 10= 100 0 cm3 = 1 litre .6 Sol.55 eV Absorbed energy = work function of metal + K. = 0.5 L = 0. 2 0 7 ^ ~ 2 ~ V2 => 0.1 .2071^ moles of 0 2 formed = ~ ( mole 4 2 j W = -PAV = -nRT = . K. = 13. 2.314 x 300 = -129. A En = 13.20 71/4) x 8.l V = .2071" f 0.7 Sol.E.55 = 2 + K.6 .14 Joule Q.6 eV .8 Sol.2 Sol.55 eV Ans.2071/2 \.

l x 0 .5 KXIOO (0. M (feBansal Classes = 0.1035 X kJ/mole Q.5 ^0.10 Q. 0 0 0 1 = 10.ll Sol.2071 x AH = -0.02 Scm2 moH Ans. x 0 .K = G G * = 0. 0 0 0 1 ) x 1 0 0 0 0. Problems for JEE-2007 [7] .

y 2 x 10~n = 4.=0.12 Sol.=N 2 V 2 39 (—) J In f 20 x 1000 = 95 x I xlOO V40500 n=2 Q.5 0 2 -> 2C0 2 + 3H 2 0 .2 28 xlOO = 0."l5RT h<n2 D [only solvent (H 2 0) molecules can passed through SPM] Q.21x2 0.2RT. d(Pd) _ 2PM dP ~ RT 10 2x8.19 Sol.x ) 89. As2S3 is negativley charged sol.Q.16 + 2 x 1. 7t2 = i2 x C2RT = 2 x 0.13 Sol.5 x + 3 ( 2 8 .4 x 4 = 3.16 x 10"14 Total (Ag+) = 2x + 2y = (2 x 0.5 x + 84 . o f ethane is x 22.t=> .84 y3 y = 1.17 Sol.(aq) 2y + 2x K sp. C2H4 + 3 0 .2y)2.6 x 10"4 x = 0..6 = 3.6) x 10^ = 3.3x x = 11.16 Sol. -> 2C0 2 + 21^0 Let vol. so coagulation power Al3+ > Mg 2+ > Na+ A PM = dRt f M \ V RT J T = 40 K Q. Ag 2 Cr0 4 (s) ^ 2Ag+ (aq) + CrO 2 " (aq) 2x + 2y + x y Ag 2 C 2 0 4 (s) ^ 2Ag (aq) + C 2 0 2 .2 l itrE at const.15 Q.1 K so y 2xl0 y 2 x 10"11 = (2x + 2y)2.52 x 10"4 .0821xT = 10 B D B C2H6 + 3. D 7tj = ij x CjRT .14 Q. =3xO.18 Sol.= _ .9 gm acid present in 100 cm3 Base: 20 gm Na OH present in 500 cm3 NIV.y = (2. B meq" + acid = meqn of base Acid: 3.4 Q. Q. T & PV a n Mole fraction of C 2 H 6 in mixture 11. x 2x10" x —— = .

(feBansal Classes Problems for JEE-2007 [7] .Ans.

when 1 litre each are mixed [OH"] = 10"6 M (Buffer solution) Mn+ = 0. C .24 Sol.05 M for M2 + = Q = [0.^ =» ^ Sol. r nC v dT jds = J — + ? H P . AVm = V g P t = 1 atm and P 2 = 0. d(AG) = n(AVm)dP (for n moles) P (Gibbs equation) 2 P 2 Jd(AG) . Pi Pi n = 2 and.J .SdT dT = 0. C Solubility A3B2(S) ^ S = x/M 3A 2 " (aq) + 2 B 3 " (aq) 3S .2 atm . A B Q.AG. a t m = n J => Q. dG = VmdP for a reaction.n j(AV m )dP. AG = 0 we know for reversible processes. C6H6(/) -> C6H6(g) At 1 atm.2 atm .20 Sol.Q.V R T g = ~ AG0. L . „ 2S .21 B =» JOBS' .22 Q.23 Sol.5][10-6]2 = 5 x 10~14 Q > K s p only for Fe2+ only Fe(OH)2 is ppt. dG = VmdP . [A3-] 2S 1 1 M4 Ksp=(3S)W Q.

60.2.1 ^ ^ AG 1 atm = 0 AG0 2 atm .27 D Q.52 AS = 64.30 D Problems for JEE-2007 (feBansal Classes [7 ] .303 log Q.= .T J ] + 2Rin2 => 2[25 x 0.29 A Q.d V = 2j i — ' — + 2R^n2 = 2[25 ^n2 + 0.2 x RT In — = .314 x 2.26 A Q.02) f .17 J/k Q.03T)dT 2J .03 x 300] + 2 x 8.2 r dT „ f ( a + bT)dT j nR — = 2j — + „fRJW n r (25 + 0.5 kJ/mole 1x3 Q. AG = AG + RT In 0 Pn 2 xPH 2 AG = -33000+ 8.25 D P2 NH3 Sol.03 [T2 .27 Kcal/mol 0.65 + 11.28 A (0.314 x 0.693 = 52.693 + 0.

1 then (A)p=VU-3 (B)VT0-3 (C) 1/4<p < 1/2 (D)none Q. find the chance that there should be two heads and two tails. The 20 persons are divided into two groups. is: (A) 1/2 (B) 1/3 (C) 1/4 (D) 2/3 •Q.19 (D) 0. Q.5 A committee of 5 is to be chosen from a group of 9 people. The probability that a certain married couple will either serve together or not at all is: (A) 1/2 (B ) 5/9 (C) 4/9 (D) 2/3 Qj) There are only two women among 20 persons taking part in a pleasure trip. 7 black.4p . . The probability that the randomly chosen card has a digit 5 is: (A) 0.1 st After 1 Lecture 100 cards are numbered from 1 t o 100. Q.findthe chance that the missing cards should • be one from each suit. and 4 red balls. four are accidentally dropped. each group consisting of 10 persons.18 A quadratic equation is chosen from the set of all the quadratic equations which are unchanged by squaring their roots. find the chance that three ball s drawn at random are all white. Q. Then the probability that the two women wi 1 be 1 in the same group is: (A) 9/19 (B) 9/38 (C) 9/35 (D) none Q. 8 If four coins are tossed.3 i If the letters ofthe word "MISSISSIPPI" are written down at random in a row.4 Q.01 (B) 0. the probability that no two S's occur together is : (A) 1/3 (B) 7/33 (C) 6/13 • (D) 5 /7 A sample space consists of 3 sample points with associated probabilities give n as 2p.2 S BANSAL CLASSES Target IIT JEE 2007 MATHEMATICS Daily Practice Problems CLASS : XII (ABCD) DPP ON PROBABILITY DPR NO.9 Thirteen persons take their places at a round table.7 A bag contain 5 white.09 (P^0. show that it is five to one against two particular persons sitting together. p 2 .> Q.. The chance that the chosen equation has equal roots.1 Q.10 In shuffling a pack of cards.

^ Bansal Classes [1] .

17 A fair die is tossed.14 The letter forming the word Clifton are placed at random in a row. find the probability that it is prim e. one of 4 and the otlrer of o ne volume. Find P (H) and P (T). (ii) the boys are girls sit in alternative seats.20 In a hand at "whist" what is the chance that the 4 kings are held by a specified player? 'f I I . Find the chanc e of the extreme coins being both ten nP's. Q. If two parts are chosen at random.19 A coin is biased so that heads is three times as likely to appear as tails. <ii Q. find the probability that one is a bolt and one is a nut. Three fair coins are tossed.18 3 boys and 3 girls sit in a row.ll A has 3 shares in a lottery containing 3 prizes and 9 blanks. Q. What is the c hance that the two vowels come together? Three bolts and three nuts are put in a box.15 There are 'm' rupees and 'n ten nP s. Find the probability that (i) the 3 girls sit t ogether. If both heads and tails appear. Q. If the number is odd. placed at random in a line. Q. determine the pr obability that exactly one head appears.16 Q.12 There are three works.13 Q.Q. one consisting of 3 volumes. prove that the chance that vo lumes of the same works are all together is l . They are placed 3 on a shelf at random. B has 2 shares in a lottery containing 2 prizes ancl|6 blanks. Q. Compare their chances of success. Q.

p2 = -0. p".4 & 5 without repetition.40.3 Q.10 .3. (c) P(B/A) . p3 = 0.5 A 5 digit number is formed by using the digits 0.25 . then (a) P(A n B).10 .2 A card is drawn at random from a well shuffled deck of cards. If A : The event that t he card drawn is an ace 11: The event that the card drawn is a heart S : The eve nt that the card drawn is a spade then which ofthe following holds ? (A) 9 P(A) = 4 P(H) (B) P(S) = 4P (A n H) (C) 3 P(H) = 4 P(A u S) (D) P(II) = 12 P(A n S) . P(A/B) = 1/6.10 In throwing 3 dice.J | BANSAL CLASSES ^ T a r g e t IIT JEE 2 0 0 7 CLASS : XII (ABCD) Q. p2 = 0 .20 (C) p.7 An experiment results in four possible out comes S p S2.8 ' (<5. find (i) P (A or B)..P (B) = 0.60 .40. S3 S4 are mutually exclusive] (A) Pj = 0.4 Q.. = 0.9 /• There are 4 defective items in a lot consisting of 10 items.60. S3 & S4 with probabilities p. p4 = 0. 1 MATHEMATICS Daily Practice Problems DPR NO. p3 = 0.20 .05 (B)p.30 .6. p3 = 0. Determine (i) P (A and B) (ii) P (A and not B) (iii) P (not A and B) (iv) P (neither A nor B) (v) P (A or B) Q. = 0. S. B such that P (A) = 0. (d ) Are A and B independent? 1 1 1 If A and B are two events such that P (A) = . (ii) P (not A and not B) | Q. face cards and tens are removed and kept aside then a card is drawn at random from the ramaining cards.1.35. The probability that there will be 2 defective items among them is 1 ~2 Q. p~ = 0.10 ( B ) 2 5 <C) 5 2l ( D ) 10 2l From a pack of 52 playing cards.2 DPP ON PROBABILITY After 2nd Lecture Given two independent events A. The probability that the number is divisible by 6 is: (A) 8% (B) 17% (C) 18% (D ) 36% Q. p4 = 0. Find the probability that the outcome w ill be a head or a number greater than 4. = 0. p3 & p4 respectively. (b) P(A u B) . From this lot we select 5 items at random.30 .3..10 (D) p. A coin is tossed and a die is thrown.. P(B)= 1/3. p4 = 0.2. Find the probabili ty that the card is a (i) king or a red card (ii) club or a diamond (iii) king o r a queen (iv) king or an ace (v) spade or a club (vi) neither a heart nor a kin g. the probability that atleast 2 of the three numbers obtained are same is (A) 1/2 (B) 1/3 (C) 4/9 (D) none Q.and P (A and B) = . p4 = 0. Let A and B be events such that P(A) = 4/5. P (B) = . p2. = 0. Which one of the following probabili ty assignment is possbile. p3 = 0. [Assume S.20.

^ Bansal Classes 13 1] .

21 ^ Q. Find the probability that a student will receive (ilj not an A grade (ii) B or C grade (iii) at most C grade In a single throw of three dice. three green counters and 4 blue counters are placed in a row in random order.findthe probability of the event "E and F". the probability that they have a side in common is: (A) 1/9 (B) 1/18 (C) 2/7 * (D) none Two red counters. Assume no two reach the winning point simultaneously. i3p .15 and 0.23 3 students A and B and C are in a swimming race. If 3 tickets are drawn from the bo . If E is the eve nt "the number appearing is a multiple of 3" and F is the event "the number appe aring is even".19 Q.40. determine the probability ofgetting (i) a total of 5 (ii)a totalofatmost5 (iii) a total ofat least 5. numbered from 1 to 7 inclusive.3 9 r r -39r (A) 117.22 Q.0. A and B have the same probabili ty of winning and each is twice as likely to win as C. The probability that no two blue counters are adjacent is 1 7 5 ' (A) (B )— (C)— (D) none The probabilities that a student will receive A.39 r /ii.10 respectively. then the chancc thai exactly one married couple is among the 4 is : (A) 55 16 (B) 55 8 (C) 55 17 (D) 24 55 Q. Find the pro bability 100 that it satisfies the inequality. B.0. 13 r . if E is the event of getting the sum of number on dice as 11 and F is the event Qj|"getting a number other than 5 on the first die. Find the probability that B or C wins. Are E and F independent events? A natural numbe r x is randomly selected from the set of first 100 natural numbers. C or D grade ar e 0.Q. in which 9 cards are of the same suit. x+ >50 • x Q. (B) 52^ (C) JT^ (D) none 13 13 13 Q.14 tnf P^" ' Q. find P (E and F).18 Q. A die is thrown once.13 If two of the 64 squares are chosen at random on a chess board. If 4 people are chosen at random.12 The chance that a 13 card combination from a pack of 52 playing cards is dealt t o a player in a game of bridge.20 Q.16 Q. A box contai ns 7 tickets.17 Q.ll 6 married couples are standing in a room. Are the events E and F independent? In the two dice experiment.15 Q. is 13 a .35.

three B's and two C's. determine the probability that they are alternatively either o dd-even-odd or even-odd-even. South African cricket captain lost the toss of a coin 13 times out of 14. the probability that the rem aining three prizes are one A. is (A) 1/4 (B) 1/3 (C) 1/12 (D) 1/10 » (i§ Bansal Classes [4] . Given each box can hold any number of marbles. five A's. The chance of this happening was 7 (A)^I 1 (B)^]j 13 (C)^4 13 (D)^y Q. one B and one C. 5 different marbles are placed in 5 different boxe s randomly. The prizes are awarded by allowing winners to select an envelope at randomfromthose remaining.24 There are ten prizes. When the 8th contestant goes to select the prize.x. . placed in identical seale d envelopes for the top ten contestants in a mathematics contest. Find the probability that exactly two boxes remain empty. one at a time.

2.3 Q. a = (A) 5/7 (B) 2/7 (C) 1 (D) none A pair of numbers is picked up rando mly (without replacement) from the set {1.7.17 The die is tossed & you are t old that either face one or face two has turned up.3 DPP ON PROBABILITY After 3 Lecture Whenever horses a. P(B) = p & P(A u B) = 0. their respective probabil ities of winning the race are 0. 8.3.2 Let A & B be two events. P (B ) = a & P(A u B ) = 0.11.19}..12. b.5 . The probabili ty that the number 11 was picked given that the sum of the numbers was even.32 0.5 and 0.l rd MATHEMATICS Daily Practice Problems DPR NO.17. b.I5 BAN SAL CLASSES t a r g e t IIT JEE 2 0 0 7 CLASS: XII (ABCD) Q.2 respectively. Then the probability that it is face one is: (A) 1/6 (B) 1/10 (C) 5/49 (D) 5/21 A determinant is chosen at r andom from the set of all determinants of order 2 with elements 0 or 1 only.24 f (D) 0.4 Q. The valu e of p for which A & B are independent is : (A) 1/3 (B) 1/4 (C) 1/2 (D) 1/5 A & B are two independent events such that P (A ) = 0. is nearly: T2"/?^ (A) 0.13.15 0. The probability that the determinant chosen has the value non negative is : (A) 3/1 6 (B) 6/16 (C) 10/16 (D) 13/16 Q. If they race three t imes the probability that "the same horse wins all the three races" and the prob ablity that a.4. c each wins one race. are respectively (A) 9_ 50 50 (B) 16 100' 100 (C) 12 15 50 ' 50 (D) 10 _8_ 50 50 Q. c race together.10 0.1 (B) 0.3.7. then.18 A 3 For a biased die the pr obabilities for the diffferent faces to turn up are given below: Faces: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Probabilities: 0.0.05 0.7.21 j 0.5.125 (C) 0. Suppose P(A) = 0.

S2 and S3 as shown.8 Q. S 3 The switches operate independently of one another and the current will flow from A to B either if S. is 1 closed or if both S. (B) 3 (C) 4 (D) more than four ^s. r An electrical syste m has open-closed switches S. Minimum numb er of times must a card be drawn so that there is atleast an even chance of draw ing a heart. 7 coupons are selected at rando m one at atime with replacement.) = P(S 2) = P(S3) = .15 respectively.7 r 15 coupons are numbered 1. If P(S. The probability that the largest number appeari ng on a selected coupon is 9 is: f9y (A) 16.2. (B) V15y (C) (D) 97-87 15' Q. is (A) 2 .3. . and S3 are closed.9 A card is drawn & replaced in an ordinary pack of 52 playing cards. find the probability that the circuit will work.. (i§ Bansal Classes [5] .Q..

find th eir respective chances of first drawing a rupee. (c) 2 are white and 1 is red.2 and ties wi th probability 0.1. on conditio n that the first who cuts a spade shall win a prize. is (A)l (B)2 (C) 3 (D)4 AH and W appear for an interview for two vaccancies for the same post. P(H)= 1/7. The first cube has five red face s and one blue face. Assume the year to be ordinarry consis ting of365 days.7. both will have the same date of birth. ! 0') j — V An integer is chosen at randomfromthe first 200 positive integers. at least 2 will have the same date of birth.IO (i) (ii) Q. John picks two horses at random and bets on them. (ii) 3 people.23 \ Q. 'if A and B in order drawfroma purse containing 3 rupees and 4 nP's. If the probability of ge tting at least one contract is —. C in order cut a pack of cards. Q. | ' ^ Bansal Classes 113] . 4W and 8B balls. Find the chance that the rupee is still in the first purse.14 Ql 15 The probability that a person will get an electric contract is — and the pro bability that he will not get 4 2 plumbing contract is —. What is the probability that exactly one o fthe students received his (or her) own card? What is the probability that in a group of (i) 2 people. all five nP's except one which is a rup ee. 11 Q 13 Find the probability of at most two tails or at least two heads in a toss o f three coins. loses with probability 0.Q.12 A certain team wins with probability 0. He addresses four envelops that unfortunately paid no attention to which report card be put in which envelope. replacing them after each cut. When the two cubes are rolled simultaneously. A bag contains 6R. but los e none.ll Q. What is the probability that of the three reviews a majority will be favourable? In a purse are 10 coins. white. what is the probability that he will get both ? ive horses compete in a race. (d) at least 1 is red. A clerk was asked to mail four report cards to four stu dents. Find the probability ofthe events (a) Both are selected (b) only one of them is selected (c) none is select ed. The'l^dds that a book will b e favourably reviewed by three independent critics are 5 to 2. (e) 1 of each colour are drawn (f) th e balls are drawn in the order of red.18 Q. and 3 to 4 respectively. and then nine coins are takenfromthe latter and pu t into the former. Find the probability V 3 ( ( o 1 ) l C o * 0 / ' c t^ "S that the team wins at least two of the games. the probabili ty that the two top faces show the same colour is 1/2.22 Q. Find the probability that John picked the winner.17 Two cub es have their faces painted either red or blue. Number of red faces on th e second cube. that the team wins at least one game. Assume dead heal. The team plays three games. B. in another are ten coins all five nP's. Q. blue. the coins once drawn not being replaced. Nine coins are takenfromthe former p urse and put into the latter. Find their respective chanc es. P(W) = 1/5. Find the probability that the integer is divisible by 6 or 8. If 3 balls are drawn at random determine the probability of the event (a) all 3 are red.4 to 3.19 A. (b) all 3 are black. Q .

.

He tries them in a do or one by one discarding the one he hasliied. he throws 2 more dice & adds all 4 numbers showing to get hisfinalscore.5 (D)0. each of which can occupy N(N > n) different envelopes. IV. he adds them tog ether to gjlit his final score.3 (B) 0. When the pair of the opera tions is repeated. Th e probability that hisfinalscore is 6 is: 145 146 147 148 ( A ) B ) D n% < f^ < >T296 Q. then A and B are independent.0006. He continue^ doing this till he draws a spade. II.2 The probability that an automobile will be stolen and found wifhing one week is 0.. 1 MATHEMATICS Daily Practice Problems D P P ON P R O B A B I L I T Y DPR NO. if the numbers showing are eq ual.0015. If the p robability that a computer will fail during thefirsthour of operation is 0. When a fair six sided die is tossed on a table top. A man has ten keys only one of whichfitsthe lock. III. Aball is drawn from the second bag & placed in thefirst. If the numbers showing are unequal. 6 (i§ Bansal Classes [7] .4 t h After 4 Lecture There are n differ ent gift coupons. the probability that thefirstbag will contain 5 white balls i s: (A) 1/25 (B) 1/125 (C) 1/225: (D) 2/15 j A child throws 2 fair dice. The probability that the product of the n umbers on thefivefaces that can be seen is divisible by 6 is one. The probability thatfifthkey fits the lock is 1/10.5 A person draws a card from a pack of 52 cards. Given the events A and B in a sample space. t hen if we turn on 100 computers. If P(A) = 1.= ^ r Now. replaces it & shuffles the pack.4 (C) 0 .then a ball is drawnfromthefirstbag & placed in the second. The probability that he will fail exactly thefirsttwo times is: H ' (A) 1/64 (B) 9/64 (C) 36/64 (D) 60/ 64 Indicate the correct order sequence in respect of the following : I. The probabi lity that a stolen automobile will be found in one week is (A) 0. On the other hand.6 One bag contains 3 white & 2 black balls. and another contains 2 white & 3 black balls. (A) FTFT (B)FT TT (C)TFTF (D)TFFF Q. The probability that an automobile will be stolen is 0. with th e same probability 1/N P j: The probability that there will be one gift coupon i n each ofn definite envelopes out ofN given envelopes P2: The probability that t here will be one gift coupon in each of n arbitrary envelopes out of N given env elopes Consider the following statements N! n t 1 n r2 W ' l " Nn 2 N (N .J | BANSAL CLASSES 1 8 T a r g e t IIT JEE 2007 CLASS: XII (ABCD) Q.01.n ) ! n! N! (iv)P2=Nn(N_n)! (v)p. the bottom face can not be seen. exactly one will fail in thefirsthour of operat ion. which of the following is true (A) Only ( i) (B) (ii) and (iii) (C) (ii) and (iv) (D) (iii) and (v) Q.

b e N th en the probability that a2 + b2 is divisible by 5 is (A) 25 (B) Q. what is the chance that the head will present its elf an odd number of times'? • hn') f Q.15 Afairdieistossedrepeatidly. of heads is tossed until a head appea rs for thefirsttime.3 is rolled 3 times.12 Q.14 A coin is tossed n times.What is the chance that the player who wins thefirs tgame shall wins three at least of the next four? K W Q. is (A .3.findthe chance of A winning 3 games at least out of 5. T wentyfivecandidates I failed in Physics only. In each ofa set of games it is 2 to 1 in favour of the winner of the previous game.13 In a certain game A's skill is to be B's as 3 to 2.ll In an examination. one hundred candidates took paper in Physics and Chemistry. The chance that the 3 later balls being all of different colours is (A) 15% (B) 20% (C) 27% (D)40% A biased coin with probability P.Awinsifitis 1 or 2 on two consecutive tosses and B wins ifit is 3.2.2. The probability of getting a total score of 4 or 6 is 50 60 16 (D)none (C) (B) (A) 216 216 216 lA bag contains 3 R & 3 G balls and a person draws out 3 at random. A candidate is selected at random. The probability that A wins if the die is tossed indefinitely. Fifteen failed in both Physics and Chemistry. Twenty candidates failed in chemis try only.8 Q. Ifthe probability that the number of tosses required is eve n is 2/5 then the value of P is (A) 1/4 (B) 1/6 (C) 1/3 (D) 1/2 % If a.7 An unbaised cubic die marked with 1. He then drop s 3 blue balls into the bag & again draws out 3 at random.Q. The probability that he failed either in Physics or in Chemistry but not in both is (A) 20 3 (B)7 (Q2 (D) U_ 20 Q. 4. 0 < P < 1.9 Q. 5 or 6 on two consecut ive tosses.3.10 7 18 11 17 Q.

17 (a) (b) 1 <B>£ <c>i 2 CD) 5 Counters marked 1. Find the probability that number of tosses needed are at most 3.3 are placed in a bag. what is the chance of obtaining a total of 6? A normal coin is continued tossing unless a head is obtained for thefirstt ime. <§ Bansal Classes 18] mm M R i .2.16 Q.) Q. Th e operation being repeated three times. and one is withdrawn and replaced. number of tosses are even.

the number of heads will always be exactly half of the total number of tosses.2500 (B) independent (D) neither mutually exclusive nor independent (C) 0. Q.19 •I ' f I (C) 0.6900 (D) 0. there is 75% chance of picking the un fair die and a 25% chance of picking a fair die.69. and 2 fives.6900 (B) 1. his chance is trebled. A.23 to Q. is True? (A) Once the number of fli ps is large enough. What are the respective chance of B and C now? Q.8450 (D)0 ^ Bansal Classes 113] . For example.21 A and B each throw simultaneously a pair of dice. and is to be ridden by one of two jockeys B or C.5. while the other has 2 ones. One is a normal fair die. what are the odds against his winning? i Direction for Q.3.23 Events S and T are: (A) mutually exclusive (C) mutually exclusive and indep endent The value of P(S and T) (A) 0.22 A is one of the 6 horses entered for a race.Q.18 A purse contains 2 six sided dice. Adie is picked up and rolled. C were estimated to be p roportional to 5.24 Qr25 The value of P(S or T) (A) 0. any long run of heads will be balanced by a corresponding run of tails so that the overall proportion of heads is exactly 1/2 (D) All ofthe ab ove Q. (B) The proportion of heads will be about 1/2 and this proportion will tend to get closer to 1/2 as the number of tosses inreases (C) As the number of tosses increases. The die is rolled and shows up the face 3.000 tosses one should have exactly 5. B. after 10. 2 threes. 1 (D) (A) 7 (B) \ (C) -6 24 Before a race the chance of three runners. The probability that a fair die was picked up.5 Q.3450 (B) 0.2.19 ^ Q. Find the probability that they obtain the same score. Because of some se cret magnetic attraction ofthe unfair die. Assuming the tosses are inde pendent which one ofthe following statement.25 Let S and T are two events def ined on a sample space with probabilities P(S) = 0.00 0 heads.350 Q.20 A fair coin is tossed a large number of times. P(S/T) = 0. in which case all the horses ar e equally likely to win. It is 2 to 1 that B rides A. P(T) = 0. but during the race A meets with an accident which reduces nis chance to 1/3. if C rides A.

and is to win if he throws 6.2 Q. B and C are P (A) = 1/5. A is to th row again and to win with 6 or 5 or 4. If the probabilities relating A. mutually exclusive.4 (B) 64 (C) 2 64 (D) 64 A and B play a game. and so on. For a couple having 6 children. Box A contains 3 red and 2 blue marbles while box B contains 2 red and 8 blue ma rbles.J a BANSAL CLASJSES Target IIT J E 2007 E CLASS: XII (ABCD) Q. exh austive and independent of the other children in the family. A is to throw a die first. P (A n C) = 1/20 . NO. 3 *>64 Q.5 th After 5 Lecture The first 12 letters ofthe eng lish alphabets are written down at random. a marble is drawnfromA . and to win if he throws 6 or 5. If the coin turns up heads.. P (B) = 1 /6 . a marble is drawn from bag B. if it turns up tails. If he fails. The probability that there are 4 lett ers between A & B is : (A) 7/33 (B) 12/33 (C) 14/33 (D) 7/66 Events A and C are independent. 1 MATHEMATICS Daily Practice Problems DPP ON PROBABILITY DPP. P (B u|C) = 3/8 then (A) events B and C are independent (B) events B and C are mutually exclusive (C) events B and C are neither indepen dent nor mutually exclusive (D) events B and C are equiprobable Assume that the birth of a boy or girl to a couple to be equally likely. If he fails B is to throw. The probability that a red marble is chosen. the probability that their "three oldest are boys" is 20 Q. 5 2 (C)3 (D) 1 Q.findthe chance of each player. A fair coin is tessed.6 A examination consists of 8 questions in each of which one of the 5 alternatives . is (A) (B)Q.

6. the probability that he gets more than one correct answer is equal to: (A) (0.is die correct one.8)8 (B) 3 (0.8)8 (C) 1 . 7 'C 6 (3 5 2 5 ) (C) n c 5 V6 (D) none of these Q. The probability that out of 11 sown seed s exactly 5 or 6 will spring is: (A) C5. (D) none ^ Bansal Classes 113] . On the assumption that a candidate who has done no preparat ory work chooses for each question any one of thefivealternatives with equal pro bability.8)8 (D) 1 .3 (0. 6 510 (B) Q. 8 The probability of obtaining more tails than heads in 6 tosses of a fair coins i s: (A) 2/64 (B) 22/64 (C) 21/64 .8)8 The germination of seed s is estimated by a probability of 0.(0.

The instrument is tested & fails. B & C as A= {1.2 2 0.Q.3 5 0. is (A) 1 (B) 1 Q.10 (C) 25 (D)none Q. p3 respectively are Take the events A. n into each find (1) the' chanc e that two specified coins will be found in the same purse. Each unit must function for the instrument to operate. 6} (A) Q.1 3 0. A new lot C is for med by taking 3 articles from A and 2 from B. A die is chosen at random from the box and is rolled three times and shows up the facefiveon all the three occassions. The probability that an article ch osen at random from C is defective. 6 0. The chance that the die chosen was a rigged die.1 4 0. The reliability of thefirstunit is 0.1 . Three of them are fair dice but the fourth one h as the numberfiveon all of its faces. Q. The probability that "only thefirstunit f ailed & the second unit is sound" is: j (A) 1/7 (B) 2/7 (C) 3/7 (D) 4/7 LotAeons istsof3G and 2D articles. is (A) 216 217 (B) 215 219 . 3.2.8. p 2. 5} an d C = {2. B = {2.2 If P (A / B) = pj and P (B / C) = p2 and P (C / A) = p3 then the values of pj.13 A box has four dice in it.9 An instrument consists of two units.9 & that of the second unit is 0.4. and (2) what the cha nce becomes when r purses have been examined and found not to contain either of the specified coins.ll A die is weighted so that the probability of different faces to turn up is as gi ven: Number Probability 1 0. 3}.12 3 4 3' 6 (C) 3' 6 (D) 2 M 3' 6' 4 If mn coins have been distributed into m purses. Lot B consists of4G and ID article.

are under the influence of alco hol. respectively Q.28 (B) 0.2 and 0.A. the probability that th e driver was under the influence of alcohol. 7 hours and 4 hours per day with probab ilities 0.17 (3 Questions) A JEE aspirant estimates that she will be successful with an 80 percent chance i f she studies 10 hours per day.S.0001. is (A) 0.0.38 (C) 0. is (A) 3/7 (B)4/7 (C) 5/7 (D) 6/7 .7. J Direction for Q. If a car on a Saturday night smashed into a tree. The probability that a sober driver will have an accident is 0 . with a 60 percent cTiance if she studies 7 hours per day and with a 40 percent chance if she studies 4 hours per day.(C) 216 219 (D)none Q.14 On a Saturday night 20% of all drivers in U.15 to Q.15 The chance she will be successful.1.001. She furthe r believes that she will study 10 hours. The probability that a driver under the influence of alcohol will have an a ccident is 0.48 (D) 0.58 (!§ Bansal Classes .

Q. B are two inaccurate arithmeticians whose chance of solving a given qu estion correctly are (1/8) and (1/12) respectively. 2 2 A. a coin drawn at random is found to be a rupee.18 Q.Q.20 A purse contains n coins of unknown value.19 A letter is known to have come eitherfromLondon or Clifton. find the chance that the missing card is a spade. what is the chance that is it th e only rupee hi the purse? Assume all numbers of rupee coins in the purse is equ ally likely. The order in which the number re ad out is important. the chance she studied for 4 hours. What is the total number of possible outcomes of this exper iment? What is the probability that exactly 3 times a "2" appears in the sequenc e (say event E)? What is the probability that the face 2 appears at least twice (say event F)? Which of the following are true : E c F . They solve a problem and obt ained the same result. If it is 1000 to 1 against their making the same mistake. Assume all number of white ball in the bag to be equally likely. Q. Find the charlce that all the balls are white. the chance she studied for 4 hour. but it is not known of what colour they are. P(E/F). What is the chance that it camefrom London? -fupp Ajt^e / too *** qH Q.16 Given that she is successful. P(F/E) |( Are the events E and F independent? 7> (!§ Bansal Classes [121 . find the chance that the result is correct. is (A)6 (C) 12 (D) 12 Q. Q. On the postmark only the two consecutive letters ON are legible.21 One of a pack of 52 cards has been lost.23 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) We con duct an experiment where we roll a die 5 times. Q. one ball is drawn at random and found to be white.17 Given that she does not achieve success. from the remainder of the pack two cards are drawn and are 'found to be spades. is 2 1_ 20 19 (D) (A) ii (C) (B) 26 26 26 26 There are four balls in a bag. F c E ? Compute the pro babilities : P(E n F).

The probability that one of them drinks tea is: (A) 1/2 (B) 1/12 (C) 25/72 (D) 5 /72 Pal's gardner is not dependable.3.7. The probability that a radar will detect an object in one cycle is p. is (A) (B) Q. the probability that he will forget to wate r therosebushis2/3. The pr obability that a blind folded person will draw a red marble on the second draw f rom the bowl without replacing the marblefromthefirstdraw. is (A) (B) i (C) 1 (D) 8 Q.. Pal went out of station & after returning he finds tha t rose bush has withered. NO.BANSAL CLASSES T a r g e t I1T JEE 2 0 0 7 CLASS: XII (ABCD) Q.4. 14 (fourteen) and so on.6 .8.l MATHEMATICS Daily Practice Problems DPP. 6 Two A: rst )=^ cards are drawn from a well shuffled pack of 52 playihg cards one by one.3 Q. the other always drink tea. If the event that the second card drawn is an ace and B : the event that the fi card drawn is an ace card. P (B) = ~ (l-2p) .The rose bush is in questionable condition. Two cards are drawn at random and put on atable in a successive order. 07 (seven). Any how if watere d. say. and then the resulting number is read. Th e probability that the number is even. only 3 are present. What is the probability that the gardner did not water the rose bush. then which of the following is true? (A)P(A)=~P(B (C) P (A) = .2. The probability that the object will be detected in n cycles is: (A) 1 .2 5 out of 6 persons who usually work in an office prefer coffee in the mid mornin g. This morning of the usual 6.6 DPP O N PROBABILITY A f t e r 6th L e c t u r e A bowl has 6 red marbles and 3 green marbles.(1 .1.p)""1 Nine cards are labelled 0.5 (C)j (D) Q.p)" (C) p" (D) p(l .4 Q. the probability of its withering is 1/2 & if not watered then the probability of its withering is 3/4. 5.p " (B) 1 .

7 If > — ~ — are the probabilities of three mutually exclusive events defined on a sample space S. P (B) = ^ 16 221 _ 4 "?I .1 (D) 4' 2 <!§Bansal Classes Probability [43 .& (B) P (A) (D) P (A). then the true set of all values of p is 1 I (A) 3' 2 (B) (C) 4 ' 3 . P ( B ) (l + 3p) (1-p) Q. .

8 A lot contains 5 0 defective & 50 non defective bulbs. If the coin comes up tails. is (A) m m+ n n(m + n .Q.34 (D)0.C are independent An Urn contains'm' white and 'n' black balls. Two bulbs are drawn at ra ndom.2. .10}..l ) Q. The events A.15 In a college. B & C be 3 arbitrary events defined on a sample space'S' and if. he will iden tify it with probability 0.p2 + p3 (B) P l . and will mistake it for a F rench wine with probability 0.B. All the balls except for one ball. and will mistake it for a Cali fornian wine with probability 0.14 A biased coin which comes up heads three times as often as tails is tossed. Suppose that Mr.8 correctly as Californian. He randoml y picks a glass.13 Three numbers are chosen at random without replacement from {1. P(A ) + P(B) + P(C) = p. If a randomly selected person is taller than 6 feet. a chip is drawn from urn-I which contains 2 white chips and 5 red chips.9 correctly as French. Dupont is given ten unlabelled glasses of wine.2p2 + 3p3 Q. .9 Q. The probability that the last ball remaining in the Urn is white. four percent of the men an d one percent of the women are taller than 6 feet. Given that a red chip was drawn.14 (B) 0. and solemnly says: "French". are drawn from it. When given a Californian wine. .ll Mr. C are defined as : jp 1 A= {the first bulb is defective}.2. 10 A Urn contains'm' white and 'n' black balls. is nearly equal to (A) 0.1.12 Let A. is < f i (A) m m+ n (B) n m+n 1 (C) (m + n)! mn (D) (m + n)! Q Q.p2 + 2p3 (C) p. _ It with replacement. one at a time. The probability th at the wine he tasted was Californian.44 Q. Balls are drawn one by one ti ll all the balls are drawn. Further 60 percent of the stu dents are women.2p2 + p3 (D) p. a chip is drawn from urn-II which conta ins 7 white and 4 red chips. three with French and seven with Californian wines. The probabi lity that _n 40 Q. B = { the second bulb is non defective} C = {the two bulbs are both defective or both non defective} Determine whether (i ) A. find the p robability that the student is a women. he will identi fy it with probability 0. tries the wine. P(A n B) + P(B n C) + P(C n A) = p2 & P(A n B n C) = p3. Dupont is a professional wine taster. When given a French wine. t hen the probability that exactly one of the three events occurs is given by: (A) p. the minimum ofthe chosen numbers is 3 or their maximum is 7 is (A)(B) 1 (C) (D) . <!§Bansal Classes Probability [1 . If it shows heads.C are pair wise independent (ii) A. B. what is the probab ility that the coin came up heads? Q. Probability that the second drawn ball is white.3.24 (C) 0.B.l ) (B) (m + n)(m + n -1) mn (D) (m + n)(m + n -1) m(m-l) (C) (m + n)(m + n .

are respectively (A) 2/25 an d 12/28 (B) 18/25 and 22/28 (C) 7/10 and 18/28 (D) 12/25 and 2/28 A box contains a normal coin and a doubly headed coin. A. Five coins are drawn from thefirstpurse and put into the seco nd. Then the probability that there will be the same number of black and white balls among them (A) (B) 11 Q. A n B.P. Ift he probability that 3 of K them are born on Wednesday. and then 2 coins are drawnfromthe second and put into thefirst. 2 on Thursday and the rem aining 2 on Sunday is ^ . The probability that bus B will be late is 7/25. A coin selected at random and tossed tw ice. irrespecti ve of their number). with probability of second t erm equal to the common difference.22 (C) 4 (D)? Q. The probability that bus A will be late is 1/5. then K is equal to (A) 15 (B) 30 (C) 105 (D)210 Q. is 3 1 1 (D)? (C) (A) (B) The probabilities of e vents.Q.17 Q. 3 white and 3 black ones. B & A u B are respectively in A. a second purse contai ns 4 copper coins. The probability that the drawn coin is a doubly headed coin is (A) (B) 8 Q.23 . Therefore the events Aand B are (A) compatib le (B) independent (C) such that one of them must occur (D) such that one is twi ce as likely as the other From an urn containing six balls.21 Two buses A and B are scheduled to arrive at a town central bus station at noon. The probability that the bus B is late given that bus A is lat e is 9/10.18 15 (C) U_ 30 (D) Q. 19 One purse contains 6 copper coins and 1 silver coin.16 If at least one child in a family with 3 children is a boy then the probability that 2 ofthe children are boys. Then the probabilities (i) neither bus will be late on a particular d ay and (ii) bus A is late given that bus B is late. fell headwise on both the occasions.The probabili ty that the silver coin is in the second purse is (A) Q.20 1 (B) (C) 5 9 (D) 7 persons are stopped on the road at random and asked about their birthdays. a p erson selects at random an even number of balls (all the different way s of drawing an even number of balls are considered equally probable.

Two marbles are drawn successively from the box without replacement and the second drawn marble drawn is found to be wh ite.Abox contains 5 red and 4 white marbles. Probability that thefirstmarble is also while is (A) (B)| (C) 1 Bansal Classes [15] .

. From each pair a winner is decided on the basis of a game pla yed between the two players of the pair. whosoever draws the red marble first.26 Abox contains 100 tickets numbered 1. Then their respecti of winning are 2 1 In a maths paper there are 3 sections A. q & 1/2 respectively. 1 with probability (A) Q. wins the ga once drawn by them are not replaced into the bag. B & C are p. q = 0 (D) p = l . The minimum number on them is 5. s 2 .100.. It is given that the maximum number on the two chosen tickets is not more than 10.27 1 (B) 2 11 (C) 3 19 (D)none Sixteen players Sj. Assume l 'ir that all the players are o f equal strength. . The probability that "exactly one of the two players s.2. q 1 Q.r Q. & s2 i s among the eight winners" is (A)4 7 (B)(C) 8_ 15 (D) . Section A is compulsory. Two tickets are chosen at random. The probability ofthe student passing in A.24 A and s with the me. Out of sections B & C a student has to attempt any one.. They are divided into eigh t pairs at random. . If the probability that the student is successful i s 1/2 then: (A) p = q = l (B) p = q = 1 (C) p = l . B & C. Passing in the paper means pass ing in A & passing in B or C. s16 play in a tournament. Marble ve chances B 3 & 2 2 3 < >5 5 1 1 <D)~&5 B in order draw a marble from bag containing 5 white and 1 red marble condition that ' Q.3..

otherwis e.29 We are given two urns as follows: Urn Acontains 5 red marbles.99}. (ii) a white marb le is chosen. otherwise a marble is chos enfromA. (Use Tree Diagram) We are given two Urns as follows: Urn Acontains 5 red marbles.28 The number 'a' is randomly selected from the set {0.30 <!§Bansal Classes Probability [ . a m arble is drawn from B and put into A and then a marble is drawn from A.1.2. 3 white marbles a nd 8 blue marbles. A fair die is tossed. if a 3 or 6 appears.3. Urn B contains 3 red marbles and 5 white marbles A fair dice is tossed if 3 or 6 appears. Probability that the number 3 + 7 has a dig it equal to 8 at the units place. Find the probability that (i) a red marble is chosen. (Use Tree Diagram) (i) What is the probability that both marbles are red? (ii) What is the probability that both marbles are white? Q.15 Q. 3 white marbles. (iii) a blue marble is chosen. The number 'b ' is selected a b from the same set. is (A) 16 (C) 16 (D) 16 Q. Urn B contains 1 red marbles and 2 white marbles. 98. a marble is drawnfromA and put into B and then a marble is drawn from B. a marble is chosenfromB.

Ifthe 1 ] .10. . The first player c an keep asking for more cards until either he or she goes over 21. Usually th e first card for each player is dealt face down.9. You and your opponent are each dealt two cards. or until going over 21.31 Two boys Aand B find the jumble of n ropes lying on thefloor. in which case the first player wins. each of which has thirteen numbered cards (2. The object of the game is to have more points in your set of cards than your opponent without goin g over 21. is (A) 52 (B) . We are going to simplify the game a little and assume that all cards are dealt face up. When the fi rst player stops at some number less than or equal to 21.Each takes hold of one loose end. in which case the player loses. the first player has t he option of asking for another card or not taking any cards. Assu me your opponent is dealt cards and plays first. The tat the that m is 5.g. is (B) 4 li . From sume s2 is Q.on that ed into Q. A standard deck of playing cards has 52 cards. is 13 (A) ^ Q. probability that they are both holding the same rope is — then the number of ropes is equal to — 1u1 (B) 100 (D) 50 (A) 101 (C) 51 Direct ion for Q. After the initial cards are dealt. the chance that it will be the heart. Queen and King are each worth 10 points. the second player then can take more cards until matching or exceeding the first player's number witho ut going over 21.32 to Q.35 (4 Questions) Read the passage given below carefully before attempting these questions. hearts and spades). King. Here's how the game played. so that all cards are visible. and the second.32 The chance that the second card will be a heart and a Jack. Any set of cards with sum greater than 21 automatically loses.3 4 16 (B) n 17 CO 52 (D)none Given that the first card is a Jack.card for each pl ayer is dealt face up. in which case the second player wins. & Ca C. and the Ac e is either worth your choice of either 1 point or 11 points. 3 3 The chance that the first card will be a heart or a Jack. Jack. Each numbered card is worth its number (e. diamonds. Ace) In a game of card. Queen.-cted 13 52 (C) 17 52 (D) 52 Q. or stops at some number less than or equal to 21. each card is worth an amount of points. the Jack. a 5 i s worth 5 points). Ther e are four suit (clubs.

(B) 25 282 (C) 15 188 (D)i i f>i > Bansal Classes [17] . Being smart. The chance t hat you will win if you are allowed to take as many cards as you need. and you are dealt a Queen and a 9. is ^ 97 5 64 .35 Your opponent is dealt a King and a 10. your opponent does not take any more cards and stays at 20.: o» 5 Q.

(D) Probabilities of the events Ej n E 2 . Q. P(B).3 Q. then : (A) P(B/A) = P(B) .1 (C) P(A)> <P(A/B) according as p(a/b c ) > <P(A) (D) P(A/BC) +P(A C /B C ) = 1 > Q.38 Two real numbers.P. then : 1 Q.P(A) (B) P(AC u B c ) = P(AC) + P(BC) c C C (C) P((A u B) ) = P(A ). Q. B be the event that x2 < y. 0 < y < 1.41 Let 0 < P(A) < 1 .7 that y2 < x . P (Bc).l (C) probability that all the drawn b alls are red given that all the drawn balls are of same colour is 0.l QQ. Q Q Q Q.6. and E2 are in G. E. P(E2/E. then v > \ I j _ p(B) Q> (B) P (A n B) > P(A) + P(B) .P(A). P ( B ) ^ 0 is always true (B)P (AKB) = P (A) . Q.Atari .42 If M & N are independent events such th at 0 < P(M) < 1 & 0 < P(N) < 1.2 (D) probab ility that atleast one red ball is drawn is 0.l Q.3 7 A bag initially contains one red & two blue balls.) = 1/4. and E2 are exhaustive (C) E2 is twi ce as likely to occur as E. if A& B are independent lj(D) P (A u B) = 1 .) =1/2 and P(E.40 If E. 3 9 For any two events A & B defined on a sample space . Let A be the event Q .l (A) P (A n B) = (B) A & B are exhaustive events (C) A & B are mutually exclusive (D) A & B are indepen dent events.awrv More than one alternative are correct: Q. An experiment consistin g of selecting a ball at random.8 Q. P (Bc).P ( A n B ) (C) P (A u B) = 1 .3 6 If A& Bare two events s uch that P(B)* 1. if A & B are disjoint Q. 0 < P(B) <1 & P(A u B) = P(A) + P(B) . then : (A) probability that atleast one blue ball is drawn is 0.BC denotes the event complementry to B. x & y are selected at random.2 Q. If three such trials are made. P(B ) (D) P(A/B) = P(A) Q .9 (B) probability tha t exactly one blue ball is drawn is 0. and E2 are independent (B) E.P (Ac).16 noting its colour & replacing it together with an additional ball of the"feame colour. Given that 0 < x < 1 . then : (A) M & N are mutually exclusive (B) M & N are independent (C) M & N are independent (D) P(M/N) +P(M/N) = 1 <!§Bansal Classes Probability [18 . and E2 are two events such that P(E./ E2) = 1 /4 (A) then E.P (Ac). (A) P (A/B) > P(A) p ^ B ) ~ 1 .

2 Q.3 B Q.(iv)0. (ii) Q.7 (i)0.IO A Q.4 A Q-13 Q. (v)0.7 J_ 56 2197 Q.20 c„-48cr 521 "13 D P P .. (vi) — 5 3 (i) .4 Q.(iii)0.42.18 952 to 715 1 1 ^ Q'f " n(n-l) (m + n)(m + n . (v) .17 4' 4 Q.(ii).6 C Q.(iii) — ..18.l Q.72 3 D 7 1 2 2 1 .(iv) —.ANSWER KEY .l ) 4 3 Q.2 Q.!-.l Q.6 3 5 A Q 15 Q.28.(ii)0.2(i) — .8 Q.X Q.12.3 Q.19 Q.5 Tj 4 Q. 9 Q.15 .ll 20825 1 Q.13 B 2 at Q.8 Q.16 ire C 3 8 2 Q.

16 Q.10 8 364x363 .49.3 B D P P r ' 3 Q. Q. P(E and F) = g. ( i i ) l .19 7 ' 35 Q.14 Q.973 15 Q17 105 To 2 24 Q.P(F)== . (b) 43/90. (ii) — .25 Q.18P(E)=^. (in) — Q.7 Q.9 C Q.Yes Q 1 9 55 loo " = 11 20 Q.12 A 1 5 53 (i) — .21 Q.20 17' 51 ( Q.6.14 C (i) 0.22 25 D I 4 Q.22 .ll 4 D 1 3 Q.20 3 30 Q.5 Q.17 Q.5.13 D 7 8 5 Q..6 Q. P ( F ) 4 . P ( E n F ) = — .12 C 4 2 Q. (ii) 0.18 Q-2' A B (0 3 6 5 ^ 10 Q.24 A .2 Q. Not independent 36 12 2 Q. (d) NO Q.l Q.(365)2 (a) (i) 0. (ii) 0.5 Q.17P(E) = -j .(a) 1/18.23 A Q.9 D Q.4 C Q.ll A Q.8 Q. (c) 5/18.10 A Q. (iii) 0.

18 B Q.22 C A P I * .4 D Q. C = Q.15 B Q.19 Q.-•< 22 13 Q.14 Q.l Q.20 B (b)i 13 to 5 5 .ll A Q.9 Q.21 B C 7 27 73 648 Q.17 Q.^ Q.6 B 4 9 B= A 2 Q.12 Q.5 Q.10 Q.7 1 B 1 2 4 15 C [19] 2133 Q.16 Q.24 Q.3 Q.23 B .8 B C Q.13 3125 A Q.2 Q.5 7 3 149 (b) (C) (d) 204' 102' 68' 204 Q 209 343 16 12 9 37 ' 37 ' 37 O ' 2 3 35 • .

25 4 Bansal Classes H .Q.

23 (a) 2 Q.B: 324 ' " ' 324 C Q.21 (d) (f) Q.l Q.22 B 13 14 Q.5 155 169 .8 A B Q.rn .15 n_ 50 EcF No C Q.14 C Q. ( 2 ) mn .3 Q.7 D A Q. P(F/E) = 1 (e) .9 n-1 D B Q.6 D Q.10 Q.19 n — 17 Q.ll D A: Q.20 n(n + l) (b) 10-5 (c) 1-2 .I> Q.16 Q.18 65 C 2 Q.17 D Q.13 Q-12 ( 1 ) ^ 7 .2 Q.5 B Q.1 .4 I ' P . mn-1 Q.

23 1 1 A A > Q.17 D Q.18 B Q.B>C are pairwise independent (ii) A.24 D Q.12 D Q. P(E/F) = P(E) D P P .4 B 165 193 C Q.16 Q.25 Q 30 .ll C Q.l Q.6 Q.21 Q.15 Q.9 B A Q. Q.2 A Q.5 Q.26 A Q.C are n^i'hdependent.8 A Q.6 Q.10 A Q.7 A (i) A.B.P(E n F) =P(E).20 Q.3 3 4 D B i i Q.19 C Q.14 Q.22 n Q.13 Q.

29 (i)-. C.42 B. B.36 A. C.37 A.D D (i) Q. B. D Q.D Q.(iii)' 61 371 (U) 216 ' 1296 Q. C Q.35 D More than one alternative are correct: Q.31 C C Q. B .33 B Q.41 A.38 Q.28 D Q. B C. D Q. D Q. D <3 Bansal Classes 1 \ [20] .(ii)-.40 A.27 Q.32 D Q. C.39 A. C.34 C Q.

BANSAL CLASSES TARGET IIT JEE 2007 MATHEMATICS XII (ABCD) PROBABILITY CONTENTS KEY CONCEPTS EXERCISE-I EXERCISE-II EXERCISE-III ANSWER KEY .

If A & B are two mutually exclusive events then P (A & B) = 0. E xperiment 1. (vi) (vii) EQUALLY LIKELY EVENTS EXIIA USTIVE EVENTS : Events A. Where A = Not A . CLASSICAL DEF.B. then the probability of happening of the event A is given by P(A ) = m/n . Throwing a pair of dice • .KEY THINGS T O REMEMBER : RESULT . Note : (1) 0 < P(A) < 1 (2) (3) P(A) + P( A) = 1.and ( x + y) P( A) = —-— We say that O D D S I N FAVOUR O F A are x: y & odds against A ar e y: x (viii) Comparative study of Equally likely. OF PROBABILITY : If n represents the total number of equally likely. : The set of all out comes which are in S but not in A is called COMPOUND EVENT COMPLEMENT t h e COMPLEMENT O F T H E EVENT A DENOTED BY A OR A C . Throwing ofa die 2. if A & B are two events d efined on a sample space S. mutually exclusive and exh austive outcomes of an experiment and m of them are favourable to the happening of the event A.1 CONCEPTS (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) SAMPLE-SPACE EVENT : The set of all possible outcomes of an experiment is called the OF AN EVENT A SAMPLE-SPACE(S). — X If x cases are favourable to A & y cases are favourable to A then P(A) = . : A sub set of sample-space is called an EVENT. : If A & B are two given events then AnB is called is denoted by AnB or AB or A & B . For example.C L are said to be EXHAUSTIVE EVENTS if no event outside this set c an result as an outcome of an experiment. Mutually Exclusive and Exhaustive events. COMPOUND EVENT MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE EVENTS and : Two events are said to be MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE (or disjoint or incompatible) if the occurence of one precludes (niles out) the simultaneous occurence ofthe othe r. A ball is drawn from an urn containing 2W. then A & B are exhaustive A u B = S=> P (Au B) = 1 . : Events are s aid to be EQUALLY LIKELY when each event is as likely to occur as any other even t. 3Ran d 4G balls 3.

From a well shuffled pack of cards a card is drawn 5. : getting a heart E. : getting a spade E.65. 3..44.22.4.: getting a R ball E3: getting a G ball A : throwing a d oublet {11. 5} B : throwing a composite face {4. From a well shuffled pa ck of cards a card is drawn Events A : throwing an odd face {1.64. : getting a W ball E.: getting a diamond E4: getting a club A = getting a heart B = getting a face card E/L No M/E Yes Exhaustive No No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No No No ^Bansal Classes Probability [2] . 6} E.55.66 } E.55.56.33.66} B : throwing a total of 10 or more {46.

C occurs) = P(A) + P(B) + P(C) .2P(AnB)+3P(AnBnC) If three events A.C occur) = P(BnC) + P(CnA) + P(AnB) .B and C we have (See Fig. A + B = 1-(A or B) = A n B Note that P(A+B) + P( A n B ) = 1. For 2 events A & B : ( See fig.P(AnB) = P(A.P(BnC)P(CnA) + P(AnBnC) P (at least two of A.C occur) = P(BnC) + P(CnA) + P(AnB) .B) + P(A. B. Fig. B occurs) = P(AnB) + P(BnA) = P(A) + P(B) .If A & B are two subsets of a universal set U.2P(CnA) . i. B) + P( A . Where P(B/A) means conditional probability of B given A & P(A/B) means conditio nal probability of A given B.P(AnB) .e.P(A/B).P( A . (This can be easily seen from the figure) D E MORG AN'S LAW : .B) = 1 .B.B. For any two events A & B.2P(AnBnC) P(exactly two of A.P ( A n B ) = p(A c uB c )-P(A c nB c ) If A & B are any two events P(AnB) = P(A).l) P(AuB) = P(A) + P(B) . B and C are pair wise mutually exclusive then they must be mutually exclusive. then (a) (AuB)c = Ac nB° & (b) (AnB)c = AcuBc A u (BnC) = (AuB) n (AuC) 3 (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) & A n (BuC) = (AnB) u (AnC) RESULT For any three events A.RESULT 2 (i) (ii) AUB = A+ B = A or B denotes occurence of at least A or B. 2) (i) P(A or B or C) = P(A) + P(B) + P(C) .2P(AnB) = P ( A u B ) .2P(BnC) .P(B/A) = P(B). P(exactly one of A. B ) Opposite of " atleast A or B" is NIETHER A NOR B i.e P(AnB) = P(BnC) = P(CnA) = 0 w P(AnBnC) = 0. 2 (ii) (iii) (iv) NOTE : <!§Bansal Classes Probability [3] .3P(AnBnC) P(exactly one of A. However the converse of this is not true. If A & B are mutually exclusive then P(AuB) = P(A) + P(B).

+ + ncn = 2n .e.. th e number of these conditions is equal to nc02+ "c. An to be independent.) N O T E : A = event what we have .. Often this is taken as the definition of independent events.. + AB. A = AB.. they must be pairwise as well as mutu ally independent . P(A) & P(AnBnC) = P(A).. P(A/Bn) are k nown then.) P(B. P(A/B i) XP(B i ).n . P(BnC) = P(B).P(A/B. For two independent events A and B : P(AnB) = P(A).1.+ P(ABn) = X P(AB. P(C) i. Similarly for n events A t . 3 \ \ \B\ B " / n BN / //Bn-l. A^. B2. If t he occurence of one event affects the probability ofthe occurence ofthe other ev ent then the events are said to be DEPENDENT or CONTINGENT . . B 2 . .P(A/B j ) Fig.. P(B)..P(A/Bi) = P(Bi). = event what we want . note : p + q = 1.. BAYE'S THEOREM OR T O T A L PROBABILITY T H E O R E M : RESULT . 5 The probability of getting exactly r success in n independent trials is given by P(r ) = nCr pr qn"r where : p = probabi lity of success in a single trial .) .).|).. q = prob ability of failure in a single trial. B & C are independent if & only if all the f ollowing conditions hold... P(B). P(B/A) = P(B. B. P(C) P(CnA) = P(C ).RESULT 4 INDEPENDENT EVENTS (i) (ii) (iii) : Two events A& Bare said to be independent if occurence or non occurence of one does not effect the probability ofthe occurence or non occurence of other. P(AB.) = P(A) ..)... P(B) . n Now. B 3 . + AB.. A^. Bn & the probabilities P(A/B.) + P(AB2) +.) i=l The events A occurs with one of the n mutually exclusive & exhaustive events B .P(A/Bi) P(A) ~ " I P(ABi) P(B|) . P(A/B.5 : If an event A can occur only with one of the nmutually exclusive and exhaustive events B. Three events A. P(A/B.. P(B/A)= PROOF: '':""'tA " ' £ P(B. + + AB 1 2 3 n P(A) = P(AB. / / WflL /B P(Bi/A) = <!§Bansal Classes Probability . .. B2' B3' B are alternative event./A) _ P(Bi). P(AnB) = P(A). . Note : Independent event s are not in general mutually exclusive & vice versa Mutually exclusiveness can be used when the events are taken from the same experiment & independence can be used when the events are taken from different experiments...

[447] .

that the statement is false = (l-p). variance of chance of success in any venture and 'M' in case of success. so that if all the witnesses tell falsehoods t hey agree in telling the same falsehood.p)2.(i2 (N ote that SD = ) (iv) The probability distribution for a binomial variate 'X' is given by . (v) (vi) Mean of BPD = np .P i ) G . <!§Bansal Classes . if P(0) is known BPD = npq . are the probabilities of speaking the truth of two indenpendent wit nesses A and B then P (their combined statement is true) = JVP2 Pi P 2 + ( 1 . RESULT 7 (i) (ii) A PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION spells out how a total probability of 1 is distribute d over several values of a random variable. P (X= r)=n C p1 qn~r where all symbols have the same meaning as given in result 4. the chance that the point falls on a is a/S . and p. X(since2P. = l) (iii) Variance of a random variable is given by. The recu rrence formula p ( r + 1) = n . P(2). P(3) etc. then his expectations pM . that the statement is true = Pp ! p ? Pr. is very helpful for quickly computing P(r) r+1 q P(l).RESULT 6 If p. p I p. Mean of any probability distribution of a random variable is given by : n = y p " ' = Z Pi xi \ p. If this is not the case and c is the ch ance of their coincidence testimony then the Pr. a 2 = X (x . However if p is the probability of the happening of t he event before their statement then P (their combined statement is true) = PP]_ P2 PPiP2+0-P)(1-Pi)(1-P2) Here it has been assumed that the statement given by all the independent witness es can be given in two ways only. If p represents a persons the sum of money which he will receive or probable value = pM expectations = RESULT-8 : GEOMETRICAL APPLICATIONS : (i) (ii) The following statements are axiomatic : If a point is taken at random on a give n staright line AB. the chance that it falls on a particular segment PQ of the l ine is PQ/AB .r H . . If a point is taken at random on the area S which includes an are a cr. x2.c (1—p|)(l—p2) However chance of coin cidence testimony is taken only if the joint statement is not contradicted by an y witness.P 2 ) In this case it has been assumed that we have no knowledge ofthe event except th e statement made by AandB.

Probability [5] .

subject is selected.1 :4. A. subjects. Least number of times must a fair die be tossed in order to have a probability of at least 91/216. A pair of fair dice is tossed. An unbiased die is cast. Numbers are selected at random. If A has an option of playi ng either a "BEST OF THREE GAMES" or a "BEST OF 5 GAMES" match against B. 02. Find the probability that an e ngg. I f the number 3 or 5 turns up a subject is selected at random from first group.Q. C & D are 1 : 3. Two bombs are sufficient to destroy it. (i) An even or a prime number appears (ii) An odd prime number appears (iii) An even composite number appears (iv) An odd composite number appears.8 Q. if the chance of a bomb hitting the t arget is 0. A room has three electric lamps . There are 2 groups of subjects one of which consists of 5 science subjects & 3 engg. the odds in favour of fou r horses A. Q. If four numbers are selected. In a given race. Given that P (M) = 0. Find the probability that the word 'ASH' will form if: the three cards are drawn one by one & placed on the table in the same order that they are drawn. Find the probability that the room is lighted. An event E occurs if & only if the product ofthe two digits of a s elected number is 18. wha t is the probability that it is destroyed. In search of rose. of getting atleast one six.12 ^Bansal Classes Probability . In a box. 2 Q.8 and P (M n F) = 0.5 Q. Sweety is 3 times more likely to be the first one to pick a rose. If sweety begin this 'rose hunt' and if there are 60 lilies in the basket. A bomber wants to destroy a bridge. subje cts & other consists of 3 science & 5 engg.findthe number of roses in the basket. H. one at a time.fromthe two digit numbers 00.10 ^ ^ Q. In a bui Iding programme th e event that all the materials will be delivered at the correct time is M.findthe probabil ity that the building programme will be completed on time if all the materials a re not delivered at the correct time.7 Q. Suppose t he probability for A to win a game against B is 0. Sweety and Shw eta alternately pick up a flowerfromthe basket but puts it back if it is not a r ose. If four bombs are dropped. A covere d basket of flowers has some lilies and roses. B.9 Q.ll Q.99 with replacement.A. A. which option should A choose so that the probability of his winning the match is highe r? (No game ends in a draw). there are 8 alphabets cards with th e letters : S. find P (F/M).7.4. o therwise the subject is selected from 2nd group . H.findthe chance that one of them wins the race. If P (F) = 0. Assuming that a dead heat is impossible. find the probability that th e event E occurs at least 3 times.4 Q.65. the three cards are drawn simultaneously. Find the probability that. .l EXERCISE-I Let a die be weighted so that the probability of a number appearing w hen the die is tossed is proportional to that number. and t he event that the building programme will be completed on time is F .01.3 (i) (ii) Q. H. From a collection of 10 electric bulbs of which 6 are good 3 are selected at random & put in the lamps. S.1: 5 and 1 : 6 respectively.6 Q. Find the probability th at the maximum of the two numbers is greater than 4.4.

[6] .

Q.4 . Q. Find the probability that the 2 randomly chos en blocks have 2 coloured faces each.1 and in the case of three hits is 1.26 A player tosse s an unbiased coin and is to score two points for every head turned up and one p oint for f every tail turned up. for the number of ba d eggs drawn. The probability of no passenger boarding the bus at the next stop being pQ. Assuming that the student has not prepared earlie r chooses for each of the question any one of 5 answers with equal probability. at the next stop either no passenger or exactly one passenger b oards the bus. Q.80 and P (A/B) =0. 7/1. = 2 (Pn-2-Pn-l) ^>3 Also compute P. Q.3 x 48) / 5 8 . In case of exactly one hit. the probability of destroying the ta rget is 1/3 and in the case of exactly two hits. Q. Moreover. in the second 2/3 and in the thi rd shot is 3/4. Compute mean & S.4. assume that the three events th at each hits the target are independent) (a) Find the probability that they all: (i) hit the target. what is the probability' that it was thefirstman? Let A & B be two events def ined on a sample space . Q. respectively.2 Three shots arefiredindependently at a target in succession. The probabilities t hat the target is hit in the first shot is 1/2. 1 The probabilities that three men hit a target are. Then find .10. (As usual. EXERCISE-II Q. Find the probability of destroying the target in three shots. Q. Each fires once at the target. Find the proba^'ity distribution of'X'.24 A cube with all six faces coloured is cut into 64 cubical blocks of the sam e size which are thoroughly mixed. Q . (ii) exactly once. from this lot. B = {at most one boy} In which of t he following (are/is) the events A and B are independent. (iii) find the standard deviation ofthis distribution. (ii) miss the target (b) Find the probability' that the tar get is hit: (i) at least once. If Pn denotes the probability that his score is exactly n points. (i) prove that the probability that he gets more than one correct answer is (58 .3.0. 0.27 Each of the 'n' passengers sitting in a bus may get down from it at the next stop with probabil ity p.30 T wo bad eggs are accidently mixed with ten good ones. 2 8 The difference bet ween the mean & variance of a Binomial Variate1X' is unity & the difference of t heir square is 11.5 an d 0. (c) If only one hits the targe t. there will again be 'n' passengers in the bus. Q. Class es Probability [8] <!§Bansal .D. prove that V ^ i P P n. 2 5 Consider the following events for a fami ly with children A = {of both sexes} .29 An examination c onsists of 8 questions in each of which the candidate must say which one of the 5 alternatives is correct one. 3 (i)P(AuB) & -p[(AnB) u (AnB)].n-. Find the probability that when the bus continues on its way after the stop. (ii) find the probability that he gets correct answers to six or more questions. and P2 and hence deduce the pr that he scores exactly 4. P(B) = 0.0. Three eggs are drawn at ran dom without replacement. Given P(A) = 0. (a) if a family has 3 children (b)ifa family has 2 children v ' A s s u m e that the birth of a boy or a girl is equally likely mutually exclusive and exhaustive.

<!§Bansal Classes Probability [9] .

the animal Q. Let x be the first number and y be the second number. Q. (b) Two numbers x&y are chosen at random from the set {1.y2 is divisible by 3 .2.. If he misses at a distance 'na'.. without replacement. 1R.. King is denoted by the number 13. 3 R. then find the probability that x 3 +y 3 is di visible by 8. Let : E. to the number of cars running along the same highway is 3 :2. then find the probability that "A" originally wrote a (+)ve sign.19 A hunter's chance of shooting an animal at a distance r is — (r>a). "A" passes the slip to "B" who may leave it alone or change the sign before p assing it to "C".9. 2 R.12 The ratio of the number of trucks along a highway.3. : event that both He ads and Tails are present in ' n' tosses. The companies Aand C produce excellent quality radio sets with probability equal to 0. 2B balls An urn is chosen at random & from it two balls are drawn at random & a re found to be " 1 R D E nd & 1 WHITE ".14 The contents of th ree urns 1. 3n}. Find the probability that x2 + y2 is divi sible by 10. It is k nown that an average of one truck in thirty trucks and two cars in fifty cars st op at the petrol pump to be filled up with the fuel. the remaining 9 ball s are put in a green box. He fir es when r = 2a & if he misses he reloads & fires when r = 3a. Similarly "C" passes on the slip to "D" & "D" passes on the sl ip to Refree. <!§Bansa l Classes Probability [10] .2 & 3 are as follows : 1 W. find the probability that it is a car. What is the probability of the event that the excellent quality radi o set chosen at random is manufactured by the company B? Q. 18(a) Two natur al numbers x & y are chosen at random.13 Abatch of fifty radio sets was purchased from three different companies A.6. Find the proba bility that x and y satisfy log3(x + y) .20 An unbiased normal coin is tossed ' n' times. Eighteen of them were manufactured by A. (c) If two whole numb ers x and y are randomly selected. twenty of them by B and the r est were manufactured by C. Find the value o f ' n' for which Ej & E2 are independent. Find the probability that x2 . the probability of his writing a(+)ve sign being 1/ 3.Q. If it is known that B. What is the probability that the number ofred balls in the green box plus the number of green balls in the red box is not a prime numb er? Q. If a vehicle stops at the p etrol pump to be filled up with the fuel.15 A slip of paper is given to a person "A" who marks it with eit her a (+)ve or a (-)ve sign. E2 : event that the coin shows up Head s atmost once. Jack is denoted by the number 11. a2 Q. on which a petrol pump i s located. Que en is denoted by the number 12. 5 balls are drawn out at random & placed hi a red box.log3x .17 Two cards are randomly drawnfroma well shuffled pack of 52 playing card s.16 There are 6 red balls & 8 green balls in a bag. 4a escapes. Su ppose that Ace is denoted by the number 1. who finds a plus sign on the slip. Q. C & D ea ch change the sign with a probability of 2/3. Find the probability that they came fro m the 2 urn.log3y +1=0. Find the odds against t he hunter. Q. B and C. IB balls 3 W..4. Q. B produces the same with the probability eq ual to 0. 3B balls 2 W.

B. wins the tournament. 2 Ifp&q are chosen randomly from the set {1. S2. Determine the probability that the roots of the equation x2 + px + q = 0 are real. Show that the probability of at lea st m consecutive heads is Q. S.3..7. Showthat it is also independent of C. n of which are defective and M articles in the second lot. If S2 reaches the semifinal thenfindthe probability that S.3 (i) (ii) (iii) <!§Bansal Classes Probability [11] . [ JEE '98. 1 white & 3 black balls.22 There are two lots of identical articles with dif ferent amount of standard and defective articles. K articles are selectedfromthefirstlot and L articles from the sec ond and a new lot results. S n are participating. 5 ] There is 3 0% chance that it rains on any particular day. one ball is dra wn at random. B&C are mutually independent. EXERCISE-III Q.6.6 ] Select the correct a lternative(s). then: (A) P (E | F) + P(E |F) = 1 (C ) P(E |F) + P(E| F ) = l (B) P(E|F) + P(E| F ) = l (D) P(E| F) + P ( E I F ) = l Q.4.5. 2 white & 2 black. What is the probability that there is at least one rainy day within a peri od of 7 . BuC & Bn C . Q. then the probability that 2 white & 1 black ball will be drawn is: (A) 13/32 (B) 1/4 (C) 1/32 (D) 3/16 If E & F are the complementary events of ev ents E & F respectively & if 0 < P (F) < 1.days ? Given that there is at least one rainy day. what is the probabi lity that there are at least two rainy days ? [ REE '97. Find the probability that the instrument is rejected exactly in the kth t rial. Q. Q. [ JEE '97. upon each tr ial the instrument fails with probability p. After thefirstfailure the instrumen t is repaired and after the second failure it is considered to be unfit for oper ation. m of which a re defective.23 An instrument is being tested.10} with rep lacement. In each round players are divided in pairs at random & winnerfromeach pair moves in the next round. Find the probability that an article selected at rand omfromthe new lot is defective.l Q. (b) An event A is known to be independent of the events B.6 x 2= 12 ] 7 white balls & 3 black balls are randomly placed in a row. 8. Carepairwise independent and Ais independent of (BuC) then A.2. There are N articles in the fi rst lot.9.25 In a knockout tournament 2n equal ly skilled players.n+2 Q. B & C are random events in a sample space & A.21 A coin is tossed (m+n) times (m>n).24(a) Prove that if A. The probability that no two black balls are placed adjacently e quals: (A) 1/2 ' (B) 7/15 (C) 2/15 (D) 1/3 If from each of the 3 boxes containin g 3 white & 1 black.

p & y be respectively the probabilities that A.p)a. It is known that w henever the players P. B. P7. C. Of these subjects. then the probability that a number of the form 7m + 7" is divisible by 5 equals K b <> 7 < C >I (b) The probability that a student passes in Mathematics. 8 ] Each co-efficient in the equation ax2+bx + c = 0 is determined by throwing an ordinary die. Pg play a knock-out tournament. C. a 50% chance of passing in at least two. Let p be the probability that the coin shows a he ad.A. B. A f air coin is tossed repeatedly. Prove that (3 = (1 . 5 Q. P3. They are t ested. B and C gets the firs t head. A. in a random order till both the faulty machines are identifie d . Determine a. Assuming tha . B. ) till a head shows . one by one. Physics and Chemistry are m.4 Q. [ REE '98.6 ] (v) (vi) Q. then : (A) occurr ence of E => occurrence of F (B) occurrence of F => occurrence of E (C) non-occu rrence of E => non-occurrence of F (D) none of the above implications holds. Find the probability that the equation will have equal roots. Let a. then the pr obability of head appearing on fifth toss equals : (A) 1/2 (B) 1/32 (C) 31/32 (D ) 1/5 3 players A. Then the probability that only 2 tests are needed is: (A) 1/3 (B) 1/6 (C) 1/ 2 (D) 1/4 If E & F are events with P(E) < P(F) & P(E n F) > 0. which of the following relations are true? (A) p + m + c = — 19 (B) p + m + c = — 27 (C)pmc=— 1 (D)pmc=1 (c) Eight players P. will win if i < j.(iv) There are 4 machines & it is known that exactly 2 of them are faulty. [ JEE '98 . and a 40% chan ce of passing in exactly two. If tail appears on first four tosses. the player P.6(a) If the integers m and n are chosen at random between 1 and 100. the student has a 75% chance of passing in at least one.. p and c respectively. (3 & y (in terms of p). and P • play. B&Ctossacoin cyclically in that order (that is A.

p2 & pn = (1 . what is the probability that t he player P4 reaches the final. It is tossed 'n' times. Let pn de note the probability that no two (or more) consecutive heads occur. [REE'99. p2 = 1 . [ JEE '99.p) p n _! + p (1 . = 1 . 5 ] <!§Bansal Classes Probability [12] . for all n > 3.p) p n _ 2 .7 Q. 2 + 3 + 10 (out of 200)] Q. p.6] A coin has probability ' p' of showing head when tossed. Prove that. [ JEE' 2000 (Mains).8 Four cards are drawn from a pack of 5 2 playing cards.t the players are paired at random in each round. Find the probability (correct upto two places of decimals) of drawing exactly one pair.

11 (a) An urn contains'm' white and 'n' black balls. He ge ts selected provided he passes at least two tests. They shoot simultaneously and Ais hit.3. [JEE' 2003.5.10 Two cards are drawn at random from a pack of playing cards.4. 14(a) Three distinct numbers are selectedfromfirst100 natural numbers. (b) An unbiased die. The probability that all the three numbers are divisible by 2 and 3 is (A)5 4 (B ) 5 5 4 (Q4 C) — D 4 (b) If A and B are independent events. What is the probability that among the numbers 1. Six balls are drawn one by one without replac ement of which atleast 4 balls are white. What is the probability that the coin drawn is f air? [ JEE' 2002 (mains)] Q. The probabilities ofA. that of his passing each success ive test is p or p/2 according as he passes or fails in the preceding one. C hitting their targets are 2/3. Find the probability that in the next two draws exactly one white ball is drawn (leave the answer in terms ofnCr). [ REE' 2001 (Mains). prove that P (A u B) • P (A' n B') < P (C). Aball is drawn at rando m and is put back into the urn along with K additional balls of the same colour as that of the ball drawn. A coin i s drawnfromthe box at random and is tossed twice.3.4. Mains-2 + 2 out of 60] Q. A targets B. where C is an event defined that exactly one of A or B occurs.6.2. A ball is again drawn at random. Find the probab ility that one card is a heart and the other is an ace.1/2 and 1/3 respect ively. Find the probabilitie s of occurance ofthe events A and B separately. (b) In a combat. What is the probabil ity that the ball drawn now is white.12 A box contains N coins. (c) A bag contai ns 12 red balls and 6 white balls. B. only three numbers appea r in the list. 3 ] Q. with faces numbered 1 . 5 + 5 ] Q.2. [JEE' 2001 (Mains). while it is 2/3 when a biased coin is tossed.3 + 2 + 4] <!§Bansal Classes Probability [13] . The probability that both occur simultaneous ly is 1 /6 and the probability that neither occurs is 1/3. 3] Q.6 is thrown n times and the list of n numbers showing up is noted.Q.9 A and B are two independent events. [JE E 2004. [REE'2000(Mains).5. and both B and C target A. The probability of his passing the first test is p. 13(a) Aperson takes three tests in succession. Find the probability that B hits h is target whereas C does not. Thefirsttime it shows head and the second time it shows tail. m of whi ch are fair and the rest are biased. The probability of getting a head when a fa ir coin is tossed is 1/2. Determine the probability tha t the person is selected.

scooter. i= 1.5 marks each] <!§Bansal Classes Probability [14] . bus or train is —. then the value of ' n P(w/E). then what is the probability that he travelled by a car. . Give n that he reached office in time. if he takes car. be the event of selecting r111 urn. scooter.3. n then Lim P(w) is equal to n-»oo (C) 3/4 (D) 1/4 (b) If P(Uj) = c. —. is n+2 n+2 n 1 [JEE 2006. (A) 1 (B) 2/3 .Q. then the probability tha t 1 comes in even number of trials is (A) 5/11 (B) 5/6 (C) 6/11 (D) 1/6 [JEE 200 5 (Scr)] 13 2 1 (b) A person goes to office either by car. where c is a constant then P(un/w) is equal to 2 (A) v ' n+1 1 (B) v ' n+1 (C) v n t ' n+1 (D) v 1 2 (c) If n is even and E denotes the event of choosing even numbered urn (P(u.3. — and — respectively.n and w de notes the event of getting a white ball. 15(a) A six faced fair dice is thrown until 1 comes. Let u. [JEE 2005 (Mains). 16(a) If P(Uj) oc i where i = 1.2. Probability that he reaches office late.—. bus or train probability of which being —. 2] Comprehension (3 questions) There are n urns ea ch containing n +1 balls such that the Ith urn contains i white balls and (n +1 .2.) = —) .i) red balls.— and — 2 14 1 respectively. Q.

101/1326 Q 1 8.x ! /x x 1 a ^ P(E) = (I.+(1-P)p 2 ] . [ p0 (1 . . 97/( 25)4 Q 3.ANSWER KEY EXERCISE-I Q 1.. " ^ T 24 or 23 Q25.82. (a) 6%.— -)p.. K m . (iii) 2/3 Q 17. 120 29 Q 11. | Q 4.P(H2/A):\ Q7. 13/24 Q 7. P (F/m) = 4\ 16 Q 9.p i ) ( l . P(B) = 1/2 Q 21. Independent in (a) and not independent in (b) Q 27. 11 Q10. (c) 9/44 « 20.p ( l . Q 15.45% Q5. = 1/2 . P(F/M) = % . Both are equally likely C Q24. best of 3 games Q 14. P2 = 3/4 Q 28. (i) 3/56 (ii) 9/28 Q 6.6976 Q 19. (3n-2n+1+1 )/(4n-2n+1+1) Q 9. — Q 2.1 . l . 3 328 1 1 Q 12.p 2 ) ] n Q 8. 70 8 10 (i) f y (ii) y x (iii) y (iv) 0 Q 5. (b) 79%.. /1 r. 5/9 Q8. P(A) = 2/3. 319/420 Q 10.76 Q 3.13 ~ Q1L 1/2 1/2 1/12 ' ' Q12 -1 Q 14. (i) 773. (i) 1/10.p) + np(l -p 0 )] 481 4V2 Q 29. (i) 0. K K . — Q 13. mean = 0. . 13/41 . 407/576 Q 23. P. 1/2 125 63 Q 22. 5 5 Q 26. 21%. Q30.[ l . p ( H / s ) = l / 2 P 4 [1 PU l + ( 1 " P ) P 2 ] U p1 + A [ P P 1 + ( 1 _ P ) P 2 ] 100 Q 2.+—[Pp. 44%. (ii) 3/10.19/42 Q 20. (1 . 6/11 Q 15. (ii) 0.5 .5 EXERCISE-II Q 1.^^f Q. (ii) 77 1 6 o4 Q 4. 74/81 Q6. 0. 1/2 Q 16.p ) .

Bansal Classes Probability [15] .

5 Q.6 (a) A (b) B.(7/10)7 .l t J > ) ! L .7Cj (3/10) (7/10)6]/1 . l-(l-p)3 P = . y = i h P ) ! P _3 l-(l-p)3 l-(l-p) 5/216 Q. D Q.2 [1 . (a) 9/50 (b) (c) ^ 3 Q 23 Q 22 P d-P)" 2 2 Q 25 ' EXERCISE-III Q.A.Q 16.3 (i) B (ii) A (iii) . n+1: n-1 KnM+LmN ' MN(K + L) Q.7 0.31 Q.9 | & | or J& Q.l 31/50 Q.17 ~ Q 20.10 1 — 26 .4 a = ^—j .n=3 Q 18. 213/1001 Q 19.(7/10)7 (iv) A(v) D (vi) A Q. C (c) 4/35 Q.

(b)A.Q.ll " (a)—. (c)B <!§Bansal Classes Probability [16] .15 (a) A. ( c ) 12/-i 3 4 6p 112 2V 2 12C 6q 10c 2Q +12 Q 6Q 11c 1 4 + 12 p 6p H 1 + 12 p 6p 6 5 .(b) m+n m 6 C 3 (3"-3.12 ^ 9m m + 8N Q.16 (a) B.14 ( a ) D .2 n +3) Z 6" Q. (b) ^ Q. (b) 1/2 2 1 Q.13 (a)p (2-p) . 1 Q.

.BANSAL CLASSES IMATHEMATICS I TARGET IIT JEE 2007 XI (PQRS & J) ^ffteAiny oj/ou QI/ouv Q&/ QUESTION BANK ON STRAIGHT LINE COMPLEX NUMBER SOLUTIONS OF TRIANGLE SEQUENCE & PROGRESSION Time Limit: 5 Sitting Each of 75 Minutes duration approx. This Question Bank will be discussed just after the Deepawali vacation.

7 .2y .P.2) 3. There are 125 questions in this question bank. Among the lines of the family. W3 (B) A 2W (a + ib). + z.2) & C are 3 points such th^t AC = BC & the area of A ABC = 10. c are : (A) in A.2) o r (0. 0 ) (B) (-7. then the co-ordinates ofC are : (A) ( 7 . . x + 2y = 4 intercepted between the axe s.v 1 +3 +5 + is: 2n . B (5. Solutions of Triangle &X ompIex Number. then a2 + b2 is equal to : (B) 2 (C ) 3 (D) 4 (D) None 3-4 If (73 4 i)' (A) 1 <wveifthe (ami ly of lines. .8 z. the number of lines situated at a distance of (A) 0 (B) 1 ).z .0) (D) (7.1) ( C ) ( . b.2 ) or (-1.3 If A is the area and 2s the sum ofthe 3 sides of a tria ngle.b)2cos2 — (A) c (a + b) (B) b (c + a) .3) (D) (2.3) = 0. 1 If in a triangle ABC.c then a.Question bank on Straight line. then ! (A) A < . . . (B) i n GP.3) is : (C) 2 2n + in 1 (D) oo (B)n + 2n f 2n + 1 i 2n + . Then tir e point ofintersection of its diagonals has co-ordinates (A) ( 2 .P.I v 2n . 3 ) (B) (3. Sequence & Progression. (a + b)2 sin2— + (a . (C) 3 (D) 0 ).6 Th e sum of n terms ofthe series.2 ) or ( 1 .0) If —is purely imaginary t hen (A) (B) 2 ). .2) (C) (3. b cos2 — + a cos2 — = . a square is constnicted on the side ofthe line away from the origin.7 2 2 from the point M (2. is equal to : Z.2) or (1. (A) 2 n i n ). a (2x + y + 4) + b (x . (D) None A B 1 Q. (C) in H. 4).2 ^ On the portion ofthe straight line.1 / i i (C) m + n (D) none of the se II ' A (3.9 c c In any triangle ABC. Select the correct alternative : (Only one is correct) ' r Q.

then 1 the lenuth AB is : (A) 3 ^2 (B) 4^2 (C) 5 h (D) non e '.11 In a triangle ABC.IO I f the point B is symmetric to the point A (4. [2] (S? Bansal Classes . -1) with respect to the bisector of thefirstquadrant. b = 26. on St. If a = 10. B. sequence & progression. <j>-III. c = 32 then length (HM) (A) 5 (B) 7 (C) 9 (D) none Q.complex No.(C) a (b + c) (D) c2 i. line. CM and CM are the lengths of the altitude and median to the b ase AB.

5 (B) x2 + y2 = 25 ( C) x2 + y2 = 100 (D) none Q.12 Number of points denoting the complex number Z on the complex plane and sat isfying simultaneously 7 the system of equations 0 < argZ <7t/4 and | Z . [462] . in the complex plane : z. <j>-III. (B) ^ = (A) . 1JL Two mutually perpendicular straight lines through the origin from an isos celes triangle with the line 2x + y = 5 . then a. B. c are in 1 LP.> A 5 (A) (B) 2 (C) .. (D) none of these Q.i (B) z lies on the real axis (A) z lies on the imaginary axis (D) none (C) z lies on the unit circle Q. (B) G. If the stick begins to slide on the fl oor then the locus of its middle point is : (A) x2 + y2 = 2. 15 Through a given point P (a. th en 1 2 j •i — + j has the value equal to (A) C I (B) (C) (I)) none Q. 1 cos — has the value ~ and /(CD) . sequence & progression. b) a straight line is drawn to meet the axes a t Q & R. | Z | < 2.6 i | = 5is /yy/ (A) 0 (B) 1! (C) 2 (D) more than 2 Q.Q. 16 1 z = x+ iy & to = 1 then | to | = 1 i mplies that.P. 17 In a triangle ABC.c. a . a . CD is the bisector ol the angle C.P.+ -i (C) t + = 2 (I)) 2 x y • y x x V! v x 1 — iz ll Q.complex No. 19 If the median ofa triangle ABC through A is perpe ndicular to AB then — --. line.20 The region represented by inequalities Arg Z < — .has the value equal to tan Ii n.b ar e in : (A) A. on St. If the parallelogram Sy-yf OQSR is completed then the equation ofthe lo cus of S is (given'O' is the origin): a b a ib h .6.2 (D) Q. 14 If a. Then the area of the triangle is : > ( A) 5 (B) 3 (C) 5/2 (D) 1 Q. (C)H. 2 (D) T 1' V" 1 2 (S? Bansal Classes Q. b.P. lm(z) > 1 in the Argand diagram is given by: 2 1 7 >° V0 \ a \ 1 \ .13 A stick of length 10 units re sts against the tloor & a wall ofa room .

C) + b cos(C .22 Q.With usual notations.P. A point 'A' is chosen to lie between the lines at a distance'd' f rom one of them .c) (D) 1 The distance between the two parallel li nes is 1 unit. The length ofthe side ofthe equilateral triangle is (A) | V d 2 + d + l (B) ~ 3 d+ ' (C) 2 V d 2 . C are (. c are in H. a cos(B .23 If three positive numbers a.25 . 0).A) + c c os( A .2y .Q.4xy + 4y2 +. in a triangle ABC. B.6 = 0 is : • "(A) V5 (B) V5 (C) 2 4 (D) none Q. be a complex number. b.d + l (D) V d 2 _ d + i Q.i) m [_!.c) (B) zero (C) ( a . 2) respective ly .3 (D) Re (z) < .3 & Im (z) > .24 Let /. 2) & (-13.3 (C) Re (z) < . (0.4. The point of intersection ofthe line which bisects the angle CAB internally and the line joining C to the middle point of AB is: ( A ) (_|. then the fey ion represented by the inequality |z + 2| < | z 4 4 [ is given ' by: (A) Re(z)>-3 (B) Im(z) < .4 Q.21 Distance between the two lines represented by the line pair. x2 .26 The co-ordinates ofthe points A.4 & Im (z) > .!!) m . thene'n + u-2b+c) simplifies to 2 (A) (a . TriangleABC is equilateral with B on one line and C on the oth er parallel line.B) is equal to (A) abc F" abc 4abc i 1 abc Q.x .

on St. The the points: (A) form a parallelogram (B) do not lie on a circle (C) form a trapezium (D) areconcyclic Ifthe roots of the cubic x3 . b).P. b + b cos2 0) and A3 is the area ofthe triangle with t he vertices (0.( l .31 If A. 0) & D(0. (atanO.28 .27 Q. B(0. d) are such that ac = bd & a.29 The points A(a. b). (atanO. then the value of — (A) 0 (B) 1 (C) . sequence & progression. 0 e R (D) none Q. bcotO). J i ) 1 (D) Q. bcosO) then the values of 0 for whic h A.A2. (asinO .0).r = 0 arc in G.px2 + qx . b.1 1+2© 1 + co — + -—-— is : 2 +co (D) none Q.complex No. line . is the area ofthe triangle with the vertices (0. (a sec2 0 . B. )• (112) • (113) has the value equal to (A) R2r (B) 2R2r (C)4R2r (D) 16R2r If co be a complex cube root of unity. is: (A) 0 (B) tt/2 (C) 0 .. -bcotO). (11. c. then (A) q3 = p3r (B)p3 = q3r (C) pq = r (D)pr = q Q. d are all non-zero. A2isthe area of the triangle with the vertices (a. [4] (S? Bansal Classes . (asinO. 0). <j>-III. b c osec2 0). bcosO).30 Q. C(c. With usual notations in a triangle ABC.0). A3 areinGP. (a + a sin2 0 .

~ <B> T T 1 <0 J. radi us -J= (B) circle centre ^ 1. th e ratio' p' ofthe sum ofthe first a n terms to sum ofn terms succeeding them doe s not depend on n.33 If (A) 1 . ( C ) 11 2'3 ( D )1 2'2 „ _„ .Q. . r2j \r2 .1 + z r is equal to : ' (C) i i (D)-i In a A ABC. _ a cos A + bcosB + ccosC . i Q.j • radiu^ -|= (C) circle centre (2.32 -kQ.• 1 1 — -t— .6 .axis to the point of intersection with the yaxis is: (A) ft/3 (B) TI/4 (C) N / 6 (D) TI/12 Q. with first tenn 'a' and the common difference d (a. . ifthe median.37 In an A. . j vr... where K has the value r. \\J a"b c" (D) 128 (C) 64 < . .1 .35 With usual notation in a AAB C equal to: (A) 1 (B) 16 — + V r. 34 The acute angle between two straight lines passing through the point M(. . the value of is equal to : a + b+ c (A) r (B)R .-8) and the points in which the line segment 2x + y + 10 = 0 enclosed between t he co-ordinate axes is divided in the-ratio 1 :2 :2 in the directionfromthe poin t of its intersection with the x .7.2) and radiu s 1/2 (D) none of these I (|). d * 0). Q. . j Q. bisector and altitude drawn from the vertex A divide t he angle at the vertex into four equal parts then the angles of the A ABC are : 2i it i n n k rt . then the expression z" 7 (B) .nr n n jit it (A)T.P.. . respectively are 11 (A)-.1 (B)2. . .38 In a AABC..36 If P the affix ofz in the Argand diagram & P moves so that .-J-j W . then the z-1 locus ofz is : V I (A) circle centre .' is alw ays purilv imaginary.. Then the ratio — and the ratio' p'.

(S? Ban sal Classes Q.complex No.1 (C) is equal to 2 (D) does not exist in the set of real numbers .(C)7 _ R CD) 2r Q. line. on St.39 Ifthe straight lines joining the origin and the points of intersection ofth e curve 5x2 + 12xy . <j>-III. [5] . B.2y + 3 = 0 and x + ky .6y2 + 4x .1 = 0 are equally inclin ed to the co-ordinate axes then the value of k : (A) is equal to 1 (B) is equal to . sequence & progression.

(D) none 7 1 Q.48. b.-.5y2 = 0 (C) 5x2 i 24xy . c are in CP. a b c reciprocals. The equation to the line pair is: (A) 5x2 .Q . angle C = 23° & ! AD = ? h c .P. B.24xy .)(r.x<0) (S? Bansal Classes Q. — are in : c a b (A) A.26xy . + r. if R = k — where k has the value equal to r.) w dth u s u a l n o t a t b n in a A A BC. (B) GP. [6] . Given b > c .. (B) G.)(r. 1 Iv . ax2 + 2bx + c = 0 & dx2 + 2ex + f = 0 have a common root. (D) none i j I In a triangle ABC. .44 (B)113° (C)147° (D)nonc If ot& [5 are imaginary cube roots of unity then a n +P" is equal to : n it (A) 2cos-2— (B) cos + (C)2isin— (D) isin 3 3 3 A pair of perpendicular straight lines is drawn through the origin forming with the line 2x t 3y 6 an isosceles triangle right angled at the origin. Q.— is 2n (A) same as the locus of z for arg z = — . line. a bb c c ' > (A) A. sequence & progression. r2 + r2 r3 + r3 r.47 (C)H. AI) is the altitude from A. <j>-III.5 y2 0 I (B) 5x2 . +r. —. cos 3A eos 3B + cos 3C = 1 then : (A) A ABC is right angled (B) A ABC is acute angled (C) A ABC is obtuse angled (D) nothing definite can be said about the nature of the A.45 Q. 7 i (B) same as the locus ofz for arg z = ~ (C) the part ofthe straight line V3 x + y =0 with (y < 0. (1 + 2co + 2or)lt) + (2 + co + 2co2)10 + (2 + 2co + to2)10 is: (A) 0 -(B) 1 ' (C) co (D) co2 (r.46 Q. If the sum ofthe roots ofthe quadratic equation. ax2 + bx + c = 0 is equal to sum ofthe squares of their . The locus of z.5y2 = 0 In a A ABC. x > 0) (D) the part of the straight line V3x + y =0with(y>0.42 Q.P. • ( C) HP. then —.41 Q.43 I fa. then the equations..5y2 0 ' (D) 5x2 + 26xy .complex No.P.-arcin: . on St. for arg z = .P.c' then angle B = (A)157° Q.40 If co is one ofthe imaginary cube root of unity then the value of tire expressio n. i f d c r . + r. (A) 1 (B) 2 ' (C) 1/4 (D) 4 Q. .

Rr2 (D) . then the sum —— + —— + ! a. BE and CF are the perpendiculars from the angular points of a A ABC upon the opposite sides.a jd Q.b ) x .a-> aT< ^ i 2 i 1 — will approach i+i (D)a.1/2 B C In a A ABC if b + c = 3a then cot— • cot— has the value e qual to : (A) 4 (B) 3 (C) 2 (D) 1 Q.d (A). n e N is an A. f. M and N and if x.1 = 0 (C) (a .52 (COS0 .i cos 0 Q. then the slope of AB is : (A) .b) = 0 (D) (a . is equal to : (A) R r (B) rR2 (C) .55 Q. <D) i i ! where r is the in radius and R is the circum radius ofthe A ABC > f j Q.P.isinO)4 (sinQ + icosO)5 • (A) cosO-isinO (B) cos 90 . z be the circumradii of the triangles MIN.(a . with common'difference 'd'&all whose terms are non-zero.i cos 90 (D) sin 0 .b) x2 .i sin 90 (C) sin 90 .Q. v. point'O'is the origin .49 If the incirclc ofthe A ABC touches its sides respectively at L.2 + 2i becomes : (A) 2x/2 cos] — + i sin -— 4.56 Expressed in the form r(cos0 + isin0).50 (A) B <> £ i <c> i . .rR2 If the line y = mx bisects the angle between the lines ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 then m is a root of the quadratic equation: (A) hx2 + ( a . slope of OB is 7 and OA = OB. The perimeters ofthe A DEF and A ABC are in the ratio : Q.b) x2 + hx . If the slope of OA is 1.5 1 AD.53 Letan. .h = 0 (B) x2 + h (a .1/5 (B) 1/4 (C) .b) x .54 (B) ajd Points A & B are in the first quadrant.(a b) = 0 I Q. V4 (C) ?V2 cos| 3ti ) . If n approaches infinity.1/3 (D) . 3K + 1 sin 4/ V 4 rcosf3ni4+ ismf3*!] — — (B) 2V2 V 4J V • • .hx . NIL and LIM where I is the ince ntre then the product xy/.

sequence & progression. b = 4 (C) a = 2. B. on St.2). [7] . Q(4.7)& S (a. b = 4 (B) a = 3.complex No.7 1 . R(5. b = 5 (S? Bansal Classes Q. then: (A) a = 2. line. b) are the vertices of a parallelogram PQ RS. .6). <j>-III. b = 3 (D) a = 3. (D) 72 cos| -— + tsin 7t 4J K4 Q.57 If P (1.

60 1 1 is purely imaginary then x = 1 .Sn .~ 1 I (B) nu ± -7 3 (C) 2nn ± ~ 3 (D) 2n n ± ~ 6 Q.63 The product ofthe distances ofthe incentre from the angular points ofa AABC is : (A) 4 R2 r (B) 4 Rr2 (C) (a b c) R (D) (abc)s R Q. b and c respectively . . wit h thefirstterm and the common ratio both positive. The area ofthe triangleABC is (A) 2^3 (B) 12 (C) 24 (D) 144 Q.9 and 49 sq. (D) S2n-Sn . h be the lengths ofthe perpendiculars from the circumcentre ofthe A ABC on the sides a. S 3 -S 2 n .59 The sum to infinite number of terms of series (A/2 + l| + 1 +(V2 . -S 2n form a G..= X ——. S3n form a G.61 1 6 .U . units. parallel to the sides of the triangle.2isinx (A) nn ! Q. .64 Q.58 Let f„ g.Sn form a GP.65 The number of solutions ofthe equation z2 + z = 0 where z is a complex number.then the value of X is : f g h • tgh (A) 1/4 (B) 1/2 (C) 1 (D) 2 oo = 4 + 371 Q.If — + — + —.Q. S 2 n . The three resulting triangles with the vertex at P have areas 4. S 3n . 3-2V2 (D) ^ ™: 3 -l. Q. ( B ) Sn ' S2n • " Sn . S3n . In a AABC if b = a (V3 — 1) (A) 15° (B) 45° . S3n . (C) S2n .P. then (A) S„ .S2n . . Lines arc drawn through P.l) + ~ yj 2 > <B)(V2 + I)' v . i s: (A) 4 (B) 3 (C) 2 (D) 1 If Sn denotes the sum ofthefirstn tenns of a GP.P.62 P is a point inside the triangl? ABC. S 3 -S n form a GP.21sinx . ( O . I II the orthocentre anjd circumcentre of a triangle ABC be at equal distances from the side BC and lie on the same side of BC then tanB lanC has the value eq ual to: (A) 3 (B)j (C)-3 (D).

Q. [8] . line.S (S? Bansal Classes Q. The co-ordinates of the foot of perpendicular from A on the bisector of the angl e between them are (D) (0. on St . B.complex No.67 d ZC = 30° then the measure of the angle A is (C) 75° (D) 105° 4 VII A is a point on either of two lines y + V3 I x I = 2 at a distance of j j units from their point of intersection.4) (A) (B) (0.66 .ar.0) (C) . Q. <j>-III. sequence & progression.

2 then (B)r.(D) negative for n odd 5P . The equation to th e fourth side of each square is ( A ) 2 x .73 Three lines x + 2y + 3 = 0 . If the mid-point of BC is (5. a = a. 1 P Q.y = . = r2 1 .72 The solution set ofthe equation. a.y . z2 + (3 + 2i)z . OCA and O AB respectively then — + — + — has the value equal to: j R.68 If s n = 1 + i"2 + T[ + H> + (A) zero lorn odd (C) positive for n even + i -2" . ' (C) r2 = 2r.y . .7 + 17i = 0 where z is a complex number expressed in the form of a + bi is (A) 2 .y + 14 = 0 & 2x . c = a3 such that ap+. n e N and i =V^T then 'Sn is (B) zero ofneven .3i. side AB has the equation 2 x + 3 y = 29 and the side AC has the equation .14 = 0 & 2x .5 + i (C) 2 .71 Q. = where p = (A) r. = 2r.P.70 In a triangle AI3C. (B) v R1 abc (C) —T R 4A (D) K J A ^—7 4R2 .= 3r Q. .6 = 0 (C) 2x ...1 (B)5x-2y=*13 (C) x + y = 11 (D)3x-4y = .= 0 and 2x .y + 6 = 0 ( B ) 2 x . R2 R3 (A) abc 2R .y .y .5 + i (B)2 + 3 i .74 If'()' is the circumcentre ofthe A ABCj" and R.14 = 0 & 2x .4 = 0 form the three sides of two squares. then the value of j j (C)7 (D) 9 Q. x + 2y = 16. x + 2y 7.6) then the equation of BC is : (A) x . = 2 . a. a-.6 = 0 (D) 2x . 5 . and R3 are the radii ofthe circumcircles of triangles OBC. .Q.3i.i (D)none Q.69 In a AABC. b = a-.9 Consider an A.y + 14 = 0 & 2 x .+ a8 = 11 and a^ + an = -2.y + 6 = 0 ' 1 1 1 Q. R.y . + a6 + a 7 is (A)-8 (B)5 such that a3 + a. ap v 5P (D) r2. „ a.

Then the area of the triangle is (A) 96 sq cm (B)84sqcm (C)72sqcm (D)60sqcm Bansal Classes Q. . Q. sequence & progression. flljO sin ^ ^ e respectively : . ' T TT c o s Isn 2n In (C) ~ lines.2 ) (B) ( . .2 c o s — Q.Q.75 nd x 2 ) z = " J ar The circumcentre ofthe triangle formed by the + y + 2 = 0 is: (A) ( .2 c o s l In l ? . 2 cos — . [9] . B..1 .complex No.76 The principal value ofthe arg(z) and | z 1 + cos 11 t ' .2 . 12 cm and 15 cm respectively. line. < B » -In? . flliO + 1 = 0 a 1 .77 The medians ofa A ABC are 9 cm. xy + 2x + 2y + 4 .0) (D) ( | of the complex number .. on St.71 n (D).1 ) (C) (0. <j>-III. .

79 A circle of radius r is inscribed in a square.2. then co-ordinates of vertex A can be : t (A) ( 4 . then the modulus and the princip al value ofthe argument ofz are respectively: j (A) ^ ( l .Q. 3.i) Q. n 4 a 2 4 2 — (D) 72 (l + sina) .sin a + i cos a where a e (0.s i n a ) (C) (l + s ina) n — + f a + (B) (l-sina) . then the radius ofthe circle inscribed in the nlh square i s 1-11" 21 r (A) 3. The side s ofthe resulting square were also connected by segments so that a new square wa s obtained and so on.3) and (. then the length ofthe perpendiculars from any point on the line PQ to the lines PL. PM arc in the ratio [where coordinates of Q s(5.*Ifthe co-ordinates ofthe base are (1.3)] t (A)1:V2 : (B) 1 :2 (C) 2 : 1 . 7). The mid points ofsides of th e square have been connected by line segment and a new square resulted.78 ABC is an isosceles triangle'. n/2).5) (C)(f.81 The equatiohs ofthe straight line PL. PM are 13x + 4y = 8 and 19x .-5) <D)(-7. 5 ) • <B)(-i.80 3-3n " (B) 2 r (C) 2 2 n (D) _ 5-3 n O" 2 Let z = 1 -.3y = 17 resp ectively.

on St.. with right angle at Q .A triangle APQ is inscribed in the triangle OAB. [10] . Ifthe area ofthe triangle APQ is 3/8lh oft he area of the triangle OAB. B.complex No. <j>-III. O being the origin. sequence & progression. y and z are the distances of incentre from the vertices ofthe triangle ABC respectively then ja be !xyz is M " equal to (A) n t a n A ^ A (B)2>ly ^ A (C) Z t a n Y A (D)Z sm 83 The line x + y = p meets the axis of x&y at A&B respectively . (0)^2:1 1 I 82 If x. line. then (A) 2 84 (B) 2/3 (C) 1/3 is equal to : (D) 3 The root ofthe equation z5 + z4 + z3 + z2 + z + 1 =0 having the least positive a rgument is : n n (A) cos — + 1 sin — 6 6 7t 7 1 (B) cos — +1 sin — (D) cos — + i sin 7 1 7 1 (C) cos — +1 sin — 4 4 (S? Bansal Classes Q. P and Q lie respectively on OB and AB .

-11/3) (B)(l-5) (C) (1. 5 (C) 4. then the value of.91 If x. ' (D) none Q.. a semicircle is inscribed. <j>-III. (D)obtuse Q. following ho lds? (A)a=VAB (C) am = a.y2)2 = x2 + y2 (B) (x2 + y2)2 = (x2 .. The maxim um and minimum values of | z | are : (A) 2.6) (V ' 4) lhcn llic co-ordinates of mid-point of side opposite to A is : (A) (1. 10). A\ in m n . y.3 i | = 2 in an argand plane. (x.20 = 0.57 = 0 and x 3 .c. . (x2.Q. vB. on St.y = 0 and /x + my = 1. b ar e in II.92 .P. then the po ints. y3) (A) are collinear (B) form an equilateral tr iangle (C) form a right angled isosceles triangle (D) are concyclic If o) is an imaginary cube root of unity. sequence & progression. Q.P. a. y3 are the roots of 9 x2 + 72 x .P. c i (C) if a. y2) & (x3.87 If in triangle ABC .93 If cos A + cosB + 2cosC = 2 then the sides of the AABC are in (A) A.c) are collinear : (A) for no value of a.85 la a AABC. circumcentre s j . 3 (D) 7.89 The points with the co-ordinates (2a.8 6 . (D) if a. (3 b. If 1 and m vary s ubject to the condition / 2 + m2 = 1 then the locus of its circumcentre is (A) ( x2 .q oi)3 is : 3 (A) p + q3 (B) 3 (p3 + q3) (C) 3 (p3 + q3) ..mn nun (B) ^ =2VA"B" „ (A) (D)a„=a. b. B. b. ain = B as the terms ofthe GP. then for A ^ 0 which ofthe in" 11 n-11 Q.y2) (C) (x2 + y2) = 4x2 y2 (D) (x2 y2)2 = (x2 + y2)2 (S? Bansal Classes Q. . (p + q)1 + (P (J) + q O)2)3 -I. = —— = lien the triangle is a b c ' (A) right angled (B) isosceles (C) equilateral . whose diameter lies on the side c. x . A = (1.. (B)G. 1 (B) 6. Then th e radius ofthe semicircle 7 is ' 2A 2A (A)— (B)— a+b a+b-c Where A is the area ofthe triansjle ABC. line.90 cos A cosB cosC .94 'frian gle formed by the lines x + y = 0 .. a. y2 are the roots of 4 x2 + 3 2 x .§) and orthocentre = (D) (1. 2A (O— (D) c Q.P (C)H. 3a). 5 5 ^ „. b arc in H.p q (p + q) (D) 3 (p3 + q3) + p q (p + q) i Q.c omplex No.4 .). [11] Q. 2b) & (c.-3) Given am+n = A . II in a A ABC.3 Q. y. are the roots of x2 + 8 x . c (B) for all values of a. . Q.(p G)2 -I.P. a2 .1 1 2 = 0 .88 A point 'z' moves on the curve | z . x 2 .

.

q. is (A) A ABC is isosceles but no t right angled (B) AABC is acute angled (C) A ABC is right angled (D) least angl e ofthe triangle is — Q 96 Q.qe I . (A) (EP) ( v i j =(XA) [ v i j (C) (Z p) (Z pq) ( n a) = (Z a) (Z ab) (fl p) (B) ( I p ) ( E a ) = | J z ^ ^ V (D) 0 (1 1 s i n :.1) and C(3.1) determine the vertice s of an equilateral trapezium ABCD .l 02 Let C be a circle with centre P() and AB be a diameter of C. <j>-III. Suppose the circles C p C2.2h xy .. then which ofthe following does not hold good? . P. and L..cosAcosB -t sinA sinB' .0) (D) (9. line.P2. b > 0 are : (A) b 6 (2.V p q rJ V p) ( where R is the circum-radius of A ABC Q.{0}. is : (A) 127° ~ " (B) 129° (C) 133° (D) 137° (A) 0 (B) 58 If in a A ABC. B. C t o the opposite sides. and L.complex No. C3. 103 The set of values of 'b' for which the origin and the p oint (1. is • (A) equal to 0 (B) equal to . 00) Q. 4) (B) b e (0. L-. Let C. then the sum of itsfirst30 terms. The ratio of the area ofthe unshaded portion of C to that ofthe original circle C is (A)8:9 (B)9:10 ( C)10:11 (O) 11:12 Q.. [12] . be circles with diameters P()Pp P.1 (C) equal to 1 (D) non unique If z = (3 + 7i) (p + iq) where p. C-.2h xy + by2 = 0 Q. on St. The largest angle ofthe triangle formed by lines L.3. is the mid point ofthe line segme nt P. are all shaded. C3. r are the altitudes from the vcrticcs A.Q.98 Q.99 The co-ordinates ofthree points A(-4. Suppose P . 104 The product of the arithmetic mean of the lengths ofthe sides of a triangle and har monic mean ofthe lengths of the altitudes ofthe triangle is equal to: (A) A (B) 2 A (C) 3 A (D) 4 A [ where A is the area of the triangle ABC ] (S? Bansal Class es Q. Lines L. is purely imaginary then minimum value of |zp is 3364 (C)—— (D) 3364 j Two rays eman ate from the point Aand form an angle of 43° with one another.101 The image ofthe pair of lines repres ented by ax2 + 2h xy + by2 = 0 by the linemirrory = 0 is (A) ax2 . sin2C — 1 then. B(2.by2 = 0 (B) bx2 . 2] (D) (2. a2x + a by + 1 = 0 V a G R.2h xy + ay2 = 0 2 2 (C) bx + 2h xy + ay = 0 (D) ax2 .97 Q. is the mid point ofthe line segment P()B. 0) (C) (-5.0) (B) (.+ . (no two of which are parallel) each form an isosceles triangle witli the origina l rays. The co-ordinates ofthe vertex D are : (A) ( 6. 0) Q 100 If in a triangle ABC p.L.B and soon.0).1) lie on the same side ofthe straight line. 2) (C) b g [0.. P2P3 res pectively. sequence & progression. B. the statement which isiincorrect..95 Ifthe sum of the first 11 terms ofan arithmetical progression equals that ofthe first 19 terms.

1).10 = 0 and the two other vertices. B = (3. (B)areinGP (C) are in H.0). then the area of the ojrEB is : . i f 2j0 23 26 5752 (A) — sq. units is (A)7io ( (B)3 . units 2 cos A a Q. un its (B) — sq.0) V' 2 M 4J1 .107 The line 2x + 3y= 12 meets the x-axis at A and they-axis at B . E respectively. — + . ABP is an equilateral triangle is constructed on the side'ofAB remote from the origin then the orthocentre of triangle ABP is ' (A) 4-—73. R & S of square PQRS inscribed in t he triangle ABC with vertices As(0.7 3 -) .0) & C = (2. 109 Let As (3.axis & the line AB at C. ? . D. 111 The vertex ofa right angle of a right angled triangle lies on the straigh t line 2x + y . i— + 73 i \ (D) 4 + — 73.14-175.l 06 If in a triangle sin A: sin C = sin (A-B) : sin (B-C) then a 2 : b 2 : c2 (A) are in A. at points (2. -3) and (4. 110 With usual notations in a triangle ABC.P. 108 If in a triangle ABC (A) n ? 8 (B) cos B ^ cos C 3 b + —— + = — + — then the value of the angle A is : b c be ca t n 71 ( C ) -j r (D)~ Q. Q.2) and B s (5. units (D) sq. = 2r3 then (A) 4a = 3 b (B) 3a = 2b (C) 4b = 3a (D)2a = 3b Q.V u . If O is the origin. units (C) — sq. y. 1) given that two of its vertices P Q are on the side AB are respectively .1) t hen the area of triangle in sq.A) U . = 2r.2-^ (B) 4 + — 73.0 0 U f > U ' 3 ' 27 S (C) (1.Q.0.The line through (5.P.5) perpen dicular toAB meets the x-axis. (D) none of these Q.73 z j Q. 11 2 4 4 4 Q. 105 The co-ordinates ofthe vertices P. if r.

sequen ce & progression.(C) 33 CD) 11 a 2 + b2 + c2 ^ A B C Q.complex No. line. <j>-III. B. sin~ siny sin~ simplifies to v sinA' si nB sinC (A) 2A (B) A (C) (D) where A is the area of the triangle (S? Bansal Classes Q. [13] .l 12 In a AABC . on St.

1) and AB is any line through it cutting the x-axis in B.2x + 11 > 0 .ism— 4 . then the equation of locus of mid.Q. 118 Two vertices ofthe AABC are at the points A(. whose area is 12 sq.point P of BC is (A) x + y =j 1 (B) x + y = 2 (C)x + y = 2xy (t>)2x + 2y =l Q. 6) & (.3) and forming a triangle with coordinate axes. . If AC is perpendicular to AR and meets the y-axis in C. units. —1 2 .). 117 All the points lying inside the triangle formed by the points (1..-5) (D) (5.l 15 ABCD is a rhombus. (5. then A represents the complex numbers are (A) w 1 (C) r 3 —1 2 . 116 The number of possible straight lines. 3i • 1 + —i ).1) and B(4. 114 Area ofa triangle inscribed in a circle of radius 4 if the measures of its angles are in the ratio 5 : 4 : 3 is (A) 4 (V3-V2) (B) 4(73 + 72) (C) 4(3-7 5") (0)4(3 + 73) ^. . 3). passing through (2.(B) (3.l 13 GivenA = (1. v 1 (B) 3 + 1 .1.3 cos 4 . Ifthe area ofthe A is 19/2 then the possible co-ordinates ofthe vertex C are: 1 (A) (5.2) satisfy (A) 3x + 2y > 0 (B) 2x + y + I > 0 (C) 2x + 3y . (D)none v 3. .0) (C) (2.1.12 > 0 (D) .3). 10) .i respectively. < 1 sm-. 4 (B) 2 I V [ 7t 4 . 5) and the third vertex lines on the straight line y 5(x . is (A) one (B) two (C) three (D)four •elect the correct alternative : (More than one are correct) ). Its diagonals AC & BD intersect at th e point M&satisfy BD = 2AC.4) ) 119 Which ofthe following expressions are no t the trigonometric formsofany complex number? (A) . Ifthe points D & M represent the complex numbers 1 + i and 2 .

73 y ~ 0 then the co-ordinates ofthe third vert ex are : (A) (0.1 .t.-.71 (C) 2 sm . line.complex No.= .121 II . sequence & progression.-t 1 cos 3 7 1 2n (D) cos ~ + i sin — '..+ a b e d (S? Bansal Classes a' (D) none b" c a" y Q.1 is a line through the intersection of — + — = 1 & — + — = 1 and the lengths ofthe c c d a b b a perpendiculars drawn from the origin to these lines are equal in lengths then (A) — 4 V = V ^ "T a" b" c" d' 1 1 1 1 (C) . x y (B) ^73a v 2 a") 2y (C) (0. [14] . on St.+ . <j>-III. a) .120 If one vertex of an equilateral triangle of side 'a' lies at the origin an d the other lies on the line x . B.a) x y x f 73j a a 1 ( D ) 9 ' 9 . .

1) . line.m m') = 0 (C) (y . (. B.m m') . [15] . If the sum ofthe squares ofthe r oots is 8 then : (A) p = 3.x. sequence & progression.m m') = 0 (B) (y ..y.3 | x | + 2 = 0 and the y . 123 In the quadratic equ ation x2 + (p + iq) x + 3i = 0. (-1. (1.mm') + (x . v-b=— (x-a)& v b = -^-—(x-a)are I-nr " I .a) (m + m ') = 0 (D) (y .co-ordinates of the vertices of a square of unit area ar e the roots of the equation x2 .a) (m + m') = 0 Q.a) (1 . 2) (D) (-2. ( .b) (m + m') + (x . (-2.l 22 ' The bisectors of angle between the st. 1). 2) Q.1 (B) p = 3. (2. are fixedand different lines are drawn for different values of y.2 in 2 m' Q. q = 1 (C) p = 43. 125 Consider the equation y .(x .b) (1 . . 2).3y + 2 = 0 then the possible vertic es ofthe square is/are : (A) (1. <j>-III.a) (1 .-1). p & q are real. 2|. 1). 1).). (1.. 2) (C) (2.co-ordinates of the vertices are the roots of the equation y2 .1.complex No. (2. then: (A) the lin es will pass through afixedpoint (B) there will be a set of parallel lines (C) a ll the lines intersect die line x = x. (2.b) (1 . on St. (1. lines.l24 The x .m'" (A) (y .b) (m + m') .(x . q = . q = . = m (x . 1). q = l Q.1). 1). 2). (-2. (D) all the lines will be parallel to the line y = x. 2).2. (.1 (D)p 3 . If m & x.2) (B) (-1.1. I i 1 t ' i i I i I i (S? Bansal Classes Q.

20 B Q.19 Q.l07 B Q.l 19 A.21 Q.l 03 Q.l 10 "C Q.24 Q.9 3 Q. C Q.45 A Q.91 Q.ll Q.34 Q. D Q. 27 1D Q.54 Q.8 6 Q.6 9 Q.55 C Q.17 A Q.77 C Q.76 Q .lOl Q.29 Q.68 Q.51 Q.57 C Q.4 Q.48 Q.12 D Q.l24 A.84 O 89 Q.56 Q.7 8 Q.23 Q.4 3 Q.64 Q.3 7 (C Q.l 15 A Select the correct alternative : (More than one are correct) Q.59 Q.ll 6 D A C B B 1) I) A C C C B A D c B I) A A 1) D A B C .63 Q. B.l 05 1) Q.30 A Q35 C Q.80 A Q.l Q.6 Q.l 09 Q. 14 Q.22 1 A Q.50 A Q.73 Q.l25 B.3 6 Q. B Q.C Q.l 11 Q.l22 A.53 Q.15.42 A' Q.41 Q.97 B Q.13 Q.l 17 A.l 13 A A B A B A C A B C A A B B I) 1) 1) I1 1) A C B 1) A Q.87 A Q.92 B Q.67 B Q.8 3 Q.l20 A.71 Q. Q.l 12 B Q.74 Q.98 Q.70 C Q-75 B Q.6 0 B Q.7 D Q.52 D Q.31 Q.5 8 Q. B.47 C Q.49 Q.16 Q. 100 B Q.[9ll 'Illrf '°N xsidwoD'uoissBjSojd y douanbds 'vui] 75" no 7/ () sdssoj^) jvsuvfjlj Select the correct alternative : (Only one is correct) Q. 106 Q. D Q.C Q.46 Q.10 C Q.88 Q. A Q.9 Q.44 Q.90 C Q.72 A Q.3 2 B Q.l 18 A.l 08 Q.66 Q.9 5 A Q.l 02 D Q.81 Q.l23 B.61 Q.8 Q.% Q. C.28 Q. B.94 Q.82 B Q. B A3>l H3AVSNV . D Q.40 A Q.3 9 Q.18 Q.2 C Q.3 8 Q.62 D Q.3 Q.121 A. D Q.l 14 I) I) C C A 1) B B A C 1) D C 1) c A 1) 1) A I) B 1) 1) Q.l 04 Q.79 Q.3 3 Q.2 5 A Q.26 Q.8 5 A Q.9 9 Q.65 B Q. C.5 B Q.

BANSAL CLASSES TARGET IITJEE 2007 MATHEMATICS XII (ABCD) APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVE i KEY CONCEPT EXERCISE-I EXERCISE-II EXERCISE—III KEY CONCEPT EXERCISE-I EXERCISE-II EXERCISE-III N P E X Page-2 Page -3 Page -5 Page -6 Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page 1 -7 -8 10 -11 -13 -16 -18 -20 TANGENT & NORMAL : ! MONOTQNQCITY MAXIMA .MINIMA KEY CONCEPT EXERCISE-I EXERCISE-II EXERCISE-III ANSWER KEY . Page-22 .

If the equation of a curve be x2 .y2 = 0 i. dy H I *iyi Equation of normal at(x1. 6. then dy/dx = oo or dx/dy=0. The point P (Xj. yr ^ (a) Length of the tangent (PT) = Vi+[fW ^ (b) Length of Subtangent (MT) = . ^l + [f'(x. For the independent variable 'x'.e. 2. Thus if.TANGENT & NORMAL THINGS TO REMEMBER: I The value of the derivative at P (Xj.) will satisfy the equation of the curve & the equat ion of tangent & normal line. e. 7. d(u + v w) = du + d v . increment A x and differential d x are equal b ut this is not the case with the dependent variable 'y' i. x = 0 is a tangent to y = x2/3 at (0. Ay * dy. If the tangent at any point on the curve is equally inclined to both the axes then dy/dx=± 1. If the tangent at any point P on the curve is p arallel to the axis of x then dy/dx = 0 at the point P. 5. 4. y^ can be drawn e ven through dy/dx at P does not exist. dy The rel .y = 0.p — f(Xj) (c) Length of Normal (FN) = y. Tangent to a curve at the point P (Xj. y.e. If the angle between two curves is 90° eveiy where then they are called ORTHOGONAL curves. Note that: d (c) = 0 where 'c' is a constant. Length of I Subnormal NOTE: 1. e.)f VI DIFFERENTIALS: (d) Length of Subnormal (MN) = y. 2. x + y = 0 and x .g.g. If a curve passing through the origin be given by a rational integral algebraic equation.0).d w d(uv) = udv + v d u Note 1. y{) gives the slope of the tangent to the curve at P. 3. If the tangent at any po int on the curve is parallel to the axis of y. Symbolically = Slope of tangent at iyi P(x1y1) = m(say). dy dx x y ii (X-XJ).y2 + x3 + 3 x2 y . Jx n Equation of tangent at (x p y^ is. If the tangent at any point makes equal intercept on the coordinate axes then dy/dx=-1. IV Angle of inte rsection between two curves is defined as the angle between the 2 tangents drawn to the 2 curves at their point of intersection. In g eneral dy = f ' (x) d x.y1) is. the tangents at th e origin are given by x2 .y3 = 0. f11 (x^ The differential of a function is equal to its derivative multiplied by the diff erential of the independent variable. the equation ofthe tangent (or tangents) at the origin is o btained by equating to zero the terms ofthe lowest degree in the equation. y=tan x then dy = sec2 x dx.

r.ation dy = f' (x) d x can be written as — = f1' (x).t. d x %BansaIClasses Application of Derivative [81 . thus the quotient of the diff erentials of'y' and 'x' is equal to the derivative of'y' w. 'x'.

) to the curve x3 + y3 = a3 (a * 0) meets the curve again in (x2 . A straight line is drawn through the origin and parallel to the tangent to a curve 2 „2 Q. 10 Prove that the segment of the normal to the curve x = 2a sin t + a sin t c os 2 t. 9 Q. Find 'a'. 8 Q. . (All the constants being positive). Find the point of intersection of the tange nts drawn to the curve x2y = 1 .1) and are t angent to the curve represented parametrically as x = 2t -1 2 and y . 4 Find the equations of the tangents drawn to the curve y2 . sum of the lengt h of tangent & subtangent varies as the product of the coordinates of the point of contact. In the curve xayb=Ka+b.4 touches the curve y=—— at the point x = 2 and is 1—x bisected by that point. 13 If the tangent at t he point (xl5 y. 1'4 Determine a differentiable function y=f (x) which satisfies f 1 (x) = [f( x)]2 and f(0)=. 12 The chord of the parabola y = . x i yi Q. Q.y. 1 Q. (!§Bansal Classes Application of Derivative [20J . (a) (b) Find the value of n so that the subnormal at any point on the curve xy n =a " +1 may be constant. 7 A function is defined parametrically by the equations .—.y at the points where it is intersected by the curve xy = 1 . Show that in the curve y=a. 3 Q.1 +12.a2).2n < x < 2n. y = .4y + 8 = 0 from the point (1. prove that the portion of the tangent intercepted between t he coordinate axes is divided at its point of contact into segments which are in a constant ratio.EXERCISE-III Q.l l Show that the normals to the curve x = a(cost + t sin t) . Q.x2 the y-axis & the point of tangency has a consta nt length.x contained between 2 a . 2t +12 sin. Q.2 Q. 6 n a a + Va x2 r-z Prove that the segment of the tangent to the curve y=~ In < 0 ~ V a . Q.2). In (x2 .a2x2 + 5 ax . Find also the equation of the tangent at the point where the cu rve crosses the y-axis. 1 ift*0 •" 1 Q. Q.a cos3t contained between the co-ordinate axes is equal to 2a.y 2 = In at an arbitary point M. Show that the locus of the point P of intersection of the straight line through the origin & the straight line paralle l to the x-axis & passing through the point M is x2 + y2 = a2.5 { r a + ^a2 . that are parallel to the line x + 2y = 0.2x 3 .V a ._sint 2 if t * 0 t f(t) = x = 1 0 if t = 0 "*™m>m o if t = 0 Find the equation of the tang ent and normal at the point for t = 0 if exist. Find all the tangents to the cur ve y = cos (x + y). y = a(sint-t cost) arctangent linesto the circle x2 + y2 = a2. Find all the lines that pass through the point (1.1 . y2) then x v showthat—+— = .

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23 Show that the angle between the tangent at any point A' of the curve /n (x2 + y2) = C tan 1x and the x line joining A to the origin is independent of t he position ofAon the curve. b. 2 2 from the origin. 15 If Pj & p2 be the lengths of the perpendiculars from the origin on the tan gent & normal respectively at any ypoint v Jy) on a curve. Find a. Q.20 The graph of a certai n function/contains the point (0.2) and has the property that for each number 'p ' the line tangent to y = / (x) at (p. 19 Show that the condition that the curves x273 + y2/3 = c2/3 & (x2/a2) + (y2/b2) = 1 may touch if c = a + b. a b a b Q.0) & cuts the y-axis at a point Q where its gradient is 3. Find the area of the triangle in terms of'm'. touches the x .28x3. Show that th e locus of the middle point of PQ is y = 1 . Q.21 A curve is given by the equations x = at2 & y = at3. Q. Q. i i 2 %BansaIClasses Application of Derivative [81 .18 Show that th e distance from the origin of the normal at any point of the curve x = ae e sin—+ 2cos— &y = ae e c o s — 2 sin— is twice the distance of the tangent at the point 2 2. J J .2. 0) to the tangent at (x. Find /(x). show that | z | + 3p2 = a2 where z = x + i y & p is the length of the perpendicular from (0.24 For the curve x2/3 + y2/3 = a2/3. Show that the locus of the point of intersection of the tangents at P & Q is 4y2 = 3ax a2. Q. Q. 16 The curve y=ax 3 + bx 2 +cx + 5. Q.T.25 Aand B are points of the parabola y=x2. 17 The tangen t at a variable point P ofthe curve y=x 2 . /(p)) intersect the x-axis at p + 2. a + K2 b + &2 2 x v2 (b) Find the condition that the curves— + — = 1 & — . The tangents at Aand B meet at C. p 2 =|xcos F + ysin v F| p^lxsinT-ycos^l v . '. Q. the curve be x2/3 + y2/3 = a2/3 then show that: 4 p } 2 + p22 = a2.Q. then show that (x. c. If in the dx above case.+ — = 1 may cut orthogonally.x3 meets it again at Q. A variable pair of perpendicular lines through the origin 'O' meet the curve at P & Q. y) on the curve.axis at P ( . dy where tan ¥ = — .22(a) Show that the curves ~2—TT + T i — a +Kj b +Kj 2 2 X v 0 9 0 0 " 1& x2 + y2 = ~ i — 1 — 1 intersect orthogonally.9x + 28x2 . 2 x2 y = Q. The median of the triangle ABC from C ha s length'm' units.

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12 Water is flowing out at the rate of 6 m3/minfroma reservoir shaped like a hemispherical bowl of radius % 2 R = 13 m. [REE '98. (a) Find the radius of the sphere as a functi on of timet. 2J [JEE 2002 (Scr. 3] Q.-13) (C) ( .0) (D) .2 Find the acute angles between the curves y = | x 2 -11 and y = | x2 .).2 and(b) V26. The volume of water in the hemispheri cal bowl is given by V = (3R .4) makes an angle — with the pos itive x-axis. the side 'c' and the angle 'C' remain constant. Then the coordinates of Q are (A) (-6. whil e the remaining elements are changed slightly.-7) [JEE 2005 (Scr. . y=f(x) at the point (3.Q.7) touches the circle x2 + y2 + 16x+ 12y+c = 0atapoint Q.) . show that cos A ^ — = 0. (a)\25. Q. 14 At time t > 0. x — 3t 2 . 1 Q. EXERCISED! Q. the radius of the sphere is 1 unit a nd at t= 15 the radius is 2 units. is(are ) c 4 f A \ ' T ^ T 4 (A) 2) (B) { ^ J .y) when the (a) (b) water is y meter deep.3 ! at their point of intersection.5 Tangent to the curve y=x 2 + 6 at a point P (1. 3 I f the normal to the curve. Find A t what rate is the water level changing when the water is 8 m deep. Then f'(3) (A)-l (B)-| (C)j (D)l [JEE 2000 (Scr.15) (D)(-6. [ REE 2000 (Mains) 5 out of 100 ] 3tt Q. 4 The point(s) on the curve y3 + 3x2 = 12y where the tangent is vertical.) 1 out of 35 ] Q.-11) (B) (-9. l j (C) (0. 3] % BansaIClasses Application of Derivative [81 . Q. 13 If in a triangle ABC. the volume of a sphere is increasing at a rate proportional to the reciprocal of its radius. At t = 0. 15 Use differentials to a approximate the values of. cosB Q.10. (b) At what time t will the volume of the sphere be 27 times its vo lume at t = 0. y — 2t3.6] Find the eq uation of the straight line which is tangent at one point and normal at another point of the curve. At what rate is the radius of the water surface changing when the water is 8 m deep.

disregards whether f is non derivable or even discontinuous at x = a 3. If it is negative. then the function is decreasing. If a function is continuous the intervals in which it rises and fall . Tests for increasing and decreasing of a function at a point: If the derivative f'(x) is positive at a point x = a. A differentiable function is called increasing in an interval (a. If f'(x) is every wher e negative. A function decreasing in an interval (a. then the function f (x) at t his point is increasing. b) is similarly defined. f'<0 f'<0 c decreasing at x = c O 0 increasing at x = 0 Note : If f'(a) = 0. O x=a —»x Tests for Increasing & Decreasing of a function in an interval: SUFFICIENCY TEST : If the derivative function f'(x) in an interval (a. f can still be increasing or decreasing. It has to be identified by a seperate rule.h) f (a + h) f(a-h) > f (a) and < f (a) < f (a) and > f (a) increasing. then f (x) is Decreasing. | decreasing. then the function f(x) in this interval is Increasing. Eve n if f (a) is not defined. A functio n f (x) is called an Increasing Function at a point x=a if in a sufficiently sma ll neighbourhood around x=a we have f (a + h) f (a . b) is every where positiv e. General Note: (1) If a function is invertible it has to be either increasing or decreasing. Similarly decreasing if 2. yt / N J'<0 f'(a)=0 •f'(a)=0 sf'<0 f> 1 f'>0 '0 x=a O 5. A functio n which in a given interval is increasing or decreasing is called "Monotonic" in that interval. e. Note that. 4. f (x) = x3 is increasing at every point. dy/dx = 3 x2.MONOTONOCITY (Significance of the sign of thefirstorder derivative) DEFINITIONS: 1.g. then for x = athe function may be still increasing or it ma y be decreasing as shown. b) if it is in creasing at every point within the interval (but not necessarily at the end poin ts).

b] then f (a) is the greatest value and f (b) is the least value. Then there exists at least one point x = c such that a < c < b where f' (c) = 0. f' (x) exists for every point in the open interval a < x < b.s may be separated by points at which its (2) derivative fails to exist. If f is increasing in [a. f(a) = f(b). (a) (i) 00 (iii) ROLLE'S THEOREM: Let f(x) be a function of x subject to the following conditions : f(x) is a continuous function of x in the closed interval of a < x < b. b] then it may lead to the adjacent graph w here all the 3 conditions of Rolles will be valid but the assertion will not be true in (a. Application of Derivative % BansaIClasses [81 . b] and is continuous then f (b) is the greatest and f (c) is the least value of f in [a. 6. (3) b]. Note that if f is not continuous in closed [a. Similarly if f is decreasing in [a. b).

27i] (b) 1 g(x) = 2 sinx + cos2x in(0<x<27t).6. In particular. '——^ b. for instance.0<x<l . Also f'(c) is the actual rate of change of the function for x = c. This interpretation of the theorem justifies the name "Mean Value" for the theorem. b]. Rolles theorem is a special case of LMVT since b. (c) APPLICATION O F ROLLES THEOREM FOR ISOLATING T H E R E A L ROOTS O F A N EQU ATION f ( x ) = 0 (i) (ii) (iii) Suppose a & b are two real numbers such that. the slope of the secant line joining the curve at x = a & x = b is equal to the slope of the tangent line drawn to the curve atx = c. the average velocity o f a particle over an interval of time is equal to the velocity at some instant b elonging to the interval. e x2 "4x (b) f(x) = ex/x Also plot the graphs in each case.f (a)] / (b . f' (x) ex ists for every point in the open interval a < x < b. Q. f' (x) is differ ent from zero for all values of x between a & b. ^ Find the set of all values of the parameter 'a' forwhich the function.. cos3x is a decreasing function.f (a)] is the change in the function f as x changes fro m a to b so that [f (b) . Q. & differentiability of g(x) in the interval (0. 1 Find the intervals ofmonotonocity for the following functions & represent y our solution set on the number line.9 x + 20 is positive for all values of x > 4. r max{f(t):0 <t<x} . 3 Q.a Note : Now [f (b) .2 Q. Then there is one & only one re al root of the equation f(x) = 0 between a & b. Thus. x3 . f(a)*f(b).a) is the average rate ofchange of the f unction over the interval [a.3x2 .2). the theorem states that the average rate of change of a function over an interval is also the actual rate of change ofthe function at some point of the interval. Note the following: T hen there exists at least one point x = c such that a < c < b where f' (c) = "a.1 < x < 2 Q.a Geometrica lly. f(x) & its first derivative f' (x) are continuous for a < x < b.x + x + 1 and g(x) = 3 2 3-x Discuss the conti. EXER CISE-I Q. Find the intervals of monotonocity ofthe function (a) f(x) = sinx-cosx inx e[0.5 Let f (x) = x . (a) f(x) = 2.(b) (i) (ii) (iii) LMVT THEOREM: Let f(x) be a function of x subject to the following conditions: f (x) is a continuous function of x in the closed interval of a < x < b.4 (c) f(x) = x2 e~x (d) f (x) = 2x2 In \ x | Find the intervals in which f (x) = cosx-. f(a) & f(b) have opposite signs. f(x) = si . Show that.

n 2x . Application of Derivative % Bans aI Classes [81 .8(a +1 )sin x + (4a2 + 8a -14)x increases for all x e R and has no critic al points for all x e R.

Q.2] » o b A> » r • J \ V\ Q. Q.a sin2x .8 Find the values of'a' for which the function f(x)=sinx . Hence find the set of values of'a' for which f (x) in inver tible.oo) (c) y = x5 . f(x) = { V 2 1 . i s monotonically increasing or decreasing.VxeR Q.Q.12 Find the intervals in which the function f (x) = 3 cos4 x + 10 cos3 x + 6 c os2 x . Q.— sin3x+2ax inc reases throughout the number line. 1 Q. 0 < x < 7 i .a2 a+1 x3 + 5x + V7 is increasing at every point of its domain.4a .3 .5x4+ 5x3 +1 in [-1.13 Find the range of values of'a'for which the function f(x)=x 3 + (2a+3)x2 + 3(2a+ l)x+ 5 is monotonic in R.14 Find the value of x> 1 for which the function crn O F(x)./ n x i n 2 (b) y = xx in (0. (a)/(x) = sin 1 V + * l /—— .IO Iff(x) = V-0 y x3 + (a -1) x2 + 2x +1 is monotonic increasing for every x e R then find the ran ge of \ values of'a'. e Prove that f (x) = j(9cos 2 (2/nt)-25cos(2/ nt) + 17)dt is always an increasing function of x.7 Find the greatest & the least values of the following functions in the given int erval ifthey exist. Q.15 \ .J f-/n I / ^ 2 ^ t I 32 J dt is increasing and decreasing. 11 Find the set of values of 'a' for which the function.9 Q.

(b) Intervals of monotonocity. (e) Gradient of the curve where f crosses the axis of y.2 In x for x > 1.9 and comment upon the following --x+x+3 x—1 Q.7x . Deduce that x/nx>(x 2 /2)-(l/2). (c) Point(s) where f is continuous but not dififrentiable.1 ) . x2 . ' ~ * U' J Y^tesU^Q. Application of Derivative * 0 » » 4§Bansal Classes [9] .18 Prove that.17 Construct the graph of the function f (x) = (a) Range ofthe function. * f 3n } ) CUP Q.sin 5x increases & has no critical points for all x € R.3 monotonically increases for every x e R t hen find the range of values x2 . f(x) = Sax .Find all the values of the parameter 'a' for which the function.(x2/2) + (1/2) is a function such that d2y/ dx2 > 0. 2 n \ . Q.19 Prove that tan2x + 6 In secx + 2cos x + 4 > 6 sec x for x e — . (d) Point(s) where f fails to be continuous and nature of discontinuity. Q. fa^ Q.1 > 2x In x > 4(x . >1 If 0 < x < 1 prove that y = x In x .21 fr '\ :: .16 Iff(x) = 2ex .ae~x+(2a +1 )x .a sin 6x . .20 If ax2 + (b/x) > c for all positive x where a > 0 & b > 0 then show that 27ab2 > 4c3.

Let f (x) = 4x3 .15 Let a > 0 and/ be continuous in [-a. Q.2 Q.4]. Q. Iff (a) < f (b). g (2) = 1. using LMVT .23 Show that x2 > (1 + x) [/n(l + x)]2 Vx>0.1 ] be a twice differentiable function such that. If f (a) = a and f (b) = b.2]. b). show that there exist distinct c p c2 in (a.9 Let f. Q. c] and differentiable in (a.1 ) for 0 < x < tc/2.a) = . b]. use Rolle's theorem to prove that there exist c. Show that f (x) < g (x) for all x > 0. Let f: [a. 11 Let f defined on [0.1] Q. b] and differentiable on (a. Q.24 Find the setofvalues of x for which the inequality /n(l +x)> x/(l +x) is valid. Q.4] the function/is differentiable. b] and if f (a) = f (b) = 0 then f or any real a there is an x e (a. f(a) f(b) <j>(a) «b) ¥(a) ¥(b) f'(c) *'(c) = 0 ^'(c) Q. Suppose that on the interval [-2.a.b)n on [a.2x +1.3x2 . b] R be continuous on [a. b) X ^ N such that a f ( x ) + f'(x).3 Q. Showthat between any two real solutions of f (x) = 0.6 For what value of a.a) f (b) % Bans aIClas ses Application of Derivative [81 . Q. m .2^ If b> a. | f' (x) | < 1 for all x e [0. Let f (x) and g (x) be differentiable functions such that f' (x) g (x) * f (x) g' (x) for any real x.a) f (c) > (c . then showthat. then show that f ' (c) > 0 for some c e (a. | f" (x) | < 1 for all x e [0.1 ] If f (0) = f (1). a&b such tha t. 16 Let a. c be three real number such that a < b < c. EXERCISE-II Q. 12 f (x) and g (x) are differentiable functions for 0 < x < 2 such that f (0) = 5.14 Show that exactly two real values of x satisfy the equation x 2 =x sinx + c os x. Prove that (c . b. f (x) is continuo us in [a. Q . 4 Verify Rolles throrem for f(x) = (x . Using LMVT prove that: (a) tan x > x in V i sin x < x for x > 0 Q. 1 .Q. g (0) = 0.a)m (x .13 If f. c). <> i|/ are continuous in [a.= 0.x mx+b l<x<2 satisfy the hypothesis of the mean value theorem for the int erval [0. b). 3 x= 0 r 2 +3x + a 0 < x < l Q.5 Prove that if / i s differentiable on [a. 0< c <1 such that f(c) = 0. Q. Q.findthe minimum value of |(x-a) 3 |+ | ( x . Also f 1 (x) is strictly increasing i n (a. n being positive integer. c). show that f (0) = 0. b[ then show that there is a value of c lying between J. g be differentiable on R and suppose that f(0) = g (0) and f ' (x) < g' (x) for all x > 0. a].8 Q. Suppose that / (x) exists a n d / (x) < 1 for all x € (-a. /(-2) = 1 and \f (x) | < 5.b) f (a) + (b . f (2) = 8. m and b does the function f (x) = L . Find the bounding functions offon [-2.22 Prove that 0 < x. there is at least one real solution of g (x) = 0. sirix . b ). a).b ) 3 | . If /(a) = a and/(.(1/2) sin2x < (1/2) (71 .3 g' (c). b] and differen tiable on (a. Show that there exists a number c satisfying 0 < c < 2 and f ' (c) . 10. b) such that f ' (Cj) + f'(c 2 ) = 2. x € R. b] and deriva ble in ]a. Let f be cont inuous on [a.

V. [JEE '98.l Letf(x) = increasing.2 Iff(x)= X x* e x<0 . Q. If > 0 for all x. where 0 < x < 1.M.18 Use mean value theorem to evaluate. then in this interval: Q.4(a) Let h(x) = f(x) .T. but R is not . 2 ] dg Let a+b = 4. b). prove that dx a o j g(x) dx + J g(x) dx increases as (b .19 Using L.3 (A) both f(x) & g (x) are increasing functions (B) both f(x) & g (x) are decreas ing functions (C) f (x) is an increasing function (D) g (x) is an increasing fun ction [ JEE '97 (Scr).a) increases. x> 0 x [ JEE '96. ' .(f(x))2 + (f(x))3 for every real number x.2 + 2 ] Q. Find the interval in which f' (x) is x+ a . .1): (A) ex < 1 + x (B) loge(l +x)<x (C) sinx>x (D)log e x>x (b) Consider t he following statements S and R: S : Both sin x & cos x are decreasing functions in the interval (n/2.x . or otherwise1 prove that difference of square root of two consecutive natural nu mbers greater than N2 is less than .5(a) Foralfx e (0. Then: (A) h is increasing whenever f is increasing (B) h is increasing whenever f is decreas ing (C) h is decreasing whenever f is decreasing (D) nothing can be said in gene ral. X—1 </nx<x-l. Vx>l X Q.1 (b) f(x) = —r—. then the minimum value of f: x + 1 (A) does not exist because f is unbounded (B) is not attained even though f is bounded (C) is equal to 1 (D) is equal to . Lhn (Vx + l -Vx)_ Q. where 'a' is a positive constant. n).17 Use the mean value theorem to prove. for every real number x. where a < 2 and let g (x) be a differ entiable function.5] Q.3 ] &g(x)= X 3 sin x tan x . b o [JEE '97.1 . Which of the following is true ? (A) both S and R are wrong (B) both S and R are correct.Q. EXERCISE-III Q. b). R: If a differentiable function decreases in an inter val (a. Q. then its derivative also decreases in (a.20 Prove the inequality ex > (1 + x) usin g LMVT for all x e Rq and use it to determine which of the two numbers e" and ne is greater. x2.

2) (D ) (2.1 ) (C) (1.1) (x .2 .2) d x then f decreases in the interval: (A) ( .the correct explanation for S (C) S is correct and R is the correct explanation for S (D) S is correct and R is wrong.oo. . + oo) [JEE 2000 (Scr. (c) Let f (x) = J ex (x .) 1+1+1 out of 35] % Bans aIClasses Application of Derivative [81 . 2) (B) ( .

then f(x) is ( (A) increasing on M ~ >l J (B) decreasing on R 4 ' (C) increasing on R (D) decreasing on 3 (b) Let . for some x e (1. using Rolle's theorem.45x +1035. then Lim — i s equal to (A) 0 101 (B) 1 100 (C)-l (D)2 [JEE 2004 (Scr)] Q.8(a) Using the relation 2(1 .Q. x=0 . b € [0.6(a) If /(x) = xex(1 ~x). 3) (C) f" (x) = 3.10 If p (x) = 5 lx . [JEE 2004. (i) Show t hat there exist a.1 < p < 1. (C)0 (D)1 f(x2)-f(x) . 3] Q. V x« 0'i (b) Let f: [0. for V x e (1. 4 + 4 out of 60] o Q.46). Rolle's theorem is applicable to f for x e [0. (f (4))2 . (b) If/is a strictly increasing function.4] -» R be a differentiable function.4]. f (3) = 9.x > 0 0.3) [ JEE 2005 (Scr).9(a) Let f (x): x°7nx.p = 0 has a unique root in the interval identify*.4sin3x is increa sing. x ^ 0 or otherwise. if a = (A)-2 (B)-l T. 3) (B) f" (x) = f ' (x) = 2.2323x . prove that at l east one root of p(x) lies between (451/100.2 out of 60] Q. 11 (a ) If/(x) is a twice differentiable function and given that f(l) = 1. 1 + 5 ] and The length of a longest interval in which the function 3 sinx .1]. 3] (b) f (x) is differentiable function and g (x) is a double di . for V x € (2.3x . Show that the equat ion 4x . then (A) f" (x) = 2. prove that sin (tanx) > x. 3) (D) f" (x) = 2.cosx) < x 2 . is 7t 7 X 3C T (A) — (B) — (C)y '(D) n (D) 7i [JEE 2002 (Screening).(f (0))2 = 8 f'(a) f (b) (ii) Show that t here exist a.7 [ JEE 2001. f(2) = 4. P with 0 < a < p < 2 such that 4 | f(t) dt = 2 (a f (a 2 ) + p f ( P 2 )) [JEE 2003 (Mains). for som e x e (2. Q.

6] ^Bansal Classes Application of Derivative [12] . [JEE 2005 (Mains). Iff^O) +g2(0) = 9. Prove that there exists some c e (-3.fferentiable function such that | f (x) | < 1 and f '(x) = g (x).3) such that g (c) • g"(c)<0.

maximum & minimum values of a continuous function occur alternately & bet ween two consecutive (v) maximum values there is a minimum value & vice versa. (iii) (iv) a function can have severa l maximum & minimum values & a minimum value may even be greater than a maximum value. at x = a if f(a) is greater than every other near by relative maximum Also a relative maximum No greater value of f.c i s aFpoint of local minima. h is a sufficie ntly f'(c+h) < 0 small positive . p/1 \ C f1 1N » i f(b) < f(b -h) Note that: (i) the maximum & minimum values of a function are also known as local/relative maxima or local/relative minima as these are the greatest & least values ofthe function relative to some neighbourhood of the point in question. dy Critical points are those wher e — = 0. the term 'externum' or (extremal) or 'turning value' is used both for maximum or a minimum value. Note : The set of values of x for whic h f' (x) = 0 are often called as stationary points or critical points. or it fails to exist either by virtue of a vertical tangent dx or by virtue of a geometrical sharp corner but not because of discontinuity of function. has the same sign in a certain complete neighbourhood of c. where f' (c)=0. In case f' (c) does not exi st f(c) may be a maximum or a minimum & in this case left hand and right hand de rivatives are of opposite signs. The greatest (global maxima) and the least (glo bal minima) values of a function fin an interval [a.MINIMA FUNCTIONS OF A SINGLE VARIABLE HOW MAXIMA & MINIMA ARE CLASSIFIED 1. No greater value of f.c is a point of local maxima. % BansaIClasses Application of Derivative [81 . near by absolute minimum Similarly. quantity Similarly v f'(c+h) > 0_ ' Note : Iff' (x) does not c hange sign i. where f'(c) = 0. if it exists. a function f(x) is said to have a No smaller value of f. The rate of change of function is zero at a stationary point. then f(x) is either strictly increasing or decreasing throughout this neighbourhood implying that f(c) is not an extreme value of f. SUFFICIENT CONDITION FOR EXTREME VALUES : f'(c-h) > 0 => x . f'(c-h) < 0 • x . relative maximum A function f(x) is said to have a maximum absolute maximum No g reater value of f. a sufficiently small positive h. b] are f(a) or f(b) or are given by the values of x for which f' (x) = 0.e. Symb olically f(a) > f(a + h) >x=a gives maxima for f(a) > f(a-h) relative minimum R No smaller value of f. v alue assumed by f(x) in the immediate A nearby y=f(x) neighbourhood of x=a. w f(b) < f(b + h) (0 (ii) (iii) (iv) A NECESSARY CONDITION FOR MAXIMUM & MINIMUM : If f(x) is a maximum or minimum at x = c & iff' (c) exists then f' (c) = 0.MAXIMA . Also a rela tive minimum minimum value at x=b if f(b) is least than every other value assume d by f(x) in the immediate x=a x=b neighbourhood at x=b. (ii) a maximum (minimum) value of a function may not be the gr eatest (least) value in a finite interval. Symbolically if x=b gives minima for a sufficiently small positive h.

e. f(c) is a maximum va lue of the function f. If the sum of two positive numbers x and y is constant than their product is maximum ifthey are equal. (a) (b) 5. THIRD: If y = f (x) is a quantity to be maximum or minimum. Note : iff" (c) = 0 then the tes t fails. FOURTH: Test each values of x for which f'(x) = 0 to determine whether it provides a max imum or minimum or neither.e. But if dy/dx changes signfromnegative to zero to positive as x advances through x0 there is a minimum. his may require some algebraic manipulations. f' (c) = 0 & f" (c) < 0. Such points are called INFLECTION POINTS. draw a figure to illustrate the problem & label those parts that are important in the problem. If this quantity is denoted by 'y'.4. it must be expressed in terms of a single independe nt variable x. If d^/dx 2 = 0 when dy/dx = 0. If dVdx 2 is negative when dy/dx = 0=>yis maximum. Surface area of a cuboid = 2 (7b+bh+h/).y)2 + 4xy REMEMBER: USEFUL FORMULAE OF MENSURATION TO riP Volume of a cuboid = /bh. (x + y)2 = ( x . y > 0 . SIXTH: Ifthe derivative fails to exist at some point. Important Note: Given a fixed point A(xl5 yt) and a moving poi nt P(x. examine this point as possible ma ximum or minimum.i. x + y = c . SUMMARY-WORKING FIRST: RULE: When possible. USE OF SECOND ORDER DERIVATIVE IN ASCERTAINING THE MAXIMA OR MINIMA: f(c) is a m inimum value of the function f. neither a maximum nor a mi nimum.y ) 2 ] 6. if f' (c) = 0 & f" (c) > 0. If the product of two positive numbers is constant then their sum is least if th ey are equal. find those values of x for which dy/dx = f'(x) = 0. Volume of a p . Revert back to thefirstorder derivative check for ascertaning the maxim a or minima. SECOND: Write an equation for the quantity that is to be maximised or minimised. t h e n xy= ^ [(x + y ) 2 . (b) If— is zero dx negative dy positive for for x < x0 for x = xn x > x0 • a maximum occurs at x = xQ. the test fails.( x . FIFTH: If the function y = f (x) is defined for only a limited range of values a < x < b then examine x = a& x = b for possible extreme values. x > 0 . If dy/dx does not change sign. The usual tests are: (a) If dVdx 2 is positive when dy/dx = 0 => y is minimum. f (x)) on the curve y=f(x). Then AP will be maximum or minimum if it is normal to the curve at P. i. Constants & variables should be clearly distinguis hed.

Total surface of a prism = lateral surface + 2 area of the base (No te that lateral surfaces of a prism are all rectangles). Application of Derivati ve %BansaIClasses [81 . Lateral surface of a prism=perimeter of the ba se x height.rism = area of the base x height.

SIGNIFICANCE O F T H E SIGN O F 2 N D ORDER DERIVATIVE A N D POINTS O F INFLE CTION : nd The sign of the 2 order derivative determines the concavity of the curve. Total surface of a cylinder = 2 it rh + 2 it r2.oo. V 2 d2y Inflection points can also occur if—-y fails to exist. Surface area of a sphere = 4 tt r2. (Note that slant surfaces of a pyramid ar e triangles).3/5 V A \2-x2 V2 " 1 faBansal Classes Application of Derivative [15] . for x e ( . 2 7. when 0 is in radians.x2 fo r x e (1. For example.Volume of a pyramid=. From the graph wefindthat if: (i) d V dx 2 >0 => concave upwards (ii) d2y —7 < 0 => concave downwards. . 1) f ( x ) = [ 2 . Curved surface of a pyramid=. 3 Curved surface of a cylinder = 2 it rh. Area of a circular s e c t o r r 2 8 . consider t he graph of the function dx defined as.area of the base x height. crVolume of a sphere=— tci3. <= 3 Volume of a c o n e = i A .( perimeter of the base) x slant height. Such p oints such as C & E on the graph where the concavity of the curve changes are ca lled the points of inflection. dx d2y At the point of inflection wefindthat —y = 0 & dx dx d changes sign. oo) Note that the graph exhibits two critical points one is a point of local maximum & the other a point of inflection.

6 Q. 0 < x < 2 7 i (b) y = 2 c o s 2 x . the shape of which is a rectangle with semi circle at each end. For a given curved surface of a right circular cone when the volume is maximum. How farfromthe col umn must a man. (a) f has minimum val ue at x = 0 and 2 (b) f has maximum value at x = 1 f(x) x (c) for all x.EXERCISE-III Q. f(x)= j [2 (t — 1) (t .2)2] dt i Find the maximum & minimum value for the function. If the surface area A of the pool isfixed. Q. whose eye level is 1. pro ve that the semi vertical angle is sin-1 Q. (a) y = x + sin2x. The length of three sides of a trapezium are equal.cos4x.2 & has relative minimum/maximum at x = .is to be laid out enclosing a footballfield.9 . Limit I / n 0 X 1 i 0 ! Q 1 i = 2.IO A statue 4 metres high sits on a column 5.for what value of'r' and V the perimeter 'P! of the pool is minimum.2)3 + 3 (t . X Investigate for maxima & minima for the function.l a nd l If Jf (x) -l Q.2 Q. The plan view of a swimming pool consists of a semicircle ofradius r attach ed to a rectangle of length '2^ and width's'.3 Q. th e combined length & girth of a parcel must not exceed 3 metre. stand in order to h ave the most favourable view of statue. 0 <x <7t Suppose f(x) is real valued polynomial function of degree 6 satisfying the following conditions.6 metresfromthe ground. Q. 12 A running track of440ft. 7 Find the maximum perimeter of a triangle on a giv en base4 a' and having the given vertical angle a. Q. Find the maximum area of such a trapez ium. Ifthe area ofthe .6 metres high. Find the volume o fthe biggest cylindrical (right circular) packet that can be sent by the parcel post. 6 2~77 >findthe equations of the tangent lines of x +5 Q.4 find 3 the cubic/(x). 11 By the post office regulations. Q. Determine f(x). each being 10 cms.l A cubic f(x) vanishes at x = .l) 2 (t . 5 Q. 8 V 3 Of all the lines tangent to the graph of the curve y minimum and maximum slope.

22 (!§Bansal Classes Application of Derivative [20J . Use : n « — .findthe length of its sides.rectangular portion is to be maximum.

Any inflection point. The la bour charges for making the box are Rs. Relative maximum and minimum points. Find the grea test value a b of the intercept between the point of contact and the foot of the perpendicular. What should the width x and height y of the cross section be for the beam to offer the greatest resistance (a) to compression. Derivatives F' (x) and F" (x). Another circle with centre a t Q and varable radius intersects the first circle at R above the x-axis & the l ine segment PQ at S. Q.18 Prove that among all triangles with a given perimeter. % BansaIClasses Application of Derivative [81 . Q .21 Consider the function. the equilate ral triangle has the maximum area. The clea r glass transmits three times as much light per square meter as the coloured gla ss does. What is the ratio of the sides of the rectangle so that the window tran smits the maximum light? Q. F (x) = j(t 2 -1) dt. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Fin d the x and y intercept of F if they exist. The i ntervals on which F is an increasing and the invervals on which F is decreasing. 3/-. Q.19 A sheet of poster has its area 18 m2. 4" b Q. & altitude 12ft? Assume that one side of the rectangle lies on the base of the t riangle. Assume that t he compressive strength of a beam is proportional to the area of the cross secti on and the bending strength is proportional to the product of the width of secti on by the square of its height Q.15 Find the area of the largest rectangle with lower bas e on the x-axis & upper vertices on the curve y = 12-x 2 . The cost of the material per square foot for the bottom is 15 paise. What are the di mensions of the poster if the area of the printed space is maximum? Q.20 A perpe ndicular is drawnfromthe centre to a tangent to an ellipse h—j .-1) find a & b and show that the turning value is a maximum Q. Find the base an gle 0 of the trapezium ABCD which has the greatest perimeter. x e R.findr and 0. Th e margin at the top & bottom are 75 cms and at the sides 50 cms.22 A beam of rectangular cross section must be sawnfroma round log of diameter d. Q .14 A closed rectangular box with a square base is to be made to contain 1000 cubic feet. 3X.16 A trapezium ABCD is inscribed into a semicircle of radius / so that the base AD of the trapezium is a diameter and the vertices B & C lie on the circumference.Q.l? If y =————— has a turning value at (2. Find the dimensions of the box when the cost is minimum. Find the maximum area of the triangle QSR. The semicircular portion is fitted w ith coloured glass while the rectangular part isfittedwith clean glass. -l Q. for the top 25 paise and for the sides 20 paise. Q. (b) to bending. X x2 y 2 Q.13 A window of fixed perimeter (including the base of the arch) is in the form of a rectangle surmounted by a semicircle. 2 3 What are the dimensions of the rectangular plot of the greatest area which can be laid out within a triangle of base 36ft.1 .25 The circle x2 + y 2 = 1 cuts the x-axis at P&Q. If the area is fixed & perimeter is minimum.24 Theflowerbed is to be in the shape of a circular sector of radius r & central angle 0.

Let f (x) = sin3 x + X sin2x. 11 Consider the function y =/(x) = In (1 + sin x) with -2n<x<2n. From a fixed point A on the circumference of a circle of radius 'a1.2.e. -n/2<x< n/2. M (t ) = Find Lim M(t) and Lim M(t) t->-00 t-»00 ~zr l + 4e 3 dM 1 . units. Fin d the intervals in which X should lie in order that f(x) has exactly one maximum & one minimum. e~e/2.M(3 . Find (a) the zeroes of/(x) (b) inflection points if any on the graph (c) local maxima and mi nima of /(x) (d) asymptotes of the graph t/2 (e) sketch the graph of /(x) and co mpute the value of the definite integral -it/ 2 feBansal Classes Application of Derivative [18] .. the ratio of the height of the cylinder to the diameter of the semi circular ends is n/(n+2). f(x) = a2x3 + ax2 . Show tha t for each a > 0 the function e~ax. Show that in order that total surface area may be minimum. Does/' (0) ? Find Lim / ' (x).. Find the cosine of the angle at the vertex of an i sosceles triangle having the greatest area for the given constant length I of th e median drawn to its lateral side. 4 Q. 3 The mass of a cell culture at time t is given by. Q.x + b negative and the maximum is at the po int x0 = . xa2 has a maximum value say F (a). 5 Given two points A ( .„ . .1 (a) (b) (c) Q. Depending on the values of p e R. 2 Q. 9 Find whether/ is continuous at x = 0 or not.M) Find the maximum rate of growth of M and also th e vlaue of t at which occurs.8 Q. 6 Q.1 . — is3V3ra sq. let the perpendicular AY fall on the tangent at a point P on the circle.Vx/nx Q. x-> 0 Find the inflection points of the graph of y=f (x). Find the minima and maxima if they exist.IO Consider the function /(x) = (a) (b) (c) (d) L 0 whe nx>0 for x = 0 2 Q.0) & B (0.findthe value of'a' for which the equation x3 + 2 px 2 +p = ahas three distinct real roots. Q. Find the co-or dinates of a point M on this line so that the perimeter of the A AMB is least. with a rectan gular base and semicircular ends. Show that — .. prove that the greatest area which the AAPY can have •.7 Q. A given quantity of metal is to be casted into a half cylinder i.4) and a line y = x. For what real values of 'a' and 'b' are all the extremum values of the function. and that F (x) has a minimum value.EXERCISE-II Q.

Find the length of the shortest segment.4 < a2 < 8 that is farthestfromthe point (0.findthe prism with the least sum of lengths ofa ll edges. . 3 5 Q. (b) the intervals on which the graph/is concave down and concave up.Q.23 The function f (x) defined for all real numbers x has the following propert ies (i) f (0) = 0.r).17 For what values of' a' does the function f (x) = x3 + 3 (a . C (r2.— 71 T E in 0 < x < ~ 2 %BansaIClasses Application of Derivative [81 . if th e cone is of least possible volume. Using calculus. cos x< 1 . Q.axis. show that maximum area of such a parallel ogram is: — (p + q) (q + r) (p . CA & AB respectively. sin x > 2x n . How long is the side of the base of that prism? Q. Q. . 12 Arightcircular cone is to be circumscribed about a sphere of a given radiu s.22 Prove that the least p erimeter of an isosceles triangle in which a circle of radius r can be inscribed is6rv3.25 Use calculus to prove the inequality.19 A segment of a li ne with its extremities on AB and AC bisects a triangle ABC with sides a. Q. c i nto two equal areas. q). Find (a) the intervals on which/is increasing and decreasing and any local max imum or minimum values.13 Find the point on the curve 4 x2 + a2y2 = 4 a 2 .in 0 < x < — • 7 1 2 x2 You mav use the inequality to prove that.r) be the vertices of the triangle AB C. E & F on the line segments BC.16 A cylinder is obtained by revolving a rectangle about the x . Q. (c) Hie function f (x) and plot its graph.x2)e_x for some constant k > 0 . Q. f (2) = 2 and f 1 (x) = k(2x .18 Among all regula r triangular prism with volume V.14 Find the s et of value of m for the cubic x3 . Q. B (q2.21 Find the magnitude of the vertex angle ' a ' of an isosceles triangle of the given area 'A' such that the radius 'r' of th e circle inscribed into the triangle is the maximum. Q. b.24 Find the minimum va lue of j sin x + cos x + tan x + cot x + sec x + cosec x | for all real x.9) x .axis.1 have a positive point ofmaximum Q.2). A parallelogram AFDE is drawn with vertices D.axis and the entire rectangle lying in the r egion between the curve x y = & the x . Find the maximum possible volume o f the cylinder.— x2 + — = log1/(4 (m) has 3 distinct solutions. Q. the bas e of the rectangle lying on the x . T 1 Q.20 What is the r adius of the smallest circular disk large enough to cover every acute isosceles triangle of a given perimeter L? Q. .p). Find the ratio of the altitude of the cone to the radius of the sphere.15 Let A (p2.7) x2 + 3 (a2 .

8 (A) a local maximum (C) a local minimum Q. 1 A conical vessel is to be prepared out of a circular sheet of gold of unit radius.50 = 0. 2(a) The number of values of x where the function f(x) = cos x + cos (V2x) at tains its maximum is: (b) Suppose f(x) is a function satisfying the following co nditions: (i) (w) f(0) = 2.6 ] (A)0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) infinite Q. 5 out of 100 ] Q. [ REE 2001 Mains.1] (C) (D) (0.7 Q.1] (b) The maximum value of (cos ctj) • (cos a 2 ) (cos a n ). under the restrictions iz O < ctj. 9 (B) no local maximum (D) no extremum.6] The function f(x) = j t (el . 3 ou t of 100] r Ixl for 0 < |x| < 2 Let f (x) = [ j f x = Q .3)5 dt has a local minimum at x = (D)3 [JEE'99 (Screening). whose d istance from the origin is minimum [REE'98.1) ( t . c > b > a > 0. [ REE '97. [REE '99. where O denotes the origin and N the foot ofthe perpendicularfromO to the tangent at P. 1 +1 out of 35 ] . [ JEE 2000 Screening.6 Q. b & the function f(x). 1 out of 35 ] Find the area of the right angled triangle of least area that can be drawn so as to circumscribe a rectangle of sides 'a' and 'b'.4 Find the points on the curve ax2 + 2bxy + ay2 = c .1) (t . Determine the constants a.8 y .EXERCISE-III Q.10 out of 200] Find the normals to the ellipse (x2/9) + (y2/4) = 1 which are farthestfrom its centre. [JEE '98. a 2 . the range of m (b) is (A) [0.2 + 8] Q. therightangles of the triangl e coinciding with one of the angles of the rectangle. [JEE '99. b are some constants.2)3 (t . 5 Q.'f' has : X (A) 0 ' (B) 1 (C)2 Q. f(l)= 1 for all x f' (x) = (ii) 5 fhas a minimum val ue at x = . As b varies.6] Find the point on the straight line. a n <— and cot otj • cot a 2 cot a n = 1 is (A)^ (!§Bansal Classes ffl>£ (O^ Application of Derivative <> P1 [ JEE 2001 Screening. Then at x = 0. y=2 x +11 which is nearest to the circle. 16 (x2 + y2) + 32 x .and 2ax 2ax-l 2ax + b + l b b+1 -1 2(ax + b) 2ax + 2b +1 2ax + b Where a. 3 Q. 3] Find the co-ordinates of all the points P on the ellipse (x2/a2) + (y2/b2) = 1 for which the area of the triangle PON is maximum. How much sectorial area is to be removedfromthe sheet so that the vessel has maximum volume. 10(a) Let f(x) = (1 + b2)x2 + 2bx + 1 and let m(b) be the minimum value of f( x). [REE 2000 Mains.

[20J .

)] . 13(a) Let f (x) = x 3 + bx2 + cx + d. [JEE-03.2) and (a. 2-/5 ] (C)/(x) has local minima at x = 1 (D ) the value o f / 0 ) ./(1) = . [ JEE 2002 Mains.f" (x) in the interval [a.VX G n [JEE 2004 (Scr.6 and P(x) has maximum at x = .5marks each] (c) If/(x) is twice differentiable function such that /(a) = 0.1.x e [1.1 and P'(x) has minima at x = 1. [JEE 2005 (Mains). 3]theng(x)has (b)/(x) = 2 .14 If P(x) be a polynomial of degree 3 satisfying P(-l) = 10./(d) = 2. Then f (A) is bounded (B) has a local maxima (C) h as a local minima (D) is strictly increasing . P( 1) = ..6] % Bans aIClasses Application of Derivative [81 . Find the distance bet ween the local maximum and local minimum of the curve. where a < b < c < d < e . . 5 out of 60] Q. If / ( 2 ) = 18. .e x-e 2<x < 3 (A) local maxima at x = 1 + In 2 and l ocal minima at x = e (B) local maxima at x = 1 and local minima at x = 2 (C) no local maxima (D) no local minima [JEE 2006. where x = a is the point of local minima is 2 ^5 • (B)/(x) is increasing for x e [1.Q. _ 3x-(x + l) w (b) Prove that sin x + 2x > . w here O is the origin. . Ma ins-2 out of 60] (b) For a circle x2 + y2 = r2.5 ex 0 < x <1 x x_1 1 < x < 2 andg(x) = Jf(t)dt . if any used). as L varies. find the value of'r' for which t he area enclosed by the tangents drawnfromthe point P(6.15(a) If/(x) is cubic polynomial which has local maximum at x = . [JEE 2006. an are positive real numbers whose product is a fixed num ber e. thenfindthe minimum number of ze ros of g(x) = (f' (x))2 + f (x).1 and / ( x ) has local maxima at x = 0. 11 (a) If a.8) to the circle and the chord of contact is maximum. 4 out of 60] Q. then (A) the dis tance between (-1.2) and cuts the positive coordinates ax es at points P and Q. the minimum value of a./(b) = 2. Find the absolute minimum value of OP + OQ. is minimum. 12(a) Find a point on th e curve x2 + 2y2 = 6 whose distancefromthe line x + y=7./(e) = 0. [JEE-03. [JEE 2004. Mains-2 out of 60] Q. e]. aj./(c) = l.4 out of 60] Q. + aj + a3 + + an l + 2an is (A)n(2e)1/n (B)(n+l)e 1/n (C)2ne1/n (D)(n+l)(2e)1/n [JEE 2002 Screening] (b) A straight line L with ne gative slope passes through the point (8. (Justify the inequality. 0 < b2 < c./(a)).

A N S W E R T A N G E N T & K E Y N O R M A . 2 ) (b) I in (1.3 (4. N:2x + y = 0 Q.3 / 4 .16 a = .y = 2 ( V 3 .9 (a) n = .3 Q.l 1/9 n m/min Q.l TO EXERCISE-I (a) I in (2.4D Q.m-> co.8 x + 2y = 7t/2 & x + 2y = -37r/2 Q.2) & D in(-00..23 0 = tan_1 — mV m V 2 EXERCISE-II Q. c = 3 Q.oo) & Din ( ..y . 4 80 24ti Q.2 (i) 6km/h (ii) 2 km/hr Q.14 (a) r = (1 +1)1/4. 288u Q.14 Q.1) (c ) I in(0.2 Q.22 (b) a .b = a' .-31/3) Q.12a=l Q.m = 1/3] T : x .15 (a) 5. cm/sec Q.20 2ex 1 x+2 .2 V2 x + y .8 .2 V 2 = 0 M O N O Q.5 Q. L EXERCISE-I Q.00.ll -7 cm/sec.b' Q.4 y = 1 i f t * l.or . (b) 2 7 EXERCISE-III Q.7 0.8 — cm/s Q.25 Q.< x < 0 & D for x < . x-4y = 2 Q. (b) t = 80 Q.6 1/48 71 cm/s Q.4 3/8 n cm/min Q.00) & D in ( .l 2V3 x .5 D Q.l 0 = tan -1 42 V Q.9 2007tr 5 /(r + 5) 2 km 2 /h m/min.0 0 .7 Q.12 (a)Q. 0) u (0.1/2 .7 x= 1 whent= l.l ) or 2V3 x + y = 2(V3 + l) Q. (b)5 m/min.or 0 < x < w 2 2 2 2 Q.IO 66 V 2 4ti Q.2 Q. 5 x .0) u(2.11) & (-4. b .05 cm/sec Q .02.2 (0.2 y = 0 .1) Q.3 Q.3 D N O C I T Y Q.5 1 + 36 7t cu.2 V2 = 0 or ^ x .oo) (d) I for x > -J..

1 ) u [2. 7t] Q. ti/6) u (tc/2 . 3 ti/2)] 7 1 31 7 7 t J continuous but not diff. (b) least value is equal to (l/e)1/e.3) Q.27t/3) & decreasing in [0 .00) Q.oo) Q. at x= 1 [l. n e l I 4' 4 4 I 4 (a) I in [0. .14 t in (3. 2mt + — I. 7 7t/4) (b) I in [0 . (c) 2 &-10 a e (-oo.(2+V5 j or a > V? Q. 2 tt] & D in (3tt/4 . tt/2) u (5ti/6.15 (6.6 a < .oo) Q.2mn u 2mt—.2 71] & D in (tt/6 .10 Q.-3]u[l.xe 2n7c + — . no gre atest value.1 3 0<a< — Q.16 a>0 % Bans aIClasses Application of Derivative [81 .2n7i uf2mr + 71.12 increasing in x e (tt/2 . 3t i/4) u (7tt/4 .(7i/3)-(l/2)/n3.00) and I in (1.7 . 3] (a)(7r/6)+(l/2)/n3. 5tx/ 6) u (3tc/2 . n/2) u (27t/3.ll [ .

oo.5 Pmax = a | 1 + coseca 2J Q.6 a = 3. 0). Min.00 -{-3} .17 (a) ( . at x = 1 (infinite type) (e)-2 Q.IO 4^2 m Q.17 a = 1. 3x .21 (a) (-1.(b) D Q.4y + 9 = 0 Q.6 (a) A.3 f (x) = x3 + x2 .24 r = Va . f(l) = 0.oo.r 5 ^ Q. units Q. height 10' Q.2/a.5/6).15 32 sq.9 3x + 4y .5x .14 side 10'.at x = 7/5.19 width 2 V3 m. b = 4 and m = 1 Q. at x=-3 (missing point) and non removable discont. (c) x = .6 75 73 sq..l ( . 0) u (0.20 | a — b j Q. (-1. . 5/6).4(a) A. (b) t in 1 a n d I in (-oo. b = 0 Q. at x = 0. y = ^ | d Q.13 6/(6 + 71) Q.y x5 + 2x 4 2A 'ti + 4 ' S 2A Vn + 4 Q.x + 2 Q.2 C Q. (0.MINIMA EXERCISE-I Q.x). 0] .24. ( b ) x = .2 max.l Q.7 c = -m'° + n a which lies between a & b m+n y = .l Q. (c)C (a) D . ( b) C Q.ll (a)D Q.9 and y = 5x + 11 Q . F " (x) = 2x .1. f(7 /5) = -108/3125 (a) Max at x = 2 n. Min value = 0 (b) Max at x-n/6 & also at x = 5 n/6 and Max value = 3/2. Min at x = 7t/2.2/3). oo) Q. oo).3 Q.1).^ .l)u -.4 f(x)= | x6 . Mi n value = .at x = l .25 (b-a) 3 /4 EXERCISE-II Q. a/3) Q. (e) x = 1/2 Q.C.9 = 0 .16 0 = 60° Q. Max value = 2 IT. (b) cos(j cos"1 p MAXIMA. (1.5 (a)B.7 A Q.7 r= Q. 70* Q. (d) (0.(b)D.22(a)x = y = ^ . 0 = 2 radians Q. units Q.ll l/n cum Q.23 6' x 18' Q 25 ' 173 % Bans aI Classes Application of Derivative [81 . decreasi ng (0. length 3 V3 m Q. 0) u (1. (b) F ' (x) = (x2 .9 Q.18 0 EXERCISE-1II Q. (d) removable discont. (c) increasing (. min.12 110'.

o .— and no'minima.14 m e '4VY/3 vV3y \_ r 32' 16.7t.EXERCISE-III Q. (c) maxima at x = — and .2) Q. Q. .8 Q. local min.3) u (3 .8 -3/2 < A.19 Q.l * sq.it. units Q.5 Q.l (a) 0.0.9 2ab Q. (b) A Q. (c) does not exist. 0) u (2.be(-oo. value = 2 (b) concave up for ( .24 2V2-I EXERCISE-IJI Q.V2).1).9 a = .13 (0.23 (a) increasing in (0.—.7 (-9/2. of inflection x = 1 6 Q... D. b = 4 .17 ( . va lue = 0 and local max.2 (a) B. 2 .~ and b e -oo.12 4 Q.IO (a) f is continuous at x = 0.4 (0. 2n. distance = 4 Q.29/7) Q.16 * 4 Q.20 L/4 Q.18 H = x = Q.ll (a) A.j . 3. (b) a = . Q. does not exist.12 (a) (2.2 cos A .oo. (2 + V2) o o (c)f(x)=|e2x-x2 Q.c ) Q.4 (a) B.<3/2 Q.21 71 (c+a-b)(a + b .6 p < a < y ^ + p if p > 0 .— or a= 1. 0.<0U0<A. t = In 4 Q.— . o ) and concave down in (2 .+ p < a < p i f p < 0 1 f Q.V2) u (2 + V2. f(x) (x2 . (c) . (b) no i nflection point. Q. (b) 5 Q. (b) 18 .6 ± V 3 x ± V 2 y = V 5 Q.1) Q.ll 71 3it (a) x = . (b) . (e) n in 2 f 37C 7t Q. ^ .2) & max. .5x + 8) 4 4 Q. ( d) pt.27t. oo).3 Q. (d) x = — and x = .8 & i2(a + b) ' y ( + ) 2a bJ ± -f A V2(a+b)' y 2(a+b).0) Q.2) and decreasing in (-oo.IO (a) D.

Q. (b) A. C.13 (a)D Q. (c) 6 solutions (!§Bansal Classes Application of Derivative [20J . B.14 4^65 Q-15 (a) B.

CONCEPTS SUGGESTED EXERCISE ANSWER-KEY .BANSAL CLASSES TARGET IIT JEE 2007 MATHEMATICS XII (ABCD) BOOLEAN ALGEBRA CONTENTS KEY.

such statements are c alled conditional statements and are denoted by p -» q read as 'p implies q'. if it cannot be broken down into two or more sentences. and or not If then If then only if pA q pv q (~P) V ( ~ q ) p (~ q) ~ — > p -> q ~P . 4. New statements that can be formed by combining two or more simple st atements are called sub-statements or component statements of the compound state ments. Table (to be remembered) S. we say that its truth value is TRUE or T a nd if it is false we say that its truth value is FALSE or F. is denoted by S (p. 5.KEY CONCEPTS Mathematical logic is the science of reasoning. Compound statements : A statement is said to be simple.. Three basic connectives (logical) are 3. Basic logical connectives: The words which combine simple statements to f orm compound statements are called connectives. 4.q. Connective Nature ofthe compou nd statement formed by the Connective. To define a set of connectives w ith definite meanings in the language of logic is called object language. 5. 3. 2.No. Object language (i) (ii) (iii) 6. Basic Concepts: A statement is a sentence which is either true of false but not both simultaneously. Conjuction Disjunction negation implicati on or conditional equivalence or biconditional Symbol Symbol^ . 2. The compound statement S consisting of sub statements p. 1. " p if and only if q " such statements are called bi-conditional statements and are denoted by p o q . It is a process by which we arri ve at a conclusion from known statements or assertions with the use of valid ass umption which is known as Laws of Logic. r.). Conjuction Disconjuction negation English word and or not Symbol A v ~ Conditional and Bi-conditional stetements: " If p then q". Truth value of statement: If a statement is true. q. A fundamental property of a compound statements is that its t ruth value is completely determined by the truth value of each of its sub statem ents together with the way in which they are connected to form the compound stat ement. form A V Negation 1. r..

BansatClasses Boolean Algebra [2] .(~p) A (~ q) p) = p A [ p A ( ~ q ) ] v [ q A ( ~ p ) ] <-> p^q tH.

. and S2 are said to be duals of each other if one can be obainedfromother by replacing A by v and v by A . q.. r. q. Analogously a statement is said to be a contradi ction if it is false for all logical possibilities. q and r are thr ee statements then.. . (a) p v (q A r) = (p v q) A (p v r) (b) p A (q v r) S (p A q ) v (p A r) tH.. A straight forward method to determine whether a given statement is tautology (or contradiction) is to const ruct its truth table. Idempotent laws : If p is any statement then (a) p v p = p (b) p A p = p 2. r) be a compound statement consisting of sub statements p. We denote tautology by T and contradiction by 'C'. q.(p -> q) A (q->p) ~ (p q) = ( p A . then (a) p v q s q v p (b) p A q = q A p 4. r. r. q.) and S2 (p. Logical equivalence: Two statements S.•q) V (~p (Condition al statement) (Negation of Conditional statement) (Contrapositive of Conditional statement) (Bicond statement) (Negation of Biconditional statement) A q) Duality: Two compound statements S.. q and r are any three statements. r. etc... r. (p. or simply equivalent if they have the same truth values for all logical possibilities and denoted by S.. q..Bans at Classes Boolean Algebra [3] . then (a) p v (q v r) = (p v q) v r (b) p A (q A r) = (p A q) A r 3. The connections A and v are called duals of each other..... Example: (1) Constru ct the truth table for [ p A (~ p) ] P ~ P [PA P)] T F F F T F (2) (i) Construct truth table for (i) p A q p q pAq T ^ T * * j^ T F F F T F F F F 1 and (ii) p v q (ii) p q T F F T F F p v q T T F Tautologies and contradiction: A statement is said to be tautology if it is true for all logical possibilities. (p..) Note: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) p -> q = ( ~ p ) v q ~ ( p -> q) s p A (--q) p -> q s ( ~ q) -> p) p <-> q . Distributive Laws: If p.) = S2 (p. etc.) are said to be logically equivalent. Algebra of statements: 1. Associative laws : I f p. r. is by m eans of a table called the truth table for the statement S... Commutative laws: If p and q are two statements.. q.Truth table: Let S(p. A simple concise way to show the relationship between the tru th table of S and the truth values of its substatements p... q..

The symbols 0 and 1 not necessarily represent the numbers zero and one but elements are cal led zero elements and unit elements.) (Associative law of +) (Associative law of.'.' are not ordinary addition and multiplication.) (Commutative law of+) (Commutat ive law of. A and (j) play the roles of 1 and 0. c is a contradiction and p is any statement. and the operationplays the role ? 11 For P(A). z) (IV) (V) There exists elements denoted by 0 and 1 in B.5."'. the re exists an element denoted by x'.'is said to be a Boolean Algebra if the following axioms hold: (I) For all x. The tautology t and the contradiction C play the roles of 1 and 0.) (Distributive law of. namely set B. 7. the set of all subsets of a set A. z) (a) (b) x + (y. in B such that (a) x + x' = 1 (b) x . (y + z) = (x. Identity laws: If p is any statement. called the component or negation of x. x' = 0 (Complement law) Here'+' and '. 2.'. These are simply operations. y and z in B (a) (x + y) + z = x + (y + z) (b) (x . '.(x + z) x . y).BansatClasses Boolean Algebra [4] . = c (c) ~ t = c (d) ~ c = t Involution law: If p and q be any t wo statements then ~ p) = p Definition: A non empty set B together with two operations generally denoted by '+' and '.'respectively. 6. the complement operation''' and the two special elements 0 and 1. y = y. 0. Such that for all x e B . th e operations v and A play the roles of'+'and'. For the set S of all logical statements. the n (a) p v t = t (b) p A t = p (c) p v c = p (d) p A c = c Complement laws: If t is tautology. x (Closure property for +) (Closure property for.'. (VI) * Important points: 1. y) + (x . 1 = x (1 is identity for. 3. tH. y e B (a) x+y=y+x (b) x . over +) (II) (III) For all x. (y. z = x. y e B (a) x+y e B (b) x. the operations u and n play th e roles of '+' and'. and complementation plays the role of " ' . (a) x+ 0= x (0 is identity for +) (b) x.) For each x e B. Boolean algebra is designated as (B. z) = (x + y). t is tautology and c is contradiction.'+'.) (Distributive law of + over. y e B For all x. then (a)p v (~ P ) = t (b)p A (~ P ).1) in ord er to emphasise it six parts. the two binary operations '+' and '.

Theorem 1 :In a Boolean algebra 0 and the unit element 1 are unique. Concept of duality as defined in mathematical logic is same here. d and f. S 3 .' is used for A . .... the only dif ference between the two is of notations as '+' is used for v . Switches p closed closed open open closed open c losed open q Switches p and q are in parallel..S n . x = x (b) x + 1 = 1 (b') x . . Lamp State on off off off Switches P closed cl osed open open closed open closed open q Lamp State on on on off If we replace the words 'closed' and 'on' by the word 'True (or T)' and words 'o pen' and 'off by the word 'False (or F)' then the tables becomes truth table for logical experiment p A q and p v q respectively. Theorem 2: Let B be a Boole an algebra. b'. ' 2 ' S n true. Then for any x and y in b we have. S 2 .. S 2 .. The statemen t S is called the comclusion and the statements S.Principal of duality: The dual of any statement in a boolean algebra B is the st atement obtained by interchanging the elements 0 and 1 in the original statement . S 3 . S). An argument consisting of the hypothesis S.. Arguments and their validity: An argumen t is the assertion that statement S. 0 is used for contradiction c and 1 used for the tautology!:..Sn We denote the argument by (S..y' (f')(x. S.y) = x (c) x.... S 2 . 1 .BansatClasses Boolean Algebra [5] .'..... S 2 .. Principle of Dua lity: Dual of any theorem in Boolean algebra is also a theorem.. tH. d' and f ' are duals of a... In the language of logic we us e symbols 1 and 0 to represent T and F. switch q Lamp / R " Switches p and q are in series.. c'. (a) x + x = x (a') x. b . ' are Application of Boolean algebra to switching circuits: switch P —9 0 switch q 0 -switch P . Sn are called hyp othesis. 0 = 0 (c) x + (x...y)' = x'+y' Note that a'. Sn and conclusio n S is said to be valid if S is true whenever all S.. follows from other statements. (x + y) = x (d) 0' = 1 (d')l' = 0 (e)(x')' = x (f)(x + y)' = x'.. c.

. . } be a Boolean algebra an d Xj. Note: We denote a Boolean expression X in x.. x 2 . xn are all Boolean expression.xn are definedrecursivley as follows: (I) 0...... These type of tables are called input/output tables with input as all possible v alues in bits of the switches p.. .. x 2 1 0 0 0 . Xj. Definition 2: Let {B. x 2 . p A q Switches p and q are in parallel.x ) = X(x . 0 . q etc..e. .. i.BansatClasses Boolean Algebra [6] . 1 . x . y (or x A y) are also Boolean expressions. + .. Then a function f of the form f(x.) 1. x 2 . t hen (a) x' (b) x + y(orx v y) (c) x .... discunjuction and negation respectively with T = 1 and F = 0... i.. . xn are in B. .. . x 2 . x 2 ....0 = 0 FA F=F The NOT operation '.Switches p 1 1 0 1 q 1 0 1 1 Lamp State 1 0 0 1 Switches p 1 1 q 1 0 Lamp State 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Switches p and q are in series. xn) be a boolean expression in .1.' on the set of bits {0. (II) If x and y are Boolean expressions. x2 e {0...0 = 0 T A F=F 0.x 7 .e.... ' . The input / output tables for these gates are similar to the truth t ables of conjuction.1=0 F A T=F 0. Three basic gates : Gates are circuits constructe d using solid state devices. x2.xn .' on the set {0. X] ) is called a Boolean function. in Xj. and output as the corresponding values i n bits of their outcome. Definition: An AND gate is a Boolean function defined by f (x p x?) = x.. which are capable of switching voltage levels ( bit s 0 and 1). .. We define the logical operations '+' and '. 1} is defined by 0'= 1 as ~ F = T and 1' = 0 as ~T = F. Then Boolean expressions tH. xn by X( x. .1} In DUt 1 1 0 0 x2 1 0 1 0 Output x1 .. p v q .1} by Operation 1+ 1 = 1 1+0 = 1 0+1 = 1 0+0=0 OR (+) T v T=T T v F= T F v T=T Fv F=F Operation AND (. X2.1 = 1 T A T=T 1... xn) Definition 3: Let X(x..x2 Xj.. ..

1} In D t U Output Xl 1 1 0 0 X2 1 0 1 0 + x2 1 1 1 0 Definition: An NOT gate is a Boolean function defined by f(x) = x' Input NOT x. In D t U Output x2 1 0 1 0 Si 0 0 0 1 Xt 1 1 0 0 In DUt x2 1 0 1 0 .e. Which is the input to the NOT gate which yields output 1 i.e. x. S = 1.1} X 0 1 Output X' 0 1 x-r XROR (1) NOT (2) In the circuit (1): In a circuit if the output S is uniquely defined for each co mbination of inputs x.. Therefore we conclude that output S is not uniquely defined. Definition: Two combinatorial circuits are equivalent if their in put/output tables are identical.Definition: An OR gate is a Boolean function defined by f (x. x2 e {0. = 1 a nd x2 = 0 then the inputs to the AND gate are 1 and 0 and so the output of the A ND gate is 0 .. x2 e {0. But the diagram states that x2 = S i.. + x2 x. Such a circuit is said to be combinatorial c ircuit or combinatorial circuit. x2and x 3 . Such a circuit is not a combinat ional circuit. x2) = x. 0 = 1 a contradiction. In the circuit (2): We observe that if x..OR NOT s.

BansatClasses Boolean Algebra [7] .Xl 1 1 0 0 Output S2 0 0 0 1 tH.

Let B be a Boolean algebra. x2') + x2 ' Write the Boolean expression for the following input/output table. for any x and y in B. x2') + x 3 ). (~ p) -> (~ q ) (ii) p ^ q .2 } . S 3 : q p » Q3. x. x2) . Q 5. . X3) } + X3 { x . (p A q) v ( ~ P A (~ q) ) Examine the validity ofthe folloiwng ar guments: (i) Sj : p -> q .BansatClasses Boolean Algebra [8] . + . y + y (ii) x = 0 if and only if y = x. ( y + l ) = x Constr uct truth tables for the following (i) [p v (~p) A q)] -> q (ii) p A (q r) (iii) [p A r) -» (q v r) Which ofthe following are equivalent ? (i) p q . S 2 : q ^ p . Show that (B . t) is a Boolean Algebra. S:r Q7.(j>}. Construct an input output table for each of the following Boolean Algebra functi ons: (i) f (x. C . x 2 . n . ' . p' = ~p for all p. . tH. ' .2 }) is a Boolean Algebra. Let B = { {1} .... S2 : p v q .y for all y "(iii) x + x.x2) {x. Let L be set of all logical statemen ts. u . {1..y + x'.y' + x'. {2}. Then .SUGGESTED EXERCISE Ql. Show t hat it is a Boolean function and also draw its arrow diagram.(x. Q2. . Q8. {1. + (x 2 '. (j). + ( x 2 ' . Q4. q = p A q . x3) = ((x.+(x1'. : [ p A (~ q) ] — r . Define operations '+'. S : p v q (ii) S . q E L where v . Q6. p . prove (i) (x + y). A has usual meaning in mathematical logic. (x + 1) = x + x . x 3 ) } + x. '. Input Output x3 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 x2 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 S 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 Q 9.' (ii) f (x. Find the combinatorial circuit corresponding to the following Boolean expression s: (i) (ii) (iii) x. Show th at (L.' and " ' b y p + q = p v q .

.

show that above polynom ial is equivalent to C(A+ B') and construct an equivalent switching circuit.Q10. C represent three switches in an on position and A'. i. then construct a network for the polynomial A BC + AB'C + A'B'C. Using the laws of the Booean algebra.BansatClasses Boolean Algebra [9] .y = of y = x' tH. rq' If A. Construct the network f or the simplified circuit. . B' and C' represen t the switches in an off position. Draw the circuit which realizes the function a A [(b v d1) v (c' A (a v d v c')] A b Write the Boolean expression corresponding to the following switching circu it. Simplify the combinational circuit: not>ON0T>OOR Q16. ^. Q13. b e B x. Q15. a. prove that x + y = lj x.yeB Q12. q q Q14. b in a Boolean algebra. For each x in a Boolean Algebra B. Prove Demorgans Laws for any elements a. Use laws of Boolean algebra to simplify the circuit. B.e. prove (i) (a + by = a' b' (ii) (ab)' = a' + V Simplify (i) { [ (a' A b')' v c] A (a v c)} ' (ii) (x A y) v [ (x v y ' ) A y]' where B is a Boolean algebra Qll.

(i) T T F F T F T T P T T T T (ii) F F F F T T F F T T F F q r T F T F T F T F T F T T T F T T P A(q->r) T F T T F F F F (iii) P T T T T F F F F T T F F T T F F q r T F T F T 1 F T F .ANSWER KEY p q T F I F ~P F F T T ~p A q F F T F pv (~p T T T F A q) p v (~p A q) -> q Q4.

Yes Xl 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Xl Q6.> ( q v r ) T T T F T T T T Q5.X'2 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 (x 1 . x ' 2 ) + x 3 ) . xS 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1X2 1 0 0 0 ( x v x 2 )' + x 2 1 1 1 1 © 1 1 0 0 tH.BansatClasses Boolean Algebra [10] .x' 2 ) + x 3 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 X'l 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 ( ( x 1 .~r F T F T F T F T p A (~ r) F T F T F F F F qv r T T T F T T T F (PA ~r) . No. (ii) invalid X3 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 X x'2 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 (xvx2)' 0 1 1 1 X-|. *2 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 x2 1 0 1 0 (i) invalid.

(i) (ii) (iii) Qll. (i) (a' A c').Q8. • x2' • x3' + x. f (x) = x. V V Q13.(ii) 1 b Q12.BansatClasses Boolean Algebra [11] . A B* \ x . • x2 • x3 + x.N0j>O— T tH. . + x2 A A' B' B' c" c" xr Q15.' • x2' • Arrow Diagram Q9. pq + r ( r ' + q)(p' + r q ' ) Simplified form: pq + qr q r B C Q14. X.

: : VECTORS & 3-D CONTENTS KEY... : v.BANSAL CLASSES TARGET IIT JEE 2007 MATHEMATICS XII (ABCD) :. : :: " .CONCEPTS EXERCISE-I EXERCISE-II EXERCISE-III EXERCISE-IV ANSWER KEY .

COLLINEAR VECTORS Simbolically. A vector is ge nerally represented by a directed line segment. It is denoted by O.which has the same initial & terminal point. a=Kb . where OC is the diagonal of the parallelogram OACB. v.. If they have the same direction they are named as like vectors otherwise un like vectors. then the position vector of a point P is the vector OP • If a & b & position vectors of two point A and B. SECTION FORMULA : m(a + b) = ma + mb If a & b are the position vectors of two points A & B then the p. Note p. ZERO VECTOR UNIT VECTOR a vector of unit magnitude in direction of a vector a is called unit vector alon g a and is denoted by a symbolically a=— • two vectors are said to be equal if they have the sa me magnitude.. v. 2. POSITION VECTOR let O be a fixed origin. . of mid point oi AB = a + b . DEFINITIONS: A VECTOR CONCEPTS may be described as a quantity having both magnitude & direction. AB = b . then their sum a + b is a vect represented by OC .a = pvofB . n are n ( m a ) = (mn )a ( m + n ) a = 4. direction & represent the same physical quantity. VECTOR ADDITION : If or = 3. then . then: m ( a ) = (a)m = ma m ( n a ) = ma + na . The magnitude of vector AB is expressed by i AB ! • a vector of zero magnitude i. . A is called the initial point & B is called the terminal point. x ratio m: n is given by: . If a & b are vectors & m. This .na + mb . i s called a ZERO VECTOR. Note that "Two VECTORS A R E ALWAYS CO PLANAR". us is | m | times that of a.e. . two vectors a & b are represented by OA & OB . two non zero vectors a and b are collinear if and only if. r= m+n 2 ^Bansal then m a is a vector parallel to a whose modul multiplication is called SCALAR MULTIPLICATION scalars. of a point which divides AB in the t .pvofA. EQUAL VECTORS two vectors are said to be collinear if their directed line segments are paralle l disregards to their direction. a + b b + a (commutative) a + 0=a = 0 + a MULTIPLICATION OF VECTOR (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) (associativity) a +(-a)=0 = (-a)+a BY SCALARS : If a is a vector & m is a scalar. . where K e R COPLANAR VECTORS a given number of vectors are called coplanar if their line seg ments are all parallel to the same plane. Collinear vectors are also called PARALLEL VECT ORS. say AB .KEY 1.

Classes Probability [2] .

8.a) wheretisaparameter. where x + y + z = 0. projection of a o ^ . if& o nly if there exist scalars x.i = j.i = 0 (-a • xy b b and perpendicular to b = a 2 v b j a. y. ao cos a = 1 -! i r 5 cos p=~-2 > cos r = 1 J r • > (3=7^Note tha t.c respectively are collinear.b=b. xa + yb + zc = 0. b & r = a + p c i s : r = 5 +1 (b + c) & r = a + p ( c .DIRECTION COSINES : Let a = aji + a 2 j + a 3 k the angles which this vector makes with the +ve dire ctions OX.b + a.b.b = aj =a n b = A A A la! cos 9(0 < 9 < rt).b 0<<|><7t A A A A A Note: That vector component of a along b = .b = 0<=>a±b i.a (commutative) a. SCALAR PRODUCT OF TWO VECTORS : a. note that if 9 is acute then a. jbi A A A & if 9 is obtuse then a.a=| .OY & OZ are called DIRECTION ANGLES & their cosines are called the DIR ECTION COSINES .b ) .k = 1 .b > 0 I |2 7 " a. f = a + t(b .b < 0 — — a . z not all zero simultaneously such that .a. r = a +1 b Note that the equations of the bisectors of the angles between the lines r = a + A .c (distributive) (a*0 b*0) A i.j = j.B. (b + c) = a.C with position vectors a. TEST OF COLLINEARITY : Three points A.j = k. If the line passes through the point A(a) & is parallel to the vector b then its equation is.k = k. cos2 a + cos213 + cos2 F = 1 a aI la Figure B (B VECTOR EQUATION OF A LINE : Parametric vector equation of a line passing through two point a a A(a) & B(b) is given by.

2 + b 2 2 + b . b = a .a •b V o / the angle d between a & b is given by cos<|) A A A if a = a1i + a 2 j + a 3 k & |aj= Y a i 2 Note (i) (ii) + a — — • b = bji+ b 2 j + b3k then a. 22 + a j _i Maximum value of a .bj + a2b2 + a3b3 b ^ b.| a | Classes lb Probability <!§Bansal [3] .b = a. b = [ a I I b | Minimum values of a . b = .

such that (i) | c | = yja2b2 -(a-b) 2 (ii) c • a = 0. b & n forms a right handed screw system . VECTOR PRODU CT OF TWO VECTORS : If a&b are two vectors & 9 is the angle between them then a x b = |a sin 9n (0 where n is the unit vector perpendicular to both a&b such that a .b) 2 = Formula tion of vector product in terms of scalar product: The vector product a x b is t he vector c . (ii) (iii) or Lagranges Identity: for any two vectors a & b. Bi sector ofthe exterior angle between a&b is X (a . b ^ 0) i. Hence l l |b| a bisector of the angle between the two vectors g&b is X (a + bj. where X e R+.b a.b (iii) a. X e R+ . jxk = i. (distributive) (ma) x b = a x (mb) = m(a x b) ax(b + c ) = (axb) + (axc) ^ ixi = j x j = kxk = 0 (v) ix j = k. ij i + (a . area of the parallelogram whose two adjacent sides are (vi) (vii) Unit vector perpendicular to the plane of a & b is n = ± axb axb (a x b j A vector of magnitude 'r' & perpendicular to the palne of a & b is ± y — ax b If 9 is the angle between a&b then sin 9 = axb lal b <!§Bansal Classes Probability [4] .b j . kj k . axb bxa ( n o t commutati ve) where m is a scalar .(axb)2 =|a|~|b| -(a. a b A v ector in the direction of the bisector of the angle between the two vectors a&b is pr + pr.(iii) (iv) Any vector a can be written as . a = (a . c form a right handed system (iv) ®°axb = 0 o a & b are parallel (collin ear) (a * o. 5 • b =0 and a. b. where K is a scalar.a a.e. 9. jj j + (a .b b. kxi = j A A A i j k y v A / v — ~ t If a = aji + a 2 j + a 3 k & b = bji + b 2 j + b3k then axb a l a 2 a 3 bj b2 b3 Geometrically axb represen ted by a & b . a = Kb .

c=|a|b |c| s in0 cos<j> where© is the angle between a & b &<|> is the angle between axb&. ) If two lines are given by r. (b .V = [a b c ] In a scalar triple product the po sition of dot & cross can be interchanged i.e.e. or bx(a2 . [ a b c ] = .cIt is also defined as [a b c ] . 1 + a2m + a3n . SHORTEST DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO LINES : If two lines in space intersect at a point . b = b j + b2m + b3n & c = c. + Kb & r2 = a.b & c are the pv's of 3 points A.e. Lines which do not intersect & are also not parallel are called SKEW LINES. (pxq) pxq i.1 ?L2 In general . The two lines directed along p & q will intersect only if shortest distance = 0 i. B & C are collinear if axb + bx c + cxa = 0 Area of any quadrilateral whose diagonal vectors are d & d . b & c is defined as : axb.=> (b-aj p q = 0 . + Kb i.a ) .b & c i. they ar e parallel then. The mag nitude of the shortest distance vector would be equal to that of the projection of AB along the direction of the line of shortest distance.e.(b x c ) = (a x b ). spelled as box product.(cxb) i. Scalar triple product geomet rically represents the volume ofthe parallelopiped whose three couterminous edge s are represented by a .(pxq) = 0 i.e. If a = aji + a 2 j + a 3 k .a . a. is give n by 1 dj xd2 10. 1 + c2m + c3 n a l a 2 . 2. (pxq) pxq 1. 11. = a. then obviously the shortest distance between them is zero. if a = a.e (b-a). d = SCALAR TRIPLE PRODUCT / BOX PRODUCT / MIXED PRODUCT : The s calar triple product of three vectors a. LM is parallel to p x q AB . (bxc) = -a. LM = Projection of AB on LM Projection of AB on pxq ( b .c OR [ a b c ] = [ b c a ] = [ c a b ] a .aj lies in the plane containing p & q .(viii) Vector area If a . For Skew lines the dire ction of the shortest distance would be perpendicular to both the lines.e. b = bji + b 2 j + b3k & c = Cji + c 2 j + c3k then [a b c] = b2 b3 C[ c 2 c 3 3. B & C then the vector area o f triangle ABC = 1 axb + bxc + cxa The points A.[ a c b ] A A A A A / V A A A — * b.

where 1.a 3 then |abc t>i b2 b3 Cj c2 c3 Trnnj . rh & n are non coplanar vectors . = <!§Bansal Classes Probability [5] . If a . c are coplanar < > [a b c] = 0 . b .

b . (b) FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM I N SPACE : Let a . c be any three vectors.b be nonzero. Note that this is also the point of concurrency of the lines joining the vertices to the centroids ofth e opposite faces and is also called the centre of the tetrahedron. a x (b x c) = xb + yc where x & y are scalars . c. b. can be uniquily expressed as a linear combination of a . There exist some unique x. Then any vector r coplanar with a.y e R such that xa + yb=r . Then any vector r.y e R such that xa + y b + z c = r . (a) then the vector r = xa + yb + zc + e R. GEOMETRICAL INTERPRETATION OF ax(bxc) Consider the expression a x (bx c) which itself is a vector.e.b . Now a x ( b x c ) is a vector perpendicular to the plane containing a & (b x c) but b x c is a vector perpendicular to the plane b & c . b)c (a x b) x c # a x (b x c) 13.b i. * a x (b x c) = (a . B and C bei ng a . Note : If a .( b .Scalar product of three vectors.b can be expressed uniquely as a linear combination of a. combinatio n of a. b & c respectively is given by V = — [a b c] 6 cir " The positon vector of the centroid of a tetrahedron if the pv's of its angular v ertices are a . [a bc] = 0. c. c)b (a . c )a FUNDAMENTALTHEOREM I N PLANE : Let a.e.b . b. c ) b . We have the following results : iscalleda linear for any x. y. c & d are given by ~ [a + b + c + d]. then the expression a x ( b x c ) is a vector & is called a vector triple product. or [i j k] = 1 [Kabc] = K[abc] ® = [ (a + b) c d] = [a c d] + [b c d] The volume of the tetrahedron OABC with O as origin & the pv's of A. c are non . z ( a x b ) x c = ( a . non collinear vectors.c i. There exist some unique x. In case the t etrahedron is regular it is equidistantfromthe vertices and the four faces ofthe tetrahedron. therefore a x (b x c) is a vector lies in the plane of b&c and per pendicular to a . Remember that a-b b-c c-a 0 & a+b b+c c+a = 2 a b c *12. VECTOR TRIPLE PRODUCT : Let a .e. b. b. LINEAR COMBINATIONS / Linearly Independen ce and Dependence of Vectors : Given a finite set of vectors a. two of which are equal or parallel is 0 i. Hence we can express ax ( b x c ) in terms of b & c i.e. <!§Bansal Classes P robability [6] . since it is a cross product of two vectors a & (b x c).c be non-zero. non-coplanar vectors in space.coplanar then [a b c] > 0 for right handed system & [a b c] < 0 for left handed system.

. j. + k 2 x 2 + + k n x n = 0 & if there exists at least one k * 0 then If a = 3i + 2j + 5k then a is expressed as a LINEAR COMBINATION of vectors i.e. i. x n are n non zero vectors.n=d is the gene ral equation of a plane. In general. & k. 14.x 2 . every set of four vectors is a linearly dependent system.x 2 . Angle between the 2 planes is the angle between 2 norma ls drawn to the planes and the angle between a line and a plane is the complimen . (a) (b) 17. if k . b. b'= _ . c.v. If three vectors a . b. if [a.. For KJI+K2j + K3k = 0 = > Kj = 0 = K 2 = K 3 . .b -c.•. RECIPROCAL SYSTEM OF VECTORS : If a.k2 = 0 kn are n scalars & if the linear combination k n = 0 then we say that vectors x . k • Also. B.c'=l two systems are called Reciprocal System o f vectors. axb a = r . b.r0 >. COPLANARITY OF VECTORS : Four points A.2xa . i. r0 where n is a vector normal to the plane.a'=b . Note : a r e LINEARLY INDEPENDENT VECTORS . ^ Two vectors a & b are linearly dependent => a is parallel to b i. x. w not all zero simultaneously such that xa+ yb+zc+wd=0 where.x 2 .b'.c' are two sets of non coplana r vectors such that a.e. then the vectors are linearly inde pendent. ?. k n x n = 0 => k.b . d respectively are coplanar if and only if there exist scalars x. k2. DEPENDENT vectors .x 2 .. [a. .n — 0 represents a plane containing t he point with p. x . c & a'.(c) If x. C. then they are coplanar i. c] * 0 . x + y + z + w=0. (a) (b) EQUATION OF A PLANE : The equation (r . k are LINEARLY LNDEPENDENT set of vectors. u. c] = 0. c'jSbcj abcj |abcj then the 16. X ^ T Note: . axb= 0 => li near dependence of a & b • Conversely if axb^O then a & b are linearly independent . x n are not LINEARLY INDEPENDENT then they are said to be LINEARLY x n are said to be LINEARLY DEPENDENT . D with position vectors a.e. 15. I5 js K form a linearly dependent set of vectors.c are linearly dependent. a. xn kjXj + k 2 x 2 + (d) If x j . j. . z. y. conversely. = 0. b.

APPLICATION OF VECT ORS : Work done against a constant force F over a displacement s is defined as W =F.s The tangential velocity V of a body moving in a circle is given by V = w x r where r is the pv of the point R —= j a \ i p / L. V <!§Bansal Classes Probability [482] .t of the angle between the line and the normal to the plane.

c's are /. Section Fomula m m2x1 + m 1 x 2 2Yl + m i Y2 m!+m 2 ' : m]+m 2 (For external div ision take -ve sign) —B (x2. note that d. z.. z) —!. m 2 . . y 2 .. z.. z. and z2 . form a (d) Moment ofthe couple = ( r . y? j z.r 2 ) x F where h & ?2 are pv's of the point ofthe application of the forces F & . z2) d= yl(x2-xl)2+(y2-y1)2+(z2-zrf (X|..e. m2 + n ..zb) 2 =0 n3 .) h ml ni note that if three lines are coplanar then (4) B (i) (ii) h h m2 m3 n y2 .z.. Any three numbers a. y.z. m. .m. l2 + m. y. n2 hence if l ines are perpendicular then /.) z= +nii z 2 mj +m 2 Direction Cosine and direction ratio's of a line (3) (a) Direction cosine of a l ine has the same meaning as d. y.. /2 + m .x. z2 are proportional to x 2 .y. m2 + nj n2 =0 U= m i = ni n if lines are parallel then l2 m 2 n 2 (x„ y.) and (x 2 . F & M rig ht handed system. . and l 2 . 3 -D COORDINATE GEOMETRY USEFUL R ESULTS A General: Distance (d) between two points (x. y 2 .F. b.. (b) If 9 is the angle between the two lines whose d . n.c's ofa vector. y. n2 cos9 = /. c proporti onal to the direction cosines are called the direction ratios i.(c) The moment of F about 'O' is defined as M = f x Fwherer is the pv of P wrt ' 0 \ The direction of M is along the normal to the plane OPN such that r .r's of a line joining x.) m2Zj (1) (2) A m i P(x. I _ m _ n _ 1 a b c _ Va2+b2+c2 same sign either +ve or -ve should be taken through out.y. and x 2 .

c's /. Equation of a plane passing through (x .z.) = 0 where a.. y. n Projection of the join of two points on a line with d.d. y.) PLANE General equation of degree one in x. is x y z h— +— =1 x i Yi z i Classes Vec tors [8/ (iii) Bansal . Equation of a plane if its interc epts on the co-ordinate axes are xl. n are / (x2 . m.) + c (z .) + n(z2 .e.) + b (y ..x. y.y.y. b. z. c are the dir ection ratios of the normal to the p l a n e .x.) is a (x .z.c's I. ax + by + cz + d = 0 represents a plane. z. z i. ) + m(y2 . m..

y2 .y 1 = z-zi I m n and the lines through (x.. » Line : r = a + A. and d2 a2"b2"c2 (vi) Angle between a plane and a line is the compliment of the angle between the norm al to the plane and the .2 + c (viii) Distance between two parallel planes ax + by + cz + dj = 0 and ax + by + cz + d2 = 0 is l"d2 V a + b 2 +c 2 2 d (ix) Planes bisecting the angle between two planes a.lnl" where 6 is the angle between the line and normal to the plane. one bisects the acute an d the other obtuse angle between the given planes.. b. z^ to a plane ax + by + cz + d = 0 is axj + byj + czj + d / .x + b2y + c2z + d2 = 0 are perpendicular if a} a7 + bj b.x^ + B(y . y-yi 2~ X 1 Y2~y\ Z 2~ Z 1 Intersection of t wo planes ajX + b. + Cj c2 = 0 parallel if coincid ent if a.x 1 = y .) and having directi on cosines I . x-xj _ y-yj _ z-zj is General equation of the plane containing the line / m n A (x .z. n = d c os(90-9)= sinG = b. 2 yj a2 +.z2) X-XI z-z. y. m.m.. z. n are x .b then Une.z ) = 0 where Al + bm + cn = 0 . (X) C (i) Equation of a plane through the intersection of two planes P.n 'line 9 plane bl. Vectors X (ii) (iii) &Bansal Classes [9] . _ c. (vii) / Length of the perpendicular from a point (Xj.Two planes aj x + bj y + CjZ + d} = 0 and a. y t .x + b.y + c t z + d. and P2 is given by P( + XP2 = 0 STRAI GHT LINE IN SPACE Equation of a line through A (Xj.lt pi a n e : f .. b .(iv) (v) Equation of a plane if the length of the perpendicular from the origin on the jJ ane is p and d. .) and (x2. n is /x + my + nz = p Parallel and perpendicular planes .y}) + c (z .y + CjZ + dj = 0 and a2 + b2y + c2z + d2 = 0 is given by a1x + b1y + c1z + d1 Vai + b f + c f + a 2 x + b2y + c2z + d 2 ^ a 2 +T L>2c? 12 b? + T Of these two bisecting planes. = 0 and a2x + b2y + c2z + d2 = 0 together repre sent the unsymmetrical form of the straight line. y.c's ofthe perpendicular as /.

.

non-pa rallel & intersecting.y.y) Bansal Classes Vectors [10 ] . respectively of a parallelogram PQR S. so that QX = 4XR & RY = 4 YS.r =|a| . A variable point 'P' lies on the tangent at A & OP = r. Let D be the mid point of OA. B (3. C (-3 . Prove that P Z = — PR. Q-10 and De(l -1. .2 (a) (b) Show that the points a .j + k) / . is the line through the point 'P' perpendicular to the line o f intersetion of the given plane with any horizontal plane.i 2z. z. Q.4 c & . (-6i + 4 j .7 b + 10c are collinear.l ) b . ( a points A=(x. Aline EF drawn parallel to the base BC of a AABC meets AB & AC in F & E respectively. Q.2b + 3c.LINE OF GREATEST SLOPE AB is the line of intersection of G-plane and H is the ho rizontal plane. . The line XY cuts the line PR at Z.j + k) (n) i = i . Using vector method prove that BD & CO intersect in the same ratio.find x&ysuchthat 3p = 2q.7). . b.7 Let OACB be paralelogram with O at the origin & OC a diagonal. Use vectors to show that AL bise cts BC.j + 3k + X (i .. ) s obtuse. If |b| = V2|a| show that the resultant of 2a & b is perpendicular to b. By vector method prove that the right bisectors of the sides of a triangle are concurrent. C = (2z. \ .aBd=(a j .4 Q. The vector OA is denoted by a. drawn through a given p oint on the plane.-2. Pro ve that the points A=(1. . {25 J Find out whether the following pairs of lines are parallel. 3x.= i + j + 2k + A (3i . . = i + k + X (i + 3j + 4k) r2 =2i + 3j + p (4i .-5) are collinear &findthe ra tio in which B divides AC.h = 2i + 4j + 6k + p (2i + j + 3k) (2\~\ Q.3 Points X & Y are taken on the sides QR & RS. Determine this ratio.2 x + 2)a + ( 2 x . 'O'is the origin of vectors and A is a fixed point on the circle of radi us'a'with centre O.3). Q. \ n (y.6 Q. Q.8 (a) (b) By vector method prove that the quadrilateral whose diagonals bisect each other at right angles isarhombous. r 2 =2i + j + 3k + p.5 Q.4.9 The resultant of two vectors a&b is perpendicular to a. p = (x + 4y)a + (2x + y + l)b & q = ( y . (i) i.y) & A s (x19y.3 y .2. If vectors of theAb)= (a'c). Line of greatest slope on a given plane.l If a&b are non collinear vectors such that.) d educe the equation of tangent at Ato this circle. (a^) = z). 3x).8 k ) r.2a + 3b .2j + 4k) .Hence if P = (x. BE & CF meet in L.2) respectively. a. or non-parallel & non-intersecting. EXERCISE-I Q. y. Showthat a. c and d are the position | a | = 2sl3. thenfindx.

21 (a) (b) If a + b + c = 0 .19 IfO is origin ofreference. Q.18 Given that u = i . a 2 a 3 b i b 2 b 3 C.j + 3k & .Q.ll If r and s are non zero constant vectors and the scalar b is chosen such that | r + b s | is minimum.20)k = 0. Q.12 Use vectors to prove that the diagonals of a trapezium having equal non par allel sides are equal & conversely.14 Given four non zero vectors a. (da) = a. D(a + b).20 (a) (b) Q.17 A A OAB is right angled at O . squares OALM & OBPQ are constructed on the sides O A and OB externally. C2 C3^ is orghogonal. BD. Q.2). Q.cos a ) . A triangle has vertices (1.(2 . Y is the point of intersection of OQ and DN where P. B(b).2. showthat axb=bxc=cxa .2 j + 3k .F(c + a). B. point A( a) . c and d. C. a. Also find the length XY such that X is the point of intersection of CM and GP. A A A _A 'b J Q.2 i + j . (db) = P then p rove that ( d c) = cos-1 (cos P . IfA. b = b1i + b 2 j + b3k and c = c } i+ c 2 j + c3k then prove that these points are vertices of a cube having length of its edge equal to unity provided the matrix. Q.20) j + (w • R .G(a + b + c) where / \ / — / V > V / \ A / / V V a = aji + a 2 j + a 3 k . in the o rder given.y + x. Q. D are any 4 points in space. then show that the value of jbsj2 +1 r + bs |2 is equal to | f | 2 . l. CW = x. squares ACXY.1). Show that the lines AP & BL intersect on the altitude throu gh 'O'.16 In the plane of a triangle ABC. M.y) and has the area equal to csc v4 j Find the value of y. Prove cosine & proj ection rule in a triangle by using dot product. N are respectivel y the midpoint of sides CF. Determine vector of magnitude 9 which is perpendicular to both the vectors: 4 i . BC WZ are described. CB = y • Prove that a. 13 (a) Find a unit vector a which makes a n angle (rc/4) with axis of z & is such that a+i + j is a unit vector.2 k fn sq.BX=0. Find the unknown vector R . Deduce that AW. Given that CX = b. The vectors a. Q. units. prove that ABx CD + BCx AD+ CAx BD =4 (area of triangle A BC).15 (a) (b) Use vectors to find the acute angle between the diagonals ofa cube.(1.w = i + 3j + 3k and ( u R -10)i + (v • R .C(c) . b.1.b = 0. externally to the triangle on AC & BC respectively. Q. CA = a . L ( af_ a bl (b) Prove that 2 1 b IJ I?' Q.E(b + c).b & c and (ab) = (be) = —. GF and OB. Probabili ty [486] .v = 2i + j + 4k . Deduce the Sine rule fora AABC. b & c are coplanar but not collinear pair by pair and vector d is not coplanar with vectors a .

<!§Bansal Classes .

B(b). a i + b j + ck (where a.Q.2). Point E and Fa re taken on the edges AD and BD respectively such that E divides DA and F divide s BD in the ratio 2:1 each. which is parallel to the vector.-b)2 (b. F. -1).22 The internal bisectors of des in D. E. The position vectors of the points A. C(c) are the vertices ofthe triangle ABC such that a = . .25 If the point R(r) is on the line.c . show that the vectors dj = i +a.-a)2 (c.. z2 and z3 such that Xj > 0 and y. then prove that. B. k and y. use vectors to by (2abc) A (a + b) (b + c) (c w h e r e A is t h e a r e a o " the angles of a triangle ABC meet the opposite si prove that the area of the triangle DEF is given + a) axb + bxd + dxa (b-a). y3) and O (0.s ) .7 k ) .0. Let (a. Can the given numbers satisfy x]x2+y1y2+z1z2=0 1 x 2 x3 y 2 y 3 =0 and • x 2 x 3 +y 2 y 3 +z 2 z 3 =0 Yi z l Z2 Z3 IfP = (x. Further if. (1. (t-s ). c * 0) and passing through the point S (s).23 If a . x 3 .0. x2.9r • A vector p = 2j .1). x2.2.2 t ) j + (t-4)k .1). x 3 ).-a)2 ( b. T (t) is a point outside the given lin e then show that the distance of the line from the point T (t) is given by.l _ 1 A(a) .-a)z (a. Find a unit vector parallel to the plane determined by ABC & perpendicular to the vector (1..Als o find the shortest distance CfromAB.2. 4 (i) Given non zero number x. C are respectively (1. Thenfindthe area of triangle CEF. = i + Cj j + c 2 k are coplaner. (0.(cj-bk)" + (t-s). (b i .-b)2 (Cj-b) z (a..b . Show that there exists a point D(d) on the line AB with d = 2 t i + ( l .-c) (b. y. Q.4 k . ? x (a i + b j + c kj = s * (a i + b j -f ck]. < 0 f or all i = 1. y2.j + af k. (3 = i + bj + b 2 k.(ak-ci) /a 2 + b2 + c2 + ( t .k is s uch that (? + p) is parallel to i and (f .(d-a) f t h e triangle Q.0) can the triangle POQ be a right angled triangle? X © <!§Bansal Classes Probability [12] .2 Q.j + b.a jj EXERCISE-II Q. y2. c = 22i -11 j . Q.c ) = 0 and if the vectors a = i + aj + a 2 k. .24 The length ofthe edge ofthe regular tetrahedron D-ABC is'a'. ( C l -C) 2 Q.r . b = 3r + j .(d-c) =0 Q. -1.d arc position vectors of the vertices of a cyclic quadrilatera l ABCD prove that: bxc + cxd + dxb (b-c).p.1. y3 and z. Q (y ] . b . 3. = i + b.( 2 i .3 y = j + c j + c2^ are non coplanar.2i) is parallel to p.

Find the point R in the plane CDE where a = i + 2j + k. If Oj is the centre of Q.Q. Apoint F is taken on the edge BC such that BF = ~ . c j + 2k & e = 4i + j + 2k- .) where bxc . Q. C (4i + 3j + 6kj & D(2i+3j + 2k).fromthe pl ane of the A OjEF.d are not coplanar. Q.b.q |.5 The pv's of the four angular points of a tetrahedron are: A (j + 2k) . B (3 i + kj .p.q = 0& ( b ) 2 = l . b = q x ( r x p ) & c = r x ( p x q ) represents the sid es of a triangle.4 j + 4k.12 a . (iii) the perpendicular distance from D to the plane ABC. _ cxa „ axb i " 1 7 — ' n2 .10 Find the scalars a & p if Sx(bxc) + (a. (iv) the shortest distance between the lines AB & CD.6 The length ofan edge ofa cube ABCDA.7 Q. where p is a scalar then prove that |(a.14 Show that a = px(qxr) .B^jDj is equal to unity.ll Ifthe vectors b. C (c cosy). Q. b. c are non-coplanar unit v ectors. b= 2i + j + 2k.p—^ & n. d = 2 i . ApointE taken on th e edge AA.13 Given that a. which the line AB cuts .2 Q.b)b = (4-2p-sina)b + (p2 .l)c & (c. between c & a is P and between a & b is y .c. a x | b x c)| s inA n |b x (c x a)j sinB Jc x ^a x b | sinC ]~[ ja x (b x c)| sina cosp cosy n. is AE the cube. indtl le shortest distance of the vertex B. If A (a cosa).(p. B (b cosp). = cxa bx c axb Q. The angle between b & c is a. Q.b. c)5 = c while b & c are non zero non collinear vectors.q )a |= |p. passing through the posi Find the vector in its new position.i + c 2 j + c3k the n show that the value of the a-i a-j a-k scalar triple product [ na + b nb + c n c + a] is (n 3 +1) b-i b-j b-k c i c-j c-k Q.9 If a = aji + a 2 j + a 3 k . 8 Thevector OP = i + 2j + tive x-axis on the way. then prove that the vector (a x b) x (c x d) + (a x c) x (d x b) + (a x d) x (b x c) is parallel to a . such that — -» 1 — . b = b.q )p .Find: (i) the perpendicular distancefromA to the line BC.q are four vectors such that a + b = pp. then show that in AABC. (ii) the volume of the tetrahedron ABCD.i + b 2 j + b3k and c = c. Further prove that a unit vector perpendicular to the plane of 2k turns through a right angle.

„ qxr „ . .this triangle is n. tan(pAq) + n2 tan(qAr) + n3 tan(r Ap)| r. q are non zero vectors and jn. p.tan(pAq) + n2tan(qAr) + ri3tan(rAp) where a. n = jz—zr & n . = pxq .q.r are mut ually perpendicular & n. b.rxp . c. ..p. no two of 2 3 x rx Pi qxr P q <!§Bansal Classes Probability [13] .

s (ab)denote the plane formed by the lines a. c & d such that no three of which are coplanar then prove that b5d + c|abdj = a cd + d a b c . Q. c & d represent the position vectors of bed + abd acd + abc the vertices of a plane quadrilateral if and only if Q. B(bj & C(c) are three non collinear points .Q. The base vectors a1. prove that. If a vector x satisfies the equation p x ((* . such that 0a x bj x ^b x cj! x (c x a) =0.s & use it to prove the following. a 2 = b.20 Consider the non zero vecto rs a.3 k . aj = 2b. +3b 2 .a3 are given in terms of base vectors b p b 2 . Q.a ] + k. ? be three mutually perpendicular vectors of the same magnitude.21 =1 . abc axb + bxc + cxa The vector v perpendicular to the plane of the triangle ABC drawn from the origi n 'O' is given by = ± ) abc (axb + bxc + cxa) where A is the vector area ofthe triangle ABC. then for any point P(p) in the plane of the AABC . hence show that pxa + abc a. r .j + k is equal to 6 73 .r p.16 Let a = cxi + 2 j .f )x q) + r x ((x .a 2 & a 3 . Q. q.c. if any. b2 + 2b 3 .r q. c are non zero non coplanar vectors and a is neither perpendicular to b nor to c . pxa + (p. b.b 3 . Let q. b = i + 2 a j . + b2 .bjc = bxc where a.b.(p*0) prove that x = b +(b ' ? 5 ~? p ( b x 5 ) • P(P" + a ) Solve the following equation for the vector p . Find the vecto r product when a = 0. Q. Q. If F = 3b. then express F in terms of a.18 (a) (b) If px + (xxg) = b.2 k andc = 2i . Then find the vector x in terms of P.17 Prove the result (Lagrange's identity) (p x q) • (r x s ) = p. b. Find the value(s) ofa.q)x p) + q x ((* . Hence prove that a.c is perpendicular to b .2b3 . Itis given that the proj ection of v along the vector i . If (ab) is perpendicular to (cd) a nd (ac) is perpendicular to (bd) prove that (ad) is perpendicular to (bc).p)x f ) = 0..2 k & i . Q.2 j + k and is orthogonal to the vector-2i + j + k. b. .15 Let p.22 (i) (ii) If A (a) .19 Find a vector v which is coplanar with the vectors i + j .2b2 + 2b3 & a 3 = -2b.a2. 4A .b 3 as. q.

<!§Bansal Classes Probability [14] .

4 Q. g. equally inclined to one another a t an angle 9. to meet the r5 coordinate axes in A. EXERCISE-III Q. OQ = p2.n = 0 and mn + n/ + /m = 0. Q (1.l Q. 7 Fi nd the equations of the straight line passing through the point (1.9 A variable plane is at a constant distance pfromthe origin and meets the coordin ate axes in points A.2).2.3 Q.24 Let a. n are given by 2/ + 2 m .10 Find the distance of the point P (. If two straight line having direction cosines I. Find the equations of the two lines through the origin which inter sect the line n angle of .1). Show that the locus of Q is p( lx + my + nz) = x2 + y2 + z2. then show that — + — + — =0. planes are dra wn parallel to the coordinates planes. x-3 y-3 z ^ = ——=y at an Q.. x+cxy=a a nd y + c x x=b where c is a non zero vector. a plane is drawn at right angles to OP where 'O ' is the origin. Find scalars p . a b c Pisanypointon thep lane/x+my+nz=p.4)fromthe line the plane 4x + 12 y.3) to inter sect the straight line x + l = 2 ( y . B.2. Prove that th e equation to the plane in new position is lx + my + zVl2 + m2 tan 9 = 0 Q. Find the locus of their point of intersec tion.ApointQtakenonthelineOP (where O is the origin) such that OP. Prove that the area of the triangleABC is 2f gh w ^ e r e OP = rThe plane lx + my = 0 is rotated abo ut its line of intersection with the plane z-0 through an angle 9. Q. n satisfy al + bm + cn = 0 and f m n + g n / + h / m = 0 f g h are perpendicular.2. Through a point P (f. B.8 Q. m.0) and R (-2.1. C then the area ofthe AABC Q. If axb + bxc = pa + qb + rc . C.3. Find the equa tion of the plane through the points (2. h).5 Q.b & c be non coplanar unit vectors. -2. Find (a) (b) PQxPR Equat ion of the plane in (i) scalar dot product form (ii) parametric form (iii) carte sian form (iv) if the plane through PQR cuts the coordinate axes at A. (1. -1). m. .3z + 1 = 0.Q. 2 Find the angle between the two straight lines whose direction cosines / .23 Given the points P (1.2 ) = z + 4 and parallel to the plane x + 5y + 4z = 9.25 Solve the simultaneous vector equations for the vectors x and y. Through these points.2.2. x+2 2y+ 3 3z + 4 = ——— = —-— measured parallel to Q. q & r in terms of9. 6 Q. B and C respectively. <!§Bansal Classes Probability [490] .3) and parallel to the x-ax is.

2y + z = 1 and x + 2y ..2y + 3z = 0 assuming that the axes are so placed that the plane 2x + 3y . l)andR = (2. AC and AD are mutually perpendicular. Q.z = 5 and x . Q. Apoint P inside the tetrahedron is at the same distance 'r'fromthe four plane faces of the tetrahedr on. Alsofindthe equation ofthe plane in which the perpendicular and the given 3 8 5 straight line lie.2 9 5-z —-— = —~— = . Find the equation of the plane passing through their feet and th e area of AABC. 4.1.4) and inte rsecting the line of intersection ofthe planes: 3x + 2 y .3 _ y _ z-2 Q. Q.4).2. Q and R as its verti ces.2. -14.0. x .1). (a) Find the area of the triangle having P.l at right angles.y + z + 2 = 0. 19 Fin d the equations to the line of greatest slope through the point (7. units respectively.0). 7. Q and R in the form ax + by + cz = 1.18 Find the value of p so that the lines —-.12 Find the equation of the line passing through the point (4.ll Find the equation to the line passing through the point (1.3.D. 2 5 Find the equation ofthe plane containing the line = — .3) ar e three points. Q. Let the area of triangles ABC. ACD and A DB be denoted by x. B and C.24 Find the equation of the line which is reflection of the line ——=——=—— in the plane 3 x . between the two lines. Find the equa tion of the remaining sides.3 y + 10z = 26. (0. 3) to the line x-15 y .0.4y + 2z ~ 4.r . Q = (l.0.3) perpendicular to the lines x—1 y-2 z-3 x-4 y z+3 . -1) in the plane x .3z + 2 = 0 = 3x .15 Fee t ofthe perpendicular drawnfromthe point P (2.— and parallel to the line ^ 4 • Find also the S. Q. . y+2 z =and perpendicular to the x+l y-p z+2 x y-1 z+ 7 . -1. x . intersects the plane 2x + 2y + z + 6 = 0. Q.Q. -5) on the axes of coordinates are A. Q.. find the coordinates of the ir point of intersection and the equation ofthe plane containing them. Q.= —— = —— and 1 = —— = —— are in the same — D Z* I plane.23 Find the foot and hence the length of the perpendicular from the point (5.14 Find the point where the line of intersection of the planes x .l y z .2z = 5. 1. (c) Where does the plane in part (b) intersect the y-axis. — =— = — and — = y = — at right angles. -2. <!§Bansal Classes Probability [16] . (0.17 Find the equation ofthe plane containing the straight li ne — = plane x .20 Let ABCD be a tetrahedron such that the edges AB . Find the value of V. Q. .2).2 y . 0) and (6.2 z = . x + 6 y + 10 z + 14 _ = —-— = —-— is the hypotenuse of an isosc eles right angled triangle whose opposite 5 3 8 vertex is (7.13 Let P = (1. Find the area of the triangl e BCD. y and z sq.21 The position vectors of the four angular points of a tetrahedron OAB C are (0. (b) Give the equation of the plane through P.16 Find the equations to the line which can be drawn from the point (2. -3) and parallel to the line 2x + 3y .4z = 0 is horizontal. x—1 y-2 z+3 Q. For this value of p. (d) Give par ametric equations for the line through R that is perpendicular to the plane in p art (b).22 The line Q.0) respectively. x—1 Q. Q.0.

2 + 5 ] Q. ( a + B)X(a+C)1 x (BXC). make angles of 60° with each other.EXERCISE-IV —» —> —» Q. v ) . v.l (a) Let OA=a. 3 (a) Select the correct alternative(s) A A A A A A A A A f — (i) I f a = i + j + k.y = l and y.b = y. 0B=l()a+2b and OC=b where O.) (c) For any two vectors u & v. 2 + 2 + 2 + 8 + 8] A A A Q. Let p denote the area of the quadrilateral OABC. x. B& C are vectors such that |B| = |C| . Find the position vectors of a point P on the line AB & a point Q on the line CD suc h that PQ is perpendicular to AB and CD both.4(a) If x x y = a.c = | c | .a | = 2^2 and the angle between (axb) and c is30°.3 i + 2 j + 4k are not coplanar.b = 4 i + 3 j + 4k and c = i + «j + Bk are linearly depend ent vectors & |cj =V3 . If p = kq. (b) If A. 6 + 6 ] Q. p = ±1 (C) < = . v) w (D)ux(v. (You may assume that the trapezeum is not a parallelogram. If c is a vector such that a . A third vector 2i + 7 j . p = .v)2 + |U + v+(Uxv)| 2 [ JEE ' 9 8 .A&C are non-collinear points.9 j + 2k respectively.z = l thenfmd x. w which ofthe following expre ssions is not equal to any of the remaining three? (A) u . u (C)v.2(a) Vectors x.(B+C) = 0 [ JEE' 97.3 i + 2 j + 4 k passes through the point Q. by vector methods or otherwise.y&z each of magnitude -J2. that the point of intersection of the diagonals of a trapezeum lies on the line passing through the mid-points ofthe parallel sides. w (C) (u.5 k i ntersects vectors A&B. p = l x (ii) For three vectors u.l .(vxw) (B) (u. then k = . If xx(yxz) = a. Prove that .2 k and . then: (A) a = 1. [ REE' 97. y x z = b. Find the position vectors of the points of intersection.(uxw) (D)(uxv). y and z intermsof a. and let q denote the area of the pa rallelogram with OA and OC as adjacent sides.5 (a) Let a = 2i + j . x.2 k & b = i + j. b and c(b) T he position vectors of the points P&Qare 5i + 7 j .j + k & CD = . 6 + 6 ] Q.yx(zxx) = b and xxy = c thenfmd x. ] c .v)2 +|uxv| 2 = ju|2|v|2 & (ii) (l + |u| 2 )(l+|v| 2 ) = (1-U. prove that (i) (u. b and y • > A A A ^ (b) Vectors AB = 3i . [ REE' 98 . p =±1 (D)a = ± l .1 (B) a = 1.j + k passes through the point P & the vector B = . then (axb)xc = (A) 2/3 Bansal Clas ses (B) 3/2 (C) 2 Vectors (D) 3 [17] . ( v x w ) (B)(v x w ) . The vector A = 3 i .3 i + 3 j + 6 k re spectively.w (iii) Which ofthe following expressions are meaningfu l ? (A)u.w) (b) Prove.y &z inte rmsof a. The positi on vectors of points A and C are 6i + 7 j + 4k and .

b = i + 2 j .i + 2 j . [ JEE '2000 (Mains) 10 out of 10 0 ] If a = i + j . b — .(b) Let g=2i+j+k.k) (c) Let a & b be two non-collinear unit vectors. PQ respectively are concurrent .(a . then the scalar triple product 2a-b (A) 0 (b) 2b -c 2c-a (C) .V3 (D) 73 [ JEE . a = 0 ( C ) a .i + 2j + 2k & c = . b & c are unit coplanar vectors. bj (D) u + C .8 (i) (ii) <!§Bansal Classes Probability [18] .k and a unit vector c be coplanar. If OA = a & OB = b . If w is a vector such that w + (w x u) = v . prove that the perpendiculars from P. Assume that the perpendi cularsfromthe points A. 6 • b = 1 and J o .k . b = 1 Q.d respectively. c & d be such that (a x b )x (c x d) = 0 . 2 + 2 + 3 + 10. c = c. Then th e angle between P. a .j .2 j ) (D) ^ (i . (b) If a . (a. 6 . ( .d)(Sxb) independent of d .2000 (Screening) 1 + 1 + 1 out of 35 ] (B) 1 Let ABC and PQR be any two triangles in the same plane. then c (A) . If 5 is perpe ndicular to a. & P 2 be planes determined by the pairs of vectors a . AB respectively are also concurrent.a (B)axb = b x c = c x a (D) a x b + b x c + c x a = [REE'99. 5 = 0 . CA.d)(bx5) + (b.] + k) (B) j .6(a) Air arc AC ofa cir cle subtends a right angle at the centre O. [ JEE '99. c are non-coplanar vectors and d is a unit vector. b + b .a| (C) |u| + |u . then prove that | (u x v). Q. Q. RP. then calculate OC in terms of a & b . b.6 + 6] (i) If the vectors a .1 .j . then 0 (ii) Let the vectors a .Let P. (-i . The point B divides the arc in the r atio 1 : 2. then find the value of. then |v| is: (A) |u| (B) |u| + |u. b & c form the sides BC.d)(cx5) + (5. find a unit vector normal to the vectors a + b and b . b & c. out of 200 ] Q. Given that vectors a & b are perpendicula r to each other. w | < ^ and the equality holds if and only if u is perpen dicular to v . C A & AB respectively of a trian gle ABC. find vector 6 in terms of a & b satisfying the equations. (a + b) (d) Let u & v be unit vectors. C to the sides QR. b = b . Using vector methods or otherwise. If u = a . b.7 (a) Select the corre ct alternative: (A) a . and P2 is: (A) 0 (B) 7 i / 4 (C) 7T/3 (4) tx/2 (iii) If a .k) (C) J L (i . R to BC. c + c . bj b & v = a x b.k .c. B.

v. [ JEE '2001 (Mains) 5 + 5 + 5 out of 100 ] Q. _ 2 (b) Let V = 2i + j . • v2 = -2.(b + cj . • v. g.4 j . (t)i + g2 (t)j. that the angular bisectors of a triangle are co ncurrent and find an expression for the position vector of the point of concurre ncy in terms of the position vectors of the vertices. where f.i + 3 j and 2i + 5 j and its orthocentre is at i + 2 j. Forces of magnitud es 2. (b) Find 3-dimensional vec tors v. v2 • v2 = 2.l 3(a) If a and b are two unit vectors such that a +2b and 5 a . If A(t) and B(t)are nonzero vectors fo r all t and A(0) = 2 i + 3 j . then the maximum v alue of the scalar triple product [U V W is (A)-l <!§Bansal Classes (B) 7l0 + V6 ( ) 5 CV 9 Probability (D) V 0 6 [JEE 2002(Screening).X (ai + bj + ck) [ REE '2001 (Mains) 3 given by vectors 2i + 3 j .3 and 5 kg weight act on the particle along the diagonals of the faces pass ing through the point P. (c) Let A(t) = f. g2 are continuous functions. v2 • v3 = -5. 12(a) Show by vector methods.k • Determine its sides and also that a. b = xi + j + ( l .k and r • (2i + j + k) +8 = 0. [ REE '2000 (Mains) 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 out of 100 ] Q. c] de pends on (C) NEITHER x NOR y (D) both x and y [ JEE '2001 (Screening) 1 + 1 out of 35] Q.T h e n [a. b. b & c are three unit vectors such that a x (^b x cj = .x)k (A) only x (B)onlyy + b-c a n d c = yi + + |c-a| 2 does NOT exceed (C) 8 <D)6 x j + (l + x .. Find the moment of these forces about the corner opposi te to P . v 2 . • v3 = 6.4 b are perpendicular to each other then the angle between a and b is (A) 45° A A A (B) 60° _ A A (I) (C)cos-1 (D)cos . Find angle between vectors a & b given that vectors b & c are non-parallel.k . c are all non-zero and (~4i + 5 c . B(0)= 3i + 2j and B(l) = 2i + 6j. (t)i + f 2 (t)j and B(t) = g. A A A A A A (b) Two vertices of a triangle are at . 3 + 3] [19] . then showthat A(t) and B(t) are parallel for some t. (b) Find the value of X such j ja + (3i . 11 (a) If a. then a . b.y ) k .(iii) a . If u is a unit vector. v.9(a) The diagonals ofa parallelogram are i . t e [0.. v3 satisfying v.3 j + k)b + (i + j + 3k) + 3] Q..2 j + 5k and b=2i + 3 j . f2. [ REE '2001 (Mains) 3 + 3] Q. (iv) A particle is placed at a corner P of a cube of side 1 meter. = 4. A(l) = 6i + 2j. Find the position vector of third vertex.b (A) 4 (B) 9 (b) Let a = i . v3 • v3 = 29.6 k and 3 the area. b and c are unit vectors.10(a) Find the vector r which is perpendicular to g = i .k and W = i + 3k.1].

.

P. D' shifted to A.16 (i) Find the equation ofthe plane passing through the points (2. b = j +ak . B.j + k (C) 2j — k (D) 2i [JEE 2004 (screening)] and axc = bxd. 2 L [JEE 2003. B'.1).15 If a = i + aj +k . The volume of parallelopiped S is reduced to . (ii ) If P is the point (2. is mi nimum. [ JEE 2003. y are the angles between u and v . B'. Prove tha t [xxy y xz z x x j =—[u v wj —c — sec — sec — .). And the face just above it has corresponding vertices A'. y respectively. c. d are four distinct vectors satisfying axb = cxd a-b + c . l)and(4.j + k and orthogon al to 5i + 2 j + 6k 6i-5k A A 3j —k 2i-5k A A 2i + j . If a .1. a-b = 1 and 5xb = j-k. (b) T is a parallelopiped in which A. T is now compressed to S with face ABCD remaining same and A'.6) then find the point Q such that PQ is perpendicular to the plane in (i) and the mid point of PQ lies on it. 18(a) If the lines — y = .Q.14 Let V be the volume of the parallelopiped formed by the vectors a =a. z are unit vectors along the bisectors of the angles a r_ _ 1r -\ 2« 2 l r1 I 2l 27 2 PP a. C„ D. b. v . in S.2 k A A A (c) If a = i + j + k .1 x-3 y-k z Q. C'.4 out of 60] v andw .0).c + b-d.1 y+1 z . 2 2 2. then find the value of 'a' for wh ich volume of parallelopiped formed by three vectors as coterminous edges. 3 [JEE 2002(Mains). w are three non-coplanar unit vectors and a.y = and —— = —— = y intersect. y . where r = 1. 3] Q.l9(a) Let a. c = ai +k.4 out of 60] x . C '.1. c . 5] Q. b .0. then k = (A) | (B)| (C)0 (D)-l (b) A unit vector in the plane of the vectors 2i + j + k. are non-negative real numbers and £ (ar + br + c r ) = 3L. D'. show that V < L3.then b = (A) i (B) i . 3...d ^ a . w and u respectively and x . B.sec 16 Q. sec — sec . i . b =bji + b2 j+b 3 k.i + a 2 j + a 3 k. C and D are vertices of one face. P.(5. Show that Q. 2.17 If u . c =c j + c2 j+c 3 k.1. is 1 1 1 (C)± (D)none (A)^ (B)--JJ V3 [JEE 2003(Scr.

Prove that locus ofA.90% of T.1.1) and parallel to the lines L.1. and L2 having direction ratios 1. is a plane. -1 a nd -1.0 respectively. C and the origin. B. IfA.2 + 2+ 2outof60] <!§Bansal Classes Probability [20] .0. find the volume of the tetrahedron whose vertices are A. (c) Let P be the plane passing throu gh (1. [JEE 2004. B and C are the points at which P intersects the co ordinate axes.

s n (A) 2 4 n 6 3n T [JEE 200 6.4 2 3 b-c r — ^ 2 b1. The distance of the plane from the point (1.k • A vector in the plane of a and b whose projection . 2 Ia| | a |2 c-a .3 k (C) 2 i + j .5] (C) (D) Bansal Classes Vectors [21] . b. P.3x+y + z = 5 and at a distance of 1 ^ from the point (2.y + —j + ~y = k. c are three non-zero. then the value of k is x y z (A) 3 (B) 1 (C) 1/3 (D) 9 [JEE 2005 (Screening)..a c 2 = 2 2 Ia| |c| (B)(5.bc .^ .21(a) A plane passes through (1.a . 3] (c) Find the equation of the plane containing the line 2x-y + z . B and C. Express w in terms of a and v..2 k is .4 k [JEE 2 006.2 k (D) 4 i + j . is V3 (A) 4 i . b = i . vN mmmmMfmmuum [ JEE 2005 (Mains). (d) Incident ray is along the unit vector v and the reflected ray is along the unit vector w. c 3 ) c..2) is (A)0 (B)l (C) 4 1 (D) 2 V2 (b) Let a = i + 2 j + k . b.1.3 = 0. y. z) of triangleABC satisfies the r elation . |b| (C) (a..y + 2z = 4. bj. c j b. 1 . on c is —p=.c 2 ) =c 2 |c| |c| c-a _ |c| (b) A variable plane at a distance of 1 unit from the origin cuts the co-ordinat e axes at A.k and 3 i + 3 j . = b + .b-c . then the angle between vector A and 21 + j . If the centroid D (x.j + k and c = i + j .Q.j + 4k (B) 3i + j ..c-a c Ta + —r-b. b 2 . 2 + 4 out of 60 ] Q. = b .20(a) If a. is parallel to the A /V /\ /V a a a a vectors 2 j + 3 k and 4 j . =c bj-c— = |bj| 2 '' ^ c-a _ b-c r c .2.-1).bj. The normal is along unit vector a outwards. non-coplanar vectors and .-2. 1) and is perpendicular to two planes 2x 2y + z = 0 and x . '' | a| then the set of orthogonal vectors is (A) (a.3 marks each] (c) Let A be vector parallel to line of intersection of planes P j and P9 through origin.3 k and P2 is parallel to j .— T a + — r2b . b p c j (D) (a.

co).6] <!§Bansal Classes Probability [22] . then tan — + tan — = 2 2 (iii) A line is perpendicular to x + 2y + 2z = 0 and passes through (0. The perpendicular distance of this line from the or igin is (B)l V5 3 (D) 2/3 (C) [JEE 2006. Let a (A) 2 (B) 4/3 i (C) j V l . and cos9.1.P. the value of a0 is (ii ) Point (a. then tan t = (i) Xtan--1 i=l v2i2 j (D)l [JEE 2006.(d) Match the following (i) Two rays in the first quadrant x + y = | a | and ax . = b+c .0).6] (ii) Sides a. cos G3 = ° a+c a+b (A)0 9 0-. k x ( k x a ) = 0. cos02 = — . c of a triangle ABC are in A.y = 1 intersects each other in the interval a £ (a0. then y = <5? 0 1 J(l-y 2 )dy + J(y 2 -l)dy (iii) l 0 (iv) If sinA sinB sinC + cos A cosB = 1. y) lies on the plane x + y + z = 2. 9 0.x d x + o 1 + x dx = ai + P j + y k . b. then the value of sin C = (e) Match the following / 1x 1 = t . (3.

v.units • ~ .v. i f a = 0 then vector product is-60(2i + k Q.-2? + 2] (iii) lines are skew 2 :1 Q.b) J Q..18 (b) p = L abc (a.2 (b) externally in the ratio 1:3 (i) pa rallel (ii) the lines intersect at the point p.5 Q.ANSWER KEY EXERCISE-I Q.c)(a.6 7t N0 ' N 0 ~ Q. Q.10 -a=n7t + ( ~ 1 ) 2 .b) r _ a + cxb + b.2 j -—k2k).7 p ( p + q + r) p..8 2Jl7 (i) ^ Q-2 (ii) 6 (iii) f VlO (iv) S + Q-4 Q.15 Q. 1 Q.b)c + a x j + 3k.nel&p = l Q..24 2j 2 ) .19 / . y= _ 1+c 1 + 2c 1 ^/l + 2cos0_ .16 a = 2/3 .15 1 (a)arccosQ. Q.4 Q. (a)± 3 ( i .y = .13 Q.(ii) f = i + j .U (a.i + 2j + 5k 5a? ^sq. (b) y = 3 or = .(iv) „ 2cos0 1 2cos9 p= b + (c.23 (a) 2 i .19 x = 2 .blc) U r . V l + 2cos0 V1 + 2COS0 yl + -r —— .l Q. (b)y = 3 or y EXERCISE-II Q. (b)(i)-4.10 x = 2.24 p = or 1 2cos0 1 .b) (a.(iii)-4..1 Q.c b b.\ .2 .3 ). q ~ — F — = .7 xxj + y y ^ a 2 Q. y = -1 Q.18 .a)c + b x c c —^ . q= . r : VT+TcosO" ' / l + 2cos0 ' a + (c. „ ^ „.ofR = r = 3i+3k Q. r= .k + M j + k) + p(-3i + j + 3k „. z = — 1 1 1 (a)yi-~j+-^k -s/lT — ^ .5 Q. 21 Q.21 F = 25j + 5a2 + 3a3 Q.r\ 9-j +k ! Q.

1 x-1 y +2 z+ 3 = = 13 17 Classes y z 1 -2 Q.12 1 .1 .l Q.4 y + 2z = 4 = .4 y+ 14 z .= .= — Q.7 0 v .= — Q. 1 1 1 + _ 2 + _ 22 = " T2 2 2 2 x y z z p P" x .Q.II x y z x or — 1 2 .25 x= EXERCISE-III Q.9 x-1 2 ~T 2 2 y-2 2 z-3 -3 Q v . 1 .10 —Q.4 3 10 Prob ability 17 2 <!§Bansal [23] .8 v 0 = 90° .

8 Q.2 (a) x = a x c .8. ( i i ) 4 + ^ i r . y ( . (ii) (6.18 Q 20 x-2 y+1 z-3 Q.16 (i)x + y .6) Q.4 y .20 (a) B. (b) A. v2 = .23 x-7_y-2_z-4 x-7_y-2_z-4 x-4 y+1 z-7 (9.2 z = 3 .4 ) Q.3 (a ) (i) D (ii) C (iii) A. .ll (a) B (b) C Q. C Q. (c)A Q. 2) .15 D Q.i + y j Q. T (iv) |M| .21 | Q. x + y + z = 0 V(x 2 +y 2 +z 2 ) Q.9 (a) (i) B (ii) A (iii) A (i) ± i .l (a) 6 Q.2y + 2z .5 (a) B (b) A (c) A. A r e a = y sq.13.25 x . units (b)A.-Lfa x b Y Q. = 0. 9 x .3) .i ± j. v3 = 3i ± 2 j ± 4 k Q.j-7k). D.16 — = — = . (c) 2 / Q.-7.axb —-—a x —— Q. (b) D . ^ .-2) Q. 1.4 (a) x = — SY* axb . X = -2± V29 5 a 17 a Q. (c) 2 x .3 2x 2y z / 0 . (0.15 x y z 19 . (d) x = 2t + 2 .15).5.7 Q. b (axb) (a) 5 = -V3a + 2b « (b) abc ("i)J .a _ r axb y=—. (2. | Vl 274 sq.6 ' y (b) P = (3. (b) y + y .13 ( a ) .z = 14 Q. 2 units Q.i + 7j-5k). C axb .17 Q.. . (c) B. 8.12 ( b) v.-3). z = b + a x c or b x c .+ j + — = l ..10 (a) r = -13i + l l j + 7k. 0 A . EXERCISE-IV (b) (2.14 ( 1 .2 ( a • v) a Q.18 (a)B.105 = 0.19 (c) 9/2 cubic units Q. y ^ b x c Q. (b) B.22 Q.13 (a) B . (d) w = v .2 .= l .3 = 0 an d 62x + 29y + 19z. . ( b ) .V 7 (a) y(5i .1 = 0.units Q. = 2i. y = 2t + 1 and z = .1 + 3 " Q. .24 Q.3)& Q = (-3.21 (a) D.y 2x + 3y + z + 4 = 0 p = 3. 14 .1.y + z . axb r axb —^— + b x — -^LZ=. (b) C Q.

(iii)->C <!§Bansal Classes Probability [24] . C. (ii) D.(d) (i) -> D. (iii) -> B. (e) (i) B. (iv) D. (ii) ->A.