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Experimental study of the bubble size distribution in a pseudo-2D bubble column Y.M. Lau, K. Thiruvalluvan Sujatha, M. Gaeini, N.G. Deen, J.A.M. Kuipers

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S0009-2509(13)00355-2 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2013.05.024 CES11068
Chemical Engineering Science

Received date: 20 December 2012 Revised date: 8 May 2013 Accepted date: 14 May 2013 Cite this article as: Y.M. Lau, K. Thiruvalluvan Sujatha, M. Gaeini, N.G. Deen, J. A.M. Kuipers, Experimental study of the bubble size distribution in a pseudo2D bubble column, Chemical Engineering Science, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. ces.2013.05.024 This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting galley proof before it is published in its final citable form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.

Experimental study of the bubble size distribution in a pseudo-2D bubble column
Y.M. Lau, K. Thiruvalluvan Sujatha, M. Gaeini, N.G. Deen∗ , J.A.M. Kuipers
Multiphase Reactors Group, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands P.O.Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven

Abstract This work presents an experimental study of the bubble size distribution of a bubbly flow using digital image analysis (DIA). In order to facilitate the image measurement technique a pseudo-2D bubble column is chosen for the experiments. To obtain well-defined inlet conditions a gas sparger, consisting of 20 needles, is used. By employing DIA, the bubble size distribution (BSD) has been measured for a range of superficial gas velocities. The resulting BSD’s are expressed in terms of a probability density function (PDF). For low superficial gas velocities of 5 and 10 mm/s the PDF has a unimodal shape, while for higher superficial gas velocities of 15 and 20 mm/s the PDF has a bimodal shape. The effects of coalescence and break-up of bubbles are visible by evaluating the changes of the resulting BSDs for increasing superficial gas velocity. A comparison of gas hold-ups is made between the calculated BSD and the liquid expansion height. This comparison shows how well the BSD obtained with DIA describes the actual gas hold-up in the

Corresponding author: N.G.Deen@tue.nl

Preprint submitted to Chemical Engineering Science

May 17, 2013

Bubble size distribution. it is essential to know the BSD in the particular system at different operating conditions. Gas hold-up 1. the gas-liquid interfacial area is a function of geometrical configuration. Therefore. Mena et al.column. To optimize bubble column processes. However it is very difficult to measure the BSD in an industrial bubble column. operating parameters. hydrogenation of unsaturated oil. different types of laboratory-scale bubble columns have been employed to study the bubble size.8 mm/s.5 − 5.0 % and a mean bubble diameter ranging between 2 − 4 mm. Gas-liquid flow.g. Bubble columns. (2002) discussed the influence of operating conditions and physical properties of the gas and 2 . Br¨ oder and Sommerfeld (2007) measured bubble sizes in a lab-scale 3D column with an average gas volume fraction between 0. which depends on the bubble size distribution (BSD). fermentation and waste water treatment. (2006) reported the bubble size in a modified bubble column reactor at superficial liquid velocities of 70. Majumder et al.7-141. Sch¨ afer et al. Introduction Gas-liquid bubble column reactors are widely used in many industrial applications. coal liquefaction. Fischer-Tropsch process for hydrocarbon synthesis. e.4 mm/s and superficial gas velocities of 1. physical and chemical properties of both phases.58 mm/s. One of the important factors in the design of mass transfer in such reactors is the gas-liquid interfacial area. Keywords: Digital Image Analysis. In general.7-13. (2005) measured the bubble size distribution in a mass transfer system in a lab-scale 3D column at a low superficial gas velocity of 2.

DIA is a non-intrusive technique. Wongsuchoto et al. This is because even at low void fraction (∼ 1 %) a large number of bubbles is overlapping (40 %) (Lecuona et al. Diaz et al. The objective of this work is to investigate the BSD in a pseudo-2D bubble column with the use of DIA. Other than these mentioned studies. (2000). Measurements are performed for bubbly flows up to the limit where bubble detection is no longer possible due to the high void fraction. there are many more (Polli et al. Lage and Esposito (1999). Mandal et al. which can measure irregular-shaped bubbles accurately with a wide range of bubble sizes (Honkanen et al. as these do not disturb the flow. (2008). (2003)). Recognizing individual bubbles from digital images is tedious. (2005)). Rodriguez-Rodriguez et al.). etc. (2003). The main subject of this work is to investigate the effect of the superficial gas velocity and the evolution of the BSD along the height of the column. The image analysis incorporates the watershed transformation by Meyer (1994) to separate overlapping bubbles. Most of these experimental studies on the bubble size distribution are performed using Digital Image Analysis (DIA) for low void fraction bubbly flow or only near-wall measurements for high void fraction bubbly flow. (2008). (2006). (2005).liquid phases on the initial and stable bubble sizes in a bubble column reactor operating in the homogeneous regime. Montante et al. (2002). Non-intrusive techniques are preferred above intrusive ones. 3 . Bordel et al.

The acquired images are gray scale images with a resolution of 1024 × 1024 pixels.14 m.50 m in front of the pseudo-2D column and the column is illuminated from the back.1. The gas flow rate is controlled with mass flow controllers.3 mm. The column is made of glass with dimensions of 0. which is used to obtain well-defined inlet conditions at the gas distributor. The needles extend 10 mm above the bottom plate and are spaced with a centre-to-centre distance of 10 mm.2.03 × 1.18 mm. The focal length of the lens is 50 mm.20 × 0. The camera is positioned at a distance of 1. HighSpeedStar 3G).2. Air and distilled water are used as the gas and the liquid phase respectively. The needles have an inner diameter of 1 mm and an outer diameter of 1. 2. It is equipped with a needle sparger. yielding a spatial resolution of 0. Experimental set-up and technique 2. For the BSD measurements. The field of depth is 0. from these quantities the centroids and 4 . which is larger than the column depth. The measurement zones are maintained for different initial liquid heights (H0 ). A schematic representation of the column and its measurement zones are illustrated in Figure 1.0 m (W × D × H ). Digital Image Analysis The bubble properties that can be obtained from an image are the projected area and shape. The sparger consists of a row of 20 needles and is aligned in the centre of the bottom-plate of the column. Pseudo-2D bubble column Bubble size distributions are measured in a pseudo-2D bubble column. series of 5000 images with a frequency of 50 Hz are obtained using a highspeed CMOS camera (Lavision. Subsequently.

a number of operations are performed upon the images (see overview in Figure 2).183m 0. the detected objects are divided into solitary bubbles and overlapping/clustering bubbles on the basis of the roundness. Starting with the obtained image. the background is removed using local area thresholding. a global threshold is applied to create a binary image.03m bottom water 0.188m column depth 0.583m measurement windows middle 0.6m 0. To acquire these values.200m 0.383m needle sparger column height 0. bottom and middle).top 0. equivalent diameter can be calculated.005m needle sparger air Figure 1: Schematic overview of the pseudo-2D bubble column set-up with the measurement windows (top.400m 0. an appropriate global threshold value is chosen from the histogram of the image gray scales. where the image is divided in blocks. Subsequently.2m column width 0. each of which is independently thresholded by employing the Otsu (1979) filter. The roundness is determined as: S Ro = √ 4πA 5 (1) . To this end. After these filters have been applied. separating the bubbles from the background.

the area of pixels of each bubble object of both images is counted and converted from pixel to metric values using the magnification of the image. which is determined by trial and error on an initial set of images.with S the surface perimeter and A the area. Examples of the detected bubbles in the pseudo-2D bubble column are shown in Figure 3. The measured BSD’s are expressed in the form of a number-based Probability Density Function (PDF). Note that the smallest bubble diameter that can be detected in the images is equal to 0. 0. (2013). which corresponds with 5 pixels.6 and 0.5. 3. The resulting two images are segmented independently and subsequently combined to yield an overall image with solitary and separated overlapping/clustering bubbles. and the image with the overlapping/clustering bubbles is segmented using a watershed transform by Meyer (1994). From the measured area. the equivalent diameter is calculated as follows: de = √ 4A π (2) This image measurement technique is described in detail in the paper of Lau et al.9 mm. middle and bottom) are shown in Figure 1. Visual description Measurements are performed for different initial liquid heights (0. Samples of the obtained camera images with an initial 6 .5. The image with the solitary bubbles is segmented by labelling the solitary areas. Results and discussion 3.7 m) with superficial gas velocities ranging from 5 to 30 mm/s for an air-water system. The measurement zones (top. The applied criteria to distinguish isolated single bubbles is Ro < 1 ∼ 1.1. Finally.

The bubbles rise very slowly upward in a homogeneous fashion. At low superficial gas velocity of 5 mm/s (see Figures 4a. 4d and 4g). the following is observed.original Þltered solitary overlap/cluster Þlter separate watershed result segment & combine Figure 2: Image processing sequences to determine the bubble size distribution. the bubbles appear to be similar in size at the different regions of the column. These are merely snapshots of the measured time series and cannot visually illustrate the bubbly flow dynamics. For a super- 7 .6 m are shown in Figures 4 and 5. liquid height of 0. By visual analysis of the time series. (a) vsup = 5 mm/s (b) vsup = 15 mm/s (c) vsup = 25 mm/s Figure 3: Example images of detected bubbles at various superficial gas velocities ranging from 5 mm/s to 25 mm/s.

5e and 5h) and 30 mm/s (see Figures 5c. 5d and 5g). two bubble regions (plumes) with high bubble rise velocity are observed and down-flow of smaller bubbles at the side walls is clearly visible. coalescence and break-up of bubbles start to play a role. A plume is a dynamic region within the bubble column. This results in a wider BSD than the BSD observed with a superficial gas velocity of 5 mm/s. there are some regions where the bubbles rise faster. 5f and 5i). where the bubbles rise with a higher velocity. which makes visual observation very difficult. Occasionally. Some small vortices also occur at the region between the plumes. For a superficial gas velocity of 15 mm/s (see Figures 4c. 4e and 4h). The smaller bubbles accumulate close to the side walls and are dragged down by the down-flow of the liquid.ficial gas velocity of 10 mm/s (see Figures 4b. a large number of small bubbles is formed due to intense bubble break-up. A wide bubble size distribution in the column is obtained and small vortical structures are formed close to the side wall regions. At even higher superficial gas velocities of 25 mm/s (see Figures 5b. 4f and 4i). Bubbles in this dynamic region are larger due to coalescence of bubbles. 8 . The bubbly flow is very chaotic. a bubble plume becomes more evident and bubbles rise faster in the column. At 20 mm/s (see Figures 5a.

9 . vsup = 15 mm/s (d) vsup = 5 mm/s middle. vsup = 5 mm/s (b) top.6 m. vsup = 15 mm/s (g) vsup = 5 mm/s bottom. vsup = 10 mm/s (c) top. middle and bottom) in the pseudo-2D bubble column for superficial gas velocities ranging from 5 to 15 mm/s and an initial liquid height of H0 = 0.(a) top. (e) vsup = 10 mm/s middle. (f) middle. vsup = (i) vsup = 15 mm/s bottom. 10 mm/s Figure 4: High-speed camera images of the bubbly flow for the different measurement zones (top. (h) bottom.

(a) top. vsup = 20 mm/s (b) top. middle and bottom) in the pseudo-2D bubble column for superficial gas velocities ranging from 20 to 30 mm/s and an initial liquid height of H0 = 0. vsup = 30 mm/s (g) bottom. (e) vsup = 25 mm/s middle. 20 mm/s 25 mm/s Figure 5: High-speed camera images of the bubbly flow for the different measurement zones (top. vsup = (h) bottom. 10 . (f) middle. vsup = 25 mm/s (c) top.6 m. vsup = (i) vsup = 30 mm/s bottom. vsup = 30 mm/s (d) vsup = 20 mm/s middle.

Series of 5000 image pairs of the entire column with a frequency of 50 Hz are obtained for bubble velocity calculations.2.15. Bubble velocities Bubble velocity measurements have been performed via bubble image velocimetry (Deen (2001)) for the superficial gas velocity range from 5 to 30 mm/s with an initial liquid height H0 = 0.45 m are given in Figure 6.3. bubble down-flow regions near the side walls and a bubble up-flow region in the centre across the width of the bubble column are developed. 11 . This figure shows for a low superficial gas velocity of 5 mm/s an uniform up-flow of the rising bubbles. By increasing the superficial gas velocity. 0.6 m.30 and 0. The average vertical bubble velocities across the width of the pseudo-2D bubble column at heights of 0.

2 0.5 cm/s 1.9 1 − 0.0 cm/s 2.25 bubble velocity [m/s] 0.5 cm/s 2.0 cm/s 2.15 0.35 0.30 m 0.8 0.1 0.4 0.2 0.05 0 − 0.1 sup v sup 0.5 cm/s 1.45 m column heights for an initial liquid height of H0 = 0.0 cm/s 1.35 0.2 0.2 0.6 m and different superficial gas velocities.15 m 0.7 0.15 0.0 cm/s 0.0 cm/s 0.0 cm/s 0.1 0.5 cm/s 2.05 0.25 0.5 0.25 bubble velocity [m/s] 0.1 0 − 0.05 0 − 0.45 m Figure 6: Average vertical bubble velocities across the width of the pseudo-2D bubble column at 0.3 0.0 cm/s 1.9 1 − 0.5 cm/s 2.0 cm/s 2.6 0.3 0.0.1 v 0.05 0.0 cm/s 1.3 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.4 0.5 cm/s 3.1 0.05 0 − 0.5 cm/s 1. 12 .7 0.1 0 x/D (c) H = 0.5 cm/s 3.3 0.9 1 0.3 0.30 and 0.2 bubble velocity [m/s] 0.6 0.35 (b) H = 0.6 0. 0.05 0.1 v sup 0.15 0.5 0.1 0 x/D x/D (a) H = 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.5 cm/s 3.15.5 0.

At low superH BSD . With a length of the mean bubble diameter db from each side of the height H and width W of the measurement zone and the depth D.3. Using the measured bubble BSD sizes.3. On increasing the superficial gas velocity. αg 13 . the gas hold-up (αg ) is calculated as follows from the DIA data: N ∑ BSD αg = i=1 d3 ) (π 6 i (3) Vwindow Here. Increase of the initial liquid height in the column has no significant effect on the gas hold-up. the integral gas hold-up is calculated on basis of the measured bubble sizes and is compared with the integral gas hold-up calculated using the liquid expansion height. Integral gas hold-up To illustrate how well the BSD obtained with DIA describes the actual gas hold-up in the column. the expansion of the liquid height in the column is used: H αg = Hf − H0 Hf (5) where Hf is the height of aerated liquid. the gas hold-up in the column increases. Vwindow (see Figure 7) is calculated as follows: Vwindow = (W − 2db ) · (H − 2db ) · D (4) H For the actual gas hold-up (αg ) in the bubble column. where bubbles crossing/touching the borders are not taken into account in the detection algorithm (borderkill). Figure 8 shows the comparison of the gas hold-up determined by DIA/BSD and liquid height expansion. Vwindow is defined as the volume of the measurement zone minus the border volumes. This is seems to be larger than αg ficial gas velocity of 5 mm/s.

In comparison with higher superficial gas velocities. This results in an underestimation of the actual liquid volume. because of the Vwindow for which too much border volumes are subtracted. 14 . for 5 mm/s there are only a small number of bubbles crossing/touching the borders.width db measurement window measurement window minus border volumes height Vwindow db column wall column wall db db Figure 7: Schematic representation of Vwindow for the calculation of the gas hold-up. which in turn results in an overpredicted integral gas hold-up. but at higher velocities the error becomes very large. In spite of the imaging errors (noise and oversegmentation) introduced by the images. Therefore the BSD’s obtained at superficial gas velocities exceeding 20 mm/s are omitted in this work. DIA/BSD is reasonably accurate at lower superficial gas velocities up till 20 mm/s. At high superficial gas velocities. the presence of undetected small bubbles as shown in Figure 5 will contribute largely to the gas hold-up error.

Other initial heights show similar trends and are not shown here. Bubble size distribution The PDF’s of the bubble size distribution for different initial liquid heights are illustrated in Figures 9 and 10. the PDF of the middle region of the column is plotted in Figure 11 for an initial liquid height of H0 = 0. For higher initial liquid heights (see Figures 9b and 9c). It can be seen that for all three initial liquid heights the trends are the same and the initial size distribution at the bottom region of the column prevails at the upper regions.5 1 vsup [c m/s] 1. 3. At a low superficial gas velocity of 5 mm/s.12 12 12 BSD height expansion 10 10 BSD height expansion 10 BSD height expansion 8 8 8 [%] [%] 6 6 [%] g 0 0.5 3 3.5 (a) H0 = 0.5 2 2. To illustrate the effect of the superficial gas velocity on the BSD. the height of the peak in the PDF becomes sharper with the height of the measurement zones. the bubbles enter the bottom section of the column with a mean diameter of approximately 4 mm.5 1 1. and that this equilibrium is solely determined by the gas superficial gas velocity and independent of the initial liquid height.6 m.5 2 2.5 1 vsup [c m/s] 1.5 3 3.5 0 0 vsup [c m/s] 0 0.5 m (b) H0 = 0.5 2 2.5 6 g 4 g 4 4 2 2 2 0 0 0. It appears that there exists an equilibrium between bubble coalescence and break-up along the height of the column. which is retained throughout the higher sections (see Figure 9a).4.7 m Figure 8: Effect of the superficial gas velocity on the gas hold-up with different initial liquid heights.6 m (c) H0 = 0. The 15 .5 3 3.

the equilibrium between coalescence and breakup is not obtained in the bottom section.5. Increasing the superficial gas velocity to 20 mm/s leads to similar effects. µ increases up till a superficial gas velocity of 20 mm/s.7 m has almost no effect on the resulting BSD’s. the standard deviation σ and the Sauter mean diameter d32 are listed in Table 1. it seems that the initial liquid heights of 0.5 mm). while σ and d32 both keep increasing. Coalescence and breakup of bubbles are starting to play a role and it seems that its equilibrium is almost reached in the bottom section. This deviation is observed for all measured superficial gas velocities. while for the other liquid heights the free surface area of the water is well above in the top section. It shows that with the increase of superficial gas velocity. the gas-liquid mixture only fills half of the measurement section. but with a wider bubble size distribution and a single peak at 5 mm. the PDF is a non-bimodal wide distribution. At a superficial gas velocity of 15 mm/s (see Figures 10a.5 m. as for an initial liquid height of 0. From these reported BSD’s.6 and 0. 0.At 15 and 20 mm/s. In the bottom section. 10b and 10c) a bimodal bubble size distribution is observed with a small peak at 2. causing exit effects on the PDF. 9e and 9f).5 mm and a large peak at 5 mm. developing into a bimodal distribution in the middle and top sections due to coalescence. since the shape does not change much throughout the middle and top sections. Similar trends are observed for a superficial gas velocity of 10 mm/s for all three initial liquid heights (see Figures 9d. The calculated number mean bubble diameter µ. but still develops throughout the column. 16 . but also to more break-up (small peak at approximately 5 mm and a large peak at 2.differences can be explained by the location of the top measurement zone.

1 0.5 m & vsup =(e) H0 = 0.15 0.5.15 0.6 m & vsup =(f) H0 = 0.1 PDF [−] 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 0.6 and 0.35 bottom middle top 0.3 0.25 vsup = 5 mm/s 0.6 m &(c) H0 = 0.25 PDF [−] PDF [−] 0.3 0.5 m &(b) H0 = 0 .2 bottom middle top 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.7 m & vsup = 10 mm/s 10 mm/s 10 mm/s Figure 9: Bubble size distribution for the superficial gas velocities of 5 and 10 mm/s with initial liquid heights (H0 ) of 0.25 0.2 PDF [−] 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 0.05 0.7 m & vsup = 5 mm/s 0.15 0.15 0.05 0.2 bottom middle top PDF [−] PDF [−] 0.35 bottom middle top 0.1 0.7 m.15 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0. 17 .35 bottom middle top 0.05 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 0 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 diameter [mm] diameter [mm] diameter [mm] (d) H0 = 0.05 0. 0.0.05 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 0 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 diameter [mm] diameter [mm] diameter [mm] (a) H0 = 0.25 vsup = 5 mm/s 0.05 0.25 0.2 bottom middle top 0.15 0.

075 PDF [−] 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 0.125 bottom middle top 0.075 0.1 PDF [−] PDF [−] 0.1 0.025 0.05 0.1 PDF [−] PDF [−] 0.5.025 0.7 m & vsup = 15 mm/s 0.025 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 0 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 diameter [mm] diameter [mm] diameter [mm] (a) H0 = 0. 0.05 0.05 0.15 0.15 15 mm/s 0.7 m.1 0.075 0.075 PDF [−] 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 0.7 m & vsup = 20 mm/s 20 mm/s 20 mm/s Figure 10: Bubble size distribution for the superficial gas velocities of 10 and 20 mm/s with initial liquid heights (H0 ) of 0.15 0.025 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 0 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 diameter [mm] diameter [mm] diameter [mm] (d) H0 = 0.1 0.075 0.125 bottom middle top 0. 18 .5 m & vsup =(b) H0 = 0.0.05 0.125 bottom middle top 0.125 bottom middle top 0.6 m & vsup =(c) H0 = 0.025 0.15 15 mm/s 0.125 bottom middle top 0.1 0.5 m & vsup =(e) H0 = 0.075 0.05 0.6 and 0.125 bottom middle top 0.025 0.15 0.6 m & vsup =(f) H0 = 0.05 0.15 0.

3 v v v sup sup sup = 10 mm/s = 15 mm/s = 20 mm/s 0. The effect of break-up increases. as the superficial gas velocity is increased. Conclusions In this work a novel digital image analysis (DIA) technique is used to measure bubble size distributions (BSD’s) in a pseudo-2D bubble column.05 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 diameter [mm] Figure 11: Evolution of the bubble size distribution for increasing superficial gas velocity with an initial liquid height (H0 ) of 0. The superficial gas velocity has a major effect on 19 .6 m. 4.2 0.25 PDF [−] 0. From the resulting BSD’s.15 0. It appears that quickly an equilibrium is reached between the coalescence and break-up. it can be seen that the initial bubble size distribution created at the bottom of the column prevails throughout the height of the column.vsup = 5 mm/s 0.1 0.

23 5. For velocities more than 20 mm/s. [-] 20 .38 4. the hydrodynamics and henceforth on the bubble size distribution within the bubble column. The initial liquid height in the bubble column during the experiments has little influence on the bubble size distribution.25 5.28 d32 [mm] 4.50 7.22 5. small bubbles contribute largely to the gas hold-up.88 ± 0.37 6.35 d32 [mm] 4.80 4.7 m µ±σ [mm] 3.97 4.33 6.34 4.46 ± 1.20 Table 1: The mean.41 7.28 H0 = 0.55 ± 1.43 ± 2. This is because 2D images are used to extract 3D bubble shape information.79 4.45 ± 2. The hold-up in the column measured by the DIA is lower than determined by liquid expansion.94 4.32 d32 [mm] 4. standard deviation and d32 of the detected bubbles for different initial liquid heights and superficial gas velocities.99 4.46 7. whereas the gas hold-up from DIA is determined only using the large bubbles.88 ± 0.45 ± 1.37 H0 = 0.46 ± 1.57 ± 1.41 ± 2.56 ± 1.H0 = 0. Nomenclature A αg area. whereas the actual bubble shape could be different. [m2 ] integral gas hold-up via the liquid expansion height.37 4.36 6. Increasing the hold-up in the column makes it difficult to determine the bubble size due to increased bubble overlap in the images.80 4.6 m µ±σ [mm] 3.90 ± 0.5 m vsup [mm/s] 5 10 15 20 µ±σ [mm] 3.

[m] 21 .BSD D DIA d d32 de db H H0 Hf i N PDF Ro S Vwindow vsup W bubble size distribution depth of the column. [m] height of the column. [m] equivalent diameter. [-] probability density function roundness. [-] surface perimeter. [m3 ] superficial gas velocity. [m] index number of bubbles. [m] digital image analysis diameter. [m/s] width of the column. [m] volume of the measurement window. [m] mean bubble diameter. [m] final liquid height. [m] Sauter mean diameter. [m] initial liquid height.

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