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Philip Hawthorn and Caroline Phipps

USIC
Edited by Jenny Tyler and Helen Davies
Series editor: Anthony Marks
Designed by Kim Blundell and Lindy Dark
Cover design by Russell Punter
Illu ted by Joseph McEwan,
Guy Smith and Peter Dennis
Cover illustration by Ross Watton
ts by Daniel Scott and Caroline Phipps
Music engravings by Poco Ltd and Michael Durnin
Contents
Section 1
Baroque music 4
Classical music 22
Romantic music 38
Playing the pieces in section 1 62
Glossary 64
Composer chart 66
Section 2
Theatre music 68
Music for dancing 86
Religious music 100
Descriptive music 110
Playing the pieces in section 2 126
Index 128
Pieces in this book
Trumpet tune (Purcell), 6
When I am laid in earth (Purcell), 7
Adagio (AlbinonilGiazotto), 8
Spring (Vivaldi), 9
AlIa Danza (Handel), 10
Arrival of the Queen of Sheba
(Handel), 12
Thine be the Glory (Handel), 14
Canon in D (Pachelbel), 15
Viola concerto in G (Telemann), 16
Brandenburg concerto no.3 (Bach), 17
Air on the G string (Bach), 18
Minuet in G (Bach), 20
Rule, Britannia (Arne), 21
Bourree (Leopold Mozart), 24
Che faro (Gluck), 25
Emperor's hymn (Haydn), 26
String quartet in D (Haydn), 27
Clarinet concerto (Mozart), 28
Romance (Mozart), 29
Symphony no.40 (Mozart), 30
Duet from The Magic Flute (Mozart)., 32
Ode to Joy (Beethoven), 33
Pastoral Symphony (Beethoven), 34
Minuet in G (Beethoven), 35
Moonlight Sonata (Beethoven), 36
Impromptu (Schubert), 40
The Unfinished Symphony (Schubert), 41
Serenade (Schubert), 42
Caprice no.24 (Paganini), 44
William Tell overture (Rossini), 45
Harold in Italy (Berlioz), 46
The Jolly Peasant (Schumann), 47
The Wild Horseman (Schumann), 48
Prelude op.28, no.7 (Chopin), 49
Nocturne op.9, no.2 (Chopin), 50
Violin concerto in E minor
(Mendelssohn),52
Liebestraume (Liszt), 54
La donna e mobile (Verdi), 55
Ride of the Valkyries (Wagner), 56
Bridal chorus (Wagner), 57
Symphony no.3 (Brahms), 58
Swan Lake (Tchaikovsky), 59
Piano concerto no.l (Tchaikovsky), 60
Solveig's song (Grieg), 61
Terzettino (Mozart), 70
Fidelio (Beethoven), 72
The Barber of Seville overture
(Rossini), 73
Drinking song (Verdi), 74
Anvil chorus (Verdi), 76
Soldiers' chorus (Gounod), 78
March of the kings (Bizet), 79
Du und du (Strauss), 80
Morning (Grieg), 81
Flower duet (Delibes), 82
Pizzicati (Delibes), 84
Sleeping Beauty waltz
(Tchaikovsky),85
Musette (J. S. Bach), 88
German dance (Mozart), 89
Minuet in A (Boccherini), 90
The Blue Danube waltz nO.l
(Strauss), 92
Hungarian dance no.5 (Brahms), 94
Dance of the hours (Ponchielli), 95
Slavonic dance op.46, no.8 (Dvorak), 96
Eugene One gin waltz (Tchaikovsky), 97
Norwegian dance op.35, no.2
(Grieg),98
Polovtsian dance no.l (Borodin), 99
Wachet auf! (J. S. Bach), 102
Jesu, joy of man's desiring
(J. S. Bach), 104
The Heavens are telling the glory of
God (Haydn), 105
The Lord's my shepherd (J. S.
Irvine), 106
Jerusalem (Parry), 107
Go down Moses, 108
Swing low, sweet chariot, 109
Autumn (Vivaldi), 112
Nocturne (Mendelssohn), 114
Hebrides overture (Mendelssohn), 116
Nocturne op.15, no.2 (Chopin), 117
Romeo and Juliet (Tchaikovsky), 118
Promenade (Musorgsky), 120
Vltava (Smetana), 121
Scheherazade (Rimsky-Korsakov), 122
The girl with the flaxen hair
(Debussy), 124
i
Introduction
The tunes in this book are taken from popular
pieces of classical music, and have been specially
arranged and simplified to make them easy to
play. Many of them should be familiar, even those
with titles that you may not recognize. The pieces
are grouped in three sections according to the
period in which they were written. At the
beginning of each section there is an introduction
to the music and composers of that period.
Naming n p of c
Most pieces of music have a number, called an
opus number. (Opus is the Latin word for "work").
In the 17th century, composers began to number
their works as they were published, opus 1 (or
op.l), opus 2 and so on. Often a single opus
number was given to a group of pieces published
together in one book. When several pieces
appeared with the same opus number, each one
was given a second number, for example,
op.l, no.4.
Composers often gave their music titles as well.
For example, Beethoven called his sixth
symphony the Pastoral Symphony. Sometimes
titles were added later by other people.
Beethoven's sonata op.27, no.2 was given the name
Moonlight Sonata.
The Baroque period
Baroque is the name given to the
European style of art, architecture and
music from about 1600 to 1750.
Buildings were very ornate, and music
echoed this. Baroque music started in
Italy, and worked its way north to
Germany, France and England. It is
known for its contrasts of speed and
volume.
Many new styles or forms of music
were developed in the Baroque period,
some of these are described here. On the
opposite page you can find out about the
Baroque composers whose music
appears in this section.
Oratorios cantatas
An oratorio is a musical story or drama, usually
on a religious theme. It is performed by a choir
and orchestra without costumes, scenery or
action. Cantatas are similar to oratorios but they
are more an act of worship, often including
popular hymn tunes.
Opera The concerto grosso Dance music and suites
An opera is like a play where
some or all of the words are
sung. The first operas were
staged in private homes in the
1590s by a group of poets and
composers called the Camerata.
The first public opera house (a
special theatre for opera) was
opened in Venice in 1637.
The first piano
Early

plano
In the Baroque period, a type
of piece called the concerto
grosso was popuJar. It was
written for a small group of
instruments and a larger
orchestra. The orchestra acted
mainly as an accompaniment,
while the smaller group played
special solo parts.
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Baroque composers began to
use dance music in their
works. An example of this is
the minuet, a dance which was
very popular at the court of
Louis XIV in France.
A suite is a group of pieces of
music, often including several
different dance styles.
The orchestra
Harpsichord
Example of
a baroque
orchestra.
The first piano was made in about 1700 by an
Italian called Cristofori. Pianos didn't really
become popular, though, until later in the 18th
century. Until then, the main keyboard
instruments were the harpsichord, virginal,
spinet and clavichord. Only on the clavichord
were the strings struck, as they are on a piano.
The others had quills to pluck the strings.
An orchestra is a large group of instruments.
In the Baroque period, an orchestra had up to
around 40 players. More than half of the
instruments in an orchestra are strings. There
are also sections of brass, woodwind and
percussion instruments. Baroque orchestras
were directed by the ha.l-psichord player or the
lead violinist.
4
Baroque composers
Henry Purcell
(1659-1695)
Purcell was the most famous
English Baroque composer.
He had a song published
when he was eight, and at 20
became the organist at
Westminster Abbey in
London. He wrote over 500
works, including music for
40 plays. He also wrote for
royal occasions such as
coronations, and the funeral
of Queen Mary in 1695.
George Frideric Handel
(1685-1759)
Handel was born in Germany.
His father didn't want him to be
a musician, so as a boy he had
to play in secret. He lived in
Italy for a while, then went to
England and became a British
subject in 1726. He composed
for kings George I and George
II. Handel wrote many kinds of
music, including oratorios,
operas and concertos.
Tomaso Albinoni
(1671-1751)
Albinoni was an Italian
composer. He wrote over 40
cantatas, many concertos
and a lot of other instrumental
music, majnly for strings. He
also wrote over 50 operas. He
lived most of his early life in
Venice, where he opened a
singing school with his wife,
Margherita, in 1709. After her
death, he directed his operas
all over Europe.
Johann Sebastian Bach
(1685-1750)
Bach was born into a famous
German musical family, and
held important posts as a
musician at the courts of
Weimar and Cathen. He was
an excellent organist, violinist
and harpsichord player. His
music later influenced ma.ny
other composers, including
Mozart, Beethoven and
Mendelssohn.
Antonio Vivaldi
(1678-1741)
Vivaldi was an Italian
composer who also trained to
be a priest. From 1703 he
taught the violin at a girls'
school in Venice. He is best
known for his development of
the concerto, and wrote about
550 of them for various
instruments. Although he
was a famous musician for
much of his life, he died a
poor man.
Thomas Arne
(1710-1778)
Arne was one of the most
famous English composers of
the late 18th century. He was
noted for writing pleasant
melodies. He wrote over 30
operas, and lots of music and
songs for plays, including
those of Shakespeare. The tune
for which he is best
remembered is now known as
Rule, Britannia.
5
When I am laid in earth
This tune is from
the opera Dido and
Aeneas. It is based
on The Aeneid, a
story by the Roman
poet Virgil.
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violin concertos
The Four Seasons.
Each is based
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This tune is from
Alia Danza (from Water Music)
This music was
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royal river outing
on the Thames.
the second movement
of the Water Music suite
in D. It was written
for George I of
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written near the end of the
15th century.
11
This tune is from
the oratorio
Solomon, based
on a story in the
Old Testament of
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This piece was
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Bach wrote six
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dance tunes.
Air on a G string
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stepwise pattern
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Bach was a very fine
organist and wrote a lot
of organ and church
music. After his death,
his music went out of
fashion for about 80
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Bach wrote this tune
for his second wife, //
Anna Magdalena. <
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professional
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in 1721. . ... ,
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This is a song
from a masque
called Alfred,
written in 1740.
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sort of play with
music, singing
and dancing.
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The Classical period
Some people call all serious music
"classical", but the word is mainly
used to describe the music of the
second half of the 18th century.
Classical music reflects the confidence
and prosperity of this period. New
instruments enabled composers to
The symphony The concerto
develop new sounds, harmonies and
musical forms. Some of these forms are
explained below. At this time, Vienna
was one of the most important musical
cities. Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven,
the three greatest composers of the
age, lived there for much of their lives.
The sonata
A symphony is a piece of
music for an orchestra. In
the Classical period, most
symphonies had four
sections, called movements.
Each one had its own speed
and sty Ie, often in the
pattern shown below.
A concerto is a piece of
music for an orchestra and
a soloist. It developed from
the Baroque form, the
concerto grosso (see page
4). The concerto usually
had three movements, like
those shown below.
Classical sonatas were
written for either a single
keyboard instrument, or
for a keyboard and one
other instrument. They
usually had three or four
movements (see below).
22
I-
1. Fairly fast
and lively.
2. Slow
1. Fast. Usually
the orchestra
begins and then
the soloist joins in.
I 1. Fast
2. Slow.
j; ..
3. A minuet
and trio
(dance tunes).
2. Slow.
3. Fast.

4. Fast and
cheerful.
In the first and last
movements, the soloist
sometimes had a part to play
alone, called a cadenza.
3 Minuet \
trio. 'i,

4. Fast
and liVe]
Y.
A square piano A grand piano
During the 18th century, the piano
gradually grew in popularity. Unlike the
harpsichord, it could play loudly (forte)
and softly (piano). This meant that a
much wider variety of music could be
played on it.
In the 18th century, Cristofori's
invention was called the "fortepiano".
Later, it became known as the pianoforte,
and eventually it was shortened to just the
piano. Today, the word Fortepiano is used
for an instrument built in the early 18th
century.
Orchestras
23 violins
7 violas
2 trumpets
3 bassoons
2 harpsichords
As new instruments were invented or
developed, orchestras grew in size. Above
you can see the most common orchestral
instruments of the classical period,
though others were frequently included
as well. Orchestras were usually still
directed by the harpsichord player or
lead violinist.
Classicalconnposers
- --- ---
rranz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)
\ Haydn was born in Rohrau,
Austria. He trained as a
choirboy, and sang in the
choir of St. Stephen's
Cathedral in Vienna for ten
years. In 1766, he became
music director at the court
of the Esterhazys, a rich
Hungarian family. He
worked for them, on and
off, for most of his life.
Haydn wrote nearly every
form of music, including
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)

---./
Mozart was an Austrian
composer, and wrote his first
music at the age of five. At
seven he went on a concert tour
of Europe. Above you can see a
poster for a concert he gave in
England.
Mozart wrote his first
symphony at the age of nine.
He lived in Salzburg, Paris
and Munich, but settled in
Vienna in 1781. He often
appeared as the soloist and
conductor for his own music.
Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)
Beethoven was born in Bonn,
Germany, where his father
and grandfather were both
musicians. From 1792, he
lived in Vienna. His early
pieces included the
Moonlight Sonata for piano,
three piano concertos, and
two symphonies.
From about 1802, he was
troubled by gradual and
incurable deafness. But he
continued writing all kinds of
music. Because of pieces like
his third, fifth and sixth
.. u.t, ....... , ...... "'''', the opera Fidelio
and two more piano concertos,
he became known as the
greatest composer of his day.
By the end of his life he was
almost totally deaf, but this
108 symphonies, many
string quartets, operas and
church music.
His music was popular all
over Europe. He visited
many major European
cities, including London.
In the 1780's he became
very good friends with
Mozart (see below), who
dedicated a set of string
quartets to him.
Mozart wrote a huge amount
of music, including 41
symphonies, 27 piano
concertos, religious music,
chamber music and 19 operas.
Above is a scene from his
opera The Magic Flute.
was when he wrote some of
his greatest music. His last
string quartets contain some
of the most challenging music
ever written. In his ninth
symphony, he used a choir as
well as an orchestra, to
increase the dramatic effect of
the music.
23
Leopold was the
father of Wolfgang
Amadeus Mozart. He
was also a musician.
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25
This and the next tune
are from a set of six
string quartets, op.76.
This is the third, called
The Emperor.
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A string quartet is
music played by a
cello, a viola and
two violins. This
tune is the fifth in
the set.
II
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27
Clarinet concerto
Mozart loved the
sound of the clarinet.
He wrote this
concerto for his
friend Anton Stadler,
a famous clarinettist.

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The title of this music
is German. It means
"a little night music".
It was completed in
(from Eine Kleine Nachtmusik)
This form of music is
called a serenade. It
would often be played
1787.
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This symphony is one
of Mozart's last. Parts
of it are very sad and
moving.
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symphonies,
numbers 39,40
and 41, were
written in six
weeks during
1788.
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Ever since the piano
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many weird and
wonderful ones
made. You can see
some on the right.
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orchestra.
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A piano that
could also be
used as a
table, made
about 1850.
piano (made about
1850) had two
keyboards for
two players.
A "harp piano"
made in 1857.
31
The Magic Flute is
Duet from The Magic Flute
one of the last pieces
Mozart wrote. This
duet is sung by the
characters Papageno ?
and Pamina.
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This symphony was
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the countryside.
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quartet).
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This sonata (op.27, no.2)
was written in 1801. It
was dedicated to a
Countess with whom
Beethoven was in love.
Adagio sostenuto
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36
3 3
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It got its name
because a poet called
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reminded him of
moonlight on a lake.
Beethoven
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On the right is
the last page of
the original
manuscript for
the Moonlight
Sonata.
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piano at the first
performances of much
of his piano music. On
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37
The Romantic period
'Romantic' is the word used for a new
style of music that developed in Europe in
the 19th century. It was often inspired by
other arts, especially poetry and
painting. Romantic composers tried to
write music that expressed their feelings
and emotions, and much of their work is
very dramatic and moving.
first Romantic composer; he introduced
Romantic styles and expressions into his
later music. He was followed by Schubert
and then many others. You can find out
about them on the opposite page.
Romantic composers, especially when
they performed as well, were often very
popular and had huge followings. You
can find out more on page 54. Some people view Beethoven as the
The orchestra
Keys on a clarinet
A harp-the
pedals were
invented in 1810.
Valves on
a trumpet
By about 1830, the orchestra
looked more or less like it
does today. There could be
anywhere between 70 and
100 instruments, depending
on the type of music. Many
instruments were improved
by the invention of valves
and keys (see above). The
harp was also included in
orchestras from about 1820.
As orchestras grew larger,
it was no longer practical for
one of the musicians to direct
the others and play at the
same time. Since the eary
19th century, most
orchestras have been directed
by a separate musician
called a conductor.
A conductor stands in
front of the orchestra,
beating time with one hand,
and telling the orchestra how
loudly or softly to l ~ with
the other. The introduction
of a conductor meant that
very precise directions could
be given to the orchestra.
38
As a result, composers began
to write more complex music
with greater variation in
dynamics and tempo. The
conductor was able to control
the speed, volume and mood
of the music very accurately,
so composers began to be
more adventurous in the
kind of music they wrote for
the orchestra.
Romantic
music
The Romantic piano
During the Romantic period,
the piano became the most
popular instrument. It was
much more strongly built, so
its sound was able to fill the
large concert halls that were
being built. It was also given
more keys. In the picture
below you can see an upright
piano.
These were first produced on
a large scale in the 1870s and
were the kind most people
had in their homes.
Music for ...... H<O"'"'.
example, that of
Tchaikovsky.
During the
Romantic
period, many
different
types of
music were
popular. On
the right,
you can read
about some
of the most
important
Romantic
styles.
expressed a mood
(Chopin's Nocturnes).
Opera - with exotic
settings and romantic
or adventurous plots.
Romantic composers
Franz g"'UULUII:,&-
(1797-1828)
Austrian
Schubert was known mainly
as a writer of songs, but he
also composed beautiful
instrumental music,
such as the Trout Quintet.
Hector w"", ...
(1803-1869)
French
Berlioz was a very
inventive composer. He
was also a very emotional
man, and this is reflected
in much of his music.
Fryderyk
Chopin
(1810-1849)
Polish
Chopin was one of the
greatest composers of piano
music. He influenced many
others, including Liszt,
Tchaikovsky and Grieg.
Richard Wagner
(1813-1883)
German
Much of Wagner's music was
political. He was banished
from Germany for 11 years.
His 4 operas called The Ring
of the Nibelung last 18 hours.
Pyotr Il'yich
Tchaikovsky
(1840-1893)
Russian
Tchaikovsky is famous for
many types of music:
symphonies, concertos, and
ballets such as Swan Lake
and The Nutcracker.
Nicolo Pag-anini
(1782-1840)
Italian
Paganini was not only a
composer, but also a
virtuoso performer. He
played the violin to wildly
enthusiastic audiences.
Robert
Schumann
(1810-1856)
German
A gifted pianist, Schumann
wrote piano and orchestral
music. He composed over
300 songs, many influenced
by his love for his wife, Clara.
Franz Liszt
(1811-1886)
Hungarian
Liszt was a brilliant
concert pianist by the age
of 12. His piano music is
among the most difficult
ever written.
Johannes
Brahms
(1833-1897)
German
Brahms wrote a wide
variety of music, including
four symphonies and
many songs. He was a
close friend of Schumann.
Edvard Grieg
(1843-1907)
Norwegian
Grieg promoted Norwegian
music as a composer, pianist
and conductor. Two famous
works are the Piano
Concerto, and Peer Gynt.

(1792-1868)
Italian
Coming from a musical
family, Rossini wrote his
first opera at 18. He composed
40 more, including The
Barber of Seville.
Felix
Mendelssohn
(1809-1847)
German
Mendelssohn was a pianist
and conductor as well as a
composer. He played and
conducted his music all
over Europe.
Giuseppe-Verdi
( 1813-1901)
Italian
Almost all Verdi's music is
opera. He wrote and directed
allover Europe. Among his
best known are Afda,
La Traviata and Rigoletto.
CaDdllEi ..
Saint-Saens
(1835-1921)
French
Saint-Saens was a famous
pianist, organist and
composer. He was admired
by Liszt and influenced
many others, including Ravel.
Giacomo Puccini
(1858-1924)
Italian
After seeing Verdi's Afda,
Puccini dedicated himself to
opera. Among his best
known works are La Boheme
and Madam Butterfly.
39
An impromptu is
meant to sound as if it
is being improvised,
that is, made up on
the spot.
Impromptu op.142, no.3
The picture on the
left shows
Schubert's room
with his piano.
Schubert
Andante
3
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This symphony,
Schubert's eighth, only
has two movements.
It is thought he
didn't finish it because
he got tired of it.
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Allegro moderato
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2
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37 years after
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This piece is the
music to a song.
Schubert wrote over
600 songs, called
Lieder.
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Serenade
+- One of
Schubert's
song
manuscripts.

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page of a song which
Schubert wrote, called
The Trout.
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11.
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1
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3
I 12.
2 3
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The picture shows
characters from an
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Rossini
to Coda Ee
D.C.alEe CODA
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45
This piece has a solo
viola part that Berlioz
wrote for Paganini.
In fact, Paganini
never played the
piece.
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Harold in Italy
Berlioz was also a
famous conductor.
It is based on a poem
by the poet Byron
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Pilgrimage.
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The Jolly Peasant
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A nocturne is a piano
piece which is quiet
and thoughtful. The
name is from the word
nocturnal, meaning
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Nocturne op.9, no.2
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by John Field, an
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brilliant pianist. He
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at the piano.

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Mendelssohn wrote
this concerto for his
friend Ferdinand
David, a violinist.
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second movement.
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Liebestriiume means
"dreams of love". Liszt
gave the title to the
piano arrangements
of three of his songs.
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Famous musicians
During the 18th century,
audiences often ate, drank and
talked during concerts. In the
Romantic period, audiences
listened more carefully. Some
soloists had many fans, a bit like
modern pop stars.
54

.
Paderewski played in
London in 1892.
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The Liebestriiume
are nocturnes.
an old man,
in his study.
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The Polish pianist
Paderewski (1860-1941)
was often mobbed by
audiences during his
concerts. In 1919, he
became the president of
Poland.
This song is from
an opera called
Rigoletto. It was
first performed in
1851.
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The story of Rigoletto
There is gossip that
Rigoletto (the Duke of
Mantua's jester) has a lover
hidden away. In fact he is
keeping Gilda, his daughter,
hidden from the world, only
allowing her out on Sundays,
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to go to church. She is in love
with a stranger she has seen
there (the Duke).
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Some of the Duke's men kidnap
Gilda, to prove that Rigoletto
has a secret lover. In a rage,
Rigoletto pays an assassin to
kill the Duke, but the assassin's
sister falls in love with the
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This opera is about
a court jester. The
picture shows
costume designs
for the first
production.
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Duke. She refuses to let her
brother kill him, but they must
kill someone to give Rigoletto a
body and claim the fee. To save
the Duke's life, Gilda allows
herself to be killed, and her
body is placed in a sack. When
Rigoletto opens it, he finds the
body of his daughter.
55
This is from the opera
The Valkyrie. It is the
second of four that
make up the opera
cycle called The Ring
of the Nibelung.
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the Valkyries. They
were the daughters
of Wotan, the chief of
the Gods.
Wagner
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This popular wedding
march is from the
opera Lohengrin. It is
played when
Lohengrin, Knight of
the Grail, marries
Elsa.
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music. He finished it
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57
The tune below is from
the third movement.
In the symphony (first
heard in 1883) it is
played by the cellos.
Poco allegretto
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58
Symphony no.3
Brahms was an
excellent pianist. On
the left is a picture of
him playing.
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Swan Lake is a
ballet, written in
1877. The swans in
the story turn into
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59
Piano concerto no. 1
The piece was first
performed in Boston,
Massachusets, on
October 25, 1875.
This is part of the
first movement.
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On the left is the
booklet handed to
the audience at the
first performance.
Tchaikovsky
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Solveig's song is
from a play called
Peer Gynt, by the
Norwegian writer
Henrik Ibsen.
Solveig's song
The tune is based on
a Norwegian song.
Grieg was very fond
of folk music.
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61
Playing the pieces in this section
On these two pages you will find some hints on
how to play the pieces in this book. When you
are learning a piece, it is usually better to
practise each hand separately at first. When
you can play each hand comfortably, try to play
them at the correct speed, and then try playing
both hands together.
There are suggestions for fingerings in the
music, but you can try to work out your own
fingerings if these do not feel comfortable. If
you want to start with the simplest pieces in the
book, look at Minuet in G on page 20, and the
Pastoral Symphony on page 34.
Trumpet tune
Try to keep an even, march-like rhythm.
When I am laid in earth
There are lots of accidentals in this piece,
especially in the third line. Practise each hand
on its own at first, until you are confident of
the notes.
Adagio
This piece is slow, so make sure the triplets are
even. Take care in the first and second time
bars - you might want to practise these
separately at first.
Spring
The right hand plays thirds almost all the way
through this piece. Practise until you can play
them accurately.
AlIa Danza (from Water Music)
The opening chords in the right hand are
difficult. Practise these until you are confident
of the fingering.
Arrival of the Queen of Sheba
This is very fast, so practise the right hand part
until you can play it at the correct speed before
adding the left hand part.
Thine be the glory
You may find it easier to practise this in
sections. There are six sections in the piece,
each four bars long.
Canon in D
Familiarize yourself with the fingering in the
left hand before trying both parts together.
Viola concerto in G major
The first two bars on the last line are a bit
tricky, so they may need a little extra work.
62
Brandenburg concerto no.3
Take care with the fourth line, as there are some
big leaps in the right hand.
Air on the G string
Keep the left hand very steady throughout the
piece. There are lots of large leaps, so you will
need to practise this on its own before adding
the right hand.
Minuet in G
Take care not to rush - play at a relaxed tempo.
Rule, Britannia
Make sure you are confident of the fingering in
the right hand before trying both hands
together.
Bourree
Play this very smoothly.
Che faro
Keep the left hand part flowing evenly.
Emperor's hymn
When both hands are playing the same rhythm,
make sure you keep them absolutely together.
String quartet in D op.76, no.5
When the left hand is playing crotchet chords in
the last two lines, make them softer than the
right hand to allow the tune to come through.
Clarinet concerto
In the last three lines of the piece, make sure
you play the thirds in the left hand very
smoothly.
Romance (from Eine kleine Nachtmusik)
Take care with the semiquaver passages in the
third and fourth lines. The fingering is
sometimes a little tricky here.
Symphony no.40
Play the left hand part a little softer than the
right hand, so that you can hear the tune
clearly. Keep a steady pace in the left hand,
especially in the first two lines of the first page
and the first three lines of the second page.
Duet from The Magic Flute
From the second bar of the second line to the
first bar of the third line, the left hand has the
tune. Play the right hand part a little softer in
these bars.
Ode to Joy
Play this very steadily, evenly and confidently.
Pastoral Symphony
Play the chords in the left hand very softly.
Make sure you hold each one for its full length.
Minuet in G
Take care with the passages in thirds in the
right hand. Practise these on their own until
you can play them without any mistakes before
adding the left hand part.
Moonlight Sonata
Play this very quietly and smoothly. Make sure
you keep the triplets even throughout.
Impromptu op.142, no.3
Practise the rhythm in the left hand before
trying both hands together. This rhythm gives
the piece its character, so try to play it as
smoothly as possible.
Unfinished Symphony
The tune is in the left hand part, so play this a
little stronger than the right hand. Be careful
not to make the chords in the right hand sound
too heavy.
Serenade
Make sure you don't rush the triplet here. Try
to play it exactly in time.
Caprice no.24
This is fairly fast, so practise the right hand
part until you can play it fluently before playing
both parts together.
William Tell overture
Keep the chords in the left hand fairly short,
making sure you leave a full crotchet rest
between each one.
Harold in Italy
Play this very smoothly.
The Jolly Peasant
You may find the first two bars on line two a
little difficult at first. Play them a few times
until you get used to the rhythm.
The Wild Horseman
Pay particular attention to the staccatos and
slurs in this piece.
Prelude op.28, no.7
The right hand part is fairly difficult, so
practise it very slowly at first.
Nocturne op.9, no.2
Practise the second line on the second page on
its own before trying the whole piece. Some of
the notes will need careful practice.
Violin concerto in E minor
This piece is fairly difficult, so you should
practise both parts until there are no
mistakes, before trying them together. The
last three lines may need a little extra work.
Liebestraume
The quavers in the right hand should be a
little softer than the dotted minims, as these
are really part of the accompaniment.
La donna e mobile
The staccato chords in the left hand should be
played very lightly.
Ride of the Valkyries
Pay particular attention to the accents in this
piece, and emphasize the dotted quavers.
Bridal chorus
Try not to rush this. You should keep a fairly
moderate pace throughout.
Symphony no.3
Practise the right hand part of the first and
second time bars on its own, until you are
confident of the rhythm. The number "5" over
the notes means that you play five
semiquavers in the time of four. Try to play
them as evenly as possible.
SwanLake
Take care with the fingering in lines two and
three.
Piano concerto no. 1
The fourth line is fairly difficult, so you
should practise this on its own before playing
the whole piece.
Solveig's song
There are a lot of accidentals in the fourth and
fifth lines. Play both parts until you are
confident of the notes in these two lines,
before putting both parts together.
63
Glossary
This list explains the Italian musical terms
used in this book, as well as some other
words that may be unfamiliar.
Accidental A sharp, flat or natural sign in
the music that does not appear in the key
signature. An accidental applies to other
notes of the same pitch which follow in the
same bar.
Adagio Slowly. The word is also used to
describe a piece or movement at this tempo.
Allegretto A little slower than Allegro.
Allegro Fast, lively.
Andante Fairly slow, at a walking pace.
Andantino Slightly faster than Andante.
Arrangement An adaptation of a piece of
music. An arrangement can be a simpler
version of the original piece, or a new version
of it for different instruments.
A tempo Return to the original speed.
Cadenza A section for a soloist near the end
of a concerto movement. The accompaniment
stops, and the soloist plays virtuoso passages
based on themes from the piece.
Chamber music Music for small groups of
players, each playing a separate line of
music.
Coda The end part of a piece of music (the
word means "tail" in Italian).
Concerto A piece written for an orchestra
and at least one soloist.
Conductor A person who directs musicians
during rehearsal and performance.
Crescendo (cresc.) Gradually getting
louder.
Da capo (D.C.) Repeat from the beginning.
Da capo al fine means repeat from the
beginning, ending at the word fine.
Diminuendo (dim.) Gradually getting
softer.
64
Dolce Sweetly, gently.
Duet, duo A piece for two performers,
either with or without accompaniment.
Dynamic, dynamics The indications in a
piece of music of how loud or soft to play.
Fine The end. The word is often placed
above the last bar of a piece, particularly one
that contains a lot of repeats.
Form The structure of a piece, or the way
in which it is organized.
Improvisation Making up a piece of music
while it is being played. When improvising,
the performer composes the piece as he or
she goes along. Some improvisations are
based on well-known tunes.
Largo Very slowly.
Legato Connected smoothly, with no break
between the notes.
Libretto The words of an opera or other
large sung piece.
Lied (plural lieder} A German song-style.
In the 19th century, many German and
Austrian composers wrote lieder.
Maestoso Majestically.
Marcia March. Tempo di marcia means "in
the time of a march", and alla marcia means
"in the style of a march".
Moderato At a moderate speed.
Molto Much, very. Adagio molto is very
slow.
Moto Movement, motion. Andante con moto
means "with more motion than Andante".
Movement An individual section of a larger
piece, such as a symphony or sonata.
Pedal, ped. When you see this written
under a note, you should press down the
sustaining pedal (on the right). Hold the
pedal down for the length of the note, and
release it when you play the next one.
Piano quintet Music for the piano and four
other instruments, usually a string quartet.
Poco A little. Poco raIl. means "a little
slower" and poco a poco means "little by
Ii ttle", or "gradually".
Presto Fast; faster than allegro.
Rallentando; Ritardando Gradually
getting slower.
Sempre Always. Sempre legato means ''play
smoothly throughout the piece".
Serenade A piece of music often performed
in the evening at dinners or parties.
Serenades were played by small groups of
musicians, and had up to ten movements.
Soloist The performer in a concerto who
plays the main part.
Sonata A piece with more than one
movement, usually for one or two
instruments.
Sostenuto Sustained, held for a long time.
Staccato Detached. Staccato is usually
shown by a dot above or below a note.
Staccato notes should be short and spiky.
String quartet A group of two violins, one
Symbols used in this book
Below you will find the meanings of the
musical symbols used in this book that
might be unfamiliar.
fr
I.
2.
Trill Alternate quickly between
the written note and one above it.
First- and second-time
bars Play the bar marked "1."
first, then repeat the section and
play the bar marked "2."
Pause Hold the note for slightly
longer than normal.
Coda An extra section at the end
of a piece.
viola and one cello, or a piece of chamber
music for that combination of instruments.
String quintet A group of five string
instruments (a string quartet with an extra
viola or cello, or a double bass), or a piece of
music for that combination of instruments.
Suite A set of pieces, often dances, grouped
together to be played in order.
Symphony A piece for orchestra usually
consisting of three or four movements.
Tempo The speed of a piece of music.
Tempo di valse At the speed of a waltz.
Theme A tune or melody. In a symphony or
a sonata, there are usually many different
themes grouped into movements.
Trio A group of three musicians playing
together, or a piece of music written for
three instruments in any combination.
Virtuoso A very skilled performer.
Vivace Lively.
Waltz A type of dance popular in the 19th
century, especially in Vienna. Waltzes have
three beats to the bar, but are usually faster
than a minuet.
>
Accent Play accented notes with
more force.
Go back to this sign.
Forzando With force.
Tenuto Make sure you hold on
to the note for the full value.
~ .
Pedal Press the pedal on the
right and hold it down for the full
length of the note.
Arpeggio Play each note in the
chord very quickly, from the
lowest note upward.
65
Composer chart
Below is a chart which shows you the life spans of the composers in this book.
11650 1 1 1700 1 1 1750 1
1
1800
1
1 1850 J L 1900 J I 1950 I
I
Pachelbel
I I
Schumann I
I
Debussy
I
1653-1706
1810-1856 1862-1918
I Purcell I
I
Liszt
I
1659-1695
1811-1886
I
Albinoni
I
I
Wagner
I
1671-1751 1813-1883
I
Vivaldi
I I
Verdi
J
1678-1741
1813-1901
I
Telemann
I I
Gounod
I
1681-1767 1818-1893
I
Bach
I
Smetana
I
1685-1750
1824-1884
I
Handel
I I
Strauss
J
1685-1759
1825-1899
I
Arne
I
I
Brahms
J
1710-1778
1833-1897
I
. Gluck
I
I
Borodin
J
1714-1787
1833-1887
1
L. Mozart 1719-1787
1
I
Ponchielli
I
1834-1886
I
Haydn
I
1732-1809
l
Delibes
J
1836-1891
I
Boccherini
J
1743-1805
I
Irvine
I
I I
1836-1887
Mozart
1756-1791 l Bizet J
1838-1875
I
Beethoven
I
I Musorgsky I
1770-1827
1839-1881
~
Paganini
Jl Tchaikovsky J
1782-1840 1840-1893
l
Rossini
J
1792-1868
I
Schubert II
Dvofak
J
1797-1828 1841-1904
I
Berlioz
I
1803-1869
1
Grieg 1843-1907
I
lMendelssohn I
1809-1847
1 Rimsky-Korsakov 1844-1908 1
I Chopin I
1810-1849
1
Parry 1848-1918
1
About this section of the book
The tunes in this section of the book are all taken
from famous pieces of classical music. Some of the
pieces were originally written for the piano, but
others were written for an orchestra, or a group of
instruments or singers. They have been specially
arranged and simplified to make them easy to play.
The pieces are grouped in four sections -
Theatre music, Music for dancing, Religious music,
and Descriptive music. At the beginning of each one
there is an introduction to the pieces that follow. On
pages 126-127, you will find some hints about how to
play each piece.
Naming and numbering pieces of music
Most pieces of music have a number, called an opus
number. (Opus is the Latin word for "work"). In this
book, opus numbers have been used when the
composer wrote more than one piece with the same
title. Where a piece has a well-known title, no opus
number has been given. .
Sometimes a single opus number was given to a
group of pieces that were published together. In this
case each piece was given a second number, for
example, op.35, no.5. The opus number will help you
if you want to buy a recording of a particular piece,
or a copy of the original music for it.
Theatre music
Sin ce t h e earliest times , music has been a very
impor tant part of t h eat r ical perfor mances.
Music is often added to plays to make them
more inter esting. Sometimes musicians
accompany singing and dancing on stage,
but music can also be used to emphasize the
mood of the play, rather like film or
television music.
Acting, sin ging and dancing h ave always
been closely linked. In an cient Greek and
Roman times , some actor s used t o mime t h e
story (act without speak ing) while mu sic
was played . Lat er, composers began t o wr ite
music to go with plays and religious
stories . Gradually, two special kinds of
theatre music developed. One, opera, is
based on singing. The other, ballet , is
based on dancing.
Opera
Opera tells a story through
songs. The music is played by
an orchestra, while the actors
sing on stage. The first
opera was performed in the
early 17th century.
La Scala opera h ouse in Milan
Opera soon became very
popular in Europe, and many
opera houses (special
theatres for opera) were built.
-
,
P R 0
.. --
I
-- '''' _..... I
t
{ I , .. ... _ .. _ . . .. _ ....:..... ' ._ , .. _ .. .. ..
n . .• -. •
Opening of Ort eo, an early opera
68
The performers were often
much more famous than the
composers. People would go
to an opera to hear singers
they liked.
-
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-
C(J$\ fan l Ulle
•••
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-
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Tit le page of an opera by Mozart
There are lots of different
types of opera. The styles
have changed gradually over
the years. In Handel's operas,
all the words are sung, and
the stories are serious. They
are often based on history or
mythology. Several of
Mozart's operas, including
The Marriage of Figaro and
Gosi fan tutte, are based on
comical stories and contain
spoken parts. In the 19th
century, composers like Verdi
and Puccini wrote operas
with sad, romantic stories.
These are often about the
lives of ordinary people, not
historical or legendary ones.
Inside an
opera house
The story used in an opera is
called the libretto. This is t he
Italian word for 'little book' .
When opera first began, t he
people in the audience had
this in front of them so that
they could read the words
while the opera was being
performed. Later, the
audience sat in the dark, and
only the stage was lit. This
made it too dark to read, but
it was easier to see what was
happening on the stage.
. VE R DI
-
O peR A C.OMrUTA
",
C"'-TO
ot
'f.! "-"¢I'OR.t"e
Title page of Verdi's La traviata
Ballet
Ballet tells a story
using music and dance.
There are no
spoken words, so
the music is very
descriptive and the
dancers use their
movements to tell
t he story.
The first ballets
were perfor med in
privat e. Wealthy
noblemen arran g ed
Modern
ballet
dan cers
evenings of enter tainment in
their homes, in which
performers san g, danced and
recited poetry.
Performers at a private h ouse
The dances gradually became
t he most important part, and
t he perfor mers started to
mime t he act ions instead of
singing or recit ing words.
The first ballet to be shown in
a public theatre was staged in
1581 in France.
At fir st, dancer s chose any
music to perform to. It was
not necessarily dance music.
Later, composers
such as Lully began
to write music
specially for the
ballet. Someone else
worked out the
dance steps. The
person who arranges
the dances is called the
choreographer.
Ballet stories are very
imaginative. Some are
based on fairy tales, like the
ballets of Delibes and
Tchaikovsky. Two of the most
popular ballets in this style
are Tchaikovsky's The
Nutcracker a nd The Sleeping
Beauty. Other ballets are
based on plays or books, and
can be sad or romantic.
Overtures
An overture is a piece of
music that is played before an
opera or ballet begins. It is
the first music that the
audience hears, so it is often
lively and exciting to attract
people' s attention.
Overtures are also played
at the beginning of orchestral
concerts. The overture to
Rossini's opera The Barber of
Seville is often used this way.
When this idea first became
popular, many composers,
such as Mendelssohn, began
writing overtures specially
for concerts.
A s cen e in The
Nutcrack er
:;UIiE P
Costumes and scenery
Opera and ballet often use
spectacular costumes and
scenery. Sometimes parts of
the scenery have to move
during the performance.
17th century oper a scen er y
Often complex machinery is
needed to do this. This can
make ballets and operas very
expensive to stage.
t - -: • . . ·
· .
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, , ,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
I
,
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Machinery to move the scen er y
shown above
69
This tune is from a light-
hearted opera called Cosi fan
tutte by Wolfgang Amadeus
Mozart (1756-1791). It was
written in 1790.
Moderato
fI .... I I
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Terzettino
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3
1

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Terzettino means "a little
trio". It is a song for three
people. On the left is a page
of music from the opera in
Mozart's handwriting.
Mozart
3 5
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On the right is a scene from a
performance of Cosi fan tutte.
It took place in 1969 at a
festival in Salzburg, the city
where Mozart was born.
18
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The words of the opera (the
libretto) were written by
Lorenzo da Ponte. He also
wrote the words for two of
Mozart's other operas.

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71
Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-
1827) wrote many kinds of
music. But although he was
interested in theatre music,
Fidelio was his only opera.
Andante
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Fidelio

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4
2
3 2
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72
I
-
At first, audiences disliked
the opera. Beethoven rewrote
it several times before it was
a success. On the left you can
see a scene from the opera.
Beethoven
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The Barber of Seville overture
Gioachino Rossini (1792-
1868) was a very famous and
successful composer. He
wrote The Barber of Seville in
1816 for a theatre in Rome.
Allegro vivace
p
5
1\ JJ, ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
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9
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I I I
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---' "--
;. ;.
It was performed less than a
month after he started to
write it. Many people think it
is one of the best comic
operas ever written.
Rossini
3
~

f-_
-
. ; . ; ' ~
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I
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73
This tune is from an opera by
Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901)
called La traviata. It is now
one of the most popular
operas ever written.
All tt egre 0
fI I
I
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7
1\ I
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24
3
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74
Drinking song
I
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----
"11-
• •
• •
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2
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------
I r
t t
~
.....
5
J
I
But the first performance in
1853 was not a success. This
is partly because it used
modern costumes like the one
on the left.
Verdi
I I I
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This made the sad story too
realistic. At the time, people
thought that operas should
be like fantasies, and not like
real life.
30
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rit.
- - -
-
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In some later performances,
the singers had 17th-century
costumes like the one shown
here. This helped the opera
become much more popular.
I


t
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______ L __ ___
I I I
a tempo
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52
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75
This song is from another
opera by Verdi called 11
trovatore which means "The
troubadour". A troubadour
was a medieval poet.
Allegro

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The story of 11 trovatore
••
-
2
Anvil chorus
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4
The Count di Luna and the troubadour Manrico are
brothers, but they do not know this. The Count believes his
brother was killed by a woman called Azucena, but in fact
she has brought up Manrico as her own child. The Count
sentences Azucena to death for murdering his brother.
When Manrico tries to save her, the Count imprisons him.
The two men are in love with the same woman, Leonore,
though she loves Manrico. To save him, she agrees to
marry the count. But at the last minute she poisons
herself, and Manrico is killed. Only then does the Count
discover that Manrico was his brother.
76
-
_.
- "Il'"":
It was written at the same
time as La traviata (see page
74). Verdi finished the two
operas within six weeks of
each other.
Verdi
2
l

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I I _.
.-
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--.-
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>
>
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p
..
------ --
v-
--
4
Manrico serenades Leonore with
love songs
The An vii chorus is sung by
people beating metal on an
anvil. The bass line of the
music imitates the crash of
the hammer.
12
15
,j.I.
I 1\ -
4
) @) f
.
...... +.
4

••
On the left is some scenery
used in a performance of the
opera. The troubadour comes
to this castle to sing to
Leonore, the woman he loves.
2
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-.-.
+
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----_#-------4f-------'----_#-----.-.... _",L-. __ _ ------ .
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Manrico and the Count fight a
duel over Leonore
-
.-
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2
10.
_._. -
,.,
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--
Leonore and Manrico are happy
until the Count arrests Manrico

I I
--
-
l _
I
j .
I
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----,
.. _-
Leonore begs the Count to spare
Manrico's life
77
This tune is from an opera
called Faust by Charles
Gounod (1818-1893). It is
based on a story by the
German writer Goethe.
Allegro (alla marcia)
II I
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5
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79
This tune is by Johann
Strauss IT (1825-1899). It is
from an operetta (short,
light-hearted opera) called
Die Fledermaus ("The bat").
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see a picture from the title
page of Die Fledermaus
showing Strauss as a bat.
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This tune is by Edvard Grieg
(1843-1907). It is part of
some music he was asked to
write by Henrik Ibsen, a
Norwegian author.
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with Ibsen's play Peer Gynt.
This part Peer Gynt
waking up and seeing the
sun rising in the desert.
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Flower duet
This tune is from an opera
called Lakme by Leo Delibes
(1836-1891). It was
successful immediately
because of its oriental style.
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were very popular. They
influenced music, painting,
poetry and even the style of
dress some people wore.
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theatre music. He was chorus
master at the Opera in Paris.
On the right you can see the
singer Lily Pons as Lakme.
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This tune is from a ballet
called Sylvia. It is one of
Delibes' most famous
pieces, along with another
of his ballets, Coppelia.
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Sleeping Beauty waltz
This tune is from a ballet by
Pyotr Il'yich Tchaikovsky
(1840-1893), based on a fairy
tale. It was written in 1890 in
St. Petersburg.
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The picture shows the prince
discovering Sleeping Beauty.
He kisses her and wakes her
up, breaking the spell of the
wicked witch.
Tchaikovsky
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Music for dancin
Dancing has always been a popular entertainment.
At first , most people danced privately in their
homes, or at feasts and parties. But, in the 18th and
19th centuries, as more people wanted to dance,
large public halls called ballrooms were opened. An
orchestra or small band played the music. There
were many types of dance. Each one changed little
by little over many years, but some of them are still
danced today.
Music for dancing is different from music for ballet
(see page 69). Ballet music was written for
professional dancers and theatrical performances,
bu t most of the music in this section of the book was
written for ordinary people to dance to.
Early dances
In ancient times, dances were
used as a way of praying.
People danced and sang to
ask their gods to make crops
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grow. But this
died out in
most parts of
Europe when
Christianity
became the
most common
religion.
We know
from
Medieval dancers
books
and
pictures
that
dancing
was still popular, but very
little dance music from before
about 1350 has been found.
This is probably because the
only music written down in
this period was church music
(see page 100). But gradually
people began to write folk
and dance music down too.
Early folk music
86
i
\
16th cen t u ry dan cers
During the 15th and 16th
centuries, the basse danse
was very popular. This was
in fact a series of dances in
several different styles.
However the music
was never very fast
because the clothes
people wore were so
bulky that they
were not able to
move quickly.
The suite
By the Baroque period
(about 1600 to 1750) the
basse danse had developed
into a musical form called the
suite. This is a set of dances
played one after the other.
An 18th cen tu ry ballroom
There was no limit to the
number of dances, but
normally there were four or
five. The most popular dances
were the allemande, the
courante, the sarabande and
the gigue. Any extra ones
were inserted between the
sarabande and the gigue.
In the allemande the
dancers linked arms. It was a
good dance to begin with
because it was not too fast.
The courante used quick
running steps. Sometimes it
was hard for the dancers to
keep up with the music.
18t h cen t ury dancers
After this, the slow, gentle
sarabande gave the dancers a
rest. The suite usually ended
with a fast , lively gigue.
The gavotte and
musette
The gavotte became popular
around the end of the
Baroque period. It was often
included in suites.
Another dance, called
the musette, developed
from the gavotte. It is
similar in style, but the
bass line contains a
repeated note known as
a drone. This sometimes
makes the music sound a bit
like a bagpipe. At around this
time in France, a small
bagpipe called a musette was
very popular.
A musette
One of the most famous
musettes was written by
Johann Sebastian Bach, in
his Notebook for Anna
Magdalena Bach.
The minuet
The minuet was another
dance which was often
included in the suite. Minuets
are slow and graceful, in
three-four or three-eight
time. The dancing couples
bow to each other and point
their toes as they dance.
In the 18th century, the
minuet was one of the most
popular dances. Even when it
was no longer fashionable in
ballrooms, composers
continued to write minuets to
include in their operas,
ballets and symphonies.
Dan cing a
minuet
Mozart wrote lots of minuets.
Some were for dancing, but
others were part of larger
pieces of music like operas
and ballets.
The 19th century
The most popular dance in
the 19th century was the
waltz. It is in three-four time,
and is quite fast. Some people
believed the waltz was
unhealthy because the
dancing couples
whirled around the
room so quickly.
19th
century
dan cers
waltzing
One of the most famous
composers of waltzes was
Johann Strauss II, the son of
another composer called
Johann Strauss.
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Title page of The Blue Danube
Another very popular dance
in the 19th century was the
polonaise. This originally
came from Poland in the 16th
century. The polonaise was
slow and dignified, and was
often danced at weddings and
other special occasions.
In the 19th century, many
composers began to feel very
proud of the customs and
traditions of their countries.
They began writing music
that was based on folk tunes
and dances. This is known as
Nationalism. Famous
nationalist pieces are Grieg's
Norwegian dances and
Dvorak's Slavonic dances.

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Musette
J.S. Bach (1685-1750) came
from a very musical family.
His father was a musician
and three of his sons became
famous composers.
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music he wrote for his wife,
Anna Magdalena. The picture
shows him accompanying his
family singing and playing.
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The German dance had three
beats to the bar and people
danced it in pairs. The two
main kinds were the Uindler
and the waltz.
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and stamping. The waltz was
more elegant. Haydn,
Beethoven and Schubert also
wrote German dances.
Mozart
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89
Luigi Boccherini (1743-1805)
wrote this minuet as one
movement of a string quintet
(a piece of music for five
stringed instruments).
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Music for small groups of
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Boccherini
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string quintets and about 90
string quartets (for four
stringed instruments). He
was also a talented cellist.
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91
The Blue Danube waltz no. 1
Johann Strauss composed
this waltz in 1867. He was
asked to write some music to
accompany a poem about the
Austrian capital city, Vienna.
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"Vienna, be glad,
Oho, why, why?"
Many Viennese people felt
insulted by this.
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Later, when the words had
been removed, the tune
became extrememly popular.
It was almost like an
unofficial national anthem.
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Strauss' original copy of the
opening is shown here. The
full title is An der schonen
blauen Donau ("By the
beautiful blue Danube").
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93
Hungarian dance no.5
Johannes Brahms {1833-
1897} was born in Hamburg
in Germany. He wrote 21
Hungarian dances for piano
between 1868 and 1880.
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this time. Brahms heard a
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music as a child.
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Dance of the hours
Amilcare Ponchielli (1834-
1886) taught at the music
school in Milan in Italy. One
of his pupils was Puccini,
another famous composer.
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opera called La gioconda
("The joyful girl") written in
1876. It is Ponchielli's most
famous opera.
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Slavonic dance op.46, no.S
Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904)
was born in Bohemia, now
called the Czech Republic.
Many of his pieces were based
on Czech folk tunes.
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cover of his Slavonic dances.
It was one of the first pieces
he was commissioned to
write, and was very popular.
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Eugene One gin waltz
Tchaikovsky wrote this piece
in 1879. It was performed in
Moscow the same year. It is
based on a story by Pushkin,
a Russian poet.
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Tchaikovsky's country house.
It was half-way between
Moscow and St. Petersburg.
Tchaikovsky
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97
Norwegian dance op.35, no.2
Grieg went to a special music
school (shown on the right)
called the Leipzig
Conservatoire, in Germany.
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Grieg was very influenced by Norwegian folk music. A lot
of his pieces, including this dance, are written in a
traditional Norwegian style. Some of his pieces were based
on folk stories, or were written to describe the Norwegian
landscape. He also wrote many songs using poems by
Norwegian writers. Many of these were first performed by
his wife, Nina Hagerup, a famous singer. In 1867 Grieg
founded the Norwegian Academy of Music, so that other
Norwegian composers could learn to write music in a
traditional style.
98
-
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The school was founded by
another composer called
Mendelssohn (see page 114)
in 1843, the year in which
Grieg was born.
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Polovtsian dance no. I
This dance is from an opera
called Prince Igor. Alexander
Borodin (1833-1887) worked
on this opera for 18 years but
died before it was finished.
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Rimsky-Korsakov and
Glazunov. Like Borodin, both
of them were Russian.
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99

Religious music
People have always used
music for prayers to
their gods and
goddesses, in different
religions all over the
world. The earliest
surviving written music
was composed for use in
churches. The pieces in
this section of the book
were written for worship
in different types of
Christian churches.
Early church music
The first type of church
music is known as plainsong
or plainchant. It was first
written down in the 6th
century AD, but may have
been used for many years
before that. Each prayer had
its own chant, and there were
different chants for various
times of the year. The tunes
were very slow and only used
a few notes.
13th century
music (left)


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they mixed chants with folk
tunes. Gradually church
music became more varied.
Early folk
• •
musIcIans
Church composers
Until the 17th century, most
composers were paid by
churches to write music. In
many large churches, the
composers had to write new
music for every week. This
was performed in church by
professional musicians, at
first an organist and a choir,
later an orchestra too.
Later composers did not
16th century
music (right)
- - - - - ~ - . - - .. - have to depend on churches
Beside plainsong, the only for their money. But some
other popular music was folk still worked for churches,
music. Folk songs were lively and others wrote church
and tuneful, and so were music for special occasions.
enjoyable to sing. In the 10th In the 19th century, some
century, some composers composers wrote religious
began to think that they music that they intended to
could make their church be played in concert halls,
music more interesting if rather than in church.
100
The
St. Mark's
Cathedral,
Venice
A mass is a type of religious
service (set of prayers) held
in many Christian churches.
Masses have special words,
usually in Latin, that are
spoken by the priest. In the
7th century, composers began
to set the words of the mass
to music. At first the tunes
were chants. Later they
became more complicated,
and parts for instruments
were added.
Medieval monks singing mass
For hundreds of years, the
mass was the most popular
form of church music.
There are masses for many
different occasions. As well
as ordinary ones for each day
of the year, there are masses
for special events like
coronations, weddings and
funerals. A funeral mass is
called a requiem ("re-kwi-
em"). It gets its name from
the Latin words "Requiem in
pace" which means "May they
rest in peace".
The chorale
In Germany in the 16th
century, some church leaders
believed that people should
take part in prayers, not just
An 18th centur y performance
of an oratorio
Soon this type of church
singing became popular all
over northern Europe and
later in America. Today,
tunes in this style are often
called hymns. Some are based
on earlier chorales, but there
are marty recent ones too.
The oratorio
An oratorio is a piece of
music that tells a story
based on scenes from
the Bible. It is sung by a
choir and is usually
Sometimes they added hymns
and chorales. But oratorios
were not intended to be
performed on stage, and the
singers do not wear costumes
or act out the parts. The main
parts are sung by soloists
and the rest by the choir.
Spirituals
. Spirituals are religious songs
that developed in America
during the 18th and 19th
centuries. They are sung in
churches in the same way as
listen to the choir
or orchestra. One
of these, Martin
Luther, began
writing tunes for
everybody to
sing. They had
words that were
written in
everyday
languages, not
Latin. These
accompanied by a small
group of instruments or
by an orchestra.
Martin Lut h er
Oratorios were
developed by a group of
church leaders who were
trying to encourage more
people to go to church. They
believed that people would
find stories from the Bible
much more interesting if
they were presented in this
way. Opera was very popular
at around this time, so many
composers started to develop
a musical style similar to
opera for writing oratorios.
hymns, but the style of
music is often different
from hymns.
tunes are called chorales, and
they were usually
accompanied by an organ.
Some chorale tunes are
based on plainchant melodies,
others on folk songs. The
melodies were simpler than
most masses of the time. This
made them easier to sing and
meant that everyone could
join in. J. S. Bach was one of
the most important
composers of chorales.
Hymn singing
in the 19th
cen t ury
People
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This is because they are more
closely related to folk songs.
By the end of the 19th
century, spiritual songs had
become very popular as
concert pieces. Because of
this, spirituals used in
church services began to
change, and a new form of
religious music developed.
This new style became known
as gospel music.
101
Wachet auf! is a cantata (a
piece for choir or solo
singers with an orchestra).
It is usually known in
English as "Sleepers wake".
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Bach wrote Wachet aufin
1731. This tune from it is a
chorale (see p.101). It is
called "Zion hears!"
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Bach wrote over 200 church
cantatas. This one is number
140. He also wrote a lot of
other church music, such as
oratorios and masses.
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Bach was the director of St.
Thomas' Church in Leipzig
from 1723 until he died. On
the left you can see him
directing his church choir.
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103
Jesu, joy of man's desiring
This piece is also from a
cantata. It is a very popular
tune and many people have
tried to write music that
sounds similar to it.
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town of Leipzig where Bach
lived and worked for most of
his life.
J. S. Bach
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The Heavens are telling the glory of God
This song is from an oratorio
(see page 101) called The
Creation by Joseph Haydn
(1732-1809). It is about the
creation of the world.
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of Esterhaza in Hungary.
This is where Haydn worked
for the princes Paul Anton
and Nicholas Esterhazy.
Haydn
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105
The Lord's my shepherd
The tune of this hymn was
written in the middle of the
19th century by Jessie
Seymour Irvine (1836-1887).
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organ, and the congregation
(the people in the church)
sing the words.
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This music was written to
go with a poem called
Jerusalem, by the English
poet William Blake (shown
right).
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Charles Parry (1848-1918)
was a great admirer of J. S.
Bach. He studied and wrote
about Bach's music and about
the history of musical style.
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107
This is a type of song known
as a spiritual (see page 101).
Spirituals were first sung by
slaves in America in the 18th
and 19th centuries.
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108
Go down Moses
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Many spirituals are based
on stories from the bible.
This one is about slaves in
Ancient Egypt, who were
led by a man called Moses.
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Swing low, sweet chariot
This is another spiritual that
was first sung by slaves.
Sometimes they sang songs
like this while they worked.
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was composed, as people
learned spirituals by heart
and passed them on, instead
of writing them down.
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109
This type of music often uses
special themes (melodies) for
the main characters in the
story. This helps listeners to
recognize the people in the
story when their themes are
played. Sometimes it is also
possible to tell the mood of
the character. For example, if
the theme is played very
loudly, with drums in the
background, it could mean
that the character is angry.
Another Russian composer,
Tchaikovsky, wrote a piece
about the war between Russia
and France in 1812. He used
parts of the Russian national
anthem to describe the
triumphant feeling of the
Russians as they finally beat
the French. The music even
includes cannons to create
the sounds and atmosphere
of a war. The piece is called
the 1812 Overture.
Russian soldiers fighting the
French in 1812
Seasonal music
Sometimes music is written
to describe different times of
the day or year. Vivaldi wrote
a set of pieces called The Four
Seasons. It describes the way
the seasons change
throughout the year.
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A scene from The Four Seasons
He wrote lots of comments
above the music to say what
was happening, such as "the
dog barks" and "shivering
with cold".
Haydn also gave
descriptive titles to a lot
of his music. He wrote
three pieces to describe
different parts of the
day. These are called Ie
matin ("Morning"), Ie
midi ("Noon") and Ie
soir ("Evening"). There
are no words written above
the music, but you can hear
the mood change in each
piece. Le matin has a slow
introduction, as if the sun is
rising. Then the music livens
up as the day begins.
Music bout feelings
Many composers have written
music that describes their
feelings and emotions. The
French composer Berlioz fell
in love with the actress
Harriet Smithson after seeing
her in a play. He was unable
to arrange to meet her, so to
attract her attention he wrote
the Symphonie fantastique
("Fantastic symphony") about
,
The story behind the piece is
a mixture of facts, emotions,
dreams and nightmares. At
the first performance, the
audience was given a printed
copy of the story to read. The

mUSIC expresses
his feelings and
is often very
dramatic.
Though Harriet
Smithson was
not at the
concert, she and
Berlioz later
met, and were
Harriet eventually
Smithson married.
Chopin composed many
pieces called Nocturnes. They
were written specially to
create a mood or atmosphere,
rather than to describe a
specific place or event.
Chopin used to play them for
his friends in the evenings as
a form of relaxation.
his feelings for her. Chopin playing Nocturnes
111
,
This tune by Antonio Vivaldi
(1678-1741) is from The Four
Seasons, a set of four violin
concertos. Vivaldi learned the
violin as a child.
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His father was a violinist in
the orchestra at St. Mark's
Cathedral in Venice.
Sometimes Vivaldi played
there instead of his father.
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Vivaldi was born in Venice
and lived there for most of
his life. On the right you can
see a picture of Venice during
a carnival.
p
3
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Carnivals and festivals were
very common in Venice at
this time. They were held in
the city for almost six
months of each year.
113
Felix Mendelssohn (1809-
1847) first wrote this
Nocturne as part of a
descriptive overture called A
Midsummer Night's Dream.
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The story of A Midsummer Night's Dream
-
In Athens, Theseus is about to be married. Four lovers are
in a wood nearby: Hermia and Lysander (who are in love),
Demetrius (who loves Hermia) and Helena (who loves
Demetrius). There are also six craftsmen rehearsing a play.
Oberon, a fairy king, uses a magic love potion on his
queen, Titania, and on Demetrius (to make him love
Helena). In the confusion that follows, Titania falls in love
with one of the craftsmen, who has been given a donkey's
head by one of the fairies. The play ends with a triple
wedding, the craftsmen's play and a fairy dance.
114
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William Shakespeare's play
(see below). Later he used the
same tunes to write a longer
piece to go with the play.
Mendelssohn
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to write a piece of music
about it.
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giving him a donkey's head
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He was so excited about the
music that he wrote to his
sister, Fanny to tell her about
it. Fanny (shown left) was
also a talented composer.
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end of the play
115
Hebrides overture (Fingal's cave)
Mendelssohn was very
popular in Britain, and he
visited England ten times.
You can find out more about
this piece on page 110.
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Mendelssohn loved the
excitement of London. He
spent much time going to
concerts, operas and balls,
and walking in Hyde Park.
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Nocturne op.15, no.2
Fryderyk Chopin (1810-
1849) was a Polish composer.
He was also a brilliant pianist
and teacher, and was famous
for his delicate playing.
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In fact, he did not give many
public performances. But he
often played for small groups
of friends and admirers, even
as a young boy.
Chopin
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The piano shown on the right was given to Chopin during a
visit to London in 1848. Unlike most other composers,
Chopin did not write music for many different instruments.
Almost everything he wrote was for the piano. The only
music that he wrote for orchestra was to accompany large
piano works. He composed a lot of his music while he was
playing (called improvising), then wrote it down later.
---
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117
This piece was written in
1869. It is called a fantasy
overture because the audience
has to imagine the story as
they hear the music.
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118
Romeo and Juliet
Each theme (or tune)
represents a particular
character from the story. This
helps the listeners to know
what is happening.
Tchaikovsky
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Tchaikovsky went to America
in 1891. He found the people
very friendly, and felt he was
welcome there.
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He was particularly
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building, which he visited in
Washington, D.C.
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This tune by Modest
Musorgsky (1839-1881)
represents the composer
walking though an art
gallery looking at paintings.
Moderato
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120
It is from a piece called
Pictures at an Exhibition.
The pictures he is looking at
were painted by a close friend
of his, Victor Hartmann.
Musorgsky
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Bedrich Smetana (1824-1884)
was born in Bohemia (now
the Czech Republic). He was
very fond of his country and
often wrote music about it.
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This piece is from a larger
work called Ma Vlast ("My
Country"). Vltava is about the
river Moldau which flows
through Prague.
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Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov
(1844-1908) wrote a lot of
music based on fairy tales.
This piece is based on a story
called The Arabian Nights.
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In the story, an evil sultan
vows to marry and kill a
different woman each day.
Scheherazade saves herself
by telling him stories.
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Each night, Scheherazade
ends her story on a note of
suspense. The sultan wants
to know what happens next,
so he cannot kill her.
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After one thousand and one
nights he decides she should
be allowed to live. This tune
is thought to represent a
princess in one of the stories.
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123
The girl with the flaxen hair
Claude Debussy (1862-1918)
was a French composer. On
the right you can see the
town where he was born,
called St. Germain-en-Laye.
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125
Playing the pieces in this section of the book
On these pages you will find some hints on
playing the pieces in this book. When you
are learning a piece, it is often better to
practise each hand separately, slowly at first,
until you can play them both comfortably.
Then try them at the correct speed, and
lastly try playing with both hands together.
There are suggestions for fingerings in
the music, but if these do not feel
comfortable you could try to work out your
own. If you want to begin with the simplest
pieces in the book, try the Sleeping Beauty
waltz on page 21 and the Eugene Onegin
waltz on page 33.
Terzettino
Take care in bars 9, 22 and 28 with the
semiquaver passages in thirds. Practise
these bars on their own first. You may find
bar 13 a little difficult. Try each hand
separately until you are confident about
the fingering, then play both hands
together. In bars 26 and 27, play the left
hand part very quietly so that you can still
hear the chord above.
Fidelio
From the second beat in bar 5 to the first in
bar 9, you need to play the left hand a little
louder than the right.
The Barber of Seville overture
Play this piece lightly. The left-hand chords
should be quieter than the right-hand notes.
Drinking song
You might want to practise the first few bars
several times before trying the whole piece,
to get the rhythm right. Make sure the left
hand is very even and don't play the second
and third beats louder than the first.
Anvil chorus
Make sure your hands keep absolutely
together where they are playing the same
rhythm (from bar 11 to 15).
Soldiers' chorus
Take care with the coda in bars 18 and 19.
Make sure you play the thirds in the right
hand at the correct speed.
March of the kings
The notes must be kept as short as possible
especially in the left hand. Where two notes
126
are slurred and the second has a dot over
it, the second note should be very short.
Du und du
Keep the left hand very even and make sure
the three-note chords are not too heavy.
Morning
Play this very smoothly and gently. There
are lots of accidentals in the middle section
of the piece (bars 8 to 16). Practise this
section on its own first to make sure you
are confident of the notes.
Flower duet
When both hands play quavers together,
make sure the notes are even. Take care
not to speed up during the longer quaver
passages (such as bars 5 to 7). Practise
bars 26 to 30 on their own until you can
play them smoothly.
Pizzicati
This piece should be played very lightly,
with each note as short as possible. Try it
slowly at first and then speed it up.
Sleeping Beauty waltz
Emphasize the first beat of each bar in the
left hand, but keep it smooth.
Musette
Practise the right hand part of bars 13 to
18 on its own at first. Once you are
familiar with the accidentals and the
rhythm, then add the left hand. Try to
make a difference between the slurred and
the staccato notes.
German dance
Make sure you count carefully when both
hands are resting, and keep the tempo even.
Minuet in A
Practise both hands separately until there
are no mistakes. Then put the parts
together very slowly and gradually speed
up. You do not need to play too quickly,
but you must keep a steady pace, especially
the left hand.
The Blue Danube waltz no.1
From bar 26 to the end, in the left hand,
try to make the second and third beats of
the bar slightly quieter than the first.
Hungarian dance no.5
Practise the right hand of bars 13 to 15 on
its own. When you can play it at the
correct speed, add the left hand.
Dance of the hours
The second note in each pair of quavers
should be as short as possible.
Slavonic dance
Practise the rhythm in the first two bars,
as this appears throughout the piece.
Eugene Onegin waltz
Make sure you hold the dotted minim right
to the end of each bar.
Norwegian dance
Play this piece very lightly. Practise it
slowly until you can play all the notes
accurately.
Polovtsian dance
The rhythm is fairly difficult so try playing
it very slowly at first. The left hand helps to
keep the rhythm, so add this as soon as you
can.
Wachet auf!
You may need to play this slowly until you
get used to the fingering.
Jesu, joy of man's desiring
It is easier to count this as three beats in a
bar. Keep a steady pace without playing it
too slowly, to make it flow.
The Heavens are telling the glory of God
The left hand is fairly tricky, especially in
bars 6 to 8. Practise these bars until you
can play them without any mistakes before
you put the two parts together.
The Lord's my shepherd
Take care not to rush this piece. Play it
fairly slowly, keeping the notes even.
Jerusalem
Maestoso means "majestically". Play it very
boldly and at a steady pace.
Go down Moses
Practise the rhythm in bar 3, it appears
several times in the piece. Bars 12 and 13
may need some extra practice.
Swing low, sweet chariot
The rhythm in the right hand is fairly
difficult. Make sure you can play it
confidently before you add the left hand.
Autumn
The right hand has thirds almost all the
way through the piece. You need to
practise these until you can play them
evenly. The left hand has the same rhythm,
so make sure you play the two parts
absolutely together.
Nocturne
This should be very gentle. Make sure the
accompaniment is always very soft to allow
the tune to come through.
Hebrides overture (Fingal's cave)
From bar 9 to the end the left hand part is
fairly difficult. Learn the left hand on its
own before putting the two parts together.
Nocturne op.15, no.2
Bar 7 has a very tricky rhythm in the right
hand. You need to practise this bar slowly
and accurately before playing the whole
piece.
Romeo and Juliet
Make sure you keep the left hand very
even. Play the left hand a little quieter
than the right hand to stop it from
sounding too heavy.
Promenade
The time signature changes every bar. Try
to keep a steady crotchet beat, placing a
little more emphasis on the first beat of
each bar.
Vltava
Try to play this very smoothly, without
leaving any gaps between the notes.
Scheherazade
Hold the chords in the left hand for the full
length of the notes. Keep the right hand
flowing smoothly.
The girl with the flaxen hair
Take care with the rhythm in bars 14 to 15
and 33 to 34. The fingering is fairly hard,
so you will need to practise it until it feels
comfortable.
127
Index
Albinoni, Tomaso, 5
allemande, 86
America, 119
Arne, Thomas, 5
Bach, Johann Sebastian, 5,
19,87,88,101,102-103
bagpipe, 87
ballet, 68, 69, 86, 87
ballrooms, 86
Baroque period, 4, 5, 86,
87
basse danse, 86
baton, 38
Beethoven, Ludwig van, 3,
23,33,37,72,89.
Berlioz, Hector, 39, 78,
111
Bizet, Georges, 79
Blake, William, 107
Boccherini, Luigi, 90-91
Bohemia, 96,121
Borodin, Alexander, 99
Brahms, Johannes, 39,94
Brandenburg concertos,
17
cadenza, 22
Camerata, 4
cantata, 4, 102-103, 104
caprice, 44
chamber music, 23, 90
choir, 33
Chopin, Fryderyk, 39, 51,
111,117
chorale, 101, 102
choreographer, 69
church music, 66, 100-101
Classical period, 22, 23
concerto, 4, 22
concerto grosso, 4
conductor, 38
courante,86
Cristofori, Bartolomeo, 4
dance, 4, 35, 69, 86-87
da Ponte, Lorenzo, 71
Debussy, Claude, 124-125
Delibes,Leo, 69,82, 84
Dvorak, Antonin, 87, 96
Esterhazy, Paul Anton
and Nicholas, 23, 105
Field, John, 50
folk music, 86, 87, 94,
98, 100, 101
Franco of Cologne, 11
128
gavotte, 87
German dance, 89
Giazotto, Remo, 8
gigue,86
Glazunov, Alexander, 99
Gluck, Christoph
Willibald, 23, 25
Goethe, Johann
Wolfgang von, 52, 78
gospel music, 101
Gounod, Charles, 78
Grieg, Edvard, 39, 81,
87,98
Guido of Arezzo, 10
Hamburg, 94
Handel, George Frideric,
5,12,68
Haydn, Franz Joseph,
23,26,89,105,111
hymn, 101, 106, 107
Ibsen, Henrik, 61, 81
impromptu, 40
improvising, 117
Irvine, Jessie Seymour,
106
Jennens, Charles, 13
Judas Maccabaeus, 14
landler,89
Leipzig, 98, 103, 104
libretto, 13, 68, 71
Lieder, 38, 42
Liszt, Franz, 39, 54
London, 116, 117
Lully, Jean-Baptiste, 69
Luther, Martin, 101
masque, 21
mass, 100-101, 103
melody, 111
Mendelssohn, Felix, 39,
52,53,69,78,98,110,
114-116
Milan, 95
mime, 68, 69
minuet, 4, 35, 87, 90-91
Moldau (river), 110, 121
monks, 100
Monteverdi, Claudio, 4
Moscow, 97
movements, 22
Mozart, Leopold, 24
Mozart, Wolfgang
Amadeus, 23, 31, 68,
70-71,87
musette, 87, 88
Musorgsky, Modest, 120
Nationalism, 87, 110
neumes,.10
nicknames, 3
Nocturne, 111
nocturne, 50, 54
Norwegian dances
(Grieg), 87, 98
opera, 4,68,69,87,
101
Opera (Paris), 83
opus numbers, 3, 67
oratorio, 4, 101, 103,
105
orchestra, 4, 22, 38,
101, 102
Orfeo ed Euridice, 23
organ, 101, 106
overture, 45, 69
Pachelbel, Johann, 15
Paderewski, Ignacy, 54
Paganini, Nicolo, 39, 44,
46,54
Paris, 83
Conservatoire, 124
Parry, Charles, 107
piano, 22,31, 38, 117
piano quintet, 35
pitch,10
pizzicato, 84
plainsong, plainchant,
100, 101
polonaise, 87
Ponchielli, Amilcare, 95
Pons, Lily, 83
Prague, 110, 121
Pres, Josquindes, 11
Puccini, Giacomo, 39,
68,95
Purcell, Henry, 5
Pushkin, Alexander, 97
Rellstab, Heinrich, 36
Rimsky-Korsakov,
Nikolay, 99, 110, 122-
123
Romantic period, 38, 39
Rome, 73
Rossini, Gioachino, 39,
69,73
St. Germain-en-Laye,
124
St. Petersburg, 85, 97
Saint-Saens, Camille, 39
Salzburg, 24, 71
sarabande, 86
La Scala, Milan (opera
house), 68
scenery, 69, 77
Schubert, Franz, 38, 39,
89
Schubertiads,43
Schumann, Robert, 39, 48
serenade, 29
Shakespeare, William,
114-115
singers, 68
slaves, 108-109
Slavonic dances (Dvorak),
87, 96
Smetana, Bedfich, 110,
121
sonatas, 22
spiritual, 101, 108-109
staff, 10
Strauss, Johann, 80, 87,
92-93
Strauss, Johann (father),
87
string quartet, 27, 91
string quintet, 90-91
suite, 4, 14, 86-87
symphony, 22, 87
Tchaikovsky, Piotr Il'yich,
39,69,85
Telemann, Georg Philipp,
16
terzettino, 70
theatre, 68
titles of music, 3
troubadour, 76
Venice, 113
St. Mark's Cathedral, 112
Verdi, Giuseppe, 39, 68,
74-77
Vienna, 92
St. Stephen's Cathedral,
15,23
Vivaldi, Antonio, 5, 111,
112-113
Wagner, Richard, 39, 57
waltz,87,89,92
WaShington, D.C., Capitol,
119