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This course has two specific goals: (i) To introduce students to basic concepts of soil, water, plants, their interactions, as well as irrigation and drainage systems design, planning and management. (ii) To develop analytical skills relevant to the areas mentioned in (i) above, particularly the design of irrigation and drainage projects.
• Basic Soil-Water Relations.
• Irrigation Water Requirements, • Sources, quantity and quality of irrigation water: • Methods in Irrigation • Design of irrigation systems and structures.
Design channels and other irrigation structures required for irrigation. flood control and other watermanagement projects.Course Objectives On Completion of this course. (iii) (iv) . soil conservation. students should be able to: (i) Understand the basic soil-plant-water parameters related to irrigation (ii) Understand how to estimate the quantity of water required by crops. Be able to plan and design irrigation structures.
Planning of irrigation projects. Sprinkler irrigation method and Sub-surface irrigation methods. Factors on which duty depends. Intensity of irrigation. Factors affecting irrigation methods. Kharif-Rabi ratio. Preparation of Irrigation land. Duty and Delta of crop. Surface methods. Crop base period. Commanded areas. Consumptive use of water. Benefits and ill effects of irrigation. depth and frequencies of irrigation.SYLLABUS Introduction Definition. Methods of Irrigation Irrigation methods. Net irrigation requirements. Optimization of irrigation water. Water Requirement of Crops Functions of irrigation water. Scope of irrigation engineering. Irrigation efficiencies. Estimation of consumptive use. Relationship between duty and delta. . Root zone soil water. Crops of Pakistan and crop rotation. Soil-Water Crop Relationship Soil and its physical and chemical properties. Uniformity coefficient. Necessity of irrigation.
Diversion Head Works Difference between a Weir and Barrage. Irrigation Outlets Definition. Regime channels. . types and components of diversion weir. Alignment of canals. Kutter's formula. Design of Irrigation Channels Design of stable channel. Distribution system for canal irrigation: basic definitions. Lacey's theory. Design procedure for irrigation channel and maintenance of irrigation canals.Canal Irrigation System Alluvial and Non-alluvial canals. Types of outlets. Estimation of transported sediment. determination of canal capacity. Essential requirements of an outlet. Meyer-Peter's and Einstein's formula. Diversion weir. Bed load equation. Critical velocity ratio. canal regulation and silt control at the head works. Design procedure for Lacey's theory. Head regulator and cross regulator. empirical formula for channel losses and channel section for minimum seepage loss. Manning's formula. Characteristics of outlets and description of each type of outlet. layout of diversion head works. canal losses. Kennedy's theory.
River training works: Methods to control bank erosion Reservoir Planning and Dams in General Types of reservoirs. silt control in reservoir. safety against piping and uplift. various types of dam problems in dam construction. Economic height of dam. reservoir sedimentation. Design examples of barrage. Distribution reservoir. head regulator. Khosla's method of independent variablies for determination of pressure and exit gradient below a weir or barrage. Economics of combined project. Reservoir yield. critical gradient. stream lines and equipotential lines. multipurpose reservoir.Theories of Seepage and Design of Weir and Barrage Causes of failure by piping and direct uplift. Khosla's simple standard profiles. Factors governing the selection of particular type of dam. Environmental Impact of Irrigation Engineering/Sea Water Intrusion Introduction to Related Soft wares . Khosla's theory and concept of flow net. Storage zones of reservoirs. selection of darn site and environ mental impacts assessment of dams. Flood routing or flood adsorption. Selection of suitable site for reservoir. flood control reservoir. cross regulator. capacity of reservoirs. cost benefit consideration and general principle of optimizing capital budget. Estimation of demands and optimal reservoir operation.
Karachi. University.E. B. N. Lal 7th edition Standard Publishers. Delhi Irrigation and Hydraulic Structures: Theory. Iqbal Ali Institute of environmental Engineering Research. Design and Practice Dr. C. Punmia and Pande B. B. .Books Recommended Irrigation Engineering and Hydraulic Structures Santosh Kumar Garg 12th edition or latest Khanna Publishers Irrigation and Water Power Engineering Dr.D.
.IRRIGATION ENGINEERING Irrigation is the application of water to the soil to supplement natural precipitation and provide an environment that is optimum for crop production.
Types of Irrigation Supplementary irrigation: in areas with rainfall for a part of the season or year Total irrigation: in areas of no rainfall .
Non-uniform rainfall 3.Commercial crops with additional water 4.Controlled water supply .Less rainfall 2.Necessity of Irrigation 1.
Diversion or Lifting of water 2.Development of water power b) Agricultural Aspect: 1.Storage.Depth of water 2.Conveyance of water to agricultural fields 3.Reclamation of lands .Application of water to agricultural fields 4.Capacity of soil and flow of water 4.Scope of Irrigation Science a) Engineering Aspect: 1.Distribution of water 3.Drainage and relieving water logging 5.
Inland navigation 7.Hydroelectric power development 4.Public health and sanitation 3.Fish culture .Multipurpose River Valley Project 1.Flood control and river training 5.Irrigation 2.Soil conservation 6.
.Advantages of Irrigation (1)Increase in Food Production (2)Optimum Benefits (3)Elimination of Mixed Cropping. (8)Inland Navigation. (9)Afforestation. (4)Facilities of Communications. (5)Generation of Hydro-electric power. (7)Facilities of Communications. (6)Domestic Water Supply.
(3) Water-logging: due to over-irrigation . May affect the fishing.Disadvantages and Ill-Effects of Irrigation (1) Water pollution: seepage of nitrates (when applied as fertilizer) into the ground water – groundwater polluted – causes anemia disease (when consumed by people through wells ). (2) Colder and damper climate: causing outbreak of diseases like malaria. as the tides carry the polluted water out into the ocean. (4) Complex and expensive to government: provision of cheaper water vs.reduces crop yields. low revenue returns .
These projects mainly consist of engineering (or hydraulic) structures which collect. A large irrigation project includes a large storage reservoir. control structures and other works. A small irrigation project may consist of a low diversion weir or an inexpensive pumping plant along with small ditches (channels) and some minor control structures. branches and distributaries. .PLANNING OF IRRIGATION PROJECTS Agricultural establishments capable of applying controlled amounts of water to lands to produce crops are termed irrigation projects. a huge dam. Irrigation projects may range from a small farm unit to those serving extensive areas of millions of hectares. hundreds of kilo metres of canals. convey and deliver water to areas on which crops are grown.
Every irrigation project undergo following stages: 1. (iv) Farm distribution. (ii) Conveyance and distribution channels.Feasibility of an Irrigation Project 3. (iii) Control and other hydraulic structures.Irrigation project mainly includes the following works: (i) Storage (or intake) and diversion works. and (v) Drainage works.Development of an Irrigation Project 2.Planning of an Irrigation Project .
Planning stage.Construction stage. 2. Development of an Irrigation Project A small irrigation project can be developed in a relatively short time. Farmers having land suitable for agriculture.1. legal. development of a large irrigation project is more complicated and time-consuming. and 4. environmental and engineering problems.Settlement stage. all of which must be given detailed consideration prior to the construction of the irrigation works. financial. On the other hand.Promotional stage. Complexity and the time required for completion of a large project increase with the size of the project. administrative. and necessary finance can plan their own irrigation system and get the engineering works constructed without any delay. source of adequate water supply. The principal stages of a large irrigation project are: 1. This is due to the organizational. . 3.
2. •available water supplies. The feasibility of an irrigation project is determined on the basis of: •preliminary estimates of area of land suitable for irrigation. from the farmer's viewpoint. However. Feasibility of an Irrigation Project A proposed irrigation project is considered feasible only when the total estimated benefits of the project exceed its total estimated cost. and •required engineering works. an irrigation project is feasible only if his annual returns exceed his annual costs by sufficient amount. •water requirements. and (iii) the design of irrigation structures and canals. (ii) detailed planning of water and land use.The planning stage itself consists of three sub stages: (i) preliminary planning including feasibility studies. •productivity of irrigated land. .
environmental and financial) is essential in all irrigation projects.3. The process of planning of an irrigation project can be divided into the following two stages: (i) Preliminary planning. agricultural. and (ii) Detailed planning. legal. Planning of an Irrigation Project Once the project is considered feasible. technical. . the process of planning starts. Sufficient planning of all aspects (organizational.
(vii) Needs for immediate and future drainage. (ii) Location. (viii) Feasibility of hydroelectric power development. (xi) Method of financing the project construction. (iii) Irrigation requirements for profitable crop production. power and drainage features.The following are the main factors which must be determined accurately during the planning stage of an irrigation project: (i) Type of project and general plan of irrigation works. . (xiii) Probable annual cost of water to the farmers. income and indirect benefits. (v) Irrigable areas which can be economically supplied with water. extent and type of irrigable lands. (xii) Desirable type of construction and development. (vi) Types and locations of necessary engineering works. (iv) Available water supplies for the project. (x) Evaluation of probable power. (ix) Cost of storage. irrigation.
and (xv) Feasible crops. . and probable crop returns. costs of crop production.(xiv) Cost of land preparations and farm distribution systems.
7.To cool both the soil and the plant 3.Dissolves minerals for its nutrition.Provides Oxygen for its metabolism.To Facilitate continuous cropping .fertigation 8. 4.Serves as anchor for its roots.To enhance fertilizer application. 5.Provides water for its transpiration.To improve Groundwater storage 10.Functions of Irrigation Water Soil furnishes the following for the plant life: 1.To supply water partially or totally for crop need 2.To Leach Excess Salts 9. 6.
TYPES OF IRRGATION PROJECTS/SCHEMES Direct irrigation project .
Storage irrigation project .
if the water is lifted up by some mechanical or manual means. But.] 2.to Source Irrigation may broadly be classified into : 1. then it is called Lift Irrigation. and then supplied for irrigation. such as pumps. then it is called Flow Irrigation. . etc.Types of Irrigation w.r.Surface irrigation [(a) Flow irrigation. by the mere action of gravity.Sub-surface irrigation When the water is available at a higher level. and (b) Lift irrigation. and it is supplied to lower level.
it is called Direct Irrigation. (i) Perennial Irrigation. then it is termed as Storage Irrigation. soil is kept submerged and thoroughly flooded with water. constant and continuous water supply is assured to the crops in accordance with the requirements of the crop. so as to cause thorough saturation of the land. throughout the crop period. water is supplied through storage canal head works and canal distribution system. so as to supply water in the off-taking channels during periods of low flow. This perennial system of irrigation. When the water is directed into the canal by constructing a weir or a barrage across the river. In perennial system of irrigation. This kind of irrigation. In this system of irrigation. if a dam is constructed across a river to store water during monsoons. and (ii) Flood irrigation. But.Types of Flow irrigation (i) Perennial irrigation. In this method of irrigation. (ii) Flood Irrigation. is most important and is mostly practiced in Pakistan. . is sometimes called as inundation irrigation.
clay and silt • Organic matter • Water • Air .Soil Constituents • Mineral Material: Sand.
Proportions of Soil Constituents 20% 45% MINERALS OM Water Air 30% 5% .
• The mineral can be raw quartz and other primary materials – coarse fractions which have not changed from parent material) • They can also be silicate clays and iron oxides formed by the breakdown and weathering of less resistant minerals as soil formation progressed. • They are variable in size and composition. These are called secondary minerals. .Mineral Components • Except in the case of organic soils. most of a soil’s solid framework consists of mineral particles. They can vary from small rock particles to colloids.
002 mm .002 mm < 0.002 to 0.Mineral Constituents USDA ROCKS SAND SILT > 2 mm 0.05 mm ISSS > 2 mm 0.002 to 0.05 to 2 mm 0.02 to 2 mm 0.02 mm CLAY < 0.
Sand Particles do not Adhere to one another and are therefore not Sticky.Sand Component Visible to the Naked Eye and Vary in Size. They are Gritty when rubbed between Fingers. .
. The silt particles are too small to be seen without a microscope. even when wet. They adhere together to form a sticky mass when wet and form hard clods when dry.Silt and Clay Components Silt Particles are smaller than sand. Clays are the smallest class of mineral particles. It feels smooth but not sticky.
. These charges make them adhere together.Colloidal Material The smaller particles (< 0. The colloidal particles have a very large area per unit weight so there are enough surface charges to which water and ions can be attracted.001 mm) of clay and similar sized organic particles) have colloidal properties and can be seen with an electronic microscope. Humus improves the water holding capacity of the soil.
which feels wet. which on handling feels dry. can be at the same moisture content as a sandy soil. . A plant will have less difficulty extracting water from a sandy soil than from a clay soil at the same moisture content.Soil Water Quantity of water in a soil as determined by its moisture content does not give a true indication of the soil ‘wetness’. There is need for a soil ‘wetness’ which reflects the ease or difficulty of extraction of water from the soil by the plant. The Concept of Soil Water Potential is therefore used in Soil/Plant/Water Relations. A clay soil.
Mechanism of Soil Water Movement The flow of water in any hydraulic system. including the soilplant-water system. Soil-water system is mainly made up of three components: . takes place from a state of higher to one of lower potential energy. The steepness of the potential gradient from one point in the system reflects the ease with which water will flow down the potential gradient between the points.
A negative pressure potential (or tension. . Note that the movement of water in the soil is slow. so kinetic energy is neglected. and negative when below atmospheric. which are acting. ii) Pressure Potential: This is positive when greater than atmospheric pressure. It is characteristic of soil water above a free water surface. iii) Osmotic Potential: reflects the effect of solutes in soil water. in the presence of a semi-permeable membrane The total potential of soil water at a point is the sum of all the components of potential.i) Gravitational Potential: Reflects gravitational forces on the soil water. or suction) is also known as the matric potential.
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