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Emerald Article: New model of job design: motivating employees' performance Pooja Garg, Renu Rastogi
To cite this document: Pooja Garg, Renu Rastogi, (2006),"New model of job design: motivating employees' performance", Journal of Management Development, Vol. 25 Iss: 6 pp. 572 - 587 Permanent link to this document: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02621710610670137 Downloaded on: 20-11-2012 References: This document contains references to 59 other documents Citations: This document has been cited by 3 other documents To copy this document: email@example.com
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New model of job design: motivating employees’ performance
Pooja Garg and Renu Rastogi
Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttaranchal, India
Purpose – The paper aims to identify the key issues of job design research and practice to motivate employees’ performance. Design/methodology/approach – The conceptual model of Hackman and Oldham’s job characteristics has been adopted to motivate employees’ performance. Findings – The paper ﬁnds that a dynamic managerial learning framework is required in order to enhance employees’ performance to meet global challenges. Practical implications – Traditional outcomes will certainly remain central to the agenda. But some wider developments are to be incorporated within organizational systems so as to motivate employees for better performance. Originality/value – The paper may be of value to researchers and practitioners in the management development ﬁeld for offering enhanced jobs to employees leading to improved performance. Keywords Job design, Motivation (psychology), Learning, Organizational performance Paper type Conceptual paper
Received 19 April 2005 Revised 12 July 2005 Accepted 7 September 2005
Journal of Management Development Vol. 25 No. 6, 2006 pp. 572-587 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 0262-1711 DOI 10.1108/02621710610670137
Introduction There is an established body of knowledge supporting the idea that certain jobs and goal setting can enhance performance. This paper focuses on motivating performance through job design. It is experienced that well designed jobs can have a positive impact on both employee satisfaction and the quality of performance. In the present paper, it is proposed that a well-deﬁned job would enhance motivation, satisfaction and performance of the employees. Thus, for both academicians and practitioners, job design takes on special importance in today’s human resource management. It is essential to design jobs so that stress can be reduced, motivation can be enhanced, and satisfaction of employees and their performance can be improved so that organizations can effectively compete in the global marketplace. Initially, the ﬁeld of organizational behavior paid attention only to job enrichment (JE) approaches to job design. Now, job design has taken a broader perspective, with various dimensions such as job enrichment (JE), job engineering (JEng), quality of work life (QWL), sociotechnical designs, the social information processing approach (SIPA) and the job characteristics approach to job design. The proposed model recognizes certain job characteristics that contribute to certain psychological states, and that the strength of the employee’s need for growth has an important moderating effect. The aim of this paper is to identify the key issues of job design research and practice, particularly in relation to higher-level jobs. To provide the context for the
account that follows, we ﬁrst take a backward glance at job design. We then brieﬂy describe the approaches to job design with emphasis on the job characteristics approach to job design in detail, followed by a literature review of the job characteristics approach. Later we present the proposed model of job design, and its future implications or outcomes. Job design and its approaches are usually considered to have begun with scientiﬁc management in the year 1900. Pioneering scientiﬁc managers such as Taylor (1947), Gilbreth (1911), and Gilbreth and Gilbreth (1917) systematically examined jobs with various techniques. They suggested that task design might be the most prominent element in scientiﬁc management. With respect to the design of individual jobs, the ﬁrst major theory was that of Herzberg and his colleagues (Herzberg et al., 1959). Their two-factor theory distinguished between two types of factors, namely motivators, which are intrinsic to the work itself (e.g. achievement, recognition, and responsibility), and hygiene factors, which are extrinsic to the work (e.g. work conditions, pay, and supervision). The proposition was that the hygiene factors are absolutely necessary to maintain the human resources of an organization. According to Hertzberg’s theory, only a challenging job has the opportunity for achievement, recognition, advancement and growth that will motivate personnel. Hackman and Oldham’s (1976) job characteristics model (JCM), superseded the two-factor theory. This identiﬁes ﬁve core job characteristics, namely: (1) skill variety; (2) task identity; (3) task signiﬁcance; (4) autonomy; and (5) feedback. The core job characteristics are followed by three critical psychological states, namely: (1) experienced meaningfulness; (2) experienced responsibility; and (3) knowledge of results. In turn, the critical psychological states are accountable for increased work satisfaction, internal work motivation, performance and reduced absence and employee turnover. The model assumes that autonomy and feedback are more important than the work characteristics, and that individuals with higher growth need strength (i.e. desire for challenges and personal development) will respond more positively to enriched jobs than others. To this end, an extension to job design has been proposed that would help organizations and employees to survive in the turbulent marketplace. There was substantial interest from researchers and practitioners in job design during the 1900s. Hackman et al. (1975), conducted a study and claimed that people on enriched jobs are deﬁnitely more motivated and satisﬁed by their jobs. Another study conducted by Grifﬁn (1989) on 1,000 tellers from 38 banks of a large holding company found from the job design intervention that employees perceive meaningful changes and tend to recognize those changes over time. In addition to this, a meta-analysis of
New model of job design
the job characteristics model (Fried and Ferris, 1987) found general support for the model and for its effects on motivation and satisfaction and performance outcome. Adler (1991) found that systems in which employees reported higher perceptions of skill variety, task signiﬁcance, autonomy, and feedback reported higher levels of satisfaction and internal work motivation. Champoux (1991) theorized the relationships that growth need strength moderates between the core job characteristics and the critical psychological states and affective responses. Moreover, Dodd and Ganster (1996) examined the interactive relationship between feedback, autonomy and variety by manipulating the characteristics in lab. In their study, Arce (2002) found that the reward from outside activities is affected by the performance on inside activity. The study provides a rationale for the existence of synergies between different activities. Loher et al. 1985) found the relation between job characteristics and job satisfaction and also found that the relation was stronger for employees high in growth need strength (GNS). Renn and Vandenberg (1995) studied the strongest support for the job characteristic model that allowed the core job dimensions to have direct and indirect effects on personal and work outcomes. Another study conducted by Morrison et al. (2005) found that job designs that provide for high levels of employee control also provide increased opportunities for the development and exercise of skill. Also, mediational inﬂuence of perceived skill utilization on job control job satisfaction has been observed. Love and Edwards (2005) concluded that perceived work demands, job control and social support through job design leads to high productivity. Sokoya (2000) found in his study that the level of job satisfaction is determined by a combination of jobs, work and personal characteristics. Rotating managers to different jobs adds the beneﬁt of task variety, resulting in increased performance of employees. Bassey (2002) observed in his study that skills, task identity, task signiﬁcance, autonomy, feedback, job security and compensation are important factors for the motivation of employees. Thus, the research done in this ﬁeld has created virtuous circles for more research and practice. Approaches to job design The approaches to job design have been postulated in such a manner that they indirectly affect an employee’s level of motivation. The approaches to job design have worked in different perspectives for various organizational developments. These approaches are: job engineering (J.Eng.); job enrichment (JE); quality of work life (QWL); social information processing approach (SIPA) and job characteristics. Job enrichment (JE) The technique entails enriching the job, which refers to the inclusion of greater variety of work content, requiring a higher level of knowledge and skill, giving workers autonomy and responsibility in terms of planning, directing, and controlling their own performance, and providing the opportunity for personal growth and meaningful work experience. Job engineering (JEng) The scientiﬁc management approach evolved into what is now generally called job engineering. It is closely associated with cybernation and sophisticated computer applications, computer assisted design (CAD), and human-machine interactions. In fact, it has been the dominant aspect of job design analysis.
Quality of work life (QWL) and socio-technical design The overriding purpose of quality of work life is to change the climate at work so that the human-technological-organizational interface leads to a better quality of work life. Social information processing approach (SIPA) The social information processing approach to job design suggests that individual needs, task perceptions, and reactions are socially constructed realities. The process includes choice, revocability, publicness, explicitness, social norms and expectations, and external priming, which combine with social information (from others and the organizational environment) and inﬂuence the jobholders’ perceptions, attitudes and behaviors. The job characteristics approach to job design To meet the limitations of Herzberg’s approach to job enrichment (which he prefers to call orthodox job enrichment (OJE), Hackman and Oldham (1976) developed the most widely recognized model of job characteristics, as shown in Figure 1. Basically, this model recognized certain job characteristics that contribute to certain psychological states and that the strength of employees’ need for growth has an important moderating effect. The core job characteristics are summarized below: . Skill variety. This refers to the extent to which the job requires the employee to draw from a number of different skills and abilities as well as upon a range of knowledge. . Task variety. This refers to whether the job has an identiﬁable beginning and end or how complete a module of work the employee performs. . Task signiﬁcance. This involves the importance of the task. It involves both internal signiﬁcance (i.e. how important the task is to the organization) and external signiﬁcance (i.e. how proud employees are to tell their relatives, friends, and neighbours what they do and where they work).
New model of job design
Figure 1. Approaches to job design
Autonomy. This refers to job independence. How much freedom and control employees have to perform their job, for example, schedule their work, make decisions or determine the means to accomplish the objectives. Feedback. This refers to objective information about progress and performance that can come from the job itself, from supervisors or from any other information system.
Critical psychological states can be summarized as follows: . Meaningfulness. This cognitive state involves the degree to which employees perceive their work as making a valued contribution, as being important and worthwhile. . Responsibility. The degree to which the employee feels personally accountable for the results of the work they do. . Knowledge of results. The degree to which the employee knows and understands, on a continuous basis, how effectively they perform their job (Figure 2). Diagnosing and measuring job scope There are several ways in which the Hackman-Oldham model can be used to diagnose the degree of job scope that job possesses. More systematically, Hackman and Oldham developed a questionnaire, The Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) (Hackman and Oldham, 1975) to analyze jobs. The questions on this survey yield a quantitative score that can be used to calculate an overall measure of job enrichment, or what is increasingly called “job scope”. For this, the motivational potential score (MPS) is calculated. The formula for this is:
Figure 2. Hackman-Oldham job characteristics model
ðskill variety þ task variety þ task significanceÞ : autonomy £ feedback
New model of job design
Besides this, the JDS also measures some supplementary job dimensions (feedback from others, dealing with others), experienced psychological states (meaningfulness of work, responsibility for work, knowledge of results), affective responses to the job (general satisfaction, internal work motivation, growth satisfaction), context satisfactions (pay satisfaction, security satisfaction, social satisfaction, supervisory satisfaction), individual growth need strength (GNS), and MPS. The MPS scores can range from 1 to 343. The average score is about 125. Towards a proposed model of job design An elaborated model of job design has been proposed considering the designing of job at individual and group level. The proposal has been made on the following grounds. Antecedents and expanded job characteristics Various factors inﬂuence and constrain the choice of job design. Such factors can be internal to the organization, such as style of management, technology, organizational design, workplace spirituality or high performance improvement. Factors can also be external, such as environmental uncertainty, available technology and labor market. Thus, considering the external and internal factors, it is important in many ways to manipulate job characteristics. This can be done, for example, by removing demarcation barriers by running management development programmes (MDPs), promoting cultural changes or conducting behavior modiﬁcation programmes. For this, technology and job design need to come together to deliver excellent services. Thus, in a well-deﬁned circumstance, it is reasonable to assume that individuals might mould their job characteristics to ﬁt their individual abilities and personalities. Moreover, environmental uncertainties such as downsizing and layoffs make it vital in many ways to manipulate the available human resources by considering them as the social capital of the organization. For this, managers must initiate and develop relationships among individuals, organizations and communities. Managers must initiate and develop social capital with three aspects: (1) the structural dimension, which concerns the overall pattern of relationships found in organizations; (2) the relational dimension, which concerns the nature of the connections between individuals in an organization; and (3) the cognitive dimension, which concerns the extent to which employees within a social network share a common perspective or understanding (Nahapiet and Ghosal, 1998). The creation of social capital assists in solving problems of coordination, reduces transaction costs, and facilitates the ﬂow of information between and among employees. It also facilitates collective procession of work-related activities, growth in teamwork, collective representations, and collective emotional experience, that is, tuning one’s own emotional state to that of another person or work group, reﬂecting joint activities, common goals, norms, and values. Consistent with this notion, social capital directs high internal motivation leading to high performance and making
employees more successful in achieving goals in comparison to organizations that have less capital. As we already know that technology has become the lifeblood of every organization, it is vital to make the optimum use of available technology. Technologies like e-commerce and e-business have become buzzwords in every organization and have affected life in the workplace. With the introduction of e-commerce, transactions and dealings are being undertaken on the internet, enhancing the job proﬁle of employees. Similarly, e-business has a full breadth of activities, including the development of strategies for running internet-based companies, improving communication between employees and customers, and coordinating design and production electronically. The resulting increased level of motivation leads to high performance in employees. Thus, with such forms of technological advances, employees can meet two types of cognitive demands that often emerge in manufacturing settings: (1) attention demands; and (2) problem-solving demands. Attention demands occur as a result of increased vigilance requirements (Van Colt, 1985), and problem-solving demands occur because of the need for fault prevention and active diagnosis of errors (Dean and Snell, 1991). Moreover, traditional job characteristics such as job autonomy, task variety and feedback are likely to be key factors. Feedback is one of the salient features within modern settings, especially given the prevalence of electronic performance monitoring (EPM). This provides accurate, fair and timely feedback that can help employees cope with work demands. Others have suggested serious downsides, such as reduced privacy and increased workload (Carayon, 1993), but employees can perceive EPM positively if there is high trust and a supportive culture. Another element of job design concerns the emotional demands of work. There can clearly be positive beneﬁts of emotional displays for organizations. Positive emotional displays control the exchanges with customers or clients, and hence lead to customer retention. For this, autonomy would enable the individual to enable to control their exposure to emotional demands. A further development necessary in job design is growth in teamwork or considering group-level work characteristics in a more systematic manner. Thus, this means focusing on aspects that are the function of groups, such as the design of cohesion among members, team composition, and interdependency and shared knowledge structures. This will result in collective representations, which are the components of a system of knowledge, opinion and behavioral norms originating from social experience. This will also lead to collective emotional experience, that is, tuning one’s own emotional state to that of another person or work group, reﬂecting joint activities, common goals, values and norms. Our discussion now moves towards the internal factors of the organization that play a vital role in motivating the performance of employees. These factors are: . human resource management; . ergonomics; . organizational culture; . leadership style;
human performance improvement (HPI); and workplace spirituality.
New model of job design
As we already know that HR or personnel management is an essential part of every manager’s responsibility, thus managers must consider employees as the most valued asset of an organization. To promote novel thoughts and ideas, a proper blend of HR strategy and job design is required. There should be appropriate manpower planning. Employees must be selected according to the knowledge, skills, and abilities that are apt for to the job to be performed. Apart from this, employees must be given proper training so as to enhance their levels of knowledge, which will motivate them to perform better as they will be in a better position to meet global challenges. Alterations must also be made to organizational policies to consider employee beneﬁts so that employees beneﬁt from contributing to achieve organizational goals. Employees must be evaluated annually on the basis of their performance, and employees who perform well must be delegated with increased responsibility and recognition, leading to an increased level of motivation. Finally, interactional levels must be increased, with the creation of informal groups so as to meet social demands and motivate employees in the collective representation of organizations. With increased innovation, downsizing and lay-offs are taking place, and to make the optimum use of labour, ﬂexibility must be induced in the job proﬁle of employees. Flexible schedules, compressed work schedules, job sharing, and telecommuting must be allowed within organizations so to make optimum use of time and labour, resulting in increased productivity and overall performance. Apart from bringing ﬂexibility to working hours, employees must be encouraged to produce novel and thoughtful ideas so as to solve various organizational problems and make their jobs more interesting, involving, and personally challenging, and hence leading to an increase in intrinsic motivation. This motivation in turns transforms potential into creative ideas, which fosters fair and constructive judgment of ideas and sharing of information. As well as fostering creativity within organizations, variable performance-linked pay (VPLP) must be introduced within organizations, including piece-rate plans, wage incentives, sharing, bonuses and gain-sharing. With the introduction of such programs in organizations, performances are improved and the motivational level of employees is also increased. Also, such programs recognize contributions, and low performers ﬁnd ways to increase their pay, and are hence motivated to perform better. Another aspect that has been discussed is ergonomics, which plays a vital role in designing jobs and inﬂuencing the motivational levels of employees. To sustain the workforce, it has become important to ensure a hazard-free and safe environment, and it has been embraced by managers that a safe working environment can result in greater efﬁciency and productivity. Jobs must be designed in such a manner that musculoskeletal disorders do not happen. Tools and equipment must be designed with the worker in mind and for the job being performed. Mini-breaks or coffee breaks must be given to employees so that body parts are not over-exerted. Production quotas, excessive supervision, machine-paced work and other pressures must be avoided so as to reduce musculoskeletal injuries. For this, work rotation must be encouraged so as to reduce exposure to ergonomic hazards: performing a variety of tasks can result in high performance. Apart, from this, the most signiﬁcant aspect of designing jobs
ergonomically is that there should be complete involvement of workers and unions regarding how work should be organized and structured. On the whole, we can say that when jobs are designed ergonomically, there is overall interaction of technology, work, and human beings. That is, the involvement of anatomy, physiology and psychology is complete, as the designing of jobs done on these basic human sciences results in the most productive use of human capabilities, and the maintenance of human health and well-being. The contribution of anatomy lies in improving the physical ﬁt between employees and jobs: that is, excessive forces are avoided. The human physiology sets standards for an acceptable physical work rate, workload, and nutrition requirements. Finally, psychology is concerned with aiding the cognitive ﬁt between employees and the jobs they perform, which results in appropriate decision-making and action. With this ﬁt there is sustenance of an organization’s workforce, lower absenteeism, increased productivity, reduced operating costs and enhanced performance. Knowledge management (KM) is another novel discipline that has emerged as one of the major dimensions in improving the performance of employees. In the present scenario of turbulent competition, with the management of human resources, it has become vital in many aspects to manage the available knowledge for meeting the organizational goals and demands. Knowledge in the perspective of job design is human-based: that is, it is brainpower, experience, skills and competence. KM involves the creation of knowledge and leveraging knowledge in the decision-making process. KM involves human and social interaction, where the available knowledge is mentally processed, interpreted, and applied at the workplace. For this, an employee has to be motivated to unleash their knowledge, abilities and skills for the achievement of organizational goals. Apart from this, for the purpose of managing knowledge and motivating employees for high performance, employees need to be psychologically empowered down the hierarchy so as to perform their job on their own. Free and informal interactions must be encouraged between managers and employees to share the available knowledge. With this sharing of knowledge, employees are highly motivated to perform better in rational decision-making. Today, the emergence of HRM-TQM has created joint consultative committees (JCCs) where management and employees form a task committee to share the available information to generate ideas and innovative business plans (Anand, 2001). Thus, the system should be created in a fashion that enables the dissemination, sharing and creation of knowledge, encouraging the participative management of employees, leading to increased levels of motivation in employees. Another aspect that has been discussed in reference to job design is HPI (Swanson, 1999). This is the systemic and systematic approach to identify barriers that prevent people from achieving top performance, solving performance problems, and improving opportunities in the workplace. This process involves ﬁve fundamental steps: (1) Performance analysis. This aims at the understanding and validation of perceived performance problems. A detailed assessment of performance is carried out and appropriate interventions are made so as to increase the performance of employees. (2) Root-cause analysis. This underlines the causes of performance problems such as lack of complete information; lack of environmental support; lack of
incentives or rewards, skills, knowledge, and attitudes, motivation and expectations; and individual capacity. Identiﬁcation of any root cause leads to the construction of an appropriate strategy, thereby enhancing the performance of the employees as well as that of the organization. (3) Intervention selection and design. At this level, the nature of the problem and its root cause are assessed, and the selection of an intervention or a combination of interventions is required. At this stage, instructional interventions are designed to promote knowledge and skill acquisition, small group activities and workshops are organized, and training is imparted through various media (distance learning, computer-based and video-based). In addition, on-the-job training (OJT) is facilitated for knowledge and skill mastery in the environment, hence motivating employees towards better performances to meet performance gaps. Moreover, non-instructional interventions are also designed which include personnel selection, incentive systems, cultural change initiatives, knowledge management, and intellectual capital management. With these interventions, employees are under complete assessments which motivate employees to improve their performance for the achievement of organizational goals. (4) Implementation. This adequate resources, change management strategy and business processes and procedures to increase organizational effectiveness. (5) Evaluation. This involves interpretation of organizational outcomes. This involves evaluation of the various interventions made for improving performance in the workplace, to decide whether to terminate or continue an intervention and to study the impact of decision-making and business planning and how far the business plans have or have not been supportive of organizational learning. Hence, with these interventions, we can keep pace with the changes occurring in the organizational landscape. Finally, we come to the most important aspect of our design and that is leadership style and organizational culture. Leaders play a vital role in motivating the performance of employees. Leaders are the only source of trust in employees that managers are trustworthy, benevolent and prefer fairness in work processes. Leaders motivate people to follow a participative design of work in which they are responsible for controlling and coordinating their work, hence making them responsible for their performance. But this is feasible only when there is openness and trust between leaders and employees (Tanner, 1998). In the context of leadership style, another stream of research has emerged that has focused on transformational leadership and transactional leadership styles. Although both forms of leadership are apt for any organization, transformational leadership style is more suitable as the leader of a particular group pays more attention to the concerns and needs of individual employees, and creates awareness among employees to look at old problems in new ways. They motivate and inspire employees towards the achievement of organizational goals by providing vision and a sense of mission among employees and also induce intellectual stimulation, which opens vistas for employees in terms of career development and new ways to make enhance their performance. Finally there is organizational culture, which involves the socialization process, psychological empowerment, and workplace spirituality. Motivating employees
New model of job design
towards high performance is very much inﬂuenced by the prevalence of the culture in the organization. Socialization must be induced within organizations: this can be achieved through social interaction between employees and employers, where the information gathered is easily shared and disseminated. Also, employees have the chance of emotional release, creating a culture of trust and openness. Last comes workplace spirituality (Ashmos and Duchon, 2000), which recognizes that employees have both a mind and a spirit and seek to ﬁnd meaning and purpose in their work, and a desire to connect with other human beings and be part of a community, hence making their jobs more meaningful and motivating employees to perform at a high level with a view to personal and social development. Thus, the proposed model of job design, created with a view towards motivating employees to higher performance, will deﬁnitely help in achieving organizational goals with full zest and will deﬁnitely lead to proactive outcomes or performance. Outcomes The use of available resources and available technology along with various training programs will deﬁnitely lead to increased productivity and increased levels of motivation at individual level, group level, and social level. Also, considering the labour market on the basis of variable-pay programs and ﬂexible schedules will deﬁnitely lead to heightened motivation and productivity, which in return leads to the creation of social capital, assisting in meeting the structural, relational, and cognitive demands of the organization. Designing jobs under consideration of internal organizational factors, it can be seen that following appropriate management strategies will help in the creation of opportunities for career development, skill acquisition and creativity for employees. Performance evaluations will help employees to know their levels of motivation and make efforts to improve them. Moreover, designing jobs ergonomically will help in the creation of safe working conditions, avoiding musculoskeletal injuries and awkward postures. In other words, the involvement of anatomy, physiology, and psychology in designing jobs ergonomically will lead to high performance and reduced levels of stress in employees. Knowledge management will also lead to proactive outcomes or performance. Once knowledge dissemination, utilization and acquisition are required in a linear fashion, learning organizations can be created where novel ideas and thoughts are developed, interpreted, and implemented and knowledge is transformed throughout the system with the objective of achieving organizational goals efﬁciently and creating autonomy in performing jobs, hence motivating employees towards high performance. Finally, following a transformational leadership style in motivating employees will deﬁnitely lead to collective representations and collective emotional experiences, hence leading to the creation of a collectivistic culture within organizations as well as the creation of a high performing environment (HPE; see Figure 3). In other words, appropriate job design will lead to proactive performance and ﬁnally to learning and developing nations. Future implications of the model Traditional outcomes such as job satisfaction, motivation and performance will certainly remain central to the agenda. But, some wider developments are yet to be incorporated besides these general agendas. Job autonomy would be associated with greater organizational commitment, which in turn was linked to safer working. Thus, safety has been one of the most ignored aspects of job designs which in future can
New model of job design
Figure 3. The proposed model of job design
become one of the salient features of job design, hence, leading to a better quality of work life (QWL). In today’s world, to survive in the turbulent marketplace, creativity, innovation, skill and knowledge acquisition have become major aspects in improving the performance of employees and creating virtuous circles for organizations to reach the pinnacle, as they lead to improved decision-making and goal setting. Finally, in terms of practical recommendations, empowerment is an effective strategy for promoting expertise. It creates an effective and safe environment within which
individuals can acquire skills. Importantly, empowerment provides an opportunity for employees to apply new skills, which is likely to reinforce the values of personal development. It can be regarded as an effective means of improving skills and can be regarded as an effective strategy for managing knowledge in two respects: (1) the provision of information systems and support from technical experts represents a systematic practice for disseminating knowledge through an organization; and (2) enhanced decision-making responsibility has the potential to tap into employees’ existing knowledge and skills, drawing on their personal experiences and ideas to improve the effectiveness of work systems. In other words, empowerment can be viewed as a means of eliciting or unlocking the knowledge possessed by an organization. When it comes to job design in the Indian context, employers can give a quick response to their job by enabling employees to use their tact and local language to solve problems. Besides this, knowledge creation and employee learning and development among employees will be promoted with the perspective consistent with the German action theory, of which the basic tenet is that work is action-oriented. It has also been proposed in the model that designed roles promote mastery, which in turn helps people learn to cope with the stresses of the job, also leading to higher intensive motivation, which in turn leads to increased growth needs strength, providing environmental certainty and centralized decision-making. Thus, implication of the model is that the job characteristics model can be practically applied with the desirable performance and satisfaction results. Some well-known companies such as 3M, AT&T, Xerox and Motorola are also among those who have actually implemented job design changes in accordance with the job characteristics model.
Conclusion There are various approaches that allow management to design jobs for employee motivation, increased productivity and future growth. In order for the job design to be effective, management needs to look at what aspects of the jobs are important and better ﬁt the organizational goals. Thus, one of the major purposes of job design is to be able to discuss what is needed from the job and the employees. It is of current interest in establishing a link between human resource management (HRM) or high involvement practices and organizational performance with an increase in intrinsic motivation. The implication of the model ﬁnally leads to the positive affective state of “ﬂow” (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990), which is experienced by an individual in certain situations. It is the total attention and psychic energy devoted to the task in hand, and feelings of exhilaration, comfort and energy. An individual experiences this state when there is a match between an individual’s perceived skills and tasks. Thus, effective job design has become one of the salient aspects of human resource management and organizational behaviour so as to survive in the global workplace (see Figure 4).
Figure 4. Outcome of the proposed model of job design
Thus, we can conclude that changes in the business environment profoundly affect organizations and the people working within them. The proposal has been made in the belief that we will be able to build a systematic, symbiotic, task-induced, and high performance environment.
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New model of job design
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New model of job design
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