Course 340

Background Background and and Introduction Introduction To To 1xEV-DO 1xEV-DO Technology Technology
This course can be downloaded free from our website:

www.howcdmaworks.com/340.pdf
7-2008 Course Series 340v6.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 - 1

340 Contents
Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Wireless Usage Today: Competing Wireless Data Technologies Speed: 1xEV-DO’s purpose and differences from 1xRTT Key Features and Structure of 1xEV-DO EV-DO Technical Details: Channels and Dataflow MAC Indices – what they do, and how many are available Forward Link Data delivery during an established connection C/I instead of Ec/Io Managing the AP’s attention to mobiles: “Proportional Fairness” Signal Composition and HARQ: Hybrid Repeat-Request Protocol Reverse Rate Control EV-DO Rev. A Forward and Reverse rate indices Route Update and the signal path in both directions Network Architecture of main manufacturers, Mobile and Simple IP Interoperability Basics

7-2008

Course Series 340v6.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

340 - 2

Global and US Wireless Subscribers 1Q 2008

Total GSM CDMA IDEN

Global 3,051,659,279 2,571,563,279 451,400,000 28,696,000

USA 252,018,131 84.3% 102,200,000 14.8% 132,243,131 0.9% 17,575,000

40.6% 52.5% 7.0%

Q Total Worldwide Wireless customers surpassed total worldwide landline customers at year-end 2002, with 1,00,080,000 of each. Q 4/5 of worldwide wireless customers use the GSM technology Q CDMA is second-most-prevalent with 14.8% Q In the US, CDMA is the most prevalent technology at 52.5% penetration Q Both CDMA and GSM are growing in the US • IS-136 TDMA systems were converted to GSM + GPRS + EDGE
7-2008 Course Series 340v6.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 - 3

80 27.36 NTT DoCoMo US 45.World Wireless Subs by Technology 2006 World Wireless Subscribers Top 21 Operators Only 980.79 China Unicom Russia 58.20 16.2 Vodafone Italy UK 17.70 21.53 SK Telecom Italy 18.1% 20.79 83.00 58.36 25.25 21.67 21.5 T-Mobile Germany 29.60 19.19 54.20 17.6 Telefonica Moviles Spain South Korea 19.77 Operator Country Subscribers China 246.57 19.67 Orange Japan 21.1 Cingular US 51.65 100.77 20.8 Vivo Turkey 27.49 CDMA 27.325 Vodafone UK Japan 14.16 28.53 18.65 China Mobile China 127.30 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.30 33.2 T-Mobile UK 16.33 14.60 29.25 Telecom Italia USA 21.3 Verizon Japan 50.77 Vodafone KK 14.30 IDEN 51.19 MTS US 54.30 2.98 GSM 246.4 .10 50.16 D2 Vodafone Brazil 28.50 29.57 KDDI 19.9 Turkcell Italy 27.1% 814.6 Telcel Germany 29.8% 145.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .6 Sprint Nextel Mexico 33.90 27.7 T-Mobile France 21.

000 336.426 GSM>WCDMA 54.000 48.000 10.543.844.US Wireless Subs by Technology 2006 US Wireless Subscribers Carrier Cingular Wireless Verizon Wireless Sprint Nextel T-Mobile Alltel US Cellular Leap Wireless Dobson Communications SunCom Rural Cellular Corp.000 11.500.000 190.4% 95.000 1.000 44. Centennial Communications Cincinnati Bell Ntelos SouthernLinc Alaska Communications Cellular South Commnet Wireless West Coast/SureWest Wireless Meriwether Comms.000 220.040.000 520.336.000 964.000 496.000 127.627 Subscribers 54.000 350.904 iDEN 19.000 5.000 24.000 964.000 114.300.459.000 420.000 670.300 300.000 370.500.000 114.000 117.000 336.000 51.824 705.000 220.000 1.997 21.000 120.000 11.000 41.000 190.100.000 5.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .000 520.000 380.444.543.963.000 496.300.670.000 300.2% 20.000 1.000 370.824 705.300 300.040.000 670.000 120.901 21.000 350.304.5% 82.000 117.144.904 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.700.602 586.297 CDMA 51.000 420.602 586.000 127.100.000 1.700.000 300.5 .000 380.670. Airadigm Lewis and Clark Clear Talk Entertainment Unlimited Corr Wireless Poplar PCS Edge Wireless Salmon PCS 100% 198.

2 – 4.2 – 9.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .6 – 4.6 – 90 kb/s GPRS 40 – 30 kb/s DL 15 kb/s UL CELLULAR IS-136 TDMA 19.6 – 4. or corrections to the above? Email to Scott@ScottBaxter.90 kb/s DL 45 kb/s UL TD-SCDMA In Development “2.8 kb/s obsolete Q This summary is a work-in-progress.6 .5G” 307.6 kb/s GSM CSD 9.2 kb/s IS-95 14.153 UL 12000 – 6000 kb/s WCDMA 1 2000 .A Quick Survey of Wireless Data Technologies FOURTH GENERATION US CDMA WiMAX 12000 – 6000 kb/s ETSI/GSM LTE 12000 – 6000 kb/s MISC/NEW Flarion OFDM 1500 – 900 kb/s WCDMA HSDPA THIRD GENERATION 1xEV-DV 5000 .2 – 19.com.2 – 144 kb/s 1xRTT RC3 153.8 kb/s CDPD 19. Thanks for your comments! 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.4 – 9.2 kb/s IDEN SECOND GENERATION IS-95B 64 -32 kb/s GSM HSCSD 32 – 19. tracking latest experiences and reports from all the high-tier (provider-network-oriented) 2G.8 kb/s discontinued Mobitex 9.6 kb/s 19.800 kb/s 1xEV-DO A 3100 – 800 DL 1800 – 600 UL WCDMA 0 384 – 250 kb/s 1xRTT RC4 EDGE 200 . 3G and 4G wireless data technologies Q Have actual experiences to share. latest announced details.1200 DL 307 .

4 Mb/s DL 1. Capacity & Handoffs 2.4K 64K 153K 307K 230K •Enhanced Access •Channel Structure 1250 kHz.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .The CDMA Migration Path to 3G CDMAone Generation Technology Spectrum Signal Bandwidth. 0 Rev. R: 3687k 50-80 voice 120-210 per 1 20-35 25-40 3 carriers and data 14. A 1xRTT 3xRTT 1xTreme IS-856 IS-856 RL FL RL FL RL FL RL FL RL FL 2G 2G IS-95A/ IS-95B J-Std008 RL FL RL FL 1250 kHz.1 Mb/s DL 1. 1250 kHz. #Users 1G AMPS RL FL CDMA2000 / IS-2000 2. F: 3x 1250k 30 kHz. 1250 kHz. Data Capabilities 2. 59 active users 1250 kHz. Capacity. 1250 kHz. Quality •Improve d Access •Smarter Handoffs Faster data rates on shared 3-carrier bundle High data rates on data-only CDMA carrier High data rates on Data-Voice shared CDMA carrier 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.5G? 3G 3G 3G IS-2000: IS-2000: 1xEV-DO 1xEV-DO 1xEV-DV Rev.0 Mb/s 153 Kb/s UL First CDMA. 59 active Many packet users users 3.8 Mb/s UL Higher data rates on dataonly CDMA carrier 5 Mb/s None.7 .4K by modem Features: Incremental Progress First System.

Modulation Techniques of 1xEV Technologies Q 1xEV. is a family of alternative fast-data schemes that can be implemented on a 1x CDMA carrier. Q 1xEV DO means “1x Evolution.8 . “1x Evolution”. Data Only”.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . QPSK CDMA IS-95. • Max throughput of 5 Mbps forward. • Up to 2. work continues Q All versions of 1xEV use advanced modulation techniques to achieve high throughputs. and does not support circuit-switched voice • Commercially available in 2003 Q 1xEV DV means “1x Evolution. Data and Voice”. 153.6 kbps reverse • A 1xEV DO carrier holds only packet data. DV 16QAM 1xEV-DO at highest rates 64QAM 1xEV-DV at highest rates 7-2008 Course Series 340v6. IS-2000 1xRTT. and lower rates of 1xEV-DO.2k reverse • Backward compatible with IS-95/1xRTT voice calls on the same carrier as the data • Not yet commercially available. originally proposed by Qualcomm as “High Data Rates” (HDR). 307.4576 Mbps forward.

5G or 3? 3G 3G various 200 kHz. users modulation?) 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.9 . users many users and data 9-160 Kb/s 384 Kb/s (conditions mobile user determine) 2Mb/s static user various none Features: Incremental Progress various Europe’s first Digital wireless Integrated •Packet IP 8PSK for voice/data access 3x Faster (Future rates •Multiple data rates to 12 MBPS attached than GPRS using adv. UMTS UTRA GPRS EDGE WCDMA 3. up to 200+ Many fast data voice users Pkt.5 avg. 200 kHz. 7. #Users Data Capabilities 1G various analog 2G GSM 2.84 MHz.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . 200 kHz.GSM Technology Migration Path to 3G Generation Technology Signal Bandwidth.

2. Many 3 users Pkt Usrs 19.4K by modem 30 kHz.5G or 3? 3G 3G UMTS UTRA GPRS EDGE WCDMA 3.84 MHz. #Users Data Capabilities 1G AMPS 2G CDPD 2G TDMA IS-54 IS-136 2G GSM 2.5 avg. 200 kHz. 30 kHz. 1 None. 7.TDMA IS-136 Technology Migration Path to 3G the familiar GSM path! Generation Technology Signal Bandwidth.2 kbps none 200 kHz.10 . users many users and data 9-160 Kb/s 384 Kb/s (conditions mobile user determine) 2Mb/s static user 30 kHz.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . up to 200+ Many fast data voice users Pkt. users modulation?) 7-2008 Course Series 340v6. Features: Incremental Capacity & Progress Handoffs US Packet Data Svc. 200 kHz. USA’s first Digital wireless Integrated •Packet IP Europe’s 8PSK for voice/data access first 3x Faster (Future rates •Multiple Digital data rates to 12 MBPS attached wireless than GPRS using adv. none First System.

0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .SPEED: SPEED: 1xEV-DO’s 1xEV-DO’s Purpose Purpose Differences Differences from from CDMA2000 CDMA2000 1xRTT 1xRTT 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.11 .

4 mbps 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.12 .0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .Why 1xEV-DO? Q To satisfy the ITU 3G vision of four radio environments: • 9600 bps megacells – met by satellite-based systems • 144 kbps macrocells – met by CDMA2000 1xRTT RC3 • 384 kbps microcells – met by CDMA2000 1xRTT RC4 (307k) • 2 mbps picocells – met by 1xEV-DO and 1xEV-DV Q To provide new applications for CDMA2000 users • high speed data access and web applications in the mobile environment • speeds up to 2.

and the burst transmitted more slowly than actually could have been received Q Bursts in 1xRTT are so long that substantial latency is introduced into error correction and packet repetition schemes Q For all these reasons.Why Can’t 1xRTT do high speeds? Q RF channel conditions change much faster than 1xRTT can track • this causes 1xRTT to mis-estimate the feasible data speed which can be used for a burst of data – sometimes conditions are worse than expected at the time of a burst.13 .0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . and the burst is received with severe errors – other times the conditions are better than expected at the time of a burst. something more nimble is needed 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.

1 Path Loss. db 0.2 0.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .4 0.14 . Seconds 0. relative dB +6 +4 +2 +0 -2 0 0.5 “Slow Fading” due to obstructions and user motion “Fast Fading” due to user motion through multipath fading standing-wave pattern Q Radio Transmission Technologies must be “nimble” enough to quickly adapt for best results during changing channel conditions • in choosing what data rate to transmit • in power control of the forward and reverse links 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.3 Time.Mobile RF Channel Conditions Change Rapidly Path Loss.

1 DATA RATE DECISION +6 GOOD CONDITIONS DATA BURST ACTUALLY OCCURS NOW BAD CONDITIONS Path Loss. dB Path Loss.1xRTT Data Burst Control Lags RF Conditions Eb/Nt.4 0.3 0. R-FCH MOBILE R-SCH T seconds 0 7-2008 0. relative dB +4 +2 +0 -2 0 0.4 340 . db 0.5 Course Series 340v6.15 0.2 0.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter . Seconds 0.2 0.5 BTS F-SCH Setup Time F-FCH Fixed Rate! F-SCH Burst SCH-Assignment Msg.3 Time.1 0.

0.4 Mb/s max. R-FCH MOBILE SCH-Request Msg.3 0.2 Time.16 . 7-2008 Course Series 340v6. AT Setup time can be less than 10 ms.5 1xRTT BTS F-SCH Setup Time F-FCH Fixed Rate! F-SCH Burst SCH-Assignment Msg. 1xRTT at the Same Time-Scale AP 1xEV-DO Traffic DRC Thoughput: 2.31 Mb/s max. T 0 0. R-SCH Thoughput: 0.1 0.4 0.1xEV-DO vs.06 Mb/s typ.15 or 0.6 Mb/s typ.. 0. depending on traffic loading. Seconds 0.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .

67 ms long • The flow of subpackets is stopped immediately when successful decoding is achieved.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .! 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.1xEV-DO Handles Data at the level of Packets and Subpackets AP 1xEV-DO Traffic DRC Thoughput: 2. 0. with no wasted excess energy! Q Short preambles and embedded MAC bits identify the destination mobile • No time is wasted sending layer-3 messages to control packet flow Q Each mobile DRC request is based on latest channel condition • ACK/NAK commands can stop unneeded subpacket repetitions in less than 5 ms.4 Mb/s max.. AT Setup time can be less than 10 ms.17 . • The reaction to channel conditions is effectively instantaneous.6 Mb/s typ. depending on traffic loading. Q Each forward traffic channel subpacket is only 1.

0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .The The Key Key Features Features and and Structure Structure of of 1xEV-DO 1xEV-DO 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.18 .

requested. confirmed by layer-3 messages – with some delay…… Q 1xEV-DO -.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .Channel Structure of 1xEV-DO vs.19 . 1xRTT CHANNEL STRUCTURE Q IS-95 and 1xRTT • many simultaneous users. each with steady forward and reverse traffic channels • transmissions arranged.Very Different: • Forward Link goes to one user at a time – like TDMA! • users are rapidly time-multiplexed. to maximize average throughput • transmissions arranged and requested via steady MAC-layer walsh streams – very immediate! 7-2008 IS-95 AND 1xRTT Many users’ simultaneous forward and reverse traffic channels PILOT SYNC PAGING F-FCH1 F-FCH2 F-FCH3 F-SCH W0 W32 W1 W17 W25 W41 W3 BTS F-FCH4 W53 ATs 1xEV-DO AP (Access Terminals) (Access Point) 1xEV-DO Forward Link AP Course Series 340v6. each receives fair share of available sector time • instant preference given to user with ideal receiving conditions.

Power Management of 1xEV-DO vs. DATA RATE OPTIMIZED power time Course Series 340v6.20 . with only one user served at any instant • The transmission data rate is set to the maximum speed the user can receive at that moment 7-2008 TO MAINTAIN USER FER Maximum Sector Transmit Power 8 7 6 power 5 5 4 2 5 3 User 1 PAGING SYNC PILOT time 1xEV-DO: MAX POWER ALWAYS. 1xRTT IS-95: VARIABLE POWER POWER MANAGEMENT Q IS-95 and 1xRTT: • sectors adjust each user’s channel power to maintain a preset target FER Q 1xEV-DO IS-856: • sectors always operate at maximum power • sector output is timemultiplexed.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .

0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .21 . Cell Site AP Access Point 7-2008 Course Series 340v6. BTS. IS-2000. or Subscriber Terminal EV-DO AT Access Terminal Base Station.Some EV-DO Terminology IS-95. Mobile. Handset. 1xRTT Phone.

0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .22 .1xEV-DO 1xEV-DO Technical Technical Details Details Data Data Flow Flow and and Channels Channels 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.

1xEV-DO and 1xEV-DV transmit “Frames” One Cycle of PN Short Code • IS-95. IS-95B. long – same length as the short PN code One 1xEV-DO Frame – each 1xEV-DO frame is divided into 1/16ths.1xEV-DO Transmission Timing Forward Link Q All members of the CDMA family . instead. called “slots” Q The Slot is the basic timing unit of 1xEV-DO forward link transmission • Each slot is directed toward somebody and holds a subpacket of information for them • Some slots are used to carry the control channel for everyone to hear. most slots are intended for individual users or private groups Q Users don’t “own” long continuing series of slots One Slot like in TDMA or GSM.IS-95.23 .0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . long • 1xEV-DO frames are 26-2/3 ms. IS-95B. 1xRTT. 1xRTT frames are usually 20 ms. each slot or small string of slots is dynamically addressed to whoever needs it at the moment 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.

0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .24 .What’s In a Slot? ½ Slot – 1024 chips ½ Slot – 1024 chips PILOT PILOT MAC MAC MAC SLOT DATA 400 chips DATA 400 chips DATA 400 chips MAC DATA 400 chips 64 96 64 64 96 64 Q The main “cargo” in a slot is the DATA being sent to a user Q But all users need to get continuous timing and administrative information. even when all the slots are going to somebody else Q Twice in every slot there is regularly-scheduled burst of timing and administrative information for everyone to use • MAC (Media Access Control) information such as power control bits • a burst of pure Pilot – allows new mobiles to acquire the cell and decide to use it – keeps existing user mobiles exactly on sector time – mobiles use it to decide which sector should send them their next forward link packet 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.

25 .0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .What if there’s No Data to Send? ½ Slot – 1024 chips ½ Slot – 1024 chips PILOT PILOT MAC MAC MAC SLOT empty 400 chips empty 400 chips empty 400 chips MAC empty 400 chips 64 96 64 64 96 64 Q Sometimes there may be no data waiting to be sent on a sector’s forward link • When there’s no data to transmit on a slot. so they need the pilot • Mobiles TRANSMITTING data to the sector on the reverse link need power control bits • So MAC and PILOT are always transmitted. transmitting can be suspended during the data portions of that slot • But---the MAC and PILOT must be transmitted!! • New and existing mobiles on this sector and surrounding sectors need to monitor the relative strength of all the sectors and decide which one to use next. even in an empty slot 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.

26 .0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .Slots and Frames ½ Slot – 1024 chips ½ Slot – 1024 chips PILOT PILOT MAC MAC MAC SLOT DATA 400 chips DATA 400 chips DATA 400 chips MAC DATA 400 chips 64 96 64 64 96 64 Slot FRAME 1 Frame = 16 slots – 32k chips – 26-2/3 ms Q Two Half-Slots make a Slot Q 16 Slots make a frame 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.

0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . and all of the remaining 15 frames.Frames and Control Channel Cycles Q A Control Channel Cycle is 16 frames (that’s 426-2/3 ms.27 . about 1/2 second) Q The first half of the first frame has all of its slots reserved for possible use carrying Control Channel packets Q The last half of the first frame. have their slots available for ordinary use transmitting subpackets to users Slot FRAME 1 Frame = 16 slots – 32k chips – 26-2/3 ms CONTROL CHANNEL USER(S) DATA CHANNEL 16-FRAME CONTROL CHANNEL CYCLE 16 Frames – 524k chips – 426-2/3 ms That’s a lot of slots! 16 x 16 = 256 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.

0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .Forward Link Frame and Slot Structure: “Big Picture” Summary ½ Slot – 1024 chips ½ Slot – 1024 chips PILOT PILOT MAC MAC MAC SLOT DATA 400 chips DATA 400 chips DATA 400 chips MAC DATA 400 chips 64 96 64 64 96 64 FRAME 1 Frame = 16 slots – 32k chips – 26-2/3 ms CONTROL CHANNEL USER(S) DATA CHANNEL 16-FRAME CONTROL CHANNEL CYCLE 16 Frames – 524k chips – 426-2/3 ms Q Slots make Frames and Frames make Control Channel Cycles! 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.28 .

0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .29 .Reverse Link Frame and Slot Structure: “Big Picture” Summary ½ Slot – 1024 chips ½ Slot – 1024 chips SLOT DATA 1 Frame = 16 slots – 32k chips – 26-2/3 ms FRAME 1 Subframe holds 1 Subpacket Subframe Subframe Subframe Q Reverse Link frames are the same length as forward link frames Q The mobile does not include separate MAC and Pilot bursts • Its MAC and pilot functions are carried inside its signal by simultaneous walsh codes Q There is no need for slots for dedicated control purposes since the mobile can transmit on the access channel whenever it needs 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.

Rev. A Reverse Channel Sub-Frame Structure
RRI DATA CHANNEL DRC CHANNEL ACK DSC ACK DSC ACK DSC ACK DSC

AUXILIARY PILOT CHANNEL PILOT CHANNEL

1 Slot

1 Slot 1 Sub-Frame

1 Slot

1 Slot

Q The mobile transmits sub-packets occupying four reverse link slots, called a reverse link “sub-frame”. Q If multiple subpackets are required to deliver a packet, the additional subpackets are spaced in every third subframe until done
7-2008 Course Series 340v6.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 - 30

EV-DO Rev. A Channels
IN THE WORLD OF CODES
FORWARD CHANNELS
Sector has a Short PN Offset
W064 Pilot W264 Rev Activity
just like IS-95

REVERSE CHANNELS
Long PN offset

ACCESS
MAC

Pilot W016 Data
W24

Access Channel for session setup from Idle Mode

Access

W

64

DRCLock RPC ARQ

MAC

Primary Pilot W016 Auxiliary Pilot W2832
Long PN offset

Public or Private

Wx16 Control Wx16 Traffic Walsh code

Access Point (AP)

MAC

RRI W416 DRC W816 DSC W1232 ACK W1232 Data
W12

Access Terminal (User Terminal)
Traffic Channel as used during a data session

A TR IC FF

FORWARD

Walsh code

Q The channels are not continuous like ordinary 1xRTT CDMA Q Notice the differences between the MAC channels and the Rev. 0 MAC channels – these are the heart of the Rev. 0/A differences

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Course Series 340v6.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

340 - 31

AP

Functions of Rev. A Forward Channels
FORWARD CHANNELS
Sector has a Short PN Offset
W064 Pilot W264 Rev Activity
just like IS-95

•Access terminals watch the Pilot to select the strongest sector and choose burst speeds •The Reverse Activity Channel tells ATs If the reverse link loading is too high, requiring rate reduction

W

64

DRCLock RPC ARQ

MAC

MAC

Wx16 Control Wx16 Traffic Walsh code

Access Point (AP)

Each connected AT has MAC channel: • DRCLock indication if sector busy • RPC (Reverse Power Control) • ARQ to halt reverse link subpackets as soon as complete packet is recovered •The Control channel carries overhead messages for idle ATs but can also carry user traffic
PILOT

•Traffic channels carry user data to one user at a time
PILOT

Forward Link Slot Structure (16 slots in a 26-2/3 ms. frame)
MAC MAC MAC DATA
400 chips

DATA
400 chips

DATA
400 chips

MAC

DATA
400 chips

64 96 64 ½ Slot – 1024 chips

64 96 64 ½ Slot – 1024 chips

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340 - 32

33 .Functions of Rev.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . A Reverse Channels •The Pilot is used as a preamble during access probes •Data channel during access carries mobile requests • Primary Pilot on traffic channel allows synchronous detection and also carries the RRI channel • Auxiliary Pilot on traffic channel allows synchronous detection during high data rates •RRI reverse rate indicator tells AP what rate is being sent by AT •DRC Data Rate Control channel tells desired downlink speed •DSC Data Source Control channel tells which sector will send burst •ACK channel allows AT to signal successful reception of a packet •DATA channel during traffic carries the AT’s traffic bits REVERSE CHANNELS Long PN offset ACCESS Pilot W016 Data W24 Access Channel for session setup from Idle Mode Access Public or Private Primary Pilot W016 Auxiliary Pilot W2832 Long PN offset MAC RRI W416 DRC W816 DSC W1232 ACK W1232 Data W12 Access Terminal (User Terminal) Traffic Channel as used during a data session A TR IC FF Walsh code 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.

A MAC Index Values and Their Uses MAC INDEX MAC CHANNEL USE 0. DRC LOCK.4. 1 Not Used 2 Not Used 3 Not Used 4 RA Channel 5 RPC. ARQ 64 and 65 Not Used 66 Not Used 67 Not Used 68 Not Used 69 Not Used 70 Not Used 71 Not Used 6-63 and 72-127 RPC.2. 256. 512. DRC LOCK. 1024 Multi-User 2048 Multi-user 3072 Multi-User 4096 Multi-User 5120 Control 19.8 kbps Control 38. ARQ PREAMBLE USE Not Used Control 76. Single User PREAMBLE LENGTH N/A 512 1024 N/A Variable N/A 256 128 64 64 64 1024 Variable Q Q Q Q Q 114 MAC indices are available for regular single-user packets 3 MAC indices are earmarked for control channel packets 5 MAC indices are reserved for mult-user packets 1 MAC index is reserved for broadcast packets. 38.Rev.34 . 76. or single-users 4 MAC indices are not used due to conflicts with multiplexing patterns 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.8 Fwd TC.4 kbps Not Used Fwd TC if no Bcst Not Used Multi-User 128.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .

Rev. A MAC Index and I/Q Channel Contents 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .35 .

36 A TR IC FF ACK Data W48 W24 Walsh code .The 1xEV-DO Rev. the slot also carries two small generic bursts containing PILOT and MAC information everyone can monitor 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . 0 Channels IN THE WORLD OF CODES FORWARD CHANNELS Sector has a Short PN Offset W064 Pilot W264 Rev Activity just like IS-95 REVERSE CHANNELS Long PN offset ACCESS MAC Pilot W016 Data W24 Access Channel for session setup from Idle Mode Access W 64 DRCLock RPC MAC Wx16 Control Wx16 Traffic Pilot W016 RRI Long PN offset Public or Private Access Point (AP) MAC DRC FORWARD Walsh code W0 W4 W1 W5 W816 W2 W6 W3 W7 Access Terminal (User Terminal) Traffic Channel as used during a data session Q These channels are NOT CONTINUOUS like IS-95 or 1xRTT! • They are made up of SLOTS carrying data subpackets to individual users or control channel subpackets for everyone to monitor • Regardless of who “owns” a SLOT.

0 Forward Channels FORWARD CHANNELS Sector has a Short PN Offset W064 Pilot W264 Rev Activity W 64 •Access terminals watch the Pilot to select the strongest sector and choose burst speeds •The Reverse Activity Channel tells ATs If the reverse link loading is too high.37 .AP Functions of Rev. •The Control channel carries overhead messages for idle ATs but can also carry user traffic DRCLock RPC Wx16 Control Wx16 Traffic Access Point (AP) MAC MAC •Traffic channels carry user data to one user at a time IN THE WORLD OF TIME Forward Link Slot Structure (16 slots in a 26-2/3 ms. requiring rate reduction •Each AT with open connection has a MAC channel including DRCLock and RPC (Reverse Power Control) muxed using the same MAC index 5-63.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . frame) PILOT PILOT MAC MAC MAC DATA 400 chips DATA 400 chips DATA 400 chips MAC DATA 400 chips 64 96 64 ½ Slot – 1024 chips 64 96 64 ½ Slot – 1024 chips 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.

0 Reverse Channels •The Pilot is used as a preamble during access probes •Data channel during access carries mobile requests •Pilot during traffic channel allows synchronous detection and also carries the RRI channel •RRI reverse rate indicator tells the AP the AT’s desired rate for reverse link data channel •DRC Data Rate Control channel asks a specific sector to transmit to the AT at a specific rate •ACK channel allows AT to signal successful reception of a packet •DATA channel during traffic carries the AT’s traffic bits REVERSE CHANNELS Long PN offset Access ACCESS Pilot W016 Data W24 TRAFFIC MAC DRC Pilot W016 RRI Long PN offset W0 W4 W1 W5 W816 W2 W6 W3 W7 Public or Private Access Terminal (User Terminal) ACK Data W48 W24 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.38 .Functions of Rev.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .

39 MACIndex Walsh Code Phase 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q . control channels • mobiles may have individual MAC indices AND be simultaneously in various groups • this “trick” keeps payload size low even for transmissions to groups 7-2008 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 Course Series 340v6.8 kbps CCH 38. using the MAC index of the intended recipient Q Five values of MAC indices are reserved for “multi-user” packets • packets intended for reception by a group – for example.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . 0 MAC Index MACIndex MAC Channel Use 0 and 1 Not Used 2 Not Used 3 Not Used 4 RA Channel Available for RPC and DRCLock 5-63 Channel Transmissions Preamble Use Not Used 76.4 kbps CCH Not Used Available for Forward Traffic Channel Transmissions MACIndex Walsh Code Phase MACIndex Walsh Code Phase MACIndex Walsh Code Phase 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Each active user on a sector is assigned a unique 7-bit MAC index (64 MACs possible) Q Each data packet begins with a preamble.AP The Rev.

Forward Forward Link Link Data Data Transmission Transmission During During an an Established Established Connection Connection 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .40 .

if any • after the symbols are formed. the sector starts transmitting the SUBpackets in SLOTS on the forward link Q The first slot will begin with a header that the mobile will recognize so it can begin the receiving process 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.41 .0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . and requests the sector to send it a packet Q there are 16 possible transmission formats the mobile may request. 5x Turbo. or other content AP Q The system notifies a mobile when data for it is waiting to be sent Q The mobile chooses which sector it hears best at that instant. how many SUBpackets they will be divided into Q Then. etc.) and the symbol repetition.Information Flow Over 1xEV-DO Data from PDSN for the Mobile Data Ready DRC: 5 MP3. called “DRC Indices”. Each DRC Index value is really a combined specification including specific values for: • what data speed will be transmitted • how big a “chunk” of waiting data will be sent (that amount of data will be cut of the front of the waiting data stream and will be the “Packet” transmitted) • what kind of encoding will be done to protect the data (3x Turbo. web page.

The PDSN and Radio Network Controller send a “Data Ready” message to let the AT know it has data waiting.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . web page. AP 7-2008 Course Series 340v6. or other content A user has initiated a1xEV-DO data session on their AT.Transmission of a Packet over EV-DO Data from PDSN for the Mobile Data Ready MP3.42 . accessing a favorite website. The requested page has just been received by the PDSN.

8 -9.2 0x3 4 QPSK 256 1024 153.843.2 kb/s. The packet will have 2048 bits.9 0xa 2 16QAM 64 4096 1.0 in Rev.6 -6. The requested page has just been received by the PDSN. The AT quickly determines which of its active sectors is the strongest. DRC Index 5.4 -0.3 0xd 2 16QAM 64 5120 1.2 0x9 1 QPSK 64 2048 1.6 0x7 2 QPSK 64 2048 614.6 +10. AP DRC Modu. The first subpacket will begin with a 128 chip preamble.5 0x5 4 QPSK 128 2048 307.072.0 in Rev.5 0x6 1 QPSK 64 1024 614.8 +3.Transmission of a Packet over EV-DO Data from PDSN for the Mobile Data Ready DRC: 5 MP3. determines everything: The raw bit speed is 307.4 -11.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .5 0x8 2 QPSK 64 3072 921.Preamble Payload Raw C/I Index Slots lation Chips Bits kb/s db 0x0 n/a QPSK n/a 0 null rate n/a 0x1 16 QPSK 1024 1024 38. The mobile’s choice.5 0x4 2 QPSK 128 1024 307. There will be 4 subpackets (in slots 4 apart).4 -0.2 -3. The PDSN and Radio Network Controller send a “Data Ready” message to let the AT know it has data waiting.228. On the AT’s DRC channel it asks that sector to send it a packet at speed “DRC Index 5”.8 +4. A 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.2 +8.43 .0 0xb 1 8PSK 64 3072 1.457. accessing a favorite website.0 0xc 1 16QAM 64 4096 2.228.6 +2. or other content A user has initiated a1xEV-DO data session on their AT. web page.2 -3. A 0xe 1 16QAM 64 5120 3.536.5 0x2 8 QPSK 512 1024 76.

Symbols Interleaver 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .2 +8.6 0x7 2 QPSK 64 2048 614. or other content 2048 bits AP DRC Modu.Preamble Payload Raw C/I Index Slots lation Chips Bits kb/s db 0x0 n/a QPSK n/a 0 null rate n/a 0x1 16 QPSK 1024 1024 38.0 0xc 1 16QAM 64 4096 2. the correct-size packet + + + of bits is fed into the turbo + + + D D D + coder and the right number of + symbols are created.8 -9.5 0x4 2 QPSK 128 1024 307.5 0x8 2 QPSK 64 3072 921.5 0x5 4 QPSK 128 2048 307.2 0x9 1 QPSK 64 2048 1.0 0xb 1 8PSK 64 3072 1.6 +2.5 0x6 1 QPSK 64 1024 614.2 -3.44 .0 in Rev.8 +3.0 in Rev.536.228.228.843.9 0xa 2 16QAM 64 4096 1.8 +4. web page.2 0x3 4 QPSK 256 1024 153. A Turbo Coder Using the specifications for + + the mobile’s requested DRC + + + D D D + index.4 -0.6 -6.5 0x2 8 QPSK 512 1024 76.3 0xd 2 16QAM 64 5120 1.4 -11.6 +10.Transmission of a Packet over EV-DO Data from PDSN for the Mobile PACKET Data Ready DRC: 5 MP3.072.4 -0.457. A 0xe 1 16QAM 64 5120 3.2 -3.

8 -9.0 0xc 1 16QAM 64 4096 2.5 0x8 2 QPSK 64 3072 921.072.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .228.2 -3.8 +3. A 0xe 1 16QAM 64 5120 3.5 0x5 4 QPSK 128 2048 307.0 0xb 1 8PSK 64 3072 1.2 0x3 4 QPSK 256 1024 153.457.228.6 -6.2 0x9 1 QPSK 64 2048 1.6 0x7 2 QPSK 64 2048 614.0 in Rev.4 -11.536.4 -0.843.5 0x2 8 QPSK 512 1024 76. the correct-size packet + + + of bits is fed into the turbo + + + D D D + coder and the right number of + symbols are created.6 +2.2 +8.6 +10.8 +4.3 0xd 2 16QAM 64 5120 1.Preamble Payload Raw C/I Index Slots lation Chips Bits kb/s db 0x0 n/a QPSK n/a 0 null rate n/a 0x1 16 QPSK 1024 1024 38.2 -3. Symbols Interleaver To guard against bursty errors in transmission.Transmission of a Packet over EV-DO Data from PDSN for the Mobile PACKET Data Ready DRC: 5 MP3.9 0xa 2 16QAM 64 4096 1. web page. the symbols are completely “stirred up” in a block interleaver. or other content 2048 bits AP DRC Modu.5 0x4 2 QPSK 128 1024 307.5 0x6 1 QPSK 64 1024 614. A Turbo Coder Using the specifications for + + the mobile’s requested DRC + + + D D D + index.0 in Rev.45 . Block Interleaver 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.4 -0.

072. the symbols are completely “stirred up” in a block interleaver.9 0xa 2 16QAM 64 4096 1.5 0x5 4 QPSK 128 2048 307.8 -9.Transmission of a Packet over EV-DO Data from PDSN for the Mobile PACKET Data Ready DRC: 5 MP3.5 0x8 2 QPSK 64 3072 921. Block Interleaver Interleaved Symbols 7-2008 Course Series 340v6. Symbols Interleaver To guard against bursty errors in transmission.4 -11.6 0x7 2 QPSK 64 2048 614. A 0xe 1 16QAM 64 5120 3.5 0x6 1 QPSK 64 1024 614. The re-ordered stream of symbols is now ready to transmit.8 +3.4 -0. A Turbo Coder Using the specifications for the mobile’s requested DRC + + + + + D D D + index.536. or other content 2048 bits AP DRC Modu.457.2 0x3 4 QPSK 256 1024 153. the correct-size packet + + + of bits is fed into the turbo + + + D D D + coder and the right number of + symbols are created.5 0x4 2 QPSK 128 1024 307. web page.46 .6 -6.4 -0.5 0x2 8 QPSK 512 1024 76.2 +8.0 in Rev.0 0xb 1 8PSK 64 3072 1.228.228.0 0xc 1 16QAM 64 4096 2.2 -3.8 +4.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .2 -3.0 in Rev.6 +2.843.3 0xd 2 16QAM 64 5120 1.2 0x9 1 QPSK 64 2048 1.6 +10.Preamble Payload Raw C/I Index Slots lation Chips Bits kb/s db 0x0 n/a QPSK n/a 0 null rate n/a 0x1 16 QPSK 1024 1024 38.

47 . spaced four apart. or other content 2048 bits AP DRC Modu.8 +3.228.6 +10.0 in Rev.5 0x6 1 QPSK 64 1024 614.6 +2. the symbols are completely “stirred up” in Block Interleaver a block interleaver.5 0x8 2 QPSK 64 3072 921.072.5 0x5 4 QPSK 128 2048 307. It’s up to the AP to decide when it will start transmitting the stream.3 0xd 2 16QAM 64 5120 1. A Turbo Coder Using the specifications for the mobile’s requested DRC + + + + + D D D + index.8 -9. Interleaver Subpacket 2 Subpacket 3 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.Transmission of a Packet over EV-DO Data from PDSN for the Mobile PACKET Data Ready DRC: 5 MP3.457.536. web page. taking into account any other pending subpackets for other users.5 0x4 2 QPSK 128 1024 307.0 0xb 1 8PSK 64 3072 1.0 in Rev.2 +8.228.2 -3. the correct-size packet + + + of bits is fed into the turbo + + + D D D + coder and the right number of + symbols are created.843.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter Subpacket 1 Subpacket 4 340 .Preamble Payload Raw C/I Index Slots lation Chips Bits kb/s db 0x0 n/a QPSK n/a 0 null rate n/a 0x1 16 QPSK 1024 1024 38.2 -3.4 -11.5 0x2 8 QPSK 512 1024 76.9 0xa 2 16QAM 64 4096 1.2 0x9 1 QPSK 64 2048 1.4 -0. A 0xe 1 16QAM 64 5120 3. Symbols To guard against bursty errors in transmission.6 0x7 2 QPSK 64 2048 614.0 0xc 1 16QAM 64 4096 2. The symbols are divided into the correct number of subpackets. The re-ordered stream of symbols is now ready to transmit.8 +4.6 -6. which Interleaved Symbols will occupy the same number of transmission slots. and “proportional fairness”.4 -0.2 0x3 4 QPSK 256 1024 153.

2 0x3 4 QPSK 256 1024 153.6 +2.Preamble Payload Raw C/I Index Slots lation Chips Bits kb/s db 0x0 n/a QPSK n/a 0 null rate n/a 0x1 16 QPSK 1024 1024 38.4 -0.457. or other content 2048 bits AP DRC Modu. and how Block Interleaver many subpackets are in the sequence.9 0xa 2 16QAM 64 4096 1.843.48 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.2 -3. the first subpacket is actually + + + + + D D D + transmitted in a slot.8 -9.4 -0.5 0x6 1 QPSK 64 1024 614.0 in Rev.3 0xd 2 16QAM 64 5120 1.6 +10.5 0x5 4 QPSK 128 2048 307.228. + + + The first subpacket begins with + + + D D D + a preamble carrying the + user’s MAC index.5 0x8 2 QPSK 64 3072 921.8 +3.6 -6.0 0xb 1 8PSK 64 3072 1.4 -11.0 in Rev.8 +4. Interleaver Subpackets 1 SLOTS 2 3 4 340 .5 0x2 8 QPSK 512 1024 76. or 2) the whole schedule of subpackets has been transmitted.0 0xc 1 16QAM 64 4096 2. web page. The user keeps collecting subpackets until either: 1) it has been able to reverse-turbo decode the Interleaved Symbols packet contents early.Transmission of a Packet over EV-DO Data from PDSN for the Mobile PACKET Data Ready DRC: 5 MP3.536. A Turbo Coder When the AP is ready.2 0x9 1 QPSK 64 2048 1.6 0x7 2 QPSK 64 2048 614. so the Symbols user knows this is the start of its sequence of subpackets..2 -3.5 0x4 2 QPSK 128 1024 307.2 +8. A 0xe 1 16QAM 64 5120 3.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter .072.228.

db -10 -20 -30 -30 -20 -10 0 +10 +20 C/I. db 7-2008 Course Series 340v6. and ranges down to -10 at a cell’s edge Q EVDO C/I can be above +10 db near a sector. and -20 or lower at the edge 340 .Ec/Io and C/I Q There are two main ways of expressing signal quality in 1xEV-DO Q C/I is the ratio of serving sector power to everything else • C/I determines the forward data rate • mobiles measure C/I during the pilot burst period. then from it decide what data rate to request on the DRC Q Ec/Io is the ratio of one sector’s pilot power to the total received power • the mobile uses Ec/Io to choose which sectors to request for its active set Q Ec/Io and C/I are related.49 AP Relationship of C/I and Ec/Io For EV-DO Signals mobile receive power C I 0 0 Power from Serving Sector Ec Io Interference Power from other cells Ec/Io.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter . and one can be calculated from the other Q EVDO Ec/Io is close to 0 db near a sector.

0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .51 -0. db -15 -20 -25 -30 C/I.33 -0.19 -1.01 -3.41 -12.27 -0.12 -2.17 -0.27 20 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -6 -8 -10 -12 -5 -10 Ec/Io.46 -1.76 -5.04 -0. db -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 0 -0.64 -0.54 -3.50 .21 -0.97 -1.76 -2.12 -4.46 -6.54 -4.41 -0. db C/I.14 -0.97 -8.79 -0.64 -10. db 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.Relationship of Ec/Io and C/I in 1xEV-DO Systems -30 Ec/Io.

1xEV-DO Active Set and Forward Bursting Animation .0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .51 .“Proportional Fairness” NEIGHBOR Access Point (AP) Access Point (AP) Access Point (AP) Access Point (AP) A Access Point (AP) Access Point (AP) DO-RNC Access Node (User Terminal) 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.

0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .52 .“Proportional Fairness” NEIGHBOR Access Point (AP) ACTIVE Access Point (AP) Route Update NEIGHBOR Access Point (AP) A NEIGHBOR Access Point (AP) NEIGHBOR Access Point (AP) NEIGHBOR Access Point (AP) DO-RNC Access Node (User Terminal) 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.1xEV-DO Active Set and Forward Bursting Animation .

0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . You may send DRC requests to any of them anytime.“Proportional Fairness” NEIGHBOR Access Point (AP) ACTIVE Access Point (AP) ACTIVE Access Point (AP) A These sectors are your ACTIVE SET.1xEV-DO Active Set and Forward Bursting Animation . Maybe you’ll get some data in response! NEIGHBOR Access Point (AP) ACTIVE Access Point (AP) ACTIVE Access Point (AP) DO-RNC Access Node (User Terminal) 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.53 .

0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .“Proportional Fairness” NEIGHBOR Access Point (AP) Good Signal! NEIGHBOR Access Point (AP) ACTIVE Access Point (AP) ACTIVE Access Point (AP) A PACKET PLEASE! @ x speed DRC ACTIVE Access Point (AP) ACTIVE Access Point (AP) DO-RNC Access Node (User Terminal) 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.1xEV-DO Active Set and Forward Bursting Animation .54 .

“Proportional Fairness” NEIGHBOR Access Point (AP) ACTIVE Access Point (AP) ACTIVE Access Point (AP) A FOR YOU! NEIGHBOR Access Point (AP) DRC ACTIVE Access Point (AP) ACTIVE Access Point (AP) DO-RNC Access Node (User Terminal) 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.1xEV-DO Active Set and Forward Bursting Animation .55 .0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .

“Proportional Fairness” NEIGHBOR Access Point (AP) Good Signal! NEIGHBOR Access Point (AP) ACTIVE Access Point (AP) ACTIVE Access Point (AP) A PACKET PLEASE! @ y speed DRC ACTIVE Access Point (AP) ACTIVE Access Point (AP) DO-RNC Access Node (User Terminal) 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .56 .1xEV-DO Active Set and Forward Bursting Animation .

57 .0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .“Proportional Fairness” NEIGHBOR Access Point (AP) ACTIVE Access Point (AP) ACTIVE Access Point (AP) A FOR YOU! NEIGHBOR Access Point (AP) DRC ACTIVE Access Point (AP) ACTIVE Access Point (AP) DO-RNC Access Node (User Terminal) 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.1xEV-DO Active Set and Forward Bursting Animation .

0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .“Proportional Fairness” NEIGHBOR Access Point (AP) Good Signal! NEIGHBOR Access Point (AP) ACTIVE Access Point (AP) ACTIVE Access Point (AP) A PACKET PLEASE! @ z speed DRC ACTIVE Access Point (AP) ACTIVE Access Point (AP) DO-RNC Access Node (User Terminal) 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.1xEV-DO Active Set and Forward Bursting Animation .58 .

Access Point (AP) A NEIGHBOR Access Point (AP) DRC ACTIVE Access Point (AP) ACTIVE Access Point (AP) DO-RNC Access Node (User Terminal) 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.59 .“Proportional Fairness” NEIGHBOR Access Point (AP) ACTIVE Access Point (AP) ACTIVE This isn’t one of his better receiving moments.1xEV-DO Active Set and Forward Bursting Animation . I think I’ll serve somebody better this time.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .

1xEV-DO Active Set and Forward Bursting Animation .“Proportional Fairness” NEIGHBOR Access Point (AP) ACTIVE Access Point (AP) ACTIVE Access Point (AP) A Nothing… did it forget me? NEIGHBOR Access Point (AP) ACTIVE Access Point (AP) ACTIVE Access Point (AP) DO-RNC Access Node (User Terminal) 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .60 .

0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .61 .“Proportional Fairness” NEIGHBOR Access Point (AP) NEIGHBOR Access Point (AP) DRC Good Signal! ACTIVE Access Point (AP) ACTIVE Access Point (AP) A PACKET PLEASE! ACTIVE Access Point (AP) @ x speed ACTIVE Access Point (AP) DO-RNC Access Node (User Terminal) 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.1xEV-DO Active Set and Forward Bursting Animation .

0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .62 .“Proportional Fairness” NEIGHBOR Access Point (AP) NEIGHBOR Access Point (AP) DRC ACTIVE Access Point (AP) ACTIVE Access Point (AP) A ACTIVE Access Point (AP) FOR YOU! ACTIVE Access Point (AP) DO-RNC Access Node (User Terminal) 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.1xEV-DO Active Set and Forward Bursting Animation .

0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .“Proportional Fairness” NEIGHBOR Access Point (AP) Good Signal! NEIGHBOR Access Point (AP) ACTIVE Access Point (AP) ACTIVE Access Point (AP) A PACKET PLEASE! @ x speed DRC ACTIVE Access Point (AP) ACTIVE Access Point (AP) DO-RNC Access Node (User Terminal) 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.1xEV-DO Active Set and Forward Bursting Animation .63 .

1xEV-DO Active Set and Forward Bursting Animation .0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .“Proportional Fairness” NEIGHBOR Access Point (AP) ACTIVE Access Point (AP) ACTIVE THIS IS FOR YOU! Access Point (AP) Good Signal! PACKET PLEASE! @ x speed DRC NEIGHBOR Access Point (AP) ACTIVE Access Point (AP) ACTIVE Access Point (AP) DO-RNC Access Node (User Terminal) 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.64 .

65 .0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .1xEV-DO 1xEV-DO Forward Forward Link Link Details Details 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.

120 5.018 1.072 6.Tail Field 1.228.66 .018 1.6 4 1/5 307.048 2.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .843. including number of coder outputs and symbol puncturing Q The data rate and number of slots used per packet determine the other forward link variables as shown in the table at right 7-2008 Data Total Rate Slots Code (kbps) Used Rate 38.090 4.288 Course Series 340v6.2 2 1/3 1.4 1 1/3 307.090 Symbols per Packet 5.072 3.288 12.042 2.018 1.048 2.018 2.024 1.1xEV-DO Protective Coding Forward Traffic Channel Packets or Control Channel Packets bits symbols Encoding and Scrambling Interleaving Discard 6-bit Encoder Tail Field Turbo Encoder with an Internallygenerated tail Data Packet Code Symbols Q Turbo coding is the default encoding method for 1xEV-DO on both forward and reverse link Q The code rate is determined by: • input bit rate • effective turbo coder rate.096 Bits/Pkt .072 4.144 9.2 4 1/3 614.120 5.6 8 1/3 Bits per Packet 1.024 1.024 1.048 3.066 4.120 3.4 2 1/3 1.6 2 1/3 1.024 1.8 8 1/3 921.4 16 1/5 76.228.216 12.216 9.120 5.018 1.144 6.042 2.096 4.2 2 1/5 614.457.144 6.066 3.8 8 1/5 153.8 8 1/3 2.042 3.024 2.

0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .Data Scrambling in 1xEV-DO Data Bits Turbo Encoding & Puncturing Data Scrambling Block Interleaving Symbols ready to Transmit Q IS-95 and 1xRTT use data scrambling on the forward link • the scrambling sequence is a decimated version of the long PN code from the previous frame • the purpose is to randomize the waveforms of multiple users so that the composite transmitted waveform has a low peak-toaverage ratio and effectively uses power amplifier capability • a secondary purpose is to provide enhanced privacy Q 1xEV-DO uses data scrambling on both links to randomize the data and avoid unbalanced waveforms • the scrambling sequence is generic. not unique per user – security is already provided in a standard-defined layer • the generic scrambling register coefficients are specified in the standard 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.67 .

4 Kb/s) PRBL PILOT PILOT MAC MAC MAC DATA 336 chips DATA DATA 400 chips MAC DATA 64 64 96 64 400 chips ½ Slot – 1024 chips Channel Interleaver QPSK/8PSK 16QAM Modulator Sequence Repetition. Signal Puncturing 64 96 64 400 chips ½ Slot – 1024 chips 16-ary Walsh Covers Walsh Channel Gain I Walsh Chip Level Q Summer Data (modulation symbols) 1/3 or 1/5 encoder scrambler Symbol DEMUX 1 to 16 Signal Point Mapping To Quadrature Spreading and Modulation I Walsh Channels TDM Time Division Multiplexer I Sequence Repetition 0 Q Preamble 32-symbol bi-Orthogonal MAC cover Signal Point Mapping Signal Point Mapping RPC Channel Gain DRC Lock Channel Gain Signal Point Mapping RA channel gain MAC Index Walsh Cover MAC RPC bits A MAC channel DRC Lock symbols Bit Repetition (xDRCLlen) Q Walsh Channels MAC channel RA bits I I Walsh Sequence Chip Level Repetition Summer Q (factor=4) Q Walsh Cover 0 Signal Point Mapping 0 I Q Bit Repetition (xRAB len) Walsh Cover W264 Pilot Channel (all 0s) 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . 614.68 .One Slot on the Forward Traffic Channel Example Subpacket: 1536 Data Modulation Symbols (1 slot.

Data SubPacket is Ready to Send Example Subpacket: 1536 Data Modulation Symbols (1 slot. Signal Puncturing 64 96 64 400 chips ½ Slot – 1024 chips 16-ary Walsh Covers Walsh Channel Gain I Walsh Chip Level Q Summer Data (modulation symbols) 1/3 or 1/5 encoder scrambler Symbol DEMUX 1 to 16 Signal Point Mapping To Quadrature Spreading and Modulation I Walsh Channels TDM Time Division Multiplexer I Sequence Repetition 0 Q Preamble 32-symbol bi-Orthogonal MAC cover Signal Point Mapping Signal Point Mapping RPC Channel Gain DRC Lock Channel Gain Signal Point Mapping RA channel gain MAC Index Walsh Cover MAC RPC bits A MAC channel DRC Lock symbols Bit Repetition (xDRCLlen) Q Walsh Channels MAC channel RA bits I I Walsh Sequence Chip Level Repetition Summer Q (factor=4) Q Walsh Cover 0 Signal Point Mapping 0 I Q Bit Repetition (xRAB len) Walsh Cover W264 Pilot Channel (all 0s) 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .69 .4 Kb/s) PRBL PILOT PILOT A MAC MAC MAC DATA 336 chips DATA DATA 400 chips MAC DATA 64 64 96 64 400 chips ½ Slot – 1024 chips Channel Interleaver QPSK/8PSK 16QAM Modulator Sequence Repetition.1. 614.

2. Send Preamble to Notify Destination Mobile
Example Subpacket: 1536 Data Modulation Symbols (1 slot, 614.4 Kb/s)
PRBL
PILOT PILOT

A

MAC

MAC

MAC

DATA
336 chips

DATA

DATA
400 chips

MAC

DATA

64

64 96 64 400 chips ½ Slot – 1024 chips
Channel Interleaver QPSK/8PSK 16QAM Modulator Sequence Repetition, Signal Puncturing

64 96 64 400 chips ½ Slot – 1024 chips
16-ary Walsh Covers Walsh Channel Gain I Walsh Chip Level Q Summer

Data
(modulation symbols)

1/3 or 1/5 encoder scrambler

Symbol DEMUX 1 to 16 Signal Point Mapping

To Quadrature Spreading and Modulation

I Walsh Channels

TDM Time Division Multiplexer

I Sequence Repetition 0 Q

Preamble

32-symbol bi-Orthogonal MAC cover Signal Point Mapping Signal Point Mapping RPC Channel Gain DRC Lock Channel Gain Signal Point Mapping RA channel gain MAC Index Walsh Cover

MAC RPC bits A MAC channel DRC Lock symbols
Bit Repetition (xDRCLlen)

Q Walsh Channels

MAC channel RA bits

I I Walsh Sequence Chip Level Repetition Summer Q (factor=4) Q Walsh Cover 0 Signal Point Mapping 0 I Q

Bit Repetition (xRAB len)

Walsh Cover W264

Pilot Channel (all 0s)
7-2008 Course Series 340v6.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

340 - 70

3. Send First 336 Data Symbols
Example Subpacket: 1536 Data Modulation Symbols (1 slot, 614.4 Kb/s)
PRBL
PILOT PILOT

A

MAC

MAC

MAC

DATA
336 chips

DATA

DATA
400 chips

MAC

DATA

64

64 96 64 400 chips ½ Slot – 1024 chips
Channel Interleaver QPSK/8PSK 16QAM Modulator Sequence Repetition, Signal Puncturing

64 96 64 400 chips ½ Slot – 1024 chips
16-ary Walsh Covers Walsh Channel Gain I Walsh Chip Level Q Summer

Data
(modulation symbols)

1/3 or 1/5 encoder scrambler

Symbol DEMUX 1 to 16 Signal Point Mapping

To Quadrature Spreading and Modulation

I Walsh Channels

TDM Time Division Multiplexer

I Sequence Repetition 0 Q

Preamble

32-symbol bi-Orthogonal MAC cover Signal Point Mapping Signal Point Mapping RPC Channel Gain DRC Lock Channel Gain Signal Point Mapping RA channel gain MAC Index Walsh Cover

MAC RPC bits A MAC channel DRC Lock symbols
Bit Repetition (xDRCLlen)

Q Walsh Channels

MAC channel RA bits

I I Walsh Sequence Chip Level Repetition Summer Q (factor=4) Q Walsh Cover 0 Signal Point Mapping 0 I Q

Bit Repetition (xRAB len)

Walsh Cover W264

Pilot Channel (all 0s)
7-2008 Course Series 340v6.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

340 - 71

4. Send MAC Channel – Part 1
Example Subpacket: 1536 Data Modulation Symbols (1 slot, 614.4 Kb/s)
PRBL
PILOT PILOT

A

MAC

MAC

MAC

DATA
336 chips

DATA

DATA
400 chips

MAC

DATA

64

64 96 64 400 chips ½ Slot – 1024 chips
Channel Interleaver QPSK/8PSK 16QAM Modulator Sequence Repetition, Signal Puncturing

64 96 64 400 chips ½ Slot – 1024 chips
16-ary Walsh Covers Walsh Channel Gain I Walsh Chip Level Q Summer

Data
(modulation symbols)

1/3 or 1/5 encoder scrambler

Symbol DEMUX 1 to 16 Signal Point Mapping

To Quadrature Spreading and Modulation

I Walsh Channels

TDM Time Division Multiplexer

I Sequence Repetition 0 Q

Preamble

32-symbol bi-Orthogonal MAC cover Signal Point Mapping Signal Point Mapping RPC Channel Gain DRC Lock Channel Gain Signal Point Mapping RA channel gain MAC Index Walsh Cover

MAC RPC bits A MAC channel DRC Lock symbols
Bit Repetition (xDRCLlen)

Q Walsh Channels

MAC channel RA bits

I I Walsh Sequence Chip Level Repetition Summer Q (factor=4) Q Walsh Cover 0 Signal Point Mapping 0 I Q

Bit Repetition (xRAB len)

Walsh Cover W264

Pilot Channel (all 0s)
7-2008 Course Series 340v6.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

340 - 72

0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .5. Signal Puncturing 64 96 64 400 chips ½ Slot – 1024 chips 16-ary Walsh Covers Walsh Channel Gain I Walsh Chip Level Q Summer Data (modulation symbols) 1/3 or 1/5 encoder scrambler Symbol DEMUX 1 to 16 Signal Point Mapping To Quadrature Spreading and Modulation I Walsh Channels TDM Time Division Multiplexer I Sequence Repetition 0 Q Preamble 32-symbol bi-Orthogonal MAC cover Signal Point Mapping Signal Point Mapping RPC Channel Gain DRC Lock Channel Gain Signal Point Mapping RA channel gain MAC Index Walsh Cover MAC RPC bits A MAC channel DRC Lock symbols Bit Repetition (xDRCLlen) Q Walsh Channels MAC channel RA bits I I Walsh Sequence Chip Level Repetition Summer Q (factor=4) Q Walsh Cover 0 Signal Point Mapping 0 I Q Bit Repetition (xRAB len) Walsh Cover W264 Pilot Channel (all 0s) 7-2008 Course Series 340v6. 614.73 . Send Pilot – First Half Slot Example Subpacket: 1536 Data Modulation Symbols (1 slot.4 Kb/s) PRBL PILOT PILOT A MAC MAC MAC DATA 336 chips DATA DATA 400 chips MAC DATA 64 64 96 64 400 chips ½ Slot – 1024 chips Channel Interleaver QPSK/8PSK 16QAM Modulator Sequence Repetition.

74 .Second Part Example Subpacket: 1536 Data Modulation Symbols (1 slot.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . Send MAC Channel .6. Signal Puncturing 64 96 64 400 chips ½ Slot – 1024 chips 16-ary Walsh Covers Walsh Channel Gain I Walsh Chip Level Q Summer Data (modulation symbols) 1/3 or 1/5 encoder scrambler Symbol DEMUX 1 to 16 Signal Point Mapping To Quadrature Spreading and Modulation I Walsh Channels TDM Time Division Multiplexer I Sequence Repetition 0 Q Preamble 32-symbol bi-Orthogonal MAC cover Signal Point Mapping Signal Point Mapping RPC Channel Gain DRC Lock Channel Gain Signal Point Mapping RA channel gain MAC Index Walsh Cover MAC RPC bits A MAC channel DRC Lock symbols Bit Repetition (xDRCLlen) Q Walsh Channels MAC channel RA bits I I Walsh Sequence Chip Level Repetition Summer Q (factor=4) Q Walsh Cover 0 Signal Point Mapping 0 I Q Bit Repetition (xRAB len) Walsh Cover W264 Pilot Channel (all 0s) 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.4 Kb/s) PRBL PILOT PILOT A MAC MAC MAC DATA 336 chips DATA DATA 400 chips MAC DATA 64 64 96 64 400 chips ½ Slot – 1024 chips Channel Interleaver QPSK/8PSK 16QAM Modulator Sequence Repetition. 614.

614. Signal Puncturing 64 96 64 400 chips ½ Slot – 1024 chips 16-ary Walsh Covers Walsh Channel Gain I Walsh Chip Level Q Summer Data (modulation symbols) 1/3 or 1/5 encoder scrambler Symbol DEMUX 1 to 16 Signal Point Mapping To Quadrature Spreading and Modulation I Walsh Channels TDM Time Division Multiplexer I Sequence Repetition 0 Q Preamble 32-symbol bi-Orthogonal MAC cover Signal Point Mapping Signal Point Mapping RPC Channel Gain DRC Lock Channel Gain Signal Point Mapping RA channel gain MAC Index Walsh Cover MAC RPC bits A MAC channel DRC Lock symbols Bit Repetition (xDRCLlen) Q Walsh Channels MAC channel RA bits I I Walsh Sequence Chip Level Repetition Summer Q (factor=4) Q Walsh Cover 0 Signal Point Mapping 0 I Q Bit Repetition (xRAB len) Walsh Cover W264 Pilot Channel (all 0s) 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.4 Kb/s) PRBL PILOT PILOT A MAC MAC MAC DATA 336 chips DATA DATA 400 chips MAC DATA 64 64 96 64 400 chips ½ Slot – 1024 chips Channel Interleaver QPSK/8PSK 16QAM Modulator Sequence Repetition.7.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . Send Next 800 Data Symbols Example Subpacket: 1536 Data Modulation Symbols (1 slot.75 .

8.76 . Signal Puncturing 64 96 64 400 chips ½ Slot – 1024 chips 16-ary Walsh Covers Walsh Channel Gain I Walsh Chip Level Q Summer Data (modulation symbols) 1/3 or 1/5 encoder scrambler Symbol DEMUX 1 to 16 Signal Point Mapping To Quadrature Spreading and Modulation I Walsh Channels TDM Time Division Multiplexer I Sequence Repetition 0 Q Preamble 32-symbol bi-Orthogonal MAC cover Signal Point Mapping Signal Point Mapping RPC Channel Gain DRC Lock Channel Gain Signal Point Mapping RA channel gain MAC Index Walsh Cover MAC RPC bits A MAC channel DRC Lock symbols Bit Repetition (xDRCLlen) Q Walsh Channels MAC channel RA bits I I Walsh Sequence Chip Level Repetition Summer Q (factor=4) Q Walsh Cover 0 Signal Point Mapping 0 I Q Bit Repetition (xRAB len) Walsh Cover W264 Pilot Channel (all 0s) 7-2008 Course Series 340v6. Send MAC Channel – Third Part Example Subpacket: 1536 Data Modulation Symbols (1 slot. 614.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .4 Kb/s) PRBL PILOT PILOT A MAC MAC MAC DATA 336 chips DATA DATA 400 chips MAC DATA 64 64 96 64 400 chips ½ Slot – 1024 chips Channel Interleaver QPSK/8PSK 16QAM Modulator Sequence Repetition.

0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .77 .9.4 Kb/s) PRBL PILOT PILOT A MAC MAC MAC DATA 336 chips DATA DATA 400 chips MAC DATA 64 64 96 64 400 chips ½ Slot – 1024 chips Channel Interleaver QPSK/8PSK 16QAM Modulator Sequence Repetition. Signal Puncturing 64 96 64 400 chips ½ Slot – 1024 chips 16-ary Walsh Covers Walsh Channel Gain I Walsh Chip Level Q Summer Data (modulation symbols) 1/3 or 1/5 encoder scrambler Symbol DEMUX 1 to 16 Signal Point Mapping To Quadrature Spreading and Modulation I Walsh Channels TDM Time Division Multiplexer I Sequence Repetition 0 Q Preamble 32-symbol bi-Orthogonal MAC cover Signal Point Mapping Signal Point Mapping RPC Channel Gain DRC Lock Channel Gain Signal Point Mapping RA channel gain MAC Index Walsh Cover MAC RPC bits A MAC channel DRC Lock symbols Bit Repetition (xDRCLlen) Q Walsh Channels MAC channel RA bits I I Walsh Sequence Chip Level Repetition Summer Q (factor=4) Q Walsh Cover 0 Signal Point Mapping 0 I Q Bit Repetition (xRAB len) Walsh Cover W264 Pilot Channel (all 0s) 7-2008 Course Series 340v6. Send Pilot – Second Half-Slot Example Subpacket: 1536 Data Modulation Symbols (1 slot. 614.

10. Signal Puncturing 64 96 64 400 chips ½ Slot – 1024 chips 16-ary Walsh Covers Walsh Channel Gain I Walsh Chip Level Q Summer Data (modulation symbols) 1/3 or 1/5 encoder scrambler Symbol DEMUX 1 to 16 Signal Point Mapping To Quadrature Spreading and Modulation I Walsh Channels TDM Time Division Multiplexer I Sequence Repetition 0 Q Preamble 32-symbol bi-Orthogonal MAC cover Signal Point Mapping Signal Point Mapping RPC Channel Gain DRC Lock Channel Gain Signal Point Mapping RA channel gain MAC Index Walsh Cover MAC RPC bits A MAC channel DRC Lock symbols Bit Repetition (xDRCLlen) Q Walsh Channels MAC channel RA bits I I Walsh Sequence Chip Level Repetition Summer Q (factor=4) Q Walsh Cover 0 Signal Point Mapping 0 I Q Bit Repetition (xRAB len) Walsh Cover W264 Pilot Channel (all 0s) 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .78 . 614. Send MAC Channel – Fourth Part Example Subpacket: 1536 Data Modulation Symbols (1 slot.4 Kb/s) PRBL PILOT PILOT A MAC MAC MAC DATA 336 chips DATA DATA 400 chips MAC DATA 64 64 96 64 400 chips ½ Slot – 1024 chips Channel Interleaver QPSK/8PSK 16QAM Modulator Sequence Repetition.

Send Last 400 Data Symbols Example Subpacket: 1536 Data Modulation Symbols (1 slot. Signal Puncturing 64 96 64 400 chips ½ Slot – 1024 chips 16-ary Walsh Covers Walsh Channel Gain I Walsh Chip Level Q Summer Data (modulation symbols) 1/3 or 1/5 encoder scrambler Symbol DEMUX 1 to 16 Signal Point Mapping To Quadrature Spreading and Modulation I Walsh Channels TDM Time Division Multiplexer I Sequence Repetition 0 Q Preamble 32-symbol bi-Orthogonal MAC cover Signal Point Mapping Signal Point Mapping RPC Channel Gain DRC Lock Channel Gain Signal Point Mapping RA channel gain MAC Index Walsh Cover MAC RPC bits A MAC channel DRC Lock symbols Bit Repetition (xDRCLlen) Q Walsh Channels MAC channel RA bits I I Walsh Sequence Chip Level Repetition Summer Q (factor=4) Q Walsh Cover 0 Signal Point Mapping 0 I Q Bit Repetition (xRAB len) Walsh Cover W264 Pilot Channel (all 0s) 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.79 .0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .11. 614.4 Kb/s) PRBL PILOT PILOT A MAC MAC MAC DATA 336 chips DATA DATA 400 chips MAC DATA 64 64 96 64 400 chips ½ Slot – 1024 chips Channel Interleaver QPSK/8PSK 16QAM Modulator Sequence Repetition.

80 .4 Kb/s) PRBL PILOT PILOT A MAC MAC MAC DATA 336 chips DATA DATA 400 chips MAC DATA 64 64 96 64 400 chips ½ Slot – 1024 chips Channel Interleaver QPSK/8PSK 16QAM Modulator Sequence Repetition.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . Signal Puncturing 64 96 64 400 chips ½ Slot – 1024 chips 16-ary Walsh Covers Walsh Channel Gain I Walsh Chip Level Q Summer Data (modulation symbols) 1/3 or 1/5 encoder scrambler Symbol DEMUX 1 to 16 Signal Point Mapping To Quadrature Spreading and Modulation I Walsh Channels TDM Time Division Multiplexer I Sequence Repetition 0 Q Preamble 32-symbol bi-Orthogonal MAC cover Signal Point Mapping Signal Point Mapping RPC Channel Gain DRC Lock Channel Gain Signal Point Mapping RA channel gain MAC Index Walsh Cover MAC RPC bits A MAC channel DRC Lock symbols Bit Repetition (xDRCLlen) Q Walsh Channels MAC channel RA bits I I Walsh Sequence Chip Level Repetition Summer Q (factor=4) Q Walsh Cover 0 Signal Point Mapping 0 I Q Bit Repetition (xRAB len) Walsh Cover W264 Pilot Channel (all 0s) 7-2008 Course Series 340v6. 614.One Slot on the Forward Traffic Channel Example Subpacket: 1536 Data Modulation Symbols (1 slot.

AP Forward MAC Contents Q RA: Reverse Activity • The AP must manage its reverse traffic loading to keep the noise level manageable • Reverse noise is directly proportional to the speed at which mobiles transmit on the reverse link • When noise is too high. in much the same way as in IS-2000. the AP can throttle back all the ATs Q DRC Lock • This forward channel contains a stream of bits indicating whether the network currently will allow the mobile to transmit requests on the reverse DRC channel. but may transmit DRC requests to other sectors in its active set Q RPC: Reverse Power Control bits instruct the mobile to increase or decrease its transmit power by a programmable increment. timing and signal quality conditional parameters are also involved • The DRC Lock bits and DRC Lock state is independent per sector.81 .0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . A mobile should not transmit DRC requests to a sector sending DRC Lock indication. 7-2008 Course Series 340v6. The rate is 600 bps.

Reverse MAC Channel Contents
Q The Reverse MAC channel contains two streams of information Q DRC Data Rate Control channel is used by the AT to request the data rate and desired sector • Data rate is requested using 8-ary bi-orthogonal coding • Desired sector is requested using 8-ary Walsh cover • Each DRC channel slot contains 1024 chips to facilitate reliable detection • DRC messages start at the center of a slot to minimize the delay between C/I estimation and the start of AP transmission Q RRI Reverse Rate Indicator channel identifies up to 8 different desired reverse data transmission rates • 8-ary orthogonal code is used to indicate rates • The RRI symbol is transmitted 32 times in each frame • RRI symbols are inverted in the last half of the frame to make synchronization easier

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How the DRC Channel Operates
Q The AT estimates the forward channel C/I and identifies the feasible data rate and the requested sector to be used Q The AT sends this information to the AP on the DRC channel Q Only the requested sector will transmit packets to this AT Q The requested sector sends a data packet including preamble to the AT at the rate requested by the DRC in the immediately preceding slot Q After the packet transmission is initiated, it must be continued until the payload has been fully transmitted

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Hybrid Hybrid ARQ: ARQ: Hybrid Hybrid Repeat-Request Repeat-Request Protocol Protocol

7-2008

Course Series 340v6.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter

340 - 84

RLP functions are typically work at the link layer replicated at the physical layer • Radio Link Protocol (RLP) • HARQ Hybrid Repeat Request Protocol – communicates using – fast physical layer ACK bits signaling packets – Chase Combining of multiple – lost data packets aren’t repeats recognized and are – unneeded repeats pre-empted discarded at the decoder by positive ACK Q This method is slow and wasteful! Q This method is fast and efficient! 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.85 . retransmission protocols Q In 1xEV-DO.The Hybrid ARQ Process CDMA2000 1xEV-DO AP Access Point AT Access Terminal Application layer Stream layer Session layer Connection layer Security layer MAC layer Physical layer HARQ protocol CDMA2000 1xRTT SYSTEM Application layer LAC layer MAC layer Physical layer RLP Radio Link Protocol MAC layer Physical layer Application layer LAC layer RLP Radio Link Protocol Application layer Stream layer Session layer Connection layer Security layer MAC layer Physical layer HARQ protocol F-FCH R-FCH F-TFC repeats R-ACK Q In 1xRTT.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .

even on a static channel! Q In effect. so it can combine the subpackets for better decoding Q each additional subpacket in essence contributes additional signal power to aid in the detection of its parent packet • it’s hard to predict the exact power necessary for successful decoding in systems without HARQ – the channel changes rapidly during transmission – various estimation errors (noise.) – exact needed SNR is stochastic. etc. bias. up to the maximum of the current configuration • The identity of the subpackets is known by the receiver.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .The Hybrid ARQ Process Q Each physical layer data packet is encoded into subpackets • as long as the receiver does not send back an acknowledgment. HARQ sends progressively more energy until there is just enough and the packet is successfully decoded 7-2008 Course Series 340v6. the transmitter keeps sending more subpackets.86 .

broken into subpackets • each subpacket is a unique coded representation of the packet Q Each subpacket is sent independently during one slot • Subpackets are sent in sequential order with a three-slot gap between successive subpackets Forward Channel Packet Subpacket 0 other other other 0 other other other 0 other other other 0 other other other 1 0 pkts pkts pkts. interleaved.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . 1 pkts.87 . pkts.Construction of a Forward Link Packet bits symbols Encoding Interleaving Subpacket Subpacket Subpacket Subpacket Subpacket Data Packet 0 1 2 3 0 Q Physical Layer Packets encoded. pkts pkts 3 pkts pkts pkts 0 Traffic One Slot Q The receiver combines successive subpackets until it finally decodes the complete packet contents • then sends an “ACK” to cancel any remaining unneeded subpackets • this Hybrid ARQ (HARQ) process gives “incremental redundancy” 7-2008 Course Series 340v6. pkts. 2 pkts.

• AP transmits all 4 scheduled subpackets of packet #0 before the AT is finally able to decode correctly and send AK • then the AP can begin packet #1. user user user A 0 2 diff.Multislot Packet Timing.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . diff. diff. sends request for data AP starts sending next packet. user user user A 0 3 diff. diff. AT either NAKs or AKs on ACK channel In this example. first subpacket Course Series 340v6. Normal Termination AP User A Packet 0 Subpacket 0 diff. diff. diff. diff.88 7-2008 pr e NA par K e de de de de AK! . user user user A 0 1 diff. user user user A 1 0 F-Traffic AT R-DRC 1/2 Slot offset pr e NA par K e pr e NA par K e de co de co de co de co R-ACK One Slot c de id e c de id e pr e NA par K e c de id e c de id e NAK NAK NAK Q Q Q Q AT selects sector. one subpacket at a time After each subpacket. diff. diff.

Multislot Packet Timing.89 7-2008 pr e NA par K e de de de de AK! . sends request for data AP starts sending next packet. diff. diff. diff. AP now continues with first subpacket of packet #1 Course Series 340v6. diff. AT either NAKs or AKs on ACK channel In this example. user user user A 1 0 diff.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . user user user A 0 1 diff. one subpacket at a time After each subpacket. user user user A 1 1 diff. diff. Early Termination AP User A Packet 0 Subpacket 0 diff. diff. • AT is able to successfully decode packet #0 after receiving only the first two subpackets • AT sends ACK. diff. diff. user user user A 2 0 F-Traffic AT R-DRC 1/2 Slot offset pr e NA par K e pr e NA par K e de co de co de co de co R-ACK One Slot c de id e c de id e pr e NA par K e c de id e c de id e NAK AK! NAK Q Q Q Q AT selects sector.

3 Traffic One Slot Q Definition: Number of ARQ Instances • the maximum number of packets that may be in transit simultaneously • sometimes also called “the number of ARQ channels” Q This figure and the preceding page appear to show 4 ARQ instances Q Packets in the different ARQ instances • may be for the same user (the most common situation) • may be for different users (determined by QOS and scheduling) Q Destination mobile knows its packets by their preamble 7-2008 Course Series 340v6. 3 2. 2 2. 1 0 2 1. 1 3. 0 3.A Multiple ARQ Instances bits symbols Data Packets Encoding Interand leaving Scrambling Packet 0 Subpackets 0 1 2 3 Forward Channel Packet Subpacket 0 0 1. 0 0 1 1. 2 3. 1 2. 3 3. 0 2. 2 0 3 1.90 .0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .

2 2.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . 1 0 2 1. 1 2. 3 2. 3 Traffic One Slot Q Definition: Number of ARQ Instances • the maximum number of packets that may be in transit simultaneously • sometimes also called “the number of ARQ channels” Q This figure and the preceding page appear to show 4 ARQ instances Q Packets in the different ARQ instances • may be for the same user (the most common situation) • may be for different users (determined by QOS and scheduling) Q Destination mobile knows its packets by their preamble 7-2008 Course Series 340v6. 1 3. 0 0 1 1.A Multiple ARQ Instances bits symbols Data Packets Encoding Interand leaving Scrambling Packet 0 Subpackets Packet 1 Subpackets 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 Forward Channel Packet Subpacket 0 0 1.91 . 0 2. 0 3. 2 3. 2 0 3 1. 3 3.

1 3. 2 0 3 1. 0 3. 2 2. 2 3. 1 0 2 1. 0 0 1 1.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .92 . 3 2. 1 2. 3 3.A Multiple ARQ Instances bits symbols Data Packets Encoding Interand leaving Scrambling Packet 0 Subpackets Packet 1 Subpackets Packet 2 Subpackets 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 Forward Channel Packet Subpacket 0 0 1. 0 2. 3 Traffic One Slot Q Definition: Number of ARQ Instances • the maximum number of packets that may be in transit simultaneously • sometimes also called “the number of ARQ channels” Q This figure and the preceding page appear to show 4 ARQ instances Q Packets in the different ARQ instances • may be for the same user (the most common situation) • may be for different users (determined by QOS and scheduling) Q Destination mobile knows its packets by their preamble 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.

3 2. 0 2.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . 0 0 1 1.93 .Multiple ARQ Instances bits symbols Data Packets Encoding Interand leaving Scrambling Packet 0 Subpackets Packet 1 Subpackets Packet 2 Subpackets Packet 3 Subpackets 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 Forward Channel Packet Subpacket 0 0 1. 1 0 2 1. 0 3. 1 3. 2 2. 3 Traffic One Slot Q Definition: Number of ARQ Instances • the maximum number of packets that may be in transit simultaneously • sometimes also called “the number of ARQ channels” Q This figure and the preceding page appear to show 4 ARQ instances Q Packets in the different ARQ instances • may be for the same user (the most common situation) • may be for different users (determined by QOS and scheduling) Q Destination mobile knows its packets by their preamble 7-2008 Course Series 340v6. 2 0 3 1. 1 2. 2 3. 3 3.

94 . RRI.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . sent as four symbols -one in each of the MAC periods of that slot 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.Reverse Power Control 600 bits per second AP Stronger than target SNR? SNR target Reverse RF RX RF Digital Open Loop Closed Loop TX RF Digital Access Terminal Q 1xEV-DO reverse link power control is similar to IS-95/IS-2000 Q 1xEV-DO power control holds the mobile pilot to a constant S/N ratio at the Access Point • The DRC. and ACK channels are also controlled • The ideal ratio of reverse pilot to other channels also depends on the reverse data rate Q Power control bits are sent on the forward MAC channel • one bit per slot (that’s 600 per second).

Reverse Reverse Rate Rate Control Control 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .95 .

A reverse rate is controlled by the mobile • The mobile watches the filtered (averaged) pilot strength of its active sector(s) and computes the feasible transmission rate from this C/I ratio Q The mobile then transmits one subpacket at this derived level and waits to see if the base station acknowledges complete decoding of the packet Q If no acknowledgement is received.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . the mobile continues with the next subpacket. A Reverse Rate Control Q The EV-DO Rev. and so on until acknowledgement is received or all four subpackets have been sent 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.96 .Rev.

the AT immediately sets CurrentRateLimit to the RateLimit value in the message. CombinedBusyBit. Q After the AT receives a BroadcastReverseRateLimit message or a UnicastReverseRateLimit message it updates the CurrentRateLimit value as follows: • If the RateLimit value in the message is less than or equal to the CurrentRateLimit value. the AT sets MaxRate to the MaxRateFalse value for the corresponding row in the Table 7-2008 Course Series 340v6. Otherwise. and a random number. CombinedBusyBit. Q The AT evaluates the expression shown in the table. using the procedure specified in 15. If the AT was not transmitting data immediately before the new transmission time.6kbps. • If the RateLimit value in the message is greater than CurrentRateLimit value. The access terminal shall generate a uniformly distributed random number x. 0 Reverse Rate Control Q This process uses variables: MaxRate. • If the Condition is true.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . Q The AT sets the variable MaxRate based on its current transmission rate. the value of the CombinedBusyBit. the AT sets CurrentRate to 0. Q CurrentRateLimit is set initially to 9.5. • Otherwise. the AT sets MaxRate to the MaxRateTrue value for the corresponding row in the Table.Rev. and CurrentRateLimit. Q CurrentRate is set to the rate at which the AT was transmitting data immediately before the new transmission time.97 . using the values of CurrentRate. the AT sets CombinedBusyBit to ‘1’. Q If the last received reverse activity bit is set to ‘1’ from any sector in the AT’s active set. CurrentRate. the AT waits one frame (16 slots) before setting CurrentRateLimit to the RateLimit value in the message. 0 < x < 1. the AT sets CombinedBusyBit to ‘0’. and Condition.

98 .Rev.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . 0 Reverse Rate Control Table 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.

as specified in Table 11. is greater than the size of data it has to send. 0 Reverse Rate Constraints Q The access terminal shall select a transmission rate that satisfies the following constraints: • The access terminal shall transmit at a rate that is no greater than the value of MaxRate.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .99 . • The access terminal shall transmit at a rate that is no greater than the value of CurrentRateLimit.Rev. 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.8. • The access terminal shall transmit at a data rate no higher than the highest data rate that can be accommodated by the available transmit power.6-1. • The access terminal shall not select a data rate for which the minimum payload length.

A A 7-2008 Course Series 340v6. Rev.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .100 .1xEV-DO 1xEV-DO Rev.

4 Mbps to 3. 512 bits) improve frame fill efficiency • The DRC channel functions are broken out into two channels – DRC retains rate control indication – new Data Source Control (DSC) Channel shows desired serving cell • Minimizes interruptions due to server switching on FL 7-2008 Course Series 340v6. A Q Forward Link Enhancements • Peak rates increased from 2.101 .Forward Link Enhancements in 1xEV-DO Rev. 256.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .1 Mbps • Multi-user packet support • Small payload sizes (128.

BPSK modulation – Medium rates: 1 walsh channel.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . QPSK modulation – High Rates: 2 walsh channels.8 Mbps with 48 payload sizes • 4 slots/sub-packets regardless of payload size (6.Reverse Link Enhancements in 1xEV-DO Rev. QPSK modulation – Highest Rate: 2 walsh channels. A Q Reverse Link Enhancements • Higher data rates and finer quantization • Data rates from 4. 8PSK modulation • Hybrid ARQ using fast re-transmission (re-tx) and early termination • Flexible rate allocation: each AT has autonomous and scheduled mode • Efficient VOIP support • 3-channel synchronous stop-and-wait protocol • The mobile can use higher power and finish earlier when transmitting packets of applications requiring minimum latency 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.8 kbps to 1.102 .66 ms) • Modulation: – Low rates: 1 walsh channel.

8 51.6 1/2 1/4 1/5 1/5 6144 Q4Q2 921 461 307 230.5 QPSK 64 1024 614.4 -0.8 3/8 1/5 1/5 1/5 1024 B4 153 76.2 -3.8 1/2 1/4 1/5 1/5 3072 Q2 461 230 153.6 QPSK 64 2048 614.Preamble Payload Raw C/I lation Chips Bits kb/s db QPSK n/a 0 null rate n/a QPSK 1024 1024 38.536.6 19.4 28.0 +11.4 -0.2 2/3 1/3 2/9 1/5 12288 E4E2 1843 921 614 460.072.5 QPSK 512 1024 76.9 16QAM 64 4096 1.8 +4.8 57.Available Link Rates in 1xEV-DO Rev.8 +3.103 .843.0 +8.5 QPSK 128 1024 307.6 +2.6 -6.2 9.6 38. A forward has two available modes offering higher speeds than available in Rev.457.2 1/4 1/5 1/5 1/5 768 B4 115 57.8 153.0 16QAM 64 4096 2.3 REVERSE LINK Payload Modu-Effective Rate kbps after: Code Rate (repetition) after Bits lation 4 slots 8 slots 12 slots16 slots 4 slots 8 slots 12 slots16 slots 128 B4 19.6 1/5 1/5 1/5 1/5 512 B4 76 38.2 QPSK 256 1024 153.2 3/8 1/5 1/5 1/5 4096 Q2 614 307 204.2 -3. A FORWARD LINK DRC Index Slots 0x0 n/a 0x1 16 0x2 8 0x3 4 0x4 2 0x5 4 0x6 1 0x7 2 0x8 2 0x9 1 0xa 2 0xb 1 0xc 1 0xd 2 0xe 1 Modu.5 QPSK 64 3072 921. 0.6 +10.4 4.4 -11.2 38.6 3/8 1/5 1/5 1/5 2048 Q4 307 153 102.4 1/2 1/4 1/5 1/5 1536 Q4 230 115 76.228.6 6.3 16QAM 64 5120 1.0 8PSK 64 3072 1. A reverse link has seven available modes offering higher speeds than available in Rev.8 2/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 Q The 1xEV-DO Rev.8 1/5 1/5 1/5 1/5 256 B4 38 19. 0 • Modulation formats are hybrids defined in the standard Q The 1xEV-DO Rev.4 76.4 1/2 1/4 1/5 1/5 8192 Q4Q2 1228 614 409 307.4 25.2 12.2 +8. 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .3 16QAM 64 5120 3.5 QPSK 128 2048 307.2 QPSK 64 2048 1.8 9.6 115.8 -9.228.

0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .Basic Basic Access Access Terminal Terminal Architecture Architecture and and Operation Operation 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.104 .

Convl.105 . Detector AGC RF Duplexer RF Open Loop Traffic Correlator PN xxx Walsh xx Traffic Correlator PN xxx Walsh xx Pilot Searcher PN xxx Walsh 0 bits Digital Rake Receiver Symbols Traffic Correlator PN xxx Walsh xx Δt Σ Symbols power Viterbi Decoder. Demultiplexer Packets UART Conv or Turbo Coder Messages CPU Transmit Gain Adjust Messages Transmitter Digital Section Long Code Gen.How Does an Access Terminal Work? summing time-aligned Chips control Traffic Correlator PN xxx Walsh xx Receiver RF Section IF. Decoder.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter Transmitter RF Section 7-2008 340 . Course Series 340v6.

but in 1xEV-DO mode only a single AP transmits to us. never more than one at a time.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .1xEV-DO Forward Link: AT Rake Receivers ONE sector at a time!! Access Terminal Rake Receiver PN Walsh PN RF PN PN Walsh Walsh Walsh Pilot Ec/Io Σ user data AP AP Searcher PN W=0 Q Burst by burst. so this capability isn’t needed or helpful in 1xEV-DO mode 7-2008 Course Series 340v6. at the max speed it can successfully use Q Using latest multipath data from its pilot searcher. the Access Terminal uses the combined outputs of the four traffic correlators (“rake fingers”) Q Each rake finger can be set to match any multipath component of the signal Q The terminal may be a dual-mode device also capable of 1xRTT voice/data • fingers could even be targeted on different AP. the Access Terminal asks for transmission from whichever Active sector it hears best.106 .

107 . Q The DO-RNC uses the cleanest (lowest number of errors) packet 7-2008 Course Series 340v6. and sends it back to the DO-RNC.1xEV-DO Reverse Link: Soft Handoff All “Active Set” sectors can listen to the AT Access Terminal Rake Receiver PN Walsh PN RF PN PN Walsh Walsh Walsh Pilot Ec/Io Σ user data AP DO-RNC chooses ‘cleanest’ packet AP Searcher PN W=0 Q The AT uses the Route Update protocol to frequently update its preferences of which sectors it wants in its active set Q Frame-by-frame. all the sectors in the Active Set listen for the AT’s signal Q Each sector collects what it heard from the AT.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .

AP AP Rake Receiver PN Walsh ? ? PN RF PN PN Walsh Walsh Walsh Σ user data Searcher PN W=0 Pilot Ec/Io Q 1xEV-DO Route Update is ‘driven’ by the Access Terminal • Access Terminal continuously checks available pilots • Access Terminal tells system pilots it currently sees • System puts those sectors in the active set. just fast choices Q All sectors in Active Set try to hear AT.1xEV-DO Route Update Mechanics Access Terminal DO-RNC Sel. forward packets to the DO-RNC • so the reverse link does benefit from CDMA soft handoff 7-2008 Course Series 340v6. tells Access Terminal Q Access terminal requests data bursts from the sector it likes best • tells which sector and what burst speed using the DRC channel • so there is no “Soft Handoff” on the forward link.108 .0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .

it notices the serving sector is PilotDrop Compare Timer far from the sector where last updated Dynamic Thresholds? • In connected state. as Neighbor 20 nearby sectors to check Remaining • Remaining: any pilots used by system but not already in the other sets (div.109 AT must support . by PILOT_INC) Q Access Terminal sends a Route Update HANDOFF Message to the system whenever: PARAMETERS • It transmits on the Access Channel PilotAdd PilotDrop Pilot • In idle state.Route Update Pilot Management Rules PILOT SETS Q The Access Terminal considers pilots in sets • Active: sectors who listen and can transmit Active 6 • Candidates: sectors AT requested. but not Candidate 6 yet approved by system to be active • Neighbors: pilots told to AT by system. whenever it notices the Softslope Handoff Parameters suggest a change AddIntercept DropIntercept NeighborMaxAge 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .

if it doesn’t list it.110 .Format of Traffic Channel Assignment Message Q The Traffic Channel Assignment Message assigns all or some of the sectors the access terminal requested in its most recent Route Update request Q The message lists every Active pilot.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . it’s not approved as active Q Notice the MAC index and DRC Cover so the access terminal knows how to request forward link bursts on the data rate control channel Neighbor Structure Maintained by the AT Pilot PN Channel SrchWinSize SrchWinOffset 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.

111 .1xEV-DO 1xEV-DO Network Network Architecture Architecture Simple Simple IP IP and and Mobile Mobile IP IP 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .

CDMA Network for Circuit-Switched Voice Calls (C)BSC/Access Manager Switch PSTN t1 t1 v SEL t1 CE BTS Q The first commercial IS-95 CDMA systems provided only circuitswitched voice calls 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .112 .

CDMA 1xRTT Voice and Data Network PDSN Foreign Agent Backbone Network Authentication Authorization Accounting Internet VPNs PDSN Home Agent AAA Switch (C)BSC/Access Manager PSTN t1 t1 v SEL t1 CE BTS Q CDMA2000 1xRTT networks added two new capabilities: • channel elements able to generate and carry independent streams of symbols on the I and Q channels of the QPSK RF signal – this roughly doubles capacity compared to IS-95 • a separate IP network implementing packet connections from the mobile through to the outside internet – including Packet Data Serving Nodes (PDSNs) and a dedicated direct data connection (the Packet-Radio Interface) to the heart of the BSC Q The overall connection speed was still limited by the 1xRTT air interface 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .113 .

0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . and Nortel’s specific solutions 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.114 .1xEV-DO Overlaid On Existing 1xRTT Network PDSN Foreign Agent Backbone Network Authentication Authorization Accounting Internet VPNs PDSN Home Agent DO Radio Network Controller (C)BSC/Access Manager DO-OMC AAA Switch CE PSTN t1 t1 v SEL t1 CE BTS Q 1xEV-DO requires faster resource management than 1x BSCs can give • this is provided by the new Data Only Radio Network Controller (DO-RNC) Q A new controller and packet controller software are needed in the BTS to manage the radio resources for EV sessions • in some cases dedicated channel elements and even dedicated backhaul is used for the EV-DO traffic Q The new DO-OMC administers the DO-RNC and BTS PCF addition Q Existing PDSNs and backbone network are used with minor upgrading Q The following sections show Lucent. Motorola.

0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . the data session ends • The mobile can establish an entirely new connection through the new network. the mobile is able to connect to the external packet networks directly through the PDSN attached to the local BSC Q The IP address for the internet connection is assigned by the local PDSN from the pool of addresses available to it Q If the mobile moves into a different network. if desired 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.115 .Simple IP Network Architecture Simple IP •IP Based transport to data networks •Dynamic/static connection from local PDSN •No mobility beyond serving PDSN FAST IP PACKET TRAFFIC Internet VPNs T AAA Authentication Authorization Accounting PDSN R-P Interface BTS rf Fast! CE Wireless Mobile Device (C)BSC/Access Manager Switch PSTN t1 t1 v SEL t1 CIRCUIT-SWITCHED VOICE TRAFFIC POINT-TO-POINT PACKETS Q In a Simple IP network.

Mobile IP in a Multi-Market Network Internet Regional Data Center Private IP Networks Home Agent Home Agent AAA Server Operator's Private Network Nortel System IP Data Lucent System IP Data Motorola System IP Data PCF PDSN FA Switch RP Interface BSC PDSN FA RP Access Mgr. Switch PDSN/FA Switch RP CBSC Voice Voice Voice PSTN 7-2008 PSTN Course Series 340v6.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter PSTN 340 .116 .

117 .Mobile IP Q Subscriber’s IP routing service is provided by a public IP network Q Mobile station is assigned a static IP address belonging to its Home Agent Q Mobile can maintain the static IP address even for handoff between radio networks connected to separate PDSNs! Q Mobile IP capabilities will be especially important for mobiles on system boundaries • Without Mobile IP roaming capability. data service for borderarea mobiles will be erratic MOBILE IP IMPLICATIONS •Handoffs possible between PDSNs •Mobile can roam in the public IP network •Mobile termination is possible while Mobile is in dormant or active mode 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .

Encapsulation Just like Home! 158766 158767 158768 158769 158770 158771 158772 158774 158775 158776 158782 158783 158784 158785 158790 158791 158792 158793 158794 158795 158796 158797 158778 158779 158780 158781 158786 158787 158788 158789 FedEx Secure Tunneling Forward and Reverse FedEx 158773 Mobile User This box is the mobile user's Postal address 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.How the PDSN HA and FA Forward Your Packets Mobile IP is a packetforwarding arrangement that allows the mobile user to send and receive packets just as if they were physically present Foreign Home at their home agent Agent Agent location.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .118 .

1xEV-DO 1xEV-DO Network Network Architecture Architecture 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.119 .0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .

120 .CDMA Network for Circuit-Switched Voice Calls (C)BSC/Access Manager Switch PSTN t1 t1 v SEL t1 CE BTS Q The first commercial IS-95 CDMA systems provided only circuitswitched voice calls 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .

121 .CDMA 1xRTT Voice and Data Network PDSN Foreign Agent Backbone Network Authentication Authorization Accounting Internet VPNs PDSN Home Agent AAA Switch (C)BSC/Access Manager PSTN t1 t1 v SEL t1 CE BTS Q CDMA2000 1xRTT networks added two new capabilities: • channel elements able to generate and carry independent streams of symbols on the I and Q channels of the QPSK RF signal – this roughly doubles capacity compared to IS-95 • a separate IP network implementing packet connections from the mobile through to the outside internet – including Packet Data Serving Nodes (PDSNs) and a dedicated direct data connection (the Packet-Radio Interface) to the heart of the BSC Q The overall connection speed was still limited by the 1xRTT air interface 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .

1xEV-DO Overlaid On Existing 1xRTT Network PDSN Foreign Agent Backbone Network Authentication Authorization Accounting Internet VPNs PDSN Home Agent DO Radio Network Controller (C)BSC/Access Manager DO-OMC AAA Switch CE PSTN t1 t1 v SEL t1 CE BTS Q 1xEV-DO requires faster resource management than 1x BSCs can give • this is provided by the new Data Only Radio Network Controller (DO-RNC) Q A new controller and packet controller software are needed in the BTS to manage the radio resources for EV sessions • in some cases dedicated channel elements and even dedicated backhaul is used for the EV-DO traffic Q The new DO-OMC administers the DO-RNC and BTS PCF addition Q Existing PDSNs and backbone network are used with minor upgrading Q The following sections show Lucent.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .122 . and Nortel’s specific solutions 7-2008 Course Series 340v6. Motorola.

Lucent Lucent 1xEV-DO 1xEV-DO Architecture Architecture 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .123 .

124 . 7-2008 Course Series 340v6. Q The 1xEV-DO equipment may be collocated with IS-95 and/or 1xRTT equipment.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .Lucent 1xEV-DO Radio Access Network (RAN) OMP FX Element Management System AP T-1/E-1 Ethernet RF AAA Server Downlink Input Router Router AP Uplink Input Router Flexent Mobility Server AP RF User ATs (Access Terminals) AP Uplink Input Router Flexent Mobility Server Downlink Input Router Packet Data Serving Node (PDSN) Internet Q A Lucent 1xEV-DO Radio Access Network (RAN) includes • 1xEV-DO base stations and the • 1xEV-DO Flexent® Mobility Server (FMS). creating 1xEV-DO/IS-95 and 1xEVDO/3G-1X combination base stations.

Details of Lucent RAN Elements OMP FX Element Management System AP T-1/E-1 Ethernet RF AAA Server Downlink Input Router Router AP Uplink Input Router Flexent Mobility Server AP RF User ATs (Access Terminals) AP Uplink Input Router Flexent Mobility Server Downlink Input Router Packet Data Serving Node (PDSN) Internet Q The PDSN maintains the link layer to the AT • it terminates the PPP link protocol with mobile • it serves as the Foreign Agent for Mobile IP functionality Q The AAA server does authentication.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . authorization. and accounting • it authenticates terminal equipment users when they establish connections • it stores and forwards billing information of customers’ data usage 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.125 .

126 . 1xRTT. other RF components) can be used for IS-95. amplifiers.1xEV-DO in Lucent Flexent Mod Cell Cabinets Q Lucent Mod Cell cabinets can support up to three IS-95 or 1xRTT carriers on three sectors Q 1xEV-DO CDMA Digital Modules (CDM) can be mixed with conventional CDMs in the same cabinet Q the same RF hardware (filters.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . and 1xEV-DO 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.

127 . It includes • CRC CDMA Radio controller • up to 6 CCU CDMA Channel Units • PCU power converter module • CBR CDMA Baseband Radio Q At lower left is a CDM for 1xEV-DO • it must be occupy the leftmost slot • all CCU packs are removed and replaced by a single 1xEV-DO modem (EVM) occupying 2 slots • the CRC must be 44WW13D or later 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.Lucent CDMA Digital Module (CDM) Configurations Q At upper left is a CDM for conventional IS-95 / 1xRTT service.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .

0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter .128 FMS Universal Radio Controller (URC) Digital Shelf Evolution Carr1 Flow Modem (4.0 Cabinets Q The Mod Cell 4 cabinet comes in many variations Q Instead of per-carrier dedicated CDMs. • in a mixed-mode system. 3 CDMA Modem Unit (CMU) Universal Antenna CDMA Radio (UCR) ECP Universal Radio Controller (URC) 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.0 EVM or CMU is upconverted to the RF carrier frequency by the UCR • each UCR (Universal CDMA Radio) can handle up to three carriers 340 .0 EVM) Carr 2. resources are pooled Q URCs (Universal Radio Controllers) are used to steer data for each carrier to EVMs for EVDO or CMUs for IS-95/1xRTT.1xEV-DO in Lucent Mod Cell 4. a URC is required for EVDO and a URC for IS-95/1xRTT Q The modulated signal from a 4.

including the dormant state and other DOspecific features 7-2008 Course Series 340v6. which provides the Packet Controller Function (PCF) Q The PCF provides air link and radio resource management to implement 1xEV-DO user sessions.Lucent 1xEV-DO Flexent Mobility Server (FMS) Q The Flexent Mobility Server is the heart of the Radio Access Network Q It provides four processors running the 1xEV-DO Application Processor (DO-AP).0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .129 .

130 .Motorola Motorola 1xEV-DO 1xEV-DO Architecture Architecture 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .

Motorola 1xEV-DO System Architecture MSC MM/SDU VPU OMC-IP OMC-DO BSC-DO AN-DO AAA AN-AAA PDSNs OMC-R Elements Existing IS-95 New 1xEV-DO Shared IS-95/DO 1x-AN 1x-BTS MCC-DO Packet Core Network HAs Connections IS-95/1x 1xEV-DO Shared 1x/DO Q New 1xEV-DO carrier appears as a standard carrier addition to existing network elements • new MCC-DO cards and OMC-R database revisions needed • AAA and PDSN need software upgrades 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .131 .

Packet Control & Selection – like SDU Q OMC-DO (Operations & Maintenance Center .Data only) • CR (Consolidation Router) Similar in function to the 1x-AN MGX • LSW (Layer 3 Switch) Similar in function to the 1x-AN CATs Q BSC-DO (Base Station Controller-Data Only) • Mobility functions like 1x MM .Data Only) Q LMT (Local Maintenance Terminal) 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.132 .New Motorola 1xEV-DO Network Elements MSC MM/SDU VPU OMC-IP OMC-DO BSC-DO AN-DO AAA AN-AAA PDSNs OMC-R Elements Existing IS-95 New 1xEV-DO Shared IS-95/DO 1x-AN 1x-BTS MCC-DO Packet Core Network HAs Connections IS-95/1x 1xEV-DO Shared 1x/DO Q MCC-DO (Multi-Channel Controller .Data Only) Q AN-DO (Access Node .0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .

133 .0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .Motorola 1xEV-DO Block Diagram and Network Upgrade Summary BTS 1x BBX RF Front End 1x Modems DO BBX BSC-DO MCC-DO AN-DO IS-2000 1xEV-DO Tool LMF LMT BTS frame & CCP shelf LPA BBX-1X BTS MCC-1X MCC-DO GLI (Traffic) GLI (Control) AN (MGX8800) CR AN AN (Catalyst 6509) LSW BSC CBSC BSC-DO OMC-R O&M OMC-DO UNO PDSN (Note 1) IP Network Telephone Network MSC/HLR Not Required Data Network Not Required AAA BTS 1x BBX RF Front End 1x Modems DO BBX CR LSW PDSN T1 or E1 MCCDO OMC-DO AN-AAA Q 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.

DO 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .BTS 1x BBX RF Front End 1x Modems DO BBX Motorola MCC-DO Functions BSC-DO MCC-DO AN-DO BTS 1x BBX RF Front End 1x Modems DO BBX CR LSW PDSN T1 or E1 MCC-DO OMC-DO AN-AAA Q 1xEV-DO Modem • 1 carrier. 3 sectors per MCC-DO card • Supports 59 channels per sector Q Span Interface • Up to 3 Active Span lines per MCC-DO • Most operators will generally deploy with 2 spans per BTS Q BTS provides control: • SCAP messaging • Redundant BBX Selection • Enhanced BBX interface MCC.134 .

Motorola 1xEV-DO AN-DO Elements BTS 1x BBX RF Front End 1x Modems DO BBX MCC-DO BSCDO AN-DO BTS 1x BBX RF Front End 1x Modems DO BBX CR LSW PDSN T1 or E1 MCC-DO OMC-DO AN-AAA CR LSW Q Consolidation Router (CR) • Performs span aggregation for DO access points – Similar to 1x MGX • 1 – 2 CR frames per BSC-DO Q Layer 3 Switch (LSW) • Performs IP transport across DO Core Network – Similar to 1x CAT • Two CAT4006 Cages per frame • 1 LSW frame will serve all 1xEV-DO frames in a typical MTSO 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .135 .

mobility management.BTS 1x BBX RF Front End 1x Modems DO BBX Motorola BSC-DO Functions BSC-DO MCC-DO AN-DO BTS 1x BBX RF Front End 1x Modems DO BBX CR LSW PDSN T1 or E1 MCC-DO OMC-DO AN-AAA Q BSC Functionality: • RF-scheduling.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . channel. connection.136 . security Q Access Network Control • Radio Resource Management • Connection Control • Access control / Collision control • Handoff control Q Packet Control and Session Control • Transmission of packet data between MCC-DO and PDSN • Packet Data Control • PDSN selection • Provides Authentication information to AAA • Management of Data Session • Support up to 80 MCC-DO cards per a BSC-DO Q 1 OMC-DO per each BSC-DO 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.

137 BSC-DO 7-2008 . performance.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .Motorola 1xEV-DO Network Elements: OMC-DO BTS 1x BBX RF Front End 1x Modems DO BBX MCC-DO AN-DO CR BTS 1x BBX RF Front End 1x Modems DO BBX T1 or E1 MCC-DO Q OMC-DO provides GUI based O&M functions • Status Management PDSN LSW • Fault Management • Configuration Management • Software Management AN-AAA OMC-DO • System Parameter Management DO network element manager • Performance Monitoring • Manages BSC-DO and MCC• CDL collection DO • Ethernet interface to BSC• Diagnostic & System Test DO • Logging • Supports network management applications • Health Check (fault. configuration) Course Series 340v6. alarm.

Nortel Nortel 1xEV-DO 1xEV-DO Architecture Architecture 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .138 .

and 1xEV-DO 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .A Typical Nortel CDMA2000 System Providing 1xRTT Voice. Data.139 .

140 .A Typical Nortel CDMA2000 System Providing Only 1xRTT Voice.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . Data 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.

A Typical Nortel CDMA2000 System Providing 1xEV-DO Only 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.141 .0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .

0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .Nortel Multiple Backhaul and Configuration Possibilities 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.142 .

143 .25 MHz carrier frequencies • up to three sectors.Nortel Univity® Indoor Metrocell Q Univity® Metro Cell can support: • up to six CDMA 1.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . Q High Power Amplifiers and Low Noise Amplifiers are housed in an external unit • the Multi-Carrier Flexible Radio Module (MFRM) • MFRM may be mast mounted to improve AP RF link budget Univity® CDMA Metro Cell Indoor Base Transceiver System (AP) 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.

61m) Metro Cell LD – Rack Mounted Supporting 3 sectors 7-2008 Course Series 340v6. fits in any corner Q Configurations • 1-3 Carrier OMNI • Expandable to 3 sectors • Single carrier high power Q Power source • + 24VDC available Q Standard Metro Cell modules •24” (0.Nortel Metrocell LD (for rural sites) •XCEM/ •DOM •GPSTM •CM •CORE •Fan tray •MiniBIP •Radio Module •36” (0.91m) •AC Rectifier Key Feature – small size.144 .0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .

Nortel DOM: Data-Only Module Q The Data Only Module (DOM) adds 1xEV-DO capability to a MetroCell AP CEM shelf • transmits/receives baseband data to/from the digital control group (DCG) in the CORE module • CORE switches baseband to proper carrier on the MFRM for transmission • the DOM performs all encoding/decoding of IP packets for transport on data-only network to the Data-Only Radio Network Controller (DO-RNC) • One DOM supports up to a three-sector. one-carrier MetroCell AP • Additional DOMs support additional carriers 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .145 .

both idle and connected • handoffs of ATs between cells and carrier frequencies (reverse).Nortel’s DO-RNC The Data-Only Radio Network Controller Q DO-RNC is the heart of a 1xEV-DO network. sector selection (fwd). Nortel DO-RNC • connections from airlink to PDSN over Data-Only standard A10-A11 interfaces Radio Network Controller • connects to MetroCell AP via dedicated IP backhaul network Q DO-RNC is the peer of the access terminal for most over-the-air signaling protocols. It manages: • DOMs at multiple APs (even on different band classes) over IP-based backhaul network • access terminal state. including session and connection layers 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .146 . located at the central office (CO) with the BSC and/or BSS Manager (BSSM) Q DO-RNC is a stand-alone node supporting 1xEV-DO.

stream. session and connection layer management • radio link protocol (RLP) • connection control of access terminals • resource management.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .Nortel DO-RNC Functionality Q DO-RNC functions similar to CDMA-2000 BSC and packet control unit: • handoff processing (reverse only). mobility management • packet control function (PCF) • data flow control Q DO-RNC switch-like functions • service negotiation • paging and access channel message termination • forwards MAC-layer packets to the best-serving DOM • data-environment-specific performance logging 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.147 . sector selection (forward only) • selection of reverse link traffic frames • data session connected/dormant transition management • termination of the A10/A11 RP interface to the PDSN • application.

Nortel T1/E1 Aggregator Functions Q The T1/E1 aggregation router is based on the Shasta BSN5000 • this requires a T1 or E1 MUX co-located with the Shasta to terminate the T1/E1s and convert them into channelized DS-3 or channelized STM-1 (single mode). for connection to the Shasta BSN Q The T1/E1 aggregation router is co-located with the RNCs • aggregates all T1/E1s from the backhaul network to the RNC • each DOM can have up to four T1/E1 links • the DO-RNC does not accept T1/E1 signals • T1/E1 aggregation router converts T1/E1 signals into ethernet links 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter TN-1X STM-1 T 340 .148 .

0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . reporting. Administration. etc) Q The DO-EMS. Its functions include: • collecting. DO-RNC and DOM provide overload controls for management of OAM&P messaging traffic during system events 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.149 . and managing DO-RNC and DOM alarms • collecting and storing OMs from DO-RNC and DOM • administering 1xEV-DO carrier/sector neighbor lists. and Provisioning (OAM&P) for the 1xEV-DO radio access network (RAN) Q The existing BSS Manager (BSSM) continues management of the 1xEV-DO DOM module in a MetroCell AP Q The DO-EMS is a stand-alone platform providing OAM&P functionality within the CDMA2000 1xEV-DO network only.The Nortel DO-EMS (Data-Only Element Management System) Q The DO-EMS consists of • Hardware (the server) and Software (the client) Q The DO-EMS Provides Operation. including limited diagnostic capabilities (reciprocal neighbor analysis. Maintenance.

keyboard and mouse functionality • The terminal connects to the DO-EMS to perform all required OAM&P functions for the 1xEV-DO network • The management terminal is a Sun Blade150 • alternatively. a terminal is required for monitor. customers may use a PC running an “X-Windows” application 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .The Nortel DO-EMS Server and Client Q The DO-EMS server is a Sun Netra20 • normally located in the central office with the BSC/DO-RNC Q Software modules on the server perform: • auto-discovery • configuration management • security management • fault management • performance management Q DO-EMS Client / Management Terminal • since the Netra20 is a “headless” server.150 .

easy-to-use interface • provides robust configuration. fault and performance management tools 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.151 .The Nortel DO-EMS Client Q The DO-EMS client is webbased • runs in standard web browsers • offers network administrators a familiar.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .

With the addition of the AT IP access model. The FA is always integrated onto the Shasta BSN with the Univity® PDSN resulting in the PDSN/FA. the IP Services Operating System (iSOS) and the Service Creation System (SCS) as defined below: • SSG .0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.offers high-touch services scalability and extensibility • SCS .152 . It provides scalable centralized management for PDSNs covering a large range of geographical locations.Nortel’s Univity® CDMA PDSN Q PDSN • The Univity® CDMA PDSN provides CDMA radio network packet data access to the Public Data Network (PDN) and is integrated on the Shasta BSN 5000 chassis. a Foreign Agent (FA) and Home Agent (HA) are required. Q Component Breakdown Q The Shasta BSN is comprised of several components including the Subscriber Service Gateway (SSG).is a graphical management and provisioning tool allowing the service provider to quickly and efficiently provision thousands of subscriber profiles through its GUI.is the hardware platform (Shasta 5000 chassis) • iSOS .

Nortel Shasta BSN Hardware Description Q Hardware Description Q The Shasta BSN chassis consists of a card cage with 14 slots for cards. a fan tray for cooling. The required components are as follows: • Line Card (LC) • Subscriber Service Module (SSM II) • Subscriber Service Card (SSC) • Control and Management Card (CMC) • Switch Fabric Card (SFC) • Shasta Chassis (BSN) • Service Creation System (SCS) – Server and Client • Shasta BSN Software • Cabinet 7-2008 Course Series 340v6. Q All Shasta BSN components are new in the CDMA network and are required specifically for the CDMA 3G architecture.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . The chassis mounts in a standard 19” rack and requires a -48VDC power source. power entry and distribution and the backplane. The fan tray and all cards are all hot-swappable.153 .

Q Supported interfaces include 10/100/1000BaseT autosensing and ATM • Supports up to 384 10/100 TX Ports • Supports up to 192 100 FX Ports • Supports up to 64 1000 SX Ports • STM1/OC3 (up to 32 Ports) Q Redundant power supplies and hot-swappable modules are also part of the product platform.154 .Nortel’s Passport 8600 Routing Switch Q Passport 8600 Routing Switch • delivers high-density Layer 2 and Layer 3 wirespeed switching and routing over copper and fiber media. • Both 6 and 10 Slot Chassis are available. scaling to 256 Gbps in the future. One per chassis.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . two if redundancy is desired 7-2008 Course Series 340v6. B is applicable to 6 slot Chassis. Q Core switching and processing • Routing switch fabric/CPU module—Highperformance Layer 2 and Layer 3 traffic switching. The price in Appendix A. • switching architecture capable of delivering 128 Gbps of capacity.

high port density • 24-port 100Base-FX Fast Ethernet Routing Switch module (MT-RJ) long runs – 2km multimode • 16-port 1000Base-SX Gigabit Ethernet Routing Switch module (MT-RJ) – Up to 128 Gigabit Ethernet ports per 10-slot chassis • 8-port 1000Base-T Gigabit Ethernet Routing Switch module (RJ-45) – over cat. 7-2008 Course Series 340v6. maintaining QoS prioritization. long distance (LX) and extended distance (XD and ZX) • One.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .155 .Nortel Passport 8600 Connectivity Q Ethernet/Gigabit Ethernet • 48-port auto-sensing 10Base-T/100Base-TX Ethernet Routing Switch module (RJ-45) • Passport Routing Switch Module 8632TX – 32-port mixed-media module for 10Base-T/100Base-TX switching and routing – two slots for Gigabit Interface Converters (GBICs). GBICs available in short distance (SX). fullfeatured LAN/WAN connectivity with full functionality and intelligence of the Passport 8600 Q ATM/SONET/SDH • 2-slot MDA Baseboard—Supports up to eight OC-3/STM1 for ATM interface applications such as permanent virtual circuit VLAN bridging and routing.and two-port auto sensing 10-Gigabit Ethernet Routing Switch modules. 5 copper to 100m • 8-port 1000Base-SX Gigabit Ethernet Routing Switch module (SC) -for multimode fiber • 8-port Gigabit Ethernet Routing Switch module – plug-in GBICs with SC connectors can mix and match interface types on a single module using multi-mode or single-mode fiber.

Nortel CDMA Univity® Base Station Controller EBSC PP15K Breaker Interface Panel PP15K Fiber Tray GPSTM Cable Trough GPSTM Cable Consolidation and Multiplexing Chassis Cable Trough Q The Univity® CDMA Base Station Controller CBRS is a scalable and cost reduced IP enabled Base Station Controller Q Eliminates the need for separate BIU and CIS cabinets in the BSC for 1xEV-DO nonMTX systems Q Key Features: • Scalable from very low to very high capacity through module additions • Multiple frames deployed for configuration flexibility 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 24pBCNW Functional Processor (NTPB11AA) 11pMSW Functional Processor (NTPB10AA) Cable Trough CP3 .Global Positioning Satellite Timing Module (NTPB15AA) 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.Control Processor (NTHR06CA) Optional .2nd Enhanced BSC Frame Connectivity 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 Cable Trough Cable Consolidation and Multiplexing Chassis (NTPB13AA) GPSTM .0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .156 .

One (1) OC-3/STM-1 port is channelized and contains T1/E1/T3/E3 channels to carry AP or ISSHO traffic. along with a Cable Consolidation and Multiplexing Chassis • The 11pMSW FP contains 3 OC-3/STM-1 ports. Q The Cable Consolidation and Multiplexing Chassis manages connectivity between the new 24pBCNW FP to current SBS shelves • GPSTM to the 24WpBCNW FP • T1s/E1s on the 11pMSW FP to the LPP • The Univity® CDMA BSC CBRS can be added to current BSCs allowing for expanding port and Erlang capacity 7-2008 Course Series 340v6. The unchannelized ports can be configured as OC-3c to support interfaces to the DISCO or BSS Manager.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . the 11pMSW FP and the 24pBCNW FP . The 11pMSW FP provides 8 T1s for connectivity to the LPP. In these instances they can be configured as OC-3c in North America or STM1 for international installations.157 .Nortel CDMA Univity® Base Station Controller EBSC Q The Univity® CDMA BSC CBRS is built on the Passport 15K and includes two new Functional Processors (FPs). • The 24pBCNW FP contains 24 LVDS ports for connectivity to the SBS shelves.

158 . BS Y® E M BS IN C A CO SI NG MB LE INE CA S BI NE T No no t R e no voic qui vo e u red co se ! de rs.Pre-EBSC Hardware Required for Nortel 1xEV-DO Non-MTX Systems BI U. rs 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . UNI CI VIT S.

0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . provisioned with an Active and a Standby unit. • System initiated (automatic) SWACT (Switch of activity) occurs from Active to Standby when the active unit experiences critical hardware/software fault. • Redundant Ethernet links are provisioned between the two BSS Manager servers • redundant links are also provisioned from BSS Manager to CIS (a communication component within the Univity® BSC) 7-2008 Course Series 340v6. • User or operator SWACT is also supported.159 . Q The BSS Manager is a highly reliable platform. • Constant heartbeat and monitoring are performed between the Active and Standby systems.Nortel’s BSS Manager (BSSM) within the Univity® EBSC Q The BSS Manager consists of quad Ultra Enterprise 450 Servers • UltraSPARC IV processor cards • High Speed Serial Interface card interconnects to the BSC • 31 Gigabytes of mirrored disk space • Ethernet and LAN access.

debugging information on messages among subsystems for troubleshooting Q Security management deals with security breaches (improper use) of network resources. installing. two types of data are logged: Q Performance data. Security management consists of software applications used to configure. and Maintenance (OA&M) interface for the Univity® BSC and Univity® AP.160 . and services. Q Performance management ensures that performance data is sent at regular intervals to the BSS Manager.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . and application interfaces. ⎯ Configuration management controls the way in which the system provides service. and establishing NE equipment. interconnecting. It allows specification of configuration information. Alarms are generated by the subsystem when there is a failure of the hardware/service or when there is a degradation of the hardware/service due to certain external environmental factors. the BSS Manager is the Element Manager and is the operator’s primary interface into Nortel Networks' CDMA RF network. report. supporting four areas of the FCAPS model (Fault. Q Fault management primarily deals with the alarms of the CDMA network. Configuration. Administration. control. Performance. Configuration management is primarily responsible for supporting network planning. connections. Within the context of TMN’s (Telecommunication Management Network) functional layer approach. also referred to as Operational Measurements (OM) – statistical information about subsystem components Q Diagnostic Data . The BSS Manager’s primary responsibility is to log. The BSS Manager platform comprises the operating environment. Accounting. 7-2008 Course Series 340v6. collects data from and provides data to the various network elements and the connections between those elements. Security Management also includes administration of security procedures and functions. Within the BSS Manager. and manage the alarm events from its managed subsystems. and Security).Nortel BSSM: CDMA Base Station Subsystem Manager Q The CDMA BSS Manager provides the Operations. hardware. create or delete the resources providing the services.

08 1.EV-DO-Specific Nortel Documentation 1xEV-DO Release 2. OMs and Alarms Reference Manual CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Element Management Subsystem (EMS) Recovery and Upgrade Guide CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Element Management Subsystem (DO-EMS) Administrator's Guide 1xEV-DO D O-RNC Administration Guide CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Configuration Parameters Reference Guide 1xEV-DO Data Only Module (DOM) User Guide CDMA2000 1xEV-DO OMs and Performance Measurement Reference Guide CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Command Line Interface (CLI) Reference Guide CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Logging Message Reference Guide CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Element Management Subsystem (DO-EMS) User Guide 1xEV-DO Script Tool User Guide 1xEV-DO Deployment Guide CDMA Metro Cell Deployment Guidelines Reference Manual 1.12 1.14 1.1 1 1 1 1 411-2133-529 411-2133-532 411-2133-822 411-2133-917 1.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .00 411-2133-802 05.161 .1 1 1 1 411-2133-924 411-2133-925 411-2133-926 1.0 Relevance 1 Document Number 411-2133-012 Revision 1.09 1.06 BSC Theory of Operations Handbook 1.08 1.00 411-2133-101 12.06 Shasta PDSN/FA and HA Customer Information Guide 1.1 1. Logs.00 411-2133-111 04.1 Document Title CDMA2000 1xEV-DO System Overview Guide CDMA2000 1xEV-DO NBSS Delta MOs.06 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.13 1.11 1 1 411-2133-109 411-2133-126 1.08 1 1 1 411-2133-927 411-2133-929 411-2133-932 1.02 1.

162 .1xEV-DO 1xEV-DO // 1xRTT 1xRTT Interoperability Interoperability 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .

1xEV-DO/1xRTT Interoperability
Q The CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Standard IS-856 makes no provision for any kind of handoff to or from any other technology Q Driven by Operator interest, a “Hybrid” mode has been developed to provide some types of handoff functions to the best extent possible Q Hybrid Mode • is a mobile only function – neither the EV nor 1xRTT network knows anything about it • is a proprietary feature with vendor-specific implementation • has no standard-defined RF “triggers”; no “hooks” Q In the 1xEV rev. A standard, some new features will be provided • the 1xEV control channel will be able to carry 1xRTT pages too • this and other changes may make the “hybrid” mode unnecessary and obsolete
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What Handoffs are Possible in Hybrid Mode?
Q All switching between systems occurs in Idle Mode • there are no “handoffs” in active traffic state in either mode Q Sessions can be transferred from one system to the other, but NOT in active traffic state • If there is a connection, it can be closed and then re-originated on the other system • In some cases this can be accomplished automatically without the end-user’s awareness – in other cases, this is not possible

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Hybrid Mode Transition Scenarios
1:2 Deployment 1:1 Deployment EV-DO, F2 1xRTT, F1 1:1 Deployment

Q DO systems will be Implemented in Several Configurations • 1:1 overlays in busy core areas • 1:1 or 1:N overlays in less dense areas Q Many EV>1x and 1x>EV transition events may occur as a user transitions from area to area Q Initial system acquisition is also involved as a user activates their AT in different locations Q These transitions are dependent on the Hybrid mode implementation in the AT Q The following pages show some possible transitions assuming Mobile IP and AT Hybrid Mode are implemented

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0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . the hybrid-aware mobile can still keep monitoring 1xRTT paging channel Q During 1xRTT traffic operation. 1xRTT traffic operation is continuous • no opportunity to see 1xEV-DO signal Q This hybrid Idle mode capability is the foundation for all 1xRTT/1xEV mode transfers • the network does not trigger any transfers 1xEV-DO Idle 1xEV-DO Active Idle Mode Hybrid Mode 1xRTT Idle Idle Mode 1xRTT Active 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.166 .1xRTT / 1xEV-DO Hybrid Idle Mode Q 1xRTT/1xEV-DO Hybrid Mode • depends on being able to hear pages on both systems – 1xRTT and 1xEV-DO • is possible because of slotted mode paging • 1xRTT and 1xEV-DO paging slots do not occur simultaneously • mobile can monitor both Q During 1xEV-DO traffic operation. the hybrid-aware mobile is unable to break away.

Hybrid Dual-Mode Idle Operation 1xRTT / 1xEV-DO Paging Interoperability 16-frame Control Channel Cycle 16 slots of 26-2/3 ms = 426-2/3 ms LONGEST POSSIBLE PACKET DRC 16 Subpackets 1xRTT Minimum Slot Cycle Index: 16 slots of 80 ms each = 48 26-2. conflicts can be avoided by page repetition./3 ms frames Q A dual-mode 1xRTT/1xEV-DO mobile using slotted-mode paging can effectively watch the paging channels of both 1xRTT and 1xEV-DO at the same time Q How is it possible for the mobile to monitor both at the same time? • The paging timeslots of the two technologies are staggered Q Three of the 16 timeslots in 1xRTT conflict with the control channel slots of 1xEV-DO • However. a standard feature in systems of both technologies 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.167 .0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .

168 . the mobile will not search for 1xEV service again Voice Page! Idle Mode Release 1xRTT Active 1xRTT Voice Call 7-2008 Course Series 340v6. can’t see EV Acquire 1xRTT System driven by PRL Register with 1xRTT Network 1xRTT Idle Idle Mode Classical 1xRTT Idle Mode After entering this state.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .Initial System Acquisition by Hybrid Mobile when 1xEV-DO is NOT Available 1xEV-DO Active 1xEV-DO Idle Acquire 1xEV-DO System driven by PRL no.

Initial System Acquisition by Hybrid Mobile when 1xEV-DO is Available 1xEV-DO Active Set Up or Re-establish 1xEVDO Data Session 1xEV Traffic interrupted during 1xRTT voice call 1xEV Traffic Data Connection Closed Triggers: 1xEV-DO Idle Acquire 1xEV-DO System driven by PRL yes.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 .169 . found EV Idle Mode AT Data Ready! AN Data Page! Idle Mode Hybrid Mode Acquire 1xRTT System driven by PRL Register with 1xRTT Network Hybrid Mode Voice Page! Idle Mode Hybrid Mode Idle Mode 1xRTT Idle Idle Mode Idle Mode Release 1xRTT Active 1xRTT Voice Call 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.

0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . Resume Data Transfer Transfer Finished 7-2008 Course Series 340v6. Data Transfer Close Connection PPP Resync MIP Registr. Data Transfer AN data ready Fade 1xEV-DO Idle Get New UATI Dormant /Idle DO System Acquired no Same DO Subnet? 1xRTT Idle Idle Mode Dormant /Idle 1xRTT Active Reestablish Call PPP Resync MIP Registr.In-Traffic: EV-DO Fade with 1xRTT Available Fade 1xEV-DO Active AT data ready Traffic Mode.170 . Traffic Mode.

0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . Idle Search for Mode DO Found New DO Signal!! Triggers: AT Data Ready! AN Data Page! Same DO Subnet? Yes Idle Mode Idle Mode Hybrid Mode Fade Idle Mode Use 1x PRL. Data Transfer Close Connection Set Up or Re-establish 1xEVDO Data Session Get New UATI No 1xEV Traffic Fade 1xEV-DO Idle DO PRL. Search for 1xRTT No Signal Found!! 1xRTT Idle Idle Mode Lost Signal!! No Signal Found!! No 1x Signal. Continue EV Operation 1xRTT Active 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.Transition In-Traffic: Lost EV-DO and 1xRTT Fade 1xEV-DO Active Traffic Mode.171 . Search for 1xRTT Use 1x PRL.

1xEV-DO Idle Get New UATI No Idle Mode DO PRL. Search for DO No Signal Found!! DO PRL.0 (c)2007 Scott Baxter 340 . DO Available? Same DO Subnet? Yes Idle Mode Hybrid Mode Idle Mode 1xRTT Idle Idle Mode Idle Mode 1xRTT Active PPP Resync MIP Registr. 7-2008 Course Series 340v6.Dormant Session. EV-DO Lost > 1xRTT > 1xEV-DO 1xEV-DO Active Coverage Edge Fade Traffic Mode. DO Available? No Signal Found!! DO PRL. Call Dormant Fade Found New DO Signal!! PPP Resync MIP Registr. DO Available? No Signal Found!! DO PRL.172 . Data Transfer Data Finished.