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Made by :Aditya Julka And Paritosh
whereas the actual landslide often requires a trigger before being released. A landslide is a geological phenomenon which includes a wide range of ground movement. such as rock falls. preconditional factors build up specific subsurface conditions that make the area/slope prone to failure. there are other contributing factors affecting the original slope stability. Although the action of gravity is the primary driving force for a landslide to occur. deep failure of slopes and shallow debris flows. Typically. . which can occur in offshore. coastal and onshore environments.
particularly for construction of roads. They can occur along a slope where the internal resistance of the rocks are reduced or they loose their holding capacity. . Common after earthquakes or after removal of part of the slope due to construction. The scar above a landslide is easily visible. Large block known as a slump block moves during the landslide.
lakes etc. Pore Water Pressure is the monitoring landslides. During the movement landslide can result into the Debris slides . Rock slide or Rock Fall – where movement of large rock block rolls They are also common along the steep banks of rivers.are failure of unconsolidated material on a surface. key to Shear force) driving . strength (a resisting decreases and the weight (a force increases).
Talus – accumulation formed by the coarser rock fragments resulted from the mechanical weathering along a slope under influence of gravity .
Natural causes of landslides include: groundwater pressure acting to destabilize the slope Loss or absence of vertical vegetative structure.Landslides occur when the stability of a slope changes from a stable to an unstable condition.g. and soil structure (e. after a wildfire) erosion of the toe of a slope by rivers or ocean waves weakening of a slope through saturation by snowmelt. or heavy rains earthquakes adding loads to barely-stable slope earthquake-caused liquefaction destabilizing slopes volcanic eruptions . glaciers melting. A change in the stability of a slope can be caused by a number of factors. soil nutrients. acting together or alone.
Human causes include: deforestation.landslides are aggravated by human activities. . or which imposes new loads on an existing slope in shallow soils. cultivation and construction. agricultural or forestry activities (logging) which change the amount of water which infiltrates the soil. the removal of deeprooted vegetation that binds colluviums to bedrock Construction. which destabilize the already fragile slopes vibrations from machinery or traffic blasting earthwork which alters the shape of a slope.
and land use/land cover to be used to help predict future events. Landslide hazard analysis and mapping can provide useful information for catastrophic loss reduction. and shows the process of regeneration and recovery. and analysis of large amounts of spatially referenced data which can be handled fast and effectively. storage. land use/land cover. Before and after imagery also helps to reveal how the landscape changed after an event. establish a relation between the factors and landslides. like distribution and classification. and to predict the landslide hazard in the future based on such a relationship. GIS is an appropriate tool because it has functions of collection. and assist in the development of guidelines for sustainable land use planning. The analysis is used to identify the factors that are related to landslides. and factors like slope. what may have triggered the landslide. The factors that have been used for landslide hazard analysis can usually be grouped into geomorphology. Before and after aerial photographs and satellite imagery are used to gather landslide characteristics. Since many factors are considered for landslide hazard mapping. lithology.Remote sensing techniques are also highly employed for landslide hazard assessment and analysis. estimate the relative contribution of factors causing slope failures. display. and hydrogeology. geology. manipulation. .
Therefore. analyze. property. it is necessary to establish a relationship between the geomorphologic conditions in which the past events took place and the expected future conditions. it is important to be able to overlay the many layers of data to develop a full and accurate portrayal of what is taking place on the Earth's surface. Using satellite imagery in combination with GIS and on-the-ground studies. In general. extremely detailed maps can be generated to show past events and likely future events which have the potential to save lives. Natural disasters are a dramatic example of people living in conflict with the environment. Using GIS. and that future landslides will occur under the same conditions as past events. manipulate. Researchers need to know which variables are the most important factors that trigger landslides in any given location. Because landslides occur frequently and can represent some of the most destructive forces on earth. store. to predict landslides. Early predictions and warnings are essential for the reduction of property damage and loss of life. it is possible to generate maps of likely occurrences of future landslides. and display large amounts of data quickly and effectively. and money. it is imperative to have a good understanding as to what causes them and how people can either help prevent them from occurring or simply avoid them when they do occur. Because so many variables are involved. one must assume that their occurrence is determined by certain geologic factors. . Such maps should show the locations of previous events as well as clearly indicate the probable locations of future events. GIS offers a superior method for landslide analysis because it allows one to capture. Sustainable land management and development is an essential key to reducing the negative impacts felt by landslides.
erosion has removed most of the portion of the slide. The landslide around 200BC which formed Lake Waikaremoana on the North Island of New Zealand.100 cu mi). Canada. the largest so far described in the alps and on dry land that can be easily identified in a modestly eroded state. the largest ever discovered on land. . 25 km2 (9. where a large block of the Ngamoko Range slid and dammed a gorge of Waikaretaheke River. Flims Rockslide. ca. Cheekye Fan. ca. 13. British Columbia.7 sq mi). In the 48 million years since the slide occurred.000 km3 (3. some 10000 years ago in post-glacial Pleistocene/Holocene. Rhine cutting through Flims Rockslide debris. Switzerland Landslide which moved Heart Mountain to its current location. Switzerland. forming a natural reservoir up to 248 metres deep. Late Pleistocene in age.
Bangladesh 123+ 6 September 2008 Cairo. California.126 11 June 2007 Chittagong. Kerala. individual boulders up to 70 tonnes Southern Leyte.United States 2005 La Conchita Landslide 2006 Southern Leyte mudslide 2007 Chittagong mudslides 10 dead Remobilization of colluvium from 1995 slide into a debris flow. India 40 dead Supposedly worst landslide in Kerala state's history.Philippines 1.South Sulawesi. Rock-debris avalanche triggered by ten day period of heavy rain Series of landslides caused by illegal hillside cutting and monsoon rains Rockfall from cliffs.Indonesia 32 dead Landslide caused by collapse of caldera wall 10 January 2005 17 February 2006 La Conchita.Date Place name Casualties comments 9 November 2001 Amboori. 26 March 2004 Mount Bawakaraeng. Egypt 2008 Cairo landslide 119 .
9 August 2009 Xiaolin (or Hsiao-Lin). China Zhouqu county mudslide 1287 killed and 457 missing . British Columbia.Taiwan 439 to 600 4 January 2010 Attabad.Uganda 2010 Ugandan landslide 100-300 dead 23 May 2010 Jiang Zhidong Jiangxi. Quebec 4 dead 6 August 2010 Meager Creek. Gilgit-Baltistan. 10 May 2010 Saint-Jude. Pakistan Hunza Valley Landslide 20 Formed Attabad Lake by dammingHunza River.Kaohsiung County. Canada Second-largest landslide in Canada history August 8. China 2010 Jiangxi train derailment The landslide was caused by previous days of heavy rain and flooding in the region. 2010 Gansu. blocked Karakoram Highway 1 March 2010 Bududa District.
Landslide mitigation refers to lessen the effect of landslides by constructing various man made projects at the slopes which are vulnerable to landslides planning for landslides hazard mitigation as its phenomenon is instant. for the purpose of planning landslide hazard mitigation measures. can also be included. digging at mid-slope or at the foot of the slope. Landslides can be triggered by many often concomitant causes. at different times. also after some time has elapsed. do not allow a reconstruction of the evolution of the occurred landslide. renouncing any attempt to precisely describe all the causes or the conditions which. often individual phenomena join together to generate instability. contribute to the occurrence of the landslide. which. Therefore. However. In addition to shallow erosion or reduction of sheer strength caused by seasonal rainfall. slope stabilisation methods in rock or in earth. It is therefore pointless. can be collocated into three types of measure: . other than in well-instrumented limited areas. causes triggered by anthropic activities such as adding excessive weight above the slope. to classify the work as a function of the phenomenon or of more important phenomena.
Chemical and mechanical methods. in principle. Hydrogeological methods. to the previously introduced classification.g. rock or ground nailing) or passive (e. in which attempts are made to increase the shear strength of the unstable mass or to introduce active external forces (e. structural wells. . Geometric methods. although It always comes back. in which an attempt is made to lower the groundwater level or to reduce the water content of the material. in which the geometry of the hillside is changed (in general the slope). anchors. The different type of material conditions the engineering solution adopted.g. piles or reinforced ground) to contrast the destabilising forces.
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