Tarlac College of Agriculture Malacampa, Camiling, Tarlac Graduate Studies Foundation of Education


1. With that educational philosophy: How will you treat your student? ANSWER: Philosophy means "love of wisdom." It is made up of two Greek words, philo, meaning love, and sophos, meaning wisdom. Philosophy helps teachers to reflect on key issues and concepts in education, usually through such questions as: What is being educated? What is the good life? What is knowledge? What is the nature of learning? And What is teaching? Philosophers think about the meaning of things and interpretation of that meaning. Even simple statements, such as "What should be learned? Or What is adolescence?" set up raging debates that can have major implications. For example, what happens if an adolescent commits a serious crime? One interpretation may hide another. If such a young person is treated as an adult criminal, what does it say about justice, childhood, and the like? Or if the adolescent is treated as a child, what does it say about society's views on crime? Your educational philosophy is your beliefs about why, what and how you teach, whom you teach, and about the nature of learning. It is a set of principles that guides professional action through the events and issues teachers face daily. Sources for your educational philosophy are your life experiences, your values, the environment in which you live, interactions with others and awareness of philosophical approaches. Learning about the branches of philosophy, philosophical world views, and different educational philosophies and theories will help you to determine and shape your own educational philosophy, combined with these other aspects. When you examine a philosophy different from your own, it helps you to "wrestle" with your own thinking. Sometimes this means you may change your mind. Other times, it may strengthen your viewpoint; or, you may be eclectic, selecting what seems best from different philosophies. But in eclecticism, there is a danger of sloppy and inconsistent thinking, especially if you borrow a bit of one philosophy and stir in some of another. If serious thought has gone into selection of strategies, theories, or philosophies, this is less problematic. For example, you may determine that you have to vary your approach depending on the particular learning needs and styles of a given student. At various time periods, one philosophical framework may become favored over another. What will you teach? ANSWER: It was always a story of inspiration, the story of a teacher that did their job well and stimulated a young mind. An awakening, an excitement, and an awareness that every student deserves the opportunity to experience. I know in today’s society, it is harder and harder to stimulate a generation of “instant gratification” children, competing with the Internet, video games, television, and all of the other flashy gadgets sold to distract, means that we have to be more creative at how we approach learning. Consider this, “I have argued that intellectual excitement grows from teaching where

Character development is based on making group decisions in light of consequences.e. the focus is on the reality of experience. A teacher has a responsibility and duty to display and set the example of good moral conduct in the classroom and in life. as and individual and as a group. the ethic of reciprocity is an ethical code that states one has a right to just treatment. and projects. I believe that we know what we know based both on experience and on our individual beliefs of reality. A teacher has to ensure that his freedom of speech never steps on anyone else’s rights. experimenting. and (iii) some striking demonstrations are introduced that will arouse students' curiosity and/or provoke reflection.(I) students see the discipline as one of central importance. PG rating environment. Different cultural and ethnic groups learn to work cooperatively and contribute to a democratic society. How will you teach? ANSWER: As a teacher. but rather. often having students work in groups. and a responsibility to ensure justice for others. Rather than passing down organized bodies of knowledge to new learners. Pragmatism is derived from the teaching of Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914). i. As a teacher. Curriculum should bring the disciplines together to focus on solving problems in an interdisciplinary way. healthy. and future careers. daily living. From which philosophies that have you studied and researched did you draw inspiration as you formulated your own philosophy of education? ANSWER: Pragmatism (Experientialism) For pragmatists. so that their reality can be expanded upon. 2. teaching methods focus on hands-on problem solving. only those things that are experienced or observed are real. There is no absolute and unchanging truth.” I have noticed that teachers that are able to bring that excitement and commitment into the classroom have a much higher success rate with the individual and the class as a whole. and circumstance. Good moral conduct should encompass all aspects of the “Golden Rule”. intensifies the learning experience. The ultimate purpose is the creation of a new social order. Parents and Students have the right to expect the schools to be maintained in a safe. . analytical. For Pragmatists. All learning is dependent on the context of place. it is my goal to expose my students to as many different experiences and situations as possible. time. Pragmatists believe that reality is constantly changing and that we learn best through applying our experiences and thoughts to problems. rather than linger in the mind and lead to indecisiveness. but one in which not everything is yet settled. Unlike the Realists and Rationalists. Spiritual. Schools should emphasize the subject matter of social experience. Pragmatists believe that learners should apply their knowledge to real situations through experimental inquiry. The universe is dynamic and evolving. truth is what works. etc. the main thing that has to be considered are the right’s of the learner. as they arise. it is my responsibility to make sure that expectations and guidelines are very clear. Challenging our students to question why and how they know what they know. Every individual administrator and teacher are going to find different ways to balance their influence of moral beliefs and freedom of speech. In this late 19th century American philosophy. (ii) the teacher's enthusiasm for and commitment to the discipline is evident. a "becoming" view of the world. This prepares students for citizenship. empirical evidence. who believed that thought must produce action.

and the competitive outlook. Does this educational philosophy of yours make a difference in your life? ANSWER: What if you do not have formulated a philosophy of education at all? ANSWER: 4. Further. institutional blogs. as community stakeholders. IT professionals need not be confined solely to IT matters. finances. and routine interaction and/or feedback loops with . These activities offer an opportunity to meet and interact with a broad cross-section of campus leaders and to better understand important issues facing the institution. In what ways does network serve as a useful element of social interaction ? ANSWER: Social networks of the electronic variety have become thoroughly embedded in contemporary culture. acknowledging that their IT colleagues are motivated not only by crafting technical solutions but also by performing work to further teaching and learning and to enrich the capabilities of the institution. Moving inward. IT professionals who participate in these activities can help provide institutional leadership while representing the IT organization and demonstrating organizational commitment to the greater campus community. deans. Twitter. student newspapers. LinkedIn. the importance of broad generalist knowledge is filtering lower in the organization. understanding issues. provosts. online gaming environments. Is your educational philosophy more of an abstract theory than a blue-print to daily living? ANSWER: 5. now. across campus to better understand the issues facing the institution. CIOs likewise have recognized the importance of building social networks. Broad issues — ranging from work-life balance and green initiatives to women's issues or reaccreditation efforts — are also matters of concern to IT staff. using not only these electronic tools but also the old-fashioned methods of face-to-face communication and relationshipbuilding. and discerning the campus culture. both formal and informal. The communications makeover of IT organizations begins with understanding the higher education landscape and moving inward in concentric circles. Today. People have woven these networks into their daily routines. however. suggestion boxes. Engagement in these kinds of conversations is less about injecting the IT perspective into campus discussions than it is about building relationships. and HR and other employee newsletters are also useful sources of information and are helpful in identifying trends.3. College and university presidents. town hall-style meetings. good communication is a two-way street. websites. establishing these networks is more important than ever in order to manage changes in technology and expectations in the current economy. IT leaders and staff must also understand their own institutions. including government policy. and other tools to build and maintain complex webs of professional and personal relationships. Another good way to learn about the campus and start building relationships is through participation in presidential task forces and other kinds of institution-wide committees. By participating in broader discussions. A thorough reading of the campus strategic plan is a good place to begin. Do you think your philosophy will change as you grow in knowledge? ANSWER: 6. the IT organization signals its interest in the core issues of the institution and can begin forming the relationships that may become the cornerstones of future partnerships. Sharing information and developing a common understanding with campus partners have become keys for success in IT organizations. It is not enough for IT organizations to communicate effectively to their clients. department heads. and others can do their part in encouraging IT participation in these conversations. IT leaders have long been knowledgeable about higher education. using Facebook. Feedback from clients can be obtained in many ways: surveys. at all levels.

Hence. Family carries out social regulations by developing personality. we come to know that family is a major social institution of society. Therefore. Family institution plays a very important role in giving stability to society.all members of this institution participate in a financial process and responsibility. Family is no exception to this concept. Child come to know that he or she must not to do something wrong or bad because there is God who is looking all of his or her deeds. religious institutions. It is not entirely independent. A person is related to a family right from his birth up to his death a family participate in the joys and sorrow of a person. Some social thinkers called family as a primary group. the size of the family is small. 7. the church and religion ANSWER: In fact every aspect of our life and all other agents are based on religion. There is interdependants in every social institution. There is only one resident for all the members of the family. For eg. How does each of the following: institution contribute to the process of formation or education? a. Children have to go to school for formal education but informal education is given by family institute. The concept of the family is observed in all human group. faculty. satisfaction of sexual needs and child bearing are important functions of family. Mother tells her kid what religion he or she follows. Here child learns that there is someone to protect him and there is some power to whom he or she has to consult all of his or her problems. Family Institution: Family is social institution of society. the family ANSWER: Family as Social Institution Each Society has some basic needs which has to be satisfied for better day to day life. existence of every social institution is depends on the functions carried out by that social institution. Many campuses have established advisory boards of students. According to Augbern and Nimcoff . Even though every institution carries out certain specific function.stakeholders. economic institutions and family institutions etc. The another function of family institution is to give formal and informal education to children. Family plays an important role in personality development of a child. Initially. As family is a primary social institution of a society. In traditional as well as modern society this functions are of family institution. Every institution has to use various resources for its fulfillment. In fact child learns that he has to live within some boundaries and of course there is someone to help him or her. a child learns from family. This kind of breeding builds a good and positive character of his or her personality. As the opinion of many social scientist main reason for the existence of the family institution is longer period of child dependence. masjid and church for religious institutions. This are common relations and they are stable because of they are established by institution . In the family there are sexual relation in men and women. and which services need to be introduced or phased out. . Person in family have blood relation. In our society mother tells name of God. This institutions come in to existence for satisfying needs of an individual. which services need improvement. Family institution is present in all human communities. The family gives information about culture and helps to balanced personality development.when the children grow they get married and they form own independent family. temple. Marriage institutions. This provides the organization with a wealth of information about how customers are using services. Social institutions are a medium like as social moulds which are established for caring out basic functions and help to established collective image of behavior. and staff to ensure they have regular paths of communication with their constituents. Chalk and black board for educational institutions. This institution is small in size . The first ever learning place for child is lap of mother. b. These institutions have social acceptance for eg .

In this way media can perform not only massage/ news/entertainment role. friends.Then child enters to school. television and radio and more recently. He or she can develop his or her personality according to teaching of religion. have developed to supply larger scale means of public communication.4 hours per day in the company of a TV set. The introduction of the term 'global village' in the 1960's illustrates how much our world has changed and the change is due almost entirely to the development of mass communications. Producers have to target imaginary. will behave and respond according to those teachings. The makers of the media texts. To study 'media' is to study also how we define our own sense of who and what we are. as follows: 1. ideas. Child will again take influence of that and will try to act like them. family. school. Large amounts of our time are spent in a range of media related activities. entertainment. It is 'normal' to spend 3 . but also a teaching and positive role. Finally the religion is real base and philosophy of social life. the Internet. reacting and way of spending life according to teaching of religion. norms. who are also influenced by teachings of religion. The school will practically educate him or her about teaching of religion. This means that mass-mediated culture tends to be a one-way process. for example. neighborhood and so on shape our individual identities. but in a culture of mediation. So now our situated culture exists within a much wider mediated world. Our cultural experiences are affected by the development of systems of mass communication. and blessings of religion. (Shouting at the TV screen does not count as feedback!) Audience responses are rarely 'heard'. Here he or she will learn that how to act and spend life according to basic rules and regulations of religion. Here he or she can raise more questions about patterns of religions. film and cinema. instructions and philosophy of religion to a mass level. A look at current research shows that we spend from 18 to 35 hours per week watching TV. There is a gap or an institutional break between the 'sender' of the message and the 'receiver'. The child looks others who are practically performing the duties of religion. With mass communication there are four main distinctive features. the small-scale communications and interactions we have on a day-to-day basis with the place we live in and the people around us. In media-speak we refer to this aspect of our cultural identity as our situated culture. Media will disseminate lessons. Since the mid 19th century. opinion and many other things all of which are connected to our attempts to 'make sense' of who and what we are. What do we mean by 'culture'? How does a media text shape or construct or change cultural identity? What exactly is 'mass media' or 'mass communication'? We all inhabit particular situations and things like our surroundings. the 'senders' of the messages. The peer groups. They can (and do) 'shape' . The press. The media plays again a big roll to promote teaching. This kind of culture is primarily an oral one . In other words. we have come to live not only in a situated culture. generalized or stereotypical audiences. do not have an obvious feedback relationship with the audience.it is passed on and formed largely by intimate word-of-mouth communication. Media will promote such massages that would bring about changes in thinking. behaving. c. mass media ANSWER: We are to a large extent dependent on regular contact with the mass media for information. work.

Sometimes seen as deliberately constructed by powerful groups in order to maintain power and control. which is thought to debase or degrade cultural traditions and standards. constructed. It is argued that the media now occupy a central role in defining and interpreting the very nature of the world according to certain values. and incentives. TV. for example) Audiences are frequently calculated in billions! This has major significance in terms of media institutions. perceived practices and organizational .a set of ideas or a view of the world that is selective and gives a particular version of reality. Political propaganda.The most contentious issue concerns the effects of the mass media on social behaviour. The ongoing debate about the future of public service broadcasting in Britain in the 1990's is an example of this. Specialized technologies. cultural principles and ideologies. the workplace ANSWER: Diversity management is a process intended to create and maintain a positive work environment where the similarities and differences of individuals are valued. in particular violence and delinquency. Media messages can be extended 'outwards'. film. these technologies have made it possible to 'capture' messages in a very physical form (photographs.a product. rather than how they really are. as follows: 1. advertising and the so-called 'mind-bending' power of the media are long-standing causes of debate and concern. Media messages have therefore become a modern commodity . What exactly is 'quality' and cultural value in broadcast output? 3. tape-recordings) which in turn has led to historical permanence or records. They also make assumptions about audiences that are based on conceptual ideas of what people are like. institutional environments and organizational contexts to diversityrelated pressures. Radio. The literature on diversity management has mostly emphasized on organization culture. so that events taking place regionally or locally now have global coverage (9/11. 2. 2. the press and film can manipulate whole societies.) 3. Market forces thus have a definite impact on the production and distribution of media texts. Lots of profit to be made from selling syndicated rights to the whole world's media! 4. Since the 19th century there has been a mistrust of so-called 'popular culture'. The media have regularly been accused of 'causing' outbreaks of unrest in society. for example. There are three major areas of concern. requirements. Our sense of 'history' is thus affected (and some would say. expectations. especially the internet.an industry . Ideology . We inhabit an information and consumer society as a result and concerns are expressed about exactly what effects the media have on society. have begun to affect the one-way system of communication described above.products accordingly. d. human resource management practices. Mass media has a political and a persuasive power over us. Look at any glamour magazine and you can see what the makers of the texts think men and women should look like. It is argued that as mass media have become 'facts of life' and we have all become socially and culturally more dependent on them. In addition. its impact on diversity openness.

adaptability. socioeconomic status. The current study examines the potential barriers to workplace diversity and suggests strategies to enhance workplace diversity and inclusiveness. and more. either from your own experience as a child or your role in helping to raise one.” others as “friends. understanding that diversity includes not only ways of being but also ways of knowing. It means understanding that each individual is unique. gender. so that all can reach their potential and maximize their contributions to an organization’s strategic goals and objectives. sexual orientation. education. People first learn to use the tangible objects of material culture in these settings. plus members of an extended family. how to relate to others (some as “family. Family is the first agent of socialization. they show the child how to use objects (such as clothes. age. better performing employees and potentially better financial performance for an organization. bikes). personality. Workplace diversity refers to the variety of differences between people in an organization. plus members of an extended family. physical abilities. eating utensils. books.outcomes related to managing employee diversity. and change. For a wide assortment of employees to function effectively as an organization. As you are aware. either from your own experience as a child or your role in helping to raise one. socialization involves teaching and learning about an unending array of objects and ideas. all teach a child what he or she needs to know. practicing mutual respect for qualities and experiences that are different from our own. they show the child how to use objects (such as clothes. For example. and how the world works (what is “real” and what is “imagined”). social class ANSWER: Social groups often provide the first experiences of socialization. . religious beliefs. It is based on a survey of 300 IT employees. That sounds simple.” still others as “strangers” or “teachers” or “neighbors”). Diversity is a set of conscious practices that involve understanding and appreciating interdependence of humanity.” others as “friends. background. bikes). and recognizing our individual differences. all teach a child what he or she needs to know. and the natural environment. It is the exploration of these differences in a safe. Families. and fostering environment. As you are aware. e. tenure. as well as being introduced to the beliefs and values of society. and building alliances across differences so that we can work together to eradicate all forms of discrimination. siblings and grandparents. The concept of diversity includes acceptance and respect. Mothers and fathers. computers. books. communicate expectations and reinforce norms. gender. Family Family is the first agent of socialization. Mothers and fathers. siblings and grandparents. Diversity involves not only how people perceive themselves but also how they perceive others. recognizing that personal. eating utensils. computers. ethnicity. organizational function. human resource professionals need to deal effectively with issues such as communication. cultural. and later peer groups. For example. but diversity encompasses race. cultures. and several other issues. These can be along the dimensions of race. and institutionalized discrimination creates and sustains privileges for some while creating and sustaining disadvantages for others. The study concludes that successfully managing diversity can lead to more committed. It is about understanding each other and moving beyond simple tolerance to embracing and celebrating the rich dimensions of diversity contained within each individual. cognitive style. better satisfied. positive. Those perceptions affect their interactions. how to relate to others (some as “family. age.” still others as “strangers” or “teachers” or “neighbors”). Diversity management is a process intended to create and maintain a positive work environment where the similarities and differences of individuals are valued. ethnic group. and how the world works (what is “real” and what is “imagined”). or other ideologies. political beliefs. socialization involves teaching and learning about an unending array of objects and ideas.

Wealthy parents tend to have better educations and often work in managerial positions or in careers that require creative problem solving. Likewise. Some cultures retain their cultural identity despite the exposure and immersion with other cultures. while wealthy families emphasize judgment and creativity (National Opinion Research Center 2008). as they begin to develop an identity separate from their parents and exert independence. an exchange and sharing of cultural values and attitudes take place. and class-related behaviors. . perceptions of race. this process continues.This may be because working-class parents have less education and more repetitive-task jobs for which the ability to follow rules and to conform helps. Peer group socialization begins in the earliest years. poor families usually emphasize obedience and conformity when raising their children. however. Peer groups provide adolescents’ first major socialization experience outside the realm of their families.It is important to keep in mind. Some cultures may adapt certain cultural beliefs from other groups and modify them to embed it in their own cultural orientation. thus reproducing the class system (Kohn 1977). With a diverse culture. peer groups provide their own opportunities for socialization since kids usually engage in different types of activities with their peers than they do with their families. social class. Many social factors impact how a family raises its children. Peer Groups A peer group is made up of people who are similar in age and social status and who share interests. such as when kids on a playground teach younger children the norms about taking turns or the rules of a game or how to shoot a basket. that families do not socialize children in a vacuum. religion. children are socialized to abide by gender norms. studies have shown that although friendships rank high in adolescents’ priorities. Additionally. Interestingly. For example. These are a few of the effects of dynamism of culture and its diverse characteristic. it would not have been considered especially strict for a father to hit his son with a wooden spoon or a belt if he misbehaved. This means that children are effectively socialized and raised to take the types of jobs that their parents already have. so they teach their children behaviors that would be beneficial in these positions. but today that same action might be considered child abuse. As children grow into teenagers. 8. this is balanced by parental influence. Sociologists recognize that race. For example. What are the effects of cultural pluralism in society? ANSWER: Cultural pluralism is a term used when smaller groups within a larger society maintain their unique cultural identities. and other societal factors play an important role in socialization. The concept of cultural diversity brings us to the main subject of this article which is cultural pluralism. Cultural pluralism is often confused with Multiculturalism. The term 'cultural pluralism' is used to describe a condition wherein smaller entities or minorities participate in the more dominant or larger society but keep their identities intact. and their values and practices are accepted by the wider culture provided they are consistent with the laws and values of the wider society. One of the outcomes of a variety of cultures and subcultures is that minority groups tend to be controlled by the dominant cultures because the latter has the power and uses affluence to take over the smaller cultural societies. Sixty years ago. Peer groups are important to adolescents in a new way. Multiculturalism lacks the requirement for a dominant culture. we can use sociological imagination to recognize that individual behaviors are affected by the historical period in which they take place.

. both conditions precede the concept of assimilation which is closely similar but has an underlying difference. Structural pluralism does not recognize the existence of cultural diversity but to the occurrence of separate patterned social relationships in a particular society. Culture is naturally dynamic and evolving. people are treated equal in a common pluralist society while in multiculturalism. Diversity is everywhere plus the reality that it is inescapable in all social lives. cultural pluralism describes the occurrence of diversity among cultures. societies can interact and individuals can interrelate without having to give up their cultural identities to the larger society and they get to uphold their identities through communication instead of segregation. the more diverse every culture becomes. and the more it evolves. or the introduction of Latin salsa dancing in an Asian country. a Chinese calligraphy class in the United States. A Pluralistic Society How is a pluralistic society described or illustrated? What characterizes a pluralistic society? It is a society where various cultural groups interact with each other while maintaining a degree of tolerance for each other. multiculturalism requires affiliation and cultural recognition. In cultural pluralism. cultural differences are distinctly maintained. some researchers and experts view them as the same concept. Every human being is unique and every culture is unique as well. In fact. One example of cultural pluralism is the acceptance of Indian yoga sessions in another country. The word “pluralism” describes the existence of diversity in the society in many aspects. both cultural pluralism and multiculturalism are defined in almost the same way in which various minority cultures are accepted in dominant societies with due respect to diversity. On a public sphere or talking about the treatment of individuals. But one thing for sure.Even with the dynamic situation. structural pluralism focuses on the existence of separate cultural groups in a society with each group having a network of organizations or other groups that allow for certain limitations in the intercultural relationships. In a broader sense. Such practices can only be taught or exercised in a largely predominant society with a pluralist culture. In the cultural aspect. But there are distinguished differences between the two. the public sphere focuses more on cultural negotiation where no group of society will dominate any culture. According to Milton Gordon who identified the differences of the two concepts. Actually. Another difference is that cultural pluralism goes for equality of opportunity and freedom of association. A pluralistic society is open to these changes but is not obliged to adapt to alternative cultural forms. On the other hand. all societies are plural. Cultural Pluralism versus Structural Pluralism Another concept compared with cultural pluralism is the structural pluralism. It is also a society where various cultures can coexist without having to go through conflicts and it is also where minority groups can sustain their customs. Cultural Pluralism and Multiculturalism Cultural pluralism is sometimes mistaken for multiculturalism.

Structural pluralism. what qualities must prevail in a family to make it real contributory factor to nation building? .Cultural pluralism is more of relational. while structural pluralism is a relativist. What is the difference between these two concepts? The former conceives the thought that people and cultural societies are interdependent and upholds equality among individuals as well as respect for the rights and freedom of each culture. only that there is more respect in each culture so conflicts are easy to deal with. as per Gordon. In your thinking. is socially dysfunctional or prone to conflict. 9. But cultural conflict may also be possible in pluralism.

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