Arun S Chandel Assistant Professor



Controlled directional drilling
¾ Directional drilling is the process of directing the well- bore along some trajectory j to a predetermined target. ¾ Controlled Co t o ed d directional ect o a d drilling g is s a technique for directing a well along a predetermined course to a bottom hole target located at a certain distance and direction from a surface location. ¾ Deviation control is the process of keeping the wellbore contained within some prescribed limits relative to inclination angle, horizontal excursion from the vertical, vertical or both. both

Controlled directional drilling
• Controlled directional drilling is used when drilling multiple wells from an artificial structure such as offshore platforms, drilling pads. The economics of building one offshore platform for each well would be prohibitive in most cases. However, since wells can be directionally drilled, forty or more wells can be drilled from a single platform. Without controlled directional drilling, most offshore drilling would not be economical. Some fields are developed using drilling pads where multiple wells are drilled from one location due to economic or environmental pressures. Where the environment is concerned, roads and production facilities may not be allowed for each surface location with a vertical well.

multiple wells can be drilled f from artificial ifi i l islands. Also. production costs are lower. due to the close proximity of the wells. pad • • • . it may be politically advantageous to develop fields from d illi drilling pads d in i sensitive iti areas. location l construction expenses and d rig move expenses are reduced. However for most land wells.Controlled directional drilling • As oil companies become more environmentally conscious. it is usually more economical to drill vertical wells rather than drill directional wells from a pad. In areas of shallow water depth. i l d Subsea wells are drilled from a template on the ocean floor. In all ll cases.


pipelines. forest. industrial facility) 4.Surface Problems ¾ Restricted surface locations Rig/well positioning problems 1. oilfield facilities 3.) 2. Proximity to other wells. Proximity to power lines 5. Unsuitable Terrain (sloped ground. marsh. farmhouse. sand dunes etc. Access road and site preparation difficulties ¾ Economics of Rig Positioning ¾ HSE Restrictions . Populated area (city or rural area. Airports radar or radio stations 6.

Subsurface Problems ¾ Collision risk with existing wells ¾ Multiple targets to open for production ¾ Horizontal drain(s) needed ¾ Re-entering producing formations ¾ Drilling extended reach wells (ERD) to remote target(s) ¾ Geological problems exist – Faults – Salt Domes .

Subsurface Problems ¾ Fault drilling ¾ Salt dome drilling ¾ To reach thin reservoirs ¾ Formation Dip ¾ Side-tracking existing wells ¾ To drill relief wells .

Special Needs ¾ Controlling vertical wells :Straight hole drilling ¾ Shoreline drilling :to reach offshore reservoirs which are quiet close to the land q .

Economics.5-6 miles Extended reach re-entry and re-drilling re drilling options More borehole opens the productive formation More productive intervals in a given i f formation ti sequence • • • • • .Return on Investment Multiple wells from a single surface location Extended reach .

FAULT DRILLING 1 Directional drilling is also applicable in fault drilling. However. inclined fault plane. since the development of salt saturated and oil based muds. and sometimes the bit will follow the fault plane. the wells can be directionally drilled adjacent to the salt dome and into th underlying the d l i t traps. Instead of drilling through the salt overhangs.Geological Considerations 1. 2. the amount of directional drilling has decreased. The bit will cross the fault at enough of an angle where the direction of the bit cannot change to follow the fault. alleviates a lot of the problems associated with drilling salt. domes Directional drilling has been used to tap some of the oil which has been trapped by the intrusion of the salt. SALT DOME DRILLING Many oil fields are associated with the intrusion of salt domes. It is difficult to drill long intervals of salt with fresh water muds. Directionally drilling around the salt. . To avoid the problem. the bit will deflect when passing through the fault plane. It is sometimes difficult to drill a vertical well in a steeply dipping. the well can be drilled on the upthrown or downthrown side of the fault and deflected into the producing formation. Often.

d which hi h are separated t d by b a permeability barrier. However. 4.Geological Considerations 3. Survey data is not accurate enough to intersect a wellbore at depth. all the sand zones can be penetrated with one directionally drilled well thereby greatly reducing the cost of production . then a relief well is drilled to intersect the uncontrolled well near the bottom. the directional drilling has to be extremely precise and requires special tools. or salt dome overhang. MULTIPLE SANDS 4 There are special cases when multiple sands are drilled with a single wellbore. Since it is sometimes required that the relief well intersect the uncontrolled well. fault. a number of vertical wells would ld be b required i d to t produce d each h sand. If a well blows out and is no longer accessible from the surface. Water or mud are then pumped through the relief well and into the uncontrolled well. Proximity logging is required when drilling relief wells. Where steeply dipping sand zones are sealed by an unconformity. RELIEF WELL 3 A highly specialized application for directional drilling is the relief well.


In fractured reservoirs. . production rates will be low. Unless a vertical well encounters a fracture system.Geological Considerations: Horizontal Drilling Horizontal drilling is another special application of directional drilling and is used to increase the productivity of various formations. Horizontal wells are a very common way to produce some formations. ¾ A horizontal well has a much greater chance of encountering a prolific fracture system. . a significant quantity of the production comes from fractures. formations ¾ One of the first applications for horizontal drilling was in vertically y fractured reservoirs. The Austin Chalk in Texas is a classic example of using horizontal drilling techniques to produce a fractured reservoir.

¾ Horizontal H i t l wells ll are used d to t increase i productivity d ti it from f l low permeability reservoirs by increasing the amount of formation exposed to the wellbore. The horizontal well is optimally placed in the oil leg g of the reservoir. These wells usually have permeability streaks in combination with natural fractures. numerous hydraulic fractures can be placed along a single wellbore to increase production and reduce the number of vertical wells required to drain the reservoir. fractures The horizontal well can connect the portions of the reservoir that are productive. ¾ Horizontal wells can be used to maximize production from reservoirs which are not being efficiently drained by vertical wells. Additionally. The oil can then be p produced at high g rates with much less pressure drawdown because of the amount of formation exposed to the wellbore.Geological Considerations: Horizontal Drilling ¾ Horizontal drilling is used to produce thin oil zones with water or gas coning problems. .

It is also used to place additional horizontal wells in a reservoir. . Multilaterals are used where production can be incrementally increased d with h less l capital l costs. Multilaterals are additional wells drilled from a parent wellbore. Multilaterals l l l can be b used d offshore where the number of slots are limited.Geological Considerations: Multilateral Wells Directional drilling can also be used to drill multilateral wells. Multilaterals can be as simple as an open hole sidetrack or it can be more complicated p with a j junction that is cased and has pressure isolation and reentry capabilities.

. Extended reach drilling will become more popular as the cost of platforms l f in deeper d water and d severe environments becomes b more expensive. extended reach drilling is where wells have high inclinations and large horizontal displacements for the true vertical depth drilled. ¾ Extended reach drilling g is used to develop p reservoirs with fewer platforms or smaller sections of a reservoir where an additional platform cannot be economically justified.Geological Considerations: ERD ¾ Another application of directional drilling is what is commonly termed extended reach drilling.

3. emblie and nd sometimes ometime downhole do nhole motors moto are e used to bring the hole back within range of the target. deviation from vertical is caused by the natural formation tendencies. Some reasons for wanting to keep the hole vertical are: 1. To keep from crossing lease lines.Straight Hole Drilling Straight hole drilling is a special case of directional drilling where an attempt is made to keep the hole vertical. ¾ In some areas of the world. ¾ Pendulum assemblies are used to keep the inclination as low as possible though with limited success at lower inclinations. 2. ¾ Packed P k d hole h l assemblies bli are employed l d to keep k the h dogleg d l severity i within reason. pend l m assemblies. To stay within the well spacing requirements in a developed field. . ¾ If the inclination is already too great to hit a previously specified t get pendulum target. To stay within the specifications of a drilling contract.







Major Wellbore Trajectories .

. England Greenwich has a 0 longitude or zero meridian line.The equator is at 0 latitude and the north pole at 90 N. (or p parallels) ) are imaginary g y circles running g from ¾ The latitude lines ( the equator to both the north and south poles.The south pole is at a latitude of 90 S. An imaginary net o k (graticule) network (g ti le) of latitude l tit de and nd longitude longit de is i superimposed pe impo ed on the globe (earth surface). The equator plane is half way between the two poles. east or west of Greenwich in England. Lines of longitude (or meridian lines) are imaginary lines passing through the north and south poles and crossing latitude lines at right angles. ¾ Lines of longitude are denoted by a number of degrees from 0180 .Geographical Co-ordinate System ¾ Any position on the earth’s surface can be described in terms of a value of latitude (degrees north or south of a datum) and a value for longitude (degrees east or west of a datum). ¾ There are ninety latitude lines between the equator and each pole.In effect the earth has 360 deg of longitudes. each a degree in magnitude.

Geographical Co-ordinate System .

The Lambert system produces a projection that has meridians as convergent lines and d parallels ll l as arcs of f circles. and the Lambert conical orthomorphic.Petroleum Industry Co-ordinate Systems Two of the projection systems most commonly used in the Petroleum Industry are the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM). The Lambert conical p projection j is used in the USA as it is most suited to areas where there is a greater extent of eastwest and lesser extent of north-south. l The UTM projection is the most commonly used projection worldwide and it uses a horizontal cylinder for projection with the earth inside the horizontal cylinder and touches the spheroid along a chosen meridian. .

Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) ( ) The UTM grid is a universal grid which is used to cover the world except for the polar regions. system called the Polar Stereographic grid. each is 6 degrees of longitude wide and extends from 80 deg S to 84 deg N latitude. zone 31 has the zero meridian on the left (Greenwich) and the 6 deg East meridian on the right. Greenwich in England is chosen as the reference meridian with 0 degrees of longitude. with the International metre being used as the unit of measurement (not foot). for example. The UTM is based on 60 zones. a specialised projection system. For the polar regions North of 84 deg N and South of 80 deg S. longitude Each of the 60 zones is defined by meridians. . grid is used.

For the southern hemisphere. False coordinate of 500.For zones For the northern hemisphere.UTM Coordinates UTM coordinates di t are given i as Northings N thi and d Eastings E ti and d are always l positive numbers and measured in meters. decreasing westwards and increasing eastwards in each zone. metres East to avoid negative g numbers. . the equator q is g given arbitrary y of northing value of 10. false northing numbers are given to latitudes beginning with 0 metres at the equator and increasing towards the north.000 easting numbers are then given to each vertical grid line. Northings The equator is chosen as the latitude of origin in all zones. p .000 metres to avoid negative numbers. m west of the central meridian for that sector.000 .000. Eastings The central meridian of each zone is given an arbitrary easting . The Northing coordinate is the distance from the equator and the easting g coordinate is the distance from a line 500. Northings in the southern hemisphere decrease towards the south the pole.

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