You are on page 1of 36

# SALESIAN COLLEGE PHYSICS DEPARTMENT

## This booklet contains past paper questions on fluids from the

Edexcel SHAP syllabus.

Materials Formulae
Stokes law

F = 6rv

Hookes` law

F = kx

Density

= m/V

Pressure

p = F/A

Youngs modulus

E = / where
Stress = F/A
Strain = x/x

Eel = Fx

## FLUID FLOW EXAM QUESTIONS

1.

A childs birthday balloon is filled with helium to make it rise. A ribbon is tied to it, holding a
small plastic mass designed to prevent the balloon from floating away.

Plastic mass

(a)

Add labelled arrows to the diagram of the balloon to show the forces acting on the
balloon.
(2)

(b)

The balloon is approximately a sphere, of diameter 30 cm. Show that the upthrust on the
The density of the surrounding air = 1.30 kg m3
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(c)

(i)

## Sketch a diagram to show the airflow around the balloon as it rises.

(1)
M Campbell November 2008 Salesian College

(ii)

## What is the name of this type of airflow?

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(d)

A student suggests that if the balloon reaches terminal velocity, its motion could be
described by the relationship

mg + 6r =

4 3
r g
3

where = viscosity of air, m = mass of the balloon, r = radius of the balloon and v = the
terminal velocity reached.

(i)

## Write the above relationship as a word equation.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

The balloon has a total weight of 0.17 N. Use the equation given above to calculate
the corresponding value for the terminal velocity of the balloon.
Viscosity of air = 1.8 105 N s m2
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
Terminal velocity = .........................................................
(3)

(iii)

Suggest a reason why the balloon is not likely to reach this calculated velocity.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 12 marks)

## M Campbell November 2008 Salesian College

2.

Volcanoes vary considerably in the strength of their eruptions. A major factor in determining
the severity of the eruption is the viscosity of the magma material. Magma with a high viscosity
acts as a plug in the volcano allowing very high pressures to build up. When the volcano finally
erupts it is very explosive. Once magma is out of the volcano it is called lava.
(a)

How would the flow of high viscosity lava differ from that of lava with a low viscosity?
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

What would need to be measured to make a simple comparison between the viscosities of
two lava flows?
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(c)

When the lava is exposed to the atmosphere it cools rapidly. What effect would you
expect this cooling to have on the lavas viscosity?
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(d)

When lava is fast flowing, changes to its viscosity disrupt the flow, making it no longer
laminar. Use labelled diagrams to show the difference between laminar and turbulent
flow.

.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

## M Campbell November 2008 Salesian College

(e)

Different types of lava have different viscosities. The least viscous type has a viscosity of
about 1 103 Ns m2 whereas a silica-rich lava has a viscosity of 1 108 Ns m2.
What type of scale would be used to display these values on a graph?
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 7 marks)

3.

When going downhill, ski jumpers reach speeds of up to 30 m s1 in order to jump great
distances. As they move through the air, their body and ski position determines how far they
jump.
(a)

(i)

Use one word to describe the type of airflow that the ski jumper is trying to achieve
in mid-air.
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

The diagram shows a ski jumper in mid-air. Sketch the airflow pattern.

(2)

(iii)

Suggest one way in which the ski jumpers equipment is designed to produce the
maximum possible speed.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

## M Campbell November 2008 Salesian College

(b)

Below is a list of material properties. Select one that is desirable and one that is
undesirable for material from which the jumpers skis are made. Explain your choices.
Elastic
(i)

Tough

Plastic

## Desirable property: ..........................................................................................

Reason: .............................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(ii)

## Undesirable property: .......................................................................................

Reason: .............................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 8 marks)

4.

(1)

## M Campbell November 2008 Salesian College

Add three labelled arrows to the diagram to identify the forces acting on the sky diver.
(2)

What is the relationship between these forces when the sky diver is falling with terminal
velocity?
...............................................................................................................................................
(1)

For some falling objects it is possible to use Stokes law to help estimate the terminal velocity.
State why this would not be appropriate for this sky diver.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(1)

## Show that the upthrust force is about 4 N.

Volume of sky diver = 0.35 m3.
Density of surrounding air = 1.2 kg m3 (i.e. 1 m3 of air has a mass of 1.20 kg).
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(3)

Comment on the size of this force and its effect on the sky divers terminal velocity.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(2)

## M Campbell November 2008 Salesian College

The sky diver slows her descent by opening her parachute. Give one word which describes the
airflow after the parachute has opened.
...............................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 11 marks)

5.

After wine has been fermenting it contains many small particles. These particles are allowed to
settle so that they can be separated from the liquid.
Add labelled arrows to this diagram showing the other two forces on a particle falling
downwards within the wine.

Upthrust

(2)

The upthrust can be calculated using the expression U = 43 r 3 w g where w is the density of
wine and r is the radius of the falling particle.
Explain how the above expression for upthrust is derived.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(2)

## M Campbell November 2008 Salesian College

Write down the equation relating the three forces acting on the particle when it reaches terminal
velocity.
...............................................................................................................................................
(1)

Show that the terminal velocity v of a particle of density s is given by the following expression:
v=

2r 2 g ( s w )
9

## where is the viscosity of the wine.

...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(2)

Explain how you would expect the velocity of this particle to change if the temperature of the
wine was increased.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(2)

## M Campbell November 2008 Salesian College

Stokess law is valid only provided the flow is laminar. Using a diagram, explain what is meant
by the term laminar flow.

...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 11 marks)

## M Campbell November 2008 Salesian College

10

6.

A Galilean thermometer consists of a column of liquid containing glass weights which can be
regarded as spheres. The spheres drop one by one as the temperature rises.

26

24

22

20

18

The diagram below represents one of these spheres, falling through the liquid with increasing
speed at a certain temperature. Add labelled arrows to the diagram to show the forces on this
sphere.

(3)

11

## How do these forces compare in size?

...............................................................................................................................................
The radius of a sphere is 1.20 102 m. Calculate its volume.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
Volume = ................................................
(1)

Calculate the mass of liquid displaced by this sphere when the density of the liquid is
1020 kg m3.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
Mass = ....................................................
(1)

## Show that the upthrust on the sphere is about 0.07 N.

...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(2)

Another sphere is of the same radius but with a weight of 0.069 N. Explain where you would
expect to find this sphere.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(2)

## M Campbell November 2008 Salesian College

12

What two properties of the liquid would affect the spheres terminal velocity?
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 12 marks)

7.

## Do not try this at home!

The website urban myths claims that a man in California tied a number of balloons filled with
helium to his chair in the garden, with a view to gently hovering above the neighbourhood.
The moment he cut the anchoring cord he shot upwards to a height of about 4000 m. Several
hours later he was rescued by a helicopter after being spotted by an airline pilot.
If the combined mass of the man and the chair was 70 kg, calculate their weight.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
Weight = ..............................................................
(1)

## What is meant by the term upthrust?

...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(2)

## M Campbell November 2008 Salesian College

13

Show that the upthrust in newtons from the balloons is about 13V where V is the total volume of
the balloons in cubic metres.
The density of air is 1.29 kg m3.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(2)

Write down an expression, in terms of V, for the weight of the helium in the balloons. The
density of helium is 0.18 kg m3.
...............................................................................................................................................
(1)

Calculate the total volume of the balloons required just to lift the man and his chair from the
ground. Assume the weight of the balloon fabric is negligible.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(3)

## M Campbell November 2008 Salesian College

14

Explain why any viscous drag force can be ignored in the previous calculation.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 11 marks)

8.

A student throws a ball downwards from a high bridge. Its velocity changes with time as shown
in the graph.

40
Velocity / m s1
30

20

10

Time / s

Take measurements from the graph during the first 2 seconds of the fall to calculate the gradient
of the straight line.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(2)

## M Campbell November 2008 Salesian College

15

Hence deduce the equation which relates the velocity of the ball to time for the first 2 seconds of
the fall.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(2)

## The ball has a mass of 0.25 kg. Calculate its weight.

...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(1)

A student suggests that the ball reaches terminal velocity when the viscous drag, equals the
weight of the ball. Use a suitable value from the graph and the data below to show that this
statement is not valid.
Radius of ball = 0.040 m
Viscosity of air = 1.71 105 N s mg2
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(3)

## M Campbell November 2008 Salesian College

16

Another student suggests that there is an extra drag, force due to turbulence. Complete the
diagram below to show turbulent flow around the falling ball.

(2)
(Total 10 marks)

9.

## Speed cyclists need to reach very high speeds when competing.

What word describes the preferred airflow around the body of a speed cyclist?
...............................................................................................................................................
(1)

## M Campbell November 2008 Salesian College

17

Draw the possible airflow above and behind the body of a speed cyclist

## (ii) when sitting upright.

(2)

What is the advantage to speed cyclists of travelling very close together as shown in the
photograph?
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(1)

Would plastic or elastic better describe the material of the bodysuit worn by a speed cyclist?
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(2)

## M Campbell November 2008 Salesian College

18

Would brittle or tough better describe the material of the helmet worn by a speed cyclist?
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(2)

## Explain why such a helmet is designed to deform in a crash.

...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 9 marks)

19

10.

## EXPLORER SPHERICAL SUBMARINE

Diameter: 1.60 m
Mass of empty submarine: 2000 kg
Maximum mass of contents including water in buoyancy tanks: 110 kg

BUOYANCY
Buoyancy tanks can be flooded with sea water and emptied by
compressed air.

VIEWING
Thick acrylic viewports provide visibility.
Young modulus of acrylic is 3.0 109 Pa.
Use the information given above to answer the questions below.
Calculate the weight of the submarine when carrying maximum load.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
Weight = ........................................................
(1)

(i)

## State the magnitude of the upthrust on the submarine.

....................................................................................................................................

(ii)

....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
(2)

The weight of the submarine is adjusted so that it rises with a constant velocity of 0.5 m s1.
(i)

## How would this change in weight of the submarine be achieved?

....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................

## M Campbell November 2008 Salesian College

20

(ii)

Calculate the viscous force on the submarine using Stokes Law. Viscosity of water = 1.2
103 kg m1 s1.
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
Viscous drag force = ..............................................

(iii)

The actual viscous drag force will be much greater. Suggest why.
....................................................................................................................................
(4)

At the operating depth, the pressure of water causes a stress on the viewports of 1.1 106 Pa.
Calculate the strain which would result from this stress.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 9 marks)

11.

Some people think that all raindrops fall at the same speed; others think that their speed
depends on their size.
Calculate the speed of a raindrop after it has fallen freely from rest for 0.2 s.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
Speed = .
(1)

## M Campbell November 2008 Salesian College

21

The raindrop falls for longer than 0.2 s. Explain why its acceleration does not remain uniform
for the whole of its fall.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(2)

Show that the mass of a 0.5 mm diameter spherical raindrop is less than 1 107 kg.
1.0 m3 of water has a mass of 1.0 103 kg
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(2)

Calculate the raindrops terminal velocity. Assume that the upthrust from the air is negligible.
Viscosity of air = 1.8 105 kg m1 s1.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
Terminal velocity =
(3)

## M Campbell November 2008 Salesian College

22

Sketch a graph to show how the raindrops velocity increases from rest to terminal velocity.
Add a scale to the velocity axis.

Velocity

Time
(3)

Explain how the terminal velocity would be different for a larger raindrop.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 12 marks)

12.

## The process of turbulence was described in verse by the British meteorologist,

Lewis F. Richardson:
Big whorls have little whorls,
Which feed on their velocity,
And little whorls have lesser whorls,
And so on to viscosity.
Suggest what the author means by the word whorl.

(1)

## M Campbell November 2008 Salesian College

23

Draw diagrams in the boxes below to show laminar and turbulent flow.
Describe these flow patterns.
Laminar flow

Description:

(2)

Turbulent flow

Description:

(2)

24

## Turbulence can be used to reduce the rate of flow of a fluid.

Explain this statement in terms of energy transfers.

(2)
(Total 7 marks)

25

1.

(a)

(b)

## Force arrow diagram:

Weight and upthrust correctly labelled (1)
Tension in string shown downwards (1)

Upthrust on balloon:
Knowledge of: upthrust = weight of displaced air (1)
Use of upthrust = gV (1)
Correct answer (0.18 N) [allow 0.2 N] (1)
Example:
Upthrust =1.30 kg m3 9.81 m s2 4/3 (0.15 m)3
= 0.18 N

(c)

(i)

(ii)

(d)

(i)

(ii)

Airflow diagram:
Diagram showing at least three continuous lines around the balloon (1)

Type of airflow:
Streamline / laminar (1)

Word equation:
Weight + (viscous) drag = upthrust (1)

Terminal velocity:
4 3
r g = upthrust = value obtained in (b) [or 0.2 N] (1)
3
4
correct substitution into mg + 6r v = r 3 g (1)
3
Correct answer (202 m s1) [196 202 m s1 to allow for rounding
errors] [if 0.2N is used v = 590 m s1] (1)
Example:
v = (0.18 0.17) / (6 1.8 105 0.15)
= 202 m s1

(iii)

Comment:
Any one of:
Air pressure also acts on balloon / becomes less with height
Air becomes less dense with height
Upthrust becomes less with height
Relationship only valid for small objects (1)

Max 1
[12]

26

2.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

## High viscosity flow:

Slower (than low viscosity flow) / greater time taken to
flow the same distance / flows less distance in the same time (1)

Measurement of viscosity:
Distance travelled by lava in a set time / time taken to travel a
set distance / speed of lava flow (1)

Effect of cooling:
(viscosity) increases (1)

Laminar/Turbulent flow:
Any 3 points
Laminar smooth
Shown by at least 2 straight-ish lines
Turbulent flow causes whirlpools /eddies (or
explanation involving energy)
Turbulent flow shown on diagram with at least 3
lines resulting in eddies (1)(1)(1)

Max 3

Viscosity graph:
Use a log scale / powers of 10 scale (1)

1
[7]

3.

(a)

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(b)

(i)

Type of airflow:
Laminar / streamline (1)

Airflow diagram:
At least two streamlines drawn in front of the skier (1)
At least two streamlines continuous around and behind the skier (1)
[Maximum of 1 mark if the streamlines cross or touch]

Skiers equipment:
Smooth / tightfitting / not baggy / elastic (1)

Desirable property:
Elastic or Tough (1)

## M Campbell November 2008 Salesian College

27

Reason:
Correct reasoning in line with property, ie.
or
Can withstand shock / impact (without breaking) (1)

(ii)

Undesirable property:
Plastic (1)
Reason:
Will remain deformed (once load removed) (1)

2
[8]

4.

Airflow diagram:
At least two continuous lines drawn around and beyond sky diver (1)
[Ignore turbulence around feet lines must not touch]

Force diagrams:
Weight arrow vertically downwards [allow W, mg and gravitational force] (1)
(Viscous) Drag and Upthrust arrows upwards (1)
[Allow air resistance for drag and u for upthrust]
[Upthrust must be vertically upwards]

Forces relationship:
Weight = Drag + Upthrust OR in equilibrium(1)
[Allow symbols or formulae for any of these quantities]

## Why Stokes law not valid:

Sky diver not spherical / flow not laminar(1)

Upthrust:
Use of Upthrust = Weight of displaced air (1)
Use of Mass = density volume (1)
Correct answer [4.1(N) or 4.2(N) if g = 10 m s2 is used] (1)

e.g.
Weight = 1.2 0.35 9.81
= 4.1 N

28

## Comment on size of force:

Smaller than weight / small(1)
Very little effect on terminal velocity / small decrease in terminal velocity (1)

Airflow:
Turbulent/slower (1)

1
[11]

5.

Downward arrow labelled weight / mg (1)
Upward arrow labelled (viscous) drag (1)

## Expression for upthrust

Upthrust = weight of displaced fluid (1)
= volume density g (1)

## Relationship between forces

Upthrust + (viscous) drag = weight OR F + U = W (1)
[ecf. From diagram must be 3 forces]

## Expression for velocity

F=WU
6 rv = 4/3r3 sg 4/3 r3wg (ecf) (1)
6rv = 4/3 r3g (ps pw)
v=

2r 2 g ( s w )
(1)
9

## Velocity change with temperature

Velocity will increase (1)
As viscosity will decrease with temperature/as velocity increases
with decreasing viscosity / as density of wine decreases (1)

29

## Explanation of what is meant by laminar

Diagram showing at least 3 reasonably parallel and straight lines (1)
No abrupt change in direction/no whorls/no eddies (1)
[Both marks may be awarded from the diagram.]

2
[11]

6.

## Forces on sphere (diagram)

Weight [downwards] W/mg (1)
Upthrust [upwards] U (1)
(Viscous) drag [upwards]/D/R (1)

Comparison
Weight is greater than upthrust and (viscous) drag (1)

Volume
4/3r3 = 7.2 106 m3 (1)

Mass
Volume density
= 7.2 106 1020
= 7.3. 103 kg [e.c.f.] (1)

Upthrust
Weight of liquid displaced (1)
= 7.6 103 9.81
= 7.2 102 N [ no e.c.f.] (1)

## Explanation of where sphere found

Overall force upwards U > W (1)
so sphere accelerates upwards / higher (1)

## [OR stays at the top]

M Campbell November 2008 Salesian College

30

Properties
Any two from:

Viscosity / temperature

## density (1) (1)

2
[12]

7.

Weight
mg
= 70 9.81
= 690 N (1)

Meaning of upthrust
There is an upward force (1)
in a fluid / equal to weight of air displaced (1)

Upthrust in newtons
Upthrust = mass of air displaced g
= volume of air displaced density of air g (1)
= V 1.29 9.81
= 12.65V (1)

Weight of helium
Volume density g
= 0. 18 V g (= 1.77 V) (1)

## Total volume of balloons

Upthrust = weight of man + weight of helium (1)
12.65V= 690 + 0.18Vg (1)
10.88V= 690
V= 63 m3 [Allow ecf] (1)

31

Any two from:

Quote of 6r

is small

## is small (1) (1)

2
[11]

8.

Graph
Gradient = 9.5 (no u.e) (1)

Equation
Use of y = mx + C or = u + at (1)
leading to = 9.5t + 2 (1)

Weight of ball
W = mg = 0.25 x 9.81 = 2.5 N [2.4N] (1)

Validity of statement
(F = 6r) = 6 0.040 1.71 10-5 32 (1)
= 4.1 10-4 (N) [No u.e.] (1)
[OR

## = F /I 6r = 2.5 / 6 0.040 1.71 10-5 = 1.9 105 m s-1 (1)

from graph 32 m s-1 (1)]
Therefore, viscous drag is not equal to the actual weight (1)

## M Campbell November 2008 Salesian College

32

Completion of diagram
At least two streamlines drawn below ball (1)
At least one eddy drawn above ball (1)

2
[10]

9.

Preferred airflow
Streamlined/laminar flow (1)

Diagrams
At least one continuous curve drawn above body of cyclist (1)
Turbulence shown behind cyclist (1)

Less drag on cyclist behind (1)
OR airflow above bodies more streamlined
OR less work needs to be done by following cyclists

## Material of bodysuit and explanation

Elastic (1)
e.g. stretch around body in use/nothing loose to cause turbulent flow (1)

## Material of helmet and explanation

Tough (1)
e.g deforms plastically before breaking (1)

Deformation
(In crash energy, deform s/absorbed by helmet rather than causing injury (1)

1
[9]

## M Campbell November 2008 Salesian College

33

10.

Weight of submarine
Weight = mg = 2110 kg 9.81 m s2 = 20 700 N (1)

Submarine at rest
(i)

20 700 N

(ii)

(i)

## Expel some water from/ add air to buoyancy tanks (1)

(ii)

Use of F = 6 r (1)
= 6 1.2 103 kg m1 s1 0.5 m s1 0.8 m
= 0.0090 N (1)

(iii)

## Flow not streamlined [or equivalent] (1)

Strain calculation
Use of Strain = stress E (1)
Strain = 1.1 106 Pa/3.0 109 Pa
= 3.7 104 (1)

2
[9]

11.

Speed of raindrop:

## = u + at = 0 + 9.81 m s2 0.2 s = 1.96 m s1 2 m s1 (1)

Explanation:
Air resistance (1)
Drag force increases with (speed) (1)
So resulting accelerating force/acceleration drops (1)

34

## Terminal velocity when weight = resistance (+ upthrust) (1)

Max 2

Mass of raindrop:
Mass = volume density
substitute 1.0 10 3 kg 3 4 (0.25 103 m)3 /3 (1)
6.5 108 (kg) (1)

Terminal velocity:
Viscous drag = weight (1)
VT = (6.54 108 kg 9.81 m s2) / (6 1.8 105 kg m1 s1 2.5 10 4 m) (1)
[Allow e.c.f. for m and r]
So terminal velocity = 7.56 m s1 (1)

Graph:
Line drawn which begins straight from (0,0) (1)
Then curves correctly (1)
to horizontal (1)
Scale on velocity axis (1)
[More than 2 sensible values and unit]

Max 3

Explanation:
VT increases (because of greater mass) (1)

1
[12]

12.

Meaning of whorl:
An eddy/circular flow/whirlpool OEP (1)

## Diagram and description of flow patterns:

Laminar
At least 3 reasonably parallel and straight lines (1)
No abrupt change in direction/no whorls/eddies (1)

Turbulent flow
No order shown in the flow/small broken circular shapes or similar (1)

35

## Mixing between layers of liquid/whorls/whirlpools/

eddies occur along the flow (1)

## Explanation of statement in terms of energy transfers:

Kinetic energy, of motion of eddies becomes kinetic energy of
molecules in liquid; overall kinetic energy reduces and flow
slows/ordered kinetic energy disordered kinetic energy (1) (1)

2
[7]

36