Geophysics Methods Guide | Geophysics | Reflection Seismology

United States Environmental Protection Agency

Office of Research and Development Washington DC 20460

EPA/625/R-92/007 September 1993

EPA

Use of Airborne, Surface, and Borehole Geophysical Techniques at Contaminated Sites
A Reference Guide

Technology Transfer

EPA/625/R-92/O07

USE OF AIRBORNE, SURFACE, AND BOREHOLE GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES AT CONTAMINATED SITES: A REFERENCE GUIDE

September 1993

Prepared by: Eastern Research Group 110 Hartwell Avenue Lexington, MA 02173

FOr: Office of Science Planning and Regulatory Evaluation
Center for Environmental Research Information
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
26 West Martin Luther King Drive
Cincinnati, OH 45268

Printed on Recycled Paper

Notice
This document has been reviewed in accordance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s peer and administrative review policies and approved for publication. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not consitute endorsement or recommendation for use.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE List of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . List of Figures . . . . . . . . Acknowledgments . . . . . . . Glossary of Abbreviations . . . Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .iv
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vi
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vii
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .viii
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ix

CHAPTER 1
OVERVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-1 1.1
1.2
1.3
General Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-1 Uses of Geophysical Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..1-3 General Characteristics of Geophysical Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4 1.3.1 Airborne, Surface, and Downhole Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-4
1.3.2 Natural versus Artificial Field Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-9
1.3.3 Measurement of Geophysical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Introduction to the Geophysical Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14
1.4.1 General Geophysics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-14
1.4.2 Ground Water and Contaminated Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14
1.4.3 Evaluation of Literature References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-23
1.4.4 Use of Reference Index Tables in This Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-24
1.4.5 Obtaining References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-25
Where to Obtain Technical Assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-28
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-29

1.4

1.5
1.6

CHAPTER 2
AIRBORNE REMOTE SENSING AND GEOPHYSICS . . . . . . . . . . . ...2-1 2.1
2.2
2.3
Visible and Near-Infrared Aerial Photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 Other Airborne Remote Sensing and Geophysical Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9

CHAPTER 3
SURFACE GEOPHYSICS: ELECTRICAL METHODS . . . . . . . . . . . ...3-1 3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
Electrical versus Electromagnetic Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 3.1.1 Types of Electrical Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...3-2
3.1.2 Subsurface Properties Measured . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Direct Current Electrical Resistivity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Specialized Applications of DC Resistivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
Self-Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
Induced Polarization and Complex Resistivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22

i

TABLE OF CONTENTS (cont.) PAGE

CHAPTER 4 SURFACE GEOPHYSICS: ELECTROMAGNETIC METHODS . . . . . . .4-1
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 Frequency Domain Electromagnetic Induction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
Time Domain Electromagnetics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
Metal Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
Very Low Frequency Resistivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
Magnetotelluric Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14

CHAPTER 5 SURFACE GEOPHYSICS: SEISMIC AND ACOUSTIC METHODS . . . . . . 5-1
Seismic Refraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
Shallow Seismic Reflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
Other Seismic Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
5.3.1 Continuous Seismic Profiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
5.3.2 Seismic Shear Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-8
5.3.3 Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9
5.4 Acoustic Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9
5.4.1 Sonar Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9
5.4.2 Acoustic Emission Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10
5.5 Borehole Acoustic and Seismic Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
5.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-18
CHAPTER 6 SURFACE GEOPHYSICS: OTHER METHODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...6-1
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Ground Penetrating Radar and Related Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
6.1.1 Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
6.1.2 Ground Penetrating Radar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
Magnetometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Gravimetrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
Thermal Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
6.4.1 Shallow Geothermal Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
6.4.2 Borehole Temperature Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-8
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-15
5.1 5.2 5.3

CHAPTER 7 BOREHOLE GEOPHYSICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...7-1
7.1 Overview of Downhole Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
7.1.1 Requirements of Borehole Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS (cont.) PAGE

7.2

7.3

7.4 7.5

7.1.2 Applications of Borehole Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
7.1.3 Geophysical Well Log Suites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-8
7.1.4 Guide to Major References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-8
Special Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-13
7.2.1 Borehole versus In Situ Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-13
7.2.2 Surface-Borehole/Source-Receiver Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-13
7.2.3 Tomographic Imaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-16
Major Types of Logging Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-16
7.3.1 Electrical and Electromagnetic Logging Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17
7.3.2 Nuclear Logging Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-20
7.3.3 Acoustic and Seismic Logging Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-20
Miscellaneous Logging Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-23
7.4.1 Lithologic and Hydrogeologic Characterization Logs . . . . . . . . . . 7-23
7.4.2 Well Construction Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-25
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-35
CASE STUDY SUMMARIES FOR SURFACE AND
BOREHOLE GEOPHYSICAL METHODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1
TECHNICAL INFORMATION SOURCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1

APPENDIX A APPENDIX B

iii

Metal Detection.LIST OF TABLES 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5 1-6 1-7 2-1 2-2 3-1 3-2 3-3 3-4 4-1 4-2 4-3 5-1 5-2 5-3 5-4 6-1 6-2 6-3 6-4 7-1 7-2 7-3 7-4 7-5 7-6 7-7 7-8 7-9 7-10 7-11 Summary Information on Remote Sensing and Surface Geophysical Methods Major Surface Geophysical Methods for Study of Subsurface Contamination Classification of Surface Geophysical Methods General Text on Geophysics Bibliographies. VLF Resistivity. and Symposia Focusing on Application of Surface Geophysical Methods to Ground Water and Contaminated Sites Conferences and Symposia Proceedings with Papers Relevant to Subsurface Characterization and Monitoring Index to Texts and Papers on General Applications of Geophysics to the Study of Ground Water and Contaminated Sites Use of Airborne Sensing Techniques in Hydrogeologic and Contaminated Site Studies Index for References on Airborne Remote Sensing and Geophysical Methods Index Index Index Index to General References on DC Electrical Resistivity Methods to References on Applications of DC Resistivity Methods to References on Specialized DC Electrical Resistivity and Self-Potential Methods to References on Induced Polarization Electrical Methods Index to General References on Electromagnetic Induction Methods Index to References on Applications of Electromagnetic Induction Methods Index to References on TDEM. Reports. and Symposia Focusing on Hydrogeologic and Contaminated Site Applications Summary of Electrical and EM Borehole Logging Methods in Hydrogeologic Studies Summary of Nuclear Borehole Logging Methods in Hydrogeologic Studies Summary of Acoustic and Seismic Borehole Logging Methods in Hydrogeologic Studies Summary of Miscellaneous Borehole Logging Methods in Hydrogeologic Studies Index for General References on Borehole Geophysics Index for References on Electric and EM Borehole Logging Methods Index for References on Nuclear Logging Methods iv . Reports. and Magnetotelluric Methods Index to General References on Seismic Refraction Index to References on Applications of Seismic Refraction Index to References on Seismic Reflection Methods Index to References on Miscellaneous Seismic and Acoustic Methods Index Index Index Index to References on Ground Penetrating Radar to References on Magnetic Methods to References on Gravity Methods to References on Shallow and Borehole Thermal Methods Characteristics of Borehole Logging Methods Summary of Borehole Log Applications General Texts on Borehole Geophysical Logging and Interpretation Borehole Geophysics Texts.

7-12 Index for References on Acoustic and Seismic Logging Methods 7-13 Index for References on Miscellaneous Logging Methods 7-14 Index for References on Applications of Borehole Geophysics in Hydrogeologic and Contaminated Site Investigations A-1 A-2 Ground-Water Contamination Case Studies Using Surface Geophysical Methods Ground-Water Contamination Case Studies Using Borehole Geophysical Methods v .

Resistivity profile across glacial clays and gravels. and Schlumberger electrode arrays. Reflection configurations on ground penetrating radar images indicating the lithologic and stratigraphic properties of sediments in the glaciated Northwest. Wenner. Ways of presenting areal geophysical measurements: an isopleth map of electrical conductivity measurement. Schematic traveltime curves for idealized nonhomogeneous geologic models Block diagram of ground penetrating radar system. Time domain electromagnetic: block diagram showing TDEM principles of operation. Electromagnetic induction: the depth of EMI soundings is dependent upon coil spacing and orientation selected. Specialized DC resistivity electrode configurations: layout of azimuthal resistivity array. Self-potential measurements: electrical leak detection using modified self-potential method. Lee-Partitioning. Resistivity soundings and profiles: isopleths of resistivity profiling data showing extent of a landfill plume. Discrete sampling versus continuous geophysical measurements. Portions of the electromagnetic spectrum used for remote sensing.LIST OF FIGURES l-la l-lb 1-2a l-2b 1-3 2-1 3-1 3-2 3-3 3-4a 3-4b 3-5a 3-5b 3-5c 3-6a 3-6b 4-la 4-lb 4-2a 4-2b 5-1 5-2 5-3 6-1 6-2 7-1 7-2 The electromagnetic spectrum: customary divisions and portions used for geophysical measurements. loop size. Ways of presenting area geophysical measurements: a 3-dimensional view of the data. Typical response of a suite of hypothetical geophysical well logs to a sequence of sedimentary rocks. Specialized DC resistivity electrode configurations: tri-potential electrode array. Electromagnetic induction: block diagram showing EMI principle of operations. Specialized DC resistivity electrode configurations: azimuthal resistivity variations of fractured and unfractured landfill cover. Self-potential measurements: apparatus and graph of measurement over a fissured zone of limestone illustrating negative streaming potential caused by ground-water seepage. Dipole-dipole arrays. Diagram showing basic concept of resistivity measurement. Flow diagram showing steps in the processing and interpretation of seismic refraction data. Field layout of a 12-channel seismograph showing the path of direct and refracted seismic waves in a two-layer soil/rock system. and time of measurement. Typical response of a suite of hypothetical geophysical well logs to various altered and fractured crystalline rocks vi . The electromagnetic spectrum: factors and phenomena influencing the radiation of electromagnetic waves. Time domain electromagnetic: the depth of TDEM soundings is dependent on transmitter current.

Mississaugua. Water Resources Division.S. Ohio. Dayton.S. Nevada Peter Haeni. Geological Survey. U. Las Vegas. Ohio Heidi Schultz. U. The document benefited from the input of the reviewers listed below. EPA CERI. Desert Research Institute. Russell Boulding. Connecticut Paul C. Ontario. Massachusetts Reviewers: Hugh F. Michigan Regina Bochicchio. Geological Survey. Canada Gary Olhoeft. Denver. (ERG) Project Management Susan Schock. brought to his attention.S. or any important references that have been omitted. Wright State University. Department of Geological Sciences. Hartford. Richard. Author J. ERG. Champaign.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This document was prepared for the U. Heigold Illinois State Geological Survey. Lexington. Inc. Nevada J. Las Vegas. Hulse. Cincinnati. These are the responsibility of the author. Michigan State University. Colorado Benjamin H. Given the large number of references in this guide. Bennett. Eastern Research Group. Geonics Limited. East Lansing. who would appreciate having them. Department of Geological Sciences. Ohio vii . Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Illinois Scott E. Cincinnati. errors or omission in citations may have occurred. Lockheed Corporation. Center for Environmental Research Information. Duncan McNeill.

induced polarization/complex resistivity IR .Association of Ground Water Scientists and Engineers (of NWWA/NGWA) AIMME .Center for Environmental Research Information (U.borehole CSAMT .Self-potential (surface and borehole) SRR .metal detection MT .electromagnetic (used when not enough information available to classify further) EMI .Symposium on Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems SEG .seismic refraction SRL .American Society for Testing and Materials CERI .Magnetotelluric S . EPA) DNAPL .electromagnetic induction ER .controlled source audiomagnetotelluric CSP .electrical resistivity GDT .Society of Exploration Geophysicists SEMEG .nonaqueous phase liquid NTIS .underground storage tank VOC .Oxidation reduction EM .gravity IP/CP .acoustic televiewer BH .time domain electromagnetic VSP .American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers API .ground penetrating radar GR .Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society (SEMEG prior to 1992) EPA .magnetic MD .airborne electromagnetic AFMAG .GLOSSARY OF ABBREVIATIONS Method Abbreviations AEM .National Outdoor Action Conference (NWWA sponsored) SAGEEP .spectral analysis of surface waves SLAR .continuous seismic profling Eh .dense nonaqueous phase liquid DOE .S.geophysical diffraction tomography GPR .Ground Water Management (NWWA/NGWA symposium series) HMCRI .Environmental Protection Agency GWM .Department of Energy EEGS .vertical seismic profiling Other Abbreviations AGWSE .National Water Well Association (became National Ground Water Association in 1992) NOAC .telluric current TDEM .volatile organic compounds viii .American Petroleum Institute ASTM .audiomagnetotelluric ATV .audiofrequency magnetic AMT .seismic (used when not enough information available to classify further) SASW .NationaI Technical Information Service NWWA/NWGA .Hazardous Materials Control Research Institute NAPL .seismic reflection TC .Society of Professional Well Log Analysts UST .side-looking airborne radar SP .infrared MAG .Society of Engineering and Mineral Exploration Geophysicists (became EEGS in 1992) SPWLA .

including various tables summarizing the applicability of geophysical methods for different aspects of contaminated site characterization and monitoring (Chapter 8). Summary tables include information on (1) site location. (3) site geology. 2. and index tables that catalog references at the end of each chapter according to method and applications. To provide summary information on case studies on the use of surface and borehole geophysical methods at contaminated sites (Appendix A). Section 1. 4. To this end. Relationship to Other EPA Documents This guide is intended to complement rather than duplicate other EPA documents that deal with use of geophysical methods at contaminated sites. the use of differing terms to describe the same method. To provide guidance on where to find more detailed information on specific methods.4 provides an introduction to the geophysical literature and suggestions on how it should be used. important terms are highlighted the first time they are introduced in the text. and the high degree of technical proficiency required for the application and interpretation of data from specific methods often causes confusion and misunderstanding in the mind of the nongeophysicist. and (5) the reference for the case study. although some overlap is inevitable. (2) contaminants involved. At the same time. To provide information on designing and evaluating a geophysical program at contaminated sites. 3. (4) type of method used. the rapidly growing amount of literature on the use of geophysical methods for characterizing and monitoring contaminated sites has been published since 1980. The purpose of this reference guide is four fold: 1. the multiplicity of available methods. There is a moderately large body of scientific literature on the use of geophysical techniques for ground-water investigations that dates back to the late 1930s. The text is intended to provide some understanding of basic principles involved in the use of geophysical methods and a conceptual framework for understanding the relationship between both commonly ix . through the use of tables describing major texts and reports. with the exception of perhaps a dozen or so papers published in the 1970s on the use of electrical resistivity methods for identifying contaminant plumes. To describe both commonly used and less common geophysical methods in relatively nontechnical terms for nongeophysicists involved in investigating and monitoring contaminated sites. However.PREFACE The Purpose of This Guide The use of geophysical methods in the study of contaminated sites has gained wide acceptance in the last decade as a cost-effective means of performing preliminary site characterization and ongoing monitoring.

EPA’s Geophysics Advisor Expert System (Olhoeft. This reference guide is not intended to provide guidance on how to use specific geophysical methods. Geotechnical and Environmental Geophysics (Ward. * See Chapter 1 for full citations. 1990a-c)* is a good comprehensive source on theory and applications of geophysical methods in environmental investigations. A number of the summary tables from that document also are used in this reference guide to reduce the need to go back and forth between the documents. 1992)* is recommended for preliminary assistance in identifying the potential of commonly used surface geophysical methods for site-specific conditions. Part 2 (U. users of this guide who are interested in further information about the less commonly used geophysical methods may want to refer to the summary sheets in the Desk Reference Guide before seeking out particular references. Table 1-1 (remote sensing and surface geophysical methods) and Table 7-1 (borehole geophysical methods) in this guide can be used to locate discussions of specific methods in the Desk Reference Guide. 1984). x . Nongeophysicists who use this reference guide should consult several experts whenever in doubt about the capabilities or appropriateness of a specific method (see Appendix B). Other major general references are described in Table 1-4 for surface geophysics and in Table 7-1 for borehole methods. However.used and less commonly used geophysical methods for nongeophysicists.* The Society of Exploration Geophysicists’ three-volume set. * which cover remote sensing/surface geophysical and borehole geophysical methods. 1987).S. 1993). The following EPA documents are recommended for more detailed information on the use of the more commonly used geophysical methods at contaminated sites: Geophysical Techniques for Sensing Buried Wastes and Waste Migration (Benson et al. EPA. respectively. This reference guide has been designed to serve as a companion to sections 1 and 3 of EPA’s Subsurface Field Characterization and Monitoring Techniques: A Desk Reference Guide (U.S.* and A Compendium of Superfund Field Operations Methods. EPA..

the term electromagnetic is restricted to techniques that measure subsurface conductivities by low-frequency electromagnetic induction (Benson et al. noncontact remote sensing. Use of the term seismic usually is restricted to methods that observe the vibration response of acoustic energy in the earth (i.1 General Terminology Geophysical techniques are used to assess the physical and chemical properties of soils. Acoustics refers broadly to the phenomena of the vibrations of elastic bodies (air. that is. all seismic methods are acoustic.1). but the term acoustic does not necessarily imply a seismic method). The term radioactive/nuclear methods refers to sensing involving the shortest wavelengths (x-rays and gamma rays). radar. however. In the broadest sense most geophysical techniques involve noninvasive. or (3) other potential fields. the term remote sensing is often restricted to the use of airborne or satellite sensing methods in the visible and near-visible 1-1 . In common usage. water or solids) in response to sound energy. 1984a.. 1988.1.b. (2) acoustic and/or seismic energy. such as gravity and the earth’s magnetic field.CHAPTER 1 OVERVIEW 1. Chapter 5 discusses additional terminology for seismic and acoustic methods. 1991).1 discusses additional terminology used to describe electrical and electromagnetic methods. rock and ground water based on the response to either (1) various parts of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum. including gamma rays. microwave. visible light. the observation of an object or phenomenon without the sensor being in direct contact with the object being sensed. Most portions of the electromagnetic spectrum are used by one or more specific geophysical methods.b). Nabighian. Sections 3. Terminology used for methods involving the radar and microwave portions of the EM spectrum varies considerably (see Section 6. respectively. In common usage. and radio waves (Figure 1-la.e. however..

1988). 1-2 . 1988). Figure l-lb The electromagnetic spectrum: factors and phenomena influencing the radiation of electromagnetic waves (adapted from Erdé1yi and Gálfi.Figure l-la The electromagnetic spectrum: customary divisions and portions used for geophysical measurements (adapted from Erdé1yi and Gá1fi.

and generating fracture mapping and paleochannels. 1991). Consequently. less risky. the term usually is restricted to methods for testing the integrity of manufactured materials. Geophysical techniques can be used for a number of purposes in ground-water contamination studies: � Geologic characterization. particularly for electrical and electromagnetic methods.portions of the EM spectrum. This can be dealt with in two ways: (1) by becoming familiar with the variety of terms that are applied to a single method and (2) by understanding the basic principles of different methods so that a method can be identified by reading a description of the equipment and field techniques used (Nabighian. � Contaminant plume identification. 1-3 . great skill is required in interpreting the data generated by these methods. preliminary site characterization by geophysical methods will usually be followed by direct observation through the installation of monitoring wells. and require less time and cost than using monitoring wells. including depth to water table. While nondestructive testing (NDT) has been used to describe geophysical methods used in the context of detecting contained. can vary considerably. and fractures. � Aquifer characterization. 1. Terminology in the published literature. water quality. including assessing types and thicknesses of strata and the topography of the bedrock surface below unconsolidated material. hydraulic conductivity. 1988. On the other hand. subsurface hazardous waste (Lord and Koerner 1987). both vertical and horizontal distribution including monitoring changes over time. and their indirect nature creates uncertainties that can only be resolved by use of multiple methods and direct observation. cover more area spatially and volumetrically.2 Uses of Geophysical Methods The greatest benefits of geophysical methods come from using them early in the site characterization process since they are typically nondestructive.

and other features (e. pipelines). (2) surface. ground-penetrating radar. shallow seismic reflection (Section 5.2).e.g.. and (3) borehole or downhole methods. resistivity) to locate contaminant plumes and measure the hydrogeologic properties of aquifers led to the adaptation of a large number of geophysical methods in ground-water contamination investigations.2).� Locating buried wastes and other anthropogenic features through identification of buried metal drums. dating primarily from the 1960s although there are scattered references in the literature back to 1949 (see Table 5-2). Time domain electromagnetic methods (Section 4. cables. seismic refraction. Innovations in these and numerous other geophysical methods continue at a rapid rate.3 General Characteristics of Geophysical Methods 1. and seismic shear methods have been used with increasing frequency since the mid 1980s.. measurement of variations in conductivity or its reciprocal. A review of geophysical methods for water exploration by Breusse (1963) focuses almost exclusively on electrical resistivity methods. Early successes in the 1970s using electrical methods (i.3. Then. Electrical resistivity continued to be the most commonly used surface method for the study of ground water until the early 1980s when electromagnetic induction gained increasing popularity for near-surface investigations. and magnetometry are no longer considered innovative but state-of-the-practice.1 Airborne. and Downhole Methods Geophysical investigation techniques can be broadly grouped into three categories: (1) airborne. 1. Use of geophysical methods in hydrogeologic studies became so widespread in the 1980s that techniques such as electromagnetic induction. Surface. subsurface trenches. The next most frequently used surface method for the study of ground water has been seismic refraction. The use of surface geophysical methods for prospecting for ground water using electrical resistivity methods dates from the late 1920s. Airborne remote sensing and 1-4 . in the late 1970s the availability of microcomputers revolutionized the use of field geophysics by allowing onsite processing of the vast amount of data generated by most of these techniques.

Surface radiation detection methods are not covered further in this guide.geophysical methods are discussed in Chapter 2. Downhole methods.2) also is commonly used as a downhole method. but shallow measurements have been used in the study of ground water (see Section 6.3).4). hole-to-hole.3. can be used to detect radioactive contamination.S. also are covered (Chapter 7). Electrical resistivity (see Section 3. (Table 1-1 provides an overview of the major uses and depth of penetration of airborne and surface geophysical methods. but additional information can be found in U.S EPA (1993-Section 1. Various types of radiation monitoring instruments. Geiger-Mueller. but site-specific investigations generally require use of surface measurements (see Sections 6. in boreholes. including ground penetrating radar. magnetic.1) also is commonly used in both airborne and downhole studies. but is most commonly used on the ground surface and.1) is primarily a surface method. EPA 1993]). Surface methods usually involve wave generators and sensors at or near the ground surface. In this reference guide surface methods are covered in four chapters: electrical (Chapter 3). although vertical seismic profiling is a relatively new downhole method that has been used in several studies of contaminated sites (see Section 7. Radioactive methods in the study of ground water (not shown on Table 1-2) are used almost exclusively as a downhole method. electromagnetic (Chapter 4). and a number of summary tables are provided on the characteristics and uses of borehole geophysical methods. and scintillation counters.1). gravimetric. but cannot be used as an airborne method because it requires ground contact. but instruments that detect ionizing radiation are widely used as a surface technique at sites involving radioactive wastes.3). and thermal methods (Chapter 6). Electromagnetic induction (see Section 4. Each of these three major categories comprises numerous specific techniques. Table 1-2 describes seven major surface geophysical methods and their hydrogeologic applications.2 and 6. less frequently. and other surface methods. seismic and acoustic (Chapter 5).5. and surface-to-borehole methods. 1-5 . such as proportional.4). Thermal methods are most commonly used in downhole investigations (see Section 6.4. Seismic refraction (see Section 5.1) can be used from the air. and a specific technique may have a number of variants. Magnetometry and gravimetrics are used as airborne methods where large areas need to be evaluated. including single borehole. section numbers arc provided indicating where additional discussion can be found in Subsurface Field Characterization and Monitoring Techniques [U. Ground penetrating radar (see Section 6.

( ) = achievable depths.1.4.1.6.2.3. f For ferrous metal detection.3 1.6 Surface Electrical and Electromagnetic Methods Self-Potential Electrical Resistivity+ Induced Polarization Complex Resistivity Dielectric Sensors Time Domain Reflectometry Capacitance Sensors Electromagnetic Induction+ yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes no yes yes yes (C) yes (C) yes (C) yes (C) yes (C) yes (C) yes (C) yes (C) yes (C) yes (C) yes (C) yes yes (M) yes yes no no no yes yes yes yes no no possibly possibly yes possibly yes possibly possibly no no no no Transient E1ectromagnetics Metal Detectors VLF Resistivity Magnetotellurics Surface Seismic and Acoustic Methods Seismic Refraction+ S? S 60 (km) S km S km S 2e S 2e S 2e S 60(200)/ c 15(50) S 150 (2000+) C/S 0-3 C/S 20-60 S 1000+ L L-M L-M M-H L-M M-H L-M L-M M-H L M-H M-H 1.S EPA (1993) Airborne Remote Sensing and Geophysics Visible Photograpby+ Infrared Photography+ Multispectral Imaging Ultraviolet Photography Thermal Infrared Scanning Active Microwave (Radar) + Airborne Electromagnetics Aeromagnetics yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yesc yesc yesc yesc yes (T) possibly yes (C) no possibyd possibly d no no possibly d no yes yes yesc yesc yesc yesc possibly possibly possibly no Surf.4.4 6.1.1 1.S.2 1. greater depths require larger masses of metal for detection. b Ratings are very approximate L = low.1 1.4 1. field confirmation required.2 1. H = high.1 1.1.4. 9.2.4.3. Depths are for typical shallow applications.3 1.6.4.4.3.2.5 1.2. + = covered in Supcrfund Field Operations Manual (U.1.4 1.1 1. only Surf.5.3 Boldface = Most commonly used methods at contaminated sites. d Disturbed areas that may contain buried waste can often be detected on aerial photographs.3 6. l00s of meters depth can be sensed when using magnetometry for mapping geologic structure. e Typical maximum depth. c If leachate or NAPLs are on the ground or water surface or indirectly affect surface properties.3. (C) = plume detected when contaminant(s) change conductivity of ground wateer (F) = ferrous metals only (T) = plume detected by temperature rather than conductivity.1.2.6 Gravity Radiation Detection Near-Surface Geothermometry Soil Temperature Ground-Water Detection Other Thermal Properties yes no yes no yes (C) no yes no yes yes yes (F) no no no yes (nuclear) no C 1-25 (100s) C/S 0-20f S l00s+ C/S near surface M L-M H L 1.1.1 1.2 1. only Surf.2.5. EPA 1987).6.1. 1-6 .1 1.2 1. a S = station measurement C = continuous measurement.2 1.4 yes yes yes yes (T) yes (T) no no no no no no no S l-2e S 2e S 1-2e L L L-M 1.5 1.Table 1-1 Summary Information on Remote Sensing and Surface Geophysical Methods (all ratings are approximate and for general guidance only) Technique Soils/ Geology Leachate Buried Wastes NAPLs Penetration Depth (m)a Cost b Section in U. only Surf.1 1.3 1.2.3 1. only 0. only Surf.5. but sensor placement is more difficult and cable lengths must be increased.1.1 1. M = moderate.2.5.1 1.3.5 Shallow seismic Reflection+ Continuous Seismic Profiling Seismic Shear/Surface Waves Acoustic Emission Monitoring Sonar/Fathometer Other Surface Geophysical Methods Ground Penetrating Radar+ Magnetometry+ yes yes yes yes yes yes yes no no no no yes no no no no no no no no no no no no S l-30(200+) S 10-30(2000+) C 1-100 S 2 10s-100s S 2e C no limit L-M M-H L-M M-H L L-H 1.1-2 0-100 10s-100s L L-M L L M M M M 1.4 1.4 1.3 1. greater depths possible.3 6.

and a seismograph that integrates the data from the geophones. Uses a seismic source (commonly a sledge hammer). delineation of contaminant plumes. buried drums. an array of geophones to measure travel time of the refracted/reflected seismic waves. pipelines).g. thickness of soil and rock layers.2) Magnetometry (Section 6. for which magnetic and EMI methods are more effective. The presence of ferrous metals can be detected by the variations they create in the local magnetic field. buried wastes.Table 1-2 Major Surface Geophysical Methods for Study of Subsurface Contamination Method Description Hydrogeologic Applications Can be used to map a wide variety of subsurface features including natural hydrogeologic conditions. and other artificial features (e. may detect anomalous subsurface features such as pits and b trenches. and their composition and physical properties.2) Measures the resistivity of subsurface materials by injecting an electrical current into the ground by a pair of surface electrodes and measuring the resulting potential field (voltage) between a second pair of electrodes. Well suited for areal searches. Depth of penetration is typically up to 60 meters but depths to 200+ meters a are possible. DC electrical Resistivity (Section 3. Similar to electrical conductivity (see above)..1) Uses a transmitter coil to generate currents that induce a secondary magnetic field in the earth that is measured by a receiver coil. Uses a magnetometer to measure the intensity of the earth’s magnetic field.1) and reflection (Section 5. Used to locate buried metal drums that may be sources of soil and ground-water contamination. Better for depth sounding than frequency domain EMI. Can be used to define the thickness and depth to bedrock or water table. except not widely used to detect metallic objects. Seismic refraction (Section 5. rate of plume movement. Electromagnetic induction (EMI) (Section 4.2) 1-7 .

Can be used to delineate shallow ground-water flow systems. recharge and discharge zones. Can be used to estimate depth of unconsolidated material over bedrock and boundaries of landfills. Depth of penetration more than 2.2). zones of high permeability.1) Uses a transmitter coil to emit high-frequency radio waves that are reflected off subsurface changes in electrical properties (typically density and watercontent variations) and detected by a receiving antenna. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) (Section 6. leakage beneath earthen dam embankments. buried valley aquifers. rock fractures. and location of solution channels in karst.000 meters is possible with use of time domain methods (Section 4. buried waste materials. Gravimetry (Section 6. Minimum depth resolution is typically 10 meters but it can be as shallow as 3 meters (Section 5.Table 1-2 (cont. b a High resolution shallow seismic reflection is increasingly being used as an alternative to seismic refraction.2).4) Uses temperature sensors anomalies in the soil or surface water. Maximum depth of penetration under favorable conditions is around 25 meters. cavities in natural settings. which have a different density than natural soil material.3) Uses one or more of several types of instruments that measure the intensity of the earth’s gravitational field. 100s of meters penetration may be possible in highly resistive materials (salt or ice). Microgravity surveys may be able to detect subsurface cavities and subsidence voids. Thermal (Section 6. 1-8 . depth of bedrock buried stream channels.) Method Description Hydrogeologic Applications Can map soil layers.

In contrast to electromagnetic methods. water content. Table 1-3 classifies 25 surface geophysical methods according to the type of field source.3 Measurement of Geophysical Properties Most of the geophysical techniques discussed in this reference guide operate in a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. and/or aquifer location as well as character from measurements of subsurface response to electrical or electromagnetic currents.. thereby increasing the volume sampled for a given measurement. often abbreviated. The geoelectrical or geoelectromagnetic properties of earth materials vary as a result of physical properties such as porosity. the discoverer of radio waves). and water chemistry. structure. Gravitational methods involve the sensing of variations in the mass of subsurface materials through measurement of gravitational acceleration or potential. This is usually an 1-9 . and frequency.e. Geophysical methods tend to measure a larger volume of the subsurface than monitor wells.1. cycles per second.2 Natural versus Artificial Field Sources Geophysical methods can be broadly classified according to whether the field source for which a subsurface response is measured is natural or artificial. and the measurements can be in the frequency domain or in the time domain (see Section 3. and all of the methods most commonly used at contaminated site. 1. density. measure artificial sources. as Hz after Heinrich Hertz. the distance between two crests of a wave of electrical energy in a medium.3.1. except magnetometry. The majority of geophysical methods use artificial field sources. Most electrical and electromagnetic geophysical methods involve the inference of subsurface lithology. fracturing.3. seismic methods record the speed with which reflected or refracted sound waves (acoustic energy) move from the source to sensors at various distances from the source (see Chapter 5).1). Artificial sources have the advantage of being controlled more easily. Electromagnetic radiation can be described in terms of wavelength. These currents can be natural or induced as noted above. the number of waves measured passing a certain point in the medium in the course of one second (i.

a 1-10 . b GPR is technically an electromagnetic method that uses microwave and high frequency radio waves.Table 1-3 Classification of Surface Geophysical Methods Natural Field Source Artificial Controlled Source Electrical Self-Potential (SP) DC Electrical Resistivity (ER) Induced Polarization (IP) Complex Resistivity Electromagnetic Telluric Current (TC) Magnetotellurics (MT) Audio-Frequency MT (AMT) Audio-Frequency Magnetic (AFMAG) MT Array Profiling (EMAP) Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) Time Domain EM (TDEM) Very Low Frequency (VLF) Resistivity Controlled-Source AudiomagnetoTellurics (CSAMT) Metal Detectors (MD) a Seismic/Acoustic Acoustic Emission Monitoring Seismic Refraction (SRR) a Shallow Seismic Reflection (SRL) Continuous Seismic Profiling (CSP) Seismic Shear Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW) Side-Scan Sonar Fathometer Other Methods Magnetometry Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) b Microgravimetry c Natural Geothermal c Ionizing Radiation Boldface = Most commonly used methods at contaminated sites. Relatively recent improvements in instrumentation and methods for data analysis have resulted in increased use of TDEM and SRL. but is listed here to differentiate it from other electromagnetic methods that use low frequency and audio portions of the spectrum (see Figure l-l) c Both temperature and radioisotopes can be used as artificial tracers in ground-water studies.

but can be a disadvantage if a feature or anomaly is so small that it escapes detection in a larger sampled volume. Profile measurements can be either stationary or continuous (Benson et al. Continuous methods. Multiple parallel profiles. or (2) soundings. Data from these methods can be acquired in the form of (1) profiles.g. The figure shows that continuous measurements. but are still preferred when applicable since they can approach 100-percent site coverage. When station measurements are made. for example. is Stationary or station measurements are taken at discrete intervals. the sampling interval for the station 1-11 . A three-dimensional view can be obtained either by (1) taking multiple vertical soundings in a two-dimensional grid at the surface or (2) multiple profiles with different depths of measurement along the same transect. which record changes in measured properties in a linear transect along the ground surface. which measure vertical changes in the measured properties. using methods such as electromagnetic induction and magnetic and gravity surveys. most traditional geophysical techniques involve station measurement. create an areal view of the properties being measured that can be displayed two-dimensionally as contours of equal values (isopleths) or graphically to represent the data three dimensionally.b).and three-dimensional portrayals of the same data. Figure 1-3 shows the difference in output from the two types of measurements.b shows two.advantage. commonly have shallower depths of penetration than methods involving station measurements. such as short-coil spacing electromagnetic induction (EMI) and ground penetrating radar (GPR). 1984a. such as is provided by seismic methods (Chapter 5) and ground penetrating radar (see Section 6. provide better resolution. all techniques that appear to be operating continuously (e. Figure l-2a.. The term resolution used to describe how well a method can measure changes in features horizontally (lateral resolution) and in sounding (vertical resolution). The three-dimensional perspective shown in Figure l-2b should not be mistaken for a physical representation of the subsurface. whereas continuous methods measure subsurface parameters continuously along a survey line.1). In Figure 1-3. In fact. but at such small intervals that the resolution is the best that can be achieved by the particular instrument. where feasible.. the measurement interval should be small enough to achieve adequate resolution. nonetheless. GPR) make point-by-point measurements. EMI.

. Figure l-2b Ways of presenting areal geophysical measurements: a 3-dimensional view of the data in Figure 1-2a (from Benson et al.Figure 1-2a Ways of presenting areal geophysical measurements: an isopleth map of electrical conductivity measurement (from Benson et al. 1-12 .. 1984a). 1984a).

.Station Measurements Continuous Measurements Figure 1-3 Discrete sampling versus continuous geophysical measurements (from Benson et al. . 1984a).

4 Introduction to the Geophysical Literature 1.1 General Geophysics Historically. 1 See Appendix B for publishers’ addresses. Older texts can provide useful information on basic principles. 1. The reference section of this chapter provides detailed annotations of methods covered by individual texts (abbreviations in these annotations are defined in the Glossary to this guide). 1-14 . is still the best single report covering applications for ground-water investigations. but failed to detect the highly localized anomalies that are apparent in the continuous measurement. Geophysical Prospecting. and proceedings of conferences and symposia that focus primarily on the application of surface geophysical methods in the study of ground water and contaminated sites. (1974). (1984a. Information on the latest developments in geophysical methods is most likely to appear in the exploration-oriented geophysical journals: Geophysics.measurements is sufficient to portray the slowly varying component. although a relatively old document.b) is the best single reference on applications of surface geophysical methods at contaminated sites. The expanded abstracts of the annual meeting of the 1 Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) is another important source of information on recent developments in geophysical methods (Table 1-5). and textbooks written from this perspective remain important source of information on basic theory and application of geophysical methods in the study of contaminated sites. Zohdy et al.4. geophysical field methods have been primarily the domain of petroleum and mineral exploration geologists. general reports.4.2 Ground Water and Contaminated Sites Table 1-5 describes bibliographies. and even newer texts can become rapidly outdated with respect to specific methods. 1. Benson et al. and Geoexploration (renamed Journal of Applied Geophysics in 1992). Table 1-4 lists 21 basic geophysics texts along with the major methods covered in each.

magnetic. self potential. gravity.* Dobrin and Savit (1988) Eve and Keys (1954) Grant and West (1965) Griffiths and King (1981) Hansen et al. electromagnetic. gravity. self potential. metal detection. magnetic. electromagnetic induction. gravity. radiometric. gravity. electrical resistivity self potential. magnetic. gravity. magnetic. geothermal. soil gas.* Geophysical exploration: seismic. seismic refraction and reflection. telluric current. electrical resistivity. induced polarization. electromagnetic. Exploration Geophysics: seismic refraction and reflection. gravity. electromagnetic. electromagnetic induction (including airborne). (1967) Heiland (1940. radioactive. geomagnetism. Geophysical exploration: seismic. 1968) Howell (1959) Jakosky (1950) Kearey and Brooks (1991) Milsom (1989) 1-15 . acoustic. gravity. magnetic. seismic. Applied geophysics for engineers and geologists: electrical resistivity. gravity. electrical. induced polarization. electrical. gravity. magnetotelluric currents.Table 1-4 General Texts on Geophysics Reference Beck (1981) d’Amaud Gerkins (1989) Topics Exploration: electrical. electrical resistivity. borehole. time domain EM. Field geophysics. Exploration geophysics: seismic. electromagnetic. radioactive. resistivity. radiometric. Interpretation theory in applied geophysics: seismic refraction and reflection. magnetic. Introductory geophysics text focusing on seismology. seismic. magnetic. well logging. electromagnetic induction. electrical. electromagnetic. magnetic. Geophysical prospecting: seismic refraction and reflection. magnetic. Mineral exploration: magnetic. gravity. SEG edited volume on mining geophysics: electrical electromagnetic. gravity.

electrical. Geophysical methods in geologc seismic.* Edited. magnetic.Table 1-4 (cont. seismic. (1990) Van Blaricom (1980) Ward (1990a-c) * All topics covered by text not listed here. Parasnis (1979) Robinson and Coruh (1988) Sharma (1986) Sheriff (1989) Telford et al. electrical (including well logging). radioactivity. radioactive. IP). earth resistivity. radiometric. heat flow. gravity. Mining geophysics: magnetic. three-volume series on geotechnical and environmental geophysics.) Reference Nettleton (1940) Parasnis (1975) Topics Oil exploration: gravity. gravity. and Volume 3 covers geotechnical applications (23 papers). seismic reflection/refraction. induced polarization. induced polarization. electrical and electromagnetic. remote sensing. borehole. Basic exploration geophysics: seismic refraction and reflection. electromagnetic Applied geophysics: magnetic. miscellaneous (borehole magnetometer. TDEM). seismic. Practical geophysics. electrical. electromagnetic (EMI. Note: See Table 7-1 for general references on downhole methods. seismic. borehole measurements. gravity. gravity. radioactive. Volume 2 covers environmental and ground-water applications (34 papers). electromagnetic induction. geothermal. borehole. Volume 1 covers basic concepts. SP. electrical methods (ER. Applied geophysics with emphasis on deep exploration: gravity. magnetic. gamma and neutron logging. radiometries. self potential. airborne magnetic. 1-16 . electromagnetic. magnetic. self potential. magnetic. electrical resistivity. magnetic. Geophysical methods: gravity. electromagnetic. telluric currents. geothermal). seismic (16 chapters). induced polarization.

(1985) USGS (1980) Ward (1990b) Zohdy et al. ER. GPR. Index identifies 15 on geophysical methods. (1985) Ground-water manual for electric utility industry. BH. Bibliography prepared for ASTM symposium on soil exploration containing over 300 references on air photo interpretation. GR) and borehole methods with a focus on seismic techniques. surface electrical resistivity and seismic methods. Volume 2 contains 34 papers on environmental and ground-water applications of geophysical methods. IP. Bibliography on use of surface geophysical methods for detection of fractures in bedrock with annotations to 31 English-language references and 12 foreign-language references. Chapter 3 of Volume 3 covers surface geophysical methods (SRR. Texts/Reports on Ground Water Applications Redwine et al. and borehole geophysics. and magnetic techniques. MT. See description under Bibliographies. SP. Rehm et al. (1985) van der Leeden (1991) Glossary Sheriff (1968. Johnson and Gnaedinger (1964) Lewis and Haeni (1987) Rehm et al. sonar. AMT. seismic refraction. GR. EM I. EMI. Manual on use of surface geophysical methods in ground-water investigations covers electrical. Over 100 references on geophysical methods relevant to ground water. CSP. Reports.Table 1-5 Bibliographies. SRL. 1991) 1968 glossary of terms used in geophysical exploration and 1991 encyclopedic dictionary of exploration geophysics. SRR. Section 5 covers hydrogeologic applications of surface geophysics. and Symposia Focusing on Application of Surface Geophysical Methods to Ground Water and Contaminated Sites Reference Bibliographies Handman (1983) Description Bibliography of more than 550 USGS publications on hydrologic and geologic aspects of waste management. (1974) 1-17 . ER. Chapter 2 (Groundwater) of the Handbook of Recommended Methods for Water Data Acquisition covers geophysical methods: TC. Bibliography in Section 6 contains over 300 references on surface methods. gravirnetric.

MD) and guidelines for planning a geophysical investigation. MD. soil gas. EPA. Benson et al. (1983) HRB-Singer (1971) Lord and Koerner (1987) O’Brien and Gere (1988) Olhoeft (1992a) Pitchford et al. SRR. and soil gas surveys. (1988) U. MAG. ground penetrating radar. self potential. electromagnetic induction. SRL. EMI. complex resistivity. Report on use of geophysical methods for detection of abandoned underground mines. ground-penetrating radar. ER.S. EPA compendium on Superfund field operations methods. Geophysics advisor expert system developed for U. GR. color/thermal IR. Methods evaluated: included induced polarization. and metal detection for sensing buried wastes and contamination migration.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency manual on construction environmental site survey and clearance procedures covering GPR. GPR.S. SRL.S. EM I. SRL. Covers: air photos. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency report on surface and borehole geophysical techniques. EPA (1987b) 1-18 . GPR. radiometric. ER. GPR. U. SRR. and VLF. Report summarizing results of geophysical investigations at four Air Force bases. electromagnetic induction.Table 1-5 (cont. EPA report evaluating metal detectors. Geological Survey. Section 8 covers DC resistivity. U. magnetic and seismic methods. Evaluation of geophysical methods for locating abandoned wells prepared by U. Makes suitability ratings for specific methods based on site-specific inputs. GPR. MAG. and magnetometers for locating buried containers. seismic refraction. resistivity. EMI. Supporting reports on 17 distinct nondestructive testing (NDT) methods were prepared prior to selection of four methods that were field-tested.S. complex resistivity. Includes review of major geophysical methods (EM I. Text on engineering aspects of hazardous waste site remediation that includes review of major surface geophysical methods: SRR.b) Costello (1980) EC&T (1990) Frischknecht et al.) Reference Description Texts/RePorts on Contaminated Site Applications Aller (1984) EPA report on methods for determining the location of abandoned wells. ER. Includes: ER. EMI. magnetometry. MAG. (1984a. combustible gas detectors. EPA report focusing of GPR. metal detection. EM.

36.707 pages. Manual on geophysical techniques focusing on engineering applications. The Society of Exploration Geophysicists held its 61st annual meeting in 1991.000 words. 1985. Volume 3 contains 23 papers on geotechnical applications of geophysical methods. Proceedings of workshop with 25 papers on geophysical studies used to characterize the area in the vicinity of the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratory. The 1991 technical program was published as 2 volumes totaling 1.S.000 to 2. Summary of workshop on site characterization using geophysical methods. Ontario. Technical program presentations at the annual meetings are published as expanded abstracts of 1.Table 1-5 (cont.S. Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP) since 1988. respectively. surface waves. 1967). 1-19 . These papers are indexed in the remaining chapters of this guide. radiometric and remote sensing. In 1992 SEMEG changed its name to the Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society. The Society of Engineering and Mineral Exploration Geophysicists (SEMEG) has held an annual symposium titled Symposium on Application of Geophysics to. The 1984. 1986)* SEG (various dates)* SEMEG/EEGS (1988-present)* Thomas and Dixon (1989) Van Eeckhout and Calef (1992) * See Appendix B. Army Corps of Engineers (1979) Report prepared for U. Proceedings of the Canadian Centennial Conference on Mining and Groundwater Geophysics (Niagara Falls. GR. Proceedings of conferences on surface and borehole geophysical methods in ground-water investigations. 19. 1985. seismic. induced polarization.2 for addresses. and 1986 proceedings contain. and 11 papers on ground­ water applications. sonar. Bureau of Mine evaluating surface geophysical methods for characterizing hydrologic properties of fractured rock. induced polarization. and 24 papers on surface geophysical methods. borehole methods include seismic. Surface methods include Seismic refraction and reflection. Proceedings of symposium on exploration geophysics published by the Ontario Geological Survey with 77 papers covering electromagnetic. and seismic methods. ER. ground and airborne electromagnetic methods. electrical. Contains state-of-the-art review papers on gravity.) Reference Description Texts on Geologic and Entineering Applications Taylor (1984) U. Ward (1990c) Conferences/Symposia Garland (1989) Morley (1970) NWWA (1984. nuclear.

has been held annually since 1988 and is an exceptional source of information on hydrogeologic and contaminated site applications. sponsored jointly by NWWA and the American Petroleum Institute. The NWWA regional ground-water issues conferences typically have at least six papers related to use of geophysical methods. SEMEG became the Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society (EEGS). is an important source for papers on developments in the use of geophysical methods for detection of hydrocarbons. and the Hazardous Materials Control Research Institute (HMCRI). which continues to sponsor the SAGEEP. Proceedings of the NWWA’S annual National Outdoor Action Conference (NOAC) on Aquifer Restoration. Ground Water Monitoring and Geophysical Methods (titled National Symposium on Aquifer Restoration and Ground Water Monitoring prior to 1987) generally provide the largest number of papers related to geophysical methods.2 The Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP). 1-20 . Proceedings from the HMCRI’s annual Hazardous 2 See Appendix B for publishers’ addresses. Another important source of information on recent developments are a number of symposium series sponsored by the National Water Well Association (NWWA) or the affiliated Association of Ground Water Scientists and Engineers (AGWSE). sponsored by the Society of Engineering and Mineral Exploration Geophysicists (SEMEG). The annual Conference on Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Organic Chemicals in Ground Water—Prevention. In 1992. Other important journals include Water Resources Research and Journal of Hydrology. Detection and Restoration. NWWA changed its name to the National Ground Water Association (NGWA) in 1992. Each volume of proceeding includes several applications-oriented review papers and numerous case studies. Table 1-6 lists the year and title of a number of these conference/symposium series.Information on the latest developments in application of geophysical methods in the investigation of ground water and contaminated sites is most likely to appear in the hydrogeologic journals Ground Water and Ground Water Monitoring Review (renamed Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation in 1993).

Environmental Site Assessments: Case Studies and Strategies) GWM 1 Environmental Site Assessments Case Studies and Strategies: Tire Conference GWM 6 1-21 . and Geophysical. Methods 2nd 3rd 4th GWM 2 5th GWM 5 6th GWM 11 [lst] Conference on Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Organic Chemicals in Ground Water—Prevention. Ground Water Monitoring. Detection and Restoration [2nd] [3rd] [4th] [5th] [6th] [7th] GWM 4 [8th] GWM 8 [9th] GWM 14 NWWA NWWA/API 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 Geophysics NWWA/EPA 1984 1985 1986 [lst] Conference on Surface and Borehole Geophysical Methods in Ground Water Investigations [2nd] Surface and Borehole Geophysical Methods and Ground Water Instrumentation Conference and Exposition Vadose Zone NWWA/EPA 1983 1985 1986 [lst] Conference on Characterization and Monitoring in the Vadose (Unsaturated) Zone [2nd] 3rd Karst NWWA 1986 1988 1991 [lst] Conference on Environmental Problems in Karst Terranes and Their Solutions 2nd 3rd Conference on Hydrogeology.Table 1-6 Conferences and Symposia Prceedirrgs with Papers Relevant to Subsurface Characterization and Monitoring Sponsor SEMEG Year 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 Title [lst] Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP) [2nd] (SAGEEP ’89) [3rd] (SAGEEP ’90) [4th] (SAGEEP ’91) [5th] (SAGEEP ’92) 1st National Ground Water Quality Monitoring Symposium and Exposition 2nd National Symposium on Aquifer Restoration and Ground Water Monitoring 3rd 4th 5th 6th 1st National Outdoor Action Conference on Aquifer Restoration. Ground Water Management and Wellhead Protection. Ecology. Monitoring and Management of Ground Water in Karst Terranes GWM 10 Miscellaneous NWWA Conferences NWWA/AGWSE 1989 1990 1991 Conference on New Field Techniques for Quantifying Physical and Chemical Properties of Heterogeneous Aquifers Cluster of Conferences (Agricultural Impacts on Ground Water Quality Ground Water Geochemist.

GWM indicates that proeeedings have been published in NWWA’s Ground Water Management Series. Abbreviations AGWSE Association of Ground Water Scientists and Engineers (NWWA) American Petroleum Institute API EPA U.Table 1-6 (cont.S.) Sponsor Year Title NWWA Eastern Regional Conferences NWWA/AGWSE 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 [lst] Eastern Regional Ground Water Conference [2nd] 3rd Annual Eastern Regional Ground Water Conference 4th [5th] Focus Conference on Eastern Regional Ground Water Issues [6th] [7th] GWM 3 [8th] GWM 7 [9th] GWM 13 Other NWWA Regional Conferences NWWA 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 Eastern Regional Conference on Ground Water Management Western Regional Conference on Ground Water Management Conference on Ground Water Management Southern Regional Ground Water Conference Western Regional Ground Water Conference Conference on southwestern Ground Water Issues Focus Conference on Southeastern Ground Water Issues Focus Conference on Midwestern Ground Water Issues Focus Conference on Northwestern Ground Water Issues [2nd] Focus Conference on Southwestern Ground Water Issues Hazardous Materials Control Research Institute Conferences HMCRI 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1st National Conference on Management of Uncontrolled Hazardous Wastes Sites 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th Superfund ’87 9th Superfund ’88 10th Superfund ’89 1lth Superfund ’90 12th Hazardous Materials Control (HMC-Superfund ’91) 13th HMC-Superfund ’92 1st National Conference on Hazardous Wastes and Environmental Emergencies 2nd 3rd National Conference on Hazardous Wastes and Hazardous Materials 4th 5th (HWHM ’88) 6th (HWHM ’89) 7th (HWHM ’90) HMCRI [ ] indicate that number is not included in the title of the published proceedings. Environmental Protection Agency Hazardous Materials Control Research Institute HMCRI NWWA National Water Well Association (name changed to National Ground Water Association in 1992) SEMEG Society of Engineering and Mineral Exploration Geophysicists 1-22 .

1993). especially when dealing with a method that is outside one’s area of expertise. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has sponsored conferences that present several papers on use of geophysical methods at contaminated sites (Collins and Johnson. Most of the papers in the conferences identified in Table 1-6 are indexed in this reference guide. 1990). 1970) remains an excellent general reference source on ground-water applications.21 (Ground Water and Vadose Zone Investigations) of ASTM is preparing a number of standard guides on the more commonly used geophysical methods (these are identified in the appropriate subsections in U. Papers from Collins and Johnson (1988) and a number of relevant papers from other ASTM publications are indexed in this guide. Ground Water. (2) where the authors come from. Greatest weight should be given to the content of papers published in peer-reviewed scientific journals such as Geophysics. and (3) how recently it has been published. Table 1-5 provides additional information on three conferences sponsored by NWWA from 1984 to 1986 on surface and borehole geophysical methods in ground-water investigations.4. Subcommittee D-18. Several factors affect the weight that should be given conclusions or recommendations concerning a particular method: (1) whether the it is from a peer-reviewed or non-peer reviewed source. 1-23 . Most conference proceedings (ASTM conferences being an exception) are not peer-reviewed.3 Evaluation of Literature References The field of geophysics in general and specific applications in ground-water and contaminated site investigations is changing so rapidly that great care is required when evaluating the literature.S. EPA.Materials Control Conference (titled Superfund from 1987 to 1990 and the National Conference on Management of Uncontrolled Hazardous Waste Sites prior to 1987) and National Conference on Hazardous Waste and Hazardous Materials usually include a few papers related to geophysical methods. and Ground Water Monitoring Review. 1. 1988) and for geotechnical investigations (Paillet and Saunders. The proceedings document of the 1967 Canadian Centennial Conference on Mining and Groundwater Geophysics (Morley.

personnel from EPA research laboratories) than to papers authored by consultants who may have an interest in promoting a particular method. greater weight can be given to those authored by individuals from academic institutions or researchoriented government agencies (e. not all chapters have tables of this type. They were initially compiled using: (1) the ground-water oriented bibliographies listed in Table 1-5.5).4. One or more reference index tables catalog references in each chapter by type of report and 1-24 .S. review of multiple references from a variety of sources that deal with a specific method should help determine the method’s appropriateness for a specific application or for site-specific conditions. To facilitate locating references on specific topics of interest. (4) recent issues (up to late 1992) of Geophysics. 1. U. Finally. As a general rule. When non-peer-reviewed papers are considered. and Ground Water Monitoring Review. Tables 1-4 and 1-5) provide information on the contents of major references. and interpretation of data. All identified references that directly relate applications of geophysical methods to the study of ground water and contaminated sites are included. two types of reference tables are included in this guide.. one or more experts should be consulted (see Section 1. (3) reference sections in papers gathered in the firstround review of references related specifically to geophysical applications to ground water and contaminated sites.. Geological Survey. Ground Water. When in doubt. principles of operation of geophysical methods. more recently published papers can generally be given greater weight that earlier publications because they are more likely to address recent developments and advances in geophysical techniques. e. Descriptive reference tables (see.consequently there is more likely to be diversity of opinion concerning conclusions or recommendations in individual papers.g. and (2) papers reviewing the literature and state-of-the-art of specific geophysical methods that are used in the study of ground water and contaminated sites. (2) conference proceedings listed in Table 1-6.4 Use of Reference Index Tables in This Guide This guide contains many more references than are mentioned in the text. Geoexploration. References from the general geophysical exploration literature are limited to (1) texts related to basic theory.g.

in Table 1-7 the NWWA geophysics proceedings are listed under the subheadings for both “contaminated sites” and “ground water” under the general heading of texts/reports. When an NTIS number could not be found (usually for more recent publications).S. Geological Survey libraries have computer searchable library catalogs. 800-336-4700). this may be fastest way to review documents for which an NTIS number is known (see Appendix B. DC. 1. VA 22161. Tracking down references of interest in the conference series identified in the previous section can be complicated. Proceedings for recent years. EPA maintains a microfiche catalog of publications in EPA libraries in Washington. the NTIS order number is provided with the citation. For example. If an EPA library is nearby..4. and at Regional Offices and EPA laboratories. Department of Commerce. can usually be purchased 1-25 . Table 1-7). these libraries maintain extensive microfiche collections of out-of-print EPA and other documents that are available from NTIS.S. general references on the method always appear first. followed by references describing applications of the method.5 Obtaining References When out-of-print EPA documents and other government-sponsored publications are available from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS. U. are available in one or more of these libraries. Also. e. U. the sponsoring EPA office or EPA laboratory is identified and availability can be determined by contacting the appropriate office/laboratory.g. Specific applications are indexed separately so that the same reference may appear more than once in the index. including conference proceedings. these precede the reference section in each chapter (see.topics covered. Although the organization of information varies somewhat from chapter to chapter.3 for addresses and holdings). Many of the publications cited in this reference guide. This same table lists 25 papers on general use of geophysical methods in five subcategories (only a couple of these references were actually cited in the text). Springfield. however.

b). Sheriff (1968.S. Hoekstra and Blohm (1988-fracture zones and karst). (1990). Eve and Keys (1954). 1986). (1984). EPA (1987b. DOE (1990). (1974). Army Corps of Engineers (1979). Bibliographies: Handman (1983). Peterson et al. (1980). (1984a. (1989). Ward (1990a) Erdélyi and Gálfi (1988). SEGEM (1988-present). Dobrin and Savit (1988). Van Blaricom (1980). 1986). Zohdy et al. Benson et al. Meinzer (1937). Howell (1959). Ogilvy (1970). Benson (1991). Rehm et al. Lewis and Haeni (1987). (1990). Benson and Yuhr (1986). (1988). 1985. (1985). Johnson and Gnaedinger (1964). Merely (1970). National Water Well Association (1971). Milsom (1989). van der Leeden (1991) Aller (1984). Benson et al.Table 1-7 Index to Texts and Papers on General Applications of Geophysics to the Study of Ground Water and Contaminated Sites Topic Texts/Reports General Geophysics References Beck (1981). O’Brien and Gere (1988). Nettleton (1940). (1985). Ward (1990b) Paillet and Saunders (1990). U.S. 1968). U. Evans and Schweitzer (1984) Buried Wastes Detection Contaminant Plumes 1-26 . U. Heiland (1937). Lord et al. USGS (1980). U. Ward (1990b). Griffith and King (1981). Parasnis (1975. Hansen et al. Johnson and Johnson (1986). Garland (1989). Cleff (1991—hydrocarbon detection). 1989. Neev (1988) Applegate and Rodriguez (1988). Thomas and Dixon (1989).S. Rehm et al. (1984a. Benson and Yuhr (1986). Taylor (1984). (1983). Telford et al. Costello (1980). 1985. Robinson and Coruh (1988).b). Valley (1965). Pitchford et al. 1992). 1979).S. Lord and Koerner (1987). 1991). Sharma (1986). SEGEM (1988-present). Jakosky (1950). (1985). Redwine et al. Helstrom (1968) Ground Water Contaminated Sites Engineering Signal Detection Papers on General Use of Geophysical Methods Ground Water (General) Dobecki and Romig (1985). Benson et al. SEG (various dates). EC&T et al. Olhoeft (1992a). Wailer and Davis (1984). Schwarz (1988). Frischknecht et al. HRB Singer (1971). Grant and West (1965). Kearey and Brooks (1991). (1967). Ward (1990c) Hancock and Wintz (1966). NWWA (1984. d’Arnaud Gerkins (1989). Technos (1992). Tucci (1989) Benson (1991). Heiland (1940. EPA (1987a). NWWA (1984. Van Eeckhout and Calef (1992). Karous and Mareš (1988).

Benson and Yuhr (1992). Tuttle and Chapman (1989). Hatheway (1982). Olsson et al. Flatman et al. (1981). Nichol and Cain (1992). (1982). Evans et al. Hoekstra and Hoekstra (1990). Olhoeft (1992b). (1986) Benson (1991). Wruble et al. McKown and Sandness (1981). (1987). (1988).) Topic References Papers on General Use of Geophysical Methods (cont. Tuttle and Chapman (1989). (1984). Nelson (1988). (1986). Wruble et al.Table 1-7 (cont. MacLeod and Dobush (1990). McGinnis et al. Emilsson and Simonson (1989). Evans and Schweitzer (1984). French et al. Cichowicz et al. (1987) 1-27 . Johnson and Johnson (1986).) Monitoring Site Assessment Regan et al. (1988).

50 for nonmembers) consists of 6 coupons that can be redeemed for published proceedings (larger proceedings may require 2 coupons). The NGWA’s National Ground-Water Information Center (6375 Riverside Drive.2 for addresses): ASTM. Appendix B. and at EPA’s Region V office. MD 20910-1702.5 Where to Obtain Technical Assistance Technical assistance from EPA personnel is available at EPA’s Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory. NV. 1. Dublin. NGWA/NWWA. 1-28 . Las Vegas. 614-761-1711) is probably the only library in the country with a complete set of the NWWA/NGWA conference series. Geological Survey who may be able to provide advice on geophysical applications at contaminated sites.S.1 provides the names and phone numbers of individuals in EPA and at the U. OH. 301-587-9390) maintains a complete collection of its conference series. SPWLA.3). the Hazardous Materials Research Institute (9300 Columbia Boulevard. Similarly. Beginning in 1990. SEG. A subscription ($140 for members and $192. Copies of specific conference proceedings can often be found in the libraries maintained by EPA regional office and EPA laboratories or in university libraries (see Appendix B.from the originating organization (see Appendix B. NWWA (now NGWA) began publishing the proceedings of its various conferences under the title Ground Water Management: A Journal for Rapid Dissemination of Ground Water Research. Silver Spring. EEGS/SEMEG.

Modern Geophysical Methods for Subsurface Water Exploration. SRL.M. ER.1. Glaccum. C. color/thermal IR. Stellar. J. Chelsea.C. Glaccum. 465-466. National Water Well Association. In: Proc. MD. In: NWWA/EPA Conf.W. [ER. 1992. Hazardous Materials Control Research Institute. pp. Benson. ER. Also published in NWWA/EPA series by National Water Well Association. EPA/600/2-83/123 (NTIS PB84-141530). R. ER.A.K. SRR. SRR. 236 pp. Geophysics 28(4):633-657. 143-194. 1988. Golden. Pease. Conf. J. ER. SRR] Benson. OH.D. SRL. 471-486. Geophysical Techniques for Sensing Buried Wastes and Waste Migration: An Applications Review. Use of Remote Sensing Techniques in a Systematic Investigation of an Uncontrolled Hazardous Waste Site. Also published in 1982 in NWWA/EPA series by National Water Well Association. on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems. EMI. ER. 1991. A. 1963. GPR. R. EMI. and B. MAG. R. R. BH] Benson.L. 4509. In: Proc. Dublin. Methods for Determining the Location of Abandoned Wells. (1st) Symp. (ed. SRR. Geophysical Techniques for Sensing Buried Wastes and Waste Migration: An Update. New York. and H. ER. 234 pp. 1984b. OH. 1984a.). A Summary of Methods for Locating and Mapping Fractures and Cavities with Emphasis on Geophysical Methods. [EMI. TDEM. Nielsen (ed. Rodriguez. VLF.C. GR. MAG. CO. on Surface and Borehole Geophysical Methods in Ground Water Investigations (lst. EPA/600/2-81/l87 (NTIS PB82-103896). American Petroleum Institute. MD] Cleff. An Evaluation of Soil Gas and Geophysical Techniques for Detection of Hydrocarbons. Geophysical Techniques for Sensing Buried Wastes and Waste Migration. Golden.6 References See Glossary for meaning of method abbreviations. [air photos. 1991.E. GR.A. R. and M. In: SAGEEP ’92. In: Practical Handbook of Ground-Water Monitoring.C. Macmillan. GR. EMI. and Mineral Exploration Geophysicists. MD. GPR. OH. BH] Benson. Eng. [EMI. BH]. Lewis Publishers. 1981. Benson. Washington. radiometric.). MAG.J.. R. Yuhr. GPR.P. Yuhr. CO. 1981. [ER] Cichowicz N. Jr. 533-566. [GPR. 1984. MD. MAG. MAG. pp. D. 722­ 734. Beck. [GPR. Dublin. Jaffe. Aller.J. and M. on Management of Uncontrolled Hazardous Waste Sites.P. SRL] Breusee. [EMI. MAG. pp. Remote Sensing and Geophysical Methods for Evaluation of Subsurface Conditions. Noel. SRR. Society of Engineering and Mineral Exploration Geophysicists. SP. pp. San Antonio TX).. L. Soc.. R. pp.J. [Reprinted in 1982 with corrections].. R. [ER.R. Seventh Nat. 1986. EPA 600/7-84/064 (NTIS PB84-198449). IP. DC. API Publication No. and L. EMI. MD. 130 pp. combustible gas detectors] Applegate. Silver Spring. MD. SRL. R. Integrated Geophysical Mapping of Hazardous Plumes in Glacial Terrain. GPR. Dublin.R. MI. GPR. C. Physical Principles of Exploration Methods. complex resistivity] 1-29 . and L. Noel. P. SRR. MD.

1989. Surface and Subsurface Mapping in Hydrogeology. Simonson. Conf. and D. and G. Aberdeen Proving Ground. Technol. ER.S. 1988. Eng. Gálfi. MT. U. Soc. 1986. Silver Spring. [EMI. Benson. MD. 1982. [ER. SP. Schweitzer. MD. 4th ed. G. USATHAMA Report DRXTH-TE-CR-80084. ER. [GPR. SRL. 1989. Inc. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency. and P. Technos. MD.. 1976]. C. MAG. (3rd) Nat. 354-367. Pratt. Integrated Geophysical and Geologic Techniques: Important First Steps in the Investigation of a Superfund Site in Southeastern Pennsylvania. and UXB International. Canberra. T.A. Applied Geophysics in the Search for Minerals. Rizzo. ER. and J.Collins. MD.R. IP. radiation] Dobecki. R. [earlier editions 1929. [Earlier editions by Dobrin: 1960. American Society for Testing and Materials. Introduction to Geophysical Prospecting. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency. MAG. NY. 1965. T. MAG. SRL. Geotechnical and Ground Water Geophysics. Savit. 867 pp. MAG. and J. A. MD. SRL. Foundations of Exploration Geophysics. Construction Site Environmental Survey and Clearance Procedures Manual.E.G. TC. SP. Silver Spring.).L. 485 pp. 1-30 . pp.. 667 pp. [EMI. Cambridge University Press. Australian Water Resources Council Technical Paper No. EM I. Identification and Description of Geophysical Techniques. M. 217-219. 215 pp. A. GPR. Englund. Elsevier. Sci. Romig.R.I. SRR. ER. CSP. 18(11):330A-339A. 1988.. EM I] Ellyett. 13. E..B. [SRR. ASTM STP 963. 1990. Ground-Water Contamination: Field Methods. and C. U. MD. EMI. Environmental Consulting & Technology (EC&T).C. M. and D. SRR] Eve. Wiley-Interscience. EMI. Inc. TDEM. 1954. J. Johnson (eds. ER. on Management of Uncontrolled Hazardous Waste Sites.L. GR.S. Weber. Inc. Educational Needs for Hazardous Waste Site Investigations: Technology Transfer in Geophysics and Geostatistics. 382 pp. 1938]. [MAG. A Review of the Potential Applications of Remote Sensing Techniques to Hydrogeological Studies in Australia. MAG. R. IP. R. soil gas] Erdé1yi. [Chapter 5 covers remote sensing. 1975. GR. Hazardous Materials Control Research Institute. on Management of Uncontrolled Hazardous Waste Sites. 1931..D. ER. GPR. pp. [Includes 5 papers on geophysical methods] Costello. and Chapter 6 geophysical methods: GPR. 1980. 384 pp. GR.B. 1990] d’Arnaud Gerkins. MAG.J. CO. In: Proc. GPR. SRR. In: Proc. radiometric] Flatman. New York. 7th Nat.D.C. and A. Emilsson. geothermal] Evans. McGraw-Hill. 1985. Hazardous Materials Control Research Institute. Systematic Hazardous Site Assessments. PA. Dobrin. 1988. New York.B. geothermal. pp. 17-22. New York. 1984.A. Assessing Hazardous Waste Problems. 4th ed.S.C. Keys. on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems. (2nd) Symp. IP. Golden. Aberdeen Proving Ground. EM. Philadelphia. B. GR. SRR] Evans. and D. and Mineral Exploration Geophysicists. Geophysics 50(12):2621-2636. G. R. MD. and J. Conf. In: Proc.H. [SRR. Environ. SRL. BH] [Superseded by EC&T et al.

Am.S. EM. Geological Survey Open-File Report 83-702. Statistical Theory of Signal Detection. Sumner. and A. 1981. Interpretation Theory in Applied Geophysics. 1013 pp.F. 230 pp. C. D. Geophys. Introduction to Geophysics.C.S. 598­ 620.W.. New York. MAG. Yalcintas (ed. 1983.A. Waste Processing. 1967.G. M. [EMI. Geophysical Exploration. 470 pp. (ed. SRL. 1959. CO. 1990. Signal Detection Theory. and P. Theory. Mining Geophysics. Williams. pp. geothermal] Heiland. [S.A. Tulsa. NUREG/CP-O028 Vol. C. Outdoor Action Conf. GR] Helmstrom. Eng. [ER. Ward (eds. ER. Muth. R. Jr. Golden. Grette. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems.). GR. Soc. 399 pp. Pergamon Press.H. 1968. Society of Exploration Geophysicists. and R.EMI. and airborne EM. on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems.R. New York. Pergamon Press. 1982. B. 747-753. 33-50. SRL. U. Surface Geophysics for Mapping Faults. New York. Frischknecht. Planning and Executing Geophysical Surveys. Applied Geophysics for Engineers and Geologists: The Elements of Geophysical Prospecting. 1989. OK. 1988. G. GPR. on Aquifer Restoration.H. C. IP.R. Geophysical Methods for Locating Abandoned Wells. GR] Hatheway. B. Hoekstra. pp. McGraw-Hill. Wintz. GR.D. Geological and Geophysical Techniques for Development of Siting and Design Parameters. J. MAG. GR. Hoekstra. New York. New York] [S.). 708 pp.. R. Trans. [15 references on geophysics] Hansen. on Low-Level Waste Disposal (Arlington. 914 pp. Eng. (lst) Symp. Canada. T. and S.A. McGraw-Hill. TN. Prentice-Hall.. Ontario Geological Survey. 1988. radiometric. Hoekstra. 2nd ed. [Reprinted under the same title in 1968 by Hafner Publishing. Soc.F. EMI] Griffiths. A. II. P. Heinrichs. G. and G. U. Prospecting for Water with Geophysical Methods. Holmer. Garland. GR. 1983. MAG. Blohm. W. R. and M. and Mineral Exploration Geophysicists. In: Proc. 247 pp. SRL] Howell. D. SRR. New York. T. In: Proc. Foster. and Mineral Exploration Geophysicists. ER.F. [First edition 1965] [ER. 40 pp. MAG] Hancock.W. Fourth Nat. McDougall. B.E. Handman. borehole. SRR. C. Special Volume 3. In: Proc. (lst) Symp. 211 pp. [EMI. CO.. Proceedings of Exploration 87.R.S. 2. Vol. S. thermal] 1-31 . R. E. F.S. Geological Survey Authors. [77 papers covering surface. Geophysical Surveys at a Superfund Site. McGraw-Hill. 1937. MAG. Buckley. Washington. EM. Kornegay. Golden.H. 1940. Union 18:574-588. Toronto. and P.). In: Proc. Ground Water Monitoring and Geophysical Methods. ER. F. Rogers. Symp. and B. Heiland. pp. Geological Survey Circular 907. SRR. MAG. IP. L. [ER . Shear Zones and Karstification. West. remote sensing.A.C. and seismic methods] Grant. Ground Water Management 2:1159-1166.S. New York. Oak Ridge. Hydrologic and Geologic Aspects of Waste Management and Disposal: A Bibliography of Publications by U. J. 583 pp.E. VA).French. 1965. MAG. GR. King. 1966.

Union 18:385-387. Computer-Enhanced Geophysical Survey Techniques for Exploration of Hazardous Wastes Sites. GR] Johnson. A. SRR] Karous. ER. P. and S. KY). on Management of Uncontrolled Hazardous Waste Sites. [17 methods. Johnson. American Society for Testing and Materials. [First edition 1984] [SRR. [17 methods] MacLeod. Dobush. Sandness. In: Proc.R. In: Proc. EPA/600/2-87/078 (NTIS PB88-102405). 1937. pp. Brooks. [air photo interpretation (90 refs). Nashville. EMI. Inc. Report EHN. GR. Los Angeles. Mareš. AEM] Lewis. 1964. MA 296 pp. ER. MD. Jr. An Introduction to Geophysical Exploration. M. nuclear borehole logging (40 refs). McGinnis.A. Ground Water Management 2:1081-1095. PA pp. GPR.E. Tome. Nondestructive Testing (NDT) Techniques to Detect Contained Subsurface Hazardous Waste. 1-32 . [31 English language and 12 foreign language references] Lord Jr.HRB-Singer. 1195 pp. M. EM I. McKown. S. Conf.N. 1981. Exploration Geophysics. on Control of Hazardous Materials Spills (Louisville.C. on Aquifer Restoration. pp. Philadelphia. (lst) Symp.I. and R. 1971.. 1990. electrical borehole logging (48 refs). 1988. and T.E. [ER. Winter. L. ER and seismic (60 refs). 93 pp. Detection of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines by Geophysical Methods.S. MAG. Tyagi. Fourth Nat. A.. [VLF. neutron moisture measurement (50 refs)] Johnson. In: Proc. Koerner. W. Blackwell Scientific Publications. A. Silver Spring. 1987.J. pp. SP. [S. 7th Nat. Haeni. and F. pp. of Env. and R. Decision Making on Geophysical Techniques and Results of a Study at a Hazardous Waste Site.M. VLF. MAG. Golden. Prepared for U. Geophysics-More Than Numbers: Processing and Presentation of Geophysical Data. Trans. (2nd) Nat.. Eng. and D.M. Ground Water Monitoring and Geophysical Methods. Outdoor Action Conf. The Use of Surface Geophysical Techniques to Detect Fractures in Bedrock—An Annotated Bibliography. and Mineral Exploration Geophysicists.P. and G. MT.M.D.L. Res. 1980. EPA and PA Dept. In: Proc. 174-179. Project 14010. 1986. Miller and C. MAG. 1987. 137-155. EMI. Jakosky. TC. Pitfalls of Geophysics in Characterizing Underground Hazardous Waste. MAG. Koerner. 2nd ed. on Management of Uncontrolled Hazardous Waste Sites. U. and M. 99 pp. Hazardous Materials Control Research Institute. [EMI. TN. GPR.E. Vanderbilt University. IP. Nat. 1950. MD best] Lord. Conf. R.W. I. borehole] Kearey. SP]. Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) Methods Applied to Environmental Problems Involving Hazardous Material Spills. 300-305. 1988. 227-232. SRL. Geological Survey Circular 987.P. In: Proc. and J. Conf. O.F. Trija Publishing Co. ASTM STP 351. Geophys. G. SP. Soc. Meinzer.S. ER. on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems. J. Silver Spring. 1991.. Boston. 691-712. CO. Hazardous Materials Control Research Institute. Bibliography. In: Symposium on Soil Exploration. MD. AFMAG. Charles University. Am. IP.J. Prague. borehole camera (13 refs). Gnaedinger. Geophysical Methods in Studying Fracture Aquifers. The Value of Geophysical Methods in Ground Water Studies. SRR. S.

Tulsa. Dublin. 1-33 .). 1970. Van Nostrand Reinholdj New York. ER] Nicholl. pp. Nelson. SRR. In: Proc. CO. SRR. Dublin. 1991. Merely (ed. J. 1984. 521­ 992. Theory. Geophysical Prospecting for Ground Water in the Soviet Union. Soc. [GR. Electromagnetic Methods in Applied Geophysics.N. Nabighian. Ottawa. Part 2: 25(8):35-50. National Water Well Association (NWWA). Water Well Journal Part 1:25(7):43-60. 1988. EM. pp. National Water Well Association. pp. Dublin. Eng.N. Neev. New York. McGraw-Hill. An Introduction to Ground Water Geophysics. GPR. Tulsa. 1988. pp. OK. (lst) Symp. New York. 1940. EM.A. Vol. CO. Eng. 1988. 2. 1992. J. Cain. Electromagnetic Methods in Applied Geophysics. and Mineral Exploration Geophysicists. [SRR. Mining and Groundwater Geophysics/1967. [ER. Geophysics and Ground Water: A Primer: Part 1. Golden. National Water Well Association. National Water Well Association (NWWA). M. Nettleton. (ed. D. 569­ 572. Morely. A.S. Canada. ER. OH. L. O’Brien & Gere Engineering. Applied Use of Geophysics. M. (ed. BH] Nabighian. Society of Engineering and Mineral Exploration Geophysicists. 1989. 713-721. Society of Exploration Geophysicists. Jr. TX). In: Mining and Groundwater Geophysics/1967. Soc.Milsom. 37-54. Surface and Borehole Geophysical Methods and Ground Water Instrumentation Conference and Exposition (Denver. and K. National Water Well Association (NWWA).). 182 pp. OH. Halsted Press. (lst) Symp.W.W. In: Proc. NWWA/EPA Conference on Surface and Borehole Geophysical Methods in Ground Water Investigations (San Antonio. Applications. Part 2. 1988. FieId Geophysics. Application of Geophysical Methods for Subsurface Metal Screening A Case History. MAG] Ogilvy.J. Part A. pp. Parts A and B. In: SAGEEP ’92. 1-520. NWWA. MAG. CO). J. NWWA Conference on Surface and Borehole Geophysical Methods in Ground Water Investigations (Fort Worth. (ed. L. SRL. 444 pp. Planning and Costing Geophysical Investigations for Engineering and Environmental Problems. Part B. CO. SRL. OH. National Water Well Association (NWWA). on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems. 536-543. TX). Golden. and Mineral Exploration Geophysicists.L. pp. L. Vol. OK 528 pp. Hazardous Waste Site Remediation: The Engineering Perspective.. 1971. 1985. on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems. Geological Survey of Canada Economic Geology Report 26. Geological Survey of Canada. Geophysical Prospecting for Oil.) 1970. 1. 1986. Golden. Society of Exploration Geophysicists. Economic Geology Report 26. Subsurface Characterization Using Integrated Geophysical Methods: A Case History.).

Dallas. Las Vegas. IP/complex resistivity. G. 425-435. (2nd) Symp. Conf. GR. Chapman and Hall. Groundwater Manual for the Electric Utility Industry.R. SRL. American Society for Testing and Materials. Duran. replaces Version LO (EPA/600/4­ 89/023).S. pp. In: Proc. 2nd ed. Palo Alto. Aerial Detection Techniques for Landfill Pollutants. complex resistivity. 0. GR. ER. MAG. New York.A.T. ASTM STP 1101. Other: IR. 1992a. [MAG. 104-114. In: Subsurface Restoration Conference. TX. sonar. Dublin. Paillet. complex resistivity. on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems.. F. and K. 395 pp. Mazzella.Olhoeft. A. [EMI. 1990. and Mineral Exploration Geophysicists. SRR. ER. SP.G. [second edition dated 1973].R. EMI.. pp. et al. A. GPR. Hoekstra. CSP. [MAG. Elsevier.S. O. SP.S. soil gas] Olhoeft. Phillipson. EM. SRR. [earlier editions dated 1962. radiometric] Redwine. Palo Alto. VT). GR. Jamtlid. EMI. Field Measurement Methods for Hydrogeologic Investigations: A Critical Review of the Literature. SRL. OH. (Management of Gas Leachate from Landfills). Hild. Principles of Applied Geophysics. Also available from U. Geophysical. SRL.R. EPRI EA-4301 Electric Power Research Institute. pp. Geoexploration 22:187­ 201. Golden. [ER. 3rd ed. 21 pp. and W. SRR. M. Scarborough. SP. fracture trace] Rehm. 1975. 1985. Third Int. EPA Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory. J. MAG. NV. The Use of Remote Sensing. PO Box 93478. 1977.L. TX). 1992b. SRR. Soc. EMI. Robinette. EMI. radiometric. 89193-3478. In: Proc.R. GPR. EPA/600/4-88/019 (NTIS PB88-208194). 1992. TDEM. revised and updated.R. EPA/600/9­ 77/026 (PB272 595). CA Chapter 3. plus floppy disk. M. and L. ER. National Water Well Association. [2 peerreviewed papers on surface and 5 on borehole geophysics] Pamsnis. D. Geophysical Studies for the Exploration of Groundwater in the Basin and Range of Northern Nevada. [Major methods: ER. on Ground Water Quality Research (June 21-24. SRR. radiometric. ER. Geophysical Applications for Geotechnical Investigations. SRR.S. GPR. IP. GR. 1989. PA 118 pp. MAG. BH. Geological Survey Open File Report 92-526. CA. of the Fourth Annual Eastern Regional Ground Water Conference (Burlington. Volume 3: Groundwater Investigations and Mitigation Techniques. S] Peterson. Philadelphia. Stenburg. 29-31. 1984.0. Geophysics Advisor Expert System. B. 1988. M.R.S. T. SRL. Electric Power Research Institute. Site Characterization Tools. 577-591. thermal] 1-34 . BH] Regan. AEM. EPRI CS-3901. and P. and D.). Version 2.. [SRR. Stolzenburg. 1987. Olsson.W. National Center for Ground Water Research. released in 1989. Houston. TC. A. and D. MD. ER. 1972]. U. Rice University. Eng. and T. J. IP. In: Proc. J. Pitchford. R. Beaulieu. Geophysical Investigations in Sweden for the Characterization of a Site for Radioactive Waste Disposal—An Overview. G. 1979. Mining Geophysics. 269+ pp. Soil-Gas and Geophysical Techniques for Detection of Subsurface Organic Contamination. D. pp. BH] Parasnis. GPR. W. and Soil Gas Techniques to Locate Monitoring Wells at Hazardous Waste Sites in Ncw Hampshire.R.. Nichols. 1985. Saunders (eds. GR. GR. New York.. CO. Sangrey. 3rd Solid Waste Research Symp. [EMI.

GR. MT. [First edition 1976] [S. ER. Technos. Golden. Dixon (eds. [lst ed. ER. [Publication for the 61st annual meeting in 1991 is a 2-volume set totaling 1707 pages]* Society of Engineering and Mineral Exploration Geophysicists/Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society (SEMEG/EEGS). EMI. 652-657. Cambridge University Press. Society of Exploration Geophysicists.A. U. MAG. Application Guide to the Surface Geophysical Methods. [SRR. OK. Tuttle.S.). SRL. 5th. TDEM. In: Proc. J. E. SRR. on Hazardous Wastes and Hazardous Materials. 1990. MD. EM. radiometric. [EMI. Technos. 1973. Various dates. EMI. IP. BH] Schwarz. 4th. and G. Sheriff.W.E. geothermal. 562 pp. [GR.Robinson. thermal. Field Analytical Screening. BH] 1-35 . N. P.S. and C. 19 pp. Keys. SP. Bureau of Mine OFR-17-84 (NTIS PB84-158021). Soc. SRL. TC. 3rd. Hazardous Materials Control Research Institute. 1989. GPR.E. BH] Thomas. television. 770 pp. MAG. MD.H. Englewood Cliffs. Application of Geophysical Methods to Groundwater Exploration in the Tolt River Basin. In: Proc. Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems [lst. Geophysics 33(l): 181-228. 6th Nat. (lst) Symp. pp. MAG. 1990. Applied Geophysics.P. SRR. Evaluation of Geophysical Surface Methods for Measuring Hydrological Variables in Fracture Rock Units. 428 pp. 1988. radioactive. Conf.D. on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems. Annual Meeting Technical Program: Expanded Abstracts and Biographies. S. 530-537. 376 pp. Coruh. 2nd ed. 1991. FL. 1992]. Reconnaissance Geophysical and Temporary Monitoring Well Techniques—An Integrated Approach to Pre-Remedial Site Characterization. Prentice Hall. pp. and D. 3rd ed. 1984. Proceedings of a Workshop on Geophysical and Related Geoscientific Research at Chalk River.F. New York. GR. Sharma. New York. Eng. Miami. BH] Sheriff. Tulsa. MAG. VLF resistivity. [1st ed. Glossary of Terms Used in Geophysical Exploration. R. and Mineral Exploration Geophysicists. R. S. Golden.E. NJ. Geophysical Methods in Geology. 145 pp. [25 papers on surface (GR. EMI. [GPR. Sheriff. SRR.. Inc. 1991. reprinted 1982] [GR. Tulsa. Soc. pp. ER. Geophysical Methods for Water Resource Investigations in South and Central Arizona. and Mineral Exploration Geophysicists. Eng. MAG. ER. SRR.D. M. acoustic televiewer. ER. 1989. CO. John Wiley & Sons. AEM. 368-383. ER. 1968. 1986. EEGS. Inc. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. radiation) Telford. GPR) and borehole methods (electric. 2nd 1984] Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG). M. 2nd ed Elsevier. Silver Spring. 1988. Washington State. Geophysical Methods. (2nd) Symp. and D. 1989. geothermal] Sheriff. 1976. OK. SRL. Chapman. R. R. L. EM.. 605 pp.E. TDEM. MAG. MAG. Englewood CO. IP. spectral gamma)] Tucci. GR. In: Proc. 1988-present. SP.V. 1988.* Taylor. on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems.C. P. SEG. New York. Encyclopedic Dictionary of Exploration Geophysics. 2nd 1989. Geldart. 1989. ER. 1992. Basic Exploration Geophysics. CO. Ontario. R. W. AECL-9085.

Geological Survey (USGS). acoustic emission monitoring] Ward S. NY. Society of Exploration Geophysicists. Geraghty & Miller’s Groundwater Bibliography. [Discusses need for geophysics] U. 1980. SRR. Washington DC. seismic shear. ER. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Spokane. 14 on multiple methods. Basic Research for Environmental Restoration. E. Los Alamos. Ward S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). OK. Army Corps of Engineers. R. 1992. Geotechnical and Environmental Geophysics: Vol.S. Available from EPA Center for Environmental Research Information. Department of the Army. Workshop on Noninvasive Geophysical Site Characterization.S. EPA/600/R-92/030.L. GR. MAG. BH] U. Plainview.) 1990c. [TC.H. 1990. Chapter 2 (Ground Water). [34 papers. Geophysical Exploration. 2-24 to 2-76. Surface Geophysical Techniques for Aquifer and Wellhead Protection Area Delineation. Dallas. 1991. NM. 156 pp. OH. ER. DOE/ER­ 0482T. Subsurface Field Characterization and Monitoring Techniques A Desk Reference Guide.S. OK. Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquids-A Workshop Summary. S. VA pp. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). AMT. 13 on ER & EM. ER. Wailer. 1993. Washington. 1992. New York. and C. SRR. thermal. Davis. EMI. Geophysical Measurements. 0K. SRR. WA 303 pp. Los Alamos National Laboratories. 313 pp. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Van Eeckhout. Van Blaricom. 33 pp. EPA/600/2-84/041 (NTIS PB84-157858). M. III Geotechnical. SRL. Department of Energy (DOE). 1965. EPA/540/P-87/001 (OSWER Directive 9355.H. DC. EMI. [28 methods assessed including ER. 1979. 507 pp. Geotechnical and Environmental Geophysics: Vol. A Compendium of Superfund Field Operations Methods. EPA/440/6-87/016 (NTIS PB88-229505).2 provides brief description of geophysical techniques] U. Texas. 1987b. U. 309 pp. I Review and Tutorial.). IP. including cross-borehole resistivity. In: National Handbook of Recommended Methods for Water Data Acquisition. April 16-18.0-14) (NTIS PB88-181557).C. Water Information Center. (ed) 1990b. 1991. Society of Exploration Geophysicists. SASW. 644 pp. (ed.) 1990a. Handbook of Geophysics and Space Environments. [Section 1 covers remote sensing and surface geophysical methods. Society of Exploration Geophysicists. others] Ward S. Practical Geophysics for the Exploration Geologist. Calef (compilers). Tulsa.U. van der Leeden. Volume I: Solids and Ground Water. MT. Engineer Manual EM 1110-1-1802. [Section 4.J. and J. [SRR. McGraw-Hill. Reston. (ed. sonar. 1984. 1980. II Environmental and Groundwater. Section 3 covers borehole geophysical methods] U. EPA/625/R-93/O03a. 352 pp. Tulsa. LA-1231l-C. [23 papers. BH] Valley. Assessment of Innovative Techniques to Detect Waste Impoundment Liner Failure. 397 pp. Geotechnical and Environmental Geophysics Vol. 1987a.S. GPR. 4th ed. 81 pp. Part 2. [Remote sensing. F. Office of Water Data Coordination. Tulsa.H. BH] U.S. Cincinnati. radio imaging] 1-36 .S. 148 pp. SRL. GR. Northwest Mining Association. (ed.S.

J. and D. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resource Investigations TWRI 2-D1. ASTM STP 933. Conway. and L. McMillion. R. (eds.P. Philadelphia.A. U. 116 pp. Mabey. In: Hazardous and Industrial Solid Waste Testing and Disposal: Sixth Volume. thermal IR. 1986. 1974.T..A. PA pp.2. multispectral. surface geophysics] Zohdy.R. SRR] * Addresses in Appendix B.G. [Airphotos. Remote Sensing Methods for Waste Site Subsurface Investigations and Monitoring.). G. J. 243-256. A. [ER. MAG. D. Application of Surface Geophysics to Ground-Water Investigations. GR.Wruble. Eaton.S. et al.. American Society for Testing and Materials. 1-37 . Van Ee.

2. 1 2-1 . Exploration geophysicists usually use the term airborne geophysics to refer to magnetic. Photographic methods have the widest applicability to site-specific investigations of contaminated sites as discussed in Section 2. gravimetric. however. rather than for site-specific studies.CHAPTER 2 AIRBORNE REMOTE SENSING AND GEOPHYSICS Hydrogeologists have used the term remote sensing loosely to apply to all airborne sensing methods (Ellyett and Pratt. which can be used to map oil spills on surface water is also included in this table. EPA (1986) provides information on how to obtain such images. Chapter 11 of U. Figure 2-1 shows the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is most commonly used for remote sensing.1. the scale of the images yielded with this technology is too large to provide much useful information for site-specific investigations.S. 1975). Still. and electromagnetic measurements taken from ecmventional aircraft and they restrict the term remote sensing to observations of electromagnetic radiation from satellites and high-altitude aircraft (Regan. Various types of satellite remote sensing imagery equipment are available for most areas of the United States. Airborne geophysical methods other than the thermal infrared method have received relatively limited use in hydrogeologic studies. A sixth method photographic ultraviolet. Airborne sensing and methods are more commonly used in regional investigations where 1 large areas must be evaluated. Typically. as discussed in Section 2. Table 1-1 provides additional summary information of airborne remote sensing and geophysical methods with a focus on applications at contaminated sites. Table 2-1 summarizes information on hydrogeologic applications for five airborne sensing techniques that were evaluated by Ellyett and Pratt (1975) for their potential value in hydrogeological investigations. such information may be of value for investigation of particularly large sites. 1980).

2-2 . 1970).Figure 2-1 Portions of the electromagnetic spectrum used for remote sensing (Scherz and Stevens.

Applications Air photo interpretation of geologic and surface hydrologic features. location of shallow subsurface aquifers and deeper brine contaminated aquifers. and vegetation (infrared). Primarily used in petroleum and mineral exploration to assist with geological mapping and structural interpretations. Similar applications to air photos. color. fracture trace analysis. and the sea. evaporation. detects variations in soil moisture content (seepage from leach fields and underground storage tanks). false color.Table 2-1 Use of Airborne Sensing Techniques in Hydrogeologic and Contaminated Site Studies Method Visible and near infrared Description Aerial photographs (black and white. Uses a low frequency electromagnetic wave transmitter and receiver that responds to changes in the ground electrical conductivity. Scanners used to detect infrared radiation beyond the range of infrared photography. and thermal properties. variations in ground-water salinity. Mapping of oil spills on surface water bodies sometimes used for geologic mapping of carbonate formations. can distinguish grain size in alluvium if there is no interference from vegetation. lakes. Measures the earth’s total magnetic field. Source Adapted from Ellyett and Pratt (1975). Routinely used to detect ground-water discharge into rivers. * Not mentioned in Ellyett and Pratt (1975). infrared multi­ spectral). Detects variations in soil and reek types. Also used to locate abandoned wells with metallic easings. Aerial photographs using special film and filters for sensing reflected ultraviolet radiation. soil moisture patterns. Photographic ultraviolet” Thermal infrared Side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) Low frequency airborne electromagnetic methods (AEM) Aeromagnetic Creates a continuous radar image (reflected radio frequency pulses) of the ground surface. 2-3 . Imaging limited to surface features. Can also be used for fixture trace analysis.

Other types of images that record or display colors differently than they are perceived by the eye (called false color) can be created in a similar fashion. which record the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. 1959 Ray. this image is especially useful for observing vegetation patterns. which provide a three-dimensional image of the surface when viewed with a stereoscope. include: w True color records all colors in the visible spectrum as they appear to the naked eye. 1960). Denny et al. However. Black-and-white photographs most frequently are reported as being useful in ground-water contamination studies. 1968. Much information can be obtained from stereopairs of black-and-white (also called panchromatic) air photos. soils.. Using photogrammetric techniques to develop topographic contours from stereoscopic (overlapping) aerial photographs is often the cheapest way to produce reasonably accurate topographic maps (1 or 2 foot contour intervals) for site-specific investigations. Oil and carbonate minerals are fluorescent in UV bands when photostimulated by sunlight. � Photographic ultraviolet uses special film and filters to record UV energy. � Color infrared film records yellows and reds as green and the near infrared (not visible to the eye) as red. Various standard texts are available for guidance in air photo interpretation methods (Avery. usually at greater expense. Other types of images that can be obtained. Patterns of vegetation. Lueder. Black-and-white air photos are available from various federal agencies for almost any location in the United States and are the cheapest type of air photo to obtain. Since vegetation reflects near-infrared radiation. All air photo interpretations should be field checked and revised where “ground truthing” indicates features that were missed or incorrectly delineated. A disadvantage of UV photography is that UV wavelengths are 2-4 .2. and hydrogeology.1 Visible and Near-Infrared Aerial Photography Aerial photographs. variations in grey tones in soil and rock drainage patterns. 1968. and linear features allow preliminary interpretations of geology. are by far the most common form of remote sensing and are basic to any geologic or hydrogeologic investigation. such maps may not be sufficiently accurate for locating the elevations of boreholes and monitoring wells for water level measurement and subsurface mapping.

use multiple lenses and filters to record simultaneous exposures of different portions of the visible and nearinfrared spectrum of the same area on the ground. pp. 1985). Fetter (1980. 1985). Ellyett and Pratt (1975) considered this technique to be potentially the most useful 2-5 . if possible. Table 2-2 lists 18 references on use of aerial photography at contaminated sites. 406-411) provides a useful introduction to fracture-trace analysis. 1985). Images can also be recorded electronically using a multispectral scanning system. Air photos often reveal linear features called fracture traces that indicate zones of relatively higher permeability in the subsurface. A bibliography compiled by Rehm et al.2 Other Airborne Remote Sensing and Geophysical Methods Table 2-1 describes four other aerial remote sensing techniques that may have applications in hydrogeologic studies. by surface analysis of bedrock fracture orientations. Parizek (1976) provides a thorough review of the North American literature on fracture-trace and lineament analysis.scattered in the atmosphere and result in a low contrast image. Fracture-trace analysis using air photos can provide preliminary information on possible preferential movement of contaminants. and infrared photography to locate fracture traces as an aid to the interpretation of the occurrence and movement of ground water in limestone terraine. Sonderegger (1970) describes use of panchromatic. or oil pollution and natural gas leaks (Svoma and Pyšek. fertilizers. DiNitto (1983) recommends that air photo fracture-trace analysis be supplemented. such as in cases involving a failed septic tank absorption system (Farrell. color. Thermal infrared scanning can detect ground-water discharge into surface waters by sensing temperature differences in the ground water and surface water. especially when dust or haze is present. 2. (1985) lists 30 references on thermal and color infrared remote sensing. Color infrared photography is particularly useful where contamination results in vegetation changes. Aerial photography can also be a vaIuable tool in documenting pre-existing physical conditions and monitoring the progress of cleanup operations at hazardous waste sites (Finkbeiner and O’Toole. Multiband (also called multispectral) images.

1989). Hoekstra et al. 1990). Airborne geophysical methods such as side-looking airborne radar (SLAR). 2-6 . 1980. airborne electromagnetic (AEM) methods. 1980. Surface. Jackson et al. 1975). Palacky and West (1991) provide a general review of airborne EM methods. since the spatial resolution of airborne EM methods (on the order of several tens of meters) is usually too coarse for contamination investigations. 1982 Price. Geological Survey 1982) is reasonably well established. This technique requires unvegetated surfaces.. and aeromagnetics have not been used widely in ground-water contamination studies. (1975) and Arcone (1979) compared airborne and ground resistivity using very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic methods (see Section 4. Ottle et al. A special feature of SLAR is its ability to distinguish grain size in alluvium. 1989 U. Table 2-2 lists approximately 30 references on hydrogeologic and contaminated site applications of thermal IR.remote sensing tool in the study of direct hydrogeological indicators. although the potential exists for their use in regional water quality studies.S. Aeromagnetic surveys have been used as a complement to other methods to locate abandoned wells (Frischknecht. EPA has been supporting research on the use of airborne electromagnetic to locate areas of near-surface brine contamination in the Brookhaven oil field in Mississippi (Smith et al. U. rather than airborne. Huntley (1978) evaluated thermal infrared imagery as a means of detecting shallow aquifers and concluded that it is not practical to estimate ground-water depth directly. a condition that is most likely to occur in arid areas (Ellyett and Pratt. Meierhoff and Weil (1991) reported use of thermal infrared as one of several methods to locate underground storage tanks at a 50-acre site. Geological Survey 1982) and evaporation (Price. The use of thermal infrared imagery to estimate soil moisture (Jackson and Schmugge 1986.. The thermal IR imagery successfully located the only confirmed leaking UST at the site and also identified several areas of buried pipe and metallic debris.4) and found that airborne measurements lost much of the detail of ground measurements. electromagnetic methods are generally better adapted to site-specific ground-water contamination studies.S.

Lattman and Ray (1965). Wilson et al. 1992). Landers and Johnson (1978). Miller and Miller (1961). Sauer (1981). Trainer (1967). Svoma and Pysek (1985). Rehm et al. (1985). Watson and Regan (1983). (1985) Aller (1984-abandoned wells). Evans and Mata (1984). Holz (1973). Sabins (1978). (1986) Estes et al. Wruble et al. Vizy (1974-oil slicks). Setzer (1966). Farrell (1985). Lillesand and Kiefer (1979). (1990). U. Ciciarelli (1991). (1968). Williams and Ory (1967). Lattman and Parizek (1964). Scherz (1971). Lueder (1959). (1991) Phillipson and Sangrey (1977). Rees (1990). Parizck (1976). Wruble et al. Lattman and Matzke (1961). (1979). Regan (1980). Ray (1960). Ulaby et al. Phillipson and Sangrey (1977). Reeves (1968). (1966). Phillipson and Sangrey (1977). Finkbeiner and O’Toole (1985). Johnson and Gnaedigner (1964-bibliography). Kondratyev (1969). Trainer and Ellison (1967). (1981). Goodison (1985). (1978). Estes et al. Strandberg (1967). SCS (1973). Verstappen (1977). Jansen and Taylor (1988). Wiltala and Newport (1963). EPA (1987). Redwine et al. Sitton and Baer (1984). Wolfe (1974. Wise and McCrory. Deutsch et al.Table 2-2 Index for References on Airborne Remote Sensing and Geophysical Methods Topic Remote Sensing Texts References Colwell (1983). Sonderegger (1970). Shelton (1984).photogrammetry) DiNitto (1983). Zeil et al. (1973) Aerial Photography Photo-Interpretation Avery (1968). Davis and Fosbury (1973). Hvdrologic/Contamination Applications: Burgy and Algaz (1974).S. Reeves (1968. 1975). Erb et al. Fisher et al. Lattman (1958). Merin (1990). Papers: Baer and Stokely (1984). Davis and Fosbury (1973-surface water). Wobber (1967). Pease and James (1981). Scherz (1971). Lee (1992-wetlands). Henry (1992). Lattman and Nicholsen (1958). Lee (1991–wetlands. Fetter (1980). Sangrey and Phillipson (1979). (1986) Fracture-Trace Analysis Ultraviolet Color Infrared Multispectral Hydrogeology Contaminated Sites . Howard (1984). Mabee et al. Farrell (1985). Hill and Dantin (1984). Ellyett and Pratt (1975). Wood (1972) Texts: Aller (1984-abandoned wells). Thomson et al. Howe (1958). Dury (1990). (1982-microwave). Scherz and Stevens (1970). Svoma and Pysek (1985). (1990-septic systems). (1990). Wolfe (1971) Cornillon (1987). Sers (1971). (1978). Lund (1978). Wilson et al. Warren and Wielchowsky (1973). (1982). Denny et al. Dury (1957).

Jackson and Schmugge (1986). Frischknecht and Raab (1984). Schmugge and Gurney (1986). (1986). 1985). (1985). (1971). Sabins (1973). Frischknecht et al. Souto-Maior (1973). Hanna (1990). Zeil et al. (1988) Electromagnetic (AEM) Radar (SLAR) Other Active Microwave Thermal Infrared Other Airborne Applications Abandoned Wells Contaminated Sites Aller (1984). (1991) Arcone (1979). Estes (1978) Ground Water 2-8 .) Topic Other Airborne Methods Aeromagnetic References Adams et al. (1971). Jackson et al.S. Ottle et al. (1975). Frischknecht (1990). Idso et al. (1990). Mabee et al. Schmugge et al. Sucksdorff and Ottle (1990). Becker (1990). Kennedy and Wogec (1991). Mattick et al. Yates et al. (1989). (1971). (1980­ soil moisture measurement) Texts: Aller (1984-abandoned wells). Hoeckstra et al. EPA (1987). Frischknecht et al. Price (1980). (1989). Fitterman (1990). Frischknecht and Raab (1984). Sharp (1970). U. Meierhoff and Weil (1991). Poe et al. (1989) Lee (1992-wetlands). USGS (1982). (1985). Rehm et al. (1985) Cameron and Goodman (1989). Wruble et al. Plume (1988). Meierhoff and Weil (1990-USTS). Vacquier et al. Lord and Koerner (1987). Smith et al. Smith et al. Ulaby et al. (1986) Adams et al. Smith et al. U. Seer (1980). Wruble et al.Table 2-2 (cont. EPA (1987). Palacky (1986). Huntley (1978). Englund and Johnson (1977). Fisher et al. Estes et al. Frischknecht (1990). (1982. Rossiter (1990-oil slicks on water). Kennedy and Wogec (1991–USTS). (1971). (1975). Papers Adams et al. Warren and Wielchowsky (1973) Cameron and Goodman (1989-airbome GPR). (1966).S. Davis and Fosbury (1973). (1951). Palacky and West (1991). Lord and Koerner (1980). Pemberton (1962). (1980). (1978). (1973). (1989-brine).

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Reading MA. Remote Sensing in Geomorphology. 955-001-00000-1). Pysek. Reston. Fracture Traces in the Shenandoah Valley. Urbana.Svoma. Eng. Warren. 2-16 . Trainer. [Reviews thermal IR remote sensing methods for estimating evapotranspiration] Vacquier. and R. StaenlanA R. 436 pp.C. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Goodison (cd. F. Elsevier. Photogramm. Revised Chapter 11 (Ground-Water Monitoring). V. A Compendium of Superfund Field Operations Methods. Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste. Remote Sensing. Ory. Geological Survey Professional Paper 575-C. Virginia.R. Henderson. pp. Interpretation of Aeromagnetic Maps. No.).E. AWRA.M. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Wielchowsky. USGS Office of Water Data Coordination.B.. 644 pp. In: Hydrological Applications of Remote Sensing and Remote Sensing Data Transmission. ER. SLAR] Watson.. Ground Water 11(6): 14-26.S. 3rd ed. Eng. Vizy.K Moore. Regan (eds. 32(2):190-199. New York.T. Williams. 1987.K Fung. Eng. Aerial Remote Sensing of Carbonate Terranes in Shelby County. Evaporation and Transpiration. Remote Sensing and Water Resources Management. 1977. 561-567. Ellison. [remote sensing.0-14) (NTIS PB88-181557). 145. Photogramm. Int. pp. Csallany (eds. 33(12):1377-1380. N. 1985. First update. Geophysics Reprint Series No. 40(6):697­ 708. F. and R.C.S. K. OK. 1983. 1986. EPA/530/SW-846 .. MAG. II Field Manual Physical/Chemical Methods. R. covering remote sensing and geophysical methods. available as subscription from U. Photographic Detection of Groundwater Pollution.S. Microwave Remote Sensing: 3 Vols. Geological Survey (USGS). R. 1982. Addison-Wesley. American Water Resources Association. C184-C185. [color infrared.C. BH] U.K Lane. Hydrological Sciences Pub. In: National Handbook of Recommended Methods for Water Data Acquisition. Proceedings Series No. F. should be available in 1993] U. and A. and T. Detecting and Monitoring Oil Slicks with Aerial Photos. IL. 1973. Jr.). VA pp 8-1 to 8-57.. 1967. Trainer. and S. Ass. Thomson. GPR. Alabama. 1967. and I. 1974..W. K.P. 3rd ed. 1951. U. 17. H. Photogramm. 1982.G. Government Printing Office (GPO stock no. and A.N. SRL. Infrared Imagery Mosaics for Geological Investigations.. EPA/530/SW-846 (NTIS PB88-239223). 1973. Verstappen. EPA/540/P-87/001 (OSWER Directive 9355. Geological Society of America Memoir 47. Tulsa. Vol. R. Ulaby. EMI. J. 3. [2nd edition published in 1982 (NTIS PB87-120291).S. K.S.L. Measurement of the Abundance of Fracture Traces on Aerial Photographs.). 1967. U.D. SRR. B. Part 2. and C.S. 581 pp. Society of Exploration Geophysicists. Zeitz. W.Th.W.3-l (NTIS PB89-148076).

Geol. Eng. thermal IR. A. and T. Wiltala. PA. Spatial Variability of Remotely-Sensed Surface Temperatures at Field Scale.. Am. pp.E. In: Hazardous and Industrial Solid Waste Testing and Disposal: Sixth Volume. R. Photogramm.R. E. 1990.. Wruble. ASTM STP 933. Wolfe. 37:43-52.W. J. P. Wood C. 1982. Geological Survey Professional Paper 450-E. U. American Society for Testing and Materials. Geoexploration 27:165-177. 562 pp. 1971. Volk. and J. 243-256.A. 1972. P.J. and S. [aeromagnetic. 1963. McGraw Hill. Detection of Failing Septic Tanks in East Tennessee Utilizing Infrared Color Aerial Photographs. Groundwater Flow. R. J. Elements of Photogrammetry. and S.. Thermal IR for Geology.D. VLF] 2-17 . Wise. satellite imagery. E148­ E149. 1974. and L. McCrory. P.). surface geophysics] Yates. and T. 1986.A. Fracture Traces in Illinois. [thermal IR] Zeil. 33(5):499-506. Van Ee. Wobber. Reinhard. Eng. Eng. New York. Conway.T. Matthias.Wilson. 1988. (eds. A. Bull 93:889-897.U. A New Method of Fracture Analysis: Azimuth versus Traverse Distance Plots. T. multispectral. Gordon. S. A. Remote Sensing Methods for Waste Site Subsurface Investigations and Monitoring. et al. D. Wolfe. Photogramm. Saradeth.S. Newport. Warrick.M.W. In: Ground Water Management 3:177-188 (7th NWWA Eastern GW Conference). FJ. Soc.W. 38(4):347-352.D.R. Aerial Observations of Ice Cover to Locate Areas of Groundwater Inflow to Streams. Geophysical Methods for Lineament Studies in Groundwater Exploration: A Case History for SE Botswana..A.G. Soil Sci. S. 1967. pp. J. Musil. Soc. 1991. [Airphotos. Photogramm.G. McMillion. Philadelphia. Ogden. Am. 52:40-45. D.

EM methods such as ground penetrating radar that use the higher frequency portion of the EM spectrum (radar and microwaves) are discussed in the Chapter 6 (Section 6.1). Direct contact of EM instruments with the ground may be required depending on the measurement technique used. are covered in Chapter 4. Terms such as geoelectrical. and resistivity survey may be used in the literature to apply to one or more of a variety of geophysical methods. Only downhole logging methods are more confusing in their classification and terminology to the uninitiated (see Chapter 7). 3.CHAPTER 3 SURFACE GEOPHYSICS: ELECTRICAL METHODS No other surface geophysical methods have been used more widely than electrical and electromagnetic methods in the study of ground water and contaminated sites. but in all cases electric currents are electromagnetically induced in the ground. Electrical methods operate using direct current (DC) or frequencies that are so low (perhaps 10 Hz) that there are no electromagnetically induced currents in the ground. Electromagnetic methods (as the term is commonly used). which involve the use of lower frequency radio waves and audio portions of the EM spectrum (see Figure l-l). The same method may be called by different names. 3-1 . only those generated by the electrodes. geoelectromagnetie.1 Electrical versus Electromagnetic Methods Usually the term electrical applies to methods in which electrical currents are injected into the ground by the use of direct contact electrodes. rather than generated with electrodes. DC electrical resistivity methods cause different current patterns in the ground and may not measure the same subsurface properties as EM methods.

1 ohm-meter = 3-2 .1 Types of Electrical Methods As noted in Chapter 1. These involve three major phenomena and properties associated with rocks and ground water: � Resistivity. � Electrochemical activity. This property is important in the use of induced polarization (Section 3. 3. The principal method used in the study of ground water and contaminated sites until about 10 years ago was DC electrical resistivity.2 Subsurface Properties Measured Electrical and electromagnetic methods also can be classified by the subsurface properties they measure. which is caused by chemical activity in ground water and charged mineral surfaces. The three major types of electrical methods are DC electrical resistivity and induced polarization (including complex resistivity). Since the 1980s.1).1.. and gives information on the capacity of rock material to store an electric charge. � The dielectric constant.3. or the reciprocal conductivity. which governs the amount of current that moves through rock material when a specified potential difference is applied. which involves the measurement of natural electrical currents in the subsurface. the output of both EM and ER methods can be expressed in either of two measurement scales (i. which involve artificial field sources. since conductance and resistance are reciprocals. ER and electromagnetic methods measure the same subsurface properties and can be reported in either of two types of units (see below for conventions).1. This provides the basis for self-potential and induced polarization methods. and selfpotential. electromagnetic induction methods have gained increasing popularity and now are generally the preferred method for ground-water contamination studies. which is a measure of the polarizability of a material in an electric field. As noted above.5) and ground penetrating radar (Section 6. electrical and EM methods can be broadly classified according to whether the field source for which a subsurface response is measured is natural or artificial (see Table 1-3).e.

does not always follow these conventions. called current electrodes. although the Wenner array also is commonly used. and Tables 4-1 and 4-2 for EMI). 1939). with applications in ground-water investigations dating from the late 1930s (Lee. 1) and time domain electromagnetic measurements (Section 4. 1974): 3-3 .1000 milliSiemens/meter). The published literature on ER and EM methods. DC methods date from the early part of this century (Ward. By convention ER and VLF (Section 4. on the surface for injection of current into the ground. the most common electrode arrays used in resistivity investigations were the Wenner. that is measured by a voltmeter (Figure 3-l). called potential electrodes. and the voltage response. Resistivity (measured in ohm-meters) can be calculated from the geometry and spacing of the electrodes. Swartz 1937. however. Advantages of the Schlumberger array over the Wenner array include the following (Zohdy et al. Electromagnetic induction (Section 4.2 Direct Current Electrical Resistivity The direct current (DC). Sayre and Stephenson. 1980). the current injected. DC methods are identified according to the arrangement of the current and potential electrodes. DC methods involve the placement of electrodes. In more recent years the Schlumberger array generally has been the preferred method in ground­ water investigations.2) are typically reported in units of conductivity. The current stimulates a potential response between two other electrodes. Until the 1960s. and Schlumberger arrays (Figure 3-2). The method used to measure subsurface properties (induction for EM. thus EM measurements may be reported in terms of resistivity or ER measurements in terms of conductivity. and current injection by electrodes for ER) will indicate the technique. but not necessarily the units in which the measurements are reported. also called “galvanic”. electric resistivity method measures the resistance to flow of electricity in subsurface material. Lee-Partitioning. 1936. 3.. EM and ER methods are by far the most widely used surface geophysical techniques in ground-water contamination studies (see Tables 3-1 and 3-2 for ER.4) measurements are typically reported in units of resistivity. 1937.

.Figure 3-1 Diagram showing basic concept of resistivity measurement (from Benson et al. . 1984).

1974). 3-5 .. a. and are electrode spacings (from Zohdy et al. A and B are current electrodes. Lee-Partitioning. . M. and Schlumberger electrode arrays. and O are potential electrodes.Wenner Electrode Array Lee-Partitioning Electrode Array Figure 3-2 Wenner. N.

1969). Since landfill leachate contains ions that decrease the resistivity of ground water.� Sounding curves provide slightly greater probing depth and resolving power than Wenner soundings for equal AB electrode spacing. and interpretation of data is less straightforward than for Schlumberger and Wenner array measurements (Zohdy et al. and availability of a large album of theoretical master curves for two-. Also. Less manpower and time is required for making soundings than for a Wenner array. Figure 3-4a shows use of resistivity measurements in delineating a leachate plume from a landfill by isopleths of equal resistance measured in ohm-feet. three-. 1956). The Wenner array is more susceptible to drifting or unstable potential differences created by driving electrodes into the ground. The Schlumberger array is more sensitive in measuring lateral variations in resistivity. if widely spaced. 1974).6 . Dipole-dipole arrays. holds several advantages over the Schlumberger array. however. When wide electrode spacings are used. and four-layer earth models (Mooney and Wetzel. fewer problems are associated with current leakage and inductive coupling than for Schlumberger soundings. including simplicity of the apparent resistivity formula. the lower-value isopleths in Figure 3-4a 3 . stray currents in industrial areas and telluric currents are more likely to affect measurements with the Werner array. The equatorial variant of this type of array (Figure 3-3) has been used in this country for ground-water investigations (Zohdy. originally developed in the Soviet Union in the 1950s. especially for deep soundings. Paired electrodes that are close together are called dipoles. as with the current electrodes in the equatorial array (see Figure 3-3). Schlumberger sounding curves can be more readily smoothed. they are called bipoles. � � � � � The Wenner array.. have certain advantages over the Schlumberger array for deep soundings because relatively short AB and MN lines reduce field measurement times. relatively small current values required to produce measurable potential differences. The main disadvantages of dipole-dipole arrays are that a large generator is required to provide current.

.Radial Parallel Axial or Polar Perpendicular Equatorial Figure 3-3 Dipole-dipole arrays. 1974). 3-7 . The equatorial array is bipole-dipole because AB is large (from Zohdy et al.

1974). . Figure 3-4b Resistivity soundings and profiles: resistivity profile across glacial clays and gravels (from Zohdy et al... 1984).Figure 3-4a Resistivity soundings and profiles: isopleths of resistivity sounding data showing extent of a landfill plume (from Benson et al.

geologic. but the configuration is rotated 10 degrees clockwise and successive resistivities are measured (Figure 3­ 5a). and subsurface cavities. this is not a very commonly used method. dipole- dipole. however. this method has gained some popularity for characterization of fractured rock and contaminated sites (Table 3-3). As the reference list in Table 3-3 indicates. Table 3-1 provides a general index to major texts and review papers on DC resistivity.delineate the most contaminated areas (140 ohm-feet in the upper map and 180 ohm-feet in the lower map).and contaminated site characterization. Although this method was first described by Zohdy (1970a) as the variable azimuth method to differentiate it from the azimuthal method developed by the Russians (a variant of the equatorial array-see Figure 3-3). The fractured area is evidenced by overall higher readings during wet conditions and asymmetrical resistivities during dry conditions. which involves taking readings from three arrays (Wenner.to 45-foot depth interval. Figure 3-4b shows a horizontal resistivity profile that indicates lateral changes from clay and gravel material in the subsurface. its limited use seems to stem more from a lack of familiarity 3-9 . Tri-potential resistivity. and Table 3-2 lists over 250 references on applications for ground­ water. Figure 3-5b shows variations in resistivity readings over fractured (Array A) and unfractured (Array B) areas of landfill cover. the term azimuthal resistivity seems to have taken hold in the recent literature. and bipole-bipole-Figure 3-5c) at each station was first proposed by Carpenter (1955). the deep measurements (O to 45 feet) include an averaging of the resistivity of the shallow measurements and the resistivity of the 15. The additional information obtained from multiple readings at the same site is especially useful for locating fracture zones. The variations in electrical response to changes in the orientation of electrode arrays can be used to identify the location of subsurface fractures and joint orientations. 3. A simple switching circuit built into the resistivity meter permits the rapid switching from one array to the next without physically moving the electrodes. filled sinks.3 Specialized Applications of DC Resistivity Azimuthal resistivity uses conventional Wenner or Schlumberger arrays. In recent years. In the figure.

.� Figure 3-5a Specialized DC resistivity electrode configurations: layout of azimuthal resistivity array (Carpenter et al. Figure 3-5b Specialized DC resistivity electrode configurations: azimuthal resistivity variations of fractured and unfractured landfill cover (Carpenter et al.. 1991). 3-10 . l99l).

3-11 . 1977b).Figure 3-5c Specialized DC resistivity electrode configurations: tri-potential electrode array (Kirk and Rauch.

requiring only the measurements of the potential between two electrodes along transects in the area of interest (Figure 3-6a).. and more widespread use for the applications mentioned above is probably merited.3).with the method than from any inherent problems. but grid edge effects have created difficulties in field applications (Tamburi et al. This method can be used to (1) locate areas of ground-water flow in fractured rock and sinkholes.S. Spontaneous polarization is a natural voltage difference that occurs as a result of electrical currents induced by chemical disequilibria within the earth. Tomographic imaging is a relatively new DC resistivity method in which a grid of electrodes is established on the ground surface. High vertical and horizontal resolution of contaminant plumes have been obtained in the laboratory. (2) locate leaks in reservoirs and canals. Controlled currents are introduced into a subset of electrodes in a prescribed sequence and the electrical response of the other electrodes is measured.2. 3-12 . These signals are processed using tomographic theory to create a three-dimensional image of the subsurface (see Section 7. Section 1. and (3) detect and monitor movement of contaminant plumes (Table 3-3). Gilkeson and Cartwright (1982) note that ER and EM methods can be expected to provide superior results in the detection of contaminant plumes. EPA (1993) summarizes advantages and disadvantages of self-potential measurements. 3. Care is required to make sure that there is good ground-electrode contact for each measurement. The method is very simple.2 in U.4 Self-Potential Self-potential involves the measurement of natural electrical potentials developed locally in the subsurface by electrochemical or electrofiltration processes. Streaming potential is an electrokinetic effect related to the movement of fluid containing ions through the subsurface.2. Several types of natural potentials may be measured by this method. Perhaps the most common use of this method has been in mineral exploration where ore bodies are in contact with solutions of different compositions. 1988).

The method potentially allows greater differentiation of subsurface materials than 3-13 . 1986. particularly where clayey and nonclayey unconsolidated materials must be differentiated IP surveys can provide more useful information than DC surveys alone. Complex resistivity. such as the requirement for good electrode contact with the ground. IP surveys are more expensive than DC surveys and have some of the same disadvantages relative to EM methods. Frequency domain measurements are more precise when induced polarization effects increase with depth. Krumenacher and Taylor. If the liner is punctured. while infrequency domain IP surveys. and should be considered experimental. the rate at which voltage decays after current injection stops is measured. Lord and Koerner (1980. however. time domain are better when induced polarization effects decrease with depth (Patella and Schiavone.5 Induced Polarization and Complex Resistivity Induced polarization (IP) is an electrical method that measures electrochemical responses of subsurface material (primarily clays) to an injected current. A few investigators have reported use of IP surveys in ground-water exploration (Table 3-4). 1987) gave this method a low rating compared to alternative methods for detection of buried containers.. measures the frequency characteristics of different materials over a larger frequency spectrum than frequency domain IP. fluid flow through the leak creates a conductive path for the flow of injected current and produces anomalous potential readings in the vicinity of the leak. 3. the effect of frequency on electrical resistivity is measured. In some situations. 1977) $ IP surveys are conducted in a similar manner to DC surveys. a more refined version of induced polarization. In time domain IP surveys. Geomembrane liners have high resistivity and will provide relatively uniform potential readings between two electrodes.A variant of self-potential in which current is injected into the ground to enhance the streaming potential effect has been developed to detect leaks in lined ponds (Figure 3-6b). 1988). Use at contaminated sites has been rare (Hughes et al. and all IP instrumentation can be used for conventional DC surveys.

1988 b). Remote Current Return Electrode Current Source Electrode Measurement Current Flow Lines Membrane Liner Figure 3-6b Self-potential measurements: electrical leak detection using modified self-potential method (Darilek and Parra. 3-14 . 1979).Figure 3-6a Self-potential measurements: apparatus and graph of measurement over a fissured zone of limestone illustrating negative streaming potential caused by ground-water seepage (Ogilvy and Bogoslovsky.

Olhoeft. Complex resistivity has the potential advantage of being able to detect organic contaminant plumes where DC methods are relatively unsuccessful in this application (Pitchford et al. buried metallic containers. 3-15 .. but the instrumentation for signal detection and analysis is more complex and consequently costs are even higher.g. Because of the larger frequency spectrum..conventional IP. pipelines) of the electrical methods. complex resistivity is the method most susceptible to interference from cultural materials (e. 1988. Nonetheless complex resistivity methods are still more or less at the research stage of development and instrumentation is not widely available. cables. 1990. 1992).

Verma (1980). (1984) Benson et al. (1974) Interpretation Geoelectric Properties Other Texts General Papers Review Papers EM/ER Comparisons Data Analysis Subsurface Electrical Properties Maillet (1947). (1991). Kofoed (1979). (1985).Table 3-1 Index to General References on DC Electrical Resistivity Methods Topic Textbooks/Reports Electrical Resistivity References Bhattacharya and Patra (1968). (1985). Jackson et al.b). Wait (1982). 1972). (1968). Pitchford et al.c). (1984). Roman (1952). Computer Programs: Basokur (1900). Collett and Katsube (1973). (1978). Orellana and Mooney (1966. Zohdy (1970a. Kelly and Frohlich (1985). see also Table 1-4 for identification of general geophysics texts covering electrical methods Texts: Kalenov (1957). Goldman (1990-nonconventional methods). Taylor (1985) Instrumentation 3-16 . LaBrecque et al. Frangos (1990). Wheatcraft et al. Zohdy and Bisdorf (1975). Zohdy (1964. Lord and Koerner (1987). LeBrecque and Weber (1984) Barton (1984). Worthington (1977a) Electrode Arrays: Carrington and Watson (1981). (1984). 1988) See references indexed in Table 4-1 Jones (1937). EPA (1987). Rehm et al. Ward and Fraser (1967). Davis (1979). Automated Data Acquisition: Jackson et al. 1989) Parkhomenko (1967). Redwine et al. Zohdy (1974a. Patra and Mallick (1980).S. Hackett (1956). 1974c. Soiltest. (1988). Mooney and Wetzel (1956). Mooney (1980). Kean et al. (1984). Kunetz (1966). Van Nostrand and Cook (1966). Ward (1980. Sheriff (1992). Inc. (1990). Keck et al. Kirk and Warner (1981.b. Roy and Apparao (1971). Papers: Cook and Van Nostrand (1954). U. 1975. Radstake et al. Jagammadha and Rao (1962). (1981).cavity detection). USGS (1980). Wong et al. (1984). Zohdy et al. Keller and Frishcknecht (1970).

Germany: Flathe (1955. (1990). (1983). (1983). 1988). Ringstad and Bugenig (1984). Zohdy (1965. Case Studies Aquifer Properties 3-17 . White (1988-chloride tracer). (1952). Merkel and Kaminski (1972). Woessner et al. Buhle and Brueckmann (1964). Gabanksi et al. Joiner and Scarborough (1969). 1977). Tucci (1984).S. Urish (1981). Kwader (1985). Kosinski and Kelly (1981). Ritzi and and Andolesk (1992). (1984). (1991—Nigeria). Topper and Legg (1974-Zambia). Van Overmeeren (1981-Sudan. Stewart et al. Frohlich and Kelly (1983. Frohlich and Smith (1974). Park and Dickey (1989). Lennox and Carlson (1970). Kelly and Frohlich (1985). Priddy (1955). (1986). 1968). Kelly (1961). Huntley and Mishler (1984). Bays and Folks (1944). Verma et al.S. (1992-recharge). Other: Fournier (1989—France). 1988). (1980-India). Jagammadha and Rao (1962). Buhle (1953). Harmon and Hajicek (1992-stream­ aquifer connections). Worthington (1977a–Kalahari) Ahmed et al. 1977b) U. Foster and Buhle (1951). (1985). (1986). Rijo et al. Stewart et al. Breusse (1963). 1974). (1989). Hoekstra et al. (1975—permafrost). Bisdorf and Zohdy (1979). Mazac et al. Coetsee et al. Stickel et al. Zohdy and Jackson (1969) Canada: Hobson et al. Benson (1991). Bernard and Valla (1991). Taylor and Cherkauer (1984). Underwood et al. Gilmer et al. Sehimsal (1981). Stierman et al. Kean et al. Page (1968). Lee (1937). (1962). Pool and Heigold (1981). Urish and Frohlich (1990). Henriet (1976). (1971). Mattick et al. Sauk and Zabik (1992). Dudley and McGinnis (1962). Kelly and Reiter (1984). Cherkauer and Taylor (1988). Frohlich (1972).Table 3-2 Index to References on Applications of DC Resistivity Methods Topic Ground-Water Applications General References Bays (1946. Sjostrom and Sill (1991). Bardossy et al. Biella et al. 1969. 1989—Yemen). Worthington (1975a). (1979). (1967. Watson et al. Jackson et al. (1978). Van Dam and Meulenkamp (1967). Wachs et al. 1950). Wantland (1953). Wilson et al. (1979—Israel). Stewart and Wood (1986). Niwas and Singhal (1985). (1989). (1970). Carpenter and Bassarab (1964). 1970. Maderios and de Lima (1992-Brazil). Shields and Sopper (1969—watershed hydrology). Van Dam (1976). Barker and Worthington (1973). (1992). Hallenbeck (1953). Heigold et al. Frohlich (1973. Adams et al. 1976). Cook et al. Butler and Llopis (1985). (1977). Paver (1945). Huntley (1986). Bisdorf (1990). 1964. (1973). Martinelli (1978-South Africa). Kent and Sendlein (1972). Joiner et al. Worthington (1975b. Case Studies Non-U. Mbonu et al. Workman and Leighton (1937). Meidav (1964)). Samuelson (1987). (1986). (1986-alluvial aquifer). (1988). Mark et al. Sayed (1984-Egypt). Windschauer (1986). Taylor (1992). (1985). Kelly et al. Kelly (1976a.(1984). Worthington and Griffiths (1975) Ackermann (1976-permafrost areas). (1984). 1976.

Ritzi and Andolesk (1992). (1986). Fowler and Ayubcha (1986). Reed (1985). Yazicigil and Sendlein (1982) Frohlich and Parke (1989). (1986). (1990). Smith and Randazzo (1986.b). (1983). Pitchford et al. Kean and Rogers (1981). Borns and Pickering (1990). McGinnis and Kempton (1961). (1985. Wantland (1952—depth weathered rock). Emilsson and Morin (1989—buried channel). (1987. 1989). Pennington (1985). Urish (1981) Filler and Kuo (1989). Lange et al. (1990) Adams et al. Kirk and Werner (1981). 1989. (1987). White and Brandwein (1982).Table 3-2 (cont. Johnson and Saylor (1987). Riitzi and Andolesk (1992). Fretwell and Stewart (1981). Cook and Nostrand (1954-filled sinks). (1988). Samuelson (1987). Bernard and Valla (1991). Rumbaugh et al. Hawley (1943—fault location). (1984). (1987) Ground-Water Monitoring Vadose Zone Monitoring 3-18 . Shoepke and Thomsen (1991). Hubbert (1944-faults). Spicer (1952). Hackett (1956). 1984a. Mazac et al. Rodriguez (1984).) Topic References Geologic Characterization Applications General Benson (1991). 1988). Tucci (1986). Kean et al. (1984). Benson et al. Stewart and Wood (1986). Williams et al. Smith and Randazzo (1989). Urish (1983). Gilkeson et al. Noel et al. Stierman et al. Ghatge and Pasicznyk (1986-bedrock topography). Corwin (1986). Bruehl (1983. Pfeiffer et al. 1992). (1982). Gilkeson and Cartwright (1982). Williams et al. Watson et al. Joiner and Scarborough (1969). (1990) Hoeckstra et al. Page (1968). Bogoslovsky and Olgilvy 1970a--dam seepage). White et al. (1988). Stearns and Dialmann (1986). (1975) Glacial Deposits Karst Fractured Rock Permafrost Contaminated Site Abdications General/Unspecified Benson (1991). Burdick (1982). Frohlich and Smith (1974). Evans and Scwheitzer (1984). Wilcox (1944--sand and gravel) Denne et al. (1984) Beeson and Jones (1988). Ehrlich and Rosen (1987). Rodriguez and Wellner (1988). Smith (1974-buried valley). Fox and Gould (1984). Reed et al. (1984-glacial buried valleys).

(1975). Hackbarth (1971—sulfite liquor). Gondwe (1991). (1981). (1981). Williams et al. Urish (1984-radioactive plume) Allen and Rogers (1989). Keck et al. Rudy and Caolie (1984). (1988-UST). Roux (1978). Greenhouse et al. Kelly (1976a). Klefstad et al. Greenhouse and Harris (1983). Reed et al.Table 3-2 (cont. Ginsberg and Lavanon (1976). Merkel (1972—acid mine drainage).b). (1981). Roberts et al. Rogers and Kean (1980-flyash leachate). Plivas and Wong (1975). Horton et al. Shoepke and Thomsen (1991). Walther et al. Cartwright and McComas (1968). (1985). Peterson et al. Walsh (1988) Berk and Yare (1977—sodium salts). Rumbaugh et al. Kean and Rogers (1981). Gorban (1976). Stellar and Roux (1975). Cichowicz et al. Stewart (1982). Burdick (1982-abandoned mines and mine leachate). Laine et al. (1987).) References Topic Contaminated Site Applications (cont. Carpenter (1990). (1984a. Russell (1990). (1984) Allen (1984-paper mill). Roy and Elliot (1980). Evans and Schweitzer (1984). Seitz et al. Warner (1969—brine ponds) Table 9-3 in Boulding (1992) contains an index of over 70 references related to use of four-electrode resistivity. 1988-tomographic imaging). Kelly et al. (1985. Hitchcock and Harman (1983). Sweeney (1984). Allen et al. Stierman and Ruedisili (1988). Knuth (1988). Sayre and Stephenson (1937).) Contaminant Plumes Brickell (1984). (1988). Stierman (1981). Rudy and Caolie (1984). Carpenter et al. Swartz (1937. Fountain (1976-cavity detection). Harman (1986). (1985). (1991—pond leaks). Tamburi et al. Schneider and Greenhouse (1992-perchloroethylene). White and Brandwein (1982). Slaine and Greenhouse (1982). Stearns and Dialmann (1986). LeBrecque et al. (1985—spray irrigation leachate). (1986). Bradley (1986). (1989). (1972). Warner (1969—sewage effluent) Industrial/Hazardous Waste Sites Landfill Leachate Salt Water Interface/ Brine Contamination Soil Salinity Miscellaneous 3-19 . Aller (1984-abandoned wells). Andres and Canace (1984-hydrocarbons). 1939). (1983). Russell and Higer (1988). Fink and Aulenbach (1974-sewage effluent). Van et al. (1981). Saunders and Stanford (1984). Gilmer and Helbling (1984). Schroeder (1970). (1990a-landfill structure). (1981). Evans and Schweitzer (1984). Stellar and Roux (1975). Pease et al. Kolmer (1981). Chapman and Bair (1992). electrical conductivity probes and electrical resistance salinity sensors for measurement and monitoring of soil salinity Adams et al.

1987). 1977—landslides). (1986). Ogilvy et al. (1985) Corwin (1986). 1977b-karst hydrogeology). Schultz and Duff (1985). Yule et al. Taylor and Fleming (1988). 1991—fractured landfill cover). Laine and Miklas (1989). Carpenter et al. (1992). (1969). Ogilvy and Bogoslovsky (1979). (1984a. Smith (1991). Taylor and Jansen (1988). Ogilvy and Kuzima (1972) Gilkeson and Cartwright (1983). 1988) Tri-potential Tomographic Imaging Self-Potential General Ahmed (1963). Rehm et al. Fountain (1986). Kirk and Rauch (1977a—fracture detection. Bogoslovky and Ogilvy (1972-fissured media. (1990b. Ogden and Eddy (1984-fractures/caves). (1982a. Habberjam (1969-cavity detection). Van et al. Zohdy (1970a).b). Lange et al. 1970b. Peters et al. Wailer and Davis (1984) Fournier (1989—volcanic area) Erchul and Butler (1986). (1986).Table 3-3 Index to References on Specialized DC Electrical Resistivity and Self-Potential Methods Topic References Specialized DC Resistivity Methods Azimuthal Resistivity Contaminated Sites: Jansen and Taylor (1989).b). Leonard-Mayer (1984a.b). Redwine et al. Taylor (1984). Lord and Koerner (1980. Lange and Quinlin (1988) Ground-Water Monitoring Contaminant Plumes Reservoir/Canal Leaks Liner/Pond Leak Detection Ground Water Karst 3-20 . 1973. Smith (1991) Bogoslovsky and Ogilvy (1970a. (1985) Darilek and Parra (1988a. Ritzi and Andolesk (1992). Hughes et al. HRB Singer (1971—abandoned mines). (1985. Other: Sauck and Zabik (1992) Carpenter (1955).b). Darilek and Laine (1989). Fractured Rock Jansen (1990). Corwin (1990). Ogden et al. 1977). Parra (1988a.b). Jansen and Taylor (1989). (1985). Schultz et al. (1991 -USTs) ‘ ’” Tamburi et al.

Table 3-4 Index to References on Induced Polarization Electrical Methods

Topic Texts Papers

References Baizer and Lund (1983), Bertin and Loeb (1976), Bottcher (1952), Fink et al. (1990), Sumner (1976), Wait (1959, 1982) Bleil (1953), Frische and von Buttlar (1957), Keevil and Ward (1962), Madden and Cantwell (1967), Marshall and Madden (1959), Seigel (1959), Sumner (1979), Taylor (1985), Vogelsang (1974), Ward (1980, 1988) Barker (1974), Hallof (1964), Patella and Schiavone (1977), Zonge et al. (1972) Bertin (1968), Patella and Schiavone (1977), Roy and Shikhar (1973), Zonge et al. (1972) Cleff (1991), Olhoeft (1984, 1990, 1992), Olhoeft and King (1991), Wheatcraft et al. (1984) Barker (1975), Olhoeft (1985) Adams et al. (1975), Bodmer et al. (1968), Mohamed (1970), Ogilvy and Kuzima (1972), Roy and Eliot (1980), Vacquier et al. (1957), Worthington (1975b); Texts with Brief Discussions: Rehm et al. (1985), U.S. Geological Survey (1977) Ahgoran et al. (1947- cultural metallic refuse), Baker (1975), Bogoslovsky and Olgilvy (1970a), Hughes et al. (1986-brine toxic waste plume), HRB Singer (1971), Krumenacher and Taylor (1988-organic contaminants) Complex Resistivity: Olhoeft et al. (1986-hydrocarbons, 1992), Pitchford et al. (1988), Walther et al. (1983, 1986), Yong and Hoppe (1989); IP: Lord and Koerner (1980, 1987-1ow rating for detection of buried containers)

Frequency Domain Time Domain Complex Resistivity Subsurface Response Ground Water

Field Applications

Contaminated Sites

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3.6 References

See Glossary for meaning of method abbreviations. Ackermann, H.D. 1976. Geophysical Prospecting for Ground Water in Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Information Bull. 8(2) :18-20. [ER, SRR in permafrost areas] Adams, J. M., W.J. Hinze, and L.A. Brown. 1975. Improved Application of Geophysics to Groundwater Resource Inventories in Glaciated Terrains. Water Resources Research Center Tech. Report No. 59 (NTIS PB244-879). Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN. [GR, IP] Adams, M.L., M.S. Turner, and M.T. Morrow. 1988. The Use of Surface and Downhole Geophysical Techniques to Characterize Flow in a Fracture Bedrock Aquifer System. In: Proc. 2nd Nat. Outdoor Action Conf. on Aquifer Restoration, Ground Water Monitoring and Geophysical Methods, National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH, pp. 825-847. [EMI, ER, SRR, BH] Adams, W. M., F.L. Peterson, S.P. Mathur, L.K Lepley, C. Warren, and R.D. Huber. 1971. A Hydrogeophysical Survey Using Remote-Sensing Methods from Kawaihae to Kailua-Kona, Hawaii. Ground Water 9(1):42-50. [ER, AMT, aerial thermal infrared, aeromagnetic] Ahmed, M.U. 1964. A Laboratory Study of Streaming Potentials. Geophysical Prospecting 12(1):49-64. Ahmed S., G. de Marsily, and A. Talbot. 1988. Combined Use of Hydraulic and Electrical Properties of an Aquifer in a Geostatistical Estimation of Transmissivity. Ground Water 26(1):78-86. Allen, R.P. 1984. Electrical Resistivity Surveys Used to Trace Leachate in Ground Water from Paper Mill Landfill. In: Proc. of the NWWA Tech. Division Eastern Regional Ground Water Conference (Newton, MA), National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH, pp. 167-174. [EMI, ER] Allen, R.P. and B.A. Rogers. 1989. Geophysical Surveys in Support of a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study at the Municipal Landfill in Metamora, Michigan. In: Proc. 3rd Nat. Outdoor Action Conf. on Aquifer Restoration, Ground Water Monitoring and Geophysical Methods, National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH, pp. 1007-1020. [ER, MAG, SRR] Allen, J.P., R. Popma, and P. Doolen. 1985. Electrical Resistivity/Terrain Conductivity Surveys to Trace Process Wastewater Leachate in Ground Water from a Spray Irrigation System. In: Proc. of the AGWSE Eastern Regional Ground Water Conference (Portland, ME), National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH, pp. 243-251. [EMI, ER] Aller, L. 1984. Methods for Determining the Location of Abandoned Wells. EPA/600/2-83/123 (NTIS PB84-141530), 130 pp. Also published in NWWA/EPA series by National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH. [air photos, color/thermal IR, ER, EM I, GPR, MD, MAG, combustible gas detectors] Andres, K.G. and R. Canace. 1984. Use of the Electrical Resistivity Technique to Delineate a Hydrocarbon Spill in the Coastal Plains Deposits of New Jersey (of the New Jersey Coastal Plain): A Case Study. In: Proc. (lst) NWWA/API Conf. on Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Organic Chemicals in Ground Water—Prevention, Detection and Restoration, National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH, pp. 188-195.

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Angoran, Y.E., D.V. Fitterman, and D.J. Marshall. 1974. Induced Polarization: A Geophysical Method for Locating Cultural Metallic Refuse. Science 1841287-1288. Baizer, M.M. and H. Lund (eds.). 1983. Organic Electrochemistry, 2nd ed. Marcel Dekker, New York, 1166 pp. [IP] Bardossy, A., L Borgardi, and W.E. Kelly. 1986. Geostatistical Analysis of Geoelectric Estimates for Specific Capacity. J. Hydrology 84:81-95. Barker, R.D. 1974. The Interpretation of Induced Polarization Sounding Curves in the Frequency Domain. Geophysical Prospecting 22(4):610-626. Barker, R.D. 1975. A Note on the Induced Polarization of the Bunter Sandstone. Geoexploration 13:227-234. Barker, R.D. and P.F. Worthington. 1973. Some Hydrogeophysical Properties of the Bunter Sandstone of Northwest England. Geoexploration 11:151-170. [SRR, ER] Barton, GJ. 1984. Land Use and Temporal Effects on Shallow Earth Resistivity. In: NWWA/EPA Conf. on Surface and Borehole Geophysical Methods in Ground Water Investigations (lst, San Antonio TX), National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH, pp. 483-508. [ER] Basokur, A.T. 1990. Microcomputer Program for the Direct Interpretation of Resistivity Sounding Data. Comp. and Geosci. 16(4):587-601. Bays, C.A. 1946. Use of Electrical Geophysical Methods in Groundwater Supply. Illinois State Geological Survey Circular 122. [ER, BH] Bays, C.A. 1950. Prospecting for Ground Water-Geophysical Methods. J. Am. Water Works Ass. 42:947-956. [ER] Bays, C.A. and S.H. Folks. 1944. Developments in the Application of Geophysics to Ground Water Problems. Illinois State Geological Survey Circular 108. [ER, BH] Beeson, S. and C.R.C. Jones. 1988. The Combined EMT/VES Geophysical Method for Siting Boreholes. Ground Water 26:54-63. Benson, R.C. 1991. Remote Sensing and Geophysical Methods for Evaluation of Subsurface Conditions. In: Practical Handbook of Ground-Water Monitoring, D.M. Nielsen (cd), Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI, pp. 143-194. [GPR, EMI, TDEM, ER, SRR, SRL, GR, MAG, MD, BH] Benson, R. C., R.A. Glaccum, and M.R. Noel. 1984. Geophysical Techniques for Sensing Buried Wastes and Waste Migration. EPA/600/7-84/064 (NTIS PB84-198449), 236 pp. Also published in 1982 in NWWA/EPA series by National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH. [EMI, ER, GPR, MAG, MD, SRR] Benson, R. C., M.S. Turner, W.D. Volgelsong, and P.P. Turner. 1985. Correlation Between Field Geophysical Measurements and Laboratory Water Sample Analysis. In: Conference on Surface and Borehole Geophysical Methods and Ground Water Investigations (2nd, Fort Worth, TX), National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH, pp. 178-197. [EMI, ER]

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Benson, R. C., M. Turner, P. Turner, and W. Vogelsang. 1988. In Situ, Time Series Measurements for
Long-Term Ground-Water Monitoring. In: Ground-Water Contamination: Field Methods, A.G.
Collins and A.I. Johnson (eds.), ASTM STP 963, American Society for Testing and Materials,
Philadelphia, PA, pp. 58-72. [EMI, ER]
Berk, W.J. and B.S. Yare. 1977. An Integrated Approach to Delineating Contaminated Ground Water. Ground Water 15(2):138-145. [ER] Bernard, J. and P. Valla. 1991. Groundwater Exploration in Fissured Media with Electrical and VLF Methods. Geoexploration 27:81-91. Bertin, J. 1968. Some Aspects of Induced Polarization (Time Domain). Geophysical Prospecting 16:401­ 426. Bertin, J. and J. Loeb. 1976. Experimental and Theoretical Aspects of Induced Polarization, 2 Volumes. Gebruder Borntraeger, Berlin. Bhattacharya, P.K. and H.P. Patra. 1968. Direct Current Geoelectric Sounding—Principles and Interpretation. Elsevier, New York, 135 pp. Biella, G., A. Lozei, and I. Tabacco. 1983. Experimental Study of Some Hydrogeophysical Properties of Unconsolidated Porous Media. Ground Water 21(6):741-751. [ER] Bisdorf, R.J. 1990. Geoelectrical Studies on the Panoche Fan Area of the San Joaquin Valley, California. In: Proc. of a U.S. Geological Survey Workshop on Environmental Geochemistry, B.R. Doe (ed.), U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1033, pp. 133-137. [ER] Bisdorf, R.J. and A.A.R. Zohdy. 1979. Geoelectrical Investigations with Schlumberger Soundings near Venice, Parrish and Homosassa, Florida. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 79-841, 114 pp. Bleil, D.F. 1953. Induced Polarization: A Method of Geophysical Prospecting. Geophysics 18(3):636-661. Bodmer, R., S.H. Ward, and H.F. Morrison. 1968. On Induced Polarization and Groundwater. Geophysics 33(5):805-821. Bogoslovsky, V.V. and A.A. Ogilvy. 1970a. Applications of Geophysical Methods for Studying the Technical Status of Earth Dams. Geophysical Prospecting 18:758-773. [ER, SP, 1P, SRR] Bogoslovsky, V.A. and A.A. Ogilvy. 1970b. Natural Potential Anomalies as a Qualitative Index of the Rate of Seepage from Water Reservoirs. Geophysics 18(2):261-268. [SP] Bogoslovsky, V.V. and A.A. Ogilvy. 1972. The Study of Streaming Potentials on Fissured Media Models. Geophysical Prospecting 20(4):109-117. Bogoslovsky, V.V. and A.A. Ogilvy. 1973. Deformation of Natural Electric Fields near Drainage Structures. Geophysical Prospecting 21(4):716-723. [SP] Bogoslovsky, V.V. and A.A. Ogilvy. 1977. Magnetometric and Electrometric Methods for the Investigation of the Dynamics of Landslide Processes. Geophysical Prospecting 25(3):280-291. [SP, MAG]

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Borns, D.J. and S. Pickering. 1990. Enduser Quality Assurance Requirements for Geophysical Surveys: A Case Study Provided by a DC Grid at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. In: Proc. (3rd) Symp. on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems, Sot. Eng. and Mineral Exploration Geophysicists, Golden, CO, pp. 231-241. Bottcher, C.F. 1952. Electric Polarization. Elsevier, NY. Bradley, M.W. 1986. Surface Geophysical Investigations at the North Hollywood Dump, Memphis, Tennessee. In: Proc. Focus Conf. on Southeastern Ground Water Issues (Tampa, FL), National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH, pp. 324-343. [EMI, ER] Breusse, J.J. 1963. Modern Geophysical Methods for Subsurface Water Exploration. Geophysics 28(4):633-657. [ER] Brickell, M.E. 1984. Geophysical Techniques to Delineate a Contaminant Plume. In: Proc. of the NWWA Tech. Division Eastern Regional Ground Water Conference (Newton, MA), National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH, pp. 175-207. [EMI, ER, BH] Bruehl, D.H. 1983. Use of Geophysical Techniques to Delineate Ground-Water Contamination. In: Proc. Third Nat. Symp. on Aquifer Restoration and Ground Water Monitoring, National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH, pp. 295-300. [ER, GR, SRR] Bruehl, D.H. 1984a. Delineation of Ground Water Contamination by Electrical Resistivity Depth soundings. In: NWWA/EPA Conf. on Surface and Borehole Geophysical Methods in Ground Water Investigations (lst, San Antonio TX), National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH, pp. 403-412. [ER] Bruehl, D.H. 1984b. Use of Complementary Geophysical Techniques to Delineate Ground Water Contamination. In: Proc. of the NWWA Tech. Division Eastern Regional Ground Water Conference (Newton, MA), National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH, pp. 265-273. [ER, SRR, GR] Buhle, M.B. 1953. Earth Resistivity in Ground-Water Studies in Illinois. Trans. Am. Inst. Mining Met. Eng., Petroleum Division 196(4):1-5. Buhle, M.B. and J.E. Brueckmann. 1964. Electrical Earth Resistivity Surveying in Illinois. Illinois State Geological Survey Circular 376. [ground water resource evaluation] Burdick, R.G. 1982. Application of the Electrical Resistivity Method to Mining Problems. In: Premining Investigations for Hardrock Mining, U.S. Bureau of Mines Information Circular 8891, pp. 29-35. [fault, abandoned mine, and leachate detection] Butler, D.K. and J.L. Llopis. 1985. Military Requirements for Geophysical Ground Water Detection and Exploration. In: Conference on Surface and Borehole Geophysical Methods and Ground Water Investigations (2nd, Fort Worth, TX), National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH, pp. 228-248. [EMI, ER, SRR]. Carpenter, E.W. 1955. Some Notes Concerning the Wenner Configuration. Geophysical Prospecting 3:388-402. [tri-potential resistivity]

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Carpenter, G.C. and D.R. Bassarab. 1964. Case Histories of Resistivity and Seismic Ground Water Studies. Ground Water 2(1):21-25. Carpenter, P.J. 1900. Landfill Assessment Using Electrical Resistivity and Seismic Refraction Techniques. In: Proc. (3rd) Symp. on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems, Sot. Eng. and Mineral Exploration Geophysicists, Golden, CO, pp. 139-154. Carpenter, P.J., R.S. Kaufman, and B. Price. 1990a. Use of Resistivity Soundings to Determine Landfill Structure. Ground Water 28:569-575. Carpenter, P.J., M.C. Keeley, and R.S. Kaufman. 1990b. Azimuthal Resistivity, Soil Moisture, and Infiltration over a Fracture Glacial Till Landfill Cover (Abstract). Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 71:519. Carpenter, P.J., S.F. Calkin, and R.S. Kaufman. 1991. Assessing a Fractured Landfill Cover Using Electrical Resistivity and Seismic Refraction Techniques. Geophysics 56(11):1896-1904. [Azimuthal resistivity] Barrington, TJ. and D.A. Watson. 1981. ” Preliminary Evaluation of an Alternate Electrode Array for Use in Shallow Subsurface Electrical Resistivity Studies. Ground Water 19(1):48-57. Cartwright, K. and M.R. McComas. 1968. Geophysical Surveys in the Vicinity of Sanitry Landfills in Northeastern Illinois. Ground Water 6(5):23-30. [ER, thermal] Chapman, MJ. and E.S. Bair. 1992. Mapping a Brine Plume Using Surface Geophysical Methods in Conjunctions with Ground Water Quality Data. Ground Water 12(3):203-209. [ER and EM1] Cherkauer, D.S. and R.W. Taylor. 1988. Geophysically Determined Ground Water Flow into the Channels Connecting Lakes Huron and Erie. In: Proc. Second Nat. Outdoor Action Conf. on Aquifer Restoration, Ground Water Monitoring and Geophysical Methods, National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH, pp. 779-799. [ER, CSP] Cichowicz N.L., R.W. Pease, Jr., P.J. Stellar, and H.J. Jaffe. 1981. Use of Remote Sensing Techniques in a Systematic Investigation of an Uncontrolled Hazardous Waste Site. EPA/600/2-81/187 (NTIS PB82-103896). [ER, SRR, GPR, MD] Cleff, R. (cd.). 1991. An Evaluation of Soil Gas and Geophysical Techniques for Detection of Hydrocarbons. API Publication No. 4509, American Petroleum Institute, Washington, DC. [GPR, EMI, ER, complex resistivity] Coetsee, V.D.A., R. Meyer, C.D. Elphinstome, H. Bezuidenhout, and A. Watson. 1992. Hydraulic Aquifer Characteristics Determined from Resistivity Sounding Parameters Using Empirical Formulae and Geostatistical Techniques. In SAGEEP ’92, Society of Engineering and Mineral Exploration Geophysicists, Golden, CO, pp. 291-308. Collette, L.S. and TJ. Katsube. 1973. Electrical Parameters of Rocks in Developing Geophysical Techniques. Geophysics 38(l):76-91. Cook, K.L. and R.G. Van Nostrand. 1954. Interpretations of Resistivity Data over Filled Sinks. Geophysics 19(4):761-790.

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A Computer Program for the Automatic Interpretation of Schlumberger Sounding Curves over Horizontally Stratified Media. SRR] Zonge. Geological Survey Bull. Application of Surface Geophysics to Ground-Water Investigations.R. NTIS PB-232703/AS. U. U.A. U. 25 pp. 1969. Zohdy. Zohdy. Zohdy. 1974.R. U. [ER.A.B. A. and D. Geological Survey Bull. 1974a. 1313-A.A. and D. Zohdy. A. A Computer Program for the Calculation of Schlumberger Sounding Curves by Convolution.A. Automatic Interpretation of Schlumberger Sounding Curves. Jackson. Application of Deep Electrical Soundings for Ground-Water Exploration in Hawaii. 66 pp. 1970c. Zohdy. G.. Zohdy.R. A. 1972. 1313-C.A. and R.E. Variable Azimuth Schlumberger Resistivity Sounding and Profiling near a Vertical Contact. 1988. 41 pp. A. A. 116 pp.S. Mabey. Zohdy. GR. K. A. 13 pp. A. MAG.A. 1974b.P. Eaton.R.S. Geological Survey Bull. Zohdy.S. Electrical Resistivity Sounding with an L-Shaped Array. Nevada. 1313­ B. A.A. Geophysics 54(2):245-253. Groundwater Exploration with Schlumberger Soundings near Jean.S.R. Zohdy. A.R.R. 1975. 27 pp.J. Geometrical Factors of Bipole-Dipole Arrays.S. NTIS PB-247265/AS. Computer Programs for the Forward Calculation and Automatic Inversion of Werner Sounding Curves.R. Geological Survey Bull. 1313-D. Use of Dar Zarrouk Curves in the Interpretation of Vertical Electrical Sounding Data.Zohdy. U. 3-48 . 39 pp. 1975.A.A.R. Geological Survey Bull. 20 pp. Geophysical Prospecting 20:626-648. A New Method for the Automatic Interpretation of Schlumberger and Wenner Sounding Curves. 1970b. Comparison of Time Frequency and Phase Measurements in Induced Polarization. et al.A. Geophysics 34(4):584-600.A.R. 1970a. Bisdorf.S.A. 1974c. 22 pp. A. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resource Investigations TWRI 2-D1. Using Modified Dar Zarrouk Functions. U. U. Zohdy. A.R. Geological Survey Open-File Report 88-291.R. A. Zohdy. NTIS PB-232056. 1313-E.S. 1989.

The electrical method of induced polarization also can be used in either the time or the frequency domain (Section 3. Time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) measurements. called transient electromagnetic (TEM) soundings. 4-1 .2) has gained increasing popularity in ground-water studies. and VLF resistivity is the next most frequently used EM method after electromagnetic induction for detection of conductive contaminant plumes. (See Section 3.2). also involve electromagnetic induction. Frequency domain electromagnetic induction (EMI-Section 4. they are far superior to EMI measurements in providing vertical resolution of soundings (see Section 4.4).) Frequency domain geophysical measurements sense the subsurface response to sinusoidal electromagnetic fields at one or more transmitted frequencies. very low frequency (VLF) resistivity (Section 4.3). especially for the detection of freshwater-saltwater interfaces and saltwater intrusion because of its higher resolution and greater depth of penetration.5).5). Time domain geophysical measurements record the change in response as time passes after a transmitted signal has been abruptly turned off. The term electromagnetic induction (EMI) usually indicates use of frequency domain measurements. and various magnetotelluric methods (Section 4.1 for a discussion of general characteristics of electromagnetic methods. Although the use of TDEM methods at contaminated sites is a relatively recent development. Other major types of electromagnetic methods include metal detection (using EMI instruments designed specifically to detect buried metals-Section 4.1) is the most commonly used surface geophysical method for detection of conductive contaminant plumes.CHAPTER 4 SURFACE GEOPHYSICS: ELECTROMAGNETIC METHODS Electromagnetic measurements can be made in either the frequency domain or the time domain. Metal detectors are commonly used at contaminated sites where buried pipelines and metallic wastes are known or suspected. Time domain electromagnetics (Section 4.

EMI equipment used in ground-water contamination studies differs from the wide variety of EM equipment used in mineral exploration in that it is usually designed and calibrated to read directly in units of apparent conductivity. its porosity. more recently.. Electrical conductivity is a function of the type of soil and rock. In most cases. 1984). Benson et al. EM is an excellent technique for mapping contaminant plume boundaries. EPA (1993) summarizes advantages and disadvantages of EMI. mS/M) of the pore fluids will dominate the measurement. as well as a variety of other subsurface features with contrasting electrical properties. degree of saturation. within limits. dissolved species in contaminated water will alter its conductance compared to the natural ground water. and the electrochemistry of the fluids that fill the pore space. with 60 meters representing a typical maximum depth. the electrical conductivity (measured as millimhos per meter. is linearly related to subsurface conductivity. In the last 10 years EMI probably has been 4-2 . The reading represents the weighted cumulative sum of the conductivity variations from the surface to the effective depth of the instrument. Often the term terrain conductivity is used to refer to measurements made using EMI methods. Consequently. or. whereas greater depth penetration requires stationary measurements (see Figure 1-3). Readings to shallow depths can be made continuously since the coils are rigidly connected. degree of connectivity. Section 1. The effective depth for EMI is determined by the geometry and spacing of the transmitting and receiving coils (Figure 4-lb).3. 1991) provides more detailed information. This voltage. milliSiemens per meter. Table 4-1 identifies general references on electromagnetic induction methods. A receiver coil then intercepts both the primary and the secondary electromagnetic fields created by the eddy current loops and produces an output voltage that is corrected for the primary field and the loop geometry and spacing. Figure 4-la shows the basic principle of operation: A transmitter coil generates a sinusoidal electromagnetic field that induces eddy currents in the earth below the instrument.S. (1984) is a useful source of additional introductory information about this method.1 Frequency Domain Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) Electromagnetic induction methods (generally abbreviated as EM.1 in U. Nabighian (1988. Also.4. although this abbreviation also is used specifically for frequency domain EM measurements) measure subsurface electrical conductivities by low-frequency electromagnetic induction (Benson et al.

1984)... .Figure 4-1a Electromagnetic induction: block diagram showing EMI principle of operations (adapted from Benson et al. 1984). 15 Meters 60 Meters Figure 4-lb Electromagnetic induction: the depth of EMI soundings is dependent upon coil spacing and orientation selected ( from Benson et al.

Depth of exploration is determined by the dipole moment of the transmitter (product of current times area). Table 4-1 identifies literature in which EMI and electrical resistivity methods have been compared. however. The transmitter initially causes a steady current to flow in the loop. erroneous interpretation is more likely.used more than any other geophysical method to map conductive contaminant plumes (Tables 4­ 2. and spacing of the loops. lateral resolution. TDEM measurements have been used increasingly in the last decade for ground-water studies (Table 4-3). In TDEM. This current is suddenly terminated. Because the mathematics involved in the computer programs for analyzing TDEM measurement are more complicated than DC methods. causing an essentially circular eddy current ring to flow at successively greater depths as shown in Figure 4-2b. DC resistivity was unsuccessful more often than EMI (6 out 24 cases for DC resistivity compared to 1 out of 18 cases for EMI). While both methods show a high success rate in meeting objectives. Thus the TDEM technique is useful for geoelectric sounding. Rehm et al. Measurement of the decaying magnetic field from this descending eddy current yields data that can be interpreted in terms of the terrain resistivity as a function of depth. and resolution of electrical equivalence (the situation where more than one layered earth model will fit the measured data to within the experimental error) are in general very good. (1985) reviewed literature reporting the success of DC methods and EMI in meeting objectives for hydrogeologic investigations. single-turn transmitter loop (of side length typically 10 to 20 m) is laid on the ground with the receiver coil nearby (Figure 4-2a).2 Time Domain Electromagnetic (TDEM) Recent developments in time domain electromagnetic instrumentation (also called transient EM) with resolution capabilities in the shallow (<100 m) subsurface combines some of the best features of DC methods and EMI. a square. see also Table A-l). and the orientation. the time of measurement of the decaying magnetic field. geometry. especially if nongeophysicists are using 4-4 . 4. since the speed of operation.

Single-Turn Coil Induced Current Loop Receiver (including digital data storage) Second Field From Current Loop Sensed by Receiver Coil Figure 4-2a Time domain electromagnetic: block diagram showing TDEM principles of operation. and time of measurement. 4-5 . Figure 4-2b Time domain electromagnetics: the depth of TDEM soundings depends on transmitter current. loop size.

4 Very Low Frequency Resistivity Very low frequency (VLF) resistivity instruments measure the ratio of electrical to magnetic fields generated by military communication transmitters (around 15 to 25 kHz). unless the device is truck-mounted.3 Metal Detection Metal detectors operate on the same principles as electromagnetic induction. EPA (1993) summarizes advantages and disadvantages of metal detectors. however: up to 3 meters for single drums and 6 meters for large piles of metallic material. and specialized detectors.3.3 in U. Table 4-3 identifies a number of references concerning the use of metal detection or providing a discussion of the method in relation to investigations of contaminated sites. conventional “treasure hunter” detectors. 4-6 . except that the instruments are specifically designed to sense increased conductivity resulting from either ferrous or nonferrous metals near the ground surface. The first two types are usually handheld and require one person to operate. Section 1.the programs. Surface features can pose difficulties for placing the transmitter loop. The distribution of transmitting stations. Their detection range is limited. and Benson et al. and effects created by the ionosphere produce worldwide coverage of VLF transmissions (Stewart and Bretnall. 4. The many different types of metal detectors available fall into three main classes: pipeline/cable locators. 1986). 4. and TDEM is less suitable for especially shallow applications (less than 150 m). although the radio waves are indeed of a very low frequency. The term very low frequency is somewhat confusing since.S. which cannot be detected with magnetometers. Specialized detectors are designed for complex conditions and often require two operators. (1984) provide more detailed information on the use of metal detectors. they are often of higher than those used in EM induction methods. The advantage of metal detectors is that they can sense nonferrous metals such as aluminum and copper. their high power.

as a result. 4. The principles of data interpretation are similar to those used in magnetotelluric methods. Although the measurement requires ground contact. only potential electrodes are employed. a variety of MT methods have been developed audiofrequency MT (AMT) is the same as MT. Where contaminant plumes are relatively shallow. VLF is an excellent method for investigating contaminated sites. 1953). with penetration typically 35 to 60 meters in saturated overburden with higher resistivities (100 to 300 ohm-m) (Greenhouse and Harris. it is the second most commonly used electromagnetic method for such applications after EMI (Table 4-3).The depth of penetration of these waves is related to the resistivity of the subsurface materials. and MT array profiling (EMAP) is MT enhanced with 4-7 . however. except that audio frequencies are measured. Magnetotelluric (MT) geophysical methods involve the measurement of magnetic and electric fields associated with the flow of telluric currents (Cagniard. Resistivity and phase angle (between the electric and magnetic fields) measurements are taken using electrodes driven into the ground at 10 meters apart. static effect problems (see below in relation to CSAMT) are a limitation associated with VLF resistivity. 1983). which helps minimize this effect. minimizing contact resistance problems.5 Magnetotelluric Methods Telluric currents are natural electric currents that flow in the subsurface in response to ionospheric tidal effects and lightning associated with thunderstorms. Given that potential electrodes are used. As noted in Table 1-3. An advantage of VLF measurements over EM and DC resistivity methods is that the remote transmitter is supplied free of charge and does not have to be carried by the survey crew. Since only two quantities are measured. Another disadvantage is that measurements must be adjusted to account for differences in surface elevation before readings in sloping terrain can be compared. the ease of taking measurements allows a high spatial density. The depth of penetration for contaminant plumes (around 30 ohm-m) is around 20 meters. audio frequency magnetic (AFMAG) methods measure the tilt angle of the total magnetic field on surface or in the air. resolving a two-layered earth requires that the resistivity of one of the layers be known or assumed.

Magnetotelluric principles are also involved in two EM methods using artificial sources: controlled-source audiomagnetotellurics (CSAMT) and VLF resistivity. most other electrical and EM methods are more accurate and easier to use for shallow investigations. In general.numerous measurements of the surface electric field to try to reduce errors attributable to static effects resulting from localized changes in conductivity of near-surface materials. the static effect errors that plague MT surveys are also a source of error in CSAMT. Use of CSAMT to detect brine contamination and for characterizing aquifers in fractured bedrock has been reported on a number of times (Table 4-3). although Strangway et al. The main advantage of MT methods is that they can reach depths far greater than can be reached effectively using artificially induced currents. Table 4-3 identifies a number general references on MT methods. Although attractive in theory. CSAMT uses a remote transmitter combined with an AMT receiver. 4-8 . U. Geological Survey (1980) provides a brief discussion of potential applications for hydrogeologic studies. (1980) reported on the use of shallow applications that might have some value in near-surface ground-water investigations.S. This is not particularly an advantage for site-specific investigations.

Saunders and Stanford (1984). Pitchford et al. Sternberg et al. McNeil (1980b). (1986). Noel et al. Kaufman and Keller (1983). Windschauer (1986). Wait (1971. Allen et al. Allen (1985). (1985). Greenhouse and Harris (1983). (1985. Russell (1990). (1986). Rumbaugh et al. Nabighian (1988). Rokityanksi (1982). Kufs et al. Nabighian (1988. Ehrlich and Rosen (1987). (1989) Basic EM Theory EM Wave Behavior Review Papers Data Analysis Rock Conductivity Nonconventional EMI EMI/ER Comparisons 4-9 . Wait (1985). Evans and Schweitzer (1984). Ward (1967b. (1989). Wait (1962). Stierman and Ruedisili (1988). Bradley (1986). Cameron et al. Sweeney (1984). Rodriquez (1984). Roberts et al. Ward (1967a) Chew (1990). (1987). (1988). Emilsson and Wroblewski (1988). Duran (1984-interferences). Shope (1987). 1980). (1988). (1991) Adams et al. Spies and Eggers (1986). see also listing for references on subsurface electrical properties in Table 3-1 Beeson and Jones (1988). (1983). Gilmer and Helbling (1984). Walther et al. White et al. Lowrie and West (1965). Vogelsang (1974-EM vs. Johnson and Doborzynski (1988). White and Brandwein (1982). Schelnukoff (1943). see also Table 1-4 for identification of general geophysics texts covering electromagnetic methods Jackson (1975). Williams et al. Kelly et al. Swift (1988) Boutwell and Lawrence (1988). Lord and Koerner (1982). (1984). IP). (1985). Benson et al. Jansen and Taylor (1989). Kraus (1984). 1981. Gilkeson and Cartwright (1982). (1984). Jordon (1963). Verma (1982-three-layer interpretation data). Goldman (1990). (1989). Butler and Llopis (1985). (1984).b). 1991). (1981). Lorrain and Carson (1970).Table 4-1 Index to General References on Electromagnetic Induction Methods Topic Texts References Hoyt (1974). 1985). Greenhouse et al. Rudy and Caoile (1984). Kong (1975). Petersen et al. (1982). Tueci (1986). Kong (1975). Knuth (1988). Pfannkuch (1969). Wilt and Stark (1982) McNeill (1980a). 1982). Wait (1970. Weber and Flatman (1986a. LeBrecque et al. Vogelsang (1974). Woessner et al. Brickell (1984). McNeill (1990). Stratton (1941). Fox and Gould (1984). 1988). Sternberg (1991). Ward and Morrison (1971) Bosschart (1970).

Cox and Saunders (1990). Emilsson and Wroblewski (1988). (1988). Weber and Flatman (1986a. 1986). Mills et al. 1983. Kerfoot and Rumba (1985). Fox and Gould (1984). Greenhouse and Slaine (1982. (1984). Lawrence (1984). Greenhouse et al. Noel et al. (1987). Fowler and Pasicznyk (1985).b). Jansen et al. Saunder et al. Rumbaugh et al. (1991). (1982). 1991). Saunders and Cox (1987). Jordan et al. (1982. Williams and Baker (1982) Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Contaminated Sites Contaminant Plumes Landfill Leachate Buried Containers/Waste Soil salinity Mapping 4-10 . Russell (1990). Greenhouse and Harris (1983). Medlin and Knuth (1986) Adams et al.b). (1981). Bradley (1986). (1983). Pitchford et al. Barton and Ivanhenko (1990). U. de Jong et al. (1984). Roberts et al. Hall and Pasicznyk (1987). Rodriguez (1984). Schutts and Nichols (1991). 1985). Pitchford et al. Lord and Koerner (1986. (1991). (1982).b). (1984) Allen (1984). Gilkeson and Cartwright (1982). (1988). Slaine and Greenhouse (1982). (1984). Kufs et al. EC&T et al. Rinaldo-Lee and Wagner (1985). (1989). Mack and Maus (1986). Gilmer and Helbling (1984). Williams et al. EPA (1987) Benson et al. Feld et al. (1987). Patra (1970). Fowler and Ayubcha (1986). (1983). Ehrlich and Rosen (1987). McQuown et al. White and Gainer (1985) Brickell (1986). Scholl et al. Roberts et al. (1982). 1987a. White et al. Rudy and Caoile (1984). (1979). Corwin and Rhoades (1982. Weber et al. Saunders and Stanford (1984).S. Rhoades and Oster (1986). (1990). Barlow and Ryan (1985). (1984) Benson et al. Sweeney (1984) Allen and Seelen (1992). Duran and Haeni (1982). (1989). Walther et al. Stierman and Ruedisili (1988). Stenson (1988). Ringstand and Bugenig (1984). Merin (1989-USTs). (1990). (1984). Glaccum et al. Lord et al. Carr et al. (1985). LeBrecque et al.Table 4-2 Index to References on Applications of Electromagnetic Induction Methoda Topic References Applications at Contaminated Sites Reports Reviews Benson et al. Hankins et al. Rhoades and Corwin (1981). (1991). Knuth (1988-oil brine). (1991). Evans and Scwheitzer (1984). Schutts and Nichols (1991). Rudy and Warner (1986-USTs). (1988). Shope (1987). McNeil (1982). 1988). Morgenstern and Syverson (1988a. Primeaux (1984. Struttmann and Anderson (1989). (1986). 1984). (1992). Grady and Haeni (1984). (1985. Walsh (1989) Cameron et al.

S.. Stewart (1982). Hoekstra and Standish (1984). Spray Irrigation Leachate: Allen et al. Morgenstern and Syverson (1988a.1984). (1989) McBride et al. Saunders and Germeroth (1985). Payne (1991). Redwine et al.b) 4-11 . Saunders and Cox (1987). (1981). Kachonoski et al. (1990) Taylor and Cherkauer (1984) Cook et al. Woessner et al. Duran (1987). (1990) Aller (1984) Ghatge and Pasicznyk (1986) Telford et al.) Miscellaneous Hydrocarbons: Davis (1991). (1989). Valentine and Kwader (1985. (1988). McNeill (1988. Uranium Mill Tailings: Wightman et al. 1986). (1988). (1992) Ground-Water Applications Ground-Water Texts Reviews Case Studies U. Acid Mine Drainage: Ladwig (1983. (1985). (1985). Kelly et al. Palacky et al. Drew et al. Jansen (1990). Haeni (1986). (1985). Brine/Salt Water: Chapman and Bair (1992). Jansen (1991). (1991).Table 4-2 (cont. Jansen and Taylor (1988).) Topic References Abdications at Contaminated Sites (cont. Geological Survey (1980). 1991) Arcone (1979). Tucci (1986). Butler and Llopis (1985). (1977) Adams et al. (1985) Benson (1991). (1992) Soil Quality Hydraulic Conductivity Recharge Other Applications Abandoned Mines Abandoned Wells Bedrock Topography Geologic Structure Fracture/Faulted Rock Friedel et al. Lyverse (1989). Rehm et al. Fitterman et al. Windschauer (1986). Hoekstra (1978­ permafrost). Koefoed and Biewinga (1976).

Mills et al. (1992). Stewart and Gay (1986) Frischknecht (1990). 1987). Paterson and Ronka (1971) Carr et al. (1992). Hoekstra and Standish (1984). Goldman et al. Hoekstra (1990). Meyer et al. (1977-structure). Wynn (1979-buried paleochannel) Poddar and Rather (1983) Ground Water Fracture Detection Geology Weathered Zone 4-12 . Fitterman (1986. (1991). (1982-buried containers). Stewart and Bretnall (1984. (1990). James et al. (1990). Snow et al. Metal Detection. Jansen and Taylor (1989). McNeill and Labson (1991). Hoekstra and Blohm (1990). Rodriguez (1984). (1987. (1991) Fitterman and Hoekstra (1984). Watson et al. Jansen and Taylor (1989). Hoekstra et al. Slaine and Greenhouse (1982). Raab and Frischknecht (1985) References Contaminated Sites Fresh-Salt Water Interface/Intrustion Brine Contamination VLF Resistivity General Contaminated Sites Lankston and Hecker (1988). Strangway (1960­ scale modeling) Cook et al. (1992). Goldman (1990) Kuo and Cho (1980). 1989). HRB Singer (1971-abandoned mines). Greenhouse and Harris (1983). (1990). (1984). Maimone et al. (1990).Table 4-3 Index to References on TDEM. (1991). Hoekstra et al. (1991). 1986) Bernard and Valla (1991). 1988). Greenhouse and Slaine (1983). Watson et al. Fitterman et al. Sinha (1989) Telford et al. Taylor et al. Taylor et al. Koerner et al. Kaufman and Keller (1983). (1990) Bernard and Valla (1991). (1992). Hoekstra and Blohm (1990). Nabighian and Macnae (1991). Hoekstra and Evans (1986). Grady and Haeni (1984). and Magnetotelluric Methods Topic TDEM Texts Review Papers Ground-Water Studies Felsen (1976). Fitzgerald et al (1986). Slaine et al. Russell (1990). (1990) Benson (1991). Hoekstra and Cline (1986). VLF Resistivity. Jansen and Taylor (1988. (1989). Saunders et al. Fitterman and Stewart (1986).

Porstendorfer (1975). (1982). U. Benson et al.S. U. Strangway (1960). Garland (l960). (1985). Wait (1982) Strangway and Vozoff (1970). (1988). Pitchford et al. (1973.b). Vozoff (1991). Brine Contamination: Bartel (1989).S. Kufs et al. Fractured Bedrock Aquifers: Lluria (1990).S.) Topic Metal Detection Contaminated Sites Aller (1984). (1984. Geological Survey (1980) Controlled-Source Audiomagnetotellurics (CSAMT) Zonge (1990). (1988). Vozoff (1986). Syed et al. Strangway et al. In Situ Mining Leachate: Tweeton et al. (1990). Pierce and Hoover (1986). USGS (1980-TC. Lord and Koerner (1986. Geological Survey (1980) Cagniard (1953). U. Westphalen and Rice (1992) References Magnetotelluric Methods Texts Review Papers Telluric Currents (TC) Magnetotellurics (MT) Audiomagnetotellurics (AMT) Kaufman and Keller (1981). Tinlin et al.Table 4-3 (cont. 1991). 1987a. EC&T et al. (1971). Evans and Schweitzer (1984). Strangway (1983). Gilkeson et al. Zonge and Hughes (1991). MT. Pease and James (1981). AMT) Alvarez (1991). (1992). Pierce and Hoover (1986). Geological Survey (1980) Adams et al. Ward (1980). (1986). Ground Water: Bazinet and Legault (1986). (1991) 4-13 . 1980). Koerner et al. West and Ward (1988).

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Study of Subsurface Contamination with Geophysical Monitoring Methods at Henderson.R. Vozoff. Geophysical Prospecting 22(4):781­ 790. AMT. (cd). J. MT. 1983. In: NWWA Conference on Surface and Borehole Geophysical Methods and Ground Water Investigations (2nd. Hazardous Materials Control Research Institute. Dublin. J. D. J. EMI] Wait. R. Applications. Geophysics Reprint Series No. II. 1962. Reston. M.K 1982. 4-30 . on southeastern Ground Water Issues (Tampa. 405-416. OK.. 641-712. and T. 1985.M. Ground Water Monitoring and Geophysical Methods. New York.R. Magnetotelluric Methods. A Note on the Electromagnetic Response of a Stratified Earth. 2nd ed. OK. Electromagnetic Wave Theory. In: Proc.U. S. on Aquifer Restoration. R. BH] Valentine. Nabighian (ed). (4th) Nat. D. 1:338 pp. In: Proc. [TC. 1967a. pp.H. on Management of Uncontrolled Hazardous Waste Sites.J.R. 2. ER. 1971. 1974. In: Proc. MAG] Walther. Wait. pp. 391 pp. IFI/Plenum. OK. Electromagnetic Probing in Geophysics. The Golem Press. (eds. 1970. D.R. 935-949. [EMI. Electromagnetic Sounding Interpretation Data over Three-Layer Earth.A. CO. 1982. Academic Press. pp. Wait.M. Pergamon Press. FL). New York. Harper and Row. D. pp. Tulsa. In: Mining Geophysics. OH. SRR. Kwader. Conf. The Magnetotelluric Method. pp.N. Society of Exploration Geophysicists. [IP. 1985. Electromagnetic Theory for Geophysical Applications. and J. LeBrecque. Geological Survey. 1989. [EMI] Valentine. [EMI] Verma. Chapter 2 (Ground Water). Comments in Geophysical Prospecting 25(1):182-185. Evans. National Water Well Association. Walsh. VA. Terrain Conductivity as a Tool for Delineating Hydrocarbon Plumes in a Shallow Aquifer-A Case Study. ER. In: Electromagnetic Methods in Applied Geophysics. Vogelsang. Vol. SRL. 28-36. Pergamon Press. Vol. R. 800 pp. pp. Vols. 268 pp. 1986. Theory. Silver Spring. National Water Well Association. Gee-Electromagnetism. 5. 308 pp. Vol. Wave Propagation Theory. Terrain Conductivity as a Tool for Delineating Hydrocarbon Plumes in a Shallow Aquifer-A Case Study. New York. OH. OH. Hansen et al. E. Tulsa. Nevada. [First edition 1962] Wait. Geophysics 27(3):382­ 385. GR.C. Vol. 1 and 2. D. K 1991. 1986. Electromagnetic Waves in Stratified Media. K (ed). J. TX). 52-63. Weber.B. Surface Geophysical Exploration for Buried Drums in Urban Environments: Applications in New York City. Outdoor Action Conf.S. [EMI. Fort Worth. R. and T. 2:546 pp. Dublin. J. 1981.. Office of Water Data Coordination. New York. MD. National Water Well Association. Part B. 372 pp. Geophysical Measurements. complex resistivity] Ward. In: National Handbook of Recommended Methods for Water Data Acquisition.D. Society of Exploration Geophysicists. Compatibility of EM Soundings and IP Surveys. Boulder.R. 2-24 to 2-76.). Kwader.R. EMI. J. IP. Society of Exploration Geophysicists. Wait. Vozoff. Van Ee. Wait. 1980. New York. 10-196. Third Nat. Dublin. pp. Focus Conf. Tulsa. 349 pp.G.

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When seismic compressional waves (P waves) reach a lithologic contact with contrasting physical properties.2) and seismic shear methods (Section 5. 5-1 .2) have resulted in increased use of these methods.3) and acoustic emission monitoring (Section 5. seismic shear waves (S waves).1) are used to characterize the subsurface below rivers. lakes. in which particles move in a transverse direction relative to the propagation of the wave rather than back and forth as in a P wave (Section 5. Continuous seismic profiling (Section 5.4.4.3.3.3.3) are measured. Seismic refraction (Section 5. they may be reflected back toward the surface or they may travel along the boundary contact before being refracted upward toward the surface or downward. they are unable to directly detect contaminant plumes or subsurface contaminants.3.1) and acoustic methods such as side-scan sonar and fathometers (Section 5.1) has been most commonly used in ground-water and contaminated site investigations because of its relative simplicity and adaptability for shallow zone investigations. Seismic methods are identified primarily by whether they detect reflected or refracted rays.CHAPTER 5 SURFACE GEOPHYSICS: SEISMIC AND ACOUSTIC METHODS Seismic methods are based on the timing of artificially generated acoustic signals propagated through the ground (or water and ground as in the case of continuous seismic profiling) and sensed by electromechanical transducers called geophones (if placed on the ground) or hydrophores (if placed in water).3. Seismic and acoustic methods used for design and engineering of structures and impoundments include spectral analysis of surface waves (Section 5. Less commonly. Since all seismic and acoustic methods measure only physical contrasts.2).2). Relatively recent developments in shallow seismic reflection (Section 5. Stratigraphic and geologic interpretations of high-resolution seismic techniques. or Rayleigh-type surface waves (Section 5. however. and impoundments. can be very useful in guiding placement of boreholes for subsurface sampling and remediation.

1974): � Refraction methods generally yield superior results in areas of thick alluvial or glacial fill and where large velocity contrasts exist. and contaminated site investigations. Because of recent advances in instrumentation and the development of new field techniques for shallow. � Tables 5-1 and 5-2 contain over 200 references on the use of seismic refraction for geologic. although depths in excess of 200 meters can be achieved with more powerful seismic sources). it generally has been the preferred seismic method in shallow hydrogeological investigations for a number of reasons (Zohdy et al. Figure 5-1 shows a field layout for seismic refraction measurements.1 Seismic Refraction Although seismic refraction has generally lower resolution than seismic reflection. 1981).. Seismic refraction techniques are designed to obtain data on the near surface (typically to about 30 meters. using the moment the hammer hits the ground as time zero. changes in the lateral facies of aquifer material can sometimes be mapped with this method (Sendlein and Yazicigil. Personnel and equipment requirements are generally simpler and less expensive for refraction surveys than reflection surveys. The processing and interpretation of seismic refraction data require a great 5-2 . Also. Properly interpreted. hydrogeologic. the refraction data make it possible to estimate the thickness and depth of geologic layers (including the water table) and to assess their properties. such as buried bedrock valleys. 1966). Where more energy is required. The seismograph records the time of arrival of all waves. however.2). high-resolution seismic reflection techniques have overcome most of the problems cited above. firecrackers or small charges of explosives may be used (Criner. it can no longer be assumed that seismic refraction should be the method of choice (see Section 5. Such techniques provide data on the refraction of seismic waves at the interface between subsurface layers and on their travel time within the layers. A seismic source creates direct compressional waves and refracted waves that are sensed by an array of geophones.5. A hammer is usually used as a signal source for near-surface investigations.

1984).Figure 5-1 Field layout of a 12-channel seismograph showing the path of direct and refracted seismic waves in a two-layer soil/rock system (from Benson et al.. 5-3 .

They have been used for many years by the petroleum industry to obtain stratigraphic and structural data on deeply buried sediments (Allen. (1984). These methods provide the highest level of accuracy and resolution in deep surface characterizations of any available geophysical method. Then. A single-channel seismograph plots the waveform against time (milliseconds) from a single geophone. Finally.2 Shallow Seismic Reflection Most seismic reflection methods are designed to identify geologic contacts at depths greater than 200 feet (70 m). slope. Figure 5-2 shows the required steps. A layer with lower velocity below a higher velocity layer will not be detected because waves will be refracted downward.deal of skill. 5-4 . and break points in the T/I) can be analyzed to identify the number of layers and depth of each layer. (1974) provide additional information on seismic refraction. and Zohdy et al. layers that are not detected because they are relatively thin and velocity increases only slightly compared to the overlying layer (Soske. and a multichannel instrument records waveforms from multiple geophones. line segments. 1987). Haeni (1988a). but a more typical minimum depth would be approximately 10 meters. Benson et al. travel time is plotted against the source-to-geophone distance to produce a time/distance (T/D) plot. 1980). 1959). An important assumption in seismic refraction where multiple layers exist is that the velocity of seismic waves increases with depth. 1989).7 meters (Birkelo et al. the seismic signal is recorded on paper or with a computer. First. The relatively recent development of high-resolution methods. The common-offset method has been successfully used at interfaces as shallow as 2. such as the common-depth-point (CDP) techniques. 5. Tucker and Yorsten (1973) and Tucker (1982) discuss in detail the potential pitfalls in the use and interpretation of seismic refraction data. can yield useful data at depths as shallow as 15 to 30 meters (Ayers.. There may also be blind zones. Sander (1978) examines the significance of blind zones in ground-water exploration. Figure 5-3 shows a number of idealized T/D plots for a variety of subsurface conditions.

.Figure 5-2 Flow diagram showing steps in the processing and interpretation of seismic refraction data (from Benson et al. 5-5 . 1984).

5-6 . 1974).I I 1 t Figure 5-3 Schematic traveltime curves for idealized nonhomogenous geologic models (from Zohdy et al..

1 Continuous Seismic Profiling (CSP) CSP (also called marine seismic reflection. It differs from land-based seismic techniques in that usually one channel is used to detect signals. continuous seismic reflection equipment is towed through the water alongside or behind the survey boat. and sonar seismic reflection) is a method originally developed and used in deep-water marine geology investigations and currently is used routinely for petroleum exploration. The receiver. In shallow water..S. which are processed in a manner similar to the land-based seismic reflection method to create a profile of the subsurface below the boat’s line of travel. In addition to recording the time of first arrival. This method can be used to define hydrologic boundaries of shallow aquifers and in some cases can indicate the lithology of glacial deposits. acoustical or continuous high-resolution subbottom profiling. most of which have been published since 1980. ponds. lakes. or estuaries (Morrissey et al. large streams.3. detects the reflected acoustic signals. called a hydrophore.Seismic reflection surveys are generally similar to seismic refraction surveys in terms of instrumentation. and spectral analysis of surface waves. however. 5. resulting in more data recorded and requiring more complex data processing. EPA (1993) summarizes general advantages and disadvantages of seismic reflection. Table 5-3 identifies references on shallow seismic reflection methods. Reflection surveys. seismic shear surveys. 5. single-channel. Section 1. provided that the area of interest is crossed by rivers. All three methods are discussed below. The energy source (electromechanical transducers. The 5-7 . in a reflection survey numerous arrivals of reflected waves are recorded at each geophone and multiple shots are used to create seismic waves. sparkers.3 Other Seismic Methods Seismic methods with specialized applications include continuous seismic profiling. 1985). or airguns) emits sounds into the water at a fixed frequency or within a range of frequency.2 in U. high-resolution.4. usually are conducted with shorter spacing but with more geophones compared to refraction surveys of similar depths.

Danbom and Domenico (1987) is a useful source for more detailed information on this method. which is observed in conventional seismic refraction and reflection.3. Continuous seismic profiling is the most commonly used of the “minor” seismic methods in ground-water and contaminated site investigations (Table 5-4). 5-8 .4.position of the boat must be established and maintained throughout the survey relying on methods as various as the use of multiple survey crews siting the survey boat from land to the use of sophisticated microwave positioning systems. Both reflection and refraction of S waves can be measured and analyzed. 5. Wrege et al.1) is usually conducted simultaneously to provide an indication of water depth that facilitates the calculations concerning thicknesses of subbottom strata.2 Seismic Shear Methods Seismic shear methods record the time of arrival of seismic waves created at a point transverse to the line of the geophone array. A fathometer survey (Section 5. (1985) found that this method was more successful than conventional seismic refraction and reflection in detecting subsurface fissures that have developed where overpumping of ground water has caused subsidence. Basic instrumentation for seismic shear measurements is similar to the equipment used with seismic refraction and reflection methods except that layouts are modified to record the time of arrival of seismic shear waves (S waves). the ground-water surface can be more readily differentiated from other lithologic contacts. A grid pattern of survey lines allows a threedimensional representation of the subsurface. S waves are generated by delivering a sledgehammer blow to the soil at an angle to the ground surface or by using a set of three sequential explosive shots. When used in combination with seismic refraction data. Table 5-4 identifies several recent studies reporting the use of seismic shear in hydrogeologic investigations and for fracture detection. in which particles move in a transverse direction relative to the propagation of the wave rather than back and forth as in a compressional wave (P wave).

Although its use has not been reported in the ground-water and contaminated site characterization literature. with low frequency waves sampling greater depths. and surface waves of the Rayleigh type are monitored as they propagate past the two transducers.33 Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves Spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) is used to measure dynamic soil properties.4. primarily for the purpose of evaluating soil strength and stability in response to stress from earthquakes.3. Table 5-4 identifies a selection of references on the use of the SASW method.5.3).1 Sonar Methods The term sonar is usually applied to the use acoustic signals to detect the interface between water and the water bottom surface as well as objects in water or lying on the bottom. potential applications of this method include geotechnical investigations for the design of structures at Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) facilities and remediation­ related activities. 5. 5-9 . which involves the detection of signals that travel through both water and the sediments below the water). Successive seismic impulses of different wavelengths allow the sampling of different depths of soil. although the term also has been used to describe continuous seismic profiling. Cross-hole seismic methods also are used to measure these soil properties (see Section 7. A vertical impulse is generated on the ground surface. These sonar methods are classified as acoustic rather than seismic because the signals that are detected do not travel through the earth (unlike continuous seismic profiling. The technique calls for the use of two vertical transducers placed on the ground surface at equal distances from an imaginary centerline. Two sonar methods that have potential for application at contaminated sites where surface water is present include side-scan sonar and fathometer water bottom surveys.4 Acoustic Methods 5.

The resolution of the image is sufficient to identify details such as bedrock outcrops.4.g. Table 5-4 identifies some of the literature on the use of sonar methods. rough or smooth mud surfaces. however. A fathometer survey is required for accurate interpretation of continuous seismic profiles. converts the mechanical wave energy to an electrical signal that is filtered and amplified. and initiation and propagation of fractures through rather than between mineral grains).Side-scan sonar involves using a boat to pull a towfish that contains transducers for sending bursts of high-intensity. operation of 5-10 . barometric changes. an accelerometer. grain boundary movement. The method involves the detection of subaudible sound waves caused by the release of stored elastic-strain energy in stressed materials (e. transmits signals to a sensor. and a signal counter records a count each time the signal exceeds a threshold that is above the background noise level. thunderstorms. and collapsed features. is a seismic method that uses a natural field signal source.2 Acoustic Emission Monitoring Acoustic emission monitoring. The signals are amplified and processed to create an image of the water bottom surface that may cover as much as several hundred meters on both sides of the survey line.. Acoustic emission installations require preliminary testing to distinguish background noise levels from such factors as wind. gravel or boulders. except that it only records bottom topography directly below the instrument. is directly related to the investigation of contaminated sites. sand surfaces. inserted in the ground or lowered down a borehole. high-frequency acoustic signals and for receiving the echoes from these signals. power lines. It is classified as an acoustic method here because that is the term that is most commonly used for this method (see references identified in Table 5-4). The sensor. A wave guide (steel rod or plastic pipe). none of the material cited. Both instruments can be used in conjunction with an underwater magnetometer to locate metal containers at or below the sediment surface. A fathometer is similar to side-scan sonar. also called the microseismic method. Acoustic emission monitoring is mainly used to detect instabilities in engineered structures such as dams or impoundments. 5. dislocations.

seismic cone penetrometry. and vehicular traffic. 1986)..e.nearby machinery. downhole. 5-11 . Borehole acoustic velocity logs can be used to calibrate surface seismic surveys (Wrege. Monitoring may be continuous or periodic. vertical seismic profiling uphole. acoustic-waveform. passing airplanes. acoustic velocity.5 Borehole Acoustic and Seismic Methods A variety of borehole acoustic (i.. 5. and cross-hole profiling) methods are covered in Chapter 7.e. acoustic televiewer) and seismic (i.

Palmer (1986). Wang et al. Papers: Kanemori et al. Domzalski (1956). Soske (1959). Redwine et al. Scott et al. (1984). Rehm et al. Widess (1973) Auld (1990). Use of Computers: Ackermann et al. Sander (1978). Burwell (1940). Evison (1952). Meidav (1968) Auld (1990). Sander (1978). (1992) References Analysis/ Interpretation Wave Theory Texts Other Texts/Reports Covering Seismic Retraction Review Papers Theory Rock Properties Blind Zone/Limitations SRR-SRL Comparison Seismic Sources 5-12 . Lankston (1989).b). Davis (1988). Slotnick (1959). (1988). 1988). Stare (1962) Dix (1939a. Lankston and Lankston (1986). Miller et al. Redpath (1973). Wallace (1970) Adams (1992). Hobson (1970). (1974). Palmer (1980). Green (1974). Russell (1988). Wrege (1986) Criner (1966). Hawkins (1961—reciprocal method). (1992). Lankston (1988). Musgrave (1967).S. 1977a. Scott (1973. (1988).b). see also Table 1-4 for identification of general geophysics texts covering seismics Allen (1980). (1986). (1985). (1972). (1983). U. Linehan (1951). Scott and Markiewicz (1990). 1988a-hydrogeology). (1985). White (1965) Benson et al. Bland (1988). Dix (1952-oil prospecting). Haeni (1986c. (1992). Mooney (1984). Sauck (1991). Pullan and Hunter (1985). Carmichael (1982) Burke (1970). Pitchford et al. EPA (1987). Fagin (1991). USGS (1980). McDonald et al. Zohdy et al. (1987). Tucker and Yorsten (1973). Haeni et al. Gahr et al.Table 5-1 Index to General References on Seismic Refraction Topic General General Texts Badley (1985). Dix (1960). Hasselström (1969). Waters (1981) Berkhout (1985. Tucker (1982). Berkhkout (1987).

(1968). Robinson and Costain (1971). . 1986). Warrick and Winslow (1960). (1978). . Wallace and Spangler (1970). (1977). Libby et al. Wallace (1970) Colon-Dieppa and Quinones-Marquez (1985). Duffin and Elder (1979). Lennox and Carlson (1967). Torres­ Gonzalez (1985). 1986a). Worthington and Griffiths (1975) Burwell (1940).Table 5-2 Index to References on Applications of Seismic Refraction Topic References Seismic Refraction Abdications: Ground Water Artificial Recharge Quantitative Aquifer Properties* Glacial/Alluvial Aquifers* Glacial/Alluvial Deposits over Bedrock* Thick Alluvial Basins* Bianchi and Nightingale (1975) Barker and Worthington (1973). Visarion et al. Haeni and Melvin (1984). Scott et al. Pankratz et al. Winter (1984). Mattick et al. Haeni and Anderson (1980). Crosby (1976). Galfi and Pales (1970). (1983). (1979) Ackermann et al. Scott et al. Peterson et al. Worthington (1975a). Eaton and Watkins (1970). Mazzaferro (1980). Arnow and Mattick (1968). Wachs et al. Grady and Handman (1983). Sharp et al. Sander (1978). (1970). (1983). (1965). (1978). Mower (1968). van Zijl and Huyssen (1971). (1972) Birch (1976). Scott et al. Broadbent (1978). (1968). Dudley and McGinnis (1976). Tolman et al. Emerson (1968). Joiner et al. (1972). Morrissey (1983). Sjogren and Wager (1969) Duguid (1968). Gill et al. (1976) Johnson (1954). (1973). Marshall (1971). Dickerman and Johnson (1977). Topper and Legg (1974) Alluvium-SedimentaryCrystalline Rock* Stratified Drift-Dense Till-Crystalline Rock* Sand/Gravel-Thin TillCrystalline Rock* Aquifer-Bedrock Similar Velocity* 5-13 . Sander (1978). Mercer and Lappala (1970). Frohlich (1979). (1972). Scott et al. Mazzaferro (1980. Haeni (1978.

(1985). Ehrlich and Rosen (1987). Leisch (1976). Gilmer and Helbling (1984). Joiner et al. Bianchi and Nightingale (1975). (1991). Regan et al. Harmon (1984). Greenhouse et al. Hasselström (1969). Wrege (1986). (1987). Emilsson and Wroblewski (1988). (1988). Taylor and Cherkauer (1984). Sverdrup (1986). Benson et al. Carpenter et al. Wilson et al.) Variable-Thickness Lithic Sediments* Other Ground-Water Studies Pakiser and Black (1957) Ackermann (1976-permafrost). Adams et al. Sauck (1991). Sendlein and Yazicigil (1981).* Stickel et al. Carpenter and Bassarab (1964). (1962). Laudon (1984). (1970). (1991). Laymen and Gilkeson (1989). Saunders and Stanford (1984). Allen and Rogers (1989).Table 5-2 (cont. Rodrigues (1987). Van Overmeeren (1980. Blackey and Stoner (1988). Cichowicz et al. (1991). Lennox and Carlson (1970). Walsh (1988). (1981). Hobson (1970). 1989). (1981) Carpenter (19%3). O'Brien and Stone (1984. Hennon et al. Urban and Pasquerell (1992-fractured rock). Underwood et al. Williams et al. Fowler and Ayubcha (1986). Sendlein and Yazicigil (1981) Barr (1973) Landfills Monitoring Well Design Waste Injection 5-14 . (1984). 1981). Grady and Haeni (1984). Wantland (1951). Hinchey and Gould (1990). Pease and James (1981). Shields and Sopper (1969). Bonnini (1959). 1984). Evans and Schweitzer (1984). Bruehl (1983. (1990). (1984). (1991) Gorin and Gilkeson (1991). Ayers (1988. (1989). Yaffe et al.) Topic References Seismic Refraction Applications: Ground Water (cont. Feld et al. 1985). Worthington (1975b). McQuown et al. Stierman et al. Linehan and Keith (1949). Roberts et al. (1952). Lankston et al. (1983). Kent and Sendlein (1972). Butler and Llopis (1985). Joiner and Scarborough (1969). Hobson et al. James (1981). Zohdy (1965) Seismic Refraction Applications: Contaminated Sites Contaminated Sites Adams (1992). (1986). Hall and Pasicznyk (1987). Wightman (1988). (1967).* Ali (1985).

McGinnis and Kempton (1961). Steeples et al.Table 5-2 (cont. LaMoreaux and Madison (1984) Gardner (1939) Cook (1964). (1984). (1987) McDonald et al. (1992). (1992) Imse and Levine (1985). Nyquist et al. 5-15 . Stierman et al. (1986) Denne et al. (1986). Johnson (1954). Filler and Kuo (1989). Washburn (1992). Ghatge and Pasicznyk (1986). Lennox and Carlson (1967).) Topic References Seismic Refraction Applications: Subsurface Characterization Bedrock Valleys and Topography Coastal Areas Karst Structure/Stratigraphy Subsurface Cavities Unconsolidated Deposits Burgdorf and Richard (1984). Annotations to references in these sections can be found in Haeni (1988a). Zehner (1973) * Classification taken from Haeni (1988a). Tibbets and Scott (1972). Hinchey and Gould (1990). Pullan et al. Ehrlich and Rosen (1987). O’Brien and Stone (1984).

Hunter and Pullan (1989). 1988). (1990-monitoring well design). (1991). Waters (1981) Badley (1985). (1985). 1984). Hunter et al. Kopsick and Stander (1983). 1989). Wrege (1986). Singh (1986-shallow) Lepper and Ruskey (1976) Alluvium Structure/Stratigraphy Bedrock Coal Seams 5-16 . Ruskey (1982). Johnson and Clark (1992). Benson et al. Slaine (1988). Lewis et al. Irons and Lewis (1989. Kleyn (1983) Interpretation Applications Contaminated Sites Engineering Investigations Ground Water Adams (1992). (1992) Ayers (1988.S. Texts: Redwine et al. Kleinschmidt and Pelton (1989). (1952). U. Miller and Steeples (1990). (1985) Allen et al. Birkelo et al. 1990). Lankston et al. Steeples and Miller (1988). EPA (1987) McDonald et al. Gagne et al. Schepers (1975). Steeples and Miller (1988). (1991). (1987).Table 5-3 Index to References on Seismic Reflection Methods Topic General References Knapp and Steeples (1986a. Irons et al. Lankston and Lankston (1983. Bikis and Lewis (1992). Pakiser and Warrick (1956).b). Sauck (1991). (1982. (1989). Richards (1960) Miller et al. (1985). USGS (1980) Hasbrouck (1990a).

Hasbrouck (1986. Stokoe and Nazarian (1985). Haeni (1986b. Tufekcic (1978) Cardinell and Berg (1992). Woods (1985).Table 5-4 Index to References on Miscellaneous Seismic and Acoustic Methods Topic Continuous Seismic Profiling General Texts: Burdic (1991). Coates (1989). Lord and Koerner (1980. 1981a. Van Overeem (1977). EG&G Environmental Equipment Division (1977). Moody and Van Reenan (1967). 1984). (1991). 1990b. Descour and Miller (1989). Dohr (1985). Trabant (1984). Koerner and Lord (1976. Redwine et al. 1992) Badley (1985). Cherkauer and Taylor (1988). Wrege et al. Sangree and Widmier (1979). Woods (1985) Boyce et al. 1987). (1983. (1991). Roksandic (1978). Fish and Carr (1990). (1985) Bibliography Case Studies Fracture Detection Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves Acoustic Emission Monitoring Sonar 5-17 . (1981). 1992-contaminated site). (1985). Saucier (1969. 1981). Koerner et al. 1987. (1983) References Interpretation Case Studies Seismic Shear General Texts/Symposia CH2M Hill (1991). Dobecki (1988). Wollansky et al. 1987). Wailer and Davis (1984) Baxter and Mills (1992). Hughes (1991. Huck (1982). (1992). Redwine et al. Martin and Davis (1987). EPA (1979). (1985) Bates et al. (1976.S. Dobecki (1988). Ewing and Tirey (1961). (1985-CSP and sonar). Van Reenan (1964). Hersey (1963). 1981b). 1978. (1985). Haeni and Melvin (1984). Lord and Koerner (1980. (1991) CH2M Hill (1991). Morrissey et al. Sylwester (1983). 1988b). 1991). Hansen (1986). 1970). Redwine et al. U. Leenhart (1969). Wrege (1986). Danbom and Domenico (1987). Richard et al. Review Papers: Haeni (1986b. Davis et al. Sjostrom et al. Johnson and Clark (1992) Ensley (1987) Bates et al. Hassab (1989—signal processing). Papers: Bates et al. (1992). Missimer and Gardner (1976).

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MAG. Eng. Schellentrager. Calhoun. [S. T. and Eng. Smith. J. Irr. Using Radar to Investigate Organic Soil Thickness in Florida Everglades. Smith. 1990. Soc. [First edition 1976]. Schlinger. Lab. Sharma.M. S. In: Proc. J.A. and S. Hanover. W. D. New York. NY.. Nicholas.A. and G. [GPR] Silliman. M. Brett. Surface Geophysical Definition of Ground Water Contamination and Buried Waste: Case Studies of Electrical Conductivity and Magnetic Applications. U. U. and Mineral Exploration Geophysicists. Smith. S. 1990. Identifying Fracture Interconnections Between Boreholes Using Natural Temperature Profiling Conceptual Basis. and J. Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers.). P. on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems. 1980. Seppamen. 1986. 1987. Soc. Res. and A. and G. Schutts. and R. L.. 1989.A.L. Radar Profiling of Buried Reflections and the Ground Water Table. and A. Geophysical Methods. Using Radar for Groundwater Investigations.M. SRR. Arcone. G. ER.S.F.F. CO. Cox. P. J. Ground Water 27(3):393-402. Doolittle. and Drain. 591+ pp. Elsevier. Eng. D.I. Army Cold Reg.S. 1984. In: Proc. Doolittle.J. J. R. The Innovative Application of Surface Geophysical Techniques for Remedial Investigations. Am. McGraw-Hill.G. 2nd ed.E. Dublin. C. OH. New York. Schneider.A.S.E. 52:746-751. 6-32 . Shih.W. 1974. W. Myhre. Sellman. 1989. R. Radar Handbook. and M. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1544-B. D. Geophysical Methods in Geology. Soil Sci. CRREL Report 83-11. on Midwestern Ground Water Issues (Indianapolis.D. In: Ground Water Management 5:947-961 (5th NOAC). Magnetometer and Gradiometer Surveys for Detection of Underground Storage Tanks. 428 pp. Eng. P.V. pp. S. 112:110-118. Ass. 1962. ER. New York—A Case History. Golden. IN).. 1988. In: Ground Water Management 5:889-903 (5th NOAC). Markt..Saunders. Grubbs. TDEM. MAG. (ed. pp. Delaney. 1986. GPR. Silliman.E. 28(1):37-50. S. Doolittle..A. R. An Application of Thermometry to Study of Groundwater. NH. Skolnik. soil gas] Schaetele. Estimating Fracture Connectivity Using Measurement of Borehole Temperature During Pumping. J. Englewood Cliffs. Exploration for a Buried Valley by Resistivity and Thermal Probe Surveys. 1991. and C. Gilmore. Nichols.W. Soil Sci.V. [EMI. NWWA Focus Conf.F. C. Schellentrager. Robinson. 177 pp. NJ.V. 231-248. Bull. Geol. Soc. GT] Sheriff. EM.W. A Ground Penetrating Radar and Magnetometry Survey at Nuclear Lake. National Water Well Association. (lst) Symp. [GR. 48:651-656. Shapiro. S. 1991. 621-641. Using Ground-Penetrating Radar to Update Soil Survey Information. Pergamon Press. Ground Water 12(2):78-83. 1988. 1983. J. 2nd ed. Am. E. Prentice Hall. GR. and D. Wettstein. S... geothermal] Shih.

Smith, G.D., F. Newhall, and L.H. Robinson. 1960. Soil-Temperature Regimes-Their Characterization and Predictability. SCS-TP-144. USDA Soil Consevation Service, 14 pp. Soil Conservation Service. 1988. Second International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar, March 6-10, 1988, Gainesville, FL. U.S. Department of Agriculture, 179 pp. Sophocleous, M. 1979. A Thermal Conductivity Probe Designed for Easy Installation and Recovery from Shallow Depth. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 43:1056-1058. Sorey, M.L. 1971. Measurement of Vertical Ground-Water Velocity from Temperature Profiles in Wells. Water Resources Research 7(4):963-970. Spangler, D.P. and F.J. Libby. 1968. Application of Gravity Survey Methods to Watershed Hydrology. Ground Water 6(6):21-26. Stallman, R.W. 1963. Computation of Ground-Water Velocity from Temperature Data. In: Methods of Collecting and Interpreting Ground Water Data, R. Bentall (compiler), U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1544-H, pp H36-H46. Stallman, R.W. 1965. Steady One-Dimensional Fluid Flow in a Semi-Finite Porous Medium with Sinusoidal Surface Temperature. J. Geophys. Res. 70(12):2821-2827. Stanfill, III, D.F. and K.S. McMillan. 1985. Radar-Mapping of Gasoline and Other Hydrocarbons in the Ground. In: Proc. 6th Nat. Conf. on Management of Uncontrolled Hazardous Waste Sites, Hazardous Materials Control Research Institute, Silver Spring, MD, pp.269-274. Stearns, B.G. and L.M.J. Dialmann, III. 1986. Geophysical Techniques and Monitoring Network Design at the Sike Disposal Pit Hazardous Waste Site, Crosby, TX. In: Proc. Surface and Borehole Geophysical Methods and Ground Water Instrumentation Conf. and Exp., National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH, pp. 657-673. [ER, GPR] Stevens, Jr., H.H., J.F. Ficke, and G.F. Smoot. 1975. Water Temperature-Influential Factors, Field Measurement and Data Presentation. U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations TWRI 1-D1. Stewart, M.T. 1980. Gravity Survey of a Deep Valley. Ground Water 18(1):24-30. Stewart, M. and J. Wood. 1986. Geologic and Geophysical Character of Fracture Zones in a Carbonate Aquifer. In: Proc. Focus Conf. on southeastern Ground Water Issues (Tampa, FL), National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH, pp. 289-294. [ER, GR] Stierman, DJ., L.C. Ruedisili, and J.M. Stangl. 1986. The Application of Surface Geophysics to Mapping Hydrogeologic Conditions of a Glaciated Area in Northwest Ohio. In: Proc. Surface and Borehole Geophysical Methods and Ground Water Instrumentation Conf. and Exp., National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH, pp. 591-600. [ER, SRR, MAG] Strange, W.E. 1970. The Use of Gravimeter Measurements in Mining and Groundwater Exploration. In: Mining and Groundwater Geophysics/1967, L.W. Merely (ed)j Geological Survey of Canada Economic Geology Report 26, pp. 46-50. Struttmann, T. and T. Anderson. 1989. Comparison of Shallow Electromagnetic and the Proton Precession Magnetometer Surface Geophysical Techniques to Effectively Delineate Buried Wastes.

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In: Superfund ’89, Proceedings of the 10th Annual Conference, Hazardous Material Control Research Institute, Silver Spring, MD, pp. 27-34. Summers, W.K 1971. The Annotated Indexed Bibliography of Geothermal Phenomena. New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NW. [More than 14,000 references.] Supkow, DJ. 1971. Subsurface Heat Flow as a Means for Determining Aquifer Characteristics in the Tucson Basin, Pima County, Arizona. University of Arizona Ph.D thesis, 181 pp. Sutcliffe, Jr., H. and B.F. Joyner. 1966. Packer Testing in Water Well near Sarasota, Florida. Ground Water 4(2):23-27. [caliper, fluid conductivity, temperature] Suzuki, S. 1960. Percolation Measurements Based on Heat Flow Through Soil with Special Reference to Paddy Fields. J. Geophysical Research 65(9):2883-2885. Tareev, B. 1975. Physics of Dielectric Materials. Mir, Moscow. Taylor, K.R. and M.E. Baker. 1988. Use of Ground-Penetrating Radar in Defining Glacial Outwash Aquifers. In: Proc. of the Focus Conf. on Eastern Regional Ground Water Issues (Stanford, CT), National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH, pp. 77-98. Taylor, S.A. and R.D. Jackson. 1986a. Temperature. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 1, 2nd ed., A. Klute (ed.), Agronomy Monograph No. 9. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, pp. 927­ 940. Taylor, S.A. and R.D. Jackson. 1986b. Heat Capacity and Specific Heat. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 1, 2nd ed., A. Klute (ed.), Agronomy Monograph No. 9. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, pp. 941-944. Tibbets, B.L. and J.H. Scott. 1972. Geophysical Measurements of Gold-Bearing Gravels, Nevada County, California. U.S. Bureau of Mines Report of Investigation 7584. [SRR, GR] Trabant, P.K. 1984. Applied High-Resolution Geophysical Methods- Offshore Geoengineering Hazards. International Human Resource Development Corp., Boston, MA, 265 pp. [CSP, GPR] Trainer, F.W. 1968. Temperature Profiles of Water Wells as Indicators of Bedrock Fractures. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 600-B, pp. 210-214. Truman, C. C., H.F. Perkins, L.E. Asmussen, and H.D. Allison. 1988. Using Ground-Penetrating Radar to Investigate Variability in Selected Soil Properties. J. Soil and Water Conservation 43:341-345. Truman, C. C., L.E. Asmussen, and H.D. Allison. 1991. Ground-Penetrating Radar: A Tool for Mapping Reservoirs and Lakes. J. Soil and Water Conservation 46(5):370-373. Ulriksen, P.F. 1982. Application of Impulse Radar to Civil Engineering. Geophysical Survey Systems Inc., Hudson, NH. Underwood, J.E. and J.W. Eales. 1984. Detecting a Buried Crystalline Waste Mass with GroundPenetrating Radar. In: NWWA/EPA Conf. on Surface and Borehole Geophysical Methods in Ground Water Investigations (1st, San Antonio TX), National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH, pp. 654-665,

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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1987. A Compendium of Superfund Field Operations Methods, Part 2. EPA/540/P-87/001 (OSWER Directive 9355.0-14) (NTIS PB88-181557). [EMI, ER, SRR, SRL, MAG, GPR, BH] U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1993. Subsurface Field Characterization and Monitoring Techniques: A Desk Reference Guide, Volume I: solids and Ground Water. EPA/625/R-93/003a. Available from EPA Center for Environmental Research Information, Cincinnati, OH. [Section 1.5 covers GPR, MAG, GR and Section 1.6 covers thermal methods.] U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). 1980. Geophysical Measurements. In: National Handbook of Recommended Methods for Water Data Acquisition, Chapter 2 (Ground Water), Office of Water Data Coordination, Reston, VA pp. 2-24 to 2-76. [TC, MT, AMT, EMI, ER, IP, SRR, SRL, GR, BH] van Beek, L.K.H. 1965. Dielectric Behavior of Heterogeneous Systems. In: Progress in Dielectrics, Vol. 7, J.B. Birks (eds.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 69-114. Van Overmeeren, R.A. 1980. Tracing by Gravity of a Narrow Buried Graben Predicted by Seismic Refraction for Groundwater Investigation in North Chile. Geophysical Prospecting 28:392-407. Van Overmeeren, R.A. 1981. Combination of Electrical Resistivity, Seismic Retraction, and Gravity Measurements for Groundwater Exploration in Sudan. Geophysics 46:1304-1313. Von Hippel, A.R. 1954a. Dielectrics and Waves. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 284 pp. Von Hippel, A.R. (ed.). 1954b. Dielectrics: Materials and Applications. MIT Press, Cambridge MA, 438 pp. Wallace, D.E. and D.P. Spangler. 1970. Estimating Storage Capacity in Deep Alluvium by GravitySeismic Methods. Bull. Int. Assn. Sci. Hydrology 15(2):91-104. Walsh, D.C. 1989. Surface Geophysical Exploration for Buried Drums in Urban Environments: Applications in New York City. In: Proc. Third Nat. Outdoor Action Conf. on Aquifer Restoration, Ground Water Monitoring and Geophysical Methods, National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH, pp. 935-949. [EMI, MAG] Watts, R.D. and A.W. England 1976. Radio-Echo Soundings of Temperate Glaciers: Ice Properties and Sounder Design Criteria. J. Glaciology 17:39-48. [GPR] Watson, J., D. Stedje, M. Barcelo, and M. Stewart. 1990. Hydrogeologic Investigation of Cypress Dome Wetlands in Well Field Areas North of Tampa Florida. In: Ground Water Management 3:163-176 (7th NWWA Eastern GW Conference). [TDEM, VLF, ER, GPR] Weaver, H.G. and G.S. CampbeI1. 1985. Use of Peltier Coolers as Soil Heat Flux Transducers. Soil Sci. SOC. Am. J. 49:1065-1066. West, R.E. and J.S. Sumner. 1972. Ground-Water Volumes from Anomalous Mass Determinations for Alluvial Basins. Ground Water 10(3):24-32. [GR] Westphalen, O. 1991. The Application of Borehole Geophysics to Identify Fracture Zones and Define Geology at Two New England Sites. In: Ground Water Management 7:535-546. (8th NWWA

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Eastern GW Conference). [caliper, SP, SP resistance, temperature, gamma, gamma-gamma, neutron, acoustic televiewer] White, R.M. and S.S. Brandwein. 1982. Application of Geophysics to Hazardous Waste Investigations. In: Proc. (3rd) Nat. Conf. on Management of Uncontrolled Hazardous Waste Sites, Hazardous Materials Control Research Institute, Silver Spring, MD, pp. 91-93. [EMI, ER, GPR, MAG] Wierenga, P.J., D.R. Nielsen, and R.M. Hagan. 1969. Thermal Properties of Soils Based upon Field and Laboratory Measurements. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 33:354-360. Williams, J.H. and R.W. Conger. 1990. Preliminary Delineation of Contaminated Water-Bearing Fractures Intersected by Open-Hole Bedrock Wells. Ground Water Monitoring Review 10(4):118­ 126. [gamma, SP resistance, caliper, fluid resistivity, temperature, acoustic televiewer, thermal flowmeter] Williams, J.H., L.D. Carswell, O.B. Lloyd, and W.C. Roth. 1984. Borehole Temperature and Flow Logging in Selected Fractured Rock Aquifers in East Central Pennsylvania. In: NWWA/EPA Conf. on Surface and Borehole Geophysical Methods in Ground Water Investigations (1st, San Antonio, TX), National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH, pp. 842-852. Wilson, G.V., T.J. Joiner, and J.L. Warner. 1970. Evaluation, by Test Drilling, of Geophysical Methods Used for Ground-Water Development in the Piedmont Area, Alabama. Alabama Geological Survey Circular 65, 15 pp. [ER, MAG, SRR] Wilson, M.P., D.N. Peterson, and T.F. Ostrye. 1983. Gravity Exploration of a Buried Valley in the Appalachian Plateau. Ground Water 21(5):589-596. Wire, J. C., J.K. Hofer, and D.J. Moser. 1984 Ground Magnetometer and Gamma-Ray Spectrometer Surveys for Ground Water Investigations in Bedrock. In: NWWA/EPA Conf. on Surface and Borehole Geophysical Methods in Ground Water Investigations (lst, San Antonio TX), National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH, pp. 288-313. Worthington, P.F. 1975. Procedures for the Optimum Use of Geophysical Methods in Ground-Water Development Programs. Ass. Eng. Geol. Bull. 12(1):23-38. [ER, IP, SRR, GR] Wrege, B.M. 1986. Surface- and Borehole-Geophysical Surveys Used to Define Hydrogeologic Units in South-Central Arizona. In: Proc. Conf. on southwestern Ground Water Issues (Tempe, AZ), National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH, pp. 485-499. [GR, SRR, SRL, seismic shear] Wright, D.L., G.R. Olhoeft, and R.D. Watts. 1984. Ground-Penetrating Radar Studies on Cape Cod. In: NWWA/EPA Conf. on Surface and Borehole Geophysical Methods in Ground Water Investigations (lst, San Antonio TX), National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH, pp. 666-680. Wynn, J.C. 1979. An Experimental Ground-Magnetic and VLF-EM Traverse over a Buried Paleochannel Near Salisbury, Maryland. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 79-105, 8 pp. Yazicigil, H. and L.V.A. Sendlein. 1982. Surface Geophysical Techniques in Ground Water Monitoring, Part II. Ground Water Monitoring Review 2(1):56-62. [ER, thermal] Yearsley, E.N., J.J. LoCoco, and R.E. Crowder. 1990. Borehole Geophysics Applied to Fracture Hydrology. In: Ground Water Management 3:255-267 (7th NWWA Eastern GW Conference). [acoustic waveform, temperature, resistivity, brine tracing]

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Zobeck, T.M., J.G. Lyon, D.R. Mapes, and A. Ritchie, Jr. 1985. Calibrating Ground-Penetrating Radar for Soil Applications. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 49:1587-1590. Zohdy, A.A., G.P. Eaton, and D.R. Mabey. 1974. Application of Surface Geophysics to Ground-Water Investigations. U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resource Investigations TWRI 2-D1, 116 pp. [ER, GR, MAG, SRR]

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CHAPTER 6
SURFACE GEOPHYSICS: OTHER METHODS

Four other major types of surface geophysical methods can be used in the study of ground water and contaminated sites. These involve ground penetrating radar (GPR-Section 6. 1), magnetometry (Section 6.2), gravity measurements (Section 6.3) and shallow geothermal measurements (Section 6.4.1). GPR is commonly used for site characterization (e.g., identifying depth to the water table and bedrock) and detection of buried wastes. Magnetic methods are widely used to detect buried metal objects, but also can be used for geologic characterization. Gravity is typically used for mapping bedrock topographies, especially buried valleys, and microgravity surveys can be used to detect subsurface cavities. Shallow geothermal methods have been used to study shallow ground-water flow systems and to monitor landfill leachate.

6.1 Ground Penetrating Radar and Related Methods

6.1.1 Terminology

Geophysical methods using the radio- and microwave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum probably have the most confusing terminology of any surface method (i.e., less consensus early on within the geophysics community). For example, ground penetrating radar (the most common term for this method in the literature) may be referred to as electromagnetic subsurface profiling (Morey and Harrington, 1972), electromagnetic pulse radar (Moffat and Puskar, 1976), pulsed microwave (Lord and Koemer, 1987a), or pulsed radio frequency (Koerner and Lord, 1986). Other names identified by Benson et al. (1984) include ground piercing radar, ground probing radar, and subsurface impulse radar. Microwaves range from about 0.1 to 100 centimeters in wavelength (see Figure 2-1) (the term is something of a misnomer, since, although such wavelengths are small when compared to radio waves, they are extremely long when compared to wavelengths in the visible portion of the spectrum). Sensing in the microwave portion of the EM spectrum can be active or passive.

2). (1984) provide more detailed information on the principles and applications of GPR.2 Ground Penetrating Radar Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been used at contaminated sites since the late 1970s (Table 6-1).. Less commonly. Davis et al. (1984) reported penetration to a depth of 25 meters in dry sandy soil. Figure 6-2 illustrates the types of lithologic and stratigraphic interpretations that can be made using GPR images. Active microwave sensing systems involve a transmitter that provides an independent source of energy and a receiver that senses the reflected or echoed signal. although hundreds of meters are possible in certain materials. Attenuation is particularly severe in clay-rich soils and where water content exceeds 40 percent (Horton et al. Benson et al. Still. sandy. for example. Dragging the antennae along the ground surface creates a continuous profile that gives the greatest resolution of all the surface geophysical methods discussed in this reference guide. a continuous wave (CW) signal is used. 6. soils with high electrical conductivity. except that electromagnetic energy is used instead of acoustic energy. the depth of penetration is generally less than with other methods (1 to 25 meters. and fine-grained materials. The principles involved are similar to reflection seismology (see Section 5. 1981).Passive microwave sensing systems rely on a lens or antenna that receives energy coming from an outside source and focuses it on a detector. is a passive microwave sensing system. clayey. The method involves use of a small antenna to radiate short pulses of highfrequency radio waves (ranging from around 10 MHz to 1. . such as salt domes) and is reduced by fluids. The term radar (an acronym derived from the phrase Radio Detection And Ranging) implies the use of an active energy source for sensing. Thermal infrared scanning (see Section 2.2). Best overall penetration is usually achieved in dry. or conductive soils. powerful bursts of energy called pulses.000 MHz) into the subsurface and a receiving antenna to record variations in the reflected return signal (Figure 6-1). Usually the signal is emitted as short. poorer results are obtained in moist.1. or rocky areas.

Figure 6-1 Block diagram of ground penetrating radar system. Radar waves are reflected from soil-rock interface (from Benson et al. 1984).. 6-3 .

Figure 6-2 Reflection configurations on ground penetrating radar images indicating the lithologic and stratigraphic properties of sediments in the glaciated Northwest (Beres and Haeni. 6-4 . 1991).

GPR is the only consistently reliable method for detecting buried plastic containers (Lord and Koerner. GPR is especially popular for soil characterization. usually the vertical component. Two types of measurements are commonly made with magnetometers: total field measurements and gradient measurements. primarily for use in detecting land mines and subsurface tunnels. 6. Single 55-gallon drums can be sensed up to a depth of 6 meters. Proton precession magnetometers use the precession of spinning protons after a coil is energized momentarily to measure the earth’s total magnetic field. Where drums are buried in shallow trenches. for instance. and piles of drums up to 20 meters (Benson et al. faults. Their main use in ground-water contamination studies is to locate buried metal drums that may be a source of contamination. Uses at contaminated sites include detection of buried containers and leaks. GPR has been used increasingly in the mining industry (Pittman et al. Table 6-l lists over 30 studies reporting the use of GPR at contaminated sites and over 40 references on other applications.. 1987a). Fluxgate magnetometers measure a component of the earth’s magnetic field. Calculating the depth of buried objects with magnetometry is difficult. A magnetometer locates ferrous metals (iron. cavities. by measuring local perturbations in the strength of the earth’s magnetic field. soil horizon and lithologic contacts.. mapping of trench boundaries. and general subsurface characterization. Since then. 1984). and nickel) in drums and buried pipelines..The military provided the impetus for the development of GPR in the mid-1960s and early 197Os. and bedding joints and planes in rocks (Doolittle.2 Magnetometry Magnetic measurements have long been used to map regional geologic structures and to carry out mineral exploration (Reford. 1980). since depth penetration limitations are usually not a problem. trench boundaries also can be located with magnetometer surveys (Gilkeson et al. Magnetometers measure either intensity of the earth’s total magnetic field at a point or gradients in the magnetic field. steel. Proton magnetometers are usually configured for . 1984) and in geologic and soil investigations to characterize depth to water table. 1986). 1987). however.

pendulum. measuring in units of microgals (10” gals). and the influence of surrounding topographic variations. Station measurements along a transect or on a grid require great care in setting up the instrument. and the elevation of each station must be carefully surveyed. shape. Microgravimeters. Fluxgate magnetometers are usually configured as gradiometers. Anomalous readings (measured as gammas) indicate the presence of ferrous metals. and contaminated site investigations. Gravity data obtained in the field must be corrected for elevation. 6. hydrogeologic. Use of gravity measurements for the characterization of fractures and the detection of subsurface -3 6-6 . Table 6-2 lists references for additional information on the use of magnetic methods for geologic. (1984) provide additional information on the use of magnetometers at contaminated sites. which allow continuous measurement of the gradient in the magnetic field along a transect.point total field measurements.S. and gravity meter or gravimeter (Lahee. This type of instrument usually is used in hydrogeologic and contaminated site investigations. are sufficiently sensitive that they can delineate cavities in the subsurface. Three principle classes of instruments are used in conventional gravity measurements: torsion balance. and position of subsurface structures. which requires a closely spaced grid ‘ of station measurements to provide complete coverage of a site. Benson et al. and are interpreted in terms of the size.. latitude. All can detect anomalies as small as one-ten­ millionth (milligals. After corrections. The most common use of gravity measurements for detecting bedrock valleys buried by unconsolidated glacial materials and conducting regional-scale ground-water investigations. which look like topographic contour maps.52 in U.l0 gals) of the earth’ s gravitational field.3 Gravimetrics Gravimetry involves measurement in variations in the intensity of the earth’ s gravitational field (expressed as acceleration in centimeters per second squared. rock density. EPA (1993) summarizes advantages and disadvantages of proton and fluxgate magnetometers. measurements are plotted as Bouger anomaly maps. or gals). earth-tide variations. Section 1. 1961).

cavities has been reported infrequently in the last 30 years; however, such measurements have been used at contaminated site at least a half-dozen times in the last 10 years (Table 6-3). For example, Roberts et al. (1989) obtained gravity data at a landfill in Tippecanoe County, Indiana, and compared this with gravitational estimates based on prelandfill topographic data to determine density variations within the fill material; Section 1.53 in U.S. EPA (1993) summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of gravity surveys.

6.4 Thermal Methods

Measurements of temperature variations in the subsurface can be used as both a nearsurface and a borehole method. Shallow geothermal measurements are a relatively simple method for characterizing shallow ground-water flow and mapping contaminant plumes.
Borehole temperature logging is a common borehole geophysical method, which is covered in this

section on surface methods because there is not a clear dividing line between the two types of measurements and some of the literature is equally applicable to both types of measurements. Table 6-4 identifies references on soil temperature and other thermal property measurements, shallow geothermal ground-water applications, and borehole temperature logging.
6.4.1 Shallow Geothermal Measurements

Because water has a high specific heat capacity compared to most natural materials, its temperature changes slowly as it migrates through the subsurface. Consequently, shallow-earth temperatures can be related to the occurrence and flow of ground water (Cartwright, 1968a; Birman, 1969). Shallow, moving ground water produces lower temperatures compared to dry, shallow bedrock. Shallow geothermal measurements are usually made by measuring subsurface temperatures at a selected depth (up to 40 inches) at numerous stations over a short time span. In the late 1960s and early 1970s a number of shallow geothermal ground-water studies were conducted (Table 6-4), and the method has been used infrequently at contaminated sites. Cartwright and McComas (1968) used soil temperature surveys at several landfills in northeastern

Illinois. These surveys indicated the presence of a halo of higher temperatures around the landfills, and indicated areas of surface recharge. Gilkeson and Cartwright (1983) review use of shallow geothermic methods for ground-water monitoring and describe several other examples of their use at contaminated sites.
6.4.2 Borehole Temperature Logging

Temperature measurement is one of the most commonly used borehole logging methods because it is simple and inexpensive. A temperature log involves recording temperature relative to depth with a temperature sensor, usually a thermistor mounted inside a cage or tube to protect it and to channel the fluid past the sensor. Temperature logs taken shortly after the cessation of drilling often provide an indication of the location of permeable strata. A
differential-temperature log involves recording the rate of change in temperature relative to

depth. Data can be obtained by computer calculation from a temperature log or by using a specially designed logging probe that utilizes either two sensors with a vertical spacing or one sensor and an electronic memory that compares the temperature at one time with those taken at previous times. A radial differential temperature tool uses two highly sensitive temperature probes that extend from the probe to contact the casing. As the probes are rotated, they measure differences in temperature at two points on the casing 180 degrees. apart. The probes also can detect cooler water flowing behind a casing that has not been properly sealed.

6-8

Table 6-1 Index to References on Ground Penetrating Radar T o p i c General Report/General Papers Texts: Benson et al. (1984), EC&T et al. (1990), Morey and Harrington (1972), Lord and Koerner (1987a), Pilon (1992), Pitchford et al. (1988), Pittman et al. (1974), Rehm et al. (1985), Redwine et al. (1985), Skolnik (1990), Trabant (1984), Uhiksen (1982), U.S. EPA (1987); Papers: Annan and Cosway (1992), Bjelm et al. (1983), Daniels (1989), Lepper and Dennen (1990), Moffat and Puskar (1976), Morey (1974), Olhoeft (1984, 1988-bibliography), Roberts et al. (1992) Hänninen and Autio (1992), Lucius et al. (1990), Soil Conservation Service (1988) Akhadov (1980), Daniel (1967), Hasted (1974), Hoekstra and Delaney (1974), Kracchman (1970), Tareev (1975), van Beek (1965), von Hippel (1954a,b); Papers: Saint-Amant and Strangway (1970), Olhoeft (1990) Koerner and Lord (1985), Koerner et al. (1978, 1981), Lord and Koerner (1982) References

Symposia Subsurface Dielectric Properties

Continuous Microwave

Applications: Subsurface Contamination Contaminated Sites Barton and Ivanhenko (1991), Brewster et al. (1992 perchloroethylene), Cichowicz et al. (1981), Cosgrove et al. (1987), Douglas et al. (1992), Evans and Schweitzer (1984), Glaccum et al. (1982), Horton et al. (1981), Koerner et al. (1981), Kuo and Stangland (1986), Folwer and Ayubcha (1986), Hankins et al. (1991), Lawrence (1984), Osborne (199l-remote controlled), Pease and James (1981), Roberts et al. (1989), Russell (1990), Saunders et al. (1991), Smith and Markt (1988), Stanfill and McMillan (1985), Steams and Dialmann (1986), Underwood and Bales (1984 buried crystalline waste), White and Brandwein (1982) Allen and Seelen (1992), Bowder et al. (1982), Hager et al. (1991-USTs), Hatch (1987) Hogan (1988), Hu et al. (1992), Koerner et al. (1982), Lord and Koerner (1986, 1987a,b), Osborne (1991-remote controlled), Rudy and Warner (1986 USTs) Annan et al, (1991), Cameron (1988), Cleff (1991), Daniels et al. (1992), Olhoeft (1986, 1992), Olhoeft et al. (1992), Redman et al. (1991), Stanfill and McMillan (1985) Koerner and Lord (1985), Koerner et al. (1978, 1981) Wright et al. (1984)

Buried Containers

NAPL Detection

Leak Detection Sewage Plume

6-9

Table 6-l (cont.) Topic References

Applications: Subsurface Characterization Soil Characteristics Collins and Doolittle (1987), Collins et al. (1986), Doolittle (1982, 1983, 1987), Olson and Doolittle (1985), Puckett et al. (1986), Schellentrager et al. (1988), Shih and Doolittle (1984), Truman et al. (1988), Zobeck et al. (1985) Collins et al. (1989) Imse and Levine (1985), Leckenby (1982) Olson and Doolittle (1985),
Rubin and Fowler (1978), Ulriksen (1982)
Beck and Wilson (1988), Kuo and Stangland (1986)
Houck (1984)
Beres and Haeni (1991), Davis et al. (1984), Dolphin et al. (1978), Rubin
and Fowler (1978), Wright et al. (1984)
Asmussen et al. (1986)
Cook (1956, 1975), Filler and Kuo (1989), Fountain (1976), Friedel et al.
(1990), Leckenby (1982)
Beres and Haeni (1991), Davis et al. (1966), Johnson (1987), Sellman et
al. (1983), Shih et al. (1986), Taylor and Baker (1988), Wright et al.
(1984)
Beres and Haeni (1989), Gorin and Haeni (1989), Haeni (1992), Haeni et al. (1987), Truman et al. (1991), Ulriksen (1982) Watson et al. (1990)

Bedrock Depth Fracture Detection Karst Terrane Moisture Profiles Subsurface Geology Watershed Delineation Subsurface Openings Ground Water

Water Bodies Wetlands

GPR Applications: Miscellaneous Abandoned Well Location Mining Glaciers Aller ( 1984) Annan et al. (1988-potash mines), Cook (1973), Duckworth (1970), Pittman et al. (1984) Harrison (1970), Watts and England (1976)

6-10

Table 6-2 Index to References on Magnetic Methods Topic Texts/Review Papers References Texts: Benson et al. (1984) Bozorth (195 I), Breiner (1973), EC&T (1990), Chikazumi (1964), Nettleton (1971, 1976) Rehm et al. (1985), U.S. EPA (1987), Zohdy et al. (1974); Papers: Hinze (1988) Kufs et al. (1986-statistical modeling of data), Palermo and Brickell (1984) Reford (1980); see also Table 1-4 for general geophysics texts covering magnetic methods

Applications Abandoned Well Location Basalt Aquifers Ground Water Bedrock Depth Topgraphy Contaminated Sites Aller (1984), Martinek (1988) Harmon (1984), Mabey and Oriel (1970) Joiner et al. (1967), Ram Babu et al. (1991), Stierman et al. (1986) Wilson et al. (1970) Birch (1984), Ghatge and Pasicznyk (1986), Mabey and Oriel (1970) Ram Babu et al. (1991), Wire et al. (1984) Wynn (1979) Benson (1991), Allen and Rogers (1989), Blasting (1987), Carr et al. (1990), Evans and Schweitzer (1984), Feld et al. (1983), Fowler and Ayubcha (1986), Fowler and Pasicznyk (1985), Gilkeson et al. (1986) Gihner and Helbling (1984), Hitchcock and Harman (1983) Lord and Koerner (1986, 1987a,b), Palermo and Brickell (1984), Pitchford et al. (1988), Regan et al. (1987), Roberts et al. (1989) Smith and Markt (1988), White and Brandwein (1982) Allen and Seelen (1992), Barrows and Rocchio (1990), Emilsson and Morin (1989), Gilkeson et al. (1992), Hager et al. (1991-USTs), Hatch et al. (1987), Koerner et al. (1982), Lord and Koerner (1987a,b), Rudy and Warner (1986-USTs), Schlinger (1990-USTs), Schutts and Nichols (1991), Struttmann and Anderson (1989), Walsh (1989) Landslide Processes: Bogoslovsky and Ogilvy (1977); Abandoned Iron Ore Mining Area: Cohen et al. (1992)

Buried Drums/Metals

Other

6-11

Table 6-3 Index to References on Gravity Methods

Topic Texts

References Lahee (1961), Nettleton (1971, 1976) Rehm et al. (1985), Redwine et al. (1985), USGS (1980); see also Table l-4 for general geophysics texts covering gravimetric methods Butler (1991), Hinze (1988) LaFehr (1980) Arzi (1975), Blivkovsky (1979), Fajkewicz (1976), Dahlstrand (1985) Imse and Levine (1985), Poeter (1989), Stewart and Wood (1986)

Review Papers Microgravity Survey Applications Contaminated Sites Ground Water

Benson. (1991), Bruehl (1983, 1984) Fowler and Ayubcha (1986), Kick (1989), Regan et al. (1987), Roberts et al. (1989), Rodrigues (1987) Adams et al. (1975), Ali (1985), Ali and Whitely (1981), Carmichael (1976), Carmichael and Henry (1977), Eaton and Watkins (1970) Frohlich (1978), Joiner and Scarbrough (1969) Marshall (197 I), Mattick et al. (1973), Poeter (1989) Spangler and Libby (1968) Strange (1970) Van Overmeeren (1980, 1981), Wallace and Spangler (1970), West and Sumner (1972), Worthington. (1975) Wrege (1986) Adams et al. (1975), Alvarez (1991), Burgdorf and. Richard (1984), Carmichael and Henry (1977), Denne et al. (1984), Ghatge and Pasicznyk (1986), Hall and Hajnal( 1962),. Hansen (1984), Heigold et al. (1964), Henry (1984); Ibrahim and Hinze (1972), Lennox and Carlson (1967, 1970), Mabey (1960) Mabey and Oriel (1970), McGinnis et al. ( 1963) O’ Brien and Stone (1984, 1985) Richard and Wolfe (1990), Stewart (1980), Van Overmeeren (1980), Wilson et al. (1983) Tibbets and Scott (1972) Imse and Levine (1985), Stewart and Wood (1986) Arzi (1977), Butler (1977, 1984), Colley (1963), Dahlstrand (1985), Fajkiewicz (1976) Fountain (1976), Omnes (1977)

Bedrock Topography/ Buried Valleys

Unconsolidated Deposits Fracture Zones Karst/Cavities

6-12

Sheriff (1989). (1980) Bair and Parizek (1978-permeabihty variations).b. Brown et al. Farouki (1981). Morrison (1983). (1983). (1983).D Theses: Cartwright (1973). 1975). Keys and Brown (1978). Williams et al. (1984). (1985). Supkow. Stallman (1963. Trainer (1968). 1974). Fuchs (1986). Gilkeson and Cartwright (1982. Jackson and Kirkham (1958). Birman (1969). Silliman et al. Wierenga et al. Gilkeson et al. Yazicigil and Sendlein (1982) Subsurface Flow Geology Contaminated Sites 6-13 . de Vries (1963. (1975) Parr et al. 1983). Sharma (1986). Cartwright (1968a. (1971). Smith et al. Yearsley et al (1990) Cartwright and McComas (1968). (1983). Ground-Water Flow: Brown et al. 1965). Taylor and Jackson (1986a). Kersten (1949). Rehm et al. Schneider (1962). Kimball et al.Table 6-4 Index to References on Shallow and Borehole Thermal Methods Topic Texts Basic Soil Thermal Properties Soil Temperature Measurement of Soil Thermal Properties References Eve and Keys (1954). Suzuki (1960). Fuchs and Hadas (1973). (1960) Beck et al. Howell (1959). Parsons (1970). Taylor and Jackson (1986b). Sophocleous (1979). Hares et al. Sampayo and Wilke (1963) Buried Valley Detection: Denne et al. (1987). (1985). Cartwright (1970). Kimball and Jackson (1975). Schaetele et al. Jansen and Taylor (1988. Lettau (1971). (1986). Lee (1965). Unpublished Ph. Weaver and Campbell (1985) Shallow Ground-Water Applications Measurement Methods Aquifer Thermal Storage Properties Ground-Water Detection Misener and Beck (1960). Randall (1986). Morin and Barash (1986). Kremar and Masin (1970). Bibliography: Summer (1971) Carlslaw (1986). Jansen (1990). Jansen and Taylor ( 1989). (1985). Stevens et al. Domenico and Palciauskas (1973). Schneider (1962). Horton et al. (1983). (1969) Buchan (199 I). Jackson and Taylor (1986). Jansen (1992). Jessup (1990). (1971) Infiltration/Recharge: Boyle and Saleem (1979). Lapham (1989). Fracture Detection: Howard et al. 1989). Westphalen (1991). Smith (1974). (1984). Rorabaugh (1956). O’ Brien (1970). Nightingale (1975). Gougel (1976). Temperature as Tracer: Davis et al. (1976). Flint and Childs (1987). (1984).

Sammel (1968). (1983) Guyod (1946). Westphaien (1991). Howard et al. Peacock (1965). Yearsley et al. Conaway and Beck (1977) Sillman and Robinson (1989) Bredehoeft and Papadopulos (1965). (1987). Trainer (1968) Conaway (1977).Table 6-4 (cont. Nowak (1953). Stallman (1963) Emilsson and Arnott (1991). Williams and Conger (1990). Michalski (1989) Morin and Barrash (1986). Williams et al. Norris and Spieker (1962a.) Topic References Temperature Logs Temperature Gradient J4P Fracture Connections Vertical Velocity Borehole Case Studies Brown et al. Newman and McDuff (1988) Sorey (1971). (1990) 6-14 . Silliman et al. Sutchffe and Joyner (1966).b). (1984). (1986).

1975. A. Y.P. 1992. Pergamon. ER. Geoexploration 27:1-24. West Lafayette. on Aquifer Restoration. H.L. 1992. [air photos.A. OH. In: Ground Water Management 5:963-977 (5th NOAC). Geophysics 53(12):1556-1564. In: NWWA Conference on Surface and Borehole Geophysical Methods and Ground Water Investigations (2nd. In: Proc. Annan. In: SAGEEP ‘ 92. 3rd Nat. P. Philadelphia. Redman. 1984. National Water Well Association. 475 pp. SRR] Allen. and L. MAG. and M. PA.P. 1007-1020. Sudan. 6-15 .P. National Water Well Association.N. combustible gas detectors] Alvarez.A. Golden.. Ground Water Monitoring and Geophysical Methods. Geophysics and DNAPLs. In: Karst Hydrogeology: Proceedings of the Twelfth Meeting of the International Association of Hydrogeologists. Society of Engineering and Mineral Exploration Geophysicists. Doyle (eds. IP] Akhadov. Geophysical Surveys in Support of a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study at the Municipal Landfill in Metamora. In: Current Practices in Ground Water and Vadose Zone Investigations. Report No.D. Fort Worth. color/thermal IR. 130 pp. Dublin. 1985. J. Saskatchewan. Dublin. [GR. IN.A. D. Rogers. Adams. Arman. 329-352.I. J. Geophysical Determination of Buried Geological Structures and Their Influence on Aquifer Characteristics. GPR] Aller. 1975. and D.). EMI.P. 271-172. [tellurics. American Society for Testing and Materials.). 1981. [GPR] Ani. Sara (eds. Canada.A. L. Cosway. Gendzwill. A. A. Dielectric Properties of Binary Solutions. Hinze.P. pp. R. R. and B. pp.J. J. Ali. EPA/600/2-83/123 (NTIS PB84-141530). and SW. National Water Well Association. 1991. A. and F. MAG. H. AL. 1977. and J. New York. The Use of Geophysics in the Detection of Buried Toxic Agents at a U. 59 (NTIS PB244-879). CO. Sudan. Remote Sensing of Subsurface Karst by Microgravity (Abstract). Ali. J. University of Alabama-Huntsville Press. and R. Ground Penetrating Radar Survey Design.M. MD. Bauman. Geophysical Prospecting 23(3):408-425. Purdue University. Allen. Nielsen and M. Whiteley.P. [MAG. Methods for Determining the Location of Abandoned Wells. Dublin. 1991. 59-68. Also published in NWWA/EPA Series. 1988.6. pp. W. OH.O. Improved Application of Geophysics to Groundwater Resource Inventories in Glaciated Terrains. EMI. gravity] Annan. A. Michigan. Gravity Exploration for Groundwater in the Bara Basin. Arzi. Geoexploration 19:127. 106-120. GPR. ASTM STP 1118. pp... R.L. [ER. Microgravimetry for Engineering Applications.O. Outdoor Action Conf. Gravity and Seismic Refraction Measurements for Deep Ground Water Search in Southern Darfur Region. OH. Brown. Greenhouse. Seelen. Tolson. 1980.M. TX).5 References See Glossary for meaning of method abbreviation. Radar Sounding in Potash Mines. Military Installation.S.A. Huntsville.141. Water Resources Research Center Tech. Davis. 1989.S. pp.

26/27:10-14.S. and C. 573-584. D.G. Soc. GR. and M. R.R. 80(4):617-630. Glaccum. SRR] Beres. F. 362. OH. (4th) Symp. Barrows. Remote Sensing and Geophysical Methods for Evaluation of Subsurface Conditions. 1984.F. 143-194. Am. Also published in 1982 in NWWA/EPA series by National Water Well Association. Bull. 6-16 . and R. Barton.D. G. SRL.M. Subsurface Descriptions by Ground-Penetrating Radar for Watershed Delineation. Int. OH. Exp. Bull. and J.S. 1969. Jr. 1990.R. In: Proc. M. Bjelm. TDEM. 1988.. Ga.Asmussen. Earth Sci. In: Proc. ER. Outdoor Action Conf. on Aquifer Restoration. Perkins. Rocchio. National Water Well Association. Anglin. Benson. First Nat. Follin. 1978. Bull. Lewis Publishers. Ground Water 16(4):254-263.P.F. Wilson. Beck. pp. MI. Ground Water Monitoring and Geophysical Methods. A. SRR. Geol. [EMI. EMI. Geol. Beck.W. Sta. and T. H. Ground Water 29:375-386. BHJ] Benson. GPR. 8:1-19. Geophysical Prospecting 23(3):408-425. Dublin. M. Can. J. Detection of Permeability Variations by a Shallow Geothermal Technique. Electromagnetic Terrain Conductivity and Ground Penetrating Radar Investigations at and Near the CIBA-GEIGY Super-fund Site. B. 1971. Ocean County. In: Practical Handbook of Ground-Water Monitoring. Geothermal Exploration of Ground Water. Ground Water 22(4):427-432. Svensson. 1979. Agric. 1986. Soc. 1987. 357-360. Blasting. Processing and Application in Microgravity Surveys. National Water Well Association. [GPR. 236 pp. 1991. on Environmental Problems in Karst Terranes and Their Solutions (Nashville. Geophysical Techniques for Sensing Buried Wastes and Waste Migration. Allison.. Athens. E. Eng. Interpretation of Ground Penetrating Radar Profiles in Karst Terrane. 347-367. pp. L. Second Conf. Bair. Magnetic Surveying for Buried Metallic Objects.L. OH.A. MAG. MD. Sass. J. EPA 600/7-84-064 (NTIS PB84-198449). MD. Parizek. Golden. Bedrock Depth Estimates from Ground Magnetometer Profiles. on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems. pp.C. Ground Water Monitoring Review 10(3):204-211. 1991. Haeni. Birch.E. Nielsen (ea. New Jersey: Quality Control Assurance Plan and Results. Birman. 1983. MAG. and W.. Application of Ground-Penetrating Radar Methods in Hydrogeologic Studies.H. S. R. A Radar in Geological Subsurface Investigations.J. and Mineral Exploration Geophysicists. R. pp. Eng.C.E. Ass. Dublin.).F. J. ER. TN).. Characterization of an Abandoned Waste Site Using Proton Magnetometry and Computer Graphics. [MAG] Blizkovsky. 1991. 1984. and J. In: Proc. CO. and F. Analysis of Heat Flow Data*c11 4 in situ thermal Conductivity Measurements. Noel. F. L. Res. Dublin. and H. L. Chelsea. Ivanhenko.

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[ER. Res. and J. Steady One-Dimensional Fluid Flow in a Semi-Finite Porous Medium with Sinusoidal Surface Temperature. Water Resources Research 7(4):963-970. Robinson. J. Stanfill. Dublin. G. B. W. SCS-TP-144. Surface and Borehole Geophysical Methods and Ground Water Instrumentation Conf. 1975. 1985. Conf. pp H36-H46. Radar-Mapping of Gasoline and Other Hydrocarbons in the Ground. Silver Spring. pp.. Soil Conservation Service.J. and Data Presentation. 1963.. Spangler. 1986. Geophys. Comparison of Shallow Electromagnetic and the Proton Precession Magnetometer Surface Geophysical Techniques to Effectively Delineate Buried Wastes. OH. U. Libby. Stangl. Soil-Temperature Regims--Their Characterization and Predictability. 1988. R. 43:1056-1058. Sorey. 1970.H. Anderson. and Exp. FL). Stewart. Stallman. and Exp. L. In: Proc. [ER. Computation of Ground-Water Velocity from Temperature Data. SRR. pp. Application of Gravity Survey Methods to Watershed Hydrology. Measurement of Vertical Ground-Water Velocity from Temperature Profiles in Wells. Jr. Newhall. Dublin. L. and F. [ER. R.P. Wood 1986. Stallman. Ground Water 6(6):21-26. March 6-10. Stewart. 657-673.M. The Use of Gravimeter Measurements in Mining and Groundwater Exploration. TX. 1986. Sophocleous. 46-50.S. FL. F.D.). 1989. U. on Southeastern Ground Water Issues (Tampa. pp.T. U. Bentall (compiler). Surface and Borehole Geophysical Methods and Ground Water Instrumentation Conf. Soil Sci. Geologic and Geophysical Character of Fracture Zones in a Carbonate Aquifer. and T. pp. Geological Survey of Canada Economic Geology Report 26. National Water Well Association. OH. M. 1965. Crosby. 6th Nat. Dublin.S. 6-33 . and G.L. Ficke. Ruedisili.J.H. OH. Struttmann. In: Proc. M. H. A Thermal Conductivity Probe Designed for Easy Installation and Recovery from Shallow Depth. Second International Conference Ground Penetrating Radar. GR] Stierman. R. 1960. M. 289-294. 1988. In: Methods of Collecting and Interpreting Ground Water Data.W. MAG] Strange.C. D. and L.G. National Water Well Association. Am. Field Measurement.Smith.W.J. 70(12):2821-2827. In: Mining and Groundwater Geophysicsi/l967. Gainesville. McMillan.S.W. and L. and J.. In: Proc. Soc. 269-274. T.. In: Proc. 1968. D. 1980. III. USDA Soil Conservation Service. Ground Water 18(1):24-30.. GPR] Stevens. III.E. National Water Well Association. Morely (ed. 1971.F. Gravity Survey of a Deep Valley.. The Application of Surface Geophysics to Mapping Hydrogeologic Conditions of a Glaciated Area in Northwest Ohio. 179 pp. Hazardous Materials Control Research Institute. Dialmann.M. and KS. D. Geophysical Techniques and Monitoring Network Design at the Sike Disposal Pit Hazardous Waste Site. 1979. pp. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1544-H. Department of Agriculture. Focus Conf. Water Temperature--Influential Factors. Stearns. M. J. 591-600. Smoot. MD. 14 pp. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations TWRI 1-Dl. J.F.F. on Management of Uncontrolled Hazardous Waste Sites.

MA. and M. San Antonio TX). Ground Water 4(2):23-27. H. F. J. Scott. 1986a. Part 1. and H. NH. A.A. 27-34. GPR] Trainer.In: Superfund ‘ 89.] Supkow.F. Soil and Water Conservation 43:341-345. Klute (ed). pp. S.S. 1982. and B.K. 2nd ed. U. Application of Impulse Radar to Civil Engineering. 9.A. In: NWWA/EPA Conf. J. and R.C. American Society of Agronomy. [caliper. B. Dublin. D. GR] Trabant. 181 pp. [More than 14. Baker. 941-944. Dublin. S. 77-98. Agronomy Monograph No.F.E. Taylor. Jackson. B. Underwood.F.D.E. L. Percolation Measurements Based on Heat Flow Through Soil with Special Reference to Paddy Fields. 1991. pp. Proceedings of the 10th Annual Conference. Truman. Hazardous Material Control Research Institute. Eales.E. Geological Survey Professional Paper 600-B. pp. Jr. fluid conductivity. 9. Temperature Profiles of Water Wells as Indicators of Bedrock Fractures.L. [SRR. The Annotated Indexed Bibliography of Geothermal Phenomena.. Madison. Jackson. American Society of Agronomy.D thesis.. 1968. 1988. Applied High-Resolution Geophysical Method&Offshore Geoengineering Hazards. P. Taylor. Taylor. 1960. Joyner. Summers.K. L. Tibbets. Bureau of Mines Report of Investigation 7584. Klute (ed. Geophysical Survey Systems Inc. 1971.S.W. 1988.. Tareev. University of Arizona Ph. In: Proc. 1984. Florida. pp. 654-665. National Water Well Association. P.R.. Temperature. J. Physics of Dielectric Materials. K. New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. International Human Resource Development Corp. Boston. Part 1. WI. and J. Subsurface Heat Flow as a Means for Determining Aquifer Characteristics in the Tucson Basin. Ground-Penetrating Radar: A Tool for Mapping Reservoirs and Lakes. 1972.D. on Surface and Borehole Geophysical Methods in Ground Water Investigations (lst. OH. Asmussen. 2nd ed. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. W. Arizona.. Mir. and R. pp. C. 1984. National Water Well Association. Geophysical Research 65(9):2883-2885. Madison. of the Focus Conf. Heat Capacity and Specific Heat. 1986b. MD. Socorro. Soil and Water Conservation 46(5):370-373. 265 pp. pp. Use of Ground-Penetrating Radar in Defining Glacial Outwash Aquifers. Pima County... and J. A. H. 1966. S. 1971. Sutcliffe. and H. California. OH. 927­ 940. Ulriksen. on Eastern Regional Ground Water Issues (Stanford.D. Moscow.H. temperature] Suzuki. Allison. U. [CSP. CT). Perkins. Agronomy Monograph No. Nevada County. C. Truman. 6-34 . Detecting a Buried Crystalline Waste Mass with GroundPenetrating Radar.C. Using Ground-Penetrating Radar to Investigate Variability in Selected Soil Properties. WI. J.J.W. Silver Spring. Allison. Hudson. NW. 210-214. In: Methods of Soil Analysis.D. Packer Testing in Water Well near Sarasota.).000 references. Asmussen. 1975.E. Geophysical Measurements of Gold-Bearing Gravels.

1970. Birks (eds. MT. M. 1993. England. and G. EPA/540/P-87/001 (OSWER Directive 9345. VLF. Volume I: Solids and Ground Water. Cambridge.G. SRL. [Section 1. GR. pp. A.C. Van Overmeeren. 1954b. Geophysics 46: 1304. 284 pp.] U. 1976. Westphalen. AMT. Cambridge MA. and M. MAG. ER.1313. IP. Dielectrics and Waves. Outdoor Action Conf. 1981. 0. Combination of Electrical Resistivity. Spangler.6 covers thermal methods. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).S. Chapter 2 (Ground Water). D.U. Geophysical Measurements.R. R. 1980. J. Tracing by Gravity of a Narrow Buried Graben Predicted by Seismic Refraction for Groundwater Investigation in North Chile.B. MAG] Watts. Third Nat. Surface Geophysical Exploration for Buried Drums in Urban Environments: Applications in New York City.E. In: Ground Water Management 7:535-546. SRR. ER. 1990. Barcelo. Soil Sci. MIT Press. Campbell. pp. R. In: National Handbook of Recommended Methods for Water Data Acquisition. Dielectrics: Materials and Applications. OH.). [EMI. D. 49:1065-1066.D.5 covers GPR. Bull. Vol.176 (7th NWWA Eastern GW Conference). 935-949. Use of Peltier Coolers as Soil Heat Flux Transducers. 438 pp Wallace. Part 2. MAG. Stewart. and A. The Application of Borehole Geophysics to Identify Fracture Zones and Define Geology at Two New England Sites. Office of Water Data Coordination..R. 1989. Am. 1991.A. MA. Geophysical Prospecting 28: 1392-407.A.S. SRL. In: Progress in Dielectrics. pp. Stedje. J. In: Proc. Available from EPA Center for Environmental Research Information. GPR. 1985. Walsh. [EMI. GR and Section 1.H. OH. In: Ground Water Management 3: 163. BH] van Beek. Dielectric Behavior of Heterogeneous Systems. Radio-Echo Soundings of Temperate Glaciers: Ice Properties and Sounder Design Criteria. H. and D.0-14) (NTIS PB88-181557). Cincinnati. 1965. [TDEM. 69-114. Ground Water Monitoring and Geophysical Methods. Sci. Boca Raton. ER. Dublin. J.K. VA. L. MIT Press. Int. 7. SRR. A. and Gravity Measurements for Groundwater Exploration in Sudan. (ed. CRC Press. National Water Well Association. FL. on Aquifer Restoration. Hydrology 15(2):91-104. Seismic Refraction. Reston. A Compendium of Super-fund Field Operations Methods. Geological Survey (USGS). Subsurface Field Characterization and Monitoring Techniques: A Desk Reference Guide. Soc. D. 2-24 to 2-76. (8th NWWA 6-35 . Assn. 1987. Van Overmeeren. EMI. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).S.P. 1980. Glaciology 17:39-48 (GPR] Watson. Von Hippel. EPAl625/R-93/003a.W.S. J. [TC.). R. Estimating Storage Capacity in Deep Alluvium by GravitySeismic Methods. Von Hippel. 1954a. GPR] Weaver. BH] U. Hydrogeologic Investigation of Cypress Dome Wetlands in Well Field Areas North of Tampa Florida.

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for use in freshwater aquifers.1 Requirements of Borehole Methods The characteristics of the borehole to be logged may place constraints on the type of borehole logging method that can be used—the primary consideration when identifying borehole logging methods of potential value for a specific situation. The terms borehole and downhole are used interchangeably to refer to such measurements. the type of casing. Table 7-1 lists important characteristics of 41 borehole logging methods with potential for application at contaminated sites. require uncased holes.1 Overview of Downhole Methods Borehole geophysics is the science of recording and analyzing continuous or point measurements of physical properties made in wells or test holes (Keys. which are the focus of near-surface hydrogeological investigations. and highprecision thermal and electromagnetic borehole flowmeters should contribute to greater use of downhole methods in the future. Most specific borehole geophysical techniques have long been in use by the petroleum industry. Nevertheless. for example. suitable borehole geophysical methods can greatly enhance the geologic and hydrogeologic information obtained from water supply or monitor wells. Electric methods.1. 7. The development of logging tools specifically designed for use in freshwater wells.CHAPTER 7 BOREHOLE GEOPHYSICS 7. or must be adapted. 1990). such as the EM39 borehole conductivity meter (McNeill. but not with a steel casing. � 7-1 . can be used with a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) casing. where holes being logged are usually deep and filled with drilling muds or saline water. If cased. for example. Borehole radar. Many of these techniques are not suitable. 1986). These characteristics include: � Whether a casing is present.

temperature correction.1.0-6.) Log Type/Section Casing* Radius of Measurement Required Correction Electrical Logs (7. Borehole deviation. required for accurate joint/fracture characterization.2) a Uncased only Uncased only Uncased or screened Uncased only Uncased only Uncased only Uncased only 1. Not quantitative.3.3.3. Drilling fluid resistivity.0 1.1) Spontaneous Potential (3. Gamma Spectrometry (3.1. Calibration with fluid of known salinity.4) 2.5-4.** Borehole Fluid (in.0-4.1.5) Induced Polarization (3. Near borehole surface 2-4 ft 10s to 100s of meters Drilling fluid resistivity and borehole diameter for quantitative uses. Diam.1) Uncased or cased 1. Fluid Conductivity (3.0 6-12 in.0-2.5 Wet or dry Wet or dry Wet or dry 6 in.5-2. Hole diameter. borehole diameter.2) Uncased or nonmetallic Uncased or nonmetallic Uncased or nonmetallic Uncased Uncased only (?) 2. 7-2 . and temperature log for quantitative uses. Borehole deviation (cross-hole).2.5 ft ? Effect of hole diameter and mud negligible. fluid salinity.5 6-12 in.1.1.1. Similar to natural gamma Gamma-Gamma (3. Borehole fluid.0 ? Conductive fluid Conductive fluid Conductive fluid Conductive fluid Conductive fluid Conductive Wet or dry Near borehole surface Near borehole surface Within borehoIe <1-60 in. Same as natural gamma with addition of temperature. Same as natural gamma with addition of formation fluid and matrix density corrections.3) 1.6) Cross-Well AC Voltage (3. and matrix composition corrections.3. and drilling fluid density for quantitative uses.5 2.2.2) Dielectric (3.0 2. chlorine interference. hole diameter effects significant. None for qualitative uses.2.3. Natural Gamma (3. Orientation.3) Resistivity (3.2.l) Induction (3.6) a Electromagnetic Logs (7.5 ?-6.1) Borehole Radar (3.3. size). Hole diameter. casing (thickness. minimum of 6" diam.0 5.5-3.2. Neutron (3.0 Wet or dry 6-12 in.4) Surface-Borehole CSAMT (3.4) a Nuclear Logs (7.2) Uncased or eased Uncased or cased Uncased or cased 2.0-5.3) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (3.0-4.0-2.3. 1. Conductive material skin depth.4) Dipmeter (3.1) Single-Point Resistance (3.Table 7-1 Characteristics of Borehole Logging Methods (information for general guidance only) Min.0 2. meters 30 in.1.0 7 ? Wet or dry Wet or dry Wet or dry Required Wet or dry(?) 30 in.0 2. composition.

5-4.) Neutron Activation (3.4.5.0 Required Depends on frequency and rock velocity several feet > sonic Borehole surface Hole diameter.0 Wet or dry Wet or dry < Neutron < Neutron Acoustic and Seismic Logs (7. Borehole diameter for velocity and volumetric logging.6) Uncased or bonded cased Uncased or nonmetallic Cased or uncased 2. Same as sonic? Large number of equipment adjustments required during operation (calibration of magnetometer).5) Single-Borehole Flow Tracing (3.0-3.0 2.0 2.0 Wet or dry Depends on borehole spacing Borehole deviation. Acoustic Waveform*** (3.5.5-4.0 2. borehole diameter response.4.0 Wet or dry Required Required Required Required Required Required Arm limit (usually 2-3 ft. None.5.5-3.5) Neutron Lifetime (3. Borehole deviation.** Borehole Fluid (in.) Within borehole ***** ***** ***** ***** ***** None.0 1.5.3. Calibration to known standard.3) Uncased or bonded metallic Uncased 2.0 max Surface-Borehole Seismic (3.6) Colloidal Boroscope (3. Borehole diameter for velocity and volumetric logging.5.0 2.0-4.6) Uncased or cased Uncased or cased 2.2) Mechanical Flowmeter (3. correction for geometric spreading of source energy geophones must be locked in dry holes.0 Required 3.5) Cross-Borehole Seismic (3. Diam.2) Acoustic Televiewer (3.4) EM Flowmeter (3.) Min. 7-3 .4.3) Thermal Flowmeter (3. borehole deviation.1)a Caliper (3.0 Wet or dry Wet Depends on geophone configuration 100 ft 2.0 2.0-4.5. Borehole diameter for velocity and volumetric logging.0-4. Miscellaneous Logging Methods (7. formation fluid and matrix velocity corrections for quantitative uses.75+ 2.0-4.0 min Required 16.4) Geophysical Diffraction Tomography (3.4.4.3. Changes in flow field with time.5.Table 7-1 (cont.3) a Acoustic Velocity/*** sonic (3.7) Uncased or cased Uncased or cased**** ***** ***** ***** ***** ***** 1.4.) Log Type/Section Casing* Radius of Measurement Required Correction Nuclear Logs (cont.4. Borehole deviation.5+ 2.1) Uncased or bonded metallic 2.1) Temperature (3.3.

0+ Wet or dry Casing collar. Radius of measurement depends on permeability and whether natural or induced flow is measured.5. thickness ? See specific logging methods discussed in this section.0-6.0 Uncased/screened 2. Varies Wet or dry Borehole Surface Magnetic declination.4. Uncased holes are required for identification of high-permeability zones. other numbers in parentheses are section numbers in U.) Min.8) Magnetic/Magnetic Susceptibility (3. ** Indicates range of minimum diameters for commercially available probes based on best available information. Calibration to known standards. 1989). a Uncased or cased Uncased best Uncased or nonmetallic 2. ***** Flow measurements are usually made in uncased holes or screened intervals of cased holes. EPA (1993) where additional information can be found on the specific methods. Calibration to known standards. However.5. Diam. Calibration to known standards.6. See section numbers indicated in U. *** Wheatcraft et al.4) Ion-Selective Electrodes (3.5. **** Wheatcraft et al.5) Fiber Optic Chemical Sensors (5. pH Probes (3.0 ? Wet or dry Wet or dry Wet or dry Borehole surface 10s to l00s of meters 1-2 ft None.S. Note: Question mark (?) indicates that the information could not be found by the author in readily available sources.2). (1986) indicate that casing is allowable for temperature logs.7) Gravity (3. Steel Casing Cased Uncased 2. Benson (1991) indicates that casing should not be used. pumping will measure properties up to 25 to 35 well diameters (Taylor.3) Fluid/Gas Chemical Sensorsb Eh.6. EPA (1993) for additional information on these techniques. * Unless otherwise specified. 7-4 . either plastic or steel casing is possible.6.0-6.6.2) Casing Collar Locator (3. (1983) serving as the main source.0+ 6.5.5. (1986) indicate that acoustic logs are suitable only for uncased boreholes.Table 7-1 (cont.1) Cement and Gravel Pack Logs (3. Borehole chemical sensors are not covered in this reference guide. other usual gravity corrections Hole diameter correction. Cased hole uses would include measurement of geothermal gradient and cement bond logs (see Section 3.6) Other Chemical Sensors (10.6.0 Uncased/screened 2. with the survey by Adams et al.5.2) Borehole Deviation (3. a b Underlined number in parentheses indicates cross-reference to this guide.8) Well Construction Logs (7.) Television/Photography (3.0-6.0 Required Required Wet or dry Wet or dry Within borehole Within borehole Within borehole Within borehole Calibration to known standards.) Log Type/Section Casing* Radius of Measurement Required Correction Miscellaneous Logging Methods (cont. Various sources were used. Borehole diameter/inclination. Natural flow will measure the properties of several well diameters. Boldface = Most frequently used techniques in ground-water investigations.** Borehole Fluid (in.S.0 Uncased/screened 2. Thornhill and Benefield (1990) report using them for mechanical integrity tests of steel-cased injection wells.5) Uncased/screened 2.

g. Table 7-2 identifies relevant borehole 7-5 . and Keys (1990) lists more than two dozen that have potential applications in ground-water investigations. Whether borehole fluid (e.. fluid conductivity. and flowmeters. Equally confusing to the uninitiated is the fact that the same logging technique may be called by several different names. EPA (1993) as having potential applications at contaminated sites. The summary tables covering major logging methods in later sections of this chapter list the most common alternative names for specific methods and the names of major variants of certain types of logs. For example the terms gamma-gamma and density are commonly used for the same log. 7. and any fluid characterization log require borehole fluid.� Borehole diameter must be large enough for the instrument of interest. The radius of measurement of specific methods can range from near the borehole surface (spontaneous potential and SP resistance logs) to more than 100 meters for borehole radar in highly resistive rock. sonic. neutron. The 41 methods identified in Table 7-1 have been identified in U. Many logging methods require calibration or corrections for such factors as temperature. three-dimensional (or 3D) velocity. and fluid resistivity. caliper. and papers describing new methods or innovative adaptation of older methods appear every year. and acousticwaveform logs also are called variable density. Some logs (e. temperature. dielectric and nuclear magnetic resonance logs) require borehole diameters that are considerably larger than are typically drilled for monitoring wells at contaminated sites.2 Applications of Borehole Methods A bewildering number of specific borehole logging methods are available. single-point resistance. � � � The most commonly used borehole logging methods in hydrogeologic and contaminated site investigations involve spontaneous potential (SP). gamma-gamma. Electric logs. ground water or drilling fluid) is present. and full waveform sonic logs (see Table 7-7). sonic logs. borehole diameter. The nuclear logging methods listed in Table 7-1 are especially versatile because they can be used in cased monitoring wells.g. Schlumberger (1974) lists almost four dozen. natural gamma.S..1.

single-point resistance. borehole television. dipmeter. temperature. Estimation may be possible using vertical seismic profiling. uphole/downhole seismic. focused resistivity (thin beds). temperature. cross-well AC voltage. induction log. IP log. acoustic velocity. Potential Logging Techniques Bed Thickness Cavity Detection Sedimentary Structure Orientation Large Geologic Structures Total Porosity/Bulk Density Effective Porosity Clay or Shale Content Relative Sand-Shale Content Grain Size/Pore Size Distribution Compressibility/Stress-Strain Properties Geochemistry Aquifer Properties Location of Water Level or Saturated Zones Moisture Content Permeability/Hydraulic Conductivity Electric. acoustic velocity. cross-hole seismic. thermal. acoustic televiewer. Caliper. surface-borehole/cross-hole seismic. neutron lifetime. nuclear magnetic resonance. induction logs. nuclear magnetic resonance. crosswell AC voltage). EM (induction. Stratigraphy. Single-point resistance. time-interval neutron logs under special circumstances or radioactive tracers. gamma. Calibrated neutron logs. Dipmeter. SP resistance. cross-hole seismic Neutron activation log. computerized axial tomography (CAT). induced polarization. acoustic televiewer. Caliper. induction. Pore size distribution: nuclear magnetic resonance: Soil macroporosity: computerized axial tomography (CAT). cross-hole radar. 2-wave sonic amplitude. Gamma. acoustic waveform/televiewer. sonic. gamma-gamma logs. nuclear magnetic resonance. computer-assisted tomography (CAT) in open or cased holes. Gravity. Grain size: possible relation to formation factor derived from electric. Calibrated long-normal and focused resistivity or induction logs. single borehole tracers methods (injectivity). surface-borehole CSAMT. caliper logs made in open holes. induction or gamma logs. SP log. IP. cross-hole radar. calibrated neutron. Neutron or gamma-gamma logs in open hole or outside casing. cross-hole seismic. vertical seismic profiling. normal and focused resistivity. borehole television logs. borehole television.Table 7-2 Summary of Borehole Log Applications Required Information Lithology. Formation Properties General Lithology and Stratigraphic Correlation Electric (SP. Calibrated neutron logs during pumping. Acoustic waveform. Solution Openings Specific Yield of Unconfined Aquifers Ground-Water Flow and Direction Infiltration Temperature logs. Gamma log. dielectric). EM). No direct measurement by logging. neutron. 7-6 . cross-hole radar. temperature or fluid conductivity in open hole or inside casing. Secondary Permeability-Fractures. gamma-gamma. Calibrated dielectric. cross-hole seismic. spectral-gamma log. flowmeters (mechanical. gamma-gamma logs. all nuclear (open or cased holes). May be related to porosity. sonic logs in open holes.

acoustic televiewer. Induction log. Screens Guide to Screen Setting Borehole Deviation Cementing/Gravel Pack Casing Corrosion/Integrity Casing Detection/Logging Casing Leaks and/or Plugged Screen Behind Casing Flow Gamma-gamma. specific ion electrodes. Thermal flowmeter single-well tracer techniques—point dilution and single-well pulse. surface-borehole CSAMT. resistivity. Geophysical diffraction tomography.) Direction. single-point resistance. Dilution. Infectivity profile mechanical. tracer logging during pumping or injection. borehole television. caliper. gamma logs for some radioactive wastes. Spectral gamma log. Caliper. Tracer and flowmeters. and Movement of Waste Buried Object Detection Borehole/Casing Characterization Determining Construction of Existing Wells. normal/multielectrode resistivity. neutron lifetime. dipmeter. temperature. caliper. single-shot probe. collar. under some conditions caliper or collar locator. Eh. 7-7 . and correlation and thickness of aquifers. Borehole television/photography. thermal. Deviation log. IP log. Neutron activation and neutron lifetime logs. Microresistivity. Diameter and Position of Casing. Specific ion electrodes. water-bearing characteristic.Table 7-2 (cont. dolly and cage tests. SP log. neutron activation (if matrix effects can be accounted for). Perforations. Fluid conductivity and temperature logs. and perforation locator. fluid sampler. and Path of Ground-Water Flow Source and Movement of Water in a Well Borehole Fluid Characterization Water Quality/Salinity Water Chemistry Pore Fluid Chemistry Mudcake Detection Contaminant Characterization Conductive Plumes Contaminant Chemistry Hydrocarbon Detection Radioactive Contaminants Dispersion. temperature logs. Dielectric log. nuclear and acoustic logs. fiber optic chemical sensors. Potential Logging Techniques All logs providing data on the lithology. multiwell tracer techniques. Casing collar locator. Induced polarization log. gamma-gamma. Velocity. Calibrated fluid conductivity and temperature. noise/Sonan log. pH probes. EM flowmeters.) Required Information Ground-Water Flow and Direction (cont. acoustic waveform for cement bond. borehole television/photography various electric. Dissolved oxygen.

stratigraphy. 7.4 Guide to Major References Table 7-3 provides information on over 30 general texts on borehole geophysical methods and log interpretation. Table 7-14 indexes over 100 references on applications of borehole geophysics at contaminated sites. contaminant characterization.1).methods for almost 40 specific applications in the following categories: lithology. the individual logs do not always show changes with a change in lithology. Documents identified in this table published by Birdwell and Dresser Atlas are no longer available because these divisions are no longer providing geophysical logging services. Documents published by Schlumberger Educational Services (5000 Gulf Freeway. As with surface geophysical methods. and for lithologic and hydrogeologic applications.1.3. two nuclear logs (gamma and neutron—see Section 7. Of particular interest in this figure is the ability of the logs to locate fractured and altered material that may serve as preferential flow paths for contaminated ground water. single-point resistance. Even when they are not mandatory. however. borehole fluid characterization. caliper. In the figure. aquifer properties. and temperature).3. Hydrogeologic and geophysical consulting firms. the minerals gypsum and anhydrite can be distinguished by interpreting gamma and neutron logs together. Houston. 7-8 . and long-normal resistivity-see Section 7. but for individual strata. and three other types of logs (acoustic velocity.2). Figure 7-1 shows typical responses of three electrical logs (spontaneous potential. Appendix A (Table A-2) provides summary information on 9 cases studies involving uses of borehole geophysics at contaminated sites.1.3 Geophysical Well Log Suites Rarely is a single logging method used since many logs require other logs for interpretation. most downhole methods require considerable training and skill in recording and interpreting data. For example. one or more logs show changes in measured properties at the top and bottom of the formation. Figure 7-2 shows a similar suite of logs for a hypothetical hole in crystalline rock. and borehole/casing characterization. ground-water flow and direction. and formation properties. 7. may have these documents in their files. multiple logs may interact synergistically to provide more information than individual logs. TX 77023) are available and periodically updated.

1990).Gamma Neutron Acoustic Velocity Caliper Spontaneous Lithology Potential Long-Normal Resistivity Single-Point Resistance Temperature Figure 7-1 Typical response of a suite of hypothetical geophysical well logs to a sequence of sedimentary rocks (from Keys. 7-9 .

1990).Caliper Gamma Lithology Neutron Acoustic Velocity Resistivity Figure 7-2 Typical response of a suite of hypothetical geophysical well logs to various altered and fractured crystalline rocks (from Keys. 7-10 .

1973 guide on geophysical well log interpretation including SP. 2-volume collection of reprints of papers on formation evaluation: I (log evaluation). Text of log analysis for interpretation of subsurface geology with emphasis on computer models. gamma-gamma. neutron lifetime. neutron. Text on advanced well log interpretation. induction. Log interpretation fundamentals (1975) and charts (1979). resistivity. acoustic. neutron-gamma. II (log interpretation). 1976. gravimetric. gamma-gamma. gamma. Text on formation evaluation. SP. neutron. gamma. and 3-D velocity. Doveton (1986) Dresser Atlas (1974. seismic. acoustic. Various publications by a company that used to be in the business of providing logging services: Log review (1974) covers induction. and radioactivity logging and interpretation. Text on well logging resistivity. 1975. temperature. resistivity. 1982) Ellis (1987) Foster and Beaumont (1990) Hearst and Nelson (1985) Helander (1983) Hilchie (1982a) Hilchie (1982b) Labo (1987) LeRoy et al. resistivity. Text covering SP. fluid conductivity. Also. SP. Company that used to be in business of providing well logging services. diplog. gamma. and focused resistivity logs. acoustic. density. Hamilton and Myung (1979) provide summary information on major geophysical logging techniques. neutron. Edited volume with several chapters devoted to geophysical logging methods. (1987) Lynch (1962) Nelson (1985) 7-11 . combined porosity.Table 7-3 General Texts on Borehole Geophysical Logging and Interpretation Reference Asquith and Gibson (1982) Birdwell Division (1973) Description Text on basic well log analysis for geologists. and dipmeter logs. Text on well logging for physical properties. a home study course on well logging and interpretation (1982). acoustic. Text on log interpretation oriented toward geologists and engineers: resistivity. Text covering use of downhole methods for characterization of fractured rock. Text covering density. acoustic velocity. Oriented toward petroleum applications. induction.

Series of reprint volumes containing papers on acoustic logging (1978a). nuclear. density. 1978b. sonic/acoustic velocity. gamma. See citation for methods covered. Text on subsurface geological mapping using a variety of sources of information. Well logging text covering electrical. Earlier publications include Schlumberger (1972 and 1974). See citation for methods covered. and borehole imaging (1990). gamma.b) SPWLA (1978a. induction. and sonic methods. See citations for methods covered. Text on fundamentals of well log interpretation. neutron and density logging (1978b). 1983) Rider (1986) Schlumberger (1989a&b.Table 7-3 (cont. (1991) Scott and Tibbets (1974) Serra (1984a. SP. Reference Pirson (1963. and log interpretation charts (1991).) Description 1963 handbook on well log analysis and 1983 text on geologic well log interpretation. Text on geological interpretation of logs: caliper. Volume 1: acquisition of well log data. including geophysical data. Bureau of Mines information circular reviewing well log techniques for mineral deposit evaluation. and cased holes (1989b). spectral gamma. 1990) Tearpocke and Bischke (1991) Tittman (1986) Wyllie (1963) 7-12 . Volume 2: log interpretation. Latest edition of Schlumberger Educational Services publications on log interpretation principles and applications covering uncased holes (1989a). temperature. resistivity.

Recent developments in horizontal drilling technologies for subsurface monitoring and ground-water remediation also have made the use of surface-to-horizontal borehole configurations possible (Dickinson et al. borehole-to-borehole. 7.. samplers and sensors used with cone penetrometers or other movable probes). EPA (1993) provides additional information on the use of cone penetrometers for physical characterization (Section 2. U.. This reference guide focuses on methods involving physical characterization of the subsurface using borehole instruments.. In situ sensors are most commonly used for chemical field screening and ongoing chemical monitoring of the vadose zone. which are installed in boreholes with cables running to the surface and backfilled.1 Borehole versus In Situ Methods In Situ sensing or logging methods involve the placement of disposable sensors (see. e. 1985).g. dealing with specific types of sensors). while downhole logging methods are more commonly used for aquifer and lithologic characterization.2 Special Considerations 7. In surface-to-borehole configurations the signal source is usually at the surface with receivers in the borehole. seismic and microwave radar) can be used in various combinations: surface-to-vertical borehole. 1987).2. any method using a source-receiver layout (e. and major conference series and symposia concerning borehole geophysical methods. For example. electrical resistivity. or permanent sensors. as with vertical seismic profiling and geophysical diffraction 7-13 .. surface-to­ multiple boreholes. EPA 1993.g. and the use of in situ and borehole chemical sensors (see Table 7-1. for sections in U.S.S. ground-water texts with chapters on borehole geophysical methods. Greenhouse et al..2).2. 7.2 Surface-Borehole/Source-Receiver Configurations Downhole and surface methods have become increasingly hybridized in recent years.g.Table 7-4 provides information of texts/reports focusing on hydrogeologic/contaminated site applications. reusable sensors (e.

and Symposia Focusing on Hydrogeologic and Contaminated Site Applications Topic/Reference Description Hydrogeologic/Contaminated Site Abdications U. Reports. and acoustic. EPA. EPA (1993) cover borehole geophysics. fluid velocity. Section 9 covers borehole geophysics.3 of the compendium of Superfund field operations methods (U.S. Johnson (1968) summarizes application of logging methods for hydrogeologic studies. Organized in 70 subject headings. Chapter 9 covers borehole geophysics including SP. UNESCO research guide for ground-water studies. (1983) Campbell and Lehr (1973) Chapter 8 covers borehole logging and survey techniques for ground­ water investigations. 1987) and Section 3 of U. gamma.S. caliper. Report prepared for Australian Water Resources Council on interpretation of geophysical logs in unconsolidated sediments. Text on well logging in ground-water development published by International Association of Hydrogeologists. water resistivity. resistivity. Davis and DeWiest (1966) 7-14 . Jorgenson (1989) discusses use of logs to estimate porosity. Nielsen and Aller (1984) cover borehole methods for well integrity testing.Table 7-4 Borehole Geophysics Texts. Bibliography on borehole geophysics as applied to ground-water hydrology. and intrinsic permeability. Extensive annotated bibliography.4. (1986) review use of selected borehole geophysical methods at contaminated sites.S. Section 8. Hydrogeology text. U. Geological Survey Publications Texts: Keys (1990) and Keys and MacCary (1971) are complementary texts on hydrogeologic applications of borehole geophysics. Patten and Bennett (1963) review application of electrical and nuclear logging to ground­ water hydrology. Chapter 8 covers borehole methods including SP. EPA Publications Emerson and Webster (1970) Respold (1989) Taylor and Dey (1985) Ground-Water Texts Covering Borehole Geophysics Bureau of Reclamation (1981) Brown et al. Taylor et al. acoustic. and neutron. See also Keys (1990). (1990) and Wheatcraft et al. Text on water well technology. resistivity. gamma. Reports: Bennett and Patten (1960) cover borehole geophysical methods for estimating specific capacity of mutltiaquifer wells.S.

radioactive tracer. borehole seismic methods. gamma-gamma. acoustic. 7th (1979). Minerals and Geotechnical Logging Society biannual international symposia on borehole geophysics for minerals. Contains 40 papers. flow. 33rd annual symposium was held in 1992. geotechnical. Handbook focusing on coal and oil shale. 1986)* SPWLA (1960-present)* * See Appendix B. and the 1986 conference proceedings includes 7 papers. caliper.Table 7-4 (cont. acoustic televiewer. EPRI ground-water manual. gamma-gamma. neutron.) Topic/Reference Description Ground-Water Texts Covering Borehole Geophysics (cont. 12th (1989). and fluid velocity. Published volumes include 2nd (1968). 8th (1981). and ground­ water applications. 6th (1977). Section 5 covers hydrogeologic applications of surface and borehole geophysics and the bibliography in Section 6 contains 64 references on borehole logging. Annual Logging Symposium transactions of the Society of Professional Well Log Analysts. NWWA (1984. MGLS is a chapter of SPWLA. Both the 1984 and 1985 conference proceedings include 11 papers on borehole methods. gamma. Section 8 covers borehole geophysical methods: temperature. 7-15 . and 13th (1991). and temperature. Everett (1985) Redwine et al. caliper. Conferences on surface and borehole geophysical methods in ground­ water investigations. Section 5 covers borehole geophysical methods including SP. resistivity. (1985) Rehm et al. Proceedings of 2nd symposium contains 7 papers on ground-water applications. 1lth (Various Dates)* (1987). Chapter 8 covers borehole geophysical methods: resistivity. electric. gamma.) Driscoll (1986) Text on ground water and wells. acoustic. 9th (1983). 1985. (1985) Conferences/Symposia Canadian Well Logging Society Biannual formation evaluation symposium series. Killeen (1985) MGLS Symposia Series (1985-1991) Proceedings of the 1983 international symposium on borehole geophysics for mining and geotechnical applications.2 for addresses. 3-D velocity (acoustic waveform). SP. neutron. caliper. gamma-gamma. temperature.

represents an important recent development in borehole geophysics (see general references identified in Table 7-9). fracture detection. which can stand for computerized axial tomography or computer-assisted tomography. some methods (e. nuclear. Summary tables in these sections provide a 7-16 . and buried objects. The terms geophysical diffraction tomography (GDT) and variable density acoustic tomography have been applied to seismic tomographic imaging methods. but the source also can be placed in the borehole with sensors at the surface. cross-hole seismic shear) require that the boreholes be aligned.g. x-ray CT. 7.3 Tomographic Imaging The application of tomographic imaging techniques. In borehole-to-borehole configurations. When more than two boreholes are used. the source is placed in one borehole and receivers are placed in one or more boreholes. but this has been done infrequently (Table 7-10). originally developed in the field of medicine. others include x-ray computed (computer) tomography. moisture variations. Tomographic principles can also be applied to cross-hole electrical resistivity and radar measurements. Use of CAT scanning for near-surface characterization is in experimental stages. gamma-ray attenuation CAT. X-rays have been most commonly used for tomographic imaging and numerous terms have been used.3 Major Types of Logging Methods This section provides brief descriptions of the three major types of geophysical logging methods: electrical. such as stratigraphy. GDT differs from other seismic methods in the way seismic signals are used and how the data received by the geophones or hydrophores are processed. scan is probably the most commonly used term..tomography.2. Other cross-hole methods may not require alignment. 7. computed tomographic (CT) scanning. and acoustic/seismic. as with uphole seismic measurement. CAT. The type of model used for interpretation of the data will usually dictate the configuration required. Tomographic imaging is a type of waveform attenuation analysis that allows high-resolution imaging of subsurface inhomogeneities. Table 7-12 identifies a number of recent references on seismic tomographic methods.

and microwave sensing (see Section 6. consequently. Resistivity logging methods have numerous variants depending on electrode configurations and spacings. Spontaneous potential logs. are widely used to measure variations in water quality. making them particularly useful for locating electrically conductive contaminant plumes in existing wells.1 Electrical and Electromagnetic Logging Methods Electrical logging measures the flow of electric current in and adjacent to a well. miscellaneous logging methods are covered. Table 7-5 describes 11 types of electrical and 4 types of electromagnetic logs and their potential for hydrogeologic applications. 1989). These logs require conductive drilling mud or ground water with high salinities to work well and. magnetotellurics (see Section 4. At the end of this section. Single-point resistance and normal. except that the precession of protons (hydrogen atoms) in water molecules is measured in the formation after an induced magnetic field has been turned off. induction logs are especially useful for logging the dry portion of boreholes where the water table is far below the surface (see. focused and lateral resistivity logs all measure resistivity using the same principles as surface resistivity measurements. Induction logs operate on the same principles as surface EM methods that measure conductivity (see Section 4. e. and Table 7-10 provides an index of references using these methods. one of the most commonly used electrical logs. Fluid conductivity measurements are used to measure variations in salinity and locate saltwater leaks in artesian wells.. simply records the changes in current flow that result from changes in lithology. 7. are not well suited for near-surface investigations in freshwater aquifers. using the same principles as various surface methods: electromagnetic induction (see Section 4. Nuclear magnetic resonance 7-17 . Nuclear magnetic resonance is often classified as a nuclear method. Since direct contact with a conductive medium is not required. induction logs are also unaffected by the presence of plastic (e. polyvinyl choride) well casings.1). however.g.. Also.g.3. Normal resistivity logs.1).5).1).short description of each method and list hydrogeologic applications.2). Turner and Black. but it is actually a magnetic method that uses the same principle as the proton precession magnetometer (Section 6.

long normal) Focused Resistivity (guard log. marginal for highly resistive rocks. all have short electrode spacing and pads or some kind of contact electrode to decrease the effect of borehole fluid. suitable only for thick beds (> 40 feet). Resistance is measured using four electrodes at various spacings on a single probe that is lowered down the hole. borehole diameter. Similar to normal-resistivity electrode. Widely used in the petroleum industry for determining lithology. Records the potentials or voltages that develop at the contacts between different lithologies. Excellent for information about changes in lithology.to 5­ inch zone affected by drilling muds. selfpotential) Single-Point Resistance Normal Resistivity (short normal. and other factors. generally not applicable for freshwater aquifers. cannot be used for quantitative interpretation of porosity and salinity. contact log. microlateral. quantitative interpretations require corrections for bed thickness. Uses guard electrodes above and below the current electrode to force the current to flow out into the rocks surrounding the borehole. Designed to measure the resistivity of thin beds or resistive rocks in wells containing conductive fluids. not influenced by bed thickness effects. used primarily by the petroleum industry to determine the resistivity of the 3. Provides data related to the salinity (concentration of dissolved solids in the borehole fluid). Spontaneous Potential (SP. micronormal) 7-18 . Designed mainly to determine the presence or absence of mudcake. or between two electrodes in a well.Table 7-5 Summary of Electrical and EM Borehole Logging Methods in Hydrogeologic Studies Method Electric Logs Fluid conductivity Description Hydrogeologic Applications A probe that records only the electrical conductivity of the borehole fluids by placing electrodes inside a protective housing. used to locate sources of saltwater leaking into artesian wells. dual laterolog) Lateral Resistivity Microresistivity (microlog. and salinity of formation water. primarily to determine water quality. aids in interpretation of electric logs. bed thickness. Widely used in ground-water hydrology. Measures the resistance in ohms between an electrode in a well and an electrode at the land surface. microsurvey. but electrodes are more widely spaced on the probe. laterolog. not generally available to water well loggers. Numerous variations. Designed to measure resistivity of rock farther out from the borehole.

Induced Polarization (IP) Hole-Hole/HoleSurface Resistivity Cross-Well AC Voltage Allows three-dimensional modeling of resistivity data to characterize subsurface inhomogeneities. measures conductivity.5). except response of protons in subsurface water is measured. A variety of methods use microwaves for sensing the subsurface single and cross-borehole radar (similar to GPR). generally not suitable for wells containing fresh water. dielectric log has been used to measure the thickness of hydrocarbons floating on ground water (Holbrook. Near-surface applications most common (see Section 7. electrodes are on pads located 90 or 120 degrees apart and oriented with respect to magnetic north by a magnetometer in the probe. Potential for mapping of subsurface conductive zones and three-dimensional characterization of fracture zones in deep boreholes. and Wheatcraft et al. Requires water-filled hole. Rehm et al. slimhole EM probe.* Pulsed microwave systems similar to applications for GPR (see Section 6. Hydrogeologic Applications Probably the best instrument for gathering information on the location and orientation of primary sedimentary structures over a wide variety of hole conditions. A low frequency alternating current is introduced into the fracture system of 2 wells and the voltage between the currents and observation wells is measured. Used to characterize the spatial variation in subsurface fracture systems (Robbins and Hayden. 7-19 . Measurement of porosity. except that borehole sensors are used. Similar to surface CSAMT (Section 4. provides data on the strike and dip of bedding planes also on fractures (less precise)..5). Numerous configurations of source and receiver electrodes are possible. moisture content. Designed for use in boreholes with no conductive material between the probe and the formation (oil-based drilling muds and air). available water. pore-size distribution. Probe measures response of formation to an injected current (see Section 3. (1986). (1985).1).3.1). Used to measure clay content and pore fluid chemistry and reactivity. Similar to proton precession magnetometer. 1990).Method Dipmeter Description Includes a variety of wall-contact microresistivity probes. borehole conductivity meter)* Microwave sensing Probe contains two coils: one for transmitting an alternating current into the surrounding rock. Source Adapted from Keys (1990). 1988) Electromagnetic Logs Induction (dual induction. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Surface-Borehole CSAMT * The recently developed EM39 induction logging tool is suitable for use in freshwater wells (McNeill et al. dielectric log using continuous pulse microwave. 1988). and a second for receiving the return signal.

Gamma spectrometry. fracture.2 Nuclear Logging Methods Nuclear logging includes all methods that either detect the presence of unstable isotopes or create such isotopes in the vicinity of a borehole. Most of these nuclear logs also allow quantitative interpretation of bulk density.3. Nuclear logging tools with active radioactive sources require careful adherence to procedures for protecting the health and safety of users. Acoustic logging tools incorporate the signal source and the receiver on the same probe and are used in single boreholes. Table 7-12 provides an index of references related to acoustic and seismic methods. They are used primarily for stratigraphic. 7. salinity. their use is prohibited or restricted in some states. 7-20 . and geotechnical characterization.3 Acoustic and Seismic Logging Methods Table 7-7 provides information on three types of acoustic logs and various types of borehole seismic methods. Table 7-6 describes six types of nuclear logs. as do most electrical logging methods. They are especially valuable for characterizing secondary porosity and fractures.is more commonly used to measure soil moisture content in the near surface than for hydrogeologic investigations because a large diameter (minimum of 7 inches) is required for borehole logging. 7. Borehole seismic methods can use various surface-borehole or borehole-borehole source and geophone/hydrophone configurations. Gamma and neutron logs are probably the most common nuclear methods used in ground-water studies. porosity.3. and unsaturated moisture content. and neutron activation have been used less frequently and should probably be considered more often. All of them are widely used in the petroleum industry. and neutron logs have been widely used in the study of soils. gamma-gamma. and Table 7-11 provides an index of references using these methods. Each type is potentially useful in hydrogeologic studies of the vadose and/or saturated zones because none require conductive media.

Types and amounts of radioisotopes can be measured. Allows more precise identification of lithology than gamma log. U­ 238. Uses a pulsed-neutron generator and a synchronously gated neutron detector to measure the rate of decrease of neutron population. used by petroleum industry to date applications in ground water have been limited. can provide useful data through casing and cement. used for identification of lithology (clay and shale particularly) and stratigraphic correlation. Source: Adapted from Keys (1990). Widely used to measure saturated porosity and moisture content in the unsaturated zone. Neutron Gamma-Gamma (density) Gamma Spectrometry (spectra(l)-. and Th-232) from a borehole that is within a selected energy range. widely used by petroleum industry should probably be used more frequently in ground-water investigations. Neutron Activation (activation. Probe contains a source of neutrons and detectors that record neutron interactions in the vicinity of the borehole. thermal neutron) Uses neutrons to “activate” stable isotopes in the borehole and identify the activated element by measuring the amount and energy level of emissions (see gamma spectrometry above). spectro-. Primarily used to determine bulk density.2. can also be used for lithology and stratigraphic correlation. extensively used in the petroleum industry less frequently used for ground-water applications. porosity.Table 7-6 Summary of Nuclear Borehole Logging Methods in Hydrogeologic Studies* Method Gamma (natural gamma) Description Records total natural gamma radiation (primarily from K-40. distinguishes lithologic units. 7-21 . Permits remote identification of elements present in the ground water and adjacent rocks.3. Neutron Lifetime (pulsed-neutron decay) * Computerized axial tomography using x-rays and gamma rays has been tested in the laboratory. Hydrogeologic Applications The most commonly used nuclear log in ground-water applications. spectronomic­ gamma) Records the amount and energy level of gamma photons either on a continuous basis or at selected depths with a stationary probe. and moisture content. permits identification of artificial radioisotopes that might be contaminating water supplies. but not adapted for use in boreholes-see Section 7. Records the radiation at a detector from a gamma source in the probe after it is attenuated and scattered in the borehole and surrounding rock. Used to measure salinity and porosity. relatively new technique with potential for wide application in ground-water hydrology.

Three configurations are possible for the seismic source: borehole-borehole. Received acoustic signals are recorded digitally. An oscilloscope and light-sensitive paper are used to create a 360 degree scan of the borehole wall. surface-borehole. or photographically using oscilloscope displays. estimation of permeability and hydraulic conductivity Uphole/Downhole:characterization of geotechnical properties. High-resolution possible. and surface-to boreholes. Stratigraphy.. three-dimensional velocity. limited to consolidated materials in fluid-filled boreholes beginning to be more widely used in ground-water studies. can detect isolated inclusions. vertical compressibility of an aquifer can be estimated. uphole/ downhole) Cross-Hole Seismic (cross-hole shear. Various configurations of surface and borehole geophone and seismic source arrays are possible. amplitude changes. An ATV probe uses a rotating transducer that serves as both transmitter and receiver of high frequency acoustic pulses. cross-hole VSP) Geophysical Diffraction Tomography Various configurations in which both seismic source and geophones are placed in boreholes. 7-22 . velocity ratios). measurement of soil dynamic properties. fractures can be characterized. various elastic properties can be determined.Table 7-7 Summary of Acoustic and Seismic Borehole Logging Methods in Hydrogeologic Studies Method Acoustic Velocity (sonic. such as fractures and solution openings. Acoustic Waveform (variable density. full waveform sonic) Acoustic Televiewer (seisviewer) Surface-Borehole Seismic (vertical seismic profiling/ VSP. porosity. Tomographic imaging principles applied to seismic data.g. can also provide the strike and dip of fractures and bedding planes. Hydrogeologic Applications Useful for providing information on lithology and porosity. VSP: detection of lithologic boundaries. homogeneous areas. lithologic boundaries. Provides information on lithology and structure. Provides high-resolution information on the location and character of secondary porosity. cavity detection. fracture detection. Not yet widely used in hydrogeologic studies. not yet used extensively in ground-water studies because of cost and complexity. transmit time) Description Records the travel time of an acoustic wave from one or more transmitters to receivers in the probe. fracture characterization. the wave forms are analyzed (e.

The development of thermal and electromagnetic borehole flowmeters that can sense water movement either vertically or horizontally (or both) at very low velocities has greatly enhanced the ability to characterize variations in hydraulic conductivity in boreholes (see Table 7-13).7. and also generate some data on lithology and seeondary porosity. Morahan and Dorrier (1984) describe the uses of television borehole logging in ground-water monitoring programs. They provide essential data for interpreting other types of logs that are affected by variations in borehole diameter. Chapter 6 (Section 6. Fluid temperature can be measured as a gradient (also called thermal resistivity). or changes measured over time at one or more points can be tracked (as when injected water of a different temperature is used as a tracer).2). and its use has been reported only infrequently (Table 7-13).4 Miscellaneous Logging Methods 7. lowering the probe to the bottom of the hole approximately every 5 feet may provide advanced warning of the presence of buried drums that are outside the detection limit of surface instruments.4. Caliper logs have numerous variants but all are intended to measure borehole diameter.2) contains further discussion of borehole temperature logging and Table 6-4 lists over 20 references on use of temperature logging. Magnetometer probes can be especially useful when drilling is required in areas where the presence of buried ferrous metal wastes is suspected.1 Lithologic and Hydrogeologic Characterization Logs Table 7-8 describes seven types of logs that may be useful for characterizing lithology and hydrogeology. Borehole television cameras have the advantage of allowing visual inspection of a borehole for such things as fracture detection and monitoring well integrity. Borehole magnetometers operate on the same principles as surface magnetometers (Section 6. Fluid flow measurements can locate zones of high permeability (fractures and solution porosity) and areas of leakage in artesian wells. In such situations. Borehole gravity is probably the least commonly used borehole method in contaminated site and hydrogeologic applications. 7-23 .4.

* See Section 7. essential to guide the interpretation of other types of logs that are affected by borehole diameter. Temperature probes are used to record temperature or the rate of change in temperature vs.2) Flow measurement with logging probes most commonly is done mechanically with an impeller flowmeter. borehole dilution) measure direction and speed of water movement using tracers. Magnetic Probes operating on same principles as surface magnetometers. check for buried ferrous metal containers in boreholes before the next depth increment is drilled. vertical correlation of rock cores where voids are present. Changes in lithology. Hydrogeologic Applications Provides some information on lithology and secondary porosity. Complements surface gravity data for structural and stratigraphic interpretation. 7-24 . Various methods (injector-detector. thermal.4. and orientation of fractures. thermal and EM flowmeters are relatively recent developments that allow more precise readings. Sources: Adapted from Keys (1990) and Wheatcraft et al. Borehole television and cameras allow visual inspection of borehole both sidewards and downwards.Table 7-8 Summary of Miscellaneous Borehole Logging Methods in Hydrogeologic Studies* Method Caliper Description A probe that measures borehole diameter. locate zones of high permeability.2 for discussion of well construction logging methods. injection-withdrawal. inspection of monitoring well integrity. permeability. one of the most useful logging methods available for the study of ground water. Widely used in ground-water studies for information on movement of natural or injected water. electrical. Used to measure vertical flow in boreholes. Similar to flowmeters (above). (1986). many types are available mechanical. identify fractures producing and accepting water. distribution. depth (see Section 6. size.4. locate intervals of leakage in artesian wells. Fluid Temperature Flowmeters (mechanical/spinner log. Gravity Microgravity instrumentation designed for borehole use. one to four arms. and relative hydraulic head. acoustic. electromagnetic) Single-Borehole Tracing Television/ Photography Information on frequency.

cement and gravel pack logs. A special type of acoustic log called a cement bond log can be used to determine the location of cement behind the casing and. While this tendency is not commonly measured by water well loggers. Nielsen and Aller.2 Well Construction Logs Well construction logging is useful for planning cementing operations. The deviation of boreholes and wells from the vertical is common. The disadvantage is that the probe must be brought to the land surface and reset after each measurement. installing of casing and screens. for locating cement and gravel pack in the annular space outside a casing. High-resolution caliper logs are excellent for locating threaded couplings. and borehole deviation logs. for determining whether a well deviates from the vertical. Augered boreholes less than 100 feet deep reportedly have deviated such that transmittance logs between boreholes have been adversely affected (Keys 1990). the bottom of the inside string of casing. corroded steel casing. A caliper log made before the casing is installed is helpful for planning the cementing or installation of gravel pack. and. Single-shot probes that provide one measurement of the deviation angle and azimuth at a predetermined depth are the least expensive method for obtaining borehole-deviation information. Temperature logs can locate cement grout while it is still warm from chemical reactions during curing. under some conditions. performing hydraulic testing. 1984). it may be important for ensuring the proper functioning of logging probes and accurate interpretation of log data. 7-25 . sometimes.4. Most electric logs and gamma-gamma logs will show a sharp deflection at the bottom of steel casing. The major types of well construction logs are casing logs.7. the quality of the bonding to easing and rock. and guiding the interpretation of other logs (Keys. 1990. for locating cased intervals in wells. A number of specific borehole logging methods can be used for well construction logging (see Table 7-2).

(1990). 1985. SPWLA (1990-borehole imaging). Dresser Atlas (1975. Keys (1990). (1985). Davis and DeWiest (1966). Hamilton and Myung (1979). (1985). van der Leeden (1991) Society of Professional Well Log Analysts (1985) General Dresser Atlas (1974. Tittman (1986) Asquith and Gibson (1982). 1974. Pirson (1963. 1983). 1989a. Scott and Tibbets (1974). U. NWWA (1984. Redwine et al. Hodges and Teasdale (1991). Taylor and Dey (1985). Rider (1986). Ellis (1987). Labo (1987). (1987). Kelly (1969). Patten and Bennett (1963). Hallenberg (1983). Rehm et al. Thomas and Dixon (1989) Log Interpretation Imaging/Tomography Quality Control Borehole Logging Symposia Ground-Water Applications Texts/Reports Bennett and Patten (1960). Everett (1985). Driscoll (1986). 1979. Serra (1984b). Campbell and Lehr (1973). Doveton (1986).Table 7-9 Index for General References on Borehole Geophysics Topic Bibliographies Glossary References Prenksy (various dates). SPWLA (1979). (1990). 1982). 1986). Army Corps of Engineers (1979) Ground-Water Texts with Sections on Borehole Geophysics 7-26 . Lines and Scales (1987). Jorgenson (1989). Respold (1989). Tearpock and Bischke (1991). Wyllie (1963) Borehole Imaging: Lines and Scale (1997). Bureau of Reclamation (1981). Lynch (1962). Telford et al. Theys (1991) Canadian Well Logging Society (various dates). Technos (1992) Beesley (1986). KovácS et al. (1983). University of Tulsa (1985). Keys and MacCary (1971).b). Guyed and Shane (1969). (1985). Nelson (1985). Desaubies et al. Tweeton (1988) Bateman (1985). Rehm et al. Foster and Beaumont (1990). Brown et al. Hallenberg (1984). 1982). Johnson (1968). Schlumberger (1972. Hearst and Nelson (1985). Hilchie (1982a. Killeen (1985). Stewart (1991).S.b. Tomography: Davis (1989). 1991). Serra (1984a). Taylor and Dey (1985). Helander (1983). Minerals and Geotechnical Logging Society (1985-89). SPWLA (1960 to present). Emerson and Webster (1970). Birdwell Division (1973). (1982). LeRoy et al.

Taylor (1989). Keys (1967a. Dickinson et al.Table 7-9 (cont. Technos (1992).) Topic References Ground-Water Abdications (cont.) Contaminated Site Texts Review Papers Taylor et al. Stowell (1989a. (1990).b. Jones and Skibitzke (1956). Collier and Alger (1988). (1986) Benson (1991). S. Linck (1963). Pickett (1970). Mickam et al. Johnson (1968). Darr et al. Paillet (1989a). U. (1984). EPA (1987. Stegner and Becker (1988).b). 1968). Jones and Buford (1951). 1993). (1985) 7-27 . (1987). Crowder and Irons (1989— economic considerations). Taylor et al. Segesman (1980). Wheatcraft et al. Nelson (1982). (1990). Evans (1970). Pfannkuch (1966).

Sutcliffe and Joyner (1966). 1957a. 1966). (1990). (1992). (1985). Turcan (1962. Michalski et al. Wyllie (1960) Daily and Owen (1991—tomography). Turcan and Winslow (1970). see also Table 7-9 Baffa (1948). 1966). Bibliography Johnson and Gnaedinger (1964) ER/EM Tomography Electrical Electric Logs Daily and Owen (1991). Tsang et al. (1992). Barnes and Livingston (1947). Lindsey (1985). Patton and Bennet (1963). (1988. Kwader (1985). Le Masne and Poirmeur (1988). Croft (1971). (1986-contaminated site). (1979). 1989). Lytle et al. Williams and Conger (1990) Bigelow (1985) Self-Potential Fluid Conductivity Dipmeter Borehole-Surface Resistivity/IP Asch and Morrison (1989). Asch et al. Olhoeft and Scott (1980-complex resistivity). Focused Resistivitv: Moran and Chemali (1985). Hanson (1967). Guyed (1952. Robbins and Hayden (1988) 7-28 . Poirmeur and Vasseur (1988). Jones and Buford (1951). 1965. Tellam (1992). Gonduin and Scale (1958). Dines and Lytle (1979. Roy (1975). Taylor and Wheatcraft (1986). Vonhof (1966) Emilsson and Arnott (1991). Hilchie (1979). Michalski (1989). Guyed and Pranglin (1959). Guyod and Pranglin (1959). Peterson and Lao (1970). Wilt and Tsang (1985a. McNeill et al. Kaufman and Keller (1989—induction). Ross and Ward (1984). McNeill (1986. Guyed (1957b. Peterson (1991). Taylor et al. 1965). Carter (1966) Frimpter (1969). MacCary (1971). Ineson and Gray (1963). Patten and Bennett (1963). Daniels (1977. Atkins (1961). Roy (1982). (1990. Collier (1989a—resistivity log selection). Tsang and Hufschmied (1988). 1989). 1983). 1992). Greenhouse et al.b) Cross-Well Resistivity Electromagnetic Review EM (Induction) Logs Dyck (1991) Snelgrove and McNeill (1985). 1981). 1958. Sandberg et al. Walstrom (1952). Interpretation: Alger (1966-fresh water). Pryor (1956). McNeill and Bosnar (1988). Morris (1957).Table 7-10 Index for References on Electric and EM Borehole Logging Methods Topic References Dakhnov (1962). Pedlar et al. Kendall (1965). Poland and Morrison (1940). (1991). Bevc and Morrison (1991).

Disposable E Log: Greenhouse et al. (1984) Abragam (1961). (1985) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Other EM Methods 7-29 .) Cross-Borehole Radar References Davis et al. Holser et al.) Topic Electromagnetic (cont. Keech (1988). 1981). (1984). Olhoeft (1988). Serra (1984a). Freedman and Vogiatzis (1979). 1981). Schlichter (1963) Borehole CSAMT. (1972). (1992).Table 7-10 (Cont. (1979. Sandberg (1991). Dielectric Collier (1989b). West and Ward (1988). Keys (1990). Jackson (1984). Morrison (1983). Dines and Lytle (1979. Wright et al. Olhoeft et al. Leckenby (1982). Lytle et al.

Keys (1967a). (1952). 1989). 1991) Text: Adams and Gasparini (1970). Thornhill and Benefield (1990. Markstrom (1992). 1988-neutron. Lee et al. Meyer (1962). Pickell and Heacock (1960). Johnson and Gnaedinger (1964). (1967) Gamma-Gamma (Density) Gamma Spectrometry Neutron Neutron Lifetime Radioactive Tracers 7-30 . (1954). Mickam et al. U. (1985) Review Papers Specific Logging Methods Gamma Guyed (1965. Serra et al. 1992) Moltyaner (1989). Duval (1980. Killeen (1982—gamma). Patten and Bennett (1963). Woodyard (1984) Ellis (1990). 1988). Protection: Blizard (1958). EPA (1993) provides an index of over 90 references on neutron logging for moisture measurement. Wahl (1983). (1968). Quirein et al. Scott (1977). Rutkowski and Taylor (1990). Stromswold and Wilson (1981). Morrison (1983). (1965). Poeter (1987. Reed et al. Wiebenga et al. Tittman et al. (1984). IAEA (1968. (1980). Rabe (1956). Thomas and Dixon (1989) Bleakley et al. Tittman and Wahl (1965). Other: Ellis (1990). (1990a. Poeter (1987. Russell (1941). gamma-gamma). 1971). Killeen (1982). (1983-vadose zone). Bibliography. Killow (1966). SPWLA (1978a). Schneider (1982). Nuclear Regulatory Commission (1985) Baffa (1948). MacCary (1971). Tittle (1961). Norris (1972).Table 7-11 Index for References on Nuclear Logging Methods Topic General Texts References Belcher et al. Ellis (1990). Senger (1985). 1966). (1982). (1984). Taylor (1986). Newton et al. U. Jones and Schneider (1969). Gardner and Roberts (1967). Teasdale and Johnson (1970).S.S. Ellis (1990). Guyod (1965). Protection: Fujimoto et al. Reed (1985). Yearsley et al. Schimschal (1981).

Kierstein (1984). Paillet et al. (1991). Toksoz and Stewart (1984). (1989). Tweeton et al. (1986). (1992). Jackson et al. King et al. Stokoe and Nazarian (1985). Cybriwsky et al. Gal’perin (1979). Woods and Stokoe (1985). 1990). CH2M Hill (1991). 1970) Alderman (1986). Stokoe (1980). Pratt and Worthington (1988). Wu and Toksoz (1987). Paillet et al. Tweeton (1988). Butler and Curro (1981). Carswell and Moon (1989). Thornhill and Renefield (1990). (1992). Zemanak et al. Levine et al. Pickett (1960). (1992). Wong (1991). Imse and Levine (1985).Table 7-12 Index for References on Acoustic and Seismic Logging Methods Topic Acoustic Logs General Acoustic Velocity/ Waveform Acoustic Televiewer Guyed and Shane (1969). Hoar and Stokoe (1977). (1988). Stewart et al. (1985). Williams and Conger (1990). see also Table 7-9 Cross-Hole Seismic Diffraction Tomography 7-31 . Mahannah et al. Streitz (1987). Ritchey (1986) References Water Levels Borehole Seismic Methods Seismic Profiling (VSP) Texts: Balch and Lee (1984). Jessop et al. Haase and King (1986). Suprahitho and Greenhalgh (1986) Cross-Hole Shear: Bates et al. (1981). (1984). Woods (1978). (1992). Jackson et al. (1972). Yearsley et al. Pailett et al. Paillet and White (1982). Westphalen (1991). King and Witten (1989. (1991). Schaar (1992). Thomas and Dixon (1989). (1992). Majer et al. (1991). SPWLA (1978b). (1985). (1991). Devaney (1984). Pratt and Worthington (1988) Anderson and Dziewonski (1984). 1991) Collier and Ridder (1992). (1969. (1986). Papers: Beydoun et al. (1990b. Bates et al. Hennon et al. Haase and King (1986). Other Cross-Hole: Bois et al. (1986). Jessop et al. McCann et al. (1988). Tura et al. Hardage (1985). (1984).

(1990b) Chapman and Robinson (1962). (1969. (1987). Robbins (1986) Scott et al. 1989). Guthrie (1986). Kerfoot (1982. Callahan et al. (1984). Kerfoot and Kiely (1989). 1992). (1967). Williams and Conger (1990). Hess (1982. (1985). (1989). Young and Pearson (1990) Erickson (1946). Rehfeldt (1989) Young and Waldrop (1989). Paillet (1989b). 1984. (1988) Williams et al. Michalski et al. Lattman and Parizek (1964). Kerfoot et al. McLinn and Palmer (1988. Syms (1982) EM Flowmeter Mechanical Flowmeters Other Methods Temperature Caliper See listing for Borehole Temperature Logging in Table 6-4. Melville et al. Thomas and Dixon (1989). 1988. Zemanek et al. (1992-colloidal horoscope). Mullins (1966). (1963). Fiedler (1928). (1987). 1984. Mickam et al. (1992). 1970) Head and Kososki (1979). Kearl et al. Halevy et al. Hess and Paillet (1989). (1981) Borehole Cameras Borehole Televison Borehole Gravity Magnetic Susceptibility 7-32 . 1986. Lloyd (1970). Leap and Kaplan (1988). Hearst and Carlson (1982). Edwards and Stroud (1966). Sutcliffe and Joyner (1966). 1989). Morahan and Dorrier (1984). (1990). Johnson and Gnaedinger (1964-bibliography). Gorder (1963). Lee et al. Labo (1987). Parizek and Siddiqui (1970). Trainer and Eddy (1964-borehole periscope) Briggs (1964). Hess and Wolf (1991). Hilchie (1982). Sturges (1967). Huber (1982).Table 7-13 Index for References on Miscellaneous Logging Methods Topic Flow Measurement Borehole Dilution Brine Tracing Thermal Flowmeters References Dexter and Kearly (1988). Taylor et al. Paillet et al. Molz et al. Patten and Bennett (1962). Gernand (1991). Syms (1982) Jensen and Ray (1965). Patten and Bennett (1962). Molz et al. (1991). (1984). Yearsley et al.

Hess and Paillet (1989). (1991) Davis et al. Michalski et al. Beydoun et al. Stewart et al. Cybriwsky et al. (1991—in situ mining leachate). (1986). (1985). DeLuca and Buckley (1985). Howard et al. King et al. Majer et al. (1992). (1988). Jones et al. Yearsley et al. Carswell and Moon (1989). Robbins and Hayden (1988).Table 7-14 Index for References on Applications of Borehole Geophysics in Hydrogeologic and Contaminated Site Investigations Topic Contaminated Site Applications Case Studies Adams et al. (1988). (1985. Silliman et al. (1992). (1981). Westphalen (1991). Senger (1985-glacial). (1988). Wilt and Tsang (1985) Morahan and Dorrier (1984). Williams et al. Voyteck (1982) References Ground-Water Monitoring Lithologic Characterization Fractured Rock Adams et al. Robbins (1986). Sloto et al. 1986. (1992). (1988). (1986).S. (1983). Olhoeft et al. (1984). (1984). (1984). Asch et al. Williams and Conger (1990). (1989). Ring and Sale (1987). Potts (1991). Michalski et al. Levine et al. Ross and Ward (1984). (1992). Deluca and Buckley (1985). Davison et al. (1984). DiNitto (1983). Crowder and Irons (1988). Hess (1984. Bates et al. Holzhausen and Egan (1986). Richardson et al. Turner and Black (1989). Sandberg et al. U. (1990). 1986). Tsang et al. EPA (1987). Spencer (1985) Biella et al. (1987). Poeter (1988). Hess et al. Westphalen (1991). Nelson (1985). Norris (1972). Sciacca (1991). Lee et al. Pailett et al. Schneider and Greenhouse (1992). (1992-DNAPL spill). Haase and King (1986). Schaar (1992). Tests (1988). Tweeton et al. Wheatcraft et al. (1984). Sciacca (1991). ColIier and Ridder (1992). (1987). Mahannah et al. (1982-nuclear waste storage). Montgomery et al. Michalski (1989). (1984). Wyllie (1960) Solution Cavities Stratigraphy/Structure Lithology 7-33 . Rutkowksi and Taylor (1990-radioactive contamination). (1985). Woodward (19841). Imse and Levine (1985). 1987). Merin (1992). Tura et al. (1992). (1990b) Bates et al. Adams et al. (1983). (1991). Paillet (1984. (1987). Dearborn (1988). (1991). Havranek and Smith (1989). (1984). (1989—buried wastes). Brother et al. Crowder et al. 1989b). Morin and Barrash (1986). Dearborn (1988).

1973—artificial recharge). Jones and Schneider (1969). Pickett (1966). (1986). Diodato and Parizek (1992). Newman and McDuff (1988). Hanson (1967). Rehfeldt (1989). Upp (1966). Taylor et al. Peterson (1991). (1990). MacCary (1984a). (1972). Basalts Crosby and Anderson (1971). MacCary (1984b-formation factor). Bredehoeft (1964-permeability).Table 7-14 (cont. Gernand (1991). (1988). Morin and Barrash (1986-fracture flow). Heeley and Marshall (1985). Lee et al. Levine et al. 1984a). Worthington (1976). Specific Yield: Johnson (1967). (1990).) Topic References Aquifer Characterization Applications Ground-Water Studies Crosby and Anderson (1971). Croft (1971). Turcan and Winslow (1970). Poland and Morrison (1940). Other: Bennett and Patten (1960-specific capacity). Dyck et al. 1986). Poole et al. Brown (1971). Sutcliffe and Joyner (1966-packer testing). Casing Detection: Frimpter (1969). 1992) Permeability/ Hydraulic Conductivity Other Hydraulic Properties Water Quality Aquifers with High Secondary Porosity Well Construction 7-34 . Levine et al. MacCary (1980). Taylor (1986). (1987). Mickam et al. MacCary (1983). Yearsley et al. Hess (1989). Head and Merkel (1977). 1978. Kwader (1984a). Collier (1992). Killow (1966-behind casing flow). 1966). Henrich (1986-transmissive layers). Barnes and Livingston (1947). Paillet et al. Peterson and Lao (1970) Jann (1966-borehole alignment). Jorgenson (1989). Jorgenson (1989). Rabe (1956). (1965). Tittman et al. Taylor and Wheatcraft (1986). Taylor et al. Schimschal (1981). Marsh and Parizek (1968). Tsang et al. (1991). Linck (1963). Young and Pearson (1990) Porosity B1eakley et al. Moltyaner (1989—aquifer parameters) Alger (1966). Kwader (1984b. Pickett (1960). Cregon and Moir (1961). (1984). Lee et al. Norris (1972). (1992). Vonhof (1966). Meyer (1963— storage coefficient). Parizek and Siddiqui (1970). Landry (1992). Greenhouse et al. (1990a-monitoring well completion). Injection Well Integrity Testing: Nielsen and Aller (1984). Hufschmied (1986). Perched Water Table: Poeter (1987. (1966). (1984). Wrege et al. Thornhill and Benefield (1990. 1983. 1985. Yearsley et al. Ross and Adcock (1969) Cement Bond Logs:Bade (1963). Turcan (1962. 1980. (1984). Pedlar et al. (1988). Worthington (1976) Carbonates: Chombart (1960). (1984). Pryor (1956). Head and Merkel (1977). Haase and King (1986). 1966). 1988) Blankennagel (1968-hydraulic testing). Kendall (1965-corrosion detection). (1989). Guyed (1957. MacCary (1971. (1984). Keys and Brown (1971.

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Other references on the use of surface geophysical methods for geologic and hydrogeologic investigations can be found in the index reference table in the chapter that covers the method of interest. A-1 . and reference citations immediately follow each table. M (magnetics). (2) contaminants involved. The following information is provided for each reference: (1) location (if specified). If other methods were used the name of the method is provided in the space available. Six geophysical methods are listed in the methods column: SR (seismic refraction). GPR (ground penetrating radar). Only geophysical applications at contaminated sites are included in this appendix. and G (gravity). where given. The case studies are listed in alphabetical order by author (last column). EMI (electromagnetic induction). (4) geophysical methods used and (5) citation. An “x” is placed in the appropriate column for each method used at the site. (3) geology and depth to water table. ER (electrical resistivity).APPENDIX A CASE STUDY SUMMARIES FOR SURFACE AND BOREHOLE GEOPHYSICAL METHODS This appendix provides summary information on case studies involving the use of surface (Table A-1) and borehole (Table A-2) geophysical methods at contaminated sites.

PA Oil-field brine Acid mine drainage West Point. and clays over gneiss Sand and gravel aquifer Sandstone aquifer Coal strip mine spoils Sand and gravel aquifer sand and gravel aquifers 180-500 ft deep x x x x Adams et al.Table A-1 Ground-Water Contamination Case Studies Using Surface Geophysical Methods Location Contaminant Geology Methods SR ER EMI GPR M G Reference Central Maryland LUST (fuel oil and gasoline) Alluvial aquifer (l0-35 ft) over fractured gneiss 300 ft of complex glacial deposits over sandstone aquifer 115 ft sand aquifer over clay Alluvial and glacial outwash over karst Various unconsolidated glacial and outwash deposits 30-45 ft of glaciolacustrine silty sands over igneous Sand and gravel aquifer Unconsolidated material 90 ft of glacial till over shale Alluvium. (1988) Allen and Rogers (1989) Buried drums. Ontario Morns County. Rhode Island Northeastern Ohio Clarion. silts. Clinton. Kentucky Oil-field brine Monterey County. and Butler Counties. Pennsylvania Siting of ash dis­ posal impoundment Northeast Illinois 4 sanitary landfills North Bay. (1983) Greenhouse and Harris (1983) Hall and Pasicznyk (1987) Kelly (1976) Knuth (1988) Ladwig (1983) Lyverse (1989) Mills et al. water table 0-30 ft 90 ft sand aquifer 8-60 ft glacial sands. heavy Metamora landfill. (1986) Glaccum et al. (1987) Easton. Illinois Las Vegas. California Salt-water intrusion A-2 . landfill leachate Buried drums with hazardous wastes Hydrocarbon spill LandfiIl leachate Industrial waste (VOCs and iodide) x x x x x x x x x x x x West Kensington Landfill Ieachate landfill. Michigan (Superfund) metals and organics New Jersey Sodium chromate and sodium hydroxide x x x x x ThermaI Berk and Yare (1977) Blackey and Stoner (1988) Cartwright and McComas (1968) Cosgrave et al. Ontario Landfill leachate x x x x x x x Southern New Jersey Landfill leachate Various unspecified locations Wilsonville. (1987) Emilsson and Wroblewski (1988) x x Evans and Schweitzer (1984) Gllkeson et al. Nevada Borden. New Jersey Buried wastes.

Table A-1 (cont.)

Location

Contaminant

Gcology

Methods SR ER EMI GPR M G

Reference

Southeastern Idaho Reno, Nevada Tippecanoe County, Indiana

Metals manufacturing waste disposal ponds Saline water Landfill Ieachate, buried metals

Fractured and faulted basalt aquifer Volcanic lavas and tuffs ground water at 250 ft Clay-rich glacial till over sand and gravel aquifer Glacial sand and gravel over granite Glacial sand and gravel aquifer over dolomite Missouri River floodplain Alluvial sands and clays 50-75 ft silt, sand, and clay over shale Floridan aquifer (carbonate) Not specified Variable 3-10 ft of soil over sandstone sand and gravel aquifer Sandstone x x x

x x x x x x x

Morgenstern and Syverson (1988) Ringstad and Bugenig (1984) Roberts et al. (1989)

Braccbridge, Ontario Landfill leachate (TCE contamination) Saukville, Wisconsin Northwest Missouri Eastern North Carolina Fly ash Ieachate Landfill leachate Jet fuel leak

x x x x x x x x x

x

Rodrigues (1987) Rogers and Kean (1980) Rudy and Caoile (1984) Saunders and Cox (1987) Saunders and Germeroth (1985) Stewart (1982) Stewart and Bretnall (1986) Stellar and Roux (1975) Sweeney (1984) Walsh (1988) White and Gainer (1985)

Newark International Jet fuel leak Airport, New Jersey Citrus and Collier Counties, Florida Saltwater intrusion

Landfill (unspecified) Landfill leachate Four locations (unspecified) 75 km east of San Francisco, California Industrial waste, landfill leachate Landfill leachate

x x x x x

Western Massachusetts Landfill leachate Utah Uranium mill tailings

A-3

z

Table A-2 Ground-Water Contamination Case Studies Using Borehole Geophysical Methods

Location

Contaminant

Geology

Ground-Water Investigation Methods Caliper, gamma, vertical seismic,
borehole camera
SP, induced polarization, normal and
focused resistivity,
neutron, gamma-gamma,
gamma, caliper, fluid
resistivity, temperature,
full waveform sonic
Caliper, SP resistance, fluid
resistivity & temp.,
gamma, neutron, ATV
Electric, fluid resistivity, caliper
velocity, gamma
Caliper, spinner, brine injection,
resistivity,
temperature
Gamma, gamma-gamma, neutron activation
Adams et al. (1988)

Central Maryland LUST (fuel oil and gasoline) Rocky Mountain Injected hazardous Arsenal, Denver chemicals Colorado

AlluviaI aquifer (10-35 ft) over fractured gneiss Alluvium over interbedded sandstone and shale

Crowder et al. (1987)

Northeastern Massachusetts (Superfund) Florida

Landfill leachate, organics

Fractured gneiss

Dearborn (1988)

Waste-injection monitor well

Sands and clays over limestone at about 1,400 ft Unconsolidated sands and gravels with beds of silt and clay Interbedded basalts and sedimentary rock, water table at 100-200 ft 15-105 ft of alluvial soils over limestone; water table at 480 ft Glacial deposits over crystalline bedrock

Foster and Goolsby (1972)

Albuquerque NM VOCs (Superfund)

Ring and Sale (1987)

Arlington, Oregon RCRA facility Western U.S.

Testa (1988)

Heavy metal contami­ nation from a gas processing plant. Vocs

Dual induction, gamma- and spectrogamma, neutron
Caliper, SP, SP resistance, gamma,
gamma-gamma, neutron,
ATV, temperature
Caliper, SP resistance, fluid resistivity, gamma,
ATV, temperature,
thermal flowmeter

Turner and Black
(1989)
Westphalen (1991)

Northeast U.S.

New York

TCE, PCE

(1) Mesozoic sediments, (2) Precambrian metamorphic rocks

Williams and Conger
(1990)

A-4

Table A-2 Ground-Water Contamination Case Studies Using Borehole Geophysical Methods

Location

Contaminant

Geology

Ground-Water Investigation Methods Caliper, gamma, vertical seismic, borehole camera SP, induced polari­ zation, normal and focused resistivity, neutron, gamma-gamma, gamma, caliper, fluid resistivity, temperature, full waveform sonic Caliper, SP resis­ tance, fluid resistivity & temp., gamma, neutron, ATV Electric, fluid resistivity, caliper velocity, gamma Caliper, spinner, brine injection, resistivity, temperature Gamma, gamma-gamma, neutron activation Adams et al. (1988)

Central Maryland LUST (fuel oil and gasoline) Rocky Mountain Injected hazardous Arsenal, Denver chemicals Colorado

Alluvial aquifer (10-35 ft) over fractured gneiss Alluvium over interbedded sandstone and shale

Crowder et al. (1987)

Northeastern Massachusetts (Superfund) Florida

Landfill leachate, organics

Fractured gneiss

Dearborn (1988)

Waste-injection monitor well

Sands and clays over limestone at about 1,400 ft Unconsolidated sands and gravels with beds of silt and clay Interbedded basalts and sedimentary rock, water table at 100-200 ft 15-105 ft of alluvial soils over limestone; water table at 480 ft Glacial deposits over crystalline bedrock

Foster and Goolsby (1972)

Albuquerque NM VOCs (Superfund)

Ring and Sale (1987)

Arlington, Oregon RCRA facility Western U.S.

Testa (1988)

Heavy metal contami­ nation from a gas processing plant. VOCs

Dual induction, gamma- and spectro­ gamma, neutron Caliper, SP, SP resistance, gamma, gamma-gamma, neutron, ATV, temperature Caliper, SP resistance, fluid resistivity, gamma, ATV, temperature, thermal flowmeter

Turner and Black (1989) Westphalen (1991)

Northeast U.S.

New York

TCE. PCE

(1) Mesozoic sediments, (2) Precambrian metamorphic rocks

Williams and Conger (1990)

A-5

References for Table A-1

Adams, M.L., M.S. Turner, and M.T. Morrow. 1988. The Use of Surface and Downhole Geophysical Techniques to Characterize Flow in a Fracture Bedrock Aquifer System. In: Proc. 2nd Nat. Outdoor Action Conf. on Aquifer Restoration, Ground Water Monitoring and Geophysical Methods, National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH, pp. 825-847. Allen, R.P. and B.A. Rogers. 1989. Geophysical Surveys in Support of a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study at the Municipal Landfill in Metamora, Michigan. In: Proc. 3rd Nat. Outdoor Action Conf. on Aquifer Restoration, Ground Water Monitoring and Geophysical Methods, National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH, pp. 1007-1020. Berk, W.J. and B.S. Yare. 1977. An Integrated Approach to Delineating Contaminated Ground Water. Ground Water 15(2):138-145. Blackey, M. and D.A. Stoner. 1988. Application of Seismic Refraction Analysis to Siting a Waste Disposal Facility over Carbonate Bedrock. In: Proc. 2nd Nat. Outdoor Action Conf. on Aquifer Restoration, Ground Water Monitoring and Geophysical Methods, National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH, pp. 697-706. Cartwright, K., and M.R. McComas. 1968. Geophysical Surveys in the Vicinity of Sanitary Landfills in Northeastern Illinois. Ground Water 6(5):23-30. Cosgrave, T.M., J.P. Greenhouse, and J.F. Barker. 1987. Shallow Stratigraphic Reflections from Ground Penetrating Radar. In: Proc. 1st Nat. Outdoor Action Conf. on Aquifer Restoration, Ground Water Monitoring and Geophysical Methods, National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH, pp. 555-569. Emilsson, G.R. and R.T. Wroblewski. 1988. Resolving Conductive Contaminant Plumes in the Presence of Irregular Topography. In: Proc. 2nd Nat. Outdoor Action Conf. on Aquifer Restoration, Ground Water Monitoring and Geophysical Methods, National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH, pp. 617-635. Evans, R.B. and G.E. Schweitzer. 1984. Assessing Hazardous Waste Problems. Environ. Sci. Technol. 18(11):330A-339A. Gilkeson, R.H., P.C. Heigold and D.E. Layman. 1986. Practical Application of Theoretical Models to Magnetometer Surveys on Hazardous Waste Disposal Sites-A Case History. Ground Water Monitoring Review 6(1):54-61. Glaccum, R., M. Noel, R. Evans, and L. McMillion. 1983. Correlation of Geophysical and Organic Vapor Analyzer Data over a Conductive Plume Containing Volatile Organies. In: Proc. 3rd Nat. Symp. on Aquifer Restoration and Ground Water Monitoring, National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH, pp. 421-427. Greenhouse, J.P. and R.D. Harris. 1983. Migration of Contaminants in Groundwater at a Landfill: A Case Study 7. DC, VLF, and Inductive Resistivity Surveys. J. Hydrology 63:177-197. Hall, D.W. and D.L. Pasicznyk. 1987. Application of Seismic Refraction and Terrain Conductivity Methods at a Ground Water Pollution Site in North-Central New Jersey. In: Proc. 1st Nat. Outdoor Action Conf. on Aquifer Restoration, Ground Water Monitoring and Geophysical Methods, National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH, pp. 505-524.

A-6

Kelly, W.E. 1976. Geoelectric Sounding for Delineating Ground-Water Contamination. Ground Water 14:6-10. Knuth, M. 1988. Complementary Use of EM-31 and Dipole-Dipole Resistivity to Locate the Source of Oil Brine Contamination. In: Proc. 2nd Nat. Outdoor Action Conf. on Aquifer Restoration, Ground Water Monitoring and Geophysical Methods, National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH, pp. 583-595. Ladwig, K.J. 1983. Electromagnetic Induction Methods for Monitoring Acid Mine Drainage. Ground Water Monitoring Review 3(1):46-57. Lyverse, M.A. 1989. Surface Geophysical Techniques and Test Drilling Used to Assess Ground-Water Contamination by Chloride in an Alluvial Aquifer. In: Proc. 3rd Nat. Outdoor Action Conf. on Aquifer Restoration, Ground Water Monitoring and Geophysical Methods, National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH, pp. 993-1006. Mills, T., L. Evans, and M. Blohm. 1987. The Use of Time Domain Electromagnetic Soundings for Mapping Sea Water Intrusion in Monterey, Co., Ca.: A Case History. In: Proc. 1st Nat. Outdoor Action Conf. on Aquifer Restoration, Ground Water Monitoring and Geophysical Methods, National Water Well Asociation, Dublin, OH, pp. 601-622. Morgenstern, K.A. and T.L. Syverson. 1988. Determination of Contaminant Migration in Vertical Faults and Basalt Flows with Electromagnetic Conductivity Techniques. In: Proc. 2nd Nat. Outdoor Action Conf. on Aquifer Restoration, Ground Water Monitoring and Geophysical Methods, National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH, pp. 597-615 Ringstad, C.A. and D.C. Bugenig. 1984. Electrical Resistivity Studies to Delimit Zones of Acceptable Ground Water Quality. Ground Water Monitoring Review 4(4):66-69. Roberts, R. G., W.J. Hinze, and D.I. Leap. 1989. A Multi-Technique Geophysical Approach to Landfill Investigations. In: Proc. 3rd Nat. Outdoor Action Conf. on Aquifer Restoration, Ground Water Monitoring and Geophysical Methods, National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH, pp. 797-811.
Rodrigues,

E.B. 1987. Application of Gravity and Seismic Methods in Hydrogeological Mapping at a Landfill Site in Ontario. In: Proc. 1st Nat. Outdoor Action Conf. on Aquifer Restoration, Ground

Water Monitoring and Geophysical Methods, National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH, pp. 487-504.
Rogers,

R.B. and W.F. Kean. 1980. Monitoring Groundwater Contamination at a Fly-Ash Disposal Site Using Surface Electrical Resistivity Methods. Ground Water 18:472-478.

Rudy, R.J. and J.A. Caoile. 1984. Utilization of Shallow Geophysical Sensing at Two Abandoned Municipal/Industrial Waste Landfills on the Missouri River Floodplain. Ground Water Monitoring Review (Fall) pp. 57-65. Saunders, W.R. and S.A. Cox. 1987. Use of an Electromagnetic Induction Technique in Subsurface

Hydrocarbon Investigations. In: Proc. 1st Nat. Outdoor Action Conf. on Aquifer Restoration, Ground Water Monitoring and Geophysical Methods, National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH, pp. 585-600.
Saunders, W.R. and R.M. Germeroth. 1985. Electromagnetic Measurements for Subsurface Hydrocarbon Investigations. In: Proc. NWWA/API Conf. Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Organic Chemicals in

A-7

Ground Water—Prevention, Detection and Restoration, 1985, National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH, pp. 310-321. Stewart, M.T. 1982. Evaluation of Electromagnetic Methods for Rapid Mapping of Salt-Water Interfaces in Coastal Aquifers. Ground Water 20:538-545. Stewart, M. and R. Bretnall. 1986. Interpretation of VLF Resistivity Data for Ground Water Contamination Surveys. Ground Water Monitoring Review 6(.1):71-75. Stollar, R.L. and P. Roux. 1975. Earth Resistivity Surveys-A Method for Defining Ground-Water Contamination. Ground Water 13:145-150. Sweeney, J.J. 1984. Comparison of Electrical Resistivity Methods for Investigation of Ground Water Conditions at a Landfill Site. Ground Water Monitoring Review 4(1):52-59. Walsh, D.C. 1988. Integration of Surface Geophysical Techniques for Landfill Investigation: A Case Study. In: Proc. 2nd Nat. Outdoor Action Conf. on Aquifer Restoration, Ground Water Monitoring and Geophysical Methods, National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH, pp. 753-778. White, R.B. and R.B. Gainer. 1985. Control of Ground Water Contamination at an Active Uranium Mill. Ground Water Monitoring Review 5(2):75-82.

A-8

..—

L. OH. In: Proc. Dublin. 1972. acoustic televiewer. Black. Foster. Sale. In: Proc. Crowder. The Application of Borehole Geophysics to Identify Fracture Zones and Define Geology at Two New England Sites.E. and T.M.T.W.C. OH. Benefits of Downhole Geophysical Methods in Low Permeability Hydrogeologic Environments.References for Table A-2 See glossary for meaning of method abbreviations. The Use of Geophysical Logs in the Characterization of a Structurally Complex Site. L. M. and L.H. Dublin. J. Turner. on Aquifer Restoration. 65-75. S. Hazardous Material Control Research Institute. Ground Water Monitoring and Geophysical Methods. pp. Construction of Waste-Injection Monitor Wells Near Pensaeola. Dublin. pp. 1987. Outdoor Action Conf. and M.T. 1991. Ground Water Monitoring Review 10(4):118­ 126. thermal flowmeter] A-9 . 2nd Int. In: Ground Water Management 7:535-546. In: Proc. Evaluation of Well Field Contamination Using Downhole Geophysical Logs and Depth-Specific Samples. on Aquifer Restoration. neutron. The Use of Surface and Downhole Geophysical Techniques to Characterize Flow in a Fracture Bedrock Aquifer System. National Water Well Association. Borehole Geophysical Investigations of Fractured Rock at an EPA Superfund Site in Massachusetts. National Water Well Association. 3rd Nat. J. and J. Outdoor Action Conf. 969-985. Symp. [Gamma. In: Proc. Geotechnical and Groundwater Applications. Ring. In: Proc. Westphalen. OH.S. gamma-gamma. Outdoor Action Conf. SP resistance. National Water Well Association. on Aquifer Restoration. and R. M. acoustic televiewer] Williams. Ground Water Monitoring and Geophysical Methods. Utilizing A Borehole Geophysical Logging Program in Poorly Consolidated Sediments for a Hazardous Waste Investigation: A Case History. Florida. 2nd Nat. SP. Morrow.A. Dearborn. 1989. Silver Spring. temperature.. fluid-resistivity. temperature. 1988. caliper. Dublin. 2nd Nat. 909-919. pp. Florida Bureau of Geology Information Circular 74. OH. Ground Water Monitoring and Geophysical Methods. 1988. on Aquifer Restoration. Preliminary Delineation of Contaminated Water-Bearing Fractures Intersected by Open-Hole Bedrock Wells. SP resistance.. 1988. Irons. Proceedings of the 8th Annual Conference. 2nd Nat. 825-847. Outdoor Action Conf. Testa. In: Superfund ’87. Ground Water Monitoring and Geophysical Methods. G. R.L.B. Conger.S. pp. caliper. on Borehole Geophysics for Minerals. gamma. O. Adams. Goolsby. National Water Well Association. [VOC contamination. pp. MD. pp. 1990. (8th NWWA Eastern GW Conference). 320-325. and D.L. 875-895. Brouillard. Turner.H. 1987. W.

Geological Survey also may be able to answer questions by telephone: Gary Olhoeft.S.S. Hartford. and other geophysics-related publications (Section B. Denver. 702/798-2254) (Lary Jack. and (3) the addresses of major U.2). NV (Aldo Mazzella. 702/798-2373) Region V. CO (303/236-1302) Peter Haeni. FTS 545­ 2254. 312/353-1526) The following individuals with the U.1). (2) addresses and phone numbers of organizations that publish journals. Chicago. Jim Ursic. Las Vegas. symposium proceedings. CT (203/240-3060) B-1 . IL (Mark Vendl.1 Technical Assistance Technical assistance on questions concerning use of geophysical methods is available to EPA personnel from a number of EPA laboratories and regional offices: Environmental Systems Monitoring Laboratory. B. 312/886-0405. Environmental Protection Agency libraries and information on holdings.APPENDIX B TECHNICAL INFORMATION SOURCES This appendix provides (1) the names of individuals who may be able to provide technical assistance in evaluating or selecting geophysical methods at contaminated sites (Section B. FTS 545-2367.

Netherlands). 6001 Gulf Freeway. P.000 microfiche documents. (617/565-3300). 202/939-3200). National Ground Water Association (NGWA—formerly National Water Well Association). U.O.S. Publisher of Water Resources Research. 625 journals. 22. P. CO 80155 (303/771-6101). Region 1 Library/LIB. Box 4475.3 EPA Libraries Headquarters Library. Publisher of Log Analyst. Springfield.O. Alberta. P. Houston. formerly Society of Engineering and Mineral Exploration Geophysicists). 90. European Association of Exploration Geophysicists (Journal Subscription Department. Publisher of SAGEEP proceedings and Journal of Applied Geophysics (formerly Geoexploration). 365. 1916 Race Street. Box 87.2 Organizations and Journals American Society for Testing and Materials. Washington. Washington DC 20460. The Journal of Hydrology is published by Elsevier Science Publishers (Journal Department. JFK Federal Building. Oxford UK). Marston Book Services. OK 74170-2740 (918/493-3516). Publisher of CWLS Journal. Englewood. 6365 Riverside Drive. PM-211A 401 M St. Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society (EEGS. National Technical Information Semite (NTIS. Room 2094. Department of Commerce. 43017 (800/551-7379). Society of Professional Well Log Analysts (SPWLA). P. Suite C129. T2P OM6 (403/269-9366).000 books/documents. B-2 . Box 702740. MA 02203. Dublin. Boston.. Calgary.000 microfiche. Box 211. B. Publisher of Geophysical Prospecting. (202/382-5921). SW. American Geophysical Union (2000 Florida Avenue. Suite 229. TX 77023 (713/928-8925).B. OH.O. DC 20009. NW. W. VA 22161 (800/336-4700). Publisher of Ground Water and Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation (formerly Ground Water Monitoring Review). Publisher of Geophysics. 640 5th Avenue S. PA 19103­ 1187 (215/299-5585). Philadelphia.000 books/documents. Tulsa. 25. 1000 AE Amsterdam. Canadian Well Logging Society (CWLS).O. 175 journals. Copies of out-of-print government documents. Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG Book Order Department).

Region 5 Library.000 books/documents. 23. P.000 microfiche.000 books/documents. Dallas. 110 journals. B-3 U. 3PM52. Suite 500. (513/569-7707). 7. 1200 Sixth Avenue. TX 75202­ 2733. Atlanta. Extensive microfiche collection. Region 6 Library. MD-108. Box 1198. (312/353-2022). 120. 95. Robert S.000 books/documents. 100 journals. 999 18th Street. Edison. microfiche.000 microfiche. 76 journals. No listing of holdings. (215/597-0580). NV 89119. Las Vegas. CO 80202-2405. 110. OH 45268-4545. 600 journals. NY 10278. 702(798-2648). (212/264-2881). 60 journals. 16. OK 74820. 27. Seattle.000 microfiche.Region 2 Library. 19. Cincinnati. 4. Region 2 Field Office Library. Denver.000 books/documents. 2. 220 journals.O.000 microfiche. >450. (405/332-8800). San Francisco. Box 25227. Region 10 Library.000 microfiche. Denver Federal Center. Region 4 Library.O. 48. 1445 Ross Avenue. 100. Building 53. Region 3 Information Resource Center. MS-245. CA 94105.000 microfiche. extensive microfiche collection. Harmon Avenue. 26 Federal Plaza. Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory Library. Room 1670. 155.000 microfiche. NY 08837.000 books/documents. GOVERNMENT PRINTING 0FFICE:1994-550-001/00181 . Building 209. 841 Chestnut Street. Philadelphia. National Enforcement Investigations Center Library. GA 30365-2401. 50 journals.000 books. 726 Minnesota Avenue.000 books/documents. Las Vegas. 250 journals. New York. 75 Hawthorne Street. Chicago. KS 66101. Kansas City. IL 60604. P. (303/293-1444).000 books/documents. NE. 60 journals. 150 journals. Region 9 Library. Region 8 Library.000 hardcopy/microfiche documents. 944 E. NV 89193-3478. Breidenbach Environmental Research Center Library.000 microfiche. >300. (404/347­ 4216). First Interstate Bank Tower. 76. Ada.000 books/documents.000 books/documents. (913/551-7358). (214/655-6444). 8PM-IML. 77. WA 98101. PA 19107.000 books/documents. Kerr Lab road. Box 93478. 26 West Martin Luther King Drive. 8. (415/744-1510).000 books. Room 402. Denver. numerous microfiche.S. 345 Courtland Street. 16. (201/321-6762). (206/553-1289). (303/236-5122). CO 80225. 230 Dearborn Street. 2890 Woodbridge Avenue. 150. 225 journals. Region 7 Library. Andrew W. G6. 325 journals. 24. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory.

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