tires

and Other Interesting Numbers

Y E O Adrian
'Whoever despises the high wisdom of mathematics nourishes himself on delusion." Leonardo da Vinci

arcs

Pi,e
and Other Interesting Numbers

arcs

Pi,e
and Other Interesting Numbers

Y E O Adrian
M.A., Ph.D. (Cambridge University) Honorary Fellow, Christ's College, Cambridge University

Ylf* World Scientific
NEW JERSEY • LONDON • SINGAPORE • BEIJING • SHANGHAI • HONG KONG • TAIPEI • CHENNAI

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British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

First published 2006 Reprinted 2007

THE PLEASURES OF PI,E AND OTHER INTERESTING NUMBERS Copyright © 2006 by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. All rights reserved. This book, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information storage and retrieval system now known or to be invented, without written permission from the Publisher.

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ISBN 981-270-078-1 ISBN 981 -270-079-X (pbk)

Printed in Singapore by B & JO Enterprise

.'Dedicated *7* 'KatkttfK a*td IRe&ecca.

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Rebecca's "passwords" for access to computer games TT TT 1 cire.yvr\f&r&nc<> ' Diametei- TT = 3-\*45^26S3ir T ^ 1 " V ^ ^ ^ 5l .

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Kathryn's "password" for access to computer games e. • 3! O-0'4 Ob T. ^bi-hr^ IX .

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e Pidy Widy Tidy Pidy Nice Insidy Apple pi.A was once an apple pi.e Edward Lear (1818-1888) A thing of beauty is a joy forever Its loveliness increases It will never pass into nothingness John Keats (1795-1821) $ The most beautiful thing you can experience is the mysterious It is the source of all true art and science He . who can no longer pause to wonder and stand rapt in awe is as good as dead Albert Einstein (1879-1955) * ...

Mathematics is like checkers in being suitable for the young not too difficult. amusing and without peril to the state Plato (-429-347 BC) Equations are more important to me because politics is for the present but an equation is for eternity Albert Einstein (1879-1955) In nature's infinite book of secrecy A little I can read William Shakespeare (1564-1616) xii THE PLEASURES OF pi.e .

both young and old. it helps them experience the "magic" that emerges from the idea of infinity. Using infinite series as a thread. XIII . algebra. I'd say that the five most remarkable symbols in mathemtics are %. and they are beautifully treated in this book. The author's exposition exemplifies an experiential approach. e. Written in a warm and graceful style. and 1. this unusual book has the feel of a journey through time interspersed with numerous historical references and interesting anecdotes.Foreword For many. making mathematics fun and accessible even to the math averse. As one who has spent many years in education. Along the way. Yet. and elementary functions — the book takes readers through less familiar terrain in mathematics. mathematics strikes cold fear. the book reveals the beauty and elegance as well as the intellectual challenges in mathematics. In my own experience. mathematicians make no apology for this nor do they attempt to bring things to the level of mere mortals. 0. This is accomplished by building on existing knowledge in a cumulative manner to arrive at further results and insights in a refreshing way. I am struck by how effortlessly Dr Y E O Adrian's wonderful book bridges this divide. i. Building on the more familiar — arithmetic. navigating through arithmetic and algebraic manipulations to reveal deeper patterns and beautiful symmetries.

US National Academy of Engineering Foreign Honorary Member. in addition to grown-ups with an interest in mathematics. The Pleasures of pi.One unusual aspect of this book is the potential breadth of its readership.e takes its readers through a tantalizing mathematical adventure. Order of "Legion d'Honneur" xiv THE PLEASURES OF pi. PhD (Harvard) President. American Academy of Arts and Sciences Chevalier. National University of Singapore Foreign Associate. Professor Shih Choon Fong MS. This book should appeal to the young from pre-teen to pre-university.e . By focusing on a coherent set of ideas around the concept of infinity.

a subject which has attracted the attention of many mathematicians throughout the ages. Professor Cham Tao Soon BE. Royal Academy of Engineering. Catharine's College. The results of the summations of infinite series are often elusive and surprising. St. UK Member.Foreword I have known Dr Y E O Adrian for a long time. I find his book really fascinating. which is his major contribution. some well-known and others not commonly found. He has managed to point out very clearly the key features of each series. His ability to develop a deep insight into a particular topic and to argue logically is an attribute few of us possess. Singapore xv . philosophers. Anyone who has a serious interest in infinite series will find his book a good reference. They provide a number of refreshing views of mathematics. He has written an interesting book on infinite series. BSc. scientists and mathematicians from Plato to Albert Einstein. 1981-2002) Nanyang Technological University. The book has a good collection of infinite series related to TC and e. Cambridge University Distinguished Professor (Former President. Another interesting feature is the numerous quotations by famous writers. Swedish Royal Academy of Engineering Honorary Fellow. PhD (Cambridge) Fellow.

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when they heard that I was writing a math book for the enjoyment of non-mathematicians and those who "hated math in school". Still I persisted. They are right. As I watched them playing enthusiastically. 4. And yet the kids could master them fairly effortlessly. some twenty. This book is written for the young and the young-at-heart. They respond more readily to beauty. The young are always interested in what they see around them in the world. with awe and amazement. Some of the games require fairly complex heuristic algorithms (game plans). 6 and Kathryn. it occurred to me that young XVII . After short lessons with me. said my friends. Then it took on a life of its own.Preface "This is mission impossible". And they always ask the question "why?" This book began life as a booklet. patterns and symmetry. alluded in their books to the common belief that each mathematical equation in a book would halve its sales and readership. They love playing computer games. They wonder about how things can be the way they are. executed in logical systematic sequences. as more and more equations were added. and grew and grew. The genesis of the book was prompted by my two granddaughters. and was meant only for my granddaughters. Rebecca. thirty pages long. they would play the games again and again. two of the most famous mathematicians in the 21st century. Even Stephen Hawking and Roger Penrose. until they master them.

So the definition of ff. and Euler's series for -^-. Kathryn had it easier — all she had to write down was the infinite series for V . After the first four terms. a feast for the eyes. so can everyone else. and gave her the value of n up to 10 decimal places. with its value correct for 9 digits out of 10. I asked her what n was. "pain". she saw the underlying patterns. I then taught her the Liebniz-Gregory infinite series for \ . they may be initiated into the pleasures of "pure mathematics" — one of the most beautiful subjects in the world. if they were similarly motivated. The effortless encounters of Rebecca and Kathryn with the infinite series for n and e. according to the eminent former Cambridge mathematician. Hardy. and know the simple integers and fractions. For far too long "mathematics" has been synonymous with "boredom".e . Therefore I decided to write this book as a gift to my granddaughters so that as they grow up.children might be able to master complex mathematical algorithms too. with equations which can be read and enjoyed by almost everyone who has heard of 7Z.H. explained what it is. She gave me the answer. to gain access to the computer for her games. The series have been selected for their beauty. elegance and simplicity from the huge domain of xviii THE PLEASURES OF pi. A few days later. n to 10 decimals and the LiebnizGregory and Euler series became the "passwords" that she had to write down. suggested to me the possibility that many people could also enjoy an easy introduction to the pleasures and beauty of mathematics the painless way. and could continue the series for the next many terms. She was especially proud of the fact that she learnt the meaning of "factorial" (!) before her elder sister did. Therefore I decided to teach Rebecca some mathematics. If little children can appreciate and enjoy the patterns of infinite series for n and < ? . Section I is largely a visual treat. Professor G. Being only 4. This book consists of two short sections. and in the right sequence. I mentioned n. and at the appropriate time. and "total incomprehension" for far too many people.

Reading and enjoying Section I alone would be pleasure enough. that even Kathryn. and requires a bit more effort and some background in mathematics. Section I is best read at one sitting. the "Not-So-Easy Proofs". Section II of the book is best savoured slowly like fine wine. preferably up to high school level. with a sense of awe and amazement. one could follow in the footsteps. said: Everything should be made as simple as possible But not simpler. could continue the series after the first few terms. There are literally an infinite number of such series in mathematics to choose from. These are then followed by the "Less Easy Proofs" and finally. the beauty and mystery of the patterns and the rhythms of many of the equations will fill the reader. But there is far greater pleasure and a deeper sense of intellectual satisfaction to know that. such as Newton. and Euler. If non-mathematicians and those who "hated math in school" could finish Section I. full of beautiful pictures.mathematics. Section II of the book is largely a feast for the mind. so that readers will be able to derive the beautiful equations themselves. with an extra bit of effort and some patience. preferably not more than one or two proofs at a time — unless you Preface xix . Some of the series are so simple and elegant in their symmetry. the greatest 20th century physicist. or perhaps for those seeing them for the first time. I have chosen the simplest proofs for the beautiful equations given in Section I. a four-year-old child. So Section II begins with the "Easy Proofs" — proofs so simple that Rebecca could do some of them. just as one would read a book of art. the effort in writing this book would have been worthwhile. Here in the most systematic way possible. It should set them wondering why they had never encountered such beauty in the math that they had studied in school. Leibniz. as some of the greatest mathematics geniuses in the world. and think the same thoughts. with short commentaries. That way. Albert Einstein.

I did not find a single book that presented math in the way that I had. in this book are about 2 0 0 . My hope is that readers of the book (especially of Section I) will find it entertaining and pleasurable. proofs. In this book. e and other interesting numbers. equations. and Waterstone's. with the primary purpose of illustrating the beauty of pure math via the vehicle of infinite series. you will see that many of the terms in the equations of great beauty do "pass into nothingness" as the series tends to infinity! The mathematical ideas. and take pleasure in the infinite series of n.4 0 0 years old. After I had finished writing the book. the young 19th century romantic poet.are a mathematician. the proofs would be effortless and plain sailing for you. xx THE PLEASURES OF pi. John Keats. I went through the books in the math section of Borders in Singapore and San Francisco. in which case. So enjoy. said: A thing of beauty is a joy forever Its loveliness increases It will never pass into nothingness. Blackwell's and Foyle's in London. etc. If readers also find it educational (especially readers of Section II). it would be a happy bonus. W h a t is original in this book is the method of presentation of the math. formulas.e . Thousands of mathematicians had written about them over the centuries.

— for their contributions to this beautiful subject. they are countless because memory fails.Acknowledgments Many tributaries feed a river. I have decided to replace the conventional bibliographic listing with an expression of gratitude to the many authors whose books on mathematics and related subjects. Greeks. and be grateful. professors and colleagues. of lessons learnt in schools. including our ancient mathematician-forebears — the Chinese. mathematics. Indians. An ancient Chinese proverb says: "Those who drink of the water should remember its sources. one's intellect is the sum (and occasionally the product) of all the inputs over the years. They run into thousands." It is a privilege for me to acknowledge my gratitude to all who had influenced. Hence. Arabs. had given XXI . universities and workplaces. my intellectual development in life. and often I cannot remember the sources or the names of those whom I have learnt from. Egyptians. directly or indirectly. as well as of ideas gleaned from books read and from friends. I wish to thank all mathematicians since recorded history. Mathematically speaking. etc. teachers. they are finite in number. In this day of ubiquitous search engines. absorbed and assimilated over the years. but humanly speaking. I record here my gratitude to the many people whose ideas and values I have acquired. Indeed. Babylonians. my sincere apologies to those whose names are not recorded here.

including Miss Ong and Mr Gan (in secondary school). My Chemistry teachers: Many (in school). They include the following in alphabetical order: Rouse Ball John Barrow Petr Beckman Stephen Hawking Michio Kaku Robert and Ellen Kaplan Eli Maor Barry Mazur Paul Nahin D a n Pedoe Roger Penrose Martin Rees Herbert Robbins Marcus du Sautoy Simon Singh Ian Stewart E. T.e . my M. Those I know personally w h o m I thank include: My Mathematics teachers: Many. They are too many to name. including Mrs Lam and Prof Guha (in university). supervisor.me countless hours of reading pleasure and education. Bell John Casti Richard Courant Paul Davies Keith Devlin Richard Feynman Martin Gardner Margaret Gow Brian Greene John Gribbin G.Sc. Many. xxii THE PLEASURES OF pi. Emeritus Prof Peter Huang (University of Singapore). Many (in universities) including: Emeritus Prof Kiang Ai Kim (University of Singapore). Hardy Entry of these names with any search engine will give the titles of a huge number of excellent books which I found to be of great value. H .

Emeritus Prof Dudley H. and Pauline Chia for helping in the typing and formatting the texts. My special thanks go to the many friends directly involved with the book. and Emeritus Prof Joshua Lederberg (Stanford University). Lim Sook Cheng and her excellent team at World Scientific Publishing. but not least. for her reading and critique of the proofs. Nobel Laureate and leader of our research team in Artificial Intelligence. my post-doctoral research supervisor. supervisor.D. and Peh Chin Hua and Peh Soh Ngoh at Shing Lee Publishers. To G o d be the Glory. Acknowledgments xxiii . They include: Prof Lily Shih. Special thanks also go to: Prof Shih Choon Fong and Prof Cham Tao Soon for so kindly reading the proofs and writing the Foreword to the book. Nobel Laureate and my Master at Christ's College. Last. the late Emeritus Prof Lord Todd (Cambridge University). for helping in so many ways in the production of the book. Williams (Cambridge University). Sam Chan for editorial improvements. my Ph. Emeritus Prof Carl Djerassi (Stanford University).

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Contents Foreword by Professor Shih Choon Fong Foreword by Professor Cham Tao Soon Preface Acknowledgments I. Beauty for the Eye Infinity and Infinite Series (Getting acquainted with Big and Small Numbers) 7T-series (The Inexplicable and Elegant Expressions of 7l) <?-series (Infinite Series with Sums that change like Magic Putty) Other Interesting Number Series (Millions of Ways of Adding up to 1) II: Feast for the Mind Easy Proofs (Even a six-year-old child can understand some of these) xiii xv xvii xxi 1 23 55 101 141 XXV .

Liebniz and Bernoulli would have loved to see how Euler did it) Appendix Elementary Trigonometry Elementary Series Elementary Calculus 177 209 235 237 238 xxvi THE PLEASURES OF pi.Less Easy Proofs (With occassional "eureka" moments) Not-So-Easy Proofs (Even Newton.e .

Infinity and Infinite Series .

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Numbers rule the Universe Pythagoras (-580-500 BC) God is a geometer Plato (-427-347 BC) God created everything by numbers Isaac Newton (1642-1727) The Great Architect of the Universe now begins to appear as a pure mathematician James Jean (1877-1946) Infinity and Infinite Series 3 .

The Sum of Integers 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + ••• ^ OO .

The sum of the endless addition of natural numbers does not add up to infinity. and they move on to other subjects. such as thousands. The dots at the end of the numbers (. "I have 3. the sum gets larger and larger. It is easy to understand that if we keep adding up the integers endlessly. "I have 20".. "I have 4". "I have 2 sweets". and billions. "I have 10".. Rather. mathematicians say that the sum "tends to infinity". The concept of infinity is unknown to children and even to most adults. they begin to use bigger numbers. and signify it with the symbol "—> °°". millions. In next to no time. Indeed it was unknown to many earlier mathematicians who were confused by it. Then they start escalating. and avoided thinking or talking about the concept. one more than you". This lasted until about the end of the 16th century. Once you start calling them integers.CHILDREN OFTEN ARGUE with one another over the number of objects that they have. and so on. Today mathematicians do not consider infinity (written as °°) as a number. Soon they run out of all the names of numbers that they know.) signify the endless continuation of terms. and hence "tends to infinity". (Mathematicians call natural whole numbers "integers". "I have 100". you can consider yourself a mathematician too!) Infinity and Infinite Series 5 .

Hie Sum of Factorials 1 + (1 x 2) + (1 x 2 x 3) + (1 x 2 x 3 x 4) + ••• — ^ oo 1 + 2! + 3! + 4! + .. — > oo ..

g.g. the third and subsequent terms are all greater than the corresponding terms of the first series of integers (e. also tends to infinity. This is because while the first two terms are identical to those of the first series of integers.... then it is obvious that the sum of the terms. represented by (!) as an abbreviation for the product of the consecutive integers from 1 up to the integers indicated (e. 1 x 2 x 3 is greater than 3). and loves to recite it when asked.IF THE SUM of integers tends to infinity.x n). which are the products of the consecutive integers from 1 up to the progressively higher integers indicated.* 'Kathryn. Infinity and Infinite Series 7 . n\ i s l x 2 x 3 x 4 x .. 4. learnt the meaning of n\. Mathematicians use the term "factorial".

The Harmonic Series 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 —^ oo See Proof 14 -> (page 165) .

surprise! The sum of the reciprocals of integers also tends to infinity. a series with a sum that tends to a fixed number (a constant). Surprise.+ 3. even though the individual terms tend to zero. is referred to as "convergent" — "a convergent series". If the harmonic series is divergent. what about the series with the reciprocals of the squares of the integers: J_ J_ J_ J_ J_ l 2 + ? 2 2 + 3 2 + 4 2 + 5 2 + ""' (This last problem had puzzled mathematicians for centuries. what about the sum of their reciprocals (opposite page)? First of all. Hence. Conversely. let us note that the bigger the integer. The series (opposite page) enjoys a special place in mathematics and is given the name "the Harmonic Series" because the Greek mathematician Pythagoras and his followers believed that it was related to musical notes. large though it may be. intuitively we would expect the sum of reciprocals to tend to some constant. the smaller is the reciprocal. but with alternating signs: y —^. what about the sum of the same series. until it was solved in the 18th century.) Infinity and Infinite Series 9 .IF IT IS obvious that the sum of integers tends to infinity.—-j + yH—? Also. as the integers themselves get larger and larger and tend to infinity. Mathematicians refer to a series of terms whose sum tends to infinity as "divergent" — "a divergent series". and tend to zero. So the individual reciprocals would get smaller and smaller.

+.+.+.The Two Halves of the Harmonic Series 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 5 7 9 —^ oo 1 1 1 1 1 .+— + 2 4 6 8 10 —^ oo See Proof 14 — » (page 165) .

Yes. How many terms of the Harmonic Series do you need to remove before you get a convergent series? This is a problem that continues to puzzle mathematicians. the sums of both the series tend to infinity.IF THE SUM of the reciprocals of all integers tends to infinity. what about the sum of the series which consists of only some of the terms? What about the sum of the reciprocals of all the odd integers? Or the even integers? Again. contrary to intuition. Infinity and Infinite Series 11 . both series (opposite page) are divergent.

+.+.The Geometric Series 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 .+— +— +— + 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 =2 1 2° 1 1 1 21 2 2 2 3 1 24 1 25 1 26 =2 See Proof 12 -^ (page 156) .+.

it is natural to ask the questions: "Do the sums of all infinite series of reciprocals always tend to infinity?" Are there any infinite series of reciprocals which sum to a constant?" As it turns out. 2. but it created much confusion. It is amazing how minor differences in the series can sometimes result in dramatic differences in their sums — 2 for "the Geometric Series". there are numerous infinite series which do sum to constants. It was known to the Greeks in the 5th century BC. and "tending to infinity" for "the Harmonic Series" and their odd and even subsets.the sums of so many series of reciprocals tend to infinity. HAVING SEEN THAT Infinity and Infinite Series 13 . "The Geometric Series". an infinite series of some of the reciprocals. sum to a small number. "The Geometric Series" occupies an important place in the history of mathematics. and formed the basis of a famous series of problems known as "Zeno's Paradoxes".

The Exponential Series 1 1 1 1 1+ .7182818284. 1 1 1 1 + 1 + —+ — + — + 4! 1! 2! 3! = 2.. =e See Proof 22 -> (page 181) ..+ + + + 1 1x2 1 x 2 x 3 1 x 2 x 3 x 4 .

which sums to 2. Infinity and Infinite Series 15 . turned out to be an important universal constant. Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) gave the symbol V to the sum of the series (opposite).THE SUM OF integers and the sum of their reciprocals both tend to infinity. the famous English mathematics genius. If we add 1 to the series. Another famous mathematician. science and technology.. . always written in small letter. surprise! It doesn't! It sums to a small number (1.. theologian and polymath. from the humble nautilus shell to the immense galaxies in the Universe.. known as "the Exponential Series".. which had to close as a result of a plague from 1665—67. This series was discovered in 1665 by Isaac Newton (1642-1727).). So would the sum of the reciprocals of factorials also tend to infinity? Surprise. Newton was working at home during a break from his formal studies at Cambridge University.7182818284 . physicist. The sum of factorials tend to infinity. we get an extremely important series (opposite page). V . featuring in many branches of mathematics. astronomer.7182818284 .

See Proof 15 — > (page 167) .6931471805.A Logarithmic Series 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + + + 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 = l°8natural ^ = ln2 = 0.

.6931471805 . alternately) which sum to constants.). the sum of reciprocals of all the integers. For example..e. What about its sister series with alternating terms (opposite)? This series turns out to be a special case of a class of logarithm series. the harmonic series. tends to infinity. one wonders if there are series with alternating terms (i.BY THE two series of reciprocals which sum to constants. and sums to the natural logarithm of 2 (which is 0. positive terms followed by negative terms. ENCOURAGED Infinity and Infinite Series 17 .

. See Proof 40 -» (page 213) ..78539816.Hie Liebniz-Gregory Series 1 3 5 7 _ 71 9 11 13 = 0.

ANOTHER SERIES WITH alternating terms is that of the reciprocals of odd integers (opposite page). and hence serves to introduce us to the wonderful world of the constant it — considered by most mathematicians as the most important constant in the world. Infinity and Infinite Series 19 . This series of alternating terms is one of the most beautiful series involving it. Remember. It sums to a total of -f. the sum of the reciprocals of odd integers tends to infinity. and is called "the Liebniz-Gregory Series".

The Definition of it n - Circumference of a circle Diameter _C ~D _C^ ~2R .

it. beginning with the simple circle and sphere.) Volume of a Cylinder = itR2H This simple number.THE EARLIEST RECORDS of mankind's awareness of it are to be found among the Babylonians and Egyptians. Yes. which works out to be i r r . This gives it accurate to 6 decimals. At the other extreme of the complexity spectrum. he's the one who ran naked in the streets and shouted "Eureka" after he discovered the "principle of displacement" of water. has proven to be an extremely important universal constant that finds application in many branches of mathematics. science and technology. A more accurate approximation of it.6% off.5% off the correct value of it.Rgab = —GTab\ Infinity and Infinite Series 21 .04% off its correct value. which despite its simplicity is only 0. students in elementary schools routinely use the estimate of — for it. while the Egyptian estimate is 0. It is amazing that the Babylonian value is only 0. but still a simple 335 ratio is H3". The Babylonians gave the value of it as -g. as the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter. Some four thousand years ago. This estimate is attributed to the great Greek mathematician and physicist. Archimedes (287-212 BC). it is also essential for the calculation of a number of different properties of curved figures and objects: Area of a circle = itR2 (R is the radius) Surface area of a sphere = 4itR2 Volume of a sphere = j 71R Surface Area of a hollow cylinder = 2itRH (H is the height of the cylinder. Today. it also features in one of Albert Einstein's field equations for his Theory of General Relativity (1916) which described mathematically how the forces of gravity arise out of the curvature of the space-time continuum: I Kb ~ . they knew about it.> while the Egyptians used (3-) .

.+ — +••• =2 1 2 4 8 16 1 1 1 1 1 = e (2. .71828.) =5(0.) 8. .+ .+ .+ — + ••• -^«= 1 2 3 4 5 6 .. 1 1 1 1 1 4. .+ — + .. .+ ••• -^°o 1 3 5 7 9 1 1 1 1 1 r 5.785139.Divergent and Convergent Series 1 .I + I ..+ . 9 22 THE PLEASURES OF pi..+ . 1 1 1 1 1 6. 1+2+3+4+5+6+-2.+ .e .69314.+ — + ••• -^°° 2 4 6 8 10 . . 1 1 1 1 1 1 3...+ . .i + I ..I + I . i ..+ . I .) 4 10. — + — + . 1 + .I + I .+ .+ — + — + — +••• 1! 2! 3! 4! 9. l ! + 2 ! + 3 ! + 4!+5!+6!+--- ->°o -> °° .+ — + . 1 2 1 3 3 5 4 7 5 =ln2 (0.

n-series .

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William Shakespeare (1564-1616) Mathematics possesses not only truth.Know you of this fair work? Beyond the infinite and boundless ... but some supreme beauty Bertrand Russell (1872-1970) 7i-series 25 .

The Liebniz-Gregory Series 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + + +— 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 _ n ~7 See Proof 40 -> (page 213) .

n is expressible in an infinite number of equations. most elegant and simplest of such series involving n. the simple ratio. four years before his creative career was cut short by his premature demise.LET US NOW make a more detailed acquaintance with the LiebnizGregory series. that the most beautiful things in the world may not necessarily be the most useful. Hence this equation is often called the Leibniz-Gregory series. ~ > also gives % correct to 2 decimal places!) The Liebniz-Gregory series illustrates well the truism. The following pages feature only some of the most beautiful. Yet in one of the most inexplicable results of human creativity. the great German mathematics genius Gottried Leibniz (1646-1716) also discovered the same equation in 1674. measurable with a string. % is just the simple ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter — a physical constant. James Gregory (1638—1675) discovered the equation (opposite page) in 1671 at the age of 33. Unfortunately. which we saw in our introduction to "convergent series". the sum tends to the correct value of n extremely slowly — some 600 terms are required to give the value of it correct to 2 decimal places! (For comparison. A Scottish mathematician. 7f-series 27 . Independently.

"Grampa's Series' 1 1 1 1 1 1-3 + 5-7 + 9-11 + 13-15 + 17-19 + n 2-4 See Proof 4 — > (page 148) .

It does not matter. Obviously since the Liebniz-Gregory equation was discovered some three hundred years ago. and writes it out faithfully as another of her "passwords". which sums to T . 7i-series 29 .THIS SERIES IS a late addition to the book. This incident shows that there are still "eureka" moments when one discovers something by one's own effort. What an "eureka" moment. such as 1 + 1-2 1 + 1-2 3-4 2-3 2 H 5-6 1 + 3-4 3 etc. 1 Even as I was playing with the different series. thousands (probably millions) of mathematicians must have discovered this equation too. as in the case of Liebniz. Now she calls the series "Grampa's Series". I had finished writing the book and was playing around with infinite series which sum to interesting numbers. that someone else had discovered it before. I chanced upon the series with odd integers: 1 1-3 1 5-7 1 9-11 1 13-15'" The sum of the series worked out to be half the Liebniz-Gregory Series. What serendipity! And the proof is simple. I told my granddaughter Rebecca after the discovery. It's just that I have not seen it before in the mathematics literature that I've read so far.

The Euler Series JL JL J_ J_ _L J_ l2~+22~+32 + 4 2 + 5 2 + 62 6 See Proof 41 — > (page 214) .

including such geniuses as Newton. was to prove himself to be the genius of geniuses. Leonhard Euler (1707-83).IN THE 17TH and 18 th century. What a privilege for us! 71-series 31 . Liebniz and Jakob Bernoulli (1654-1705) and his famous family of outstanding mathematicians. Euler 2 ° derived this equation for — and ended the search by generations of mathematicians. and went on over the next half a century of active creativity. to contribute to so many branches of mathematics and physics that his name Euler is attached to so many equations. Among the most intriguing of series is the sum of the reciprocals of the squares of all the positive integers. we shall be walking in his footsteps and thinking his thoughts. formulas. at the tender age of 27. Then came Euler. mathematicians were seeking ways of summing infinite series of all sorts and patterns. one of the greatest mathematicians of all time. The lack of a solution was definitely not for want of trying. In the process. the sum eluded the efforts of all the mathematicians. some 250 years after him. An extremely elegant and deceptively simple series. constants and series in mathematics and science that one has to specify the field before one could be sure which Euler equation or formula one is discussing. In 1734. a Swiss mathematician. Euler established his reputation as a "Wizard Mathematician". In the later parts of this book.

More Euler Series J_ _I_ J_ J_ J_ l 2 ^T "T~ ^T~ ~T~ 3 2 r\ I /-) ~~T~ ^ 5 n 1 7 8 9 2 "T" 1 1 >2+42 1 62 .r 2 12 1_ \ 1_ See Proof 42 -^ (page 216) .r 2 24 1 82 1 102 J 1_ J .

The series of alternating terms (plus followed by minus) sums to "TT. By simple arithmetical rearrangements of the terms in I T (the series is absolutely convergent. so we can rearrange the terms without erroneous results — see "A Note of Caution". What a family of beauties for pure mathematics! 7r-series 33 .AFTER EULER'S STUPENDOUS ground-breaking achievement with \ . The series of reciprocals of odd integers sum to y . three more Euler series can be obtained. while those r . all three as beautiful as the original. a2 or even integers sum to ~u . page 175). similar beautiful gems rained from the sky with relative ease.

Viete's Equation 4i V2 + V2 V2 + V2 + V2 22 2 _i_ n See Proof 43 -> (page 217) .

WHILE MATHEMATICS GENIUSES

such as Newton, Liebniz and Euler deserve to be acclaimed for their voluminous ground-breaking achievements, we should not forget the signal contributions of some of their predecessors in mathematics. Francois Viete (1540-1603) was a French lawyer, politician, diplomat and amateur mathematician. One of his many mathematical contributions is the expression of K as an infinite product involving only the integer 2, in an infinite nesting of square roots. Viete's expression marked a milestone in the history of mathematics. It was the first equation incorporating the concept of an infinite process, even though it was not explicitly spelt out as such. The dots (...) in the equation denotes continuing the process indefinitely. If we think that the expression looks difficult, remember Viete published it in 1593, more than four hundred years ago!

7r-series

35

Wallis' Equation

2-2 4-4 6-6 8-8 1-3 3-5 5-7 7-9
_
n

~ 2

See Proof 44 -> (page 219)

JOHN

WALLIS (1616-1702), an Englishman, was the second mathematician (after Viete) to give an equation for n in terms of the product of an infinite number of terms. His equation, published in 1655, was derived by laborious calculations, without the benefit of later developments in trigonometry and calculus in subsequent centuries. Wallis was also the first mathematician to use the symbol 0° to represent infinity.

7r-series

37

More Wallis Equations

3-3 6-6 9-9 2-4 5-7 8-10 2;r

~3V3
4-4 8-8 12-12 3-5 7-9 11-13
_ ^

~2V2 6-6 12-12 18-18 5-7 11-13 17-19
_
n

~ 3

See Proof 45 -» (page 220)

THE

of Wallis' equation makes use of the function ——. By using different values for x, other Wallis' equations summing to y , y ^ and j^k follow. Again another family of beauties; maybe not as elegant as Euler's!
MODERN DERIVATION

Ti-series

39

See Proof 46 — > (page 222) .

less so. and the reciprocals of odd integers — characteristic of the arctan family of infinite series. these equations give numerous infinite series for it. yet one is truly beautiful while the other. Note especially the pattern of alternating positive and negative terms. Not quite the beauty and the beast though. The equation on the opposite page is another sister series from the arctan function. and cosine. Using radians (where the angle around a point is treated as 2TT instead of 360°). A sister from the same parent it may be. 71-series 41 .THE BRANCH OF mathematics known as trigonometry gives rise to a number of infinite series for the common functions of sine. arcsin and arctan. The famous Liebniz-Gregory equation for -f is the best known example of the arctan series. and inverse functions.

See Proof 47 -> (page 223) .Euler's Formula arctan + arctan = arctan \ « + l. Vn(n+ l) + l J ( 1 ( 1 ^ arctan rv = arctan — + arctan — \2) b.

. n = 1.).of expressing the arctan function (opposite).. This means that by using different values for n (i. Nothing can be simpler than 1. This equation is known as Euler's formula. 3. 2 and 3! ("What has this formula got to do with 7r?" you may well ask — turn the page.) YET ANOTHER WAY 7r-series 43 . Using n = 1. we can derive an infinite number of equations (of course. Note that the equation involves the variable n (any integer). . 2.. first published in 1738. not all of them are simple. the general Euler formula gives the beautiful second equation. beautiful and elegant). this time in terms of the sum of two other arctan functions.e.

Machin's Equation 4 arctan v5y ( 1 — arctan U39. n 1 See Proof 48 -> (page 224) .

000. Using only two terms in this infinite arctan series. a truly memorable milestone indeed in the history of K. 1. accurate to two decimal points (equivalent to some 600 terms in the Liebniz-Gregory equation). Using the Euler formula which gave the beautiful 1-2-3 arctan formula. It gives a very accurate and rapid approximation for n.often quoted beautiful Liebniz-Gregory expression for T . led by Yasumas Kanada currently (Sept 2002).000. named in honour of John Machin (1680-1752). This equation has the merit of usefulness over beauty. RETURNING TO THE Since then. This less elegant expression is called the "Machin Equation". we remember how slowly it sums for the calculation of n. Machin derived this workhorse equation (opposite). an English mathematician and astronomer. A team of Japanese mathematicians at the Tokyo University.241. Machin calculated the value of ^ to 100 decimal points in 1706. 7r-series 45 . the value of n can be obtained.241 trillion digits (yes.000 digits long). holds the world record for calculating the value of n to 1. new "Machin-type expressions" using more complex arctan expressions have been derived by TT-experts. Here is another expression for -j (opposite) — another arctan formula which comes to the rescue of Liebniz-Gregory. With this formula.

1 1+ + 3 3 1 r+ 3-5 1 3-2 4 5-2' r+ 4-6 7-2" 3 See Proof 49 -» (page 226) .

though these are less elegant and more complicated.EULER'S GREAT ACHIEVEMENT for — used a complex equation involving the function ~r • This function. in its different manifestations. Not a beauty by a long shot. with 2-2 1-3 3-3 2-4 4-4 3-5 . One such expression is given (opposite) for the purpose of illustration. 7i-series 47 .6-6 5-7 . and the famous Wallis equations for it. and infinite product series. or after different mathematical manipulations. %. gives the Euler \ . .and ~IA series. A related function arcsin x can give yet another family of expressions for it.

U 5 + 35J 71 4~ See Proof 50 -» (page 228) .

THE EXPRESSIONS FOR arctan functions play a disproportionate role in the derivation of beautiful infinite series for JU. 7t-series 49 . but embedded within each term (in brackets) is another sum with some degree of complexity. Yet. surprise. surprise. this complex expression uses the arctan series too. The equation (opposite) is superficially similar to the beautiful Liebniz-Gregory expression with alternating reciprocals of odd integers. but in a more convoluted manner. the sum of infinite terms of both equations are identical — i~ ! What beauty! How amazing mathematics can be! And yes.

r 1 f ^ \22) H—T tan U 23 3 + J 2 4 tan U4J + n See Proof 51 -» (page 229) . 1 (n\ 1 + —tan — + — tan 8 U J 16 © + 71 1 ( 71 -^-tan 1 ]_ ^ .1 (n\ — tan I 4 U.

different infinite expressions for TZ are obtained. To end this chapter on TZ expressions. some three hundred years ago! 7i-. let's conclude with an infinite expression that is different from all the preceding expressions! This final TZ equation is now expressed in infinite terms involving TZ itself. n. The reason why this expression is used to close the chapter on TZ is its sheer beauty. By using different values for n. Only a small handful of those expressions. of course.series 51 .THERE IS LITERALLY an infinite number of infinite series for TZ expressions. considered among the more beautiful. elegance. with different degrees of beauty. And. the "Wizard Mathematician" Leonhard Euler. simplicity and usefulness. because many of these equations can be written in terms of the general integer. it was first derived by the genius of geniuses. has been chosen for this book.

7T-Series 1 2. 2 1 2 3 7f_ 12 2_ n n 2 In 7. 5.6 3-3 6 •6 9 •9 12-12 2-4 5'•7 8.7 2 2-2 4 •4 6.e . 4. 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 5 7 9 1 1-3 1 1 + n ~4 1 5-7 1 1 1 2 1 9-11 1 1 13-15 + • 71 J^4 7^_ 7 1 1 2 l 2 ¥ 3 ¥ '" 1 1 4 1 2 1 + + 2+ + 6 7 ¥5 7 6 1 2+ + + 2+ I '" ?L 8 1 1 81" 4 2_+ 111 24 '" 1 6. 3. V2 2 1-3 ^2 + V2 ^2 + 72 +V2 2 8-8 7-9 3 •5 5.10 11-13 3V3 71 10. 4-4 3-5 8'•8 12 •12 16-16 7-9 11-13 15-17 2V2 52 THE PLEASURES OF pi.

11.

6-6 12-12 18-18 24-24 5-7 11-13 17-19 23-25 If 1

71

3

12.
13.

, - i I +3U arctan

1/" 1 7U

5U'

+•
1 V zO + l) + l

71

2^3

G>
(l

1 arctan Vn + l + arctan

\ (I 14. arctan I - I = arctan — + arctan —

u

15.

1 arctan 4 arctan — U39,
A

16. 1 + 17.

1 3-5 1 3 1 3•+ 5r + 3-2 4 5-2 4-6 7-2 7 +

n 3

+-v25+35 / v^ 1 (7Z\ 1 (lt\ 1 ftf 18. — tan — + —tan — 1 +— tan — 6 U6j 4 U J 8 U J 16
U2
+

i n n

u i

3»y

3

o3

j_
71

19. — t a n f ^ ] + ^ t a n ^ J + ^ t a n ^ | + .

^

1_
7Z

e-series

To ... hold infinity in the palm of your hand William Blake (1757-1827) $

The mathematician's patterns like those of the painter's or the poet's must be beautiful the ideas like the colours or the words must fit together in a harmonious way Beauty is the first test There is no permanent place in the world for ugly mathematics G H Hardy (1877-1947) *

The Definition of e* If n — > °° / \n 2 3 1+ V n) =1+—+— +— + 1! 2! 3! =e .

ANYONE WHO HAS deposited money in a bank will know about the concept of compound interest. ex has the unique distinction of being the only function in mathematics to have the same derivative as itself. (If the interest is 5%. the function e* has the same value as the tangent at the same point. e being an abbreviation for "exponential". where the amount of interest paid with each passing year increases as the capital grows from the accumulation of interests from the preceding years. where 1 is the capital. e (e is always in small letter) was first used by Leonhard Euler.) e-series 59 . which can be expressed as a beautiful infinite series when n — > °°. then m = 20) This simple formula is similar to the more general term (1 + f)". and is referred to as Euler's constant. e*. and n is the number of years that the money has been deposited. the sum of this series is given the simple notation. -^ is the annual interest. In mathematics. The equation for calculating such compound interest is (1 + ^-)". (In graphical terms.

e = 1 +— +— +— + — 1! 2! 3! 4! y v* -v* V" e =1 1! + 2! 3! + 4! .

This is the sister equation for e*.with (—x) and observing that {—x) raised to odd powers gives negative terms. with alternating positive and negative terms. we derive the infinite series for e~x. BY REPLACING X e-series 61 . and (—x) raised to even powers gives positive terms.

1+ . . ..i + .3678794411. 23 -> (pages 181./ See Proofs 22.+ + •+ • + 1! 2! 3! 4! 1 1 1 1 = e = l +—+—+—+— + • 1! 2! 3! 4! = 2.2 X 3 4 1 +. l e 1 = l . 4 .7182818284. ..d + ._ +1 1 1+ 1 1 e_. f e=l + l 1 + . =_ e 1! 2! 3! 4! = 0. 182) .. ) If 1 V 2V ..

e turns out to be a universal constant that is present in many aspects of life. involving all the integers (opposite page). e-series 63 . (A simple fraction with some degree of symmetry that gives e accurate to four decimal points is 323. e can also be expressed as an infinite nesting of great symmetry. which we met earlier on in our introduction to the convergent series. Interestingly.. from the small sunflower to the gigantic spiral galaxies in the universe. "the exponential series". Most amazing of all. This series forms the basis of many other beautiful series which we will see in the following pages. Kondo in the year 2000. Gourdon and S.1.) BY ASSIGNING X e has been calculated up to 17 billion decimal points by X. we derive yet another beautiful infinite series.

1 2 3 4 5 6 — + — + — + — + —+ — + ••• 1! 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! See Proof 24 -» (page 185) .

Would you believe that the series (opposite page) also sums to e? Would you also believe that there is a simple one-step proof for it? e-series 65 .WHAT A DELECTABLE way to begin our exploration of the many e series.

3 5 7 9 11 1+ —+ — + — + —+ — + ••• 2! 4! 6! 8! 10! = e See Proof 25 -> (page 186) .

Note that this series has even integer factorials only! A simple sum.ANOTHER series for e! Amazing isn't it. the number of different infinite series that we can express the universal constant in. with a simple proof. BEAUTIFUL INFINITE e-series 67 .

1 2 3 4 5 6 • 1! + — 3! + — 5! + — 7! + — 9! + 11! _1 ~2C See Proof 26 -> (page 188) .

Interestingly.A SERIES THAT looks very similar to the previous series. e-series 69 . but this time with odd integers factorials only. it sums to only -je. with a simple proof. Another beautiful series.

2 4 6 8 10 12 —+—+— +—+— + — + 3! 5! 7! 9! 11! 13! -l = e _ 1 e See Proof 27 -» (page 189) .

Isn't e_1 (\) made up of alternating positive and negative terms? What happened to the negative terms? And the even integer factorials? Do the individual terms look like fractions that seem to be approximating to 1? Why. still with odd integer factorials only. but now with even integers in the numerators.ANOTHER VERY SIMILAR series.)? e-series 71 . then...3678 . doesn't the sum tend to infinity. but to a small sum e -1 (0.

1 2 3 4 5 6 — + — + — + — + — + — + ••• 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! 7! =1 See Proof 28 -> (page 190) .

like all the other series with factorials in their denominators? e-series 73 .A N EVEN MORE interesting and beautiful series which sums to 1! Why does this series with factorials in the denominators not sum to some constant involving e.

2 3 4 5 6 1 + —+ — + — + —+ — + 1! 2! 3! 4! 5! = 2e See Proof 29 -> (page 192) .

there is a simple proof that the sum is indeed a small multiple of e. e-series 75 . one would expect the sum to be divergent and tend to infinity.WOULD YOU BELIEVE that the sum for this series is only 2e? It is so counter-intuitive because 2e is simply 1 1 1 1 1+ — + — + — + — 1! 2! 3! 4! 2 2 2 2 2 + —+ — + — + —• 1! 2! 3! 4! giving Intuitively. since the numerators get larger and larger as n tends to infinity. Still.

I2 2 2 3 2 4 2 52 62 — + — + — + — + — + — + ••• 1! 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! = 2e See Proof 30 -> (page 193) .

How CAN A series involving squares (of integers) in the numerators sum to the same small constant (2e) just as in the previous simpler equation without squares in the numerators sums to 2e? Don't the squares in the numerators get progressively larger and larger as n tends to infinity? Why doesn't the series become divergent? How can it sum to 2e only? e-series 77 .

I2 2 2 3 2 4 2 52 62 — + — + — + — + — + — + ••• 2! 3! 4! 5! = (e-D 6! 7! See Proof 31 -» (page 194) .

7828 .e. Amazing... a sum of only (e . and see them slide back and forth..1) i. for an infinite series involving the squares of integers in the numerators! KEEP YOUR EYES e-series 79 .on the numerators and the denominators. 1.

2 2 3 2 4 2 52 6 2 1 +— +— + + •+ • + 1! 2! 3! 4! 5! = 5e See Proof 32 -> (page 195) .

this series before? Can you see how the numerators and denominators are sliding? Only 5e for the sum? HAVE WE SEEN e-series 81 .

1-3 + 2! 2-4 + 3! 3-5 + 4! 4-6 + 5! = (e + D 5-7 + 6! 6-8 +••• 7! See Proof 33 -» (page 196) .

Increasing complexity. while still retaining simplicity in its sum.LET US NOW move on and play with more complex functions. e-series 83 . this time involving products of integers in the numerators.

1-3 3-5 5-7 7-9 9-11 + 11-13 + 2! + 4! + 6! + 8! 10! 12! +• + 2e-l 2e See Proof 34 -> (page 197) .

look very similar to the previous equation? Why then is the sum now so complex. instead of the simple sums that we are so familiar with so far? DOESN'T THIS SERIES e-series 85 .

2 3 + 4 5 + 6 7 + ••• 1!3 2!4 3!5 =3 4!6 5!7 6!8 V2 ey See Proof 35 -» (page 199) .

The proof is really lengthy and complicated.A SLIGHT SWITCH in the numerators and denominators. e-series 87 . alternating positive and negative terms. But the sum has become simpler once again! Don't be misled by the simplicity of the sum. now with product functions in the denominators! And to add to the complexity.

1 1+2 1 + 2 + 3 1+2+3+4 —+ + + + 1! 2! 3! 4! 3e 2 See Proof 36 -» (page 201) .

this time with a function involving the sum of large numbers of integers as n — > °°! Again more complex terms summing to a simple total. EVEN MORE e-series 89 .AN complex function in the numerators.

1 ) 3(4^-1) 4 ( 5 .1 ) +^ -+— -+— -+ 5! 3! 4! = (3e-l) See Proof 37 -> (page 202) .1(2 2 +1) 2! H 2(3 Z +1) 3! 1 3(4 2 +l) 4! 1 4(5 2 +l) 5! h = (3e +1) 1(22) 3(4 2 ) 4(5") + + ——.+ ——.+ 2! 3! 4! 5! = (3e) 1(2 2 -1) 2! 2(32) 2 ( 3 .

and can be applied to different series. for example. isn't it? Can you play around with the numerators and denominators and create your own series? The e-series is extremely flexible like magic putty. Have fun! EVER INCREASING COMPLEXITY e-series 91 . What about its sister series (3rd equation) with a negative sign in the bracket in the numerators? Again summing to a simple total.with more heavyweights in the numerators Still not tending to infinity. but summing to a simple total. What beautiful symmetry! Incredible. and there are many more such series that you can create yourself by increasing. And would you believe it — the middle equation. now a symmetrical image of the first equation. without the " 1 " in the bracket in the numerators — sums to the total without the " 1 " . having only even or odd factorials in the denominators. the powers of the numerators. or even alternating the terms with positive and negative terms. The methods involving summations (as shown in the proofs in Section II) are general and versatile. having simple functions in terms of n in the numerators.

e e e e e e eT e4 e6 eT e'° e1 =2 See Proof 38 -» (pa^e 203) .

(Can you prove it yourself.ANOTHER EULER BEAUTY to please the eye. and be an Euler. too?) e-series 93 . with all the e's staring back at us! How can an integer as simple as 2 be expressed in so complex a manner as the quotient of two infinite products of fractional powers of the irrational universal constant e? And even the proof is simple! But it took a genius like Euler to come up with it.

"The Most Beautiful Equation in the World" Euler's Identity in -i e = -1 en +1=0 See Proof 39 -> (page 204) .

0. this beautiful equation was first discovered by none other than Leonhard Euler! And it is known as "Euler's Identity". i. and 1.) Yes. With the five most important symbols in mathematics. and is called an imaginary number. it is also the parent of complex numbers which are expressed in terms of an imaginary part and a real part.WE END THE chapters on TZ and e with an equation that has been acclaimed by numerous mathematicians as "The Most Beautiful Equation in the World". this simple equation links together the many branches of mathematics. geometry. n. namely e. including numerical analysis. e-series 95 . trigonometry and complex numbers (i is the square root of (-1).

e . — + — + — + — + — + ••• 1! 3! 5! 7! 9! 2 4 6 8 10 n 9.. 1 + —+ — + — + — + • 1! 2! 3! 4! 2 X X X 3 X 4 2. 1 + 1 i+ili+-(. . 1 + ..) 2 1 2 3 4 5 6. 3 5 7 9 7. .+ + I! 2! 3! 4! 1 1 1 3. 1 + — + — + — + — + ••• 2! 4! 6! 8! 1 2 3 4 5 8. — + — + — + — + — + ••• 1! 2! 3! 4! 5! . 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! 96 THE PLEASURES OF pi. 1 .. . — + — + — + — + — + .e-Series 2 X X X 3 X 4 1. — + — + — + — + — + •• 3! 5! 7! 9! 11! 1 2 3 4 5 in 10..+ — + —+—+• ! 2! 3! 4! 1 1 1 4.. 1 .+ + 2! 3! 4! / 1 1 5.

1 + — + — + — + — + ••• 1! 2! 3! 4! 12 = (e-D = 5e = (e + l) _e2 + 2e-l 2e 15. 1(22) 2! 2(3 2 ) 3! 3(4 2 ) 4! 3(42-l) 4! • + — — . e +1 =0 e-series 97 .+ • | 1(2 2 -1) 2! 2(32-l) 3! | = (3c-l) =2 22. 21. 16.. 1 + — + —+ — + — + ••• 1! 2! 3! 4! 12. ^ 8 . I2 3 2 42 52 -+ + + + + ••• 1! 2! 3! 4! 5! .2 32 2 c2 = 2e = 2e 22 Z 4 13.+ ——. 17.6 + 4! + + •• 3! 5! 3-5 5-7 7-9 + + + +• 2! 4! 6! 8! 3 4 • + • • + • 1!3 2!4 3!5 4!6 -<H) _3e +• ~ 2 = (3e + l) = (3e) | 1 1+2 1+2+3 — 1! + 2! + 3! + 1+2+3+4 4! 1(2 2 +1) 2(3 2 +l) 3(4 2 +l) -+— -+— -+• 19. 24.4 3-5 4 . r 2 — + — + — + — + —+ • 2! 23! 4! 5! 6! 2 3 2 4 2 52 14. 1-3 2! 1-3 + 2 . 2 3 4 5 11. ^12 23. — 4! 2! 3! 20. ^10 . e • e • e • e • e • e e z -e • e " -e° -e l u -e 6 .

l ) ! n (»: .l ) ! 2 98 THE PLEASURES OF pi.e-Series in X notation SV(e-l) •^ n S^ 1 = (2e-l) i »! n\ 1 («: .e .

1) =e -l _ Y 2« 1 e T(2» + l)! y (» + l) o (2» + l)! 1 2 e e-series 99 . 2n + \ i (2»)! ~ ( e .-2) = (eY oo » 2 0 =e =1 Y n = (e-1) i (" + D!" ^.

.

Other Interesting Number Series .

.

. countless and infinite .... William Shakespeare (1564-1616) $ Our minds are finite Yet we are surrounded by possibilities that are infinite and the purpose of human life is to grasp as much as we can of that infinitude Alfred Whitehead (1861-1947) Other Interesting Number Series 103 . were the sum of these .O.

J_ -L _L J_ _L _L 21 22 23 24 25 26 =1 9 9 9 9 9 9 —1 + — +—3+ — T + —r + — r T 10 102 103 104 105 10' =1 See Proof 12 — > (page 156) .

looking at the 9's and 10's. My granddaughter. This series was introduced earlier on as our first convergent series. until I proved it to her with "the visual proof". refused to believe that it summed to 1.A BEAUTIFUL FORMULA for the simple integer 1. it also sums to 1. Do you see any common pattern in the two series? Can you come up with your own infinite series that sum to 1? Other Interesting Number Series 105 . Rebecca. How about the second series with 9's and 10's? Believe it or not.

1 1 21 2" 2_ 2 3 »i J + • •=1 =1 + +• ¥ 3 3 7T + -72 +< •=1 + =1 •=1 •=1 T 7 8: 8 6]+62+63 + • T r 7_ 7 \2 81 8" 8 8 J1 C) +• =1 + ( ^ +Cy> + • = 1 9 102 9 10=1 9 101 See Proof 12 — > (page 156) .

In fact if you think about it.how many different infinite series there are for representing 1. Can you work out the general formula? ISN'T IT TVMAZING Other Interesting Number Series 107 . there is an infinite (yes. literally infinite) number of infinite series for representing 1.

=1 2 1 3 8 8 ' 8 84' 10 10 10 10 1 1 •• = 1 9 92 94' 5 7 1 64 ' 8 | . • = 1 24 ' 4 1 . 3 ' 3 5 5 2 4 43 6 6 5 ' 5 7 7 1 62 63 8 8 2 1 2 1 3 3 5 44 6 4 1 4 •= 1 •= 1 3 1 •=1 7 72 73 7 4 ' 9 9 9 9 I . =1 •= 1 v See Proof 12 — > (page 156) .3 2 4 3 5 4 6 5 7 6 8 3 3 i 2 2 ' 23 4 4 3 1 .

Do you know why? Other Interesting Number Series 109 . Note also that the class does not begin with the (y) series.How ABOUT ANOTHER infinite class of infinite series that sums to 1 ? Can you work out the general formula for this one too? Note especially the alternating terms (positive followed by negative) in the series.

1 2 3 4 5 6 — + —+ — + —+ —+ — + ••• 2! 3! 4! 5! =1 6! 7! See Proof 28 -> (page 190) .

beautiful series before? You saw it among the e infinite series. REMEMBER SEEING THIS Other Interesting Number Series 111 . This is one of the more mind-boggling of equations in this book — all factorials and no e. Isn't it a beautiful way to represent 1 as an infinite series! The series is re-introduced here to get you acquainted with seeing the progressively increasing integers in the numerators because we are going to have lots of fun with them later in this chapter.

1 1 1 1 1 — + — + — +— +— + 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 5-6 =1 See Proof 1 -> (page 145) .

Indeed it is so simple that it has been given the place of honour as "Proof 1" — the easiest proof in this book.YET ANOTHER SIMPLE infinite series for 1. How can something so simple be equal to the sum of so many different but equally beautiful and simple infinite series? The proof is so simple that Rebecca could follow and understand it. Can you do it without looking at the answer at the back of the book? Other Interesting Number Series 113 .

lognatural 2 See Proof 3 — > (page 147) .1 1 1 1 1 — + — +— + — + + 1-2 3-4 5-6 7-8 9-10 .

equation a little. A simple proof will demonstrate that these two different infinite series are really different facets of the same equation. CHANGING THE PREVIOUS Other Interesting Number Series 115 . the natural logarithm of 2. summing to an irrational constant. we get this beautiful equation of rational reciprocals of integers. We saw a slightly different infinite series with the same sum earlier on.

1 1 1 1 1 — + — + — + — + + ••• 1-3 3-5 5-7 7-9 9-11 _1 ~2 1 + 1-5 3-7 1 + 5-9 ~3 1 1 + 1 + 9-13 +•••

7-11

See Proofs 5, 7 -> (pages 149, 151)

Two MORE BEAUTIFUL sisters for the previous series. More petite now, summing to smaller rational fractions, but no less beautiful, (Can you create your own infinite series for other simple fractions?)

Other Interesting Number Series

117

1 + 1-2-3

1 2-3-4

1 +

1 + 4-5-6 +•

3-4-5 _l_

~~l
1 1 + + + +• 1-3-5 3-5-7 5-7-9 7-9-11
_ \ _

1

1

~12

See Proofs 8, 9 -» (pages 152, 153)

COUSINS OF THE

previous equations.

Other Interesting Number Series

119

2 3 4 + + + + 1-2-3 2-3-4 3-4-5 4-5-6 1 2 1 1-3-5 2
+ +

1

3
+

4
+•

3-5-7

5-7-9

7-9-11

J.
8

See Proofs 10, 11 -» (pages 154, 155)

We'll see them again in due course.DISTANT COUSINS. Note especially the progressively increasing integers in the numerators. Other Interesting Number Series 121 .

. 1-4 4-7 7-10 =1 _ ] _ ~2 _ 3 1 1 1— = \-n n{2n — \) (2n — l)(3n — 2) (n — l) See Proof 6 — > (page 150) ..1 1 1 — + — + — + ••• 1-2 2-3 3-4 1 1 1 + + + ••• 1-3 3-5 5-7 1 1 1 + + + .

HERE IS ANOTHER Other Interesting Number Series 123 . Amazing isn't it. simply by using the largest n that we like.general equation for an infinite class of infinite series. that we can have an infinite series that sums to as small a fraction as we like. giving simple rational fractional sums.

1 1 1 1 1 — + — + — + — + — + ••• 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 5-6 1 1 1 1 + + + + ••• 2-3 3-4 4-5 5-6 1 1 1 + + + ••• =1 I 2 J_ 3 3-4 4-5 5-6 1 1 1 — = — »(» + !) (« + !)(»+ 2) (» + 2)(w + 3) n See Proof 2 — > (page 146) .

Can you see the patterns and work out the sums mentally after the first series? Can you create your own infinite series for a simple fraction.ooo ? Other Interesting Number Series 125 .ANOTHER GENERAL EQUATION for another infinite class of infinite series with simple rational fractions for sums. say li00d.

1 1 1 2 1 1 J 1 2 1 4 1 4 1 1 8 16 1 8 1 16 1 32 + . ..6931 oo n =— 1 =0.6666 1 1 1 1 1 1 + + + 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 + + +• 1 3 5 7 9 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 -+-+-+—+-+— +• 1 3 5 7 9 11 = ln2 =0.7854 oo See Proof 12 — > (page 156) .— 1 32 + =2 0..

or common sense..6931 . is often a poor and misleading guide. The famous Geometric Series with all positive terms sums to 2...... Other Interesting Number Series 127 . Hence one has to be very careful when dealing with infinity and infinite sums.6666 .)..). The sum of the Logarithm Series (with alternating terms) is In 2 (0... very similar to the sum for the series above summing to 0.6666 . with its sum tending to infinity. But its sister series with all positive terms. three times that of its sister series with alternating terms. Similarly.THE SUM OF the Geometric Series with alternating positive and negative terms is j (0. the sum of the beautiful Liebniz-Gregory series (with alternating terms) is " f " (0. Again its sister series with all positive terms is transformed into the "Half" Harmonic series with reciprocals of odd integers. Intuition.). Isn't it amazing in the field of infinite series how a small difference sometimes makes for a difference of infinity.7854 . now becomes the famous Harmonic Series. Its sum tends to infinity.

29 -> (pages 164. 2 3 4 5 1 + — + —+ — + — +••• =2e 1! 2! 3! 4! See Proofs 13.1 1 1 2 1 23 1 24 +' =1 =2 3 4 -T + —T 1 1 1 1 1 + — + —+ — + — +••• = e 1! 2! 3! 4! . 192) .

4 . n?. 2. Which makes one wonder if there is such a pattern for other series.. 3. SEE THE SYMMETRY Other Interesting Number Series 129 . The corresponding sister series for the e series sums to 2e. 1.. to sum to twice the original sum if we change their numerators from 1 to progressively increasing integers. also twice that of the e-series. Isn't it beautiful? And an extremely interesting but still simple proof.in the Geometric Series and its sister series with progressively increasing integers in the numerators.

..=JL(0.1 1 1 2-3 2 2-3 1 3-4 3 + +— 4-5 + • • • = 1 —> oo 4 + 3-4 l 4-5 + ••• 3-4 2 3-4 1 3-5 2 3-5 1 5-6 3 5-6 + — + ••• 7-8 4 -) =ln2(0. ...39. ) —> oo 7-9 1 5-7 2 1-3 5-7 + 9-11 3 9-11 + -L_ + 13-15 4 ..69.) —^ °° 7-8 h•• • 1 1 5-7 + 7-9 + ••• 3 4 5-7 l H 1 ..„ ™ x =2( 0 . 5 0 ..) 2-4 + 13-15 + ••• —>oo See Proofs 16-19 -> (pages 168-171) .

Four beautiful series summing to 1. In 2. They are no longer convergent. n progressively. Not only do they not sum to double the sum of their sister series. They are now divergent. they do not sum to any constant at all. 4 . it is clear that our working hypothesis formed from the previous equations is not valid.four pairs of infinite series on the opposite page. "a minor change can be as good as a difference of infinity". 2.. undergo extreme transformation when their numerators of 1 are changed to 1.. In mathematics. 3. LOOKING AT THE Other Interesting Number Series 131 . not even to a large or super large one. and -f^. j . and their sums individually tend to infinity! WOW! They say "a miss is as good as a mile".

001 1 n-(n + \) + — > oo 1.1 1 — +— 1-2 2-3 1 2 + 1-2 2-3 1 1 1 1 +— +— +— +• 3-4 4-5 5-6 3 4 5 + + + +• 3-4 4-5 5-6 2 3 4 + + + +• 2-3 3-4 4-5 5-6 1 2 3 + + 3-4 4-5 5-6 + • — > oo — ^ oo 1 1.001 • 1.000 • 1.000.000.000.002 + • — ^ oo (« + !)•(»+ 2) See Proof 20 -> (page 173) .000.

even to the extent of chopping off a million terms. regardless of how much we "chop and change".. Let us now show an example of the other extreme — where the sum of an infinite series tends to infinity.. 2. and moving the numerators 1. 3 .W E SAW HOW a minor change in an infinite series can make a difference of infinity. down the rest of the subsequent terms of the series. Other Interesting Number Series 133 .

Hh Hh 1-2 2-3 3-4 Hh + 4-5 4 4-5 i i 1 1-2 2 2-3 2 •f 3 3-4 1 3 1-3 1 2 + 3-5 f + I- 4 + 5-7 3 7-9 4 + + .. -^oo 1-4 4-7 7-10 10-13 1 l-n 2 3 n{2n — X) (2n~l)(3n — 2) See Proof 21 -» (page 174) ..

and hence the terms beginning j ^ are all very small. e and other interesting numbers! Other Interesting Number Series 135 . with some infinities greater than others!) Cantor was also the first to prove that there are as many odd integers as there are ordinary integers (not half. certain series always end up with sums tending to infinity. as one would intuitively expect). Indeed there is an infinite hierarchy of infinities. Georg Cantor (1845-1918). Cantor was the first to open wide the door into the wild. Isn't that amazing! This final class of infinite series also serves to introduce us to the work of the 19th century German mathematics genius. different one from another. wacky. as illustrated by the class of infinite series opposite. their sums still tend to infinity. as there are ordinary integers! LET US BRING Isn't infinity amazing! Isn't it mysterious! Isn't this a beautiful way to end the section on the infinite series of it. and that there are as many rational fractions between 0 and 1. Even when n is very large. (Yes.this section on infinite series to a close with a big bang of infinities — indeed an infinity of infinite series. the sums of which all tend to infinity! No matter how small the individual terms may be. wondrous world of infinities. there are many classes of infinities.

Other Interesting Number Series 1 21 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 22 23 2 25 2 3 2 2 3 3 2 3 4 2 35 9 9 9 9 9 3. 2 4 + T + r + -T (n + l) (n + l) (n + lf (n + l) 21 3 22 3 23 3 24 3 25 3 A_A JL_JL _ i_ 1 2 3 4 5 10_10 C)1 C) 2 10_10 C) 3 O4 10 C)5 n+l 1 n+l 2 •+ n+l . 1-2 136 THE PLEASURES OF pi. — + — + — + — + — + ••• 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! 1 1 + + 2-3 1 + 3-4 1 + 4-5 10. —r + ^ r + —r + —7.+ ^ + 101 102 103 104 105 n n n n 1• + -. 3 n+l ^~ + n n n n n 1 2 3 4 5 9.e .

_ L 17. + + 2-3 3-4 1 1 -+ 2-3 3-4 + + + :•• 4-5 1 + 4-5 ••• 2 Other Interesting Number Series 137 .l ) (2n-l)(3«-2) 1 1 1 1 (»-D =1 ]_ 22. 1-w » ( 2 » .J _ + ^ _ 1-2-3 1-3-5 1 2-3-4 + + ^ _ 3-4-5 + . 1-3 + _J_ 3-5-7 2 ^ _ 5-7-9 3 + .n 1 1 1 1 11. ~ 2 71 9-11 13-15 1 1 1 14... 20.5. — + — + — + — + ••• 1-2 3-4 5-6 7-8 1 = ln2 _l_ 1 + + 3-5 1 + + 1 + 5-7 1 + 1 +••• 7-9 1 + •• 12. + 2-3-4 2 + + 3-4-5 3 + +••• + ••• ~ 2 _^ ~8 =1 1-3-5 3-5-7 5-7-9 1 1 1 1 + + + +••• 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 + 3-5 + 5-7 + 7-9 +••• _J_ ~ 2 21... ~4 1 ~ 12 _1_ 16. 1-2 23. 1-2-3 1 18. 1-3 1 13.. ^ + ^ ! + + . 19. . — + + + + ••• 1-5 3-7 5-9 7-11 1-3 5-7 1 _ i ~ 3 _ ] _ .

.3 3 .6931. + + + +••• 1-2 2 ...) 4 3L ™ ¥+¥+¥+¥+3 4 =1 =2 1 2 ^ ^ ..+ . 1 1 1 1 1 1 .+ .+ . 1 1 1 1 1 + + 1 2 4 8 16 1 + ••• 32 = -(0.+ . 1 2 3 4 36. 35.+ .+ .4 4 . 1 + i + A + l + A + .5 .+ .) 3 =2 ^ 1 1 1 1 1 1 26. 1 + — + —+ — + — +••• 1! 2! 3! 4! =e = 2e 34.) ^ CO = -(0. . 29.) 37.+ — +••• 1 3 5 7 9 11 1 1 1 1 = In 2 (0. 1! 1 2! 1 + 3! 1 4! 1 + + ••• 1-2 2 ...6931.+ ••• 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 + + + ••• 1 3 5 7 9 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 . + + + ••• 1 2 3 4 5 6 28.e .4 4 .+ .+ .24..6666.. 30. 1-2 3-4 5-6 7-8 138 THE PLEASURES OF pi. 1 1 1 1 33.5 1 1 1 1 + + + h••• + — > oo = In 2 (0..+ ..+ .7854. .+ .+ — + — + ••• 1 2 4 8 16 32 1 1 1 1 1 1 27. 1 •+ - 1 • + - 1 •+ • »(» + !) (» + !)(»+ 2) (» + 2)(» + 3) 25.3 3 .

000 • 1. 1-2 Other Interesting Number Series 139 . 41. 39.+ + + +• 3 5-7 9-11 13-15 2 3 4 + + + +• 1-3 5-7 9-11 13-15 1 1 1 + + + + ••• 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 2 3 + 2-3 1 2-3 •+ 2-4 (0. 1 • + -+1.000.000..001 • 1.. 46.001 1.. 48.38. 1-2 45. 40. 2 3 4 + + + + 1 2 3-4 5-6 7-8 1 1 1 + + +• 1 + •3 3-5 5-7 7-9 2 3 4 = -(0.) =1 4 + +••• 4-5 3 4-5 2 •+ + • 44. .000.000. + 3-4 2 3-4 1 3-4 + +• 4-5 47. 49. 43.+ 3 3-5 1 + 5-7 1 + 7-9 1 + ••• 71 42..5000.002 1 -+•(M + 1) (« + !)•(«+ 2) 1 1-2 1 + 2 + 2-3 1 2-3 1 + 3-4 3 + 3-4 + 4-5 1 + 4-5 4 +• +• • =1 50.3926.) 2 — ^ oo .

+ 2 + 3 + 4 + ••• — ^ oo 1-3 1 3-5 2 5-7 3 7-9 4 — ^ oo 52. 1-4 1 + 4-7 2 + 7-10 + 10-13 3 + +• 53.1 51. l-n + «(2«-l) +• (2» + l ) ( 3 » .2 ) ^ OO 140 THE PLEASURES OF pi.e .

Easy Proofs .

.

D. Carmichael (1879-1967) $ The most incomprehensible thing about the world is that it is comprehensible Albert Einstein (1879-1955) .Put not yourself into amazement how these things should be all difficulties are but easy when they are known William Shakespeare (1564-1616) i) A thing is obvious mathematically after you see it R.

.

Proof 1 1 1 1 1 —+—+—+—+--.=i 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 -LJL-L 1-2 U 2 —-f 3-4 U 1 + 1-2 = 2-3 U 3 1 1 4 1 + 2-3 1 + ••• 3-4 lT_2j + l 2 _ 3 j + l 3 ~ 4 j + ' 1 Easy Proofs 145 .

Proof 2 1 1 1 1 — + — + — + — + • 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 1 1 1 + r + ~ —+' 2-3 3-4 4-5 1 3-4 1 -+ = 1- 1 4-5 +• 1-I-ia 2 6 3 n 1 1 + + «(« + !) (» + !)(« +2) («+2)(w + 3) +• 1 1 -+• + n{n + \) (» + l)(« + 2) 1 n 1 "\ ( n + lj 1 1 n+2 + •• \n + l 146 THE PLEASURES OF pi.e .

4 V5 6 MHMHMWJ-1 1 1 1 1 = !__ + + + . 2 3 4 5 6 = lo gnaturd 2 Easy Proofs 147 ..fi-i 1-2 3-4 5-6 U U 2.Proof 3 -L..

Proof 4 1 + 1-3 5-7 1 + 1 911 1 + 1315 n + ••• = 2-4 -=-{x--\ 1-3 5-7 2U 2b 2b 3) 7j llj 9-11 sum=ifi-iub-vb-M 2U 2\ 3) 2 b 7j 2 b J llj 3 5 7 9 4(f) ~2^4 148 THE PLEASURES OF pi.e .

2U 3j 2 U 5j 2 U 7j ~2 Easy Proofs 149 .Proof 5 1 1 + 1 + + 1 + •• • = 1 — 1-3 3-5 5-7 7-9 2 -L-ifi-i) 1-3 3-5 5-7 2U 3J 2b 2^5 5) 7j s^iri-iuri-iuri-ru...

2 W .e . =-( W ..1 ) 1 i l-« 1 n-{2n — 1) i n i » 1 (2n — 1) (« —1)V1 1 1 (« — 1)n Sum: ( « .1) 1 ( » ..2 ) -+.Proof 6 1 1 I — + — + — + • • 1-2 2-3 3-4 1 1 1 + + +••• =1 1-3 1 + 1-4 3-5 1 + 4-7 5-7 1 +• 7-10 ~ 2 _^ ~3 1 1-w 1 1 .1) 1 (1) I_i + n 1 n 1 1 (2n — 1) +• («-D 150 THE PLEASURES OF pi.1 ) ( 3 W .+ M(2M-1) + ( .

.series and find their sums? Easy Proofs 151 . = _ 1-5 3-7 5-9 7 1 1 3 i _ i r i i_ 1 _ 1r1 1 3^7 " i l l " 7 1 _1 1 1 5^9 ~ 4 \ ? 9 Sum = - 1 5j + U 1 1 .+— 1 3.Proof 7 1 1 1 1 1 — + — + — + +. 7JV5 9j + ' Can you create your own •777..

Proof 8 1 1 I 1-2-3 -+ 2-3-4 + 3-4-5 +• l_ 1 1 1-2-3 1 2-3-4 If 1 2U-2 if 1 2U-3 1 2-3 1 3- Sum = — 1 2 1-2 1 1 2-3j V.! — M + 3-4 2V2 1 152 THE PLEASURES OF pi.e .2-3 •• + .

Proof 9 1 1 I -+ + 1-3-5 3-5-7 5-7-9 +• 12 1 1-3-5 1 If 1 4U-3 _U 1 1 3-5J l >| 3-5-7 4U-5 5-7J 1 17 i oum = — _U-3 4 n ri 3-5 J U-5 1 -wJ -J 1 + 1 Ul) 4UJ 1 = 12 Easy Proofs 153 .

154 THE PLEASURES OF pi. closer inspection shows that it is really identical to an earlier one: 1 1-2-3 2 2-3-4 3 = 1 2-3 1 3-4 1 3-4-5~4-5 1 Sum = + 1 + 1 +• 2-3 3-4 4-5 1 = [1] from Proof 1 1-2 2 Great minds in mathematics often find patterns in new problems that enable them to use solutions from previous problems. The above series is a trivial example of such insight. Such creativity is rare and often yields dividends as we shall see in the works of Euler and other geniuses.Proof 10 1 1-2-3 2 2-3-4 3 3-4-5 ' _1 ~2 Although this series appears to be a new one.e .

^ 1 . this is now a new series because there is no simple cancellation to transform it into simpler terms. ..e. 1 1 1 > gives the series 1 1 1— T ( 2 » + l)(2» + 3) 3-5 5-7 7-9 A (l l ) - l i.l ) ( 2 » + l) and sums to — (from Proof 5).2 6 1 and sums to Easy Proofs 155 . — U 1-3J 6 Therefore the sum of the series is i ri 3^ —+— . . The nth term can be factorised into the sum of two simpler terms: (2«-l)(2w + l)(2w + 3) > 1 1 1 8 ( 2 « . Similarly.Proof 11 2 3 + + 1-3-5 3-5-7 5-7-9 + • 1 Although formally similar in structure to the previous equation.l ) ( 2 « + l) 1 (2« + l)(2« + 3) 1 -• — gives the series 1-3 1 ! 3-5 1 ! 5-7 Y ( 2 « .

As is often true in mathematics. and served as our introduction to convergent series.+ 2 4 U sj 1 = —+ 2 1 1 1 f' 1 1 ^ = —+ —+ .+ — + — + • 1 2 4 8 16 32 =2 The "Geometric Series" is of great interest in the history of mathematics. 156 THE PLEASURES OF pi.e .+ +— 2 4 8 J 6 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 -+—+— + . writing the series in a different form opens up a completely new perspective with tremendous implications: — 2° — 21 — 22 — 23 This "Geometric Series" is a special case of a class of infinite series better known as geometric progressions.+ n U 4.Proof 12 1 1 1 1 1 1 — +— + — + + — + + ••• = 2 1 2 4 8 16 32 1 1 1 = -+ — 2 2 n. 1 i n n = —+—+ .

Multiplying both sides of the equation by r: n r \ = ar + ar + ar + ar H 1 V arn Subtracting the first equation from the second: n n r^~Yl=ar" I I -a (r-l)£=*(r"-l) ^=a(r"-l) or For .Consider the general equation: n f n n 2\ar'~ =a + ar + ar +ar H i \-ar"~ y\ar'~ V i is abbreviated to ^ \ below .j where a is the first term.1 < r < 1. and r is the common ratio between two consecutive terms. r — > 0 as n V- a Easy Proofs 157 .

this new series would also tend to infinity for its sum.J.e .+ —+—+—+ 1 2 What about the series 3 4 >oo K£H£H£H£)'-~' Intuitively we can see that £J -T ioJ ^ _ 81 _ 1 >— 2 1 3 1 4 100 729 1000 So we may be tempted to infer that since it appears that the individual terms of this new series are greater than the corresponding terms in the Harmonic Series. and r = — 2 •• Zi i i _ - i i - 2 2 Earlier on we saw that the sum of the Harmonic Series tends to infinity: 1 1 1 1 .Applying this general equation back to the Geometric Series: _L _ L J._L 2 0 + 2 l + 2 2 + 2 3 + 2 4 + - a = l. 158 THE PLEASURES OF pi.

the last two series appear to have second and subsequent terms which are much larger than the corresponding terms in the Harmonic Series. with a-I Hence the sum is: and r = — .000 1 1 1. resulting in their finite sums. Yet both of them sum to constants.000.000.000 Does the sum of these "very big" terms now tend to infnity? Again the answer is "No".1 and r• 999.999 1. we note that this new series is a member of the geometric series class.999 1. surprise! The series sums to only a relatively small constant.000 999. the terms of these two series become smaller much faster than their corresponding terms in the Harmonic Series. namely 10. How does a series beginning with such large fractions sum to 10 whereas the Harmonic Series tends to infinity for its sum? Take an even more extreme example: 999. This is because for terms further down the series.999 v 1. a .000.000 999.000.000. Easy Proofs 159 . 10 10 = 10 10 Surprise.000 = 1. It's a geometric series: .000.000 Superficially. as n gets larger and larger. .999 1.However.000 1= 1 999.000.999 1.

r = — 10 10 9 102 9 103 2= i !_J_ 10 =1 9_ 10 9 10 10 9 Surprising. To illustrate further the power of the general equation.0009 10 000 = 0.. isn't it? This was the series that my granddaughter Rebecca refused to believe when I told her that it sums to 1 — until I showed her "the visual proof": 9 10 9 _ 9 102 _ 1 0 0 9 9 3 10 1000 9 104 = 0. where a superficial analysis can lead to serious erroneous conclusions.e . 1 =1 160 THE PLEASURES OF pi.9 = 0. let us look at the series: 9 10 9 1 a — —.009 9 = 0..9999.09 = 0.This is another good illustration of many problems in mathematics.

Easy Proofs 161 . can you come up with your own geometric series which sums to 1 ? (Pause for a while and see if you can be a creative mathematician. Give yourself time to think. 9 101 9 102 do you see the general pattern for summing to 1? If so.Seeing that 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 3 1 2 9 104 9 103 =1 = 1.) Now turn the page and see some other geometric series which sum to 1. before you turn the page and look at the answer.

r— (» + l) 1l (« + l) « (w + 1) « (w + 1) =1 Amazing.e . isn't it? The geometric series is one of only a few classes of infinite series that has a general equation for summing. Most other series require a genius such as Euler to come up with a new perspective.2 3 3 41 « 1 2 3 3 42 2 2 3 3 43 3 2 34 3 44 ( + 1) (« + l f (« + l f n (n + 1) 1 (» + l) = ! 1-r where a = . and then a proof. 162 THE PLEASURES OF pi.

r• \-.where a = .For the sister series with alternating plus and minus terms: 3__3_ _3___A_ 21 22+23 2 4 + ' n+l n+l n —i n Sum — afn+l) = ~+— 1 n+l n n+l r + n = 1 n+l -v. l-r \ n Jf^f-l n «+lV n n )\n + \ =1 For the sister series of "the Geometric Series" with alternating plus and minus terms: 1 1 1 1 1 + + 1 2 4 8 16 Sum= l-r 1 ' ' 1 where a = l. r = \ \ 1 l 2 2 T 2 2 3 Easy Proofs 163 .

T + - =1 1 2 21 2 2 1 21 4 24 5 25 1 1 1 1 22 23 2 4 25 1 22 1 23 1 2 3 1 24 1 2 4 1 25 1 2 5 = 1-1 2 _ 1 ~ 2 1 1 = 1-12 "I =2 Can you follow the vertical addition on the extreme right? It is "Geometric Series"? Can you find a simpler or more beautiful proof? 164 THE PLEASURES OF pi.Proof 13 1 2 2 1 3 2 2 4 24 •• = 2 2 3 From "the Geometric Series".e . we get: 1 21 1 1 1 • + TT + 2: 3 23 1 ^T + .

Proof 14

1 1 1 1 1 -+—+-+—+-+••• 1 2 3 4 5 1 1 (I l W l 1 1 1 Sum = - + — + — + — + - + — + — + - | + 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Since j> \ (the sign > means "greater than")

3 Similarly,

4)

U

A)

2

1 1 1 1 5 1 5 1 6 1 7 6 H 8J 7 (\ U 8 1 8 1 8 1 8

Sum>- + - + (-1+ - | + 1 2 \2) U, By taking increasing number of terms to add up to a partial sum that is greater than, \ , we can make the sum greater than an infinite number of y's. Hence the sum of "the Harmonic Series" tends to infinity.

Easy Proofs

165

Using the same method, we can prove that the half "Harmonic Series" wih odd integers only and that with even integers only also give sums which tend to infinity: 1 1 1 1 1 - + — + - + — + — + ••• 1 3 5 7 9 1 1 (\ \ \ (\ 1 1 1 , = - +- + - +- + - +— +— + — + • 1 3 \5 7) \9 11 13 15,

>i+i+m+ri
1 3 \3J U

166

THE PLEASURES OF pi,e

Proof 15
1 \_ i_ j_ i_ 1 2 3 " 4 7 '
• = l°gna.ural
2

From "Elementary Calculus", we know that
d l n x)^ — —(In dx x

^ ( l n ( l + *)) = - ^ ax 1+x Conversely, by integration,

— • dx = In x

is abbreviated to in the rest of this book

r 1
J

dx = ln(l + x) l +x

By normal division, 1 l+x= ln(l + x) = } Let x = 1 , _ ,. 1 1 1 In (1 + 1) = + 1 2 3 , ^ 1 1 1 ln2 = + 1 2 3 1 + -• 4 5 1 1 + 4 5 1
1
i i 2 3 , 4

1 — X+ X — X + X
2 2 X X V

3 X

4 X

5

\ +x

dx = x

2

J T T

Easy Proofs

167

Proof 16
1 1-2 2
+ +

3
+

4
+ »oo

2-3

3-4

4-5

1 1-2 1

2 +

3 + +

4 +•

2-3 3-4 4-5 1 1 1

: - + - + — + - + • 2 3 4 5
^ CO

since the series is "the Harmonic Series" less the first term 1.

168

THE PLEASURES OF pi,e

Proof 17
1 1-2 2
+ +

3
+

4
+
>oo

3-4

5-6

7-8

1

+• 1-2 3-4 5-6 7-8 1 1 1 1 = —+ + + + ••• 2 3-2 5-2 7-2 If, 1 1 1 = - 1 + - + - + —+ ••• 2{ 3 5 7
—^ oo

2 +

3 + +

4

since the series in bracket is "the half Harmonic Series" with odd integers only, with sum tending to infinity.

Easy Proofs

169

e 1 1 3-4 1 1 1 5-6 1 7-8 1 sums to In 2... 3. It is interesting to note that though the series: 1 1-2 and the series: 1 1— sums to —.Proof 18 1 1-3 2 + + 3 + 4 + »oo 3-5 5-7 7-9 1 _ 11 1-3~2U 2 _2fl 3-5~2U 3 = 1 3. 2. 4 . both the series become identical and sum to half of "the half Harmonic Series with odd integers only"! 1 1 170 THE PLEASURES OF pi. 1 5 1 3fl 5-7 2U _ 7 M1 1 Sum = — 3 5j 2U 3 in i i i — -+-+-+—+• 2U 3 5 7 Q —^ oo 2 b 7) since the sum of "the half Harmonic Series" (in brackets) tends to infinity. n progressively for the terms. 1-3 3-5 5-7 7-9 2 when we change the numerators from 1 for all the terms to 1. 1 1 1 1 1 .

Easy Proofs 171 .Proof 19 1 1-3 2 + 5-7 3 + 9-11 + 13-15 4 + >°o We will use an indirect approach to provide the proof for the above series. 1 13 175 " i l l 5. _ 1 1 1 1 1 -+-+-+—+• 1 5 9 13 — ^ OO since the series in brackets is a quarter subset of the Harmonic Series with a sum that tends to infinity. Let us use a sister series: 1 2 3 4 + + + +• 1-5 5-9 9-13 13-17 1 _ ifl 2 _2fl 5^9 ~ 4 ( j 3 9-13 3fl 419 1 1 9. Indirect approaches are often used in mathematics. 4ll 5j 4l5 9j 4l9 13.

If we look at the two series: 1 2 + + 3 + 9-11 3 + + 4 + 13-15 4 .e . Since we have proven that the sum of the second series tends to infinity. +••• and + ••• 1-3 5-7 1 2 1-5 5-9 9-13 13-17 we can see that every term in the first series is larger than the corresponding term in the second series. we can also conclude that the sum of the first series tends to infinity. 172 THE PLEASURES OF pi.

Proof 20 1 1-2 2 + + 3 + 4 + 5 + >oo 2-3 3-4 1 2 2-3 3-4 1 4-5 3 4-5 2 5-6 4 5-6 3 >oo 3-4 .+ 4-5 + 5-6 + 1 1. Similarly 1 ?(« + !) 1 w (» + !)(»+ 2) 1 w+1 +2 1 (w + 1) 1 (w + 2) 1 1 1 = —+ + +• n w+1 n+2 Easy Proofs 173 .001 • 1.000.'-1 1 1 1 =—+-+—+-+• 2 3 4 5 —^ oo since it is "the Harmonic Series" less 1.000.002 ->°° 1 + 2-3 2 + 3-4 3 +• 4-5 WMHMW.000.000.001 + 1.000 • 1.

Proof 21 1 1 1 1 — + — + — .7 7-10 1 2 3 + + — + In »(2«-l) (2«-l)(3w-2) >«> For the general equation: 1 _ i-« 1 f\ 1 » 1 (2w — 1) (« —i)Vi 1 (« — 1)« n(2n — 1) Sum 1 1 1 (n-l) iWi«y \n + (2»-l) (2n — 1) l +• (3»-2) ' i l l 1 .e .+ —+ («-i) —^ oo 1 n since the series in brackets is a subset of the "Harmonic Series" 174 THE PLEASURES OF pi.+.— + + ••• 1-4 4 .+ .— +• =1 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 1 2 3 4 + + + +• 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 1 2 3 4 + + + +• 1-3 3-5 5-7 7-9 1 2 3 —.

+—+. "Absolutely convergent" series can consist of series with all positive terms or series with both positive and negative term. The beautiful Liebniz-Gregory series which sums to f. subtraction. "Convergent" series can be either "conditionally convergent" or "absolutely convergent". l. Therefore we cannot rearrange the terms._l_ 1 3 1__1_ JL__ 5 7 9 _7t_ ~ 4 When the negative terms are made positive.+ 1 3 5 7 9 >°° which is divergent. multiplication and division are not permitted. Otherwise we end up with "meaningless" mathematics. Easy Proofs 175 . It is made up of alternating terms.is "convergent". the series becomes the "half Harmonic Series": 1 1 1 1 1 . the series ceases to be "convergent" and becomes "divergent". An infinite series is "divergent" if its sum tends to infinity as n tends to infinity.+. the basic operations of arithmetic — namely. the series continues to be "convergent" even when the negative terms are made positive. In the case of the latter.+. with the exception of the infinite series which are "absolutely convergent". "Conditionally convergent" series are generally made up of terms with alternating signs (positive followed by negative). addition. Hence the Leibniz-Gregory Series is "conditionally convergent". Should the negative terms be changed to positive.A Note of Caution In the context of infinite series. The series is "convergent" if its sum tends to a constant when n tends to infinity.

(°°) which is meaningless.An example of "meaningless"mathematics: 1 1 1 1 1 1 + + + ••• 1 3 5 7 9 11 . ' 1 1 1 W l 1 1 = .+ — + ••• .—+ — + — + • 1 5 9 J U 7 11 = (°°) .e .+ + + 1 3 4 5 8 7 Rearranging the terms: 3. „ = — In 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + + + 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3.+ . = -ln2 2 = ln2 Adding the terms of both series: 1 1 2 1 2 1 . Hence the emphasis that arithmetical operations are valid only for "absolutely convergent" series. but it is now equal to \ In 2 — a totally erroneous conclusion. Another example of meaningless mathematics: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + + + 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Multiplying both sides of the equation by \ : 1 2 1 + 4 6 8 1 1 + 10 12 1 1 1 + 14 1. „ = -ln2 2 We obtain the original series. 176 THE PLEASURES OF pi.

Less Easy Proofs .

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There is divinity in odd numbers William Shakespheare (1564-1616) Each problem that I solve becomes a rule which serves afterwards to solve other problems Rene Descartes (1596-1650) Less Easy Proofs 179 .

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.7182818284 .+.l ) 1! 2! 3! 4! 5! Comparing the third and subsequent terms in the two series: 1 3! 1 4! 5! 1 1x2x3 1 1x2x3x4 1x2x3x4x5 4 1 16 it is obvious that the sum of the (e . Simple addition of the terms in the e series gives the value of e to be 2.1) series is less than 2. Therefore e must be less than 3. 1 1 1 1 =2 1+. Less Easy Proofs 181 . ..+..Proof 22 1 1+ 1 1 1 • + 1! + 2! + 3! + 4! •=e Let us look at "the Geometric Series" and the (e — 1) series. — + — + — + — + — + ••• = ( e .+— +• 2 4 8 16 1 1 1 1 1 .

.e. x B) 182 THE PLEASURES OF pi. What usefulness in mathematical symbols! A simple (OK. I 3. and use them extensively — indeed so much so that such abbreviations and symbols create a major negative contributory factor to nonmathematicians' understanding of mathematics. The term ^ i r combines four set of abbreviation: 1.Proof 23 + —+ — + — + • • = e e 3! 4! 1 1 1 1 1 —+ — + — + — + — + • • = 0! 1! 2! 3! 4! 1! 1 2! 1 1 e is normally written as 1 plus a series of reciprocals of the factorials of all the integers beginning with 1. n is any positive integer. s! = 1 X 2 X 3 X .e . is the mathematician's abbreviaI l tion for the phrase "the sum of all terms for the function f(n) going from n = 1 to n tending to infinity". not so simple) symbol for a concept that is quite a mouthful to describe in words. the product of all the integers from 1 to n (i. n\ is "n factorial". The symbol: £/(»)> sometimes. Hence the "fear" of and "total incomprehension" of math by most people. abbreviated to £ . Sis sum of all the terms from n — 1 to n — > °°. and 4. X is sum of all terms 2. Mathematicians excel in abbreviations and the use of Greek alphabets..

You must pay special attention to the sub. or °° 1 e This X notation is extremely useful for the rest of this chapter. we can write the infinite series of e in a number of different ways: 1 1 1 1 e = l + — + — + — + — +••• 1! 2! 3! 4! =i+i+y—— 1 1 1 1 = — + . Using the summation notation above. e. and demonstrates the versatility of mathematical notations and abbreviations for mathematical manipulations. y——=(c-2) Also e y 1 . not zero!).. oo oo oo n ^ is not the same as ^ or ^ or ^ even for the same function. y 1 Less Easy Proofs 183 . This is because different terms will be included in the summation.g.and superscript of the X sign for they can vary and would give different results. it is important to bear in mind that contrary to expectation. Hence the series can be written as in the second series above beginning with ^r.+ — + — + ••• 0! 1! 2! 3! = .-. 0! is 1 (Yes.For the definition of factorial. one. for the proofs for different e-series.

i 1! 2! 3! 4\{ 5 Mathematically the function e* is unique.i + 5 1! 2! 3! V .e can also be written as a beautiful infinite nesting of increasing integers: e = l + l'. V if.e.e . i = 1+—+— + — i + . 184 THE PLEASURES OF pi. This enables us to prove the various summations of the different infinite series with relative ease. i i i i r. being the only function where the derivative and the integral are the same as the function itself: / X \ X . subtraction and re-arranging of the individual terms is allowed. l A 5 4l "^ 1! 2! 1+ 3 5 /y 1 1 1( if. 2 ^ 3l If. dx: (e ) = e exdx = e* + c (c is a constant) It is useful to note that the e infinite series is "absolutely convergent" and the use of the arithmetical operations such as addition.

3 ! I l l : 1 + — + — + — + ••• 1! 2! 3! V* n 2. 2 3 4 • 1+ + + +• 2-1! 3-2! 4 .-7 n\ = ' Less Easy Proofs 185 .Proof 24 1 2 3 4 — + — + — + — +--.= e 1! 2! 3! 4! 1 2 3 4 —+— + — + — +••• 1! 2! 3! 4! .

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + —+ — + — + — + — + — + ••• 1! 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! .e . . 1 1 1 1 W i l l = 1 + — + — + — + — + ••• + — + — + — +• . and the formal way using X notation. 3 5 7 Sum = 1 + — + — + — +••• 2! 4! 6! 2 4 6 1 + — + — + — + ••• 2! 4! 6! 1 1 1 + — + — + — + ••• 2! 4! 6! I l l 1 + —+ — + — + ••• 1! 3! 5! 1 1 1 + — + — + — +••• 2! 4! 6! . 3 5 7 Sum = 1 + — + — + — + •• 2! 4! 6! (2» + l) =i+S f (2»)! 2w 1 + (2«)! (2«)! =i+E 1 •+ - (2»-l)! (2«)! . the visual.Proof 25 1+ 3 5 7 +— •=e 2! + 4! 6! + •• Let us prove the above equation in two ways.1! 3! 5! 7! J V2! 4! 6! 1 1 1 1 = 1 + —+ — + — + — + ••• 1! 2! 3! 4! 186 THE PLEASURES OF pi. .

^±i = ( e _ 1 ) r (2»)i =e E o (2»)! 2« + l Remember that 2» 2^ (2n)\ " l x 2 x 3 x .. 2 ! 4! 6! 2! 4! 6! . 3 5 7 = 1 + — + — + — + •• 2! 4! 6! ..l ) ( 2 w ) 1 lx2x3x---(2«-l) 1 (2»-l)! f not — 1 I 1! Less Easy Proofs 1 . 2 4 6 1 1 1 = l + [ — + — + — + • + | — + — + — +• .. .Shall we work out the proof backwards for the fun of it. |.3 ! 6-5! J \2\ 4! 6! .( 2 » . and al convince ourselves that our X notation manipulation really works? 1 1 1 1 e = l + — + — + — + — +•• 1! 2! 3! 4! 1 1 1 1 1 1 = 1 + — + — + — + •• —+— +— + • 2! 4! 6! 1! 3! 5! 4 6 l l i i 2 I f l 1+1 + + + ••• + — + — + — + • 2-1! 4 .

i>um = > n+\ 1^.+ (2« 1 1 .Proof 26 1 2 3 4 1 — + — + — + — +••• = —e 1! 3! 5! 7! 2 ^.+ (2» i °° W i l l i 1 1 1 = .+ l)! (2»)!.— + — + — + — + •••+ — + —+— +• 2 l 0 ! 2! 4! 6! 1! 3! 5! 1 1 1 1 + —+ +—+ —+ 0! 1! 2! 3! 4! i = —e 2 1 = —e {In + 1)! 2 1 n+1 0 188 THE PLEASURES OF pi.(2» + 1 + 1) = —> Y(2« + l)! 2 V (2w + l)! 1 °° 2» + l 1 .+ l)! (2w + l)!.e .

I l l W i l l — + — + — + ••• . l!j e 1 T ( 2 » + l)! e 2! 3! 4! Less Easy Proofs 189 .Proof 27 2 4 6 8 1 — + — + — + — + •• • = — e 3! 5! 7! 9! Sum = 2J 2« r'(2»+i)! I (2» + l)!_ 2« + l (2» + l)! 1 1 (2» + l)! 1 =1 (2»)! 1 (2» + l)!.— + .+ — +• 2! 4! 6! J U 5 7 J__J_ J__J_ 2! 3! 4! 5! = u_ri + ±_i + ±.

! = i =1 (» + l) (» + l)! 1 ?! 1 (» + l)! 1 (« + l)! from Proof 23 = (e-l)-(e-2) T(" + D We can also write: (e-l)-(e-2) :1 (\ 1 1 1 = — + — + — + — +•• U ! 2! 3! 4! 1 1 1 1 —+—+— +• 2! 3! 4! 190 THE PLEASURES OF pi. Sum = > = 2 (» + l)! i (« + ! ) .Proof 28 1 2 3 4 —+ 5! —+ •• = 1 2! + 3! + 4! This is truly a stupendous.e . wondrous and mysterious series — with all factorials in the denominators but no e for its sum.

we noted that this series has factorials in the denominators but does not sum to a constant involving e. If you think long and hard enough. let us again prove the equation without the use of X notation. for the fun of it. you will remember that 1 is a very special number. after all! 2 3 4 5 Less Easy Proofs 191 . and so can be thought of as part of the e-family — e1. e°. Sum = 1 2 3 4 —+—+— +—+• 2! 3! 4! 5! —+ —+ — + — + • 2! 3! 4! 5! 1 1 1 1 —+ —+ — + — + • 2! 3! 4! 5! 1 1 1 1 — + — + —+ — + • 1! 2! 3! 4! 1 1 1 1 -I — + — + — + — + • 2! 3! 4! 5! =1 Earlier. So the series with all the factorials in the denominator is part of the e-series.Since it is such an elegant and beautiful series summing to 1. It can be written as e°.

= * 4 1 + +— + — + •• • = 2e 1! 2! 3! Sum = 1 + YJ I «+l »! » 1 —+— 1 1 -+— from previous proofs 1 1 L (»-D = 1 + e + (e — 1) = 2e S ^ = (2c-1) The series can also be written as: 1 2 3 4 —+—+— +—+ • 0! 1! 2! 3! ?(^)T 2e 192 THE PLEASURES OF pi.Proof 29 ?.e .

Proof 30 l2 22 3 2 4 2 — + — + — + — +••• 1! 2! 3! 4! 1 2 3 4 = .+ —+ — + — + ••• 1 1! 2! 3! = 2e oo from previous proofs 2 • • • XV2« Less Easy Proofs 193 .

e .Proof 31 Sum= > i (» + D! = S_ (n + l)\ _ 1 1 r«2-i+ii \n-\) 1 -+ L(w + 1)! (w + 1)! ' n-\ n\ + 1 »! + 1 (« + l)!_ 1 (w + 1)! from previous proofs =i i "« w! = e — (e — 1) + (e — 2) = (c-l) = (e-l) i (» + D! 194 THE PLEASURES OF pi.

2 . 2 42 1 + + +—+ 1! 2! 3! •• • = 5e Sum = 1 + JT l (»+l) 2 W! « +2« + l «! 1 + — —+ «! (» — 1) 0 2 « 2 1 = 1 + [2e + 2e + (e -1)] from previous proofs = 5e l2 22 3 2 4 2 — +— + — + — +• The series can also be rewritten as: 0! 1! 2! 3! i • = 5e (»-l)! Less Easy Proofs 195 .Proof 32 ?.

Proof 33 1-3 2! 2-4 3! 3-5 4! . Y n -1 »2 1 i 1 = 2e — (e — 1) = (eH-1) 196 THE PLEASURES OF pi.e from previous proofs . „ n{n + 2) Sum = 2_j oo 2 i •-» _Y« = +2w i (» + D! I = '? 1 (»+D! «+i «! i (w + 1)! 1 •+ = 2 n\ 1 L « 1 (« + l)! from previous proo fs n\ = e+ (e-l)-(e-2) = (e + l) Alternatively we can re-write the series as "0 2 1 1-3 —+ _1 2! 2-4 + + 3-5 +••• 3! 4! _ y (»-l)(« + l) oo 2 -.

i _ i _L_J_ ! _ e ~ 1! 2! 3! 4! 2! 4! 1 .2 ) !.Proof 34 1-3 3-5 5-7 ez + 2 e . 1 1 e + .=2 1 + —+ — + ••• e Y(2«-2)! T(2«-2)! 2^ e.+ + ••• = 2! 4! 6! 2e Sum = 2^' i I ( 2 » . Less Easy Proofs 197 .l ) ( 2 » + l) (2»)! = i =1 I 2»(2»-l) + (2«-l) (2») 2n(2n — l) (2ra)! i 2n +(2w)! 1 (2ra)! =2 1 1 -2 « .l +—.l ) ! ( 2 « .+ ( 1 (2«)! Let's go back a little to work out these 2«-type factorial terms: 1 1 1 1 e = l + —+—+—+— + • 1! 2! 3! 4! I .

e .l ) ! = 1 Re-substituting back into the earlier calculations: 1 (2»)!_ 1 _(2»-2)! 1 (2»-l)! 4HM4) e2+l + 2e-2 2e 2 e + 2e-l 2e 198 THE PLEASURES OF pi.1 .=1— + +— e 1! 2! 3! 4! + — +— +• = 1-1 — + — + — + ••• U ! 4! 1! 3! 5! y 1 |V 1 + ^(2«-l)! ^(2«)! i i (2»)! i i 1 1 1 1 l ••• E ( 2 « . 1 1 1 1 .

we get the series: 22 bum = 3! 4! 32 1 5! 6! 42 52 h• We have shown earlier that the -fjj series is "absolutely convergent" and sums to 2e.Proof 35 Multiplying both the numerator and the denominator by the same factors.v2 than ^r for every term. so by comparison of the corresponding terms. for the first term. series with alternating terms is also absolutely convergent since it must be less than its sister series with all positive terms.( 2 « + 2) + l' {2n + 2)\ = i (2» + l ) ( 2 « ) . we can infer that the series "„< is also "absolutely convergent" since —— is less 2 ' . viz. _.( 2 « + l) + l (2« + l)! =t i (2«-l)! 1 (2n-l)! -+(2»)! (2» + l)! -+(2«)! (2« + l)! 1 -+(2»)! (2» + l)! 1 (2» + 2)! 1 1 (2» + 2)!. 2. Hence we can rearrange the terms in the series! Sum = 3! f22 1 4! 5! A h6! r32 — + — + •• 42 + — + •• 3! 5! 4! 6! =X ! (2» + l)! i (2nf (2« + l) 2 ^{2n + 2)\ (2« + 2)(2« + l ) . 3 for the second and so on. =1 Less Easy Proofs 199 . similarly the „.

(2»-l)! 2 2 1 (2» + 2)!.+ l)! (2»)!.+ (2» •K'~H«+HH«-H-K-+H ^_3 2 1 2 e 1 e whew!!! 200 THE PLEASURES OF pi.v» 1 I f eH 1 and > =— T ( 2 « + 2)! 2K e e — = 2 — + — + — + ••• e U ! 3! 5! • • • E—i T(2»-l)! ife-i 2V e 2 e and V =— e T ( 2 » + l)! 2V Re-substituting back into the calculation for sum: 1 .=1 + + —-• e 1! 2! 3! 4! 1 of. 3 .Going back to basics: 1 1 1 1 e = l + — + — + — + — +• 1! 2! 3! 4! 1 . 1 1 1 1 . ! ! e+.= 2 1+—+— +• e I 2! 4! Y(2»)! 21 e .e . Sum = 2_j .

( « .Proof 36 1 1+2 1 + 2 + 3 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 -+ + + +• 4! 3! 1! 2! 3e 2 The numerator is the sum of an arithmetical series: 1 1+2 1+2+3 5 = 1 + 2 + 3 + . from previous proofs Less Easy Proofs 201 .! ) ! = .. + 3 + 2 + 1 25 = »(« + l) n{n + \) Sum = 2_j 1 n{n + \) •i? ..[ 2 e + e] 2 _3e ~ 2 •+- 1 (»-l)!. + » S = n + ...

e .= 3 e . 3(4 2 + l) . 202 THE PLEASURES OF pi.Proof 37 1(22 + 1) .2 e . How amazing! Can you prove the middle series (without the 1 in brackets) by yourself? It's simple.l (the first term = 0) 3! 2 4! Sum = 2_j {n-\){n -\) l n\ oo =1 l (n —n —n + l) n\ « n «! n «! 1 «! from previous proofs =t («-l)! = 5 e .l )L 3 ( 4 2 . 1(2 2 -1) 2! from previous proofs -+— 2 ( 3 2 .+ l)! »! + — n\ + (« = [2e + e +1] = (3e + l) For the sister series.e + (e-l) = (3e-l) What beautiful symmetrical images for the sums of the two series.l ) +- + --. -H — + H 2! 4! = (3e +1) Sum = 2_j I »((»+l)2+l) (» + l)! « 2 (» +1) + «(» +1) + n (ra + 1)! n n n . 2(3 2 + l) .

g ln2 = e(l-iH-i-> e -e • e -e • e I I I I IT e 2 -e 4 -e 6 -e 8 -e10 Less Easy Proofs 203 . we saw that 2 V V 3 V 4 ln(l + x) = x Let x = 1.Proof 38 e 1 -e 3 -e 5 -e 7 -e 9 T T I I T" e 2 -e 4 -e 6 -e 8 -e 10 1 1 1 -L 1 •= 2 From Proof 15. ^ . ln2 = l 1 2 + 3 4 +• 1 + 3 1 + ••• 4 2 Raising both sides of the equation as the powers of e. .

and the (-1) on the right hand side alludes to the magic of the imaginary number z.— + — ( ^ 2! 4! ( 6! 5 8! ^ J 3 ll! 3! 5! 204 THE PLEASURES OF pi. z'3 = -z. 2 • 3 ZX 4 + •• 8 ix e = 1+ ZX X X 1! 2! 3! 6 4! 4 2 ( = 1. he obtained: 1! 2! 3! 4! Remembering that z'2 = —1. assuming its validity. and can be written in two forms. I prefer the former as it is shorter. Euler started his proof (published in his classic "' Introductio in analysin infinitorum" in 1748) with e*: 2 3 4 e = 1 + — + — + — + — + •• 1! 2! 3! 4! Substituting x by {ix). where i2 is equal to (-1). and z'4 = + 1.e .Proof 39 in i e =—1 e" + 1 = 0 The above equation — "The Most Beautiful Equation in the World" — is also called "Euler's Identity".

g. there was a lack of understanding of the concept of convergence. Hence he rearranged the terms of his e" series liberally.'. . respectively. Let x = n: e = cos 71 +1 sin 7Z = -1 + 0 = -1 When Euler first derived this equation in the 18th century. we know that the two series in brackets are the cosine and sine series. Later developments in mathematics led to a better understanding of convergence..From the "Elementary Series" in the Appendix. Hence he rightly deserves the honour of "Euler's Identity". Euler's equation e'x = cos x + i sin x gives rise to a number of very unexpected (surprising and incredible) results: e. Advanced mathematics since then has confirmed the validity of Euler's creation. and to the concept of "circle of convergence" for complex numbers involving i. For x = y e'x = cos x + i sin x e = e 2 = cos — + 1 sin — \2) U = 0+z Less Easy Proofs 205 .

Would i' give any result at all? An imaginary part of a complex number for the answer? Or a complex number? Or even a real number (i. mathematicians have explored the concept.e .Noting that "power" in mathematics means multiplying a number by itself for the appropriate number of times.e. Nevertheless. without z')? Would it be stretching the imagination if z' turns out to be an infinite number of real numbers? Prepare yourself for the surprise of your life — and turn the page. 206 THE PLEASURES OF pi. viz: l1 =1 22=2x2 33=3x3x3 the question arises — what is "the meaning of z' (z raised to the power of /)? There is no "real" meaning to /'.

i = (e 2 ) =e =e 2 n 1 e2 = 0.882. « = 1....249. we saw that: i = e :.Earlier on. xlO" 7 Yes. and that there are an infinite number of values for this most mysterious entity in mathematics! Less Easy Proofs 207 .. sin 2 2 2 The general equation is: i'(4»+l)f are ail equal t o l . Leonhard Euler was the first mathematician to work out that i' is a real number. sin . » = -l. r = 111. V= 0.. H i = e For H = 0. xlO . « = 2. e'x = cos x + i sin x since sin—...2079... /'= 3.2079.3178.4 V= 7. We further note that i =e 2 is just one of an infinite number of values for the equation.

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Not'So-Easy Proofs .

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I had a feeling once about Mathematics — that I saw it all Depth upon depth was revealed to me — a quantity passing through infinity and changing its sign from plus to minus I saw exactly why it happened .. but as it was after dinner I let it go Winston Churchill (1874-1965) $ Don't worry about your difficulty in mathematics I can assure you mine are greater Albert Einstein (1879-1955) Not-So-Easy Proofs 211 ..

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• = 1— X + X —X + . then jy = arctan — (tan j ) = l dx: dy = 1 sec2 j / • — = 1 (from "Elementary calculus") dx dy dx 1 sec y 1 1 + x" From division. . (from "Elementary calculus") 1+x Integrating both sides of the equation: dx — •dx=\ r--dx= (1 — x +x —x .._1 + 1 _ 4 3 5 1+ 1 7 9 Not-So-Easy Proofs 213 .Proof 40 11 1 1 + -3 5 7 1 9 n 4 Let tan y = x. then arctan(l) = -f- 3 1 5 7 1 tf = ! ..)• J J i dx i l + x2 i X J _ X J 3 V 5 V 7 3 X 3 5 5 V 7 7 V arctan x = x Let x = 1...

(x-rn) where rx. rn. {a + x) —a +2ax + x (a + xf =ai + 3a2 x + 3ax2 + x3 (a + x)n = aQ +alx + a2x H V x" where aQ. ax. a general function f(x) with different roots can be written in the same way: f{x) = a0 + OyX + a2x H V x" Writing this function in the form of products of its different factors.Proof 41 1 I2 1 1 1 n2 + 2 2 + 32 + A1 + • . and rearranging the terms.. Dividing the equation by rjrjr . r ••• rn are the roots of the equation. a2..e . we get: /(*) = (x-r1)(x-r2)(x-r3). the coefficients of the different terms in the expansion. = 6 By simple binomial expansion. are constants.^ 1-- 214 THE PLEASURES OF pi. r. we can write the equation in a new form: fix)V 'U V '2 J 1 ... a3 ... Similarly.

. ?>n . sm37l. since sinTT. = 0.From "Elementary Trigonometry" the function sinx x . x x =1 + 3! 5! 2 4 x 6 +. we can write this equation in the form of products of factors: ( 2\ ( 2^ sinx V 'U Hence.. V 1 '2 J ' 2~ (2^0 . sm2n.V x T-\ 2 J Multiplying out the RHS as an expansion and equating the coefficients of the corresponding terms. we get the coefficients of x1: —=— 1 3! For sinx = 0.. 27T. For h =n Ki 1 1 —+ —+ • r h J are all equal to zero. 2 4 X 6 ( X X i \( 3! 5! 7! \ '\ J V x. 7! Following from the earlier equation.. i J r \_<Z*?^ = 0. x = n... 3 = (3^) • • • 1 3!~ n l -+- 1 {Inf 2 -+3 (inf _ L J_ J_ 2 2 2 l n 6 1 l2 1 22 1 32 Not-So-Easy Proofs 215 . V r r = 0.

e 1_ J_ 22 32 .+--+4 6 l2 1 1 1 32 52 -+• 1 151 4 6 7Z 1f 1 4U2+22 n 24 n1 _J_ J_ J_ 1 1 1 1 1 1 = ! — 2 +— 2 +— 24 U 3 52 + • 7T _ J 12 ~ l 2 216 THE PLEASURES OF pi. Sum: JZ 1 1 1 1 r + —r 6 = -l 2 2 2 + —r 3 2 + —r 42 + ' J_ J_ J_ l 2 + 3 2 + 5 2 + ' + .+ -T + - •+• 1 32 J_ J_ J_ i ¥ ¥ ' _ _L J_ . we can apply arithmetical operations to the individual terms of the series.ium = 2+ + + If 1 4U + —Sum 4 1 22 3 nl n =— .Proof 42 1 l 2 1 3 2 1 52 8 _7t 24 ^2 12 2 1 1 l2 1 1 ? 4 ? " 1 1 32 ~ 42 + • 22 1 1 Since the series for \ is "absolutely convergent".

Proof 43 4i V2+V2 V2+V2+2 2 2 2 2 n From "Elementary Trigonometry". we get: sin 2x =2 cos x sin x . we get: x sin — 2 _iL 2" = cos — cos —z 2 22 When n —> °°. sin x = 2 cos—sin— 2 2 = 2cos—-2cos—rsin—7 2 2 2 X X X X = 2 cos — 2 cos—: 2l cos2" sin2" Dividing both sides by x and rearranging. 2H — >« x •->0 x cos2" 2" From "Elementary Trigonometry": sinx -> 1 when x — >0 x sin-2" x 2^ x — > 1 when w — > °° Not-So-Easy Proofs 217 .'.

COS —r- 2 22 23 For xsinx = sin— = 1 2 x 71 V2 cos — = cos — = 2 4 2 1 + cos — c o s — = \l (from "Elementary Trigonometry") V2 + V2 sinx x 1 n 2 2 7T 42 72 + V2 ^ 2 +.Therefore the infinite series for .^ can now be written as: sinx : COS — COS —r.^ 2 + 72 218 THE PLEASURES OF pi.e .

Proof 44 2-2 4-4 1-3 4-4 6-6 5-7 71 2 Using the equation derived earlier (Proof 41).2 \ 1\ 1-3 2-2 {In) 2 2 {27tf 1-- 3-5 I6j U-4 . f 2 \ 2 *\ 2 \ 1-A 7T For x = n sinx sin 71 1-- (2^r 1-- (3*) 2 V2 2 7T For x = Y> t n e individual terms on the RHS of the equation are: t\ f 2^ 1-71 71 .r or TT_ 1-3 3-5 2-2 4-4 2-2 4-4 3-5 5-7 6-6 6^ 5-7 Not-So-Easy Proofs 219 2 ~ 1-3 .

e 2-4 5-7 8-10 . For x = 3' >/3 sinx 9 3V3 x ^ 3 2.r The terms on the RHS of the equation are now: 2 > 71 = 1- O 8 9 2-4 3-3 7Z 1- 3 {IT:) 1 = 1- 1 ^ 35 36 = 5-7 6-6 2TZT 3-3 6-6 9-9 3V3 220 THE PLEASURES OF pi.Proof 45 3-3 2-4 4-4 3-5 6-6 5-7 6-6 9-9 5-7 8 1 0 8-8 12-12 7-9 11-13 1212 1818 11-13 1719 271 "3^3 n ~ 2V2 n 3 Using the same equation as in Proof 44.

Jt__^± ^± 12-12 2V2 ~ 3-5 7-9 ' 11-13 and for x = -f. ^ _ 6 J L 6 12-12 18-18 3 ~ 5 .Similarly for x — \ .7 11-13 17-19 Not-So-Easy Proofs 221 .

arctan (-L) = f 6 45 V3 ~fi> Substituting in the equation: n 6 = 1 1 1 1 3+ . V3 1 11 3 3 1 + --2 7 11 v 53 n =1 2V3 or 1 .+ 5-3 7-33 2V3 -K 3l3 + 5U I 1 — 7V3 If 1 + •• 222 THE PLEASURES OF pi. : t a n f = -L.e .2 3-3. 3 5 7 arctan x = x 3 For x 1 5 7 1 -• = 4r.Proof 46 From Proof 40.• V3 3 (V3)5 (73)5 1 f.

tan(d — b) Let tan a = A.«J Vw + 1 For n = 1.b) A-B 1 + AB tan « — tan b 1 + tan < z tan b A-B {a — b) = arctan | V + AB A-B arctan A — arctan B = arctan l + AB Let A = ±. arctan A = a.Proof 47 r 1 + arctan arctan — = arctan w(w + l) + l . . tan b = B . arctan B = b tan(/2 .| = arctan — + arctan — From "Elementary Trigonometry".'. \n) (» + l) arctan I . then I M —arctan I arctan| — l 1_ ^ n+\ n n+\ ) • arctan V f . n 1 arctan n{n + l) + \ 1 1 arctan | — I = arctan + arctan »(» + l) + l.= arctan — + arctan — Not-So-Easy Proofs 223 . B = -^. arctan .

Proof 48 4 arctan — arctan n U39. 2 tan* tan2x = • 1 — tan x For tanAr = (4-).e .-B) 224 THE PLEASURES OF pi. arctan (i) = x 2 tan2x =1 _ 5 ~12 tar i4x 2tan2x 1 — tan 2x 10 12 5" >-Gir 120 _ 119 tan^4-tan2? l + tan^4 tani? (A. 7 From "Elementary Trigonometry".

239 UJ 1239 J 4 Not-So-Easy Proofs 225 .Let A = Ax and B = f u then 1/ tan Ax / (n tan 4# — tan — * ^ . v 4(^ A) / = 1 + tan 4x tan — 120 119 _ * 120 239 119 Tt 1 = arctan 1+ 4x 4 arctan — — arctan 4 =— 1.

. =1 + — + . .Proof 49 1 3 1 3 5 1 1 +3 •2 J + 4 —5• r + 4 —6 7 • 2 ' n •= — 3 From "Elementary Trigonometry" and "Elementary Calculus" 2 2 sin j + cos y = \ cosy -£• = ^/l — sin jy Let sin j / = x. then jy = arcsin x — (sinj) == 1 dx cos y dy_ = =1 dx dy dx 1 cosjy 1 ^1 — sin y 1 Va-*2) By expansion: 1 x 3 4 5 6 n .e . 7(1-x2) 2 8 16 226 THE PLEASURES OF pi.x + — • x + .

Integrating both sides. 1 3 1 3-5 1 —=1+ r+ r+ ^+-3 3-2 3 4 5-25 4-6 7-2 7 Not-So-Easy Proofs 227 . and 1 2 1 1 2 3-2 3 1-3 1 2-4 5-25 1-3-5 1 2-4-6 7-2 7 n . arcsin(j) 1>~= 6 n 6 . x2 3 4 5 6 i . -\ 2 \-8 — x -\ 16 x \-ax J 1 x3 2 3 3 x5 8 5 5 x7 16 7 1 x3 1-3 x5 1-3-5 x7 arcsin x — x ^ 1 1 1 -•• 2 3 2-4 5 2-4-6 7 Let x = j .

Proof 50 n lfi n U 1 r L*( ' x ^ 0 r + H ~T 5 + ^ 5 ~ ..2 3 J — —+— arctan - = arctan — + arctan — 3 X 5 X 7 X arctan x = x 3 1 5 7 1— m arctan - K =— \\) 4 •""-(iMiHliKlf 4~lU + 3j 3U 3 + 3 3 J + 5U 5 + 3 5 228 THE PLEASURES OF pi. — 3 +— 4 iU 3. 3U 3 \ J 5l..e .

.tan I — 2 V2j 2 2 1 (A} u v4^i . ^ From "Elementary Trigonometry".2* 1 (A —cot — 2" \2n —ztan 2 \22 J 2 \2. U.-cotl —r 2 2 12 J 2 1 (y4 ^tan . 2 tan — \2 tany} = i ^ l-tan Inverting the equation — l-tan" cot^4 = 2 tan — A 1 >4 = —cot — .2 — 2 2 U 2 1 (A —cot — 1 0 -tan| 2 (X 2" 1.Proof 51 1 (^ l (n\ 1 (n\ — tan — + —tan — + — tan — H— 4 U 1 8 V 8^ 16 \\6) 1 =— 7t + ••• = - l ( n \ l i n ^ t a n ^ J+ ^ —rtan t a n l —r ^ J ^ + -t xa t ann . • — tan 1 (A 1.. 1 (A\ 1 ^^4 — tanl — | + —rtan| Not-So-Easy Proofs 229 .

\ cot A = cot (f) = tan (f) r ^ 1 ftf"! 1 (n tan — =—tan — + —tan — |+4 fff^ 1 ftf^ 1 (n — = tan — + —tan — +—tan — +• . 4 „ 1 A 1 A 1 A cotA = — tan 1—tan h —tan 1 2 2 4 4 8 8 .\2"y^l 2" and 230 THE PLEASURES OF pi. 1 A Let A = f.8J 4 ll6. I A sin — because as ?z —> oo A cos > cos 0 = 1 2" sin I — . (see footnote) n U J 2 {.e . 1 1 (n\ 1 f^ 1 (n^ — = — tan — + —tan — + — tan — H ^•4 U J 8 U J 16 U6j ? ^ .t a n ^ j + ^ t a n ^ j + ^tan +• \ A \ A A —cot— = cot— 2* 2" yl 2" 2" 1 j_ ^ 2" C 0 S l^ .Rearranging with n —> °°.

Appendix The Appendix contains elementary formulas used in this book without derivation. . These formulas can be found in most standard textbooks in mathematics.

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Whoever despises the high wisdom of mathematics nourishes himself on delusions Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) To explain all nature is too difficult for any one man or even for any one age Tis better to do a little with certainty and leave the rest for others that come after you Isaac Newton (1642-1727) Appendix 233 .

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60° 71 •• c o s - 1 Vf r on° ^ Vo fo" n cos 90 =cos— = 0 = = — 2 2 V4 Appendix 235 .Elementary Trigonometry sinO • 20° = sin7T = 0 = • n Vo 2 ! sin 30 =sin— = 2 6 sin 45 = sin— = 4 .60° • sin- = VT 2 = V2 2 n 3 2 sin 90 = sin— =1 = 2 2 V4 cos 0 : COS 71 = 1 = 41 2 '4 cos 30 = cos = V3 2 6 1 4 2~ 4 cos 4 5 = c o s — = 4 2 .

t a n v 4 tan B 2 tan A 1 .cos A tan ^4 + tan B l .tan 5 1 + tan A tan B tanU + 5) tan2v4 tan(^4-5) = THE PLEASURES OF pi.0 U 1 tan 30 = tan— =—:= 6 V3 tan 45 = tan— = 1 4 tan 60 = tan— = 3 1 tan 90 = tan-n sin (y4 ± B) = sin ^4 cos B ± cos ^4 sin B sin 2^4 sm A = 2 sin ^4 cos T4 „ A A = 2 sin— cos — 2 2 .. tan 71 .tan 2 A tan A .tanO 2A° .„» # V3 cos (J4 ± B) — cos ^4 cos B + sm A sin 5 cos 2^4 = cos A — sin A = 2 cos A.e .1 = 1-.2 sin A cos ^4 =2 2 A -1 cos 2 cos A + sin v4 = 1 cos ^4 1-sin 2 A sin y4 2 = 1 .

4 (1 + x) = 1 — X + X —X + X 1 1 i . 4 . 3 .A- 4 n(l + x) = x 2 + 3 2 3 + ••• 4 4 l n ( l .Elementary Series 1 1 . 2 3 .x ) = -[ x + —+ — + — + • 2 3 4 3 X X X 5 X 7 sin x = 1 h• 1! sin x _ 1 3! x 2 5! x 4 7! x6 x ~ 1 ! 3! 5! 7! sinx x x x = cos — cos — cos x 2 4 8 COS X = 1 X 2 X 1 4 X 6 1 2! sin x 2 A 4! /" 1- 6! 2 \ 2 "\ 2 1-(2x) (27T) 2\r V (3^) 2 (2x) 2 (2x) V 1-- A n arc sin x = x 1 x3 2 3 V (3^ 1-3 2-4 5 V* V 1 x5 5 7 1-3-5 2-4-6 x7 7 1 -• 3 1 arc tan x = x 3 5 7 1 . 2 . =1+X+X +X +X +• (1-x) 1 = l + 2x + 3x + 4 x 3 + 5 x +• u-*r 2 A 3 .

e . —(cos x) — -sin x dx d 1 1 (• \ —(tan x) — sec x = l + tan x dx 238 THE PLEASURES OF pi. dx k dx = In (1 + x) + c + x) d —(sin x) — cos x dx d .Elementary Calculus dx — (x ) = 2x dx — (e ) = e ax dx a i x\ x \cx • dx = ex + c x — • dx = In x + c J X d — ( n(l + x)) = —*(1 + *) .

I was once a bottle of ink Inky Dinky Thinky Inky (Infi-Nity in a) Bottle of Ink (With Apologies to) Edward Lear (1818-1888) Old Mathematicians never die They just "tend to infinity" Anonymous Appendix 239 .

the International Olympic Committee Centenary Medal. For his research. His career spans fundamental and applied research and development.About the Author Dr Y E O Adrian graduated from the University of Singapore with first class Honours in Chemistry in 1966. Cambridge and appointed Research Associate at Stanford University in 1970. academia. and did post-doctoral research at Stanford University. California. and the Honorary Fellowship of Christ's College. His public service includes philanthropy and sports administration. Among his numerous awards are the Charles Darwin Memorial Prize. he was elected Fellow of Christ's College. and followed up with a Master of Science degree in 1968. the Republic of Singapore's Distinguished Service Order. He received his Master of Arts and his Doctor of Philosophy degrees from Cambridge University in 1970. . and top appointments in politics and industry. Cambridge University.

The Pleasures HI I'i.worldscientific. whi< h is his major contri lution. offering a ver) diflerent perspective from other math hooks thai I have come at ross." Professor Shih Choon Fon "Dr Y E O Adrian .e and Other Interesting Numbers "wntien in .1 subje< 1 which has attra< ted the attention of many mathematicians throughout the ages. Dr Y I. Enticing ." Professor Li Cheng This is a mathematics book written specifically for the enjoyment of non-mathematicians and those who "hated math in school..com . (He hook reveals the beaut) and elegant e as well as theintellei tual challenges in mathematics. . This hook should appeal to the young from pre-teen to pre-university.The Pleasures ofPi. philosophers. The author covers beautiful infinite series beginning with those that a young child can understand to one that even Isaac Newton. Another interesting feature is the numerous quotations by famous writers." Professor ChamTao Soon Un " I his bonk nic el) i 'implements the standard texts on mathematk s. Gottfried Liebniz and the famous Bernoulli brothers could not sum. This hook is as light a reading as a math hook can he — a much appreciated breath of fresh air. children and parents. sc ientists and mathematk ians from Plato to Albert I instein.r lakes iis readers through a tantalizing mathematical adventure..nn\ entertaining." The book is organized into two sections: (I) Beauty for the Eye (shallow water for the non-swimmer). mis unusual DOOK nas me reel or a jourr interspersed with historical references and interest ng anecdotes. it makes for a good weekend read for both young and old. He has managed i<> point out very clearly the key features of each series. I hey provide a number of refreshing views of mathematics. O Adrian delivers the contenl in a dear. in addition to grown-ups with an interest in mathematics. lucid and delightful style. 6278 he ISBN 981-270-078-1 YEARS OF r u m ISHIMC www. Written like a stor) hook with . Anyone who lias a serious interest in infinite series will find his hook . and (II) A Feast for the Mind (slowly getting deeper for the more adventurous).in easy command ol English. and even grandparents.1 good reference. Using infinite series as a thread. I find his book really fascinating.1 warm ami graceful style.has written an interesting book on infinite series.

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