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Greenhouse Con Str 00 Taft u of t

Greenhouse Con Str 00 Taft u of t

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Published by: Aleksandra Cvetković Nedeljković on Jul 04, 2013
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TAFT Gardening. tf n R. Heating. Frames and Plant Pits L. Ventilating and Arrangement OP GREENHOUSES AND THB Construction of Hotbeds.Greenhouse Construction A COMPLETE MANUAL ON THE Building. UioUiffan Jgri cultural College BortimUtm and Landscape ILLU8TRA TED FEW YORK JIBANGE JUDD COMPANY 1911 .


the preparation of book was undertaken. and made a second edition necessary. and the results were given in The report Avas widely distributed. but that the sources of information were quite limited. When the houses had been used one tion. to apply for copies. At this the request of the publishers. and the attempt has been made to present the best methods of greenhouse construction. the same bulletin. all of which indicated. in which the construction was described. and the merits or demerits of the methods During the winter a test of the used were pointed out. In the summer of 1889 the writer erected two forc- ing houses for the Michigan State Experiment Station. asking advice upon various points in greenhouse construction and heating. and was copied in full by many horticultural and engineering periodicals. not only that there was a widespread desire for information on these subjects. in all parts of the country. From nearly every State in the Union came letters. Although with fifteen years' experience in greenhouse management and a large experience in greenhouse . and of the relative merits of steam and hot water for greenhouse heating. They were designed to be experimental in their construcand afforded means for a comparative test of various methods of building. a bulletin was issued. glazing and ventilating.PREFACE. which led hundreds of prospective builders of greenhouses. heating systems was made. while others gave it favorable notices. season.

from time to time. brought out. Louis. and. American Agriculturist. instead of being the author. The information here presented from a variety of has. From them. Mich. . during the past three years. Some of the firms that are engaged in the building and heating of greenhouses have been in business for many years. Agricultural College. come reliable sources. many valuable points have been received. of which has been in connection with the agricultural colleges of various states. American Florist. and has made a careful study of the methods employed. and other periodicals. either in personal interviews or by correspondence.IV PKEFACE. much useful information has been obtained. Many of the leading florists have submitted their ideas. and it is to their kindness that trations of the exteriors we and are indebted for the illus- interiors of some of the most noted houses to us in the country. the writer can only claim to be the editor of this collaborative book. all construction. and from the pages of the American Gardening. therefore. and have had a wide experience. II TAFT. between Boston and St. to it is of persons who have aided us in impossible tc render acknowledg- ment them individually. With the multitude its preparative. but to each and all are extended the hearty thanks of L. the writer has availed himself of various opportunities. where there was an excellent opportunity of testing the different wrinkles in construction that have been. Gardening. to visit the leading floral and vegetable growing establishments of more than a dozen large cities. too.

.. ... ...... . Greenhouse Benches. The Pitch of the Roof. ill 1 CHAPTER II. . . CHAPTER Vin....CONTENTS. Pipes and Piping.. CHAPTER XL CHAPTER XU. 90 «w CHAPTER XVL - . .... 21 CHAPTER V.. Combined Wood and Iron Construction.... Ventilators.. History of Greenhouses.... Construction of the Roof... .... Greenhouse Heating. Side-hill.. .. 6 16 CHAPTER CHAPTER III... CHAPTER XIII..... ... Iron Houses. .. Lean-to.... .. ... 76 85 CHAPTER XIV.... ............ Glazing— Methods and Materials. - . CHAPTER VII.. .. Greenhouse Walls. CHAPTER XV. . Preface.. CHAPTER IX... 24 33 40 44 CHAPTER VI....... . IV. Different Forms of Greenhouses— Even Span..... .. . . Location and Arrangement...... CHAPTER I.... 49 56 59 67 CHAPTER X.. Glass and Glazing. Paintlng and Shading.. Three-Quarter Span Houses..


and Amount of Piping,


Hot Water Heaters,
Steam Heating,

Comparative Merits of Steam and Hot Water,

Heating Small Conservatories,

Commercial Establishments,
Rose Houses,


...... ....... ........ ..... ......

















Lettuce Houses,
Propagating House,


........ ......*.
. .

.... ....









The Arrangement of Greenhouses,

• ,

Glass Structures for Amateurs,






1. 2.


7. 8.

English Greenhouse of 17th Century, First American Greenhouse, Model Greenhouse of 1835, . FVst Chicago Greenhouse, Even Span Greenhouse, Ridge and Furrow Houses, Lean-to House, Side-Hill Houses. Three-Quarter Span House, . Curvilinear House, Grout Wall, Grout and Wooden Wall, Brick Wall with Wooden Sill, Brick Wall with Iron Sill,

2 3 3 4

10 13
15 17 19 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 34

9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.




Wooden Wall, Wooden Wall with

Glass Side,

17. Iron Post and Sill, 18. Sash Bar with Drip Gutters, 19. Plain Sash Bar, . 20. 21, 22. Sash Bars for Butted Glass 23. Plain Sash Bar for Butted Glass, Greenhouse with Portable Roof 24. Roof 25. Elevation and Details for 26. Details for Iron and Roof, 27. Gas Pipe Purlin, 28. Iron Bracket for Roof, 29. Iron Posts and Braces, Helliwell Patent Glazing, 30. 31. 32. Paradigm Glazing, Galvanized Iron Sash Bars, . 33, 34. 35. Effect of Glass at Different Angles, 36. Short Span to the South Houses, 37. Glazing Points, 38. Paint Bulb, 39. Ives* Putty Machine, . . . 40. Gasser's Glazing Strip, 41. Methods of Glazing, 42. Arrangement of Ventilators, 43. Simple Ventilating Apparatus, . 44. Departure Ventilating Apparatus 45. Standard Ventilating Apparatus, . 46. Challenge Ventilating Machine, 47. Cheap Fixture, 48. Outside Shafting, 49. Benches, 50. Gas Pipe Bench Supports, 51. Mendenhall's Bench, . 52. Hill's Bench, . • 53. Angle Iron Bench, .

Wooden Wood

34 34 35 36 39

.... ....



42 42 43 46 47 48 50 54 61 64 65 65 66 68 70
71 72 73



74 75 77 78 79 80 81





82 83 84
100 106 107 108 109 110
111 112 115 116 116 117 119 120

54. Bench Tiles, 55. Wight's Patent Bench, 56. and Slate Bench, 57. The Slope of the Pipes, 58. Under Bench Piping (wide house), 59. Under Bench Piping (narrow house), 60. Overhead Piping (short span to the south house), 61. Overhead and Under Bench Piping, Piping for 62. Span House, 63. Piping for Forcing House, 64. Arrangement of the Coils, Hot Water Heater, 65. 6C. Hitchings' Heater, . 07. Weathered's Conical Heater, 68, 69, 70. Spence Heater, 71. Portable Heater, 72. Brick Set Heater, 73. Hitcliings' Base Burning Heater, 74. Interior of Steam Heated House, 75. Barnard Heater, Plan for a Small Establishment, 76. 77. Rose Houses (wood), 78. Extensive Rose Houses (iron), Ground Plan <>i Above, 79. 80. Section of Iron Rose House, 81. Interior of Rose House (iron), 82. Section of Rose House (wood), 83. Section of Lean-to Lettuce House, 84. Hotbed Frame, 85. Hotbed with Sash, 86. Hotbed Shutter, 87. Hotbed Yard, 88. Cold Pit, 89. Large Attached Conservatory, 90. Detached Conservatory, 91. Conservatory (section), 92. Interior of Conservatory, . 93. House of Pitcher Manda, Stove (section), 94. 95. Stove and Orchid House, Orchid House (section), 96. Forcing Grapery (section), 97. 98. Even S^>an Grapery (section), 99. Curvilinear Grapery (section), 100. Greenhouses of Michigan Agricultural College, Plan of Same, . 101. 102. Range of Houses by Weathered, 103. Range of Houses by Hitchings, 104. Ground Plan of Hitchings Range, 105. by Lord Co., 106. Ground Plan of Above, 107. Forcing House (section), 108. Rose House (section), . . 109. Veranda Conservatory, 110. Veranda Conservatory (section), 111. Small Attached Conservatory, 112. Cheap House, 113. Portable Conservatory, 114. Portable Conservatory (section), 115. Ground Plan of Basement Pit, 116. Details for Basement Pit, . . 117. Cellarway Conservatory, 118. Cellarway Conservatory (section),



Combined Combined Combined


Furmau Furman


127 130 140 144 145 147 148 150 151 155 159 100


102 104 107 109 170





173 174 175 177 179 180
181 180 187 188



& Burnham

190 191 192 193 194 lv4 196


197 199 200 202 203 204 205 20* aor


It is


that the old

Eomans were

able to secure

fresh fruits and vegetables, for their banquets, the year

round, by both retarding and accelerating their growth. As an indication of their skill, it is said that they even

They possessed no elaborate them in pits covered with large slabs of talc. Heat was obtained from decomposing manure, and by means of hot air flues. They are believed to have had peach and grape house*,
the cucumber.
structures for this purpose, but grew

and it is claimed by some, that hot water in bronze pipss was used to warm them. In modern times the structures have undergone a gradual development, from houses containing no glass whatever, to the forcing house of to-day, which is
nearly ninety-five per cent, of glass.

The first house of which we have any record, was built by Solomon de Cans, at Heidelberg, Germany, about 1G19. It was used to shelter over four hundred orange trees planted in the ground, during the winter, and consisted of wooden shutters placed over a span roof framework, so as to form the walls and roof. It was warmed by means of four large furnaces, and ventilated by opening small shutters in the sides and roof. In the spring the framework was taken down. This structure, iu size, coin*

and in 1815 the hemispherical form was first used. however. the one at Heidelberg. it was replaced by a structure of freestone. the green- houses often occupied the first floor of two-story structures. It was not until 171? that glass roofs were used. and of keeping it in repair. 1) used in the Apothecaries' Garden } FIG. for one hundred years. which evidently was quite similar to it had glass windows in the side walls the roof. Before the use of glass for the roof became common. pared well with the greenhouses of to-day. and from that time. On account of the expense of putting up and taking down this framework. was opaque. were made. as it was two hundred and eighty feet long and thirty-two feet wide. few improvements Chelsea. This had an opaque roof. The earlier greenhouses of this country were not unlike those used in Europe during the eighteenth cen- .2 Greenhouse construction. and the openings in the sides were closed with shutters during the winter. while the second floor was occupied by the gardener as a residence. In 1684 Ray describes a glass house (Fig. ENGLISH GREENHOUSE OF 17TH CENTURY. 1. During the first part of the present century consid- erahle attention avrs giv^n to the slope of the roof. except that . England. or was used as a storeroom.

Sweetser. erected in (Fig. be seen that glass was used in the entire soutli slope of Up FIG. The heat- \ng system with hot water. is a description of a model greenhouse. The hot . it From will Fig tion 3. in 1764. the American builders took up and utilized any improvements in construction and heating that were brought out in Europe. In Hovey's Magazine of Horticulture. Although the structures were less elaborate. 15. the roof and in the south wall. The north slope of model greenhouse of 1835. first 2. combined the flue the roof and the north wall were of wood. 3. FIRST AMERICAN GREENHOUSE. 1887. erected by Mr. for January American greenhouse New 1836. of Cambridgeport. in is which a cross sec- shown.HISTORY OF GREENHOUSES. 2). is the description and figure of what is supposed to be the FIG. tnry. it haying been York. 3 In the American Florist for Feb. for James Beekman. Mass.

in 1855. the end of the house. ried to one side until it was carand then ran under this to the other end of the house. naturally. water system consisted of an open copper kettle. Burnham. In 1883 thi firm of Loid & Burnham Co. FIRST CHICAGO GREENHOUSE.£ GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. was . and half of the south slope of the roof. or heater (/). In 1870 he removed to houses Irvington. under the firm name of Lord & Burnham. according to the American Florist. Previous to 1850 there were comparatively few greenhouses in the country. flue The reached the walk (e). Among the first to engage in the business was Frederic A. and in 1872 entered into partnership with m W. Lord. as early as 1836. 4. Thomas. FIG. 4. and yet. of which an illustration is shown in Fig. the return pipe was located on a level. entering the boiler near the bottom. a Mr. In the West. will be seen from the engraving. and. A. there were no extensive builders. were of wood. just beneath the flow. and then along the opposite side. who erected his first Buffalo. where it was connected with the chimney (d). greenhouse construction was more backward. although the entire north slope. to a large copper reservoir (e) . the three-quarter span houses had even then come into use. from the top of which a four-inch copper pipe passed across. erected one in ChiAs cago.

their better houses being put up with iron sills. purlins. They also use the wooden except in firms controlling sash bars and putty glazing. In this country the winters are much more severe. puttyless glazing systems have been but little large The principal conservatories. were. for sash bars. W. each of whom have been in business for some ten years. added departments for greenhouse construction. their use is not regarded with favor by commercial florists. in the curvilinear style. which. the three first mentioned firms are much alike. Moninger.. John C.HISTOKY OF GREENHOUSES. of Chicago. but Evelyn tells us that the Chel- . with this system. We have no description of the furnaces used by Dr. as its England for eighty permanency is there thought to more than counterbalance the extra expense. while the sash bars are of cypress. and. and have erected a number of large establishments. in a slightly modified form. Caus. in his orangery. the conditions being less favorable for iron roofs.. etc. is still used by them for Co. of Philadelphia and Chicago. and A. drip and leakage. has been quite general in years. both of New York City. with or without a steel core. is one of the best known buildThe systems of construction used by ers in the West. loss of heat. although many of their commercial establishments have no iron in their construction. who for many years had been engaged in greenhouse heating. The use of iron for the rafters and sash bars of fixed roofs. Weathered's Sons. large conservatories. Nearly every large city has one or more dealers in structural iron work. posts. who have taken up greenhouse construction. 5 The earlier houses erected by this firm incorporated. The used. Most of them use galvanized iron. for the most part. breakage of glass. them are the Plenty Horticultural "Works of New York City. In 1888 the firms of Hitchings & and of Thos. rafters. as compared with wooden supports. Edgecomb Rendle & Co.

each one of them is particularly adapted for the growing of certain plants. during the last few years.6 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. and as they each have their special advantages and disadvantages. etc. "While the various glass structures are generally distinguished according to their uses. in the last quarter of the eighteenth century. palm houses. they should have careful consideration. as lean-to. and this developed into Although the greenhouse flue. in turn. The form of glass structure which has come to be known as the span roof is. and curvilinear houses. in large plants. three-quarter span. have "two-third"' and "threeThe typical "even span" house . but was superseded by hot water. been crowded out. a chimney was carried through the greenhouse. by steam." as the lean-to may be considered a "half span" house. by an open charcoal fire built Later on. for twenty years.. for our present pur- pose ers' it will be well to first consider them from the build- standpoint. which. more properly. when. stove houses. it was in high favor. While any of these forms of houses may be used for all purposes. SPAN ROOF HOUSES. sea greenhouse was heated in a hole in the ground. graperies. the "even epan. CHAPTER II. span roof. while we also quarter span" houses. has. DIFFERENT FORMS OF GREENHOUSES. it was not much used until about 1816. These names have been applied from the various shapes that may be given to the houses. steam was tried for heating greenhouses. as rose houses. which is still in use.

and are arranged at the same angle. The amount of ventilation desirable will. grown Although less simple in construction than the lean-to. at two rows of ventilating sash. if three rows are used. least. in a house with walls four feet high. . 5). may be located at the ridge and the others in the side walls. and eleven feet high. and are much more frequently constructed for is erected. is 7 generally from nine to twelve. about ten feet above the walk. which will bring the ridge. they have a far greater variety of uses. EVEN SPAN GREENHOUSES. be determined largely by the plants to be in the house. In a house of this size. it is desirable to have. 5. nearly all the houses 1885. same extent. when slopes of the roof are of the it The two has a slope of thirty-five degrees. usually between thirty and thirty-five degrees. and the roof at an angle of thirty degrees. or. In commercial fact. in a house twenty feet wide. purposes. prior to were of what known as the even span style (Fig. with side walls from four to high. one FIG. of course.DIFFERENT FOBMS OF GREENHOUSES. or from eighteen to five feet twenty feet wide. which may be on either side of the ridge.

provides for a perfect distribution of the rays of light aud heat upon all sides of the plants. and are but little obstructed by the sash bars while. to the construction of the first forms of two-third and three-quarter is span houses. is One of the special advantages of these houses that they may may be run at almost any direction that the location necessitate. this form is as good as can be secured. so far as the slope of the roof . as the north side could be used for ferns. although for forcing houses the three-quarter span is preferable. and. The beneficial effects. with the same pitch. were the houses running north and south. as. on both sides of the houses. the benches can be placed at the same height. more than half the rays would be cut off between eleven and one o'clock. The fact that the north third of the house is of little value for forcing purposes. and the plants will still be near the glass. which do fully as well in partial . shade. or any other kind of a house. but better than any other direction. For many purposes the east and west arrangement. this arrangement is preferable for them. with one side facing the south. the ridge will be much higher. on the side towards the sun. into full sunshine during a part of the day. The even span houses are usually run north and south. which. as this not only brings the plants. With this form of roof. or for plants at rest. whiie the other side will have much less sun than were it in a house running north and south. this might not be objectionable. violets. in part. led. If designed as growing houses. during the four hours of the day when the sun's rays are most powerful.J GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. they strike at right angles to the glass. is preferable. while in other forms of roof. For ordinary growing houses for a commercial florist. will be confined to about two-thirds of the house. however. as this part of the day is particularly valuable in the forcing house.

like the others. especially as eighteen inches. at least. one-half feet in width. nor more than twenty. did not differ from the even span. runs east and west.DIFFERENT FORMS OF GREENHOUSES. In the lean-to all on the north side. to twenty-four feet The even span houses may vary outside. especially if it. walk. is preferable. three-quarter sj)an house. in caring for the houses. 59). in the even span. in com- mercial growing houses. feet wide there will be room for two tables. when the houses are not less than eighteen feet. the greatest economy of space and comfort. will be obtained. the glass area on the north side will only be one-half as great as in the from nine For the narrow houses only one walk. may be as much as twenty-four feet. each three and in width. Everything else being equal. situated in the center. the only was run up at a point which cut off the north third or fourth of the house. sixteen feet. When two walks are used. outside measurement. three feet and six inches will be . but twelve feet would be the extreme width that could be used with comfort. will not be too great. the loss of heat from a span roof house will be somewhat greater than from either a lean-to. with a bench on When the walk is two each side (See Fig. to four feet for the beds. on account of its having a difference being that the back wall greater area of glass there is no glass at upon its north side. and stances. While houses are often built with walks as narrow crops. which will be as wide as will probably be used under any circumA medium width. it is better to allow two feet. 9 concerned. the houses would need to be increased to a width of. and in private houses a width of two and one-half feet for walks. for some purposes. or uneven span house. however. while. For the side benches. when a house with a siugle walk is to be used for most greenhouse if they are grown in pots. and. is used. if These widths may be increased and two feet six inches for the necessary.


by those on either side. when built thus close together.RIDGE AND FURROW HOUSES. however. the disadvantages of the ridge and furrow is the shading of the center houses dur- ing the morning and afternoon. tnat when. in space. overlooked. or the tbree-cpiartcr span on a sidehill). This should. is due to the fact that there will be only onefifth as much exposed wall surface. The principal gain is due to the fact. 11 found a convenient width. instead of the ten well-built walls that would be necessary were the houses built Another advantage. . 6. be distinguished from the ridge and furrow form used in England by Sir Joseph Paxton and others. often narrow as six feet. only six walls will be required. especially in the case of wide. and four of these can be of light. although four feet is often If the greatest economy of space and convenience of handling the plants is sought. cheap construction. say five. be about seven feet in width. cold winds that come from There will also be a considerable savins that direction. high houses. and that. which should not be separately. by which. The even span form 01 roof has one advantage that by no other (except by the short span to the possessed is south. and farrows run up the main slope of the roof. as it is commonly called. one house on each side will protect the others from the high. and when large plants are to be grown. in which the roof was broken up into a great number of ridges. which will be worth considerable. however. as they admit of the ridge and furrow construction. They are. Among style of houses. the width of the house may be increased to take in a bench ten or eleven feet in width as made EIDGE AND FURROW HOUSES. which will make a high roof desirable. houses are built in this way. especially in cities. as shown in Fig. the center bench should used.

lettuce. with loner houses. etc. and. the lean-to . this form of construction. unless other speeial reasons might In sections where the snowfall is heavy. Of course. for the ordinary florist. THE LEAN-TO HOUSE. better results will be if obtained from wide houses. considered. with houses twelve feet wide.12 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. as the snow cannot slide from the roof. any plants can be them. for others it is quite necessary. growing of small bedding plants. but when the erection of the extra walls. at least. heating. rather than is grown in the house. It may be laid down as a rule that. and whether crops are to be selected that are adapted to the houses. unless they are narrow. the gutexist. heliotrope. grown roses. or houses are to be erected that arc to be suited to the growing of certain crops. also the fact that when houses are built in this way. and only built with three houses in a section. and the increase in fuel and land are considered. much light and heat is shut off . should be erected upon this plan. of a width of twenty feet or less. in particularly as the amount of air enclosed is greater in proportion to the amount of exposed glass surface. ble for some crops. carnations. For the this will be a serious objection to the plan. but a wider house seems preferable for carnations. even span houses. will be quite satisfactory. mignonette. and for most forcing crops. and drafts of air prevented. and the expense for fuel. side light and side ventilaWhile this is not even desiration cannot be secured.. When the crops it is desirable that the first cost shall be as if small as possible. fifteen feet between them. they are built with inter- vals of. this should be understood. and for propagating houses. on which account the temperature can be easier regulated. aside from the economy of erection. to allow of the snow being thrown over the roofs of the side houses. ters will become filled.

An idea of the shape of the house. the plants get little of no direct sunlight . coming all from the south side. can be obtained from Fig. form. be found of value. house can be built against the or against a steep sidehill. haps. as affecting the cost of and heating. the lean-to construction answers very well. this these will be additional reasons. more and greater objections than any On* serious fault is that for three hours in the forenoon. other. On the other hand. for using form of construction. As grape or peach houses. lean-to hodse (Cross Section). thus giving the plants an uneven appearance. another objection is that the light that they do get. where one has a wall that can be . and the reason for the name. is unequally distributed upon the plants. and.THE LEAN-TO HOUSE. this shape for a greenhouse has. 7. particularly will 13 if the structure is to oe a small one. 7. and the leaves are all turned in that direction. per- fig. If the south wall of erection a building. an^ an equal period in the afternoon.

the GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. built with a wall As a rule. and cutting off six and one-half feet on the north side. lean-to houses are to six feet high. 83). and they give excellent satisfaction.receive under the same headings. . A good idea of the form of this house can five to sixty degrees.. no further consideration SIDEHILL HOUSES. with a narrow ventilator connecting the top with the back wall. use wide houses constructed on the lean-to plan (See Fig. on one side. they will . One of the simplest ways of building one is to place it against the north wall of a three-quarter span house. expense for building and heating will be with its roof sloping to the north. concerned. 14 utilized. For the forcing of vegetables. row leaji-to of this kind. with a low high enough to allow of bottom ventilation. the growers of lettuce at Arlington. from which the side sash rises at an angle of from fortywall. but a span roof house is to be preferred. Mass. just a height of eight or nine feet. very small. thus forming. quite satisfactory results can be obtained from a lean-to. A lean-to. and vicinity. which combines its advantages with those of the three-quarter span house. from four and with a roof of a width in proportion to the width of the house but they are sometimes built quite narrow. what is known as a north side propagating house (See Fig Gl). to The principal use of a narbe obtained from Fig. 97. and on the other a three-quarter span forcing house As a small house for an amateur. answers very well as a propagating house.. and as distinct houses. or by building an even span house twenty-five feet wide. so far as the building of these houses will be treated is . would be as a cold grape or peach house. and. A modified form of lean-to. In a general way. the construction cf a lean-to house would be the same as of half of a span roof house.

The south wall is built the same as for any greenhouse. g. in the ground. is 15 sometimes known as the sidehill house. posts should be placed FIG. Strong. 8. of Massachusetts. and this will answer for the south gutter of the adjoining house. and. as should the sides of the gutters. against a ridge. for the north wall. C. A good idea of the construction of the houses can be obtained from Fig. The sash bars should be laid at the same angle as the slope of the hill. and. and was well pleased with it. as at a. a gutter should be placed upon them. supported by braces about two by four inches. Other smaller houses have since been erected. from ten to twenty-five feet. have given excellent satisfaction. which are placed at intervals of two and one-half is The ridge . erected a house of this kind at Brighton. of for a structure fifteen feet wide. for vegetable forcing. 8. They should be located upon a hillside which has a slope towards the south of about twenty-five degrees. Each section should consist of a lean-to structure any desired width. e.SIDEH1LL HOUSES. "W. which should be about two by four inches. SIDEHILL HOUSES [Section).

shown at shown h. As previously stated. THREE-QUARTER SPAX HOUSES. The benches may be arranged as is most convenient. much the same way as in the open and thousands of acres are thus covered with glass. and vegetables of in all kinds are grown out of season. and the south pitch of the roof will take in more of the light north wall less loss of and heat house. rays. houses of this form are very commonly of is which at d. glass. In Europe. but should be so distributed that the lower houses will have their share of the heat. The ventilators. as is greenhouse coNSTRUcTrotf. The three-quarter span houses may . the construction and will be found convenient to walk upon in removing the snow and making repairs. otherwise they could be of glass. are of wood. so that the plants will be nearer the The as for same is about the an even span. but the shape of the roof has been somewhat modified. In the lean-to the heat tends to rise into the angle of the roof. the first form of three-quarter span house was the same as three-quarters of an even span structure. used. than would be the case with a span roof lean-to house with the peak of the roof cut be likened to a off.19 feet. the method shown in Fig. The heating pipes may be arranged along the sides of the walks. Hundreds and sometimes more air. the profits of a quarter of an acre are than from the best hundred acres used in general farming. 8 being an excellent one. but owing to the fact that the cost of building these houses is from six to eight feet high. there will be heat from the north side of the roof. CHAPTER III. if preferred.

In Fig. The south pitch of the roof 2 . the three-quarter . and the north one from six to eight feet. and hence this. and the north slope of the roof allows the light to fall on the plants from all sides. and the angle at which the glass is arranged is that which will be nearest at right angles to the sun's rays during the winter months. the slope and length of the sash bars. As a general rule. but in the threeis quarter and even span houses there less trouble from The three-quarter <\)[\n houses always run east and west.THREE-QUARTER SPAN" HOUSES. For adapting it to different crops. and of all other plants that need a max- imum amount of light for their development. is 17 not evenly distributed. quarter span be seen the usual form of forcing house of the three* style. and the width and height of the benches. 9 PIG. This form of house is particularly adapted to the forcing of roses. It is the south slope that is principally relied upon to trap the light and heat of the sun. can be varied at pleasure. Bpan houses are from sixteen to twenty feet wide the south wall is from four to five feet high. so that the growth of the plants will be stronger and more symmetrical. will THREE-QUARTER SPAS' HOUSE (Section). 9. the height of the walls.

after all. and foi this pur]30se the width is sometimes increased to thirty* five feet. To many persons the curve is a "line of beauty. the framework for a curvilinear house is considerably more than for a straight roofed house. 9. as shown in Fig. but the result of the curved sash bars is to decrease the angle at which the rays strike a majority of the panes. from twenty-six to thirty-five degrees. a slope to the south. so that. old style of curved roof had the sash bars leaving the plate in nearly a vertical direction. the curve in the lower third of the roof. much more than for straight glass. is lesa all times of the day. is less cost of the Whatever the material used. secured. CURVILINEAR ROOFS. with This style of a narrow walk between the two parts. some of the glass will be at right angles to the sun's rays. The side benches are each about three feet wide. of course. or double. as shown in Fig. comparatively short panes must be used. Ordinary sheet glass can. rather than a benefit. the curvilinear The construction is an injury. upper half of the roof approached the horizontal. 10. of course. especially upon the old form of roof. especially The present form of curvilinear during the winter. glass bent to the proper angle the cost will be is used. with the idea that. be used upon curvilinear roofs. but." and a curvilinear house has a more ornate and finished .18 varies GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. If. roof has a more regular curve. and thp north one from thirty-five to sixty-five degrees. and made a very small angle with the sun's rays. and. at This. glazing the roof. for objectionable. In this construction the sash bars are more or curved. and with most of the As a result. 63). and are placed about one and one-half feet below th& The center bench may be single (Fig. house is also largely used for lettuce forcing. with plates.


the curved roofs are no longer in favor. •Fawkes. .20 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. is struction can be used in lean-to. narrow houses. even span. be introduced to obtain an architectural result. but for ordinary growing purposes. desirable for large conservatories. " As a result of this belief. or in molding the lines of a large winter garden or magnificent palm house. and few such are being erected to-day. we may consider curvilinear roofs not so suitable as those composed of straight lines. curvilinear This form of roof is also quite houses have their place.* who says. but the general verdict seems to be expressed by a writer. appearance than one with straight sash bars and. and where the houses would be an ornamental feature of the landscape. or three- quarter span houses. "Taken as a whole. 54. although a roof made it with straight sash bars can be so broken up as to relieve The curvilinear conof any barn-like appearance. where the increased cost is not considered an objection. but for the reasons given not particularly desirable in any form of low. P. in fact. it is generally admitted that better plants can be grown in houses with straight sash bars. circular work may. in private and public parks. Horticultural Buildings. and. Some twenty years ago the curved construction was in very common use in England. in a few exceptional instances.

there will be no serious objection to having the houses ranged. with its north end against the other structure. as there the sun can get in extra hours at both ends of the day. if it is at the top of a south and westerly slope. and an even span house should. will have much 21 . particularly for the boiler room. In arranging a group of houses. For sidchill houses a decided slope is necessary. the aspect drainage can be secured. in regular tiers. In case the land on the most available site is not level.. run north and south. while. if possible. CHAPTER IV. and the shape of the roofs. In locating the houses. is not objectionable. to carry off the water from the gutters. "When erected in connection with some other buildand slope cannot always be regulated but. a level spot is not objectionable . the better. in this case. should be the first desideratum. means of thorough drainage. if thorough ing. one above the other. in case it all can be done without too great expense. it should be graded. LOCATION AXD ARRANGEMENT. For a lean-to or a three-quarter span house the wall or building against which they are erected should run east and west. greenhouses for most purposes should be on the south side. so that no rays from either east or west will be cut off. while it is preferable that each house should be practically level. For the location of detached houses. the width and height of the different structures. if the land selected cannot be readily graded so as to bring all of the houses upon the same level. A slope of perhaps one or two inches in fifty feet. and.

the salesroom will be and visitors. and the arrangements fur preserving the flowers supplies. a furrow arranged in ridge and The lean-to fifteen feet between the houses is desirable. and everything in attractive to customers its place. with a place for every- thing. Fig. and this will increase tbe trade. driving between them with a horse and cart. and if there is a large retail trade at the greenhouse. the baskets and similar supplies in glass cases. and should be fitted up with counter. and three-quarter span houses may be placed in parallel lines running east and west. or. cannot fail to attract visitors. in the performance of the greenhouse located. will soon repay all expense. with the . In retail establishments. In locating the various workrooms for a large establishment.22 to do in GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. if desirable. some attempt at decoration. they should be as near together as is possible. We believe the above equipment to be almost a necessity in a properly conducted business. of twelve or space style. both in the salesroom. and for convenience and economy in heating and operating the The convenience of arrangement work. to prevent side ventilation. Unless determining their exact location. refrigerator and other necessary furniture. TG. assists. in fact. when the salesroom it is in connection with the greenhouse. in order to save land. houses. well lighted. and in commercial establishments the packingroom should be so situated as to facilitate getting uj3 the orders. while its convenience. and the even span houses may run in either direction. and in one house to be used in and whole or in part as a showroom. with the wire designs upon wall hooks. should be conveniently located for the customers. Besides having them so located as not to shade one another. The potting and workrooms should be centrally and in every way convenient for the work. glass show cases. ic is well to have them in the center. to a won- derful extent. If properly arranged.

houses running out from both sides, east and west.



arrangement for the heating plant is also desirable thus, rather than have the boiler room at one end Df a long range of houses, the boiler house could be
placed in the center, and houses of half the length arranged on each side, and better results obtained. A very convenient arrangement for the heating plant is hown in an engraving of F. E. Pierson's range of rose
nouses, in

Chapter Twenty-two, in which four houses,

each one hundred and fifty feet long, are supplied from a boiler house so located that the extreme ends of the houses are but little more than one hundred and fifty

awcy, instead of being over three hundred feet, as would be the case were the boilers located at the end of the range. Of course, with houses of one hundred to one hundred and fifty feet, such an arrangement would not be desirable. In many establishments it would be convenient to widen the connecting passage-way, and use it for potting, packing and like purposes. For a rose forcing house, the potting and packing rooms need not be as large nor as centrally located as for an ordinary commercial establishment. In large private establishments, the palm house is generally the central figure, around which the others are grouped. For a small range the one shown in Fig. 100 is well planned, while that in Fig. 106 has as many merits as a large one.



In erecting greenhouses, too




ally paid to the construction of the walls.

Not only

should their durability be secured, but the heaving by the frost, and the lateral pressure of the roof, should be guarded against. Owing to a lack of foresight regarding some of these points, one seldom sees a greenhouse with
five years'

service that is in

a satisfactory condition.

Greenhouse walls are constructed of wood, brick, stone or grout, or of a combination of two of these materials. Each of these methods of construction has its advocates, but each of them has some disadvantages.

The use
walls, is very


of stone or grout (cement, sand

and cobble-

stones), for the construction of the foundation of brick

common, and, as they make a durable wall, would, no doubt, be largely used for the walls up to the plates, were it not that they are rapid conductors of In small greenhouses, where the grade can be heat. carried up to the plate, so that none of the wall is exposed to the outside air, they make excellent walls. The excavation should be to a depth of three feet below the proposed outside grade level, and of a width to admit of a fifteen or eighteen inch footing course. This should occupy the trench up to the level of the interior of the house, at any rate, and even if brick 01 other material is used for the upper part of the wall,

may extend

to the level of the

ground outside, which





often from two to five feet above that of the interior. Stone conducts heat quite rapidly, and for that reason
will not be desirable as a wall above ground, unless


This objection does not hold to the same extent with grout, and where small stones can be readily obtained, it makes a cheap and very durable wall. Foi a house not over twenty-five feet wide, and when less than five feet in height, a wall of grout twelve inches thick will answer. This should rest on an eighteen inch
footing course of the same material.

very thick.






from two to four inches in diameter, gravel, and water lime, of Louisville
or a similar brand.

In making the wall, a box of the is made by driving stakes along the line of the wall, on each side, and setting up twelve inch pi auks for the sides of the box. In
desired width
this a layer of stones



should be packed in carefully, and kept, at least, one-half inch away from the planks. The cement is then prepared by thoroughly mixing one part with three parts of gravel, and then adding water enough to thorFIG. 11. oughly moisten it. The best results GKOUT WALL. are obtained, if it is of about the same consistency as ordinary lime mortar. The water should not be added until the cement has been mixed with the


layer of

cement from two

to three inches

thick, over the stones, will be sufficient

this should be

tamped down, filling all of the space between the stones. Another layer of stones and cement can then be added, and the process repeated until the box is filled,



requiring about three layers.

One wall of the house can be built at a time, although if planks are at hand it will be well to allow one wall to set while a course is being put in on anotner. After the grout has been setting for five or six hours, the planks can be raised their own width, and the box will thus be prepared for another In this way a wall of any desired height can be course.


will be

found quite

durable and in every way satisfac-

The appearance of the wall can be improved if, after the last course has been put on, the exposed surface is given a thin coat If of Portland cement mortar. desired, the surface can be laid off into squares, resembling blocks of The appearance of a sandstone. wall built entirely of grout is

shown in Fig. 11, while Fig. 12 shows a wall half grout and half

Unless the very best materials
arc used in their construction, the

FIG. 12.

greenhouse walls constructed of brick will be comparatively short-

grout and lived, as the combined action of "wooden wall. moisture and frost will disintecause the outer tier of bricks to and grate the mortar, crumble. Hard burned bricks should be selected, and the best Louisville, or, better yet, Portland cement mortar,

should be used.

"Whatever the thickness of the

wall, there should be, at least, one air space, to prevent

radiation of heat.

This will also tend to render the wall
capillary passage of the

more durable, by preventing the

except on the back side three - quarter span where a length of ten or twelve feet will be necessary. once in eight feet will strengthen the plates from spreading. and will not only fill up the hole around with grout. inside. hold the post firmly in place. and every three or four bricks along the walls. as used with an iron sill. and unless the ground is it is quite firm and solid. to six by high walls and wide houses. the posts used should be of some durable material. such as red cedar. WOODEN" WALLS. or. but will . vary from four by four inches for low walls six inches for and narrow houses. or if the wall is high. will allow of their being set three feet in the ground for the front wall. making a nine-inch wall. one-half. A post and prevent the bricks on the wall. In their erection. with a one -inch airspace. two tiers of brick. well to place a flat stone t under This it the post. The of posts should be seven to eight feet in length. For heavy or wide structures. the rear one. The posts should be placed in a straight about four feet apart. and the size should. 14 shows the construction of such a wall. Fig. a third tier of Fig. locust or cypress. and four feet for houses. 27 For all low walls. these should be firmly tied together every fourth course vertically. which BRICK wall w^ith w °oden sill. two-thirds the height of the will serve to strengthen it.WOODEN WALLS. wall. perhaps. line. moisture. Probably nine-tenths of the present greenhouses are constructed with what might be called post and board walls. 13. will answer.

14. fair upon the outside. novelty or patent siding will be found preferable to ordi(Fig. The for posts should then be sheathed. but it should. A coat of coal tar would be better than the petroleum. have a tendency to preserve it. BRICK WALL WITH IRON SILL. The durability of the posts can also be increased by charring the lower end. avoiding all For the outer covering the brands that contain tar.28 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION". although any kind of culled lumber will answer pay to cover the sheathing 15). . with some kind of heavy building paper. desirable. For rose and stove houses it may pay. as it will be injurious to the plants. and then soaking it in crude petroleum. is which purpose a grade of matched lumber FIG. It will always nary clapboards. never be used about a greenhouse.

but. that will exclude mice . should be cut . it was found that the packing absorbed moisture and caused a rapid decay of the wall. but. as in Fig. Another method Fig. on the top of the walls. although roof-water. 16. if a gutter is desired for catching the it. may be nailed to as shown is in Fig. so that they can be opened if found necessary (Fig. it is well to have a row of sash in each of the side walls (Fig. 15. a part of wooden wall. This course was recommended for many years. the posts. otherwise. PLATES AXD GUTTERS. no. 12. The wall plates may be placed level. nently. of arranging the gutter is shown off at in "Whichever method chosen. In ceiling up the inside of the posts.. the enclosed space may become a harboring place for them. them on hinges. all where wooden walls are used. enough. a row 16).should be placed in both sides. strips 12. 50). 29 up the posts on the inside done it will be best not to pack the enclosed space with sawdust or similar material. at least. in practice. two-inch lumber is heavy angle as the roof. to ceil but if this is . that require the bed to be situated at least two feet below the plate. and thus prove a greater injury than benefit. In narrow houses they may be fastened permain exposed localities. PLATES AND GUTTERS. it will be advisable to have. along the south side will answer. When used for growing roses and other tall plants. although one on the north side will be of advantage in north and south houses the sash . or they may be at the same As a rule. If houses run east and west. tight joints should be made. if the houses are wide.

to preinto. wooden exposed surface is greatly reduced. If there is danger of lateral pressure. The shown way of form illustrated in Fig. 12). of arranging the gutter. 16. 12 will be a cheap and satisfac- method is. with studding of The sides and top the same size. 15 perhaps. to the chis a preferred "post and board" wall.30 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. extending to the outside grade line. and where side ventilation is not needed. or even three feet of the wall below this level. the sills should be securely anchored to the foundation. can be arranged in the same manner as when posts are used (Fig. or vent the water from working back down the wall. 16 is the neatest and best. can be used tory when one does not desire the latter. necessitating the of a wooden wall of the same height above. is necessary. . placed two feet apart. without the gutter. Iu this way the erection fig. secured. This form of wall is principally desirable for narrow houses. In some cases a wooden wall built in exactly the same way is as the wall of a dwelling house. wall with glass and a durable and warm wall will be side. and the plate securely fastened in place. and the same form of plate. brick or grout. a plate when a gutter is not "When the under side of the plate is level there should be a small groove near each edge. the cheapest and easiest making desired. The arrangement shown in Fig. and an excellent plan is to have two. For foundation of stone. the same angle. The sill for this wall should be two by four-inch scantling. while that in Fig. with a corresponding excavation for the house.

The upper end sill. in the con- struction of a range of rose houses for F. fig. 17. 9. at (For Scarborough. illustrated in Fig. Pierson. E. in the construction of commercial many of the more enterprising in florists are employing iron and steel such portions of the house as do not form a part of the exterior. 31 Although wood IRON POSTS AND SILLS. bent at the gutterline. The wall may be constructed in various ways. views and sections of these houses see Figs. One best of the simplest and arrangements of this kind was used by Lord & IV—^ r.. and the hole was filled up with grout. by means of an iron bracket. resting on a iron post and lation. Y. companion from In some same size of the rafters is used. to which the rafters are fastened by means of angle brackets. so that when the lower form the would be at end was vertical. with side ventiits of the rafter was securely bolted to cases an iron ridge of the the other side. one of which.IRON" POSTS AND SILLS.) The posts and rafters on each side were made from one piece of four by one-half inch bar iron. purlins and ridge. N. to post. in an excavation three feet deep. is now almost universally used houses. The post end was placed flat stone. the other the proper angle for the rafter. will answer well for rose .|'-Q Burnham Co. particularly for posts. sills. 78 and 79.

The rafter is then bolted to the top of the wall post by means of an ornamental iron bracket. could be used. 17). one of the forms of iron posts. Fig. It consists of a cast iron post base below ground. although the glass will generally be It will be noticed that the may found desirable. the wall can oe kept in repair for a long series of years at a small still support the superstructure.32 houses. with a brick or masonry wall. If desired. is small iron lugs (Fig. Even if the wooden wall does decay. at the bottom will exoense. forming a stiff and firm framework. . and if this is so put in that it can be easily taken out and renewed. the entire wall heneath the plate be of wood. 17. to which the lower end of the rafters is fastened by iron lugs. is used (a similar sill of iron can also be used upon the top of a wooden post if desired). GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION". As a second choice. tions of the wall are bolted to the posts wooden porby means of Co. with a wall of wood. is the best form of construction now in use. the board decay first. an iron sill. rafters and purlins will still remain. In the more elaborate conservatories. the posts. The form of post used by Hitchings & rather more elaborate and ornamental than the above. to which the T iron wall post is bolted. which would This As a rule. it will be found most economical in the end. and when ready capital is at hand for the erection of good houses.

and the sash bars can be made rather smaller on that account. according to the distance between the purlins. CONSTRUCTION OF THE ROOF. 19. however. Some florists. the roof sash bars should be from one and one-eighth by two inches to one and one-fourth by two and one-half inches. The tion is portion of the house to which the most atten- paid. is shown at Fig. and methods of glazing. and to prevent drip as best modern houses are identical in size those in use thirty years ago. is Cypress more durable than white pine and much more so if they are also stronger and stiffer than white pine. ters as possible. For use with lapped glass. the best form of sash bar. The much southern cypress. is When glass from fourteen to eighteen inches wide used. will be found quite durable. prefer not to have them. and yet the old wooden sash bar is still preferred by the commercial florist. rather is generally preferred. there will be more or less condensed moisture on the under side of the glass. Ordinary white pine makes a good sasn bar. a good form is shown in Fig. The rabbets for the glass 3 33 . care. however. while. it is well to have them with drip guton each side. It 19 under the best of neglected. and. if drip gutters are wanted.CHAPTER VI. 18. it kept well painted. if the drip gutters are not desired. are the strips supporting the glass. while the sash bars in some of the and shape with Although the glazing should be so tight that no water can pass through into the house. There are dozens of patent sash bars. straight grained.

The vertical sash bars for the sides and ends should be about one and one-eighth by one and ^. however. 20. The patterns shown in and 22 are. SASH BAR WITH drip gutters {Section). whether used with or without glazing strips. fig. should be about half an inch deep and five-sixteenths of an inch wide. preferable for this kind The sash bars (1) there shown are practically and the difference lies principally in the form of . 18 Figs. either of the above forms -*^P!%!£5>w fig. the rabbet being of the same size For butted glass. and 19) may be used. sash bars for butted glass. TIG. BAB as for the roof sash bars. IS. PLAIN SASH {Section). alike. 21. 21 of glazing. seven-eighths inches.34 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION 1 ". (Figs. 10. 22.c_^-i» FIG. pig. 20.

PORTABLE ROOF. in- cluding gutters. similar to hotbed sash. 20 and 21 being. etc. bottom. and fur- nish everything required in the construction. As a rule. with two by six inch rafters the top. or sides. 23 is shown a form of sash haps. PLAIN SASH BAR F0R TED GLASS {Section).PORTABLE ROOF. some of the sash may be hinged. There are several large concerns who deal in cy- press. ventilating sash. the lumber working factories do not have machinery for working (sticking) the drip grooves. ridge. 35 the caps (2). doors. plates. one sash on each side will cover it. those shown in Figs. all cut ready to FIG - zs " ' - put together. To secure ventilation. a framework and a heavy ridge board (Fig. for use with butted glass. bar without drip gutters. with plans that will enable any carpenter to put it together. perIn Fig. rafters. and thus make a tight roof. from three by six to four by eight feet in size. either at old plan of construction is to An make for the roof. 24). preferable. sash bars. The sashes may be screwed to the plate and ridge. If the house is narrow. or they may be provided with . as he can secure his lumber of standard shapes and sizes. This will be a great help to the small florist. The roof is covered with movable sash. and it will be necessary to obtain them from some firm dealing in green- house material.

the space between the top of the sash and the ridge may be covered with a smaller sash. as in growing hybrid perpetual roses. This form of a roof is desirable when the houses are a temporary nature. 24. the lower edge of which laps down upon the large "Where two rows of sash are used in this sish beneath. this trouble can. for houses in which crops are forced during a part of the As winter only. and the others can be screwed down. to a certain extent. is stops that will hold one end in place. in a measure. not more than every third one will be required for ventilatOne ing purposes. 85). be avoided. by dispensing with the rafters and fastening the sash to the ridge. GREENHOUSE WITH PORTABLE ROOF. the sash bars and the sash frame will also be a serious impediment. in which the rafters measure more than eight feet in length. of . and. wav. it is customary to have all of the upper row hung on hinges (Fig. AVhere only one row of sash on a side is required.36 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. 24). In wider houses. while the other raised (see hotbed Fig. and as the glass used for the glazing of the sash is generally quite small. FIG. great objection to this kind of a house is that the rafters obstruct the light and heat. although if they are very large.

A modified form of the rafter construction restricts the ventilators to half the length of the ridge. for the reasons given. the lower end being nailed to the this construction is used. in large houses. or both sides of the ridge. occupying a space from fifteen to thirty inches in width. either two by four inches. is to have all of the sashbars run from ridge to plate. a wall plate. be overcome by cutting off every other sash bar. and admits of sash bars running from ridge to plate in the remaining sections. instead of the long ones between These short headers should be grooved to the rafters. the usual forcing house to have every fifth sash bar of the nature of a rafter. but even then. however. but. The bars in the ventilators should be arranged directly over the sash bars. at their upper end. or. rafters. The ventilators are then placed in a continuous row on one. "When two by four-inch header is mortised into the rafters just under the lower edge of the ventilator. . One of the simplest methods of construction is to cover the entire roof with sash bars. each sash extending from one rafter to the next. . with short headers between the sash bars. This fault can. this method of construction is often objected to. receive the glass on the lower side. this style of house is not only more it is less expensive to build. desirable than houses built with PERMANENT sash bars being all SASFI BARS.. Another method of arranging the sash bars with a continuous line of ventilators. thus dispensing with the heavy light-obstructing rafters. the While many houses are built without construction is of one size. and the sash bars are fitted into this. 37 rule. and supporting the headers between those that remain. two by five inches. in a measure. as obstructing too much light at the ridge.PERMANENT SASH BARS.

double gutter for use when two houses are built. purlin. and gable sill. details one-sixteenth of an inch to the inch. with slight modification. an ornamental cresting. the sash bars and end rafters should be cut at such an angle as will make a and for the . In constructing the roof. RIDGE. In addition to an end view of the house. DETAILS FOR ROOF. by four feet long. should be added. that the expense should not be consid- ered extravagant. 25. This will provide for a ventilating sash two to three feet wide. roof sash bar. as the addition of some simple forms of scroll shown in Fig. 5. and. Even in case of commercial houses. and inserting a grooved header to support it. according to the size of glass used. and of end wall showing gable rafter. The scale for the elevation is three-sixteenths of an inch to the foot. 25 the details for the construction of an even span house eighteen feet wide can be obtained. wall with side plate. and then cutting off every eighth sash bar four feet from the ridge. with a wall in common. in case there is but one line of ventilators. and. according to the size of the house and of the sash bars. the following sections are shown: A side wall with gutter. From Fig. with finials at the extremities. The arrangement of the ridge is shown in Fig. their attractiveness is so much increased by finials. and from six to eight inches deep. particularly if the building is a conservatory. end sash bar. or on both sides if the ventilators are not continuous. they can be used for any other form. ridge and ventilator. It should have a groove for the glass on one side. The ridge should be of cither one and one-half or two-inch stuff. The ridge may be surmounted by a cap.38 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION". every eight or ten feet.


a good fit will be obtained. there can be no question but that. two-inch angle iron. If desired. if As the the panes of glass are generally of scant width. gas-pipe purlins can With large glass. one combining a framework of iron with wooden For forcing houses. The rafters (2) are fastened to each other and to the ridge by iron knees The purlins are of one and one-half to or brackets (3). and surmounted by a wooden rafter cap. or that of the glass decreases. tight joint with the ridge above and the plate below. CHAPTER YII. they may . lins should be quite near together. and. and then firmly nailed in place. that the question of durability should be considit ered more than has been in the past.0 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. in the construction of greenhouses. in the future iron will be quite largely used. If the plates are placed at the same angle as the roof. the rafters are about sash bars. measuring from shoulder to shoulder. Various methods of construction are of the best now in use. the lower ends of the sash bars should be let in to them about half an inch. sash bars are spaced so that they are exactly as many inches apart. as shown at (1) in Fig. IRON RAFTERS AND PURLINS. COMBINED WOOD AND IRON CONSTRUCTION". as the and rafters has been regrowing opinion among greenhouse men is. and are fastened to the rafters by means of iron lugs (4). and small sash bars. three by one-half inch. The use of iron for posts ferred to. but as the size of the are gash bars increases. as the glass is supposed to be wide. 26. the purbe used.

what is perhaps easier for attaching the pipes to the sash bars.IRON RAFTERS AXD rURLINS. one-inch gas pipes FIG. They can be inserted in wooden rafters when these are used. When ports is the distance between the rafters or other supnot over six or seven feet. are fastened by under the lower edge of the sash. shows a gas-pipe purlin. they other. in one case. When the roof is constructed of sash bars. the the ventilators are in long rows. 26. and should carry a into which the upper ends of the sash bars are mortised. and screwed into the tees to which the posts are attached. To of the other purlius the sash bars means wood screws. 27 A form a good purlin. AND "WOOD quite a stiff roof. at intervals of six feet. be farther apart. While four feet will be none too may be as much as eight feet in the When side of the ridge. or. or can be held up by means of small castings attached to iron rafwill make holes in ters. . without the use of rafters. DETAIL8 FOR COMBINED IRON ROOF. will Fig. 41 little. a continuous line of pipe suj^ported by posts. and B shows the clips The pipe may be cut in lengths of six feet. either upper line of purlins should be wooden header.

and a truss bracket is used in the angle of the roof (Fig. reamed out. every other sash bar. iron clips can be used. good satisfaction.42 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. particularly if In narrow houses with a walk in the center. the water contained in the pipes will have the chill desired. In wooden houses over fifteen feet wide. there will be no danger of its sagging. The lengths taken is off. at least. and. to support the ridge pole. necessity arises for either supporting posts or truss rod is IRON BRACKET FOR ROOF. a pipe purlin jig. of a fig. more gas pipe PUhx^ts. although the effect will not be lasting. 28. no center as. where there no center walk. CENTER POSTS AND BRACES. In order to hold the sash bars firmly down on the purlins. or one and one-fourth inches in diameter. another row should be used to support them in the center. a hose can be attached. 27. . and if rafters are more than eight feet long. apart. and. 28). if the wall posts are firmly set. so as to allow the to put up. together. post need be used. the tees are pipe to slip through them. which should be screwed to. As the width the house increases. When used. as it is more or less with supj:>orts than eight feet it does not give likely to sag. either one inch. it is necessary to have a row of gaspipe posts. If the purlin is connected by screw-joints with one or more of the posts on each side. if are screwed can be used as water pipes.

or if the roof is strengthened at that point by a strong angle bracket. either upon flat screwed. to wood or iron rafters. • When iron rafters arc used. or by means of the tees previously mentioned to the pipe purThe lower end of the posts may be inserted into lins. or rest on masonry piers. shown 29 or in Fig. either in Fig. by insert- ing tees. 29. If the ridge is supported there will be no danger of the walls spreading even if diagonal braces are used. 43 In wide houses the rows of supporting posts should When the be about six feet apart. posts would stand in the walk. into which the cross bearers for the bed are FIG. they may as be arranged as braces from the center posts. castings (Fig. 14). there will be no . if placed vertically. IRON POSTS AND BRACES. cedar blocks. In one or two houses of recent construction the posts have been used as legs for the center bed. The upper ends of these posts are fastened by means of top castings.CENTER POSTS AND BRACES. or in beds of cement. GO. particularly if there is a solid shoulder at the eaves. one for each purlin.

wide . restricted their use to large conservatories. and that. so far as radiation difference. In favor of these houses it is claimed that they are almost indestructible. there is. if necessary. no great . perhaps. may be used to keep the roof from crowding the walls out. IRON HOUSES. even there. In some cases. perhaps. and. have so reduced the amount of iron exposed to the outer air. provided everything else is equally desirable. that have. for the most tion part. however. three to five times as great as would be the case were fairly holding its wooden sash bars of the same size used. Several builders of iron houses. only considered houses con- structed of wood. thus far. CHAPTER VIII. these claims are true. although one could afford to pay an increased price for iron houses that would need no outlay for repairs or renewal. and this requires a noticeable increase in the amount of fuel consumed. there will be no necessity of painting the houses. is concerned. 1st. that. We have. for many years houses built entirely of iron and glass have been used in Europe. there are sev- For the most eral serious objections to iron houses. or partly of wood and iron. zinc or copper is used for the sash bars. is necessity for supporting posts unless the house very but a truss rod. and the same claims are made for those houses. the combined is wood and iron construc: own. part.44 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. if the iron is galvanized. At The objections may be stated as follows iron is a rapid conductor of heat. but. and. the amount thus taken from the house by the iron sash bars will be. and they are now frequently seen in this country.

4th. in is systems where large glass used. for comJmercial forcing houses. moment with METALLIC SASH BARS. is the sash bars at night. tha two that have been longest and methods of and . In conservatories. melting as the heat rises in the Frequently. Of the various forms of sash bars metallic glazing. Even if such is not the case in England. and do not hold true to the same extent when used with smaller panes in forcing houses. in our extremes of temperature. These objections have most force with the sash bars tised for skylight glass. causes quite a shower. although tight at first.METALLIC SASH BARS. to say nothing of the increased that there is more or less first cost of the houses. to catch the moisture condensed on the glass. a metallic strip placed between the panes to act as a gutter. and one will need to place the greater durability and cheapness of maintenance of the metal roofs against the acknowledged increase of fuel required to heat the houses. as the matter of drip and of fuel. 3d. which. there will be a amount of water congealed on the under side of morning. are questions of considerable florists. the packing used. unless everything is very carefully adjusted. that unequal expansion and contraction sometimes cracks the large panes. it is found. so broken glass. it does far less injury than in houses used for forcing and growing plants. soon becomes loose. and allows the heated air to escape through the cracks. in conservatories. but they frequently become clogged. If it works all right there should be no drip from the glass. "With several of the methods of glazing. however. although the drip is not desirable. The use of iron sash bars with metallic glazing. 45 2d. large Even if the roof is water-tight. has not become general.

30. 31. ZINC BAR. HELLIWELL PATENT GLAZING. bar is shown at A. STEEL BAR. objection. as in Fig. or of a zinc or copper bar.46 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. used by A. to bolt. It is fastened to the purThe glass resti lins by lugs. controlled by the Plenty Horticultural and Skylight Works. Rendle Co. differs principally in the form of the sash The sash bar and in the fact that the glass is butted. The Helliwell system makes use is either of a steel sash bar. PIG. HELL1WELL PUTTYLESS SYSTEM. Candle wicking is PARADIGM PATENT GLAZING. The Paradigm system . and those in the hands of the A. Rendle Co. 30. small bolts. E. resting upon a purlin. drawn down upon the glass by by some. It is claimed. Which it is attached by a used instead of putty. The glass held in place by long FIG. 32. most extensively used are the Ilelliwell jiatent system. clips of zinc or copper. E. as shown in the section. that the zinc bars The steel bar does not have this are not stiff enough.. 31 the sash bar is shown. of glazing. 31. In Fig. but it is considerably more expensive. as shown in Fig. Fig.

Crittenden & Son. There should be no sag in this sash bar. about the same way as in up put iron. galvanized iron sash bars. gutters. galvanized iron has come The framework consists into use for greenhouse roofs. but the condensed moisture on the inside of the panes is trapped. of MinneapAs will be seen. "Within the last few years. and an airfig. . H. When large. and The ridge cap. is When sheet glass put it in place and bolt down the cap. paradigm glazing. 33. Directly beneath the points where the panes meet a section ia cut out of the sash bars. all that The sash bar serves as a down is to the plate any water that may enter between the cap and the glass. D. and a piece of copper. shown made and used in the erection of conservatories. not only catches any water that enters between the panes. the sash bars. One of the simplest forms of iron sash bars is It is in Fig. in olis. corsash bars are used. all exposed parts of the roof. Minn. and necessary is to is carried to the gutter in If desired. to carry used. as it runs down the glass. gutter. white lead can be used in the joints. 47 place by a copper cap. is inserted. cross gutters are inserted between the panes. and it seems to have several features that are valuable. by M. bent as This at E. C. T of angle and when wooden nice. 32. Tipon the vertical sides of the sash bar.GALVANIZED IRON SASH BARS. it much resembles. are of galvanized iron. rough plate glass is used. tight roof secured. which is and is held in drawn down upon the glass by a small bolt.

there can be but little heat lost. Unless the purlins are placed quite close together. and are said to be giving good satisfaction. although -^ FIG. and consists heavy galvanized iron. (2) rests upon the top of the sash bar. shape. with putty. WITHOUT CORE. steel three-sixteenths of by having a core of an inch thick its strength (Fig. laid. A form of in the used. center to add to clip The up these sash bars. but bolt. in any way desired. is stronger than the other.48 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. WITH STEEL CORB IRON" SASH BARS. some of the forms of cedar sash bars. 34. which The glass may be will not be likely to become clogged. From the form and method of putting the cost is more. 34). from . 33. bent as shown in the illustraAt the lower edge are broad drip gutters. A Y-shaped cap of tion. a number of large houses are put up in this way. GALVANIZED FTG. of course. it down upon would seem likely that the sash bars would sag. sash bar that differs from the above. is also holding the glass is drawn down by a This. and is held firmly the glass (3) by means of copper clips (4).

through without being turned from is and there will no to except from absorp- which amount about twelve per cent. Che cartful well as It has adjustment of neglected.GALVANIZED IKON" SASH BARS. been found that about twelve per cent. in order to assimilate their food . and sixty per cent. as by the thickness and character of the glass itself. in passing through ordinary sheet glass. radiation by the iron. but chemical or actinic rays. an optimum temperature is also desirable for the proper performance by the organs of the plants. glass at n right angle. the slope of the roof si ouid no). 4 . From the sun we obtain not only light and heat. 49 to be arranged to catch all of the moisture condensed. the intensity of the sun's rays is greatly modified by the angle at which they strike the glass. of the light rays are intercepted. of their functions. All plants require light. and <ts the additional amount that is lost by reflection depends upon the angle at which the rays strike the glass. in their transmission through opal glass. they pass their course. bars. there seems to be fewer objections to these sash bars than to almost any of the metallic sash. This shows that much can be done by using clear glass to prevent the interception of the rays. When rays of light fall upon sheet loss. and as the gutters seem CHAPTEK IX. tion. whose effect on plant growth is not well understood. In the case of green- house plants. THE PITCH OF THE ROOF. be REFLECTION AND REFRACTION BK GLASS.

tion increases with the thickness of the glass. and. A having ninety. on leaving the glass. A passes directly through and emerges with eighty-eight per cent. B forty-five. . pass through the glass. to take the course 1-3 than there is in its refracted course 1-2. or bent from their course. a portion and the remainder. The refraction. is not unlike that upon B. and C fifteen degrees. has four and one-half per cent. if anything. on entering the glass. are refracted. of the rays are reflected at C. in the by absorption. and leave same direction they had before entering. while only fifty-eight per cent. upon upon it at various angles. and it is evident that there would be move loss were it obliged emerge at G". with eighty-three and one-half per cent. 35 illustrates the effect of a pane of glass. they meet the glass at an oblique angle. FIG. except that thirty per cent. which direction at B". meet the glass at an angle of fifteen degrees. 35. x rays of light falling y. of its original intensity. B.50 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. the balance. or bent back to their original The effect upon the rays at G. of its rays reflected to B' . less those it When lost of the rays are reflected. especially in The absorpthe case of very oblique rays. Fig. is a benefit. are refracted. EFFECT OF GLASS AT DIFFERENT ANGLES. of their first intensity. on meeting the glass.

Till: OPTIMUM PITCH.iy 80 . 51 The following table gives the amount of light lost by reflection at different angles of incidence : Angle of r.

and. among width which would be the height of the side walls. in between the laps of glass. except in "short span to the south" houses.52 sloj)c GREENHOUSE COXSTKUCTION. are subject to effect much the tion as those of light same laws of reflection and absorpand in the case of absorption. AVhen a roof has a slope of will be greatly increased. to which the houses are to be put should it will also be taken into account. as well as It will at once be seen that it is not desirable to have a roof so steep as to greatly increase the glass area. to the south of sixty degrees. both The use from outside and inside moisture. various practi- cal considerations should be taken into account. of the houses. With flat roofs not only is the rain likely to beat amount of drip. The heat and actinic rays. as if to be used only for win- tering over plants. if it is understood that plants grow best when comparatively near the glass. in addition to considering the requirements for the transmission of the sun's rays in their full intensity. no growth being desired. the of the house. In determining the proper pitch for the roof of a greenhouse. the height of the roof above the plants. as in a greater . or more. in their passage through the glass. and as good results will be obtained at a pitch of twenty-six degrees. produced by semi-opaque glass is even greater. to have the roof at a very sharp incline. and the effect upon the heating upon the drip from the glass. at the season when they are most needed. be economy. the . both in construction and heating. there will be no trouble. consequently. from moisture condensed on the under side of the panes. to have the roof as level as possible. it will be seen to be unwise. or more. but the thirty degrees (seven inches in a foot). while. but at anything under twenty-six degrees (six inches in a foot) there will be more or less drip. enlarge the consumption of fuel. as it will bring the plants in the center of the house at a considerable distance below the glass.

and can be secured without interfering in any way with the usefulness of the house in other respects. for crops that reauire an of light abundance for their quick development. Width Feet. thirty-five degrees would be better. while the height is measured on a plumb line from the upper end of the rafter to the level of the lower end. it In using the must be understood that the width is measured from the bottom of the sash bar to a point directly under the ridge. . ANGLE OF ROOF FOR DIFFERENT HEIGHTS AND WIDTHS. The will following table is given to show the angle that be made by the sash bars for various widths of houses. one. and for different heights of ridge. the if it slope should not be less than thirty degrees. 53 On the other hand. table.MEASURING THE PITCH. MEASURING THE PITCH.


side. preferable to the even span house. SHOUT SPAN" TO THE SOUTH. except that the snow does not remain upon the steep south slope. The plants upon the north bed. As a summer greenhouse it has long been are built with three walks known that this form is a desirable one. more of the and heat of the sun could be trapped. however (which should be ing the winter. Miller. to the pitch of the roof in even span. so that there is less obstruction of light durIn practice. however. ing house this form seems desirable. During the past two years several houses have been erected with a short span to the south and the long one to the north (Fig. the houses and two wide beds. the north one being slightly lower than the other. and can hardly fail to do well. or in three-quarter span when It the long slope of the roof is upon the south a slope to the was stated. 111. As will be seen from the engraving (Fig 60). George W. 55 ber of degrees in the slope of the roof will be found where the corresponding lines intersect. excellent results are claimed by Mr.. of Hinsdale. are from eight to thirteen feet from the glass through which the sun's rays come. the real test). that if light south of sixty degrees could be obtained. in any way. The above remarks houses. as a forcplants in the south bed. It can be seen at a glance that the plants upon the south bench are in an extremely favorable location. however. and by others who have tried it. but for the north bench it does not seem. therefore. and are more or less shaded by the In theory. for the most part. 36). so far as the south bench is concerned .SHOUT SPAX TO THE SOUTH. differing from three-quarter span houses turned half around only in having both walls of the same height. . apply.

costs The latter somewhat more than the single strength." "Thirds. In no portion of a greenhouse have as great changes been made." 56 . leaving the From this the ''Firsts" or "Bests" are made. and was of such poor quality that the leaves of the plants were badly burned The panes were often lapped for an inch or more. (1) it should be even in thickness. is graded as " Firsts. As the glass is melted. two points in the end. and as it will stand a much harder blow. but it is less likely to burn the plants. it was usually of only single strength. The glass most commonly used to-day is known as sheet glass. rather than under the glass. as in the glass and the method of setting it. Glass etc. and six by eight inches was used . should be borne in mind .. glass at the top quite clear. flat. glass as small as five by seven. DIFFERENT GRADES OF GLASS. (2) the glass should be of good size. and free from imperfections that would cause sun burning. The unmelted specks. or various impurities. and so on to "Fifths" and "Sixths.* the quality growing poorer as the numbers enlarge. either single or double strength. the impurities settle to the bottom. the breakage from hail storms and by accidents will be much less." "Seconds. perhaps. so that it will be cheaper In selecting greenhouse glass. imperfections in glass are caused by air bubbles. the "Seconds" come from a layer just beueath.CHAPTER X. GLASS AND GLAZING. A comparatively few years ago. an(* the putty was placed over.

eighteen inches will be a maximum width in the northern states. and even twenty-four. . in lengths of from twenty to twenty-four inches. glass is thought. the American "Seconds" make a very satisfactory roof. Unless there is a decided change. rajfldly increases. the above widths. While this extremely large glass inches w ide in use. square panes are preferable. for ordinary florists' houses. made by tions. but American natural gas glass is no being extensively used. The grade known as "A" quality American glass is suit- able for almost any purpose. the sixteen. and it can be said that the "Firsts" are fully as good as French "Seconds. In the past. to be fully equal to the same grades of European glass. inch glass is regarded as the best to use." they more likely to contain imperfec- but they are less even in thickness. until to-day we find panes twenty. well suited for growing roses and lettuce. and in case When the glass is to be butted. ''Seconds" of French or Belgian sheet glass have been commonly used. snowfall is heavy. while "B" quality will The natural gas answer for many classes of houses. less experienced are and not only The lower grades are workmen than the ''Firsts. as it is likely to have straight edges In sections of the country where the at least one way. while." while v. by some. r makes a very light house. and even fourteen. and although twenty inch glass may be used in the South. The size of glass has been on the increase.THE SIZE 0J7 GLASS TO USE. 5? which are of quite poor quality. are the of breakage. even for forcing houses. and are still preferred by most builders. everything being considered. it is generally thought that a smaller size is For widths above eighteen inches the price preferable. the danger of loss from breakage increases as the panes are enlarged. both at the time of erection. and this extra cost will be an important question. TIIE SIZE OF GLASS TO USE.

built with metal sash tories. need all the light they can wring from the sun. and heat absorbed by glass and as and skylight glass are both semi-opaque and of light quite thick. as rough plate or skylight glass and fluted glass may be used of a much larger size. perhaps. it is. ones most likely to be used. well adapted for palm. The amount the fluted light varies with its thickness. the greatly reduced loss in case of hail storms. for large conservaFor houses of this kind. fluted glass has. it is not desirable for growing houses of any kind. to say nothing of what and the*r thickness. in inch "While to perhaps thirty-two by forty-eight inches. as these. only to sheet glass. but it would seem that the amount lost by the necessity of bringing the sash bars closer together would more than counterbalance it. is an objection in growing and is reflected. a dozen ribs to the and is used. FLUTED AND ROUGH PLATE GLASS. DOUBLE AND SINGLE STRENGTH. "While doubly ltrength glass costs somewhat more than the single. bars. many prefer the latter for rose forcing houses. The rough plate or skylight glass. although of advantage in giving them strength. they will probably absorb fully half of the and heat that enters them. varies during the winter. preferable to either sheet glass or rough plate. perhaps. and even for stove houses. This applies. On account of the increased obstruction to the heat and light rays by the double strength sheet glass. as compared with thin panes. as well as its clearness. as used from one-eighth to one-half an from twenty-four by thirty-two and thickness. forcing houses.58 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. and the fact that the breakage by frost and other \ . to some extent. in greenhouses. The inch. of course.

it is well to select those of one angle for one row. if the curves are of different angles. the amount of glass broken is never more than two-fifths as much. It is generally believed that. the glass is lapped. when good condition. and well laid. Care should therefore be taken to assort the glass and. For curvilinear roofs this is practically a necessity. only from one- The reports of the Florists' Hail Insurance Association show that. and when the glass is straight and even. In setting the glass. —METHODS AND MATERIALS. curved. there is likely to be a crack either at the corner or in the center of the panes. latter. The best grade of putty . which should first receive a line of putty sufficient to till For glazing on wooden sash the shoulder. the end desired is to so arrange to have the roof as nearly air and water-tight as possible. with the upper pane extending about an eighth of an inch over the one below it as it. although the amount of double strength glass insured is in excess of the single thick.GLAZING causes is — METHODS AND MATERIALS. the danger from hailstorms third to one-half as great. Nearly all panes are more or less it makes a good roof. and if two panes in which the curves are not ecpial are placed together. astrals should be selected with half inch rabbets (Fig. and to have the glass held firmly in place. 59 less with the former than the is make in it preferable. if the glass is to be lapped. and in some years the ratio is one to one hundred in favor of double glass. bars. and the others for another. PUTTY. As usually laid. CHAPTEK GLAZING XI. 18).

at the rate of one part of lead to five of putty. . and the lower upon the pane below. with a lap not exceeding an eighth of an inch. if drip gutters are used. For holding the glass in place there are a dozen or more kinds of points and brads. should be used. The putty should be worked and it will rather soft. leaving a crack at the side of the pane. in case of breakage. Another advantage of this brad is that it is inconspicuous. The surplus putty. as above. as well as underneath. if the bars are kept properly painted. if other fastenings became loosened. its GLAZING POINTS AND BRADS. it was found that in one or two years the water worked under the putty and it scaled off. and this should be mixed with pure white lead. If a larger proportion of lead is used. and. 37 A). and has such a hold upon the wood that. using lin- be found to stick to the wood best if it is as soft as can be used without sticking to the hands when they are well coated with whiting. Having applied th3 putty to a number of sash bars. is then scraped off. it will make the task of cleaning the bars a difficult one. besides permitting the glass to slip down or bio off.60 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. This both allowed the heat to escape and the water to enter. One of the best seems to be an ordinary five-eighths inch Avire brad (Fig. there need be no fears of its loosening and allowing the panes to slip down. consequently. Care should be taken to have the curve of the glass up. if properly driven in. while. This is stiff enough to hold the glass firmly in jilace. the mixture. and down if they are not. With the old method of placing the putty on the upper side of the glass. the glass is laid on and carefully pressed into place. many years. taking pains to fill any cracks that may be left. squeezing out rests all surplus putty until the upper end of the pane on the bar. both inside and out. will hold for seed oil if necessary.

moreover. tears its way into the wood. points is placed at each of the lower corners of the panes. unless driven home. two other brads in the center. where they serve to hold the pane in place and to keep Large panes require the pane above from slipping down. is Another it is point that tack. is sometimes used a double-pointed carpet This holds the glass firmly in place. but are rather small for large panes. except when the glass is butted. they are not large enough for One of these large greenhouse glass. 000 (Fig. this form of brad has a firm hold. which are also sometimes used. or for house window sash. In shape they resemble three-fourths inch shoe nails. After driving this angle is bent down over the edge of the pane so that it cannot slip down. Of the various points used for glazing. 37. 37 C). and it offers little obstruction to the brush when the sash bars are painted. It is also more conspicuous than the wire brad. No.GLAZING POINTS AND BRADS. 37 D) are driven in very rapidly with a machine. is quite stiff. and is a slight hindrance to the painting. Two of these brads are used to hold the lower corners of the glass down iu place. it in. 37 B. none is betWhile ter than the zinc triangle. . mond poitlts (jig. where the putty is on the outside. Two other points are used in fig. When driven well in. eLAziNG points. the blunt end. is readily detached. and appears as in Fig. but not particularly ornamental. One of the most com- monly used glazing points is cut from thick sheet zinc. however. with one angle lapping over the edge. 61 not unsightly. and. The diathe middle of the panes. the smaller sizes may be used for the small panes of glass. and two others are placed about an eighth of an inch from the upper edge. and.

among the more important of which are. it i° the fact that Moreover. it does not have a very One firm hold. even with the shoulder at the point. thus effecting a saving in there is less danger of broken glass. BUTTED GLASS. 3? E) differs from the above in being bent in the center. 37 G) has a single pomt. principally on account of its being somewhat more difficult to reset broken glass and make a good joint. that a tighter roof can be made. Eames' glazing point (Fig." which leads to more or less confusion and another which applies to all doublepointed points. . has been frequently advocated. for many years but it has never come into general use. that they are points is kinds of the two last objection to in using them. than when the glass is This kind of glazing has many advantages over lapped. to some extent. and has been used. or from accidents. and to this extent it seems to be an improvement. causing an opaque streak. 37 F) is double pointed. either from fuel ice forming between the panes when lapped. when more this is not so. tears the wood when driven in. is that in order to hold the pane securely they must be very accurately driven into place. and even . . as. when a lapped pane is broken it frequently more benefit can be derived cracks the one beneath from the sun. and it successfully accomplishes it. so as to better fit the lower edge of the pane. Van Reyper's glazing: point (Fig. the other. and as it the slipping of the pane. The method this of setting greenhouse glass to which term is applied. with one corner bent to prevent It is rather thick. admitting sometimes hard to get a good fit in . as with lapped glass soot and dirt collect between the laps. the double glass at the lap obstructs light than the single glass. "rights and lefts. Ives' point (Fig. and is designed to both hold the panes down in place and to keep them from slipping.62 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION.

with rough edges should be rejected. In laying glass upon the old style of sash bars. but if they are so large as to prove troublesome they can be To make a good job in refilled with but little trouble. spread this in a thin layer on a smooth board or pane of glass. On the other hand. and using the new styles of sash bars the panes can be very readily replaced. and press the lower edge of glass against it before placing on the sash bars. When this is properly done the rows of glass will virtually consist of a single pane. a thin layer of putty. all pane. or. The only objection to butting the glass in glazing is. is placed on the sash bar.and water-tight. leaving the lead to fill any inequalities between the panes and act as a cement to unite them. or through the wall into the outside gutter. as arranged in some houses. upon roofs with an angle of 35° or more. after the glass has been set a fevr years. it is well to seal the crack with white lead. using the old 63 method of glazing. In setting the panes. taking care to securely fasten the bottom pane In order to make the in each row. will find its way that between the panes and cause a good deal of drip. roof both air.BUTTED GLASS. either into an inside gutter. or a film of thick paint. hutting glass.and water-tight. water. repairing butted glass. in a driving rain storm. crowd them together so as to force out all surplus material. To do this mix pure white lead with equal parts of good putty . and will remain for several years. or used only at top and bottom. both air. upon flat roofs. the labor of keeping a butted roof in good condition is less than for caring for one that is lapped. and thence to the ground. upon which the panes are laid and tacked in place. to prevent slipping. as there will be fewer breaks to repair. In time the lead will work out of the larger cracks. . there will be sufficient adhesion between the water and the glass to cause it to run down on the under side of the panes to the plate.

and fastening the wooden strips in place by means of screws. the cracks at the sides should be is filled by applying thick paint with bulb. . be as appropriate for the latest forms. If desired. and the crack at the side filled in the same way or both may be dispensed with. and the glazing performed by merely laying the panes in place on the sash bars (filling the cracks between the panes with white lead. a brush. paint or putty if desired. as preferred by some. . panes. although unless the glass lessen. by use of a putty The name of paint bulb would.64 GREEXHOUSE COXSTRUCTIOX. and the surplus material brushed off (Fig. Having the panes nailed in place. 38). 39) putty very convenient for back-puttying in repairing roofs. if desired). Upon the more recent forms of sash bars the glass may be laid in. fits snugly will amount of paint that runs down between the the FIG. which have a small brush projecting beyond the end of the tube. perhaps. If very much paint is used it will be necessary to sift on sand to keep it from running. Ives' is PAIXT BULB. by which the crack is filled. the use of paint or putty under the glass can be dispensed it with. when properly be little done. there will need of using sand upon it. 38. or. but. machine (Fig. thus holding them down.

use the glazing strip. 39. or some with other lasting cement. have the roof with an angle of thirty-five degrees. gasser's glazing none of STRIP. the best advice as to glazing of greenhouses and forcing houses 20. are of serious importance. as shown in Fig. and the labor ting them the obstruct a small light. will fasten MACHINE. GLAZING STRIPS.GLAZUSG STR1F3. and thus make a tight joint. butt the glass. use one of the sash bars shown in Figs. FIG. The cracks between the glass and the strip should be filled white lead. closing the crack with white lead. which placed between the panes so is under and the other over the under ones. 65 For use with ing strip tried it. Gasser's glaz- is considered very valuable by many who have bent into It consists of a narrow is strip of zinc the form of the letter Z. 40. cost. 40. This will make a roof water-tight much longer than when the lead alone is used between the panes. or if they are not cemented securely to the glass. this method of glazing. amount of but with large panes these objections 7IG. much strips when no Aside from their of putstrips in. which that one leg of the Z the upper panes. If the strips are not properly laid. From the present light that can be obtained on the subject. With glass of a . IVES PUTTY them together. 21 is. the leakage will be greater than are used. a roof that will remain water-tight for many years is desired. or. and 23 if .

eighteen inches. as at A. as necessary with ordinary sash bars. glass. even with the glazing strip. NEW METHODS OF GLAZING. slipping up (or down) the remaining panes. When convex side down. and. 41. To large panes. place the FIG. and sizes over sixteen inches will need to be very carefully selected. Two other systems of glazing are shown in Fig. of glazing. the panes are cemented in place. as. and is held in place by a screw and washer. of Riverside. new one . shown D. it will be butted glass. one can be selected that will be used successfully. there will be no necessity if for drip grooves in the sash bars upon steep roofs. unless The difficulty increases with the roof is quite steep. that when resetting broken is glass. there are no cracks at the sides of the panes. other way. Raynolds. 41. laid with the width greater than sixteen best to lap the panes.66 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. water will be collected and drip.. glass. one of which is for butted glass. should be true and even . to be butted. new methods and if screw fit down the cap the opening. in place at the bottom (or top). which makes a lighter roof than can be obtained in any In the first method. the sash bars are used without rabbets. which was used by J. . and the other for lapped In both. 111. or. One im- portant feature of this method of glazing is. one needs only to loosen the screws that hold the cap. is used. if used in this way. fit in- stead of bothering to the panes. the glass is butted. if panes with different curves are placed together.

The ventilators should be arranged so as to prevent direct drafts of cold air upon the plants. It has been found that. VENTILATORS. and held in place by a piece of sheet ead. if openings are provided for the egress of the its fresh air can find way in. the glass is lapped. except during the summer months. For all kinds of plants it is desirable. at the intersection of the panes. CHAPTER XII. air. but no other painting will be necessary upon the exterior. at intervals. the screw can be inserted. The lower corner of the panes should be nipped off. and an opening made through which a brad or screw can be inserted. it will naturally tend upward. bent as at B. They are sometimes placed on both slopes of the roof. By the other method. along the roof. and ventilation will be most effective if provided at the highest part of the building. a film of white lead can be placed between the panes to close up the joints.VENTILATORS. and for removing surplus heat. at some sea- sons of the year. and no necessity will exist for considering that side of the cp:iestion. that means be provided for supplying fresh air. 67 off By breaking a small Dorner from each. but better results are ob« may . If desired. and the washer will press the glass into place. which was described in the American Florist. In some houses laree ventilators have been placed. in order that the opening be opposite to the direction of the wind. As the air of greenhouses is generally warmer than that outside.

CONTINUOUS VENTILATION. roof. \Vhen a continuous row of ventilating sashes is used. the continuous working sash may be fastened together with strips of band iron. Although not necessary. It is a poor plan to have a continuous row drafts. The . the openings will need to he two or three times as large. on a high. tained when continuous lines of narrow ventilators on one or both sides of the ridge are used. The sash should be made in the same way as hot- bed sash. side ) FIG. with a thin strip for the lower edge. only part of which are used. if they are scattered at intervals along the roof. 68 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. 42. where shafting is necessary to work them. ARRANGEMENT OF VENTILATORS. there will be constant trouble from the swelling and sticking of the sash. a small opening will provide the necessary ventilation but. and the draft of cold air upon the plants will be greatly The openings at the ends of th sash invite increased. VENTILATING SASH.. Particularly if of sashes.

they should be on the same side of the roof as the prevailing cold winds come from. when hinged at the bottom. a ventilator. The old method of hanging the sash was to have the hinges on the upper side (Fig. It con- sists of lifters made of one inch by one-fourth band iron (B). which should be somewhat narrower. except the rows at either end of each sash. through which a pin on the edge of the header is passed. A small wire cable runs the length of the house.VENTILATING MACHINERY. and. will be cient more effiwhen hinged at the lower edge (Pip. which are fastened to the lower edge of the ventilator by screw eyes. In small houses. to allow for the iucreased width of the side strip of the ventilating sash. HANGING THE SASH. One sash at a time only can be opened. after running through t . thus holding the sash at any angle desired. 42 A). ventilators is b}r A SIMPLE APPARATUS. VENTILATING MACHINERY. which. about two feet in length. only one line of sash. One of the simplest is shown in Fig. They have holes at intervals.. especially when there is When only one line is used. 42 B). for houses of any length. and on the other side if hinged at the top. joints should be located over the 69 middle of rafters or sash bars. some form of apparatus that will open all the ventilators on a given line is desirable. a simple method of opening the means of what are sometimes called skylight fixtures. The glass used for the sasli should be of the same width as for the rest of the house. but as. for the same size of opening. that method will be generally used. and extending down into the house at right angles to it. fastened rigidly to the lower edge of the ventilator (A). and near each ventilator a cord (C) is attached. 43.

SHAFTING. and will hold them securely in place. and in others. and has a heavy weight attached to it. In some cases it passes through a cross placed in the ridge post. A SIMPLE VENTILATING APPARATUS. when it is desired to close the Ventilators. they were closed by their own windlass. and. be applied to a small rope running through pulley blocks.70 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. lifting the sash to any required height. about a foot from its upper end. 43. where it is fastened to the main cable. pulley. or by means of a small As first made. The motive power may An improve- ment (Fig. the cable will be drawn back. attached to the bottom of each sash. "weight. and running through a pulley to a point beyond. In nearly all other ventilating machinery. 43 D) is in an additional rope. The usual method of fastening is by means of small hangers screwed to the . as they were not held down in any way. is fastened to the lower The cable is arranged so that all of it can be readily drawn through the house. end of the lifter. it is held in place by means of a clamp fastened to the post. If the cable at the farther end of the house is carried FIG. accidents often happened in high winds. over a pulley. the power conveyed by means of a gas pipe shaft running along is under the ventilators.

42 and 46. 71 rafters. 44. Various methods of applying the power have been used. but not necessary.SHAFTING. NEW DEPARTURE VENTILATING APPARATUS. "When sashbars alone are used to form the framework of the roof. except that they are applied at a disadvantage when the sash is just beginning to open. shown in Figs. These are strong and do their work wr ell. the most common of which is the common elbow shaft to the posts FIG. some method of hanging the is desirable. and as this is the point at which they are most frequently fixture .

in closing. opening. shown in Fig. It has much the shape of a meat saw (Fig. and is recommended by the inventor. 45. Hippard. known as the One of the best of Ormsby Spring balance. with the expenditure of very little power. E. by which the weight of the ventilators. A form quite similar is used with the Little Victor machine.72 used. up. Various contrivances have been arranged. is manufactured by It is a very easy work- . which. It is easy to put a long line of sash. to which the power is ajiplied by means of a crank. the springs wear out. and the only objection to the system is that. or a hand wheel. worked by a worm upon the upper end of a rod. It will be found in several of the illus- trations. with is its elbow fixtures. Youngstown. It has proven quite satisfacand works very smoothly. when desired open the sash. tory. the inventor. it have to be regarded as a slight objection. shafting." by J. will GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION". P. D. and lifts the sash by the action of the cogs on the shafting. E. Hippard. these is will furnish a large por- tion of the power. Ohio. 45. and the same force is required to lift the sash. Of the machines used to work the fig. Among the more recent candidates for favor are the Standard The former. simplest the kind generally used by greenhouse builders. It consists of a large wheel upon the shaft. at whatever height to this it may be. upon those on the fixture. and Challenge machines. 44). Another form of fixture is regarded as a "New Departure. after two or three years of use. the standard. It works easily. as valuable for small sash. shall it is coil up a to spring. Carmody.

CHALLENGE. or was pushed away from the small pinion. to the vertical As will be seen from the'engraving. the power is applied.SHAPTLNG. 46. should be no trouble. *3 of the others. by means of a hand wheel and worm. but docs not work quite as fast as some In the old machines. At . hig machine. but with the new double header there FIG. shaft which works inside the post. the large wheel on the shaft sometimes slipped.

n GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION". as shown in the sketch. line of narrow sash fifty feet long can be opened or closed. although a simple fixture. We have found it a very satisfactory machine. The Challenge machine (Fig. or bevel gear. 47. fig. is . While it work ard. OUTSIDE SHAFTING. It differs from the Standard in using sprocket wheels and an endless chain. perhaps four feet long. one inch gas pipe (A). fastened By means of this. 4G) is made by the Quaker City Machine Co.. . The machines made had several slight defects. more rapid and preferable to that exteut machine the latter excels in ease of operation. of Richmond. When the ridge is too low to admit of running the it shafting under the roof. 47. as easily as the Stand- gives a movement to that to the sash. the shaft In low span roof houses a simple method of working It consists of a lever of is shown in Fig. the upper end of the shaft is a pmion. may be placed on the outside. instead of a vertical shaft first and gearing. and can be held in place by means of a pin passed through a strip of iron (B). either can changed by varying the be size of the gear and sprocket wheels. but these have been corrected in the latest pattern. Ind. and the mait chine now does very good does not work. by which the power is conveyed to the shaft. CHEAP VENTILATING MACHINE FOR LOW HOUSES. a to the shaft (D) by means of a T.

this arrangement. OUTSIDE SHAFTING. sash. to having the two rows at the In even span houses there is less occasion for In Fig. is shown the shafting on opposite sides of the roof will be preferable. may be employed. as 75 In any house. While a single wide line of ventilators will answer.OUTSIDE SHAFTING. two narrow lines in Fig. 42 is side ventilation. except in wide houses. . ridge. even in rose houses. 48. shown a variety of methods of arranging the ventilating wall. not desired on the inside of the house. which is used by Hippard and others. in houses less than twenty feet wide. houses ventilating sashes in the vertical walls are desirand some builders of three-quarter span houses prefer to have one row at the ridge and one in the south able. In wide FIG. if. 48. and of attaching the ventilating machines. for any reason.

but. or locust will make the most desirable legs but. but. The best materials for greenhouse benches are iron and tile. they should be raised above the level of the soil and walk. A wooden bench generally has to be renewed within five years. and in some cases three years sees their period of usefulness at an end. Not only is the florist required to pay for labor and material for constructing a new bench. Built as they usulife is cheap or waste lumber. their a short and they frequently break down while in use. When the walls of the house are of ?6 . upon a brick or stone pier. as frequently the weakness is not discovered until the bed is being prepared for use. When wooden legs are used. and check its decay. as they cannot always be readily obtained. of the average florist are a con' stant source of trouble and expense. This will not only furnish a firm support. GREENHOUSE BENCHES The benches used by ally are. let us consider the next best thing. as the average florist will think he cannot afford this kind of a table.CHAPTER XIII. and thus prefor • vent the settling of the bench. their durability can be doubled. but it will serve to keep Red cedar the lower portion dry. the delay necessitated in planting the bed may greatly lessen the profits. "With a little attention in constructing and caring wooden benches. cypress or pine will be generally used. or so mixing the varieties as to make them of little value. either ruining the plants. or slate. one. WOODEN BENCHES.

and These should be about two by for the middle bench. If fastened to the legs. or one and one-half inch boards used. although the twelveinch boards are better for the stag- B ing of pot plants. there will be little dan- ger of their becoming detached and If these letting the bench down. fourths of an inch wide should be If deep beds are to be used. left between the boards. supports are placed once in three and one-half or four feet. the back ends of the cross bearers can be nailed i/ii the posts. as shown in Fig. For the front and back of the benches strips of board from three to six inches w ide iu accordance with the kind of f . thorough drainage. the com- WvW ft I Y/////////A mon six by one inch fence boards longitudinally for rose beds can be placed bottoms. wooden legs can be used. thus admitting of a free circulation of air in the rear. 77 wood. Measuring from the inner face of the wall. according to location and the character of the house. 49 A. VMM& ZZ2^» when shallow are desired. the length of the cross bearer should be two inches more than the width of the bench. The cross bearers may range from two by four inches for narrow benches. and from two to five and a half feet in height. To provide for XI FIG. the distance between the supports may profitably be reduced to three feet.WOODEN BENCHES. 49. cracks threeWOODEN BENCHES. the same as for the fronts. When the wall can- not be used to support the backs of the side benches. or to the studding. or if large pot plants are to be placed on them. to two by six. or even two by eight inches for wide ones. four inches. and in houses constructed upon a brick or grout wall this can readily be used for supporting them.

it will pay to give the inside a thorough coating with Louisville cement. 50. If the extended to the top of the front boards as in Fig. grown on them. should be used. they will be held firmly in place and will last much longer. . of fitted together. use. side pieces. 49 B. should be thoroughly painted before they are and this will often double their period of After the bench is completed. The legs and cross bearers. the consistency of thick paint. as well as the FIG.78 plants to be legs are GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. GAS PIPE BENCTI SUPPORTS.

When houses are . when possible. florists who are not ready to try the iron and bench. mendenhall's bench. are using iron legs and cross bearers. The side benches. and are seldom wider than three feet and The center six inches. the cross bearers being of one and one-fourth inch gas pipe. or set in the masonry. 50). to a large degree. and the upper end supporting the front end of the cross bearer. the same as for by iron the front. The simplest forms are made of one-inch gas pipe (Fig. perhaps. or. short piece of pipe extends even with the top of the front it in place. For center benches a somewhat heavier con- struction would be necessary. be placed outside the pipe. 51. The front boards can. desired. benches range from five to seven feet in width. and held in place clips. from the top of which a iron T. IRON BENCHES. "When properly built and well cared for. with the width of the house. in the end. and the use to which it is put. thus holding if eig. and if neither of these methods of support can be used. The rear end of the cross bearer is screwed into the wall post. than the cheap constructions generally seen in greenhouses. 79 The width of greenhouse benches varies. benches of this description will be far more economical. are sometimes as narrow as two feet and six. by means of a malleable boards. in a rose house.IBON BENCHES. which should be the maximum. the Many slate lower end of the leg resting in a cedar block sunk in the ground. eight inches. gas pipe legs can be provided.

narrow strips of bencli tile could be used.so built GREEXHOU. Another form of greenhouse bencli has been tried in The cross the houses of E. v]lich might legs bring it down this to the same cost. Hill.SE COXSTKLCTlON. on the "ridge and furrow" plan. if desired. bench. 52). placed so as to form the front and the back of the The bottom was of slate or boards. 52. 14 and 53. the cross bearers may pass through the wall into the for the side benches adjoining house. as Mendcnhall's using intermediate strips of T iron. or bearers and longitudinal strips are of a light street car rails. This considerably cost of more than the the lighter grades of angle iron. 51). cently figured in the 983). Perhaps the neatest form of iron bench is shown in The size of the iron required is accordFigs. but as the rails are the fig. By slate. however. Ind. The bencli is supported on cedar posts (Fig. It rested upon brick piers. Page bench (Fig. bench are the sides the latter. Richmond. ANGLE IRON BENCHES. as desired. G. and consisted of two or three inch angle irons. number of legs and is cross bearers reduced. One of the simplest forms of iron benches was re- American Florist (Vol. much stronger. T with bottoms of slate and sides of narrow boards. The cost is of the iron rails given as eleven and is one-half cents per foot. The and least durable portions of . . held in place by narrow strips of iron. could be made of iron. hill's bench. VI.

with one and K*\'*'jl'*'ji H FIG. 6 For the . ANGLE IRON BENCH. 14). 53. ing to the width of the bench. Fig. 81 it is For a rose house. for the bottoms. and the nso to which to be put. one half inch angle iron (G) for the front and back. or will be three feet tile.ANGLE IRON BENCHES. the side benches can be supported on one and one-half inch cross bearers of T iron (D. placed once in four feet. TJsiL.g twelve-inch slate. and two intermediate one and one-fourth inch T irons {H). the beuch and two inches wide.

If sides are which can the top. 54 C is five inches wide by twelve long. and bottom. or one unci one-fourth inch flattened at it T its iron can be used. are some of the forms of " bench tile. They can be son." They are more or less porous. N.. or by means of screws put through holes in the angle iron. The bottom is. 54. larger angle iron can be used for the outer edges of the benches.ss-sigSBjet s t» FIG.. as a rule. 54 B represents a tile seven by . The gas pipe can be 7 upjDer end and bolted to tbe cross bearers. or F'). and held in place either by the edges of the angle iron. a very desired to the benches. or three to five-inch strips of board can be used. GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. say three by two inches.82 legs. and Fig. bench bottoms. seem particularly desirable. TILES FOR BENCHES. 14 J and then be bolted on. •^S. made of any size desired. in every way. With such a casting a flat plate for the leg to rest in at the neat bench can be made. the first portion of the bench to decay. this should be the one. although about twelve by six inches seems a good one. of Madithe soil. J. and if any part is to be of indestructible The most satisfactory materials. P. BENCH BOTTOMS. Wight. 54 A). and provide both for drainage and for a thorough aeration of Those invented by W. and differ from most of the others in having a row of holes along the center (Pig. at can be inserted into a casting (Fig. one inch gas pij)e {E). The form shown in Fig.


with wooden supports. and. are not as be desirable. of large plants only are placed. Injury will somewhat legBenedj but the tffc ^ be found more satisfactory. and for cutting beds.GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. and smaller sizes may be used. but. roofing slate. sand With and the soil soon become be and sour. SOLID BEDS. Mr. Wight has invented a bench (Fig. may be used withIn the growing houses some covering out any covering. large slabs of the full width of the bench. The use of boards for bench bottoms may be economical where lumber is cheap. careful watering the WOOD AND SLATE BENCH. with a covering of When coarse gravel. For growing many crops the so-called solid bed will These are of the same widths and in the same places as the raised bods. For the tables in the show house. both of which are manufactured for "fire- proofing" the structural iron in modern fireproof blocks. 56 will be seen a method of using slate for bench bottoms. they are than bench but imperfect drainage and aerless satisfactory tile. but the more durable materials will generally be preferable. and the other materials expensive. 55) to be used with his tiles. Heavy size. upon which slate. but answer very well for bench bottoms. or conservatory. makes an excellent plant table. In Fig. about twelve by eighteen inches in can be cheaply obtained. as they allow of ation. for the slate is desirable. used as bottoms for the tables in rose houses. By leaving spaces between the tiles. . ample drainage can be secured. as a rule. twelve inches.

the application of about six inches of prepared compost will be all that is required to make them. them two feet apart and eight inches below the surface. and the work from rusting. the materials should be covered Iron with some substance that will render the woodwork water proof. It is generally necessary to provide some kind of drainage. and these are used the paint will peel off within a year. CHAPTER XIV. ample drainage will be provided.PAINTING AND SHADING. and for this purpose threeBy placing inch drain tiles have been found excellent. with a small amount of Japan. PAINTING AND SHADING In order to preserve the wood from decay. There are several low priced brands of so-called "white lead." that are composed largely of zinc and baryta. the results will be as satisfactory as can be obtained from any mixed paint. and prevent the oxidation of the iron. and as the covering of the framework of a greenhouse with some paint that proved worthless for the purpose would lead to a large expense. though apparently cheap. may prove dear in the end. There are on the market many patent paints that may be suitable for certain purposes. than to experiment with materials that. and the arming and aeration of the soil will be promoted. light and sandy. but very few of them If pure will prove satisfactory for greenhouse painting. except the erection of barriers of wood or brick to keep the soil in place. it is better to take something that is known to be good. across the beds. 85 When the underlying soil is high abovo the walks. white lead and linseed oil. if . are nsed.

as far as is mill. hot linseed placing the A woodwork should then be soaked in long tank should be made. If the houses are to be painted white. In putting up the house. "When this cannot be done. However. As soon as the framework is up. "While it is desirable to use pleasing tints for painting the greenhouses. if possible. to the oil. oil in it or some similar material. The addition of yellow ochre. the woodwork should be given a thorough priming coat. the joints should be convenient. a second coat Our best greenhouse builders use should be given it. If steam pipes can be run through it. the oil. and by the parts can readily be dipped. will be of advantage. and a pleasing one can be made by adding yellow and a small amount of green. and three for private establishments. although it would serve to hold the putty in place under the glass if it will . When three coats are to be given. producing a very light shade of green. a little black should be added to take off the glare. preservation of the timber is the maiu object to be sought. this will be found quite satisfactory. be easiest to apply the last coat to the interior of the house before the glass is set. PAINTING THE GREENHOUSE. The priming coat should be given before the house As soon as the parts have come from the made. 18 erected. The average carpenter will not see the advantage of this. If only two coats of paint are to be given. if a to be given. and. some other light color may be jireferred to white. two coats of paint for commercial. "With darker trimmings upon the house. but. but a coat of thick paint should bo insisted upon. too much pains cannot be taken in coating every joint with pure white lead paint. every crack and nail hole should be filled with is good putty before the second coat third coat is applied.86 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION". the puttying should be delayed is until the second coat dry. all the better.

an eighth of an inch. work PAINTING IRONWORK. REPAINTING. . it 87 is were applied after the glazing completed. PIPES. as then any crack that may remain at the sides of the panes can be filled.REPAINTING. one coat should be given to all exterior wood work each year. to the exterior. and to the interior This frequent application of paint every second year. Through the openings thus formed. water will enter. and would work out were it not painted. should the other fastenings become displaced. on the exterior. In this way. the last one to the exterior should not be given until the glass has been set. and the roof will be made water tight. heat is washed out. ETC. woodwork. is made necessary by the fact that. the paint should be rather thicker than is used for ordinary painting. The putty would also become softened. will follow. at any rate. What- ever the number of coats. the paint will serve as a cement to hold the panes in place. Whether two or three coats of paint are given the iouses at the time of erection. will escape. If painting is if cracks open at any of the place. perhaps. from discoloring plants. although when three coats have been used the painting of the interior may be delayed another year. and water can gain entrance. In drawing the sash. and it is an excellent idea if it is drawn out upon the glass for. cracks large enough to admit water often open between the glass and the putty. and the rapid decay wood- long delayed. and in order to preserve the material. and the latter. becoming softened. Iron houses also require frequent painting. another should be applied after one year. not only but to prevent the rust that forms if the ironwork is not kept coated with paint. In order to keep a greenhouse in the best repair. walks.

when shading is necessary throughout the summer. In order to keep down the heat and prevent the burning of the foliage of the plants. For some classes of plants a permanent shading is desirable. to say nothing of increasing their durability.. the heating pipes should While asphalt will answer for this puralso be painted. in some way. anything else that it may fall upon. but it will have a glossy appearance. and is commonly used by commercial florists. obstruct the entrance of the heat rays. this is. All ironwork that forms part of the greenhouse structure proper. when thick enough to keep out the heat One reason for of the light. and when a second application is made.— 88 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. either b means of a large brush or syringe. it is desirable to. For the sake of the improved looks. rays. than if they are glossy. and this can be secured by the use of fluted or rough For most purposes. The application of lime or whitewash. and if oil is used it should not form more than one-half smooth and of the mixture. When iron tables are used they should be kept well painted. and some form of wash applied to the glass is commonly used to give this. and the efficiency of the pipes will be increased by applying a mixture of lampblack and The durability of the paint will be improved turpentine. should be of the same color as the woodwork. using some color of asphalt or Japan paint. a temporary plate glass. shading only is necessary. is a cheap way of shading the house. SHADING. it is known thrt a larger amount of heat will be radiated from them ii of a dull color. it frequently peels off in spots. with the drip. by using linseed oil. pose. however. black asphalt being cheap and quite durable. as. to cove* . but it is hardly satisfactory. it obstructs too much that if a coat of the proper consistency is given.

it is 89 too thick upon the other portions This wash. and any surplus rubbed off with a stiff brush. For orchid houses it is desirable to have a form of shading that can be regulated at pleasure. in gasoline.^ will suffice for a gallon of gasoline. aud. or in dull weather. This wash can be put on in a fairly satisfactory manner with a syringe or small force pum^t. the roof can be wet down with a hose. to suit the needs of the plants. these openings.. for shading. to allow a circulation of air above the roof. has a glaring appearance. It will be best to small of lead. can be raised or lowered at pleasure. but the quantity of whiting required will be much larger. A a teaspoonful. the shutters. and it will disappear comes on. They can be used either outside or inside the house. is that is not pleasing to the eye. more of the lead or whiting can be added. but it can be spread more evenly and with greater economy of material with a large brush. where the appearance is considered. too. and. Clot shades of light canvas or fine netting are less desirable. canvas. Perhaps the most satisfactory shading made by the use of either white lead or whiting. and add a second one If not put on too thick. this will be a better way. When orchids are suspended from the sash bars. as winter TEMPORARY SHADING. If this does not take place soon enough. and. but answer very well. Some of the roller blinds answer well for this purpose.— TEMPORARY SHADING. iron rods should be 80 must be placed above the . as they can be lowered on bright. sunny days. and. and drawn up at night. the fall rains in May or Juue. of the glass. mtv amount —perhaps make a thin preparation. and frosts will loosen the shading. if found to be too thin. netting or other material used glass. if hnng on curtain or awning fixtures. It is generally desirable to put on a thin coating early in the spring.

or more. known as a flue 4th. the Polmaise system. by burning wood or coal in a furnac3 . The eysiem. in order that natural conditions may be secured for them. The crudest method is by slowly decomposing vegetable materials. the so-called stove plants should have seventy degrees. known as the Polmaise is not adapted for greenhouse heating. and to secure these temperatures in greenhouses various meth- ods have been devised. although . as in this it is taken up by water and carried wherever needed in the form of steam. and directing the gaseous products of combustior through the house in a brick or tile horizontal chimney. and directing it into the house . although lath screens are very useful. first method . 3d. In our climate. there is nothing better than light frames covered with cotton cloth. For shading cutting benches. the awnings can be easily raised or lowered. CHAPTER XV. "While some plants are not injured by exposure to thirty-two degrees. 2d. and thrive best at forty-five to fifty degrees. most of the plants grown in greenhouses require artificial heat to be maintained from six to nine months of the year. and pulleys. or by . and allowing the heat to radiate into the air. similar structures is only employed in hot beds and the second. the circulation of the water itself. which differs only in the method of conveying the heat.90 GKEENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. GB2EXH0ITSE HEATING. arranged that the shading material will be supported at By means of ropes a height of twelve or fifteen inches. which consists in pass-* ing cool air over a hot iron surface.

are the evenness with which the heat would be distributed. 9\ when combined with the some flue. and measured four to five inches The heaters used were also of copper. Ancient as the method is. Among other things that would be taken into account. was used by the old Romans in warming their dwellings. when a Frenchman. and it is claimed that the circulation of hot water. as a means of conveying heat. in making a selection. resting upon a brick From the kettle two four-inch pipes ran to furnace. reintroduced it. and bear resemblance to those used even fifty years ago . LN" THE EARLY DAYS. Bonnemain. it is sometimes used. the change has been so recent that many of the systems in use to-day are built on quite different principles from those constructed according to the latest id«as. HOT WATER The Romans lating pipes. and the efficiency. It went out of use. generally resembled an open kettle.HEATING WITH HOT WATER. both as concerns the amount and the regularity. little fact. the other end of the house. the length of time the systems will ran without attention. the economy of fuel and attendance. but by most steam or hot water is preferred. and the are believed to have used bronze circufirst pipes used for heating green- houses were of copper. until 1777. tha average person would consider. the hot water heating systems of to-day are comparatively modern inventions. and the effect of each upon plant growth. HEATING WITH HOT WATER. where they entered a copper . ir. the first cost and the durability. "Whatever the method of heating used. is still In sections of the country the flue made florists use of in heating small greenhouses. of the heat supplied. however. and in diameter. This system was one of the first to be used for the heating of greenhouses in modern times.

and here. at once. For thirty years previous to 18S0. the heater at the top. except that closed cast-iron heaters were used. and these are double strength boiler flue pipes. instead of the double strength pipe which should be used. to the fad that many heaters have been made of common gas pipe. They are made of both cast and wrought iron (small ones may be made of copper. they often suffer severe iron is. and while each is generally claimed. When no pipes smaller than one and onefourth inch are used. cast-iron boilers will last much longer than those of wrought iron. and the threads made in. zinc. the durability of the wrought-iron are not heaters will be increased. the surface exposed is quickly eaten through. in part.). when they stand unused in the damp greenhouse stoke-holes. and reservoir (Fig. Modern heaters are made in hundreds of designs. during the long summer months. arises a dispute as to the merits of the two materials. to surpass all others. MODERN" HOT WATER HEATING. This has certainly been the case with some heaters. from which cast-iron pipes carried the water about the houses. "When this thin pipe is threaded. 3). more injured than by the sulphurous and other gases of combustion and. . etc. by its inventor.d'Z GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION". ending in large open expansion tanks or distrib- uting reservoirs. The wrought cast-iron. also. it is claimed by some that injury. The pipes were perfectly level. the usual method one left of heating greenhouses was similar to the one described above. while the return entered at the bottom. for these reasons. forming the flow. it is a hard matter to decide which one is really best. The wrought iron is more likely to rust and. but it has been due.

but the points noted in the third have much to do with the ease of firing and caring for the heater. or tubes. removal of smoke. By doing . The arrangement of the water sections. we may have a heater that is efficient and economical of fuel. it is desirable to so arrange the draft and flues. known fire is it. but will render more cumbersome. obtained.. and the arrangements for shaking.. and compactness make-up of the heater should be considered 1. etc. 2. the following points in the : proper adjustment to the grate area. it necessitates a corresponding increase of the area of fire surface. 4. 93 WATER HEATER. and the circulation of the water in the heater. the arrangement very effective heating surface. regulating the draft. while those in the fourth will be desirable in case leaks occur. the same effect can be. etc. ARRANGEMENT OF THE FIRE SURFACE. w hich T will it not only add to the cost of the boiler. The character of the joints. POINTS FOR A HOT WATER HEATER. removing the ashes. and its simplicity. and the ease with which leaks can be repaired> and breaks mended. of construction. in part. Ease of cleaning the flues. 1. that the products of combustion are carried in as indirect a course as is possible. and is not objectionable on the contrary. and increase the amount of circulation of water in the heater. and yet secure a proper draft for combustion. If the first and second requirements are met. is When such that horizontal surfaces cannot be secured over the firepot. POINTS FOR A HOT Aside from durability. it affords lar tubes. if the direction of the draft is such that the flames are drawn at right angles towards perpendicuWhen this can be brought about. dumping. The amount and arrangement of the direct heating (fire) surface. It is well that a surface arranged at right angles to the that is nearly twice as efficient as one parallel to Unless this can be secured. 3.

horizontal. While grate areas it is of importance that heaters have draft. etc. To obtain the best results. or even all three jof these ways. ill drop tubes. but will not. the greater economy shall tact with the water sections. each of which makes a single short circulation. taken as the limit. ARRANGEMENT OF THE WATER SECTIONS AND TUBES. than it is to have thin sheets. GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. the ample and a good amount and arrange- ment of the fire surface is of equal importance. or a combination of two. The arrangement of the fire surface will. but.91 this. or compelled to pass in a zigzag . the entire mass of water that flows through the heater warmed by convection. it square feet of radiating surface. circulation in the heater should be as short as and it is better to have the water spread out in and with the arrangement such that the water is divided into a number of portions. In a gen- eral way. we can we find in the heater. the amount of water. but for this no general some heaters have their surface set upon one square foot of grate area can . The possible. determine the position of the water in the sections and tubes. will be more economical if two hundred fifty is square feet of radiating surface 2. The nearer we approach this. and by repeatedly bringing this heated air in con- finally lower the temperature down approximately to that of the water. a square foot of grate surface will supply two hundred and as a rule. as nicely arranged that the heat liberated of heating surface. of course. necessarily. the grate area and fire surface should be carefully adjusted.be taken up by fifteen square feet rule can be given. while in other heaters thirty-five or forty feet of fire surface will be insufficient. the water in the ordinary heaters is vertical. regulate the direction of The circulation of the flow.

and the matter ot shaking. as they are about to leave the heater. On the other hand. It is self-evident that anything that adds to the Con» venience of a heater will be desirable. In this way. if possible. the friction will be decreased and the circulation improved. a heater cannot be made in which there will not be. used there is little ment. is the matter of cleaning the flues. Another thing that it is desirable to secure.POINTS FOR A HOT WATER HEATER. Unless there is " great loss of heat. In this way considerable heat will be saved that would otherwise jmsf they form a very large tubes are danger of their filling up with sedivertical. and the principal objection that can be urged against them is that the water cannot be drawn off from them. and regulating of drafts should be Of especial importance. The drop good tubes used in many is boilers present a very fire surface. as the water circulation effective portion of the heater. and to this extent it is desirable. is the bringing of the products of combustion. in contact with tubes or sections containing the return water. however. dumping. . an accumulation of soot. in some portion. ARRANGEMENTS FOR CLEANING AND FIRING. can still take up heat from gases that have been in contact with iron surfaces that are 200° or more. 95 course through a number of different tubes and sections. When up the 3. the vertical tube tends to reduce friction. smoke pipe. and it this is unon any of the heating surfaces it should be considered. It can be readily seen that water at 175° coming back in the returns. the friction produced by one circuit of the water in a horizontal section is so slight that it is often more than counterbalanced by the increased efficiency of the horizontal fire surface. too. So far as circulation goes. as the ends are directly over the grate. and.

face requiring cleaning is small and easily cleaned. particularly in wroughtiron heaters. it would be well to take the one which comes the nearest go constructed that. it can still be of great value if it does not possess one or more of them but in selecting a heater. A heater in which the flues can* not be kept clean is of little value. but it is desirable that they be easy of access. the joints are packed and Everything the parts are drawn together with bolts. and in selecting a heater this should be considered. or. which would more than counterbalance the cleaning required by the other. surest. frequently removed. SIMPLICITY OF CONSTRUCTION. While all of the points enumerated above are deemed desirable in a heater. their some heaters are practically heating surface may be less effective. 4. it one section . as well as the character and The screw joint is perhaps the location of the joints. actual trouble flues of would be very and although the self-cleaning. the slight. can be cut out of the circulation. Some if of the sectional heaters are is broken in any way. to possessing them all. the better. and the greater the If the surease with which it can be done. as is more common. . Many tion. and so arranged that they can be repacked should else serious leaks occur. being equal the fewer joints there are. but it has one ojection.96 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. while the fact that one or more important features were lacking might not prevent its being chosen. and the heater can then be used without it until the section is mended or a new one procured. In case the section has to be replaced by another. fairly reliable. the less chance there will be of leaks. as the threads tend to increase the corrodPacked joints are ing influence of the sulphur gases. heaters are quite intricate in their construcdifferent parts and the are fastened with screw joints. the arrangement should be such that the change can be readily made.

and at the points wnere In the modern system the branches left the main lines. ferred for short runs. from the 97 7 . there is chance of leaky joints or of cracked pipes .CHAPTER XVL PIPES AND PIPING. and can be screwed together instead of having to pack the less numerous joints . it is necessary to provide four times the amount of water for the circulation that the two-inch contains. is at a much lower temperature. although the cast-iron four-inch pipe has only twice the radiating surface. In the old styles of hot water plants. while the small wrought-iron pipe can be carried in the very angle of the ridge if desired. on account of the size and weight of the four-inch pipe it is necessary to have them lew down under the benches but little above the level of the heater. the large pipe carrying a large quantity of water and giving a slow circulation. so that some florists count a two-inch wrought-iron pipe equivalent in heating capacity to a four-inch cast-iron pipe. the pipes were put together with shoulders and packed joints. and with large expansion and distributing tanks at the ends of the runs. two-inch pipe is the largest used for the coils. and thus a far more rapid circulation can be maintained than with large pipe . while one and one-fourth inch and one and one-half inch are preof four-inch cast-iron. and a smaller radiating surface will suffice when small pipe is used. particularly on the returns. Some of the advantages of the modern system may be stated as follows: The lengths of pipe are from two to nearly four times as long.

the small pipes will give a much more economical circulation than the large ones. while the cool water from above takes its place. e the expansion tank. and that the water contained therein . and g the and return pipe). and this will necessitate increased ventilation and perhaps cause serious injury from drafts of cold air. they can be carried to a much greater distance. pressed out of the way by the heavier cool water which pushes into its place. to say nothing of the loss of heat. as flow shown in Fig. large pipe the amount of heat given off on "bright. on mild winter nights. Let us suppose that a fire is built under the boiler. to go without attention. sunny days when it is not needed. in addition to the points enumerated above. as has been claimed that the large piping is safer to This is undoubtedly will hold the heat longer. 3 (a represents the heater. The method of circulating in a hot water apparatus can be best understood by reference to one of the old styles.98 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. out but. use. even temperature can be maintained with small pipes for ten to twelve hours. and the heat will be far more even. a regular. finally. with a wellgo allowed to fire is the true. as there is no pressure of the kind exerted. The term " upward pressure " is often used in speaking of hot water circulation but although it is a convenient one to use. will be from two to four times as much as from small ones. if arranged system. weight of the cooler water in the pipe. and the only reason for circulating is that the weight of the hot water is more than balanced by the . and seven to eight hours on severe nights. it really has nothing to do with the circulation. The same thing can be seen in a kettle of water where the water in the center is warmed and is pushed to the top. which is as long as it is desirable for the houses It it . and it passes upward. Hot water has a downward pressure equal to its own weight.

" and methods are the "up-hill. the reason for the success of the overnead system of piping can be readily seen. but in the first case the pipa ri>*}S o»« "'oot ?*i passing through . PIPES SLOPE? the various " down-hill. to establish an equilibrium. and as this difference in weight is what causes w ater to circulate. circulating force is governed by the comparative weight of the warm water in the different parts of the system. In each case the height of the flow pipe at the point where it starts to make a circuit of the house is six feet ab*»vo the bottom of the boiler. 57. weight. then in If the heat is continued. other particles are set in motion the same way. the same as in PIPES SLOPE? 99 It ia an ordinary kettle. the last. The sann effect could. The pressure of the water varies with the height of the columns. however. crowding the lighter water into the upper pipe. is not desirable when small pipes are used. and 3 . known is that water when warmed from 39° If the it to 212° in- creases in bulk one twenty-fourth. r HOW FHALL THE Among 1.HOW SHALL THE becomes warm. be secured were it convenient to do so by lowering the heater. the water in e will pass along the lower pipe to a. There has been considerable discussion for many years as to the best way of running the pipes. and. one twenty-fourth." and " level. the difference between the weights of the two columns will be increased in about the same ratio. however. as well as the temperature of the water. water in a warmed up e is to the boiling point has decreased in The water one twenty-fourth heavier than in a. If the height of the columns is increased. per cubic inch. 2. but even now very few persons agree as to the proper method of arranging them. and the rapidity of the circulation The will increase until it is balanced by the friction." these are shown in Fig.

The "pressure" is determined by the relative weight of the water on either side of the highest point of the (1) (2) (3) FIG. in the second it falls a foot. and in the third In changing direction at the further end. and on the return a fall of one foot is made by the first and second systems. system. the system . s^e the same. as the highest point in each system would then have been. while the third remains at the same height until it has nearly reached the heater.100 the house it . when it its level. When the size and the length of the pipe.. and it would have been a comparison had the flow pipe for the "up-hill'* system left the heater at a height of five feet rather than six. a foot fall is made by each pipe. six feet above the bottom of the boiler. 57. THE SLOPE OF THE fairer PIPES. does not change Irops to the level of the bottom of the heater. etc. the connections. GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION.

Were each pipe ten feet long.0125 of a pound.. the water in the flow pipe should be as light (hot) as possible. As we wish to keep the water in the pipe between the heater and the highest point of tne system from cooling.HOW SHALL THE that is PIPES SLOPE? 101 arranged to give the greatest difference between the weights of the water on either side of the highest point. everything else being For convenience let us consider that in each system the "flow" pipe extends from the heater to the highest point of the piping. If the flow pipe is short. will have the best circulation. and were the two united there would be a "pressure" of . entering at the bottom. that in the return pipes should be as heavy (cool) as possible. while. while in (1) it is at the extreme end of the system . the remainder of the system should be of small pipe. and the returns extend from that point back to the boiler. the water in one would weigh ten pounds and in the other 10.125 pounds. the return in (1) is only one-half as long as in (2) and (3). . To secure a good circulation. a large pipe should there be used. that it may not be subjected to cooling influences. Considering the average temperature of the water in the flow pipe to be 200° F. Turning to the illustration we shall see that the highest point in (2) and (3) is directly over the heater. so that the cooling will be only about one-half as great. and that in the returns 170°. and this can be best secured. considerable. a cubic foot of the latter will be one-eightieth heavier than a cubic foot of water at 200°. If a pipe one foot high contains one pound of water at 200°. and. as it is desirable to cool off the water in the returns. if the distance is equal. everything else being equal. In order that there maybe a difference in the weight of the two columns of water. and there would be a pressure of an eighth of a pound.0125 pounds of water at 170°. the pipe should be a3 short as possible. then the highest point in the system must be near the heater. the same pipe will hold 1.

the pipes cannot be carried on a level. a flow pipe is filled This would be the pressure then in a hot water apparatus under the above conditions.0910 lbs. thus he seen that the pressure increases with the height of the columns.125 of a pound when the return was ten feet high. On the other hand. if As just with water at 200° and we consider it to weigh one pound for each foot of pipe. if necessary there may be vari- . there will be a pressure of . and hence as the next best method they should be given a gradual fall throughout their length. perature of 185° and of five feet to 170°. taking pains to keep them as high as possible in order to secure pressure. if the pipes are each ten (shown.0125X5=5. and at the greatest convenient height. As we wish to have as much weight as possible in the returns.0910 of a pound. suppose that after passing to the farther end of the house it drops perpendicularly five There will feet and returns at that level to the heater. and we should have (185°) when it has cooled down (170°) 1.=.0625 10. or a loss of . or eighty times as It will much as at one foot.125 of a pound from a return filled with water at 170° F. c. then be a head of five feet where the water has a temfeet high.0910— 10.0057X5=5.. the flow pipe rises ten feet above the heater.034 of a pound as compared with the other method. While it will be best to have long straight runs.102 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. and passing through the house returns to a point over the heater. i. with the same slone throughout.0285 1. while at eighty feet there would be one pound pressure. this shows a pressure of only . they should be brought back to a point near the heater at as near a level as possible. As compared with a pressure of 0. without changing its height. In order to allow the air to escape.

In some cases the down-hill piping (2). and the up-hill system (1). OVEB VS. The overhead system. It is unquestionable that if all the pipes are above the benches. and the up-hill piping gives the least pressure. particularly if the pipes are under the bench. although. Experi- ments to test the matter have shown little if any difference in the results. and circulation can till be kept up. Fig. and the pressure. there is an improvement in circulation. all of which will be largely done by the overhead main. or even a part of them. 57. as explained above. 103 ous changes iu the level of the pipes. and fully as good if not better growth of plants as when all are below. the amount of light obstructed will be comparatively small as if . however.. will serve the purpose. the circulation will be better than if all. provided the necessary vents for removJg the air are provided. 57 (1). The principal benefits from overhead piping are (1) the melting of snow and ice on the roof. is sufficient to overcome all friction. Theoretically. UNDER BENCH PIPING. the level piping. are below. whether all of the pipes are above or below the benches. moreover. 57 (3). If one or two pipes are placed upon each plate. the heat. will not be as well distributed the pipes are spread out below the benches. cannot be used to advantage. and the others near the purlins. With the slight difference in can be secured in greenhouse heating. gives the greatest pressure the down-hill system comes next. as piped in Fig. but with the feed pipe above the bench and the coils below. the pressure with a coil seven feet high is about the same as with the level piping in a coil six feet high. level that OVER VS. as in Fig. and this plan should be used whenever practicable. UNDER BENCH PIPING. (2) taking the chill from cold drafts of air and (3) drying off the plants after syringing. . the difference in efficiency will hardly be noticeable.

For coils up five feet in length. In this way. since the friction iucreases as the size of the pipe decreases. may be considerably increased. to one one and one-half inch pipe will be Two-inch pipe will work well up fifty feet. one-inch pipe would be preferable. If it can be so arranged. hundred and but it is better in all houses over one hundred feet long to use two or more short coils of one and one-half inch pipe. AND AMOUNT OF The size of pipe best suited for the coils depends upon the length as well as upon the height of the coils.10± GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION". CHAPTER SIZE XVII. and the returns above the While this gives a good circulation. by having proper flow and return pipes connected with the coils. Considered as radiating surface only. and those under the benches to the returns. the coils higher than they are in the underbench system and a more rapid circulation is secured. houses three hundred feet long can be heated with hot water. results can be obtained if the pipes are placed in the same way except that the overhead pipes are attached to the flow pipe from the boiler. entirely satisfactory. however. The returns under the bench can either be of the same size as those above. and if the height is sufficient. except for very short runs. Inch and onethe length to seventy- quarter pipe can be used to advantage in coils not over forty feet long. but. or of a carries larger size. Some houses have bean piped with the flow pipes under the side benches. better benches. a larger size should generally be used. PIPE. it will be better to have houses one hundred and fifty feet long on either .

for every five feet of exposed wall. allowance should be made for it by adding the glass surface one foot. and the amount of exposed wall surface should be considered.SIZE FOR MAINS. In most parts of the country we can reckon that square foot of pipe will heat to 40° 4Va square feet of glass. side of a potting will really 105 shed and connecting passage. For houses of average length. In computing the amount of radiation required for a house. and with the average height of the coils six feet above the bottom of the heater. but if the runs are short and the coils elevated they may be increased fifty per cent. should be considered. which three hundred feet long while. or if the roof not tight. exposure. TO ESTIMATE RADIATION. as well as the number of square feet of radiation to be supplied. of the 2 inch pipe will supply 200 to " " " 600 to 3 300 800 square feet of jadiation. the climate. as well as the When is temperature to be maintained. " " " " " " 5(1 " " 4 " » " " " « 65° 3% " " 1 " " " '• 1 " " " * C0° 3 " « •< » « « " 65° 2V 1 2 u u « 7QO 2 *• «* H J 1 1 «« . " " " " «< 3V2 " " " 800 to iOOO " With long coils and light pressure these figures will need to be slightly reduced. construction of the house. and a corresponding increase for the poor to glazing. make houses SIZE FOR MAINS. In determining the size for the feed pipes the length house and the height that the coils will have. with the heater located at the center. they will be only one hundred and fifty feet in length so far as the heating apparatus is concerned. the walls are high or poorly built.

In estimating the surface of wrought-iron pipe. flow pipe will be needed for each of the side benches. or the flow pipes may be over the tables and the returns underneath. especially for tropical houses. each seventy-five feet long. the arrangement shown in Fig. WIDE EVEN SPAN HOUSE. " " " " " " " " " " " PIPING THE HOUSES. 58.344 IVi 434 .497 . 58 is a good one. If the under-bench system is used.106 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION"* While a slightly higher estimate would be safe. it is economy to have an abundant radiation. have them all above the benches. or three of fifty feet each.) will When answer for a house one hundred the coils are of one and one-half inch pipe there should be two. upon each side. When the house is one hundred and fifty feet long a three-inch all FIG. In arranging the heating pipes we can place them under the benches. (A two-inch pipe feet long. UNDER BENCH PIPING.621 iy2 2 " " square foot per linear foot. 1 inch tiipe " is ieckoned at " " " « " . With two coils .

where a twoinch branch should be taken off at the side by means of a hot water T . except FIG.riPING THE HOUSES. UNDER BENCH PIPING FOR NARROW EVEN SPAN HOUSE. 59. and falling at the rate of one inch in twenty middle of the house. that the branches should be of one and one-half inch If desired. where it should connect with the coil. however. the main should be continued by mean? of a two-inch pipe to the farther end of the house. the coil can be of two-inch pipe. 10? the mains should enter the house close to the bottom of the bench. If the bench is too low to admit of a proper fall of the . The return pipes should fall towards the heater at the rate of one inch in ten or twelve feet. feet should pass to the In a house one hundred feet long the two-inch feed pipe should be run in the same way as the above. in one piece. pipe.

59. the be given a gradual rise to the farther end. flow may walk. or if the return can be placed below the level of the flow pipe from. and thus a fall can be secured for the returns. and of the return towards the heater. 60. Another method that will be preferable to either of the above when the bench is high enough to give a fall. and the returns can come back underneath. of pipe In carnation and other cool houses where the amount is so small that it can be carried upon the plate and purlins. from the heater. OVERHEAD PIPING. fali OTERHEAD PIPING. The feed ipe can be carried upon the ridge posts . is to attach the feed pipes to the coils at the end nearest the heater. the overhead piping will perhaps be desirable. and particularly in " short-span to the south'* houses. The arrangement of the pipes in a narrow even span house to be heated to forty-five degrees i? shown in Kg. SHORT SPAN TO THE SOUTH HOUSE. The coils can then be given a FIG.108 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION.

may be above. the give good results. all of the legs. 63 illustrates a method of piping a With a good fall. and the returns it. FIG. and the returns. as one or two large ones. For most commercial establishments the above arrangement will be preferable to having all the pipes above. 61. vertical coils upon the bench In the north-side propagating house. or the flows. coil can be used for a long run. One method is illustrated in Fig. each fifty feet long. COMBINED OVERHEAD AND UNDE9-BENCH PIPING. 62 sixty-five degrees. but . feed pipes (one and one-half inch) can be taken off to feed the first coils. as several small pipes. COMBINED OVERHEAD AND UXDER-BENCH PIPING. in which the main is carried near the ridge. hundred will feet long For an even-span house one and twenty feet wide to be carried at arrangement illustrated in Fig. GO).PIPING TIIK HOUSES. Fig. where branch pipes can be connected with the other coils. (Fig. At the middle of the house. 61. and the main can be extended as a two-inch pipe to the end of the house. 109 as and the returns arranged shown in the sketch. pipes are under the bench. one and one-half inch pipes in the it will generally be better to make two coils on a side. or all under the benches. below.

PIPING NARROW HOUSES. a twoinch pipe at the ridge will feed three one aud one-half . 81 than when they are shows a method of arrang- ing the heating pipes under the be. . 63. to be kept at fifty degrees. Fig. it has some combined system. Thus. EVEN SPAN HOUSE. are placed horizontally.110 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. trate COMBINED PIPING. 62. 52. making proper reductions in the number of the pipes in the coils. ventilators. which probefficient ably makes them more arranged vertically. etc. and 81 are designed to illus- As the main of the merits of the FIG. 100X20 feet. The coils. there is a bench across the farther end of the is somewhat elevated. 62. 65 degrees. fifty feet forcing house one hundred and feet long and twenty wide that is to be kept at sixty-five degrees. they also show various ways the walls. and in the size of the main. as in Fig. It will be noticed that although Figs. methods of piping. In low and narrow houses the same methods of piping can be used. posts of building and braces^ benches. for a span-roof house twelve feet wide and one hundred feet long.ohes that can be used when house.

The overhead mains can be fastened to the posts by means of cast-iron brackets. can be used at one FIG. a mitre should be arranged if headers are to be used at both ends. or. 65 degrees. to feed the same number of The heating surface will be most efficient if it is distributed evenly under the benches. system is to be used. manifolds built up of Ts and nipples. better. while under the bench they . another and one-half inch flow pipes under each bench. but as they will then occupy considerable space that could be occupied by mushroom beds (Fig. 64. cast-iron headers. The coils can be carried across the end of the house and end in headers at the center. Ill inch returns under each bench. it will generally be preferable to group them tinder the side benches. but on account of danger from the unequal expansion of the pipes. COMBINED PIPING FOR FORCING HOUSE. 58) or for other purposes. to which branches from the feed pipe can be attached. as in Fig. a two-inch feed two one and one-half inch method would be to use two one returns. end of straight runs. 150X20 feet . 63. if the under-benoli flow on each side Still will returns. In building the coils.PIPING HARROW HOUSES. or.

and the horizontal coils can be supported as in Fig. to way affects the circulation. in case the piping is down hill). and connected with it (at the highest point. In order to regulate the flow of the water through there should be angle or gate valves upon the upon the branch feed pipes. 58 and 62. with a draw-off cock so that the water can be removed. VALVES AND EXPANSION TANK. or upon pieces of gas pipe suspended from the bench crossbearers by iron hooks. ARRANGEMENT OF THE COILS. The expansion tank should be raised as high above the mains as possible. and if it is desiror returns. The vertical coils can be fastened in the same way.112 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. can be supported by pipe hooks upon the bench legs. able to arrange the house so that heat can be shut ofE for the coils. a portion of the winter. FIG. as it merely raises the boiling . according to the The elevation of the tank in no the system. 63. there should be valves on both the flow and return mains where they enter the house. by a pipe from one extent of two inches in diameter. 64. as seen in Figs.

but to have the system provided with a safety-valve. When the down-hill system is used. or quarter-inch gas pipes points. and merely raises the point to which the One water can be heated without forming steam. as in the open tank. 113 The tank may be of galvanized iron. is used. or a riveted boiler-iron closed thirds the tank with the same connections and a water gauge on the side. when water is carried at 220°. which. without a cover. point of the water. with the tank at the highest point. wherever the pipe takes an upward turn.HOT WATER UXDER-PRESSURE. in order to keep up the temperature when the thermometer goes down below zero. which could be thrown on when it became necessary. at this temperature. The only difference is that there is no vent in the top of the tank. . with the expansion pipe connected with the bottom. more heat will be carried up the chimney with the products of combustion. than when the water is 180°. 8 . many florists combine a closed expansion tank with it. It is an excellent plan to have the hoase supplied with sufficient radiating surface to maintain the required temperature in the average winter weather with an open tank. air vents should be provided. and an overflow pipe attached about twoway up the side. much less heating pipe is required than when it is only 160°. advantage of this is that. but a serious objection is that it now has one of the faults of steam as. at the highest Air cocks can be used. carries the waste water to a drain. The closed tank has the same effect as does the elevated one. HOT WATER UXDER-PRESSURE. Unless the down-hill ^system. The tank should be of boiler-iron with top and bottom securely thus far it does not differ from those comriveted on monly used in the open system. and that there is a safety valve on the overflow.

and they can even be carried below the level of the heater. carried above the level of the expansion pipe will answer and are preferable if the tank is not much elevated. If for any reason it becomes necessary to change the direction or the level of the pipes.114 GREBNHOTJSB CONSTRUCTION. but it should not be done unless In all downward changes there is an abundant pressure. and.. The returns can be connected in much the same way. as is very convenient. and the feed mains can be carried along the wall of the head house. the arrangements will need to he such as If. Although an expensive method of piping and ing greenhouses. it should be the least amount possible. the force required to bring the water back to its original level will be in proportion to ths cooling that main pipes course and run over or under If necessary. If air vents are . If there is a range of houses to be connected with One system. CHANGES OF DIRECTION AND LEVEL. of level. heafc» many must florists all prefer to use four-inch be under the benches. pipes. The joints should be packed firmly with oakum or tarred rope. the level of the coils. just above the doors that open into the greenhouses. with The pipes substantial brick piers. the houses have a common head house. reducing tees. Every change in directioa increases the friction and decrease* the flow. but the return main will be below will suit the conditions. CONNECTING THE DIFFERENT SYSTEMS. upon provided at frequent intervals the pipes may be level . FOUR-INCH HEATING PIPES. 45° ells. and the branches can be taken on* from this. should be used. otherwise a slight down-hill arrangement will be preferable. in doing it. etc. the heater can be situated in the center. can be changed from their an obstruction. the takes place between the fall and rise.

CHAPTER XVIII. PIPING IN GENERAL. Carmody FIG. if desired. and will only need to be slightly modified to suit the various conditions. are of a very durable construction and. 65) is selected as the type of the verticaX sec . the selecmade with the idea of showing the construction of different types rather than of advocating the use of any particular heater. possess the important .EOT "WATER HEATERS. cast-iron radiators can be used. While we can recommend most of these from our own tion was experience. like others of the class. that expansion and contraction may not break the joints. HOT WATER HEATERS. are there heaters fully as other that may be The effective. The same pipes apply to general rules as to the arrangement of the all kinds of houses. tional heaters. For large conservatories. it will be necessary to have all of the pipes arranged in stacks along the sides. and at the outer edge of the joint. 65. particularly if the center of the house is filled with plants growing in the ground. In the illustrations of heaters presented. If the runs are long the pipes should rest on gas-pipe rollers. They heater (Fig. CARMODY HEATER. 115 iron cement or Portland cement between the layers. or.

but differing in being non-sectional. . flues are culation. are such well-known heaters . should it at any time become necessary. FIG. 66.. .. advantage of permitting the addition of other sections. HITCHINGS' HEATER. - FIG. In some respects similar to the Carmody. . WEATHERED CONICAL HEATER.. for the most part. 67..11C GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. is vertical. The water cir*. -. and the arranged to give an effective heating surface.

Smith. For small greenhouses the Weathered Conical Heater (Fig. over the fire-pot. the corrugations are replaced by quite deep inal section is increased by square cells. there will be a considerable loss of flue. it is very effectively rather small for the grate area. in very cold weather. will surpass those of this class in the nish. Few heaters. For houses. 68 we present the Spence as showing the general form of the horizontal sectional heaters. or in the cool amount of heat they will fureconomy of their coal consumption. The construction of the flues is such as brings the product* . In Fig. The sections are arranged fire-pot is parallel. fire They differ principally in the arrangement of their surfaces. economy is to select that a size larger than be really necessary. or when carrying full about two-thirds of their factory results. others of similar construction will be found quite powerful and efficient. they give very satis- While their surface is arranged. as the Hitchings. one above the other. and. SPENCE HEATER.HOT WATER HEATERS. The surrounded with a Avater jacket so that a firebrick lining is not required. fire radiation. 68. 117 and "Weathered. 66. 67) or FIG. while. in the Smith. with equal grate areas. In the Hitchings' corrugated heater. the fire surface is means of rounded corrugations. as with others. of which a longitud- shown in Fig. in case the heaters are working up to their full capacity. heat through the smoke it is With one would these heaters.

water heater is constructed on principles almost It is exactly the reverse of those found in the Spence. (2d and 4th Sections. and are. and the second and fourth in Fig 70. the water having passed through one section. The first. The Fur71). and the large ones brick-set (Fig. the readi- FIG. they can be taken apart if any of the tabes are broken. of combustion repeatedly in contact with the heating surface. the difficulty can be corrected by the addition of more sections. 300 Series) and the Palace King have much the same construction. 72). third. the small sizes generally being portable (Fig.) FIG. in case of leakage or breaks. SPENCE HEATEB. man hot. The points claimed for this heater are. and. economy of fuel. 3d and 5th Sections. SPENCE HEATEH. and if this is not sufficient to absorb all of the heat. They are used either for steam or hot water. The cast-iron screw joints will prob- . (No. as the parts are screwed together. is prevented from entering another. The Furman heaters may be taken very likely. as the «ype of the drop tube patterns. readiness of cleaning. (1st. and yet. The Gurney. 70.) ness with which repairs can be made. 69. few and tight joints. By the arrangement of the water column in the rear. not sectional in the small sizes. perfect and rapid circulation. The water is spread out in a thin sheet in the sections and cannot enter the feed pipes until it has made a complete circuit of one section.Ufi eBXBSHOUSB coNSTEuanoa. and fifth sections are shown in Fig. 69. fully as efficient.

in giving it A happy illustration of the effect of a off in the coils. it is better to have two heaters in a battery. with side center. this also tends to secure fubmak poetperfect combustion to the FIG « ?!• ABLB heateb (Steam). It will be 119 noted chat the heating sur- face consists of oval drop tubes. if anything. the correct one. rapid circulation upon the amount of heat taken up by the water. As previously stated. than one very large one. Where and where two large heaters will do the work on a pinch. which is of importance in taking up the heat and. In the Furman. however. it is not possible to decide which is the correct one . very edge of the fire-pot. from our trial of the two heaters here. Although constructed upon a general plan exactly opposite that of the Spence. so arranged that the water passes a diaphragm in the down on one is and up the other. also. as there is less friction than in horizontal tubes or secIt gives a very rapid circulation. ibly never leak. it absorb. the attempt is made to secure the direct action of the fire upon pass the tubes. the vertical circulation. faster the water travels past the fire. the more The water it takes up.HOT WATHB HVATBB&. as secured in the Furman. is the wind blow* ing over a muddy road. the faster it moves. and the less will up the smoke pipe. by means of lateral draft between them. the size of the plant will warrant. . From their shape is and arrangement. the Spence is more economical of fuel. very little cleaning of the flues necessary. the more heat will tions.

or in case of an accident to one of the others.120 it is GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. resting over an oil stove. and run for eight or ten hours without attention. AH . or galvanized iron. If a siugle heater large enough to do the work in the most severe weather is used. used. of heater to use. zinc. by having two heaters in a battery. 73. shown in Fig. one or both can be used as may be necessary. but. 72. it will be twice as large as will be required in the mild weather of Spring and Fall. better results will bo conservatory obtained. THE SIZE OF HEATER TO USE. Having determined upon the kind the size to obtain is of considerable importance.. Most of them have coal magazines. will provide heat for a small A . desirable to have a third one to fall back on in severe weather. may be taken as a sample. FURMAN BRICK-SET HEATER first (Steam). From the FIG. it will simplicity of the hot water apparatus as be seen that good results can be obtained from almost any kind of a heater that provides for a proper connection. of which that made by Hitchings & Co. but. if some arrangement can be made for increasing the heating surface. there are many forms of portable hot water heaters. For use in small conservatories. simple can of copper.

. provided it is ample to absorb the heat produced by the combustion. heaters this should suffice. the latter may be left out of the question for the present. aud as a rule it will be well to deduct at least twenty-five per cent.THE 6IZE OF HEATER TO USE. with less than one thousand feet of radiating surface. it will be at the expense of an excessive amount of fuel and labor. claimed for them at a pinch. 121 greenhouse heaters are rated by the manufacturers as number of square feet of Although most of them will do what is radiation. but in small establishments. The comparative area equal to supplying a certain of grate and fire surface in heaters varies with their arrangement to such an extent that. slow fire in a large fire box. The most economical results with hot water can only be obtained with a thin. hitchings' base be exceeded. In establishments where cheap fuel is used and a night fireman employed. it has been stated that for economy the ratio of one to ^^^S^mZ two hundred should not fig. Basing the required grate area upon the number of square feet of radiating surface. 73. the proportion of one square foot of grate surface to one hundred and fifty square feet of radiating surface will be none too much for the economical consumption of fuel. from the manufacturers' rating in estimating the capacity of a heater. provided the radiation itself was ample. With large BUSHING heater.

fuel. and a heater with a grate containing four square feet will be required. upon the climate. If it contains 8. but. to supply two hundred and square feet of radiation. Of course. For an establishment then of 2. in addition to the temperature to be maintained. 2. etc.122 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION.. the ccn»< struction of the house. the exposure. and for 16.400 square feet of glass. . but would require stoking once in three or four hours when the grate surface is as small a3 given in the last 8xample.000 square feet of radiation and ten square feet of grate surface will be necessary.000 and sixteen In the first two cases the fires can be left at night without attention for eight hours in zero weather. and one foot of radiating surface will heat about four square feet of glass.000 square feet of glass the radiation and grate surfaces will be respectively 4. 600 square feet of radiating surface will be necessary. as a rule. the average temperature in a greenhouse may be taken as fifty degrees. square feet. fifty one square foot of grate surface will burn enough with a good draft.000 square feet of glass. the ratio of radiating and glass surface must be based.

where a regnlar night fireman can be employed. In steam heating we have the choice of two methods. The principal arguments in its favor are that less radiating surface is required than with low pressure steam or with water. and it was found in the moaern steam greenhouse-heating plants. is preferable. For low pressure 123 .000 square feet of glass. STEAM HEATING. With the wonderful growth of commercial floral establishments during the past ten years. Some of the horizontal tubular boilers are generally used and give general satisfaction. high or low pressure.CHAPTER XIX. the Bame rules and method of piping would answer here as were given for hot water. STEAM BOILERS AND THEIR LOCATION. and that steam can be carried to considerable distances. carrying a maximum of five pounds pressure. For small plants the low pressure system. or the hot water system with four-inch pipes. ticularly applicable in large plants TVxch more than 12. although some cast-iron tubular boilers are claimed by the inventors to withstand higher pressures than This method of heating is parthose of wrought-iron. and euabling the most extensive ranges of house to be heated from one boiler-room. In the first it is preferable to use wrought-iron boilers rather than the average one of castiron. thus centralizing the boilers. and generally not over two pounds. In a general way. a need arose for something more efficient and applicable to larger houses than the old-fashioned flue.

makes his the best. If constructed w ith manifolds. and a fire surface at right angles to the draft. if we can believe the inventors. one and one-fourth inch pipe is preferred by most florists. the difference in their real efficiency is very slight. running on a slight decline. ARRANGEMENT OF THE STEAM PIPES. when the flow is carried overhead. where it should be broken up to supply the coils. particularly with high pressure. with the flues so arranged as to absorb the greatest possible amount of heat. pressure they work more slowly and are less satisfactory.124 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. one-inch pipe may be used. the requirements for a good steam are also used with success for hot water. good draft. or. and in fact all connections. boiler are They ample grate surface. if in separate lines. steam traps can be used. however. In locating the boiler. and lift it to the water level of the boiler with low it . For small houses the locomotive boiler seems to be a cheap and economical heater. The main for each house should be carried along under the ridge to the farther end. As in the hot water heaters. a manifold valve should be used. all but one pipe on each side should be arranged so that it can be shut off in mild weather. The slope of the coils should be towards the boiler. For short coils. that will remove the water from the return. in r . In making the coils. whether high or low pressure. poorly drained pits. but if this is not possible without sinking the boiler in dark. pains should be taken to have low enough so that the water level will be at least two feet below the lowest heating pipe. there are dozens of cast-iron boilers. each of whirm has points that. really. The method given for the arrangement of the hot water pipes can be followed with few changes for steam. but if of considerable length. great care should be taken to allow for expansion.

and if. warmer than that of hot water pipes. near the boiler. a house will require for each 1.200 " " " " " " The surface of the steam pipes is from thirty to fifty per cent. and on the return. house the retains should bo collected into one pipe. " " " " With high pressure. one return pipe is carried along on the wall plate. 175 60° to 70°. it is well to have the pipes somewhat distributed. There should be an automatic air valve on each of the coils at the lower end. and a corresponding decrease of the necessary radiating surface can be made. before it comes in contact with the plants. a « « » « « 400 " 2V2 3 4 " " " " " " 800 1. 125 At *he end of the order to return the condensed water. that are susceptible to cold this will be found a decided advantage. which should enter the boiler below the water level. or 300 linear feet.000 square feet of glass. For low pressure steam.AMOUNT OF PIPE FOR STEAM. both for mains and than when hot Avater is used. will much it main of pipe. a considerable reduction can be boiler. in addition to the mains. can be reckoned that a less For the 2 IV2 inch pipe will supply 200 square feet of radiation. coils. it is well to have both a valve and a check valve. 1*4 45° to 50°. it will tend to warm the cold air that enters through the ventilators. made from the above. drafts. in addition to the overhead mains. to warm it to feet. AMOUNT OF The amount be PIPE FOR STEAM. 140 50° to 60°. or cracks in the glass. 225 square " " " " " 400 " 500 " " " " " " inch pipe. As recommended for hot water. With plants like cucumbers and roses. In figuring the capacity of a aoout fifteen feet of heating (lire) surface should be reckoned as one .G0O " " " " " 3.

a steam boiler with twelve square feet of grate can be made to heat with economy 12.000 square feet of Under favorable conditions. The matter is so important that it is well to again mention the advisability of putting in a boiler with a . a large steam boiler will handle more glass to a square foot of grate than a small one. one horse power will be As in the sufficient for 300 to 540 square feet of glass. one square foot of grate can readily handle one thousand square feet of glass. If we consider that for a tem- fifty degrees.000 to 12. than when the draft is strong. where a night fireman is employed. In other words. and in estimating the radiation that it will supply. On the other hand. from fifty to ninety square feet of radiation pe horse power. case with hot water heaters. per square foot of grate. when a strong draft can be secured. draft a much smaller amount of coal can be burned. which may be taken as about an average. For this purpose the grate should have an area of from fifteen to eighteen or even twenty feet.126 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. according to the climate and other modifying conditions. may be relies upon with a good perature of boiler. a night fireman can hardly be afforded. the same is true of a dirty fire as compared with a clean one. horse power. and a grate area considerably larger than in the latter case will be required . The size of grate for a given glass area will also de- pend upon the draft of the chimney. according to the pressure. one square foot of radiating surface will take care of six square feet of glass. and in large establishments. and a large grate should be used upon which a slow fire can be burned that will last from six to ten hours. For establishments with less than 10. eight square feet of glass. the skill of the With a poor fireman and the method of stoking used. grate will heat a house containing the above amount of glass to fifty degrees.000 square feet of glass.

74. and of arranging for ample radiating surface.ANOTHER METHOD OF capacity twenty-five per to PIPING. the point where the main enters the house to where the return leaves. and joined to the returns. such a fall (one inch in twenty feet will answer) that the water of condensation can readily drain off. larger than is required do the work. will generally give best satisfaction. If it becomes necessary to change the direction of the slope. a one-inch drip pipe should be connected with the underside of the main. 127 cent. at the point where the direction of the pipe changes. particularly in long houses. if there is a gradual descent in the pipes from The only other matter is ing a system to PIG. ANOTHER METHOD OF Although the overhead main PIPING. it is sometimes . of real importance in arranghave the pipes with. INTERIOR OF STEAM-HEATED HOUSE. This can best be secured.

Various methods of arranging steam pipes are shown As a rule. it will be very convenient to have the different houses in the range connected in the center by a cross gallery. a two-inch steam main in Figs. Even for houses of this length. 58-62. in wide houses under the center bench. The coil can commence at the end of the house nearest the boiler. although the short runs will be preferable. in which the boilers may be placed. In short houses the coils can run entirely around the house. With low pressure it is not advisable to have coils more than two hundred feet in length. from which point the return can descend to the heater. and a one-inch steam pipe will be equivalent to an inch and one-half hot water pipe in the coils for low pressure. . and with a gradual fall to the other end. if desired. and. These coils can be underneath the side benches or in the walk. them all under the bench. can be used instead of a three-inch hot water main. 74 shows one method of piping a small house for steam. Fig. This method of distributing the pipes will be particupreferred to have larly desirable when the plants are placed out on the benches.128 GEEEHHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. also. and a two-inch pipe if^the steam is under high pressure. the furnace-room being at the farther end of the house. and through which the mains and returns can be run and connected with coils which will be half as long as the house.

but we shall lose in economy of fuel.CHAPTER XX. the amount of radiation required for hot water with an open tank is about forty per cent. sure. a steady pressure can be maintained. if not better showing. but they contend that the men who make these claims have made no comparison with modern well-arranged hot water plants. claim for that method that at the most only the first claim of the steam men will stand. there need be but little 129 9 . as compared with the open tank system. The following lower first cost . and that on the other points. With regard to the first cost. more than the cost of a steam plant. The hot water men admit that these claims hold to a large extent against hot water in four-inch pipes. the cost will be little if any more. more than with steam. COMPARATIVE MERITS OF STEAM AND HOT WATER. (3) readiness with which the temperature can be raised or lowered if desired . which will make the cost of the plant about twenty per Under prescent. With a fireman giving constant attention to the boilers. hot water can make as good. (5) ease with which repairs can be made. however. (4) economy of coal consumption . as stated before. and that. are among the claims made by advo(1) cates of steam for their favorite heating system: (2) ability to A maintain a steady temperature . the latThose who favor hot water ter system is preferable. under proper conditions. and of course the pipes being all of the time at the same temperature. although it retains all of the other advantages claimed for hot water.

and no one can deny that in small and can he for a longer time without attention. that in long runs the hot water becomes cooled. should not plants. is and all pressure will be maintained. It can then be claimed it. . It is also urged in favor of steam. according to the outside temperature. There is. is variation in the house. even compared with large plants in which night firemen are employed. until they cool to the temperature of the house. and that the temperature at the lower end of the coils will be less than at the other. provided everything . this can be counteracted by using the overhead main and underbench returns. the pressure will vary to In well-arranged plants. or the valves are used to regulate the amount of radiation. which may be done where a fall of one inch in ten feet can be secured. circulation will go on so long as there is fire in the heater. and even in long houses the difference. hot icater is safer than steam to use. provided the pressure raised or lowered. left exceed five degrees in a house two hundred feet long. then. With hot water. and the water in the but if for pipes will give off heat even after that. and that the hot water system properly arranged will maintain for eight or ten hours a temperature as even as will he secured from steam by the average fireman. can be right left in severe weather for six or eight hours. In a short house of one hundred and fifty feet or less. boilers a greater or less extent. there may be even less difference than is found in steam pipes. In small plants. If the continuous coils of one and one-half or two-inch pipe running through the house and back are used. where regular firemen are not employed both for night and day.130 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION". the temperature at the opposite ends of the houses will he as even as with steam. with this method of piping. and serious harm may result. some ground for the claim of hot water men that. for hot water. the steam pipes will cool. any reason the water in the boiler drops below 212°.

the entire circulation in the especially as valves were not always provided for shut- ting off the circulation. Maynard. The only experimental tests that have come to the notice of the writer. fire. the heat given off was sufficient to necessitate the early opening of. and distributed over an hour or so. at the Massachusetts Experiment Station at Amherst. starting with cold water or with a moderately low normal temperature of the pipes can be secured as quickly as with steam. only applied against water in large pipes. the general opinion of those who have carefully tested steam against the modern hot water system. EXPERIMENTAL tests of TESTS. would not be noticed. is that the latter is about twenty-live per cent. and although an attempt was made to have each plant as perfect as possible. and the tests were carried on at the same time. With four-inch pipes containing ten times the quantity of water. hot water coils can be shut off. and. the conditions for either system were no more favor- . "With small pipes. was the one by Prof. 131 to better advan- tage The claim that steam can bo used when it is desired to raise or lower the temperature of the house. and those In of the author at the Michigan Experiment Station. where the houses and plants were of similar construction.EXPERIMENTAL TESTS. If desired. There are on record a large number of so-called the economy of steam and hot water. but in nearly every case the hot water was in four-inch pipes. the ventilators on bright mornings and a corresponding injury from cold drafts upon the plants was caused. When the question of economy of fuel is considered. and the amount of heat in the water in \he pipes if given off at once would not raise the temperature of the house a single degree. each case piping was arranged in both houses with overhead mains and underbench coils. cheaper.

133 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. and those at Lansing twenty by fifty feet each. able than could be secured in The houses at Amherst were seventy-five by eighteen feet. any forcing house. The tests were continued in each place for two years with the following results : .

and when the first cost of the plant is any object. It then comes to the question whether there shall be a large cost at first. will be twenty to twenty-five per cent. it may than in the hot water heater. claim in favor of steam. Moreover. there to choose between the systems. less than the open tank water system. and ordinarily the temperature of the houses will be less regular than with hot water. On the other hand. and somewhat les3 than the pressure system. Everything considered. there is more likely to be a break in the steam last Kegarding the economy of repairs. boiler return CONCLUSIONS. The steam plant will cost fifteen to twenty per cent. Above 12. Considered from the point of efficiency only. e.000 square feet of glass. a hot water pipe will be found in good condition inside. this may decide for that system. or a smaller first cost. and as this will pay for the extra cost of the plant in three or four years. and the outside can be kept from rusting by painting once in two or three years with lampblack and oil. and while a steam is rusted through in from five to seven years. will find hot water with an open tank the best method to use. the be said that when the same size pipe is used for coils in both systems. less than with steam. with a comparatively small outlay for fuel and repairs. the cost of fuel with a well-arranged hot water plant. the man who has less than 10.000 feet of . i.. although the steam heater will need more constant attention. and a larger outlay for fuel and maintenance. it becomes a matter well worth considering. either with open tank or is little under pressure. 133 same arrangement can be used.CONCLUSIONS. a break can be repaired with the same ease in one as in the other. and the water can be carried in large mains with less waste than when steam is used.

aud the extra excost for a plant of this size pense of the plant will be saved in fuel within four years. it gives more even however. and the cost of the system is little if any more. in arriving at these conclusions. although hot water will give fully as good results. no account is taken of the effect of the different systems upon plant growth. pay to have a night fireman. For amateur conservatories. and the feed pipes should pass floor up through the pipes. it will be found desirable to use some of the small portable hot water heaters that are manufactured by several firms. the care of the house little risk is greatly simplified. with manifolds . results. the heater should be placed in the cellar of the house. So far as expense for fuel is concerned. as the is considerable. It will be a desirable thing. as we believe that when equally well cared for there will be little or no difference.134 glass. In arranging the heating system for the conservatory. it will first GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION". with over 300 square glass. to purchase a heater large enough to warm a part or all of the house. and connect with the radiating if which are generally best arranged in a wall coil. hot water under pressure will be classed with steam . and -put in pipes and radiators. When these are used feet of in connection with a well arranged system of piping. and. and there will be of injury to the plants by cold. the average florist will prefer to use steam. unless joined to a residence which i3 heated by hot water or steam. if the dwelling is heated with stoves or a hot air furnace. CHAPTER XXL HEATING SMALL CONSERVATORIES.

If the tank is situated where harm to floor or walls will be done if it boils over. inside one of the large A 8ized kerosene heating stoves* This would warm one one-inch pipe.THE BAE2TARD HEATEB. For conservatories which are too large to heat with an oil stove. and was surrounded by a Jacket of sheet iron (Fig. and an expansion tank should be connected with some part of the system. THE BARNARD HEATER. The heater was of zinc with . hold a gallon for each hundred feet of one and one-fourth inch pipe. 75 ^4). where only the roof. although one and one-quarter inch pipe would be preferable. From this. connections were made with the coils which were of two-inch pipe. four tubes of one-inch gas pipe (Fig. the diameter was six inches and the height twenty-seven inches. 75 B) from which a small pipe . and would heat a conservatory six by ten feet with three sides and "Were the conservatory upon a veranda roof of glass. 135 An air valve will be needed at the higher end. and if the roof were of wood. It should be of galvanized It should iron. The radiating coil and attachments would be similar to small heater could be made by those just described. it is well to have a tight cover on the tank and run an overflow pipe from half-way up the side of the tank to a drain. it could heat a space eight by twenty feet. side and one end were exposed. The heater was placed over an oil stove or gas burner. although an old paint keg would answer. In 1890 Charles Barnard described in the American Garden a very simple heater that gave good satisfaction in a detached greenhouse. a home-made water heater might be used. and a gallon for the heater and mains. at each end. the capacity would be sufficient to warm about six by fifteen hundred and fifty linear feet of feet. Using a small coil of one-inch pipe containing eight linear feet of heating surface.

a damper can be turned which wili force the smoke to pass around through the house. The water is one inch in thickness and is confined between 7 the inner and outer shells of the healer. fairly In small houses where one does not have the means good results can be obtained with the old-faahioned flue. 75. for burning either coal. them back. A grate containing three to four fqnare feet will answer for a house containing 600 squart . and if a rise of two or more feet can be secured. eo put in hot water or steam. This consists of a furnace in which the fuel is burned. or where the B FIG. longer houses. after the chimney has become warm. This is placec over an oil stove and arranged iu much the same way at tbf one last described. and a horizontal chim•n ney passing through the house. HEATING BY KEANS OF FLUES. a fair draft can be obtamed by having the chimney j# but in 1(^1? at the farther end ^ f 'yj- . giving The furnace can be constructed off ita heat as it goes. or wood cut in lengths of from three to five feet. a hollow truncated cone. flues it is best to bring must be run on a level. and twenty-four inches high. so that they barna&i) heater. and then. ran to the outside of the house to convey the smoke and Another form of heater is made in the shape of gases. A direct connection with the chimney can be made irheu the fire ia first started. can enter a ehimne y built over the furnace. nine inches in diameter at the bottom and six at the top. If the house is not over fifty feet in length.136 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION.

the furnace should be eighteen inches wide*inside. feet of glass. and connecting them with the radiating pipes. and iron doors should be set in the masonry at the end of the The top of furnace. and then carrying it into the greenhouse. The original system con- sisted in bringing a current of air over a heated surface. 137 If wood is used. and of the required length. furnaces may be placed at both ends and the flues can be carried half the length of the house and brought back on the opposite side. For a house twelve feet in width. connected by return bends. on its way passing through a wet blanket. but if fifteen to twenty feet wide. common stock brick will answer. A hot water coil can be economically combined with a flue by using cross-pieces of one and one-half inch pipe.THE P0LMAISE SYSTEM.that its drying effect might be lessened. When houses are very long. and the same material should be used for the first fifteen feet of the flue. the furnace may be supported either by a brick arch or by heavy iron bars. Beyond this point. it is well either to have a return flue on the other side. There should be an ash pit of suitable size. one flue will answer. The Polmaise system was town where it so-called from the French was first used. If a flue is used care should be taken that no woodwork comes in contact with the bricks within thirty feet of the furnace. for both the fire-pot and ash pit. The system itself is of no value. forming a flue eight by twelve to sixteen inches. or to divide the flue and carry up a branch on each side. THE P0L3IAISE SYSTEM. or eight to ten-inch glazed tile may be used. bat . either under the walks or beneath the side benches. across the side walls and supporting the top of the heater. The inner lining of the heater should be of fire brick laid in fire clay. . but no increase of the size of the grate will be necessary.

covering the arch to the depth of twelve to fifteen inches. It should be arched over with brick and the whole then covered with soil. FISB HOTBEDS. and especially if combined with hot water. for sash six feet long. or can be double span-roofed struc- a row of sash on each side. structure will last several years. In order to secure proper slope for the flues. various other methods of heating have been tried. the simplest being a modified form of the ordinary flue as just described. An ordinary hotbed frame should be set over this. although more is desirable. as described. and four or five feet long. at the farther end the tile should be turned up at right-angles forming a chimney. The draft can be regulated by a The plate of iron resting against the end of the arch. and should be laid in two lines. naces. The tile used for the flues should be glazed for the first tures. much as in common hot air furwarmed. eighteen inches high. The soil at the furnace end should then be spread on. • modified form of it may be used in connection with a By building an air chamber around the furnace fine. The beds can be single. and six inches in diameter. it will be and admitting the air. In addition to warming hotbeds by means of decomposing manure. For the single beds the arch or furnace need not be over one foot wide inside. and the pipes at the chimney end about six inches. and can be carried through the as are the products of combustion. flue is less than half that of a hot a The cost of water or steam plant. if the coil is not used. the hotbeds should be located on a hillside eloping to the south. three feet apart . The modified Polmaise system could also be house in tiles much employed with profit. and will prove a great . very satisfactory results can be obtained. and the flues should have a slope of about one foot in twenty. with twenty feet at least.138 8BKK5fH0U£B OONSTRUCTIOH.

can be done by running a one and one-quarter inch steam pipe up in one line of four-inch drain tile. A florist by lack of erect just starting in business may be compelled means to commence upon a small scale. For the span-roof hotbed. frame can be heated by hot water or steam if a two-inch hot water or an inch and a quarter steam pipe is run around the inside. 139 convenience where one does not have a greenhouse in which to start vegetable plants. will be required. arranged as in the other case. and back in another line laid as described for the flues with the narrow beds. COMMERCIAL ESTABLISHMENTS.STEAM AND HOT WATER HEAT. that he would be wise in selecting that form for a house. If a crack two inches wide is left between the top of the boards and the glass. The size for the house must be determined by . While he would find a lean-to house the cheapest to building —provided he built against the south wall of a —the excess of cost for a span-roof house would it be so slight. STEAM AND HOT WATER HEAT FOR HOTBEDS. the heat will be diffused and will not dry out the plants. next to the plank. and where wood is cheap. two arches or furnaces and four flues. and the results obtained would be so much greater. it A CHAPTER XXII. If it is desired to warm hotbeds by means of steam. Boards should then be placed so as to shut off all direct heat from the plants. "When exhaust steam is at hand it can be used without the steam pipe by merely discharging it into the tile. while four lines would be required for a bed twelve feet wide.

. a second house can be built similar to the first one. If this amount of glass is not sufficient. the business to be done.140 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. but for most purposes a bona* of twenty feet in width is preferable to anything nar- rower. and this can be secured by run ning a glass partition across the house. and an enterprising florist should be able to utilize ona that is fifty feet long. 76. and then he will have one house to be kept at a temperature of fiftyfive to sixty degrees and another that can be kept at Although other bouses are forty-five to fifty degrees. PLAN FOE A SMALL ESTABLISHMENT. It i3 desirable to have both VqttiivqSlivch HOT WO*k jS-tXM T^OOnj \ HOo<6£ rrl JBASrtETS OmeE Sales tjoqm \ 6oojl *-<OoS£ FIG. a cool and a warm bouse.

and will give an opportunity foi the erection of a north side propagating house.COMMERCIAL ESTABLISHMENTS. a good selection of plants can be grown in two such houses with fair success. . pansies. as a rule. In addition to the general florist and vegetable grower. or they can be run out the other way from the workroom. we find. but will be excellent for ferns. violets. Another method would be by lengthening the buildings already put up. which can readily be under- stood. while the rose house could join the end of the workroom and run A convenient is east and west. should be of the three-quarter span form. as shown in Fig. The even span houses could run north and south with a workroom at the north end twenty-five by twentyfive feet. but for small establishments it will hardly be desirable to extend them beyond a length of one hundred and fifty feet. If business develops. from the extent of their business. as This it should. and have been quick to avail themselves of all the latest improvements. which can not ouly be used for propagating. are masters of their business. As in everything else. 76. we find to-day engaged in greenhouse work many specialists. that these specialists who have turned their every effort to the doing of one thing well. arrangement for the workroom and store shown in the illustration. are especially worthy of notice. and among these the commercial rose grower and the lettuce grower. If still other enlargement of the establishment be- comes necessary. the additional buildings can be put up parallel to the present ones. and for the starting of seeds and bulbs. eighteen and one-half feet wide. it will be desirable to add a rose house. 141 desirable.

there will be room for four benches of average widths : but for convenience the walks at the side should not be less than two feet in width.OHAPTEK ^xiil EOSE HOUSES. is practically the same the country over. unless the walks are made With the side walks eighteen to twenty rather narrow. and a walk between tbe center benches with a width of twelve inches. The form and general arrangement of the house* used for forcing roses. venient width for the front bench is thirty inches whica wall plate. and A contfie center walk from fifteen to eighteen inches. and with two somewhat wider ones in the center. as shown in many of our best rose growers are of the opinion that the extra cost of erection and maintenance is more than repaid by the results obtained. and when one speaks of a "rose house. when there is from eighteen to twenty-four inches of glass in the south There seems to be a diverwidth for rose houses. 82." he is readily understood. They are cheapest to build and easiest to heat if com structed with Fig. about eighteen feec "wide. the range being from sixteen to twenty feet . A rose house may be briefly defined as a three-quarter span greenhouse. but wooden walls up to the plate. Xo form of house has been tried for this purpose that is on the whole a? satisfactory as this. with two narrow beds at the sides. but it is the general idea that in the houses sixteen feet wide there is a lack of economy of space. and ends under the sity of opinion as to the best 14* . inches wide. 77. of which a good example of an exterior will be found in Fig.

— — support a roof of this width. lighter material can be employed. and the ridge should be so located that the post can pass down at the north side of the center bench. Particularly in rose forcing houses. a house with the above widths for walks and benches will be about set eighteen feet and six inches to the outside of the walls. everything else considered. and the north one about eighteen inches higher.work is used with a truss at the ridge. each holding four rows. the tops of the cross bearers for the front and back bench should be about twenty inches below the plates . and the rear one eight inches in thickness. 143 will answer for three rows of plants . In locating the height of the benches. it is desirable to have the slope of the roof arranged to trap as much as possible of light and heat from the sun during the winter months. the center beds should be three feet and six inches. and the back bed two feet in width with two rows of plants. say of eight inches in the width of one bench or of eighteen inches between the walks (Fig. with the benches out to prevent drip from the plate. and. there will be no necessity for a support under the ridge . While one purlin with one row of posts in addition to the one under the ridge will rafters. Some growers prefer to have both of the center benches level. If an iron frame. particularly if there are no principal a post should be used. with the posts coming down at the south side of each of the center benches. 63). but if careful attention is given to the watering.BOSE HOUSES. rather better results will be obtained if they are given a slight slope to the south. the south . but if the roof is of wood. It is quite desirable in arranging the roof to have the ridge and purlin come over the walks. and there will be less trouble from drip if two of each are used. If the front wall is made six inches. the south center bench should be at the same height as the front bench.


14o • it .ROSE HOUSES.

. the on the rear rose house slope of the roof. houses quently used. with the south wall four feet in height. The . it is frefeet respectively. the custom in the past has been to have a single line of ventilators at the ridge. a first choice would be for tile. as this seems to be the favorite method of growing them. with four benches. The best results seem to be obtained from benches not over four inches in depth. This will require a rafter slightly less than sixteen feet in length on the front. With the ridge posts at a distance of fourteen feet from the out- bottom of the ridge should be about eight feet higher than the top of the south wall. bottoms of rose benches. but many of the more recently constructed houses have a line of sash on soil will each side of the ridge . When there is no glass beneath the plate on the south wall. and six feet side of the south wall. pitch of the roof should slope at the rate of about twa feet for every three feet in width of house. While the even-span house is not as well adapted 77). These may be eighteen to twenty feet wide. for rose forcing as the three-quarter span house. the one described in Chapter III. in width. and will give very fair results. as three and one-half inches of heavy be equal to four and one-half inches of In selecting the material for the soil of a sandy nature. or twelve feet from the ground level. about three and one-half feet each. with the sides of the roof fifteen and the height of the front and back walls five and seven In a house of this shape there should be a line of glass under the plate of the south wall (Fig. feet in height. if these are properly used.246 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. is when the rear wall is eight Another good form for a commercial and seven and one-half feet. although this varies with the character of the soil. the draft of air upon the plants is greatly decreased. second slate. and third wood. In planning our rose houses everything has been arranged upon the presumption that shallow beds were to be used.

147 -3 .IiOSE HOUSES.

there are eight houses. each measuring one hundred and fifty by twenty They are placed in pairs. During the last five years many large and well arranged commercial rose houses have been erected. Wight of Madison. by Lord & Burnham Co. Pierson. 78. 80. by Thos. except for a feet. It was built in 1890 at Scarborough. is nso of ventilating sash in the south wall also quite common. They are each about three hundred feet long by twenty feet wide. end to end. narrow passage way which affords a ready means of communication with the different houses and with the Sons of idea of the general New York . From this we can get an City. 77 will be seen a perspective view cf the rose houses erected for W. W..148 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. for F. appearance of the better class of commercial rose houses. ered's SECTION OF IRON ROSE HOUSE. P. In Fig. Y. Weath- N FIG. 79. J. One of the best arranged and most thoroughly constructed commercial greenhouse plants in the country is shown in Fig. R. Fig. A3 will be seen by the ground plan. and we are glad to be able to show illustrations of two plants that contain many of the latest ideas.. X.

of Lock- .00 per foot.. leaving only one line of ventilating apparatus at the ridge. and were the glass left out under the south plate. cypress lumber can be obtained for the erection of a rose.00 per This would give double strength. . ready to be fitted together. nine feet "wide and three hundred two houses each one hundred and is the same as is recommended in Chapter VII. all gotten out in the most approved sizes and shapes.50 per linear foot. At the rear of the second line of houses is a propagating house. The construction shown in Fig. The heat is furnished from steam boilers located as shown in the ground plan. the house complete as above. If one does not care to use the iron construction. of any kind of a greenhouse. or really fifty feet. 80. would cost something over $15.75.50 per running foot.BOSE HOUSES. among the oldest of which is the Lockland Lumber Co. A feet long. the cost could be reduced to $20. There are a half-dozen or more firms who make a specialty of cypress for greenhouse building. with the lower ends of the latter set in cement in the ground. With hemlock benches the cost would not be over $20. with cheap wooden benches and without heating apparatus. French linear foot. paint. When iron benches with wooden bottoms are used. while Fig. would cost not far from $22. 149 potting shed. and two coats of Reckoning the steam-heating apparatus at $4. or. frame and slate bottom. the rafters and posts being of iron. cross section of one of these houses is house of this description can be erected for about $25. A "seconds" or American "firsts" glass. The purlins and ridge are also of iron and The benches have an iron all woodwork of cypress. 81 Bhows another method of construction. in fact.00 per foot. from which one can obtain a good idea of the slope of the roof and of the interior arrangement. including the steam-heating apparatus. the house with one row of ventilating apparatus and steam-heating apparatus.



land, Ohio.


plan, cross section

request they have prepared a ground and details of a rose house such as they furnish, and they are here presented as suggestions
to prospective builders.



cross section




any carpenter could put the house together. The details are shown in Chapter VI. and afford us an idea of some of the best shapes for the different parts of a greenhouse, and the way to put them The patterns do not differ materially from together. those nsed by other dealers in greenhouse materials, and
Fig. 82


so clear that

FIG. 82.


perhaps the best advice that could be given to a person intending to build a rose house would be, in case one could not afford to build a house with an iron framework, to write to the nearest dealer in cypress lumber for plans and estimates for the proposed structure. As a partial guide in the matter, the following esti-



offered as the probable cost of cypress


for the erection of a three-quarter span rose forcing

walls for

This includes all lumber required above the a house with one glass gable ; the lumber being


greenhouse construction.

dressed upon four faces and worked to proper shape with dimensions as given, including door and one row of


@ @ @ 100' @ 100' Purlin, IW**W @ 2ot 7 '| I%"x3" 4C End Rafters, @ 80* Gable Sash Bars, For one gable, @ 82 of 7 '| 1,88C Roof Sash Bars, @ 82oflC> 100* Header, l J i"x2'/4 " @ Ventilators, lOO^ & wide V' @ Door 3' x x IV Door and Frame,

1%» x 7" Bottoms and two Ridge Pieces, VfsP x 1%" Ridge Cap, V/a" x S%»



.lV/ 2

Side Gutters,



$1.50 23.00

,03y 2
.03'/ 4


.02V* 4
.02>/ 2








For the construction of the walls twenty-six posts seven feet long, and costing about twelve cents each for cedar, and twenty-one posts twelve feet long, which will
cost about twenty-five cents each, or about ten dollars
for posts, will be required.
will cost two or which will be found price but will generally cost

Red cedar

three times as

much, and

very durable, will vary in

than red cedar. For sheathing the building 1,300 matched hemlock, costing from 610.00 to 815.00 per thousand, will be required, and the outside siding will take 1,500 feet, which will cost about §20.00 per thousand. A small amount of finishing lumber, building paper and nails will complete the exterior, with the
feet of

exception of the painting and glazing. The interior will require tables and walks, gas-pipe posts and ventilating

and heating apparatus, which, with hinges and other hardware for door and ventilators, will cover the necessary materials for the erection of a forcing house.

cost of the lumber will be about 8230.00; 2,500 feet at 83.50 per box for double strength B, 1175.00; ventilating apparatus, 830.00; nails and. hard-




ware, $6.00; paint and putty, $50.00; building paper, $5.00; gas-pipe posts, $12.50; making a total cost of
materials for the house, exclusive of labor, of about

$500.00 to $525.00.
ply, etc.,

be additional.

The heating apparatus, water supThe former will cost about

for steam, including labor.

far from $340.00 house is erected by hired labor the cost will be from $250.00 to $300.00 for the carpenters and painters, according to the experience of the men and the wages paid.



hot water

and not

If the


summarized then, the cost of a three-quarter

span forcing house complete with heating apparatus
will be:

Lumber for walls Lumber for roof and freight Lumber for benches Lumber for walks Glass, 50 boxes 16" x 20"
Faint and putty Ventilating apparatus



50.00 30.00

Building paper Gas-pipe posts, 1% inch and Labor, carpenters Painters and glaziers Heater, smoke pipe, etc
Pipe, valves,



$125.00"to 150.00
125.00 to 150.00

100.00 to 150.00







$1,098.50 to $1,208.50

Or, $11.00 to $12.25 per lin«ar foot.

In the above estimate, the grading, drainage, water supply, and the cost of a potting shed, furnace cellar, Of course, the cost of the etc., are not considered.

lumber and the expense for labor, etc., would vary in different localities, so that no estimate «an be made that will apply in all cases, but where lumber can be obtained at from $12.00 to $20.00 per thousand, according to the grade, and labor of carpenters and painters is not over
$2.50 per day, the above will be sufficiently reliable to The cost of an evenfurnish a fair idea of the cost.

Although we still find many growers of lettuce using houses of lean-to or narrow even span construction. Mass. which sometimes brings from $2. and measures fifteen feet high at the ridge. and. LEAN-TO LETTUCE HOUSES. who has been engaged in the growing of lettuce and other structed by garden produce for the Boston market for many years. and they seem to be uniformly successful. This house is three hundred and seventy feet long and thirty-three feet wide. a consid- erable reduction could be made in this item. CHAPTER XXIV. span house will be about the same.000.00 to $2. if the back wall has to be built for a lean-to. W. twenty by thirty inches.00 is allowed for labor. LETTUCE HOUSES. with a south wall three and one-half feet high. The crop from this one house is about two thousand dozen heads. there are many smaller ones constructed upon the same general lines. and as many florists would do most of the work themselves. the wide houses are rapidly superseding them. and the north one twelve feet in height. it will cost fully as much as the others for the same width of house. It is of the three-quarter span form. Rawson of Arlington.. The glass is double strength. Three crops are grown in a year besides a crop of cucumbers. While this is the largest house of the kind. such as a plant that succeeds well in a lean-to is used by many of the lettuce .00. The lettuce is lettuce house. In this estimate over $300.500.154 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. Perhaps the largest house ever erected for the purpose was con- W.

without carrying the roof to a greater height. lean-to LETfDCE house {Section). while a three-quarter span house can have a pitch of twenty-two degrees. while the north wall will be considerably lower than it would be in the lean-to. the construction will be very simple. a lean-to roof on a house thirty-three feet wide would require a north wall about fifteen feet high. 83. but even at this slope. "With houses up to a width of twenty-five feet. 155 growers in the vicinity of Boston. They are commonly given a pitch of about eighteen degrees. but they cheaply and are easily warmed are do not have a sufficient pitch to the roof to secure the most benefit from the sun. constructed. The three-quarter span house can readily be made eight or ten feet wider than the lean-to. wall to an undue height. if the sug- . this width cannot be very much exceeded with this style of house. and the north wall need not be over ten or twelve feet high. or raising the glass too high above the plants . Hav- ing determined upon the width and style of roof for the house. 83. unless upon a sidehill. a proper slope can be secured without carrying the north fig.LEAN-TO LETTUCE HOUSES. of which a cross secLike all lean-to houses these tion is shown in Fig.

although it may be somewhat higher if the lettuce is grown in raised beds. Lettuce houses should have from eighteen to thirty inches of glass in the south wall. A house of this description will require a back wall at least ten feet high. as they are nothing more than a number of lean-to houses placed close together. and they will be found not only economical in construction and heating. A post and double-boarded wall will be fully as satisfactory as For conone built of brick or masonry of any kind. For lean-to houses twenty-five feet wide. and VI. and should be very carefully supported. and to assist in ventilation. Particularly in the wide houses with flat should be somewhat heavier than for small houses with steep slopes. the sash bars pos f s. in this wall. it is desirable that the alternate sash at least be arranged as ventilators. once in ten feet. The side-hill houses (Fig.156 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. TVhen solid beds are used. perhaps two and onehalf feet square. venience in handling the soil. on many accounts. but in land and in labor of handling the crops. if built on level ground. there should be at least three rows of purlins and purlin roofs. although the three-quarter span houses are generally preferred to either of the above styles. as to the best methods of erecting the walls and roof are followed. 8) will also be found quite desirable for lettuce forcing. and. gestions given in Chapters V. the south wall should not be more than three and one-half feet high. . it is well to have small windows.

with one board on hinges so that it can bench be used to regulate the temperature. is often a conIf upon the north. a narrow even-span house can be used for this purpose. In connection with every greenhouse there should be a bench for the rooting of cuttings. with a lean-to roof. violets. and in large establishments one or more houses will be required for this purpose. In arranging some establishments. a narrow house. and other plants that thrive without direct sunlight. and will serve an excellent purpose as a propagating house. but its interior arrangement should be somewhat different.CHAPTER XXV. this head house can be made seven feet wide. For the propaga- tion of most plants this bench will answer as well as a 157 ." and. the front of the bench should be boarded up. but. and will be well adapted for it. can be utilized for ferns. is shown in Fig. when one has a rose or other three-quarter span house. When any of these locations cannot be utilized. if it is not entirely needed for propagating purposes. connecting the ends of the main houses. in order to secure and control the necessary bottom heat. as it generally is. 01. PBOPAGATING HOUSE. The structure is known as a "north-side house. an ordinary greenhouse will answer. As a table for a propagating house. The simplest method of erecting a propagating house. or even on the east or venience. The construction of the house will not differ from that of a similar house for other purposes. west ends.

many stove species success in a close. The use of the old-fashioned wooden water bench has been abandoned. This can readily be constructed upon the bench. so that there will be no danger of its settling The bottom of the cutting bench. or hand glass. although the galvanized iron water bench is quite common.158 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. tilation. PROPAGATING CASE. which the sand is to be placed. . elaborate construction. if at any point the piping is overhead. moist atmosphere. but. or an independent heater can be used for the propagating house. and of the width and length of the proposed cutting bench. be sufficient to maintain a temperature of forty-five to fifty degrees without the tank. While cuttings of most plants require thorough vencan only be struck with When only a few are to be rooted. the heating pipes should system. and should give a radiating surface about twenty-five per cent. a closed tank will be necessary. if many are to be struck. a propagating case will be a necessity. If this is used the trough should be about four inches deep. more all The heating pipes should be under the bench. should be just above the tank. upon at any point. no cover will be required. greater than would be required in a growing house for the same plants as are to be propagated. in ^hich case the water tank will answer as the expansion tank for the When tanks are used. but. It should be well supported. The tank should be connected at each end by means of one and one-fourth inch pipes with a hot water heating apparatus. WATER BENCH. the required conditions can be secured by the use of a bell glass. When the heating pipes in the system are all below the level of the tank. preferThe ends and front can be ably at the warmer end.

will be a great convenience. and. The hotbed. in fact. we have what They differ and cold frames. while the hotbed is heated by fermenting vegetable substances. HOTBEDS. the cold frame being without artificial heat. arranged to slide by one another and give ready access to all parts of the case. 84. and the one generabout six feet wide. leaves. the possession of a greenhouse. is sirable.HOTBEDS. with the sash sloping toward the south. FIG. for the starting of young plants during the severe weather of midwinter. should be of glass sash. of a hotbed. while a large business HOTBED FEAME. Among are known as hotbeds the movable plant structures. 159 of sash bars and glass. or are cheaply constructed of waste pieces of lumber. is The simplest kind . almost a necessary adjunct to the greenhouse. particularly to the market gardener. A portion of the front. for all florists and market gardeners. On the other hand. hotbeds are often made of one-inch boards. in some of forms. generally stable manure. can be carried on with hotbeds alone. its and other a very de- refuse. and of any desired While length. only in the degree of heat they receive. they will be more satisfactory if constructed of lumber that is one ally used. made CHAPTER XXVI. small and cheaply constructed though it be. however.

ICO GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. it months of the year. and as it can be taken apart and stored out of the sun and rain for A portable hotbed frame is PIG. Fig. carefully framed together and painted. six FRAME AND SASH. and nailing it to the edge of another. and the proper slope can be given them by sawing off a triangular strip from one end. four inches wide and one inch thick. will keep the bed from spreading. as at C. as shown at E. PORTABLE FRAMES. In order to give the sash a proper pitch to the south. 84. one side of the bed should be made six inches wider than the other. dovetailed into the edges of the front and back boards. while tbat for the north side (^4) will have a width of fifteen inches. Fig. in Fig. the frame can be held together by washers and pins. In this way we secure a plank nine inches wide (2?) for the south side of the bed. by sawing a strip three inches wide from the edge of one. proper shape to the ends of each of the side boards. A very satisfactory hotbed can be made from three pieces of two-inch hemlock lumber one foot wide and twelve feet long. 84. D. and nailing it upon the other end of the piece. will last for many seasons. The ends should be cut six feet long. and boring holes to correspond in the end pieces. and one-half or two inches thick. When planks with a width of twelve inches are used this can be readily secured. 85. and will serve as slides for the irons of By fastening . 84. often used. Cross bearers.

and strong linen twine are necessary. a supply of long rye straw. and the ends will keep the center even with the sides. so as to bring the strands one foot apart and siv inches from each side. feet. by placing the butts alternately to the right and thumb and middle 11 . Bundles of straw as large as can be enclosed by the finger. and are tied in place with The bundles thus lap in the center stout hemp twine. HOTBED SHUTTER. If a strip of onc-incli board is fastened to the middle of the upper side of eaeli cross bearer it will serve Another to strengthen it. scpiare. are placed on the frame. 86. method of ventilating the bed is illustrated in Fig.MATS AND SHUTTERS. For the mats. 1G1 sasli. by seven The tarred rope is stretched lengthwise of the frame. or five. various ways of making the mats. MATS AND SHUTTERS. With long straw. four feet long. with the butts even with the sides. tarred There are rope. a mat about five feet wide can be made without any laps of the straw. one of the simplest being upon a frame of two by four inch lumber of the same size as the mats. about two feet. For the purpose of retaining the heat in cold weather. but the usual size is FIG. 85. For a mat six and one-half feet the straw should be. and fastened to stout pegs. With straw still longer than this. about four. straw mats and wooden shutters are desirable. a mat six and Sne-half feet square can be made. at least. and to hold the sash in place.

The shutters. Made of half-inch matched lumber. one length of straw reaching across the mat. they form a useful addition to one's equipment. 1 i 1 . 8G. they can be used for many years. HOTBED YARD. Unless they can be placed where they will be sheltered by buildings. a tight board fence upon the north. GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. and are stored where the mice cannot destroy them. and three feet to three feet and six inches wide.162 left. If the mats are kept covered with the shutters. Fig. with cleats at the ends and across the middle. and with handles. for covering the mats should be six and one-half feet long.

or similar bedding material. thus giving an even heat. to be MAKING THE BED. Oak leaves. center of the plat. The heating material is generally fresh Unless it contains a liberal amount of straw. The pile should preferably be made in a shed or manure cellar. For a winter hotbed. in order to prevent the frost from working into the bed. as seen in Fig. 163 A. . The shutters and sash can then be placed in piles at the end of the rows. If only a small amount of ventilation is needed. so that it will not be more than one-half of clear manure. the sash can be slipped up or down. throwing the outhorse manure. while in the spring one-half that depth will answer. prolong the decomposition of the mass. and. make a good material to mix with the manure. In three or four days it will be fermenting rapidly. the material should be placed in a pile about eight feet wide and four feet high. shutters. the heating material should have a depth of from two to two and a half feet. 2 and 3 are sheds for the storage of sash.MAKING THE BED. as they will hinder. should be made. which will give space for the sash drawn off. although for spring use the same result may be effected by piling fresh manure about the frame. it will be better to have the rows from two to three feet apart. 1. An excavation two feet wider than the frame. and will allow a cart to dump its load of manure or soil between the frames. with a flat top and vertical sides. consequently. and should then be forked over. If one has but a few frames it will be desirable to have them seven feet apart. etc. also. or can be raised. or even in the frame itself. or at some other convenient point. About two weeks before the bed is wanted. but may be in the open air. and of the required depth. and especially if the land is valuable. 85. something of the kind should be added. When a large number of frames are used.

but this will soon go down and the bed If. and the bed has not warmed evenly. For many crops the soil and manure fig. to is encourage fermentation. COLD PIT. side portion to the center at the end of two or three days the pile should be well may be made. it If. Should not be as warm as is desirable. .1C4 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. may up it be lev- eled off and firmly tramped down. spread over the manure to the depth of six inches. 88. and the heap should be left as light as possible. it should be again turned over. before being placed in the frame. is quite warm. . while preparing will be ready for seeds or plants. from an old bed will answer. filling it to within six or eight inches of the glass. which should be a rich compost. if it warmed up. it may be best to delay the final tramping for a couple of days. decomposed manure. and sand enough to make a light mass and prevent baking. The bed is now ready for the soil. or. garden soil. For two or three days there will be a violent heat in the bed. when it the material placed in the frame. The best materials would be equal parts of pasture sods. all coarse lumps should be broken up. In working over the pile.

As in Fig. 165 it manure for the bed. a double use can be made of such a frame. By placing a plank floor about one foot below the plate. While hotbeds are a great convenience after the first of March. and on the other four by three feet. frost can be kept out from a deep pit of this kind. a deep frame or pit is desirable. a ridge. and the covers should be put on as the sun goes down. and on bright days the beds should be given air about the same as in a forcing house. 88 is a pross section of such a structure. or for the growing of vegetables and bedding plants. should be moistened with tepid water from a watering can. stone or concrete. the sash on one side should be about six by three feet. or if ten feet wide. and of any length. the mats and shutters should be taken off on pleasant days. at least. rafters and hotbed sash. and they are much more convenient and in every way more satisfactory. The most common form of cold frame (a hotbed frame and sash without any heating material) is a low structure used to carry through the winter pansies. as soon as the sun is well up. may be of wood. In caring for hotbeds. an even span roof can be made. five or six feet deep at the plate. 88. however. With mats and shutters. it is found to be dry. The beds should be closed. DETACHED COLD FRAMES AND PITS. eight feet wide inside. If made Fig. In purposes.DETACHED COLD FRAMES AND the PITS. it will be found one of the most useThe walla ful "rooms" in a greenhouse establishment. and the top should consist of plates. with sash six by three feet on both sides. they are each year becoming less used for the growing of winter crops. For a pit eigbt feet wide inside. The cost of forcing houses is but little more. firmly anchored to the walls. two hours before sunset. before the danger of frost For many in the open ground is over in the spring. . violets and other half hardy plants. brick.

By very convenient frame against a greenhouse wall. strict sense. but at j) resent we shall consider various combinations of glass structures. Fig. In another chapter descriptions will be found of various small structures adapted to the wants of amateurs. It can also be used for winter- In Fig. In addition to the large number of public instituwhere large conservatories are desirable. They may be attached to the dwelling or other building. but are generally detached buildings surrounded by the varithat are attractive. As usually applied. ous growing houses. the real object is to have plants shown In a however. known as growing houses. 89. are shown during their period of flower. such as would require the care of a professional gardener. the upper portion can be used for violets and similar plants. means of slides in the wall. consisting of conservatories or show houses. this term refers to small greenhouses attached to dwellings. while bulbs for winter forcing can be plunged in Band upon the bottom. and taste to tions appreciate the beauties of the flowers and plants grown . CHAPTER XXVIL CONSERVATORIES. a sufficient supply of heat can be admitted from the greenhouse if desired. a conservatory is a structure in which plants that have been developed in narrow and comparatively low greenhouses. with the necessary subsidiary growing houses. although plants may be grown. 10 can be seen a ing a great variety of plants.166 GBEENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. the number of private individuals who have the means to erect and maintain establishments of this kind. in which. either in foliage or flower.

167 x> CO ft » a- >.CONSERVATORIES. fed a ? fed > H O W .

are much wider and higher than the growing houses. two feet high at the plate.168 in them. will be the least expensive it will grow the best plants. and. except They are usuthe money to erect and maintain them. Conservatories. For a house of this kind the slope of the roof should be about thirty-five degrees. if made in proportion. that they add from five to ten feet to the height of the house. The use of plants for is constantly increasing. . and the length may be as desired. to eighty or one hundred and even session of a greenhouse has more. or the person. in fact. and are of such a width that this space can be utilized by tall plants. and with vertical glass sides above this to the height of from six to ten feet above the masonry. and three at the ridge. The lanterns were so narrow that they were of little use. iu proportion to their length. 90. and. very wide conservatories. running the length These had ventilators in the side walls. there is practically no limit to their size. but during the winter they added greatly to the consumption of fuel. of the house. Twenty years ago it was the custom to surmount conservatories of this kind with a lantern top about six feet wide. The width of the house may vary from twenty or twenty-five feet. where they are so constructed. the posbecome very desirable. . but they will houses. has become so common that where one can afford it. to the appearance of They are now no longer used except upon the house. 91. which were desirable in cummer. Fig. For narrow up to a width of thirty feet. and of flowers for embellishing the table. in a slight degree. GREENHOUSE COXSTKUCTIOJT. will not be displeasing. except to add. the parlor. as shown in Fig. the even span roof with straight rafters. and almost a necessity in some cases. continuous from ridge to plate. The straight sash bars can also be used in wide houses. ally erected upon a brick or stone foundation about two and one-half feet high. purposes of lawn and house decoration.


91. form a convenient method of arching over any wide space. ridges. purlins and supports should be of this material. wood is too perishand the necessary strength could only be secured by the use of a heavy framework. posts. as shown in the cross section. For any structure of this kind. greenhouses has many things in its favor. present available. aside from the larger . 91. and all sills. rafters. conservatory {Section). and they moreover fig. and in perspective in Fig. Fig. have a barn-like appearance.170 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. architectural iron seems best adapted for this work. that are worthy of commendation. 105. unless the roof is broken by This method of building gables and secondary slopes. Of all materials at able. There seems to be but little choice between cypress and metal sash bars for large conservatories. themselves they are quite ornamental. IRON HOUSES. It is in the wide conservatories In that the curvilinear roofs are particularly desirable. braces.

mew houses. 171 2 fe9 .

it is desirable that they should have a steel core. since. as. the house will be tighter. it will be well to use all of the center of the building for large palms. in order to be lasting and free from rust. 92. bananas. tree ferns. A metallic glazed house is harder to heat than a putty glazed one. latter. and it will be in a good state of preservation at the end of twenty-five or thirty Although practically indestructible. INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT OP THE CONSERVATORY. the walls may be arranged in the same manner as the center. and so arranged as to bring into view all The portion of the house next to parts of the house. This is really the purpose of a conservatory.Yi% ' < GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION". if constructed of copper. They should be planted in the ground. strips used in the iron houses will have become so bent and out of shape that many of them will require renewal even before this time. Fig. The first cost of the iron roof considerably more than for cypress. as is usually the case. and after a year or two is likely to leak heat from. upon which plants in flower may If they are combined with ferns and be displayed. and rain into the house. the glazing years. if it is kept at a temperature of fiftyfive to sixty degrees when plants are brought in from . or galvan- ized iron. With the same attention to painting and repairing a wooden roof as is necessary with an iron one. In arranging the interior of the conservatory. it will need to be painted fully as often. The walks should be of generous widths. ornamental-leaved plants the effect will be very pleasing. and so arranged as to present as natural an appearance as possible. supplied with tables. and other tallgrowing plants. bamboos. they are likely to bend and crack the is glass. there will be less drip. expense that must be incurred for the If the latter are used. at least. easier to heat. but it is desirable to have a portion of it. zinc. and.

173 2oo •4 M few a* SI PW a-o >0 > *g o c| E» H .'interior arrangement of conservatory.

stove room (Section). they . As first used. dom wider than twenty or twenty-five feet. ana a stove house to-day is merely a hothouse with a temperature of sixty-five to seventy-five degrees. Frequently the large rooms are used for growing collections of the more ornamental palms. 93. They are sel- fig. Fig. the name of the object became attached to the building in which it was used. As a rule. 94. the vertical side walls are usually about feet high. of thirty to thirty-five side of the ridge. or. these are considerably narrower and lower than the conservatories or palm houses. the term "stove" was applied to greenhouses in which artificial heat was supplied by means of stoves. As is frequently the case. THE STOVE HOUSE. and from If built upon a matwelve to twenty feet in height. if the plants are large.in served. rooms. with ventilators on each ter table This house should have side tables. and the stove and other warm and will last must longer than are known as palm houses. the flowers will be con* if kept at a high temperature. GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. and a wide cenmay be used. two and one-half or three The roof has an angle degrees. sonry foundation two and a half feet high. with side ventilators.

175 CO o o B « H d 09 O fed H >• % d fed o o M .STOVE JlSD ORCHID HOUSES.




anted or plunged.

In Fig. 94


seen a cross

section of a stove house with a curvilinear roof, while in

95 an interior view of the same house


one does not desire the curvilinear roof for itself, a stove room built with straight sash bars will give fully as good results. A very pleasing effect may be produced Avhen stove plants and orchids are grown in the same room. So far as the construction of the house itself is concerned, a stove house does not differ from others of the same general style, except that to obtain the proper temperature, the radiating surface, provided in the steam or water pipes, must be considerably larger than for most houses.


establishments of this kind there should be, one house in which a maximum night temperature of fifty degrees is maintained, for such plants as do not require the stove room heat. In a general way, their construction would be the same as for a stove house, although, as a rule, a narrower house will answer. Where many bedding plants are used for lawn decoration in the summer, a similar house will be required for that purpose. If desired, a portion of this room could be used for propagating purposes, or a narrow house could be erected especially for propagation.



at least,

When large palms, and other similar plants, are used upon the lawns during the summer, they should be stored in a cool house, and if no other place is at hand, a lean-to against a shed or other building can be cheaply erected, and a proper temperature can be maintained at very little expense. For many of the broad-leaved evergreens, that should be kept in a dormant condition during the winter, a north side lean-to house is quite



As indicated above, orchids can be grown in stove houses with other plants, and for many amateurs no
need be provided, but when the colwill be well to have houses set apart for their use. It is generally admitted that no form of construction is better adapted for orchid culture than the span roof house. Many growers have made the mistake of erecting high and wide houses, Avhile, had they confined themselves to structures not over sixteen or eighteen feet wide, and ten or eleven feet high, they
special orchid house

lections are large,


fig. 96.

orchid house


"would have obtained more satisfactory results, to say nothing of the loss in cost of construction and fuel.


orchids are divided into three groups,

intermediate and cool house,


— stove,

the temperature in

which they thrive best, and houses should be provided If an orchid house sixty to seventy-five feet long is erected, it can be divided by cross partitions into three rooms, which can be adapted for the different classes of orchids by a j>roper adjustment of the
heating pipes.

For small plants, a house only twelve


wide and

eight feet high at the ridge will be even easier to erect and heat, but the moisture and temperature cannot be



For some of the

controlled as well as in a wider house.

cool house orchids, a lean-to house answers quite well,

and where Cattleyas are grown in large quantities for market, the three-quarter span house will give good

In Fig. 9G will be found a section of an orchid house, showing the arrangement of the tables and ventiAt least two feet of the side walls should be lators.
above the masonry, giving sixteen or eighteen inches of There should be two lines of ventilators at the glass. ridge, and some means of bottom ventilation should also be provided. In the intermediate and Mexican houses the vertical sash in the side walls may be used as ventilators, but in the stove or East Indian house all drafts of cold air are injurious, and it is preferable to admit
the fresh air under the tables. All orchids require very careful shading during the summer. A thin permanent shading may be given in the spring, but the main reliance should be upon blinds or curtains of canvas or netting, that can be drawn up In dull weather except while the sun is shining bright. a thick permanent shading would be injurious to the


The large, choice varieties of European grapes are not hardy in our latitude, and some protection must be provided for them if we are to grow them. Many varieties can be grown in a glass house even without heat, and to such a building the name of "cold grapery" has been given. Some varieties require heat to bring them to maturity, while others can be brought in quite early if started in winter with artificial heat, and for such purposes the "hot grapery" is used, although the name
"forcing grapery" is also applied to it. While almost any greenhouse will answer for growing grapes, experience has shown that certain form3 ara

better than others.


For the forcing grapery nothing seems to be better than the narrow lean-to or two-third span, such as is seen in cross section in Fig. 97, as it furnishes a warm back wall against which the vines can be trained, and, like all lean-to houses, it is cheaply constructed and heated. The three-quarter span houses are also excellent for either forcing or cold graperies, but unless one has walls that can be used for this purpose it will be preferable \o build span roof houses running



porcixg grapery


north and south, except when grapes are to be forced in The span roof house, Fig. 98, encloses a the winter. larger body of air than either of the other houses, and it will be easier to regulate the temperature and the moisture in such a house than in a narrow one. In addition to the above reason the wide houses are preferable, as they have longer rafters and afford more space for training the vines. The curvilinear roof is frequently used for vineries,

and in Fig. 99 is shown a section of a curvilinear house. They give somewhat longer rafters for training the vines, but they have no other advantage, except, perhaps, in

feet. 98. and thirty-five. and. If #k» pig. appearance. There are. while forty. The situation should be such that it will not be affected either by the shade. and for the details of construction reference is made to Chapters V and VI. by all should be well drained to the depth of three may not become wet. In their general construction they do not differ from even span structures of similar dimensions used for other purposes. or even thirty degrees pitch will be sufficient in one case. or the roots of large trees.180 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. however. house is a wide one. it east. and this will not counterbalance the increased cost. may be desirable in another. with straight sash bars. or perhaps forty-five degrees. which might get into the border and steal from the vines. The even span greenhouses. In choosing a site for a grapery. certain points that should be considered in erecting a grapery. the slope of the roof may be less than if it is comparatively narrow. that the border . even span grapery {Section). seem to be the favorite form for graperies. it is well to have it somewhat sheltered from the north and means.

In arranging the pipes. should extend for a foot or so above the level. 98). with continuous If it is desired to make the dide ventilation (see Fig. Upon this wall there should be one of wood two feet high. with openings at least one foot square through which the roots can make their way. The . and preferably two in a wide house. but in the damp border it will not be very durable. at least. and would Snd to invite the development of the red spider. While steam could be used for heating vineries. The flue is not satisfactory and is but little used. they might unduly dry out the border.GRAPERIES. should be somewhat stiffer than for an ordinary greenhouse. hot water being relied on for the most part. curvilinear grapery (Section). 181 The "wall of brick or stone. one line of ventilation at the ridge. without the use of a stone foundation. if in close proximity. it has not to any extent. The roof fig. There should be. it is best to have them three or four feet from the vines. and the tbnn of wall described above is preferable. if either be used. but it need not be different in construction from those described in Chapter VI. the side walls may be built of wood. first cost as low as possible. as. arches should be left in the wall at intervals of about three feet. 99. and ii a portion of the border is to be on each side of the wall.

hinged at differ . In many sections as of the country some of our choicest fruits. the ease with which these crops can be grown in favorable localities. but in connection with the cottages of the middle classes. amount of heat furnished can be regulated at Some arrangement should be made vines. 97 and 98). nectarines. In Europe fruit houses are very common. but should have a height of six feet. and if their cultivation favorable conditions. that the pleasure. and so supplied with valves radiation should be ample. The walls are built in the same manner. is attempted it must be under glass.182 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. In their construction. for training the and perhaps the simplest form of trellis will be made of No. arranged one footapart. orchard houses do not greatly from graperies. They may be constructed of wood or iron posts and boards up to a height of two feet. On this side of the Atlantic. should be from three to four feet high. not only upon the large estates. etc. apricots. and for many years have formed an important part of the greenhouses. have united to restrict the use of orchard While it is doubtful if they can be made profithouses. their many persons find them very desir- able to furnish a supply of fresh fruit out of season for own tables.. able as commercial ventures. except under unusually sweet cherries.- cannot be grown in the open air. 12 galvanized wires. at least one-half of which should be of glass. such peaches. ORCHARD HOUSES. and the abundance and cheapness of the sub-tropical fruits from Florida and California. and at least onehalf of it should be in the form of ventilators. or they may have a masonry foundaThe glass in the side walls tion with a brick wall above. and suspended about fifteen inches below the sash bars (Figs.

The lean-to will be twenty-five feet will be preferable. rafters. feet wide. With the high walls. "While houses not over twelve or fifteen feet wide will give fair results. an even span house will cost no more. and the house more than twenty-five twenty degrees will be preferable. to give room for the trees at the sides of the houses. can be used to advantage. or three-quarter span. in narrow houses. and the temperature and moisture will be easier to regulate than in a lean-to or in a narrow house. a cheap form to erect. there should be one. the latter being preferable if the able. with cypress sash bars. in order to bring the glass down if as near as possible to the plants in the center of the house. it will be desirroof of fixed sash bars. . the top. to give the roof a comparatively low pitch. as the light will be more evenly distributed than in either of the other forms. and two in wide ones. With a lean-to construction. twenty. With proper care in regtrained upon the north wall. While any form of house. curvilinear or straight. better yet. a narrow lean-to house six to ten feet Avide can be used. and will be much more satisfactory. the wide even span will be most satisfactory. at the ridge. and doors or ventilators in the ends are also desirable. A slope is of twenty-six degrees will answer. lean-to. bat when this cannot be done. In this case iron posts.ORCHAKD HOUSES. In addition to the row under the plate. While not really desirable. The construction would be about the same as that of a narrow lean-to In this kind of a house the trees are generally grapery. may be used. Ample means of ventilating the houses should be provided. a house about fifteen feet wide can be built when the south wall is five or six feet high and the north one fourteen or fifteen feet. particularly if the The may house is a wide one. a width of eighteen. even span. when it can be built against the south wall of a building. purlins and ridge. or. 183 be either of movable sash or house is to be a permanent one.

buds are not as well ripened as when grown in the open air. FIRE HEAT. for convenience in watering and caring for the plants. thus securing the peak of the roof as an additional space for tall trees. about four feet from the walls. The piping should be sufficient to keep the temperature of the house at forty-five degrees in the coldest weather ture so since. however. It is after the buds start.184 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. and will be more susceptible to cold. it is preferable to have two walks. fair results will be obtained. Although steam or hot air flues may be used for heating. them in pots or boxes. If peaches or other fruits are to be forced. can also be used. they should be . the trees being arranged upon either side. hot water will be found more satisfactory. as a rule. some growers plaut the trees in the border. In narrow houses there only one walk. Even when only used "While as growing houses. although this arrangement is often made. and are then able to pack the trees away. it is necessary to have a narrow walk upon either side. as. dormant it frequently happens that the tempera- low that the buds will be injured. it is desir- able to have the houses provided with heating apparatus. ulating the heat and moisture. that the danger of injury by cold is greatest. if the temperature falls below the freezing point while the trees are in bloom. the three-quarter span house. If to be used as fruit-forcing houses. but in wide span roof houses. the crop will be lost and the trees greatly injured. When there is a walk in the center of houses over fifteen feet wide. and in ventilating. with the long slope either to the north or to the south. one on either side. and use the house for other pur"While others grow poses until it is necessary to start the trees in the winter is or spring. the may drop that is likely to occur after the trees are started.

or conservatory. and the forcing may com- mence In the forcing house a temperature as high as fifty or fifty-five degrees at night is necessary for the best results. etc. and as there are. forcing house. and This in Fig. of combinations. . as early as January. and now offer for consideration perspective views and ground plans of greenhouse establishments. and We have "outlined even thousands. designed by the leading horticultural architects and builders of the country. considerable skill necessary in order to secure the best results. ten or a dozen houses that go to make up a complete plant. CHAPTER XXVIII. range of houses is not an elaborate one. but it is well arranged. as well as their size and shape. a stove palm house. When is a large number of houses that are used for different purposes are to be combined. 100. propagating house. above the structural peculiarities of seven or eight of the more important houses. in the very selection of the houses for the establishment there would be opportunity for hundreds. fifty-eight by room twenty-five feet square. THE ARRANGEMENT OP GREENHOUSES.ARRANGEMENT OE GREENHOUSES. The first illustration. started as soon as 185 March 1. and in estimating the radiation this should be kept in mind. It contains a twenty-five feet. The arrangement depends largely upon the kind of houses.. Fig. 101 a ground plan of the houses is shown. and in connection with a grapery and two forcing houses makes a fairly complete establishment. and have elsewhere described the rose house. shows a part of the greenhouses at the Michigan Agricultural College. at least.


-. is joined The houses shown in perspective were erected in 1892. gardener's house. a cool house of for the tlio 187 same size. and is over the heaters. each twelve by fifty feet. by Lord & Burnham Co. . and are of their iron C / '• -•••. and another room twenty-five by twenty-four feet. shown in the illustration.ARRANGEMENT OF GREENHOUSES. as to the conservatory. twenty-five feet.. two propagating (hot a rose room eighteen by and cold) houses growing of bedding plants. The twenty-five by fifteen feet. The workroom is that is used as occasion demands.-' WOT\K T\OOHt n 1 1 1 u \ .


103. plants. are 17 and 26. were erected by Hitchings & Co. From each affords room for growing quite large plants. Staten Island. in Figs. consists of an elongated hexThe side agonal palm house with a curvilinear roof. of New York City. facing east and west. that were in They are entirely conerected some fifteen years ago. was erected by Thos. and although kept well painted. 104. complete with iron tables and They heating apparatus..ARRANGEMENT OP GREENHOUSES.000. and in This range the arrangement of the growing houses. and hot and cold propagating houses. The range. which can be used for stove house. walls are quite high. They are heated by a Spencc hot water heater. cool stove. structed of wood. and. except that the coils here used Each room is piped independently. W. Similar in construction. which is curvilinear. in many respects. are three other houses. Weathered's Sons. to the new greenhouses described above. and so arranged that heat can he shut off in showing signs of decay in some places. 14. and from this the size and uses of The expense of the different rooms can be ascertained. are those shown in The principal difference is in the form of the Fig. with the pitch of the roof. 102. The ground plan of these houses is illustrated in Fig. and the radiating surface is supplied by two-inch flow pipes and one and one-half inch returns. 189 are double. at New Dorp. as will be seen. such a range of houses. side of the conservatory. will not be far from $16. as shown ground the plan. or houses for carnations and other flowering At the end of the north houses will be seen a long three-quarter span rose house and a large work- . In the rear of the new greenhouses. each coil is whole or in part from one room without affecting the others. roof of the conservatory. A larger and more expensive range of houses is shown in Fig. extend two span roof growing houses.


ARRANGEMENT of greenhouses. 191 .


. while the latter use wooden gutters. and use iron gutters and eav# ^ooLHOusel ^^rto" " 1 House M'x74' TROP. and forge the posts and rafters from one piece. it can be found in the range shown in Fig. the ground plan of which can be seen in Fig. GROUND PLAN OF LOED & BURNHAM RANGE... 193 The method is & Co. FIG. as will be seen from the illustrations. at Yonkers. troughs. Y.CAU HOUSE TROPICAL > CO. 105. Lord & of construction used by Hitehings not particularly different from the one used by Burnham Co. room. If anything more elaborate is desired. 106. consists of an 13 . which are clamped together by an iron bracket at the plate. N.ARRANGEMENT OF GREENHOUSES. It was designed and erected by Lord & Burn nam Co. 106. the principal difference being that the former generally make the rafters and posts in separate pieces. and.

an even span orchid house. Fig. 107 . a stove or tropical house. 96. 107. Fig. a cool vinery. both cumforty-five feet. a three-quarter by . eighteen by sixty-seven feet. octagonal curvilinear conservatory forty by forty feet. 94 : a cool house twenty-two by fig. 91 . twenty-two by sixty feet. eose house (Section). thirty-seven feet. Fig. a forcing house. and a hot vinery. fig. "with a curvilinear roof. twenty by ninety-seven feet . Fig. eighteed Fig. twenty-two by seventy-four feet. 99. also curvilinear. span rose house. 108. with a three-quarter span roof. 108. which is shown in cross section in Fig.194 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. a span roof green- house twenty by sixty-seven feet. forcing house (Section).

the forms shown here have been thoroughly tested. we often in find small cold frames. factory. that can be attended to in all weathers without exposure. and have been found quite satisfactory. as well as country places. half hardy plants can be stored through the winter. little value in forwarding plants during the severe parts and are far from satisfactory in every way. in connection with the dwelling.GLASS STRUCTURES FOR AMATEURS. feet. ATTACHED CONSERVATORIES. or cold pits. linear. CHAPTER XXIX. For our present purpose a house is needed. perhaps ten by fifteen feet in area. in which . will be In this chapter an attempt made to outline methods of constructing several forms of small greenhouses that can be cheaply erected. and that can be cheaply constructed and maintained. they are of plants can be started and grown. and which many of the hardier vegetable and budding At best. who are restrained from indulging in their favorite pastime by our long six months of winter. besides room and This establishment is very complete. If plain curvilinear bouses are desired. and seems to be well arranged. but are deterred by what they imagine to be the excessive cost. 195 a potting twenty-two by fifty-two office. would gladly erect small glass structures in which to prosecute many of the lighter operations of gardening. the dwelling. in which. convenient to or attached to of the winter. It is frequently desirable to have. a room enclosed with glass. and which will be found very useful and entirely satisUpon many town. GLASS STRUCTURES FOR AMATEURS. Many lovers of gardening.

. where the walls of the house will form the end and rear of the con- FIG. The simplest kind of a conservatory of this style is made from an ordinary veranda. it will be best to have detached houses. the fact that small conservatories can be placed in an angle of the dwelling. may vary in width from six to fifteen feet. YERANDA CONSERVATORY. flowers can be The large structures that are sometimes seen do not differ. from detached conservatories. or to use some other form of roof. the spaces ered. in which. in their principal features. and need no consideration here. Although the best is results. 109. when the first servatory. grown or exhibited. cannot be obtained in a lean-to structure.196 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. but if anything wider than this is desired. so far as the growth of the plants concerned. in the lean-to style. leads to their use consid- These attached conservatories. and thus greatly reduce the cost of construcoutlay is tion.

The floor should be at the same height. so arranged that they can be taken out. far better results can be obtained. or even the north side i s preferable. Fig. tire roof. These can be taken out in the summer. 197 between the sido posts are filled in with glass sash. if FIG - no - veraxda cox(Section). In case a wooden floor is used. however. to secure the best results. In constructing these veranda conservatories. The framework of the con- servatory should be put up in ner. the veranda should be closed in below. it will be found cheaper than a wooden or a tin roof. a as permanent man- should the enbut it will be •sometimes found best. if desired. 109. and the veranda restored to its ordinary use. It should be eight or nine feet wide. although a cement floor may be used if desired. although a veranda five feet wide will answer as a conservatory. Fig.ATTACHED CONSERVATORIES. the glass in the side is servatory and ends of temporary sashes. and if a veranda conservatory is to be built. or ceiled against the floor joists. 110. as a rule. the east. . and constructed in the same manner as for an ordinary veranda. al- though for ferns and similar plants. By the addition of a glass roof. a loca- tion on the south side of the house should be selected. as seen in cross section.

but it will be desir- able to have heat directly supplied to the room. or. arranged as in Fig. 109 gives an idea of the exterior appearance of If a this will the same conservatory. and placed five feet sill six inches apart. each other. one or two large kerosene heating stoves can be used. as is is to be used as a conservatory throughout the year. while Fig. Hot water or steam heating pipes. these doors As a It is also high. outer door. veranda is made eight feet high at the eaves. If the amount of glass exposed is not too large. will be desirable. rafters of two by four inch cypress running from each The remaining framepost to the wall of the house. either of the side or end. but if nothing better is available. a doorway in the wall of the dwelling should be arranged in the middle. rule. unless it be of permanent sash bars and glass. tion of a house six feet wide. from which the details for the construction of the walls and roof can be ascertained. pro- .198 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. sill should be placed. it will be convenient to have an should be opposite an excellent plan to have the portion of the wall of the house adjoining the conservatory. At the height of two feet a sash space beneath should be finish of the house. the spaces between the posts may be filled in with glass sash that can be taken out during tho may summer. but in low structures it will have to be The conservatory roof should have placed in the roof. and the filled in to correspond with the The walls of the veranda above this better. work of the roof will consist of two by one and oneIn Fig. admit of the placing of a ventilating sash in the front wall. 110. and in case the conservatory is a large one. If designed as a conservatory for flowers. nec- essary heat can be supplied from the adjoining living room for so-called cool house plants. The posts should be from five to seven feet of glass. 110 is shown a cross seceighth inch sash bars.

ATTACHED CONSERVATORIES. 199 b °> 73 -J h ta SI & a § 9 o o ~M & > H O W H .

Barnard. is desirable. again. and FIG. A cheap having a layer of heavy house (Section). Ventilation secured through a cupola in the center of the ridge. and the roof formed of hotbed sash. Here. 112. carry off the gases of If more elaborate structures are desired. sheathed on both sides. The outside boardbuilding paper between the boards. as shown in the engraving. October. A The walls measure five feet six is inches outside. as seen dence. The walls were built 1890. ing of the north wall extends one foot above the roof. as light can be obtained from three sides. in which case there will be a great variety of structures from which to select. and better results can be obtained than in a veranda conservatory. to vided pipes are arranged combustion. . It frequently happens that for some reason it is not desirable to have the conservatory attached to a building. in Fig. In Fig. the joints being Is made tight with battens.200 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. I hair felt inside. 112 is pre- sented a cross section of a house built by Chas. and described in the American Garden. the lean-to form will be found a cheap one to erect. to act as a wind-break. and with a layer of cheaper wall could be erected by double boarding the outside. they should be of a style that will correspond with that of the resiThe location at the corner of the house. Ill. and the same directions apply here as in a large house. DETACHED GREENHOUSES FOR AMATEURS.

and the glass will not be far from $1. the others being cut off at the height of two and one-half feet. or from dealers in greenhouse materials. first class. and with every other post four feet high. The lumber can be estimated at about $3. according to the kind used. a and the circu- lation of air controlled by If the engraving.50 per foot.PORTABLE CONSERVATORIES. at any wood-working factory. the houses are built with an iron frame. and in Fig.00 per linear foot. costs about $360.. Several builders make a specialty of supplying houses of the kind. as will be seen other forms of houses are desired. 114 is seen the same house with a portion of the sash removed. Besides being portable. They are supplied with hot water heating apparatus. they will only be miniatures of the large ones described in previous chapters. sills. and is. damper. while the labor of carpenters and painters will . A house eight by sixteen feet. PORTABLE CONSERVATORIES. 113 shows one of these houses put up by Hitchings & Co. and covered w ith r sash that can be very quickly put in place. set four feet apart. cut in the desired shapes. end rafters and ridge pieces can be obtained. The heatimr apparatus for a narrow house will cost from four to five dollars iter linear foot. sash. a very satisfactory conservatory can be built by using four by four inch posts for the walls. and the ventilating apparatus from ten to fifty cents. If one cannot afford so expensive a house. plates. Fig. The roof may be made of fixed sash bars or of temporary sash. in every way. the houses are and another section can be added with little trouble at any time. 201 The from base of this is is twelve inches square. with heating and ventilating apparatus. similar to that used in large houses. As will be seen.. It makes a very durable house. extensible. and ventilat- ing machinery.



'. with heating apparatus and benches. and every one of the objections urged against could be overcome by raising the structure to the ground level and supplying the needed glass partition and door. rooms by a glass The points claimed for the basement pit are. or a If it can be situated located. be about $2. ' . '. 115. it is best to select the south side of it the dwelling. owing to the comparatively small area of exposed glass. if possible.50 per foot. There are some objections to the structure to which name has been given. point between would answer. all the better. that it is inconspicuous. that it is very easily heated. where a wall is cellar window is The torn away so as to afford an opening three feet .204 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. and separated from one partition. or east. THE BASEMENT the above that it is PIT. GROUND PLAN OF BASEMENT of the living PIT. were it entirely above ground lllllllllllllllllllll V 1 . . For the location. 1 FIG. or a total of $225 to $250 for a substantial house fifteen by twenty feet. and its cheapness of construction. although the west. the principal ones being somewhat difficult of access. and that the plants grown there do not give the pleasure they would.

11G. (a) should then he put down. if ridge board. will complete the exterior of the structure. and a four by two inch fascia (d) should be set into the tops of the posts along the front. about three which will house. FIG. or. The doorway may be in the center of the back wall. is then made. should be placed at the corners and at intervals of five feet along the side and ends. a flat table (C) three feet wide. and glaz- basement not differ from the same parts of a greenarrangement will depend upon the uses to which it is to be put.THE BASEMENT PIT. A details for pit. on the The amount of heat required for such a house will . where they should be supported by a four by one inch gutter (e). as seen at (c). on which the larger plants can be arranged. better yet. in which a glass door should he placed. The interior and one-half feet from the lings. and and north (Z?) sides tiers of shelves may be placed. desired. and the wall of masonry laid up The highest to the general level outside (Fig. with the exception of the sash bars. 205 vation The excawide. ing. and upon these four by four inch posts (b) twenty inches high. and two by four inch rafters (/) should extend from the top of the posts to the wall of the house. If desired. cjmi extend along the west and south sides. Four by six irjch sills. inch plate The two by is five then placed. 115). and with rabbets for glass. east end. ventilators. for starting cuttings and seed- and for the growing east (A) of vegetable and bedding plants.116. purlins. point of the roof should he located four feet above the top of the foundation. Fig.

depend considerably upon the kinds of plants to be many greenhouse plants a temperature of forty-five to fifty degrees is ample at night. etc. except in severe cold weather. or to obtain heat by placing a coil in a hot air furnace and connecting servatory. will be found in the chapter on Heating Greenhouses. the next most satisfactory plan will be to use a small hot water heater. there will be little danger of frost. stove plants. the use of a second stove in severe weather would probably be required. as for contains a hot air furnace. "Where only a small cold frame or hot bed is wanted. If the dwelling is heated by hot water or steam. when an oil stove cellar. or other heating apparatus. the pit thus made can be used for . 117.. For fig. particularly if it placed in the room will be all that is necessary. and. if not. If the pit opens into a large grown. of course the matter of heating would be very simple. it can be arranged just outside a cellar window. cellar-way costseevatoey {Perspective). If a frame four by two feet is sunk in the ground and covered with a hotbed sash. and if it occasionally drops below forty degrees no harm will be done.206 GKEE^HOUSE COKSTEUCTIOtf. it with hot water heating pipes in the con- Directions for arranging the pipes. while most of the so-called stove plants would be injured if the temperature remains below sixty degrees for any length of time.

although if the cellar contains a furnace this will not be necessary. and it will place for wintering any half-hardy plants. Fig. A writer in American Garden describes a cold m4 FIG. as in Fig. and for starting plants in the spring. which shows the appearance outside. replaced by hotbed stairs. 118. CELLAR-WAY CONSERVATORY in the (Section). in ordinary winters. cellar-way from the The can be used as shelves for the plants. In severe weather a light covering may bo required to keep out frost. IIS. 117. of the The doors should be removed and sash. 207 growing quite a variety of greenhouse plants. make a good By the use . pit arranged outside cellar-way of a house. except in the colder sections of the country.THE EASEMENT PIT.

If artificial heat can be provided. a variety of plants can be grown. . of shutters and mats the frost can be kept out. even without opening the inner doors.208 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION.

. a cheap. Conservatories. tile bottoms. Hot water under pressure Hot water vs. Heaters. of attached iron frame portable small. for amateurs 200 "Challenge" ventilating machine Changes of direction and in heating pipes level Greenhouse benches Greenhouse heating Greenhouses. greenhouse Butted glass ..— .. forms of. Heaters. basement Conservatory. Amateurs. size to use Heating. INDEX. refraction of light by 136 6 165 47 56 tion Glass. angle iron frame. methods of Glazing strip 56 50 57 58 59 65 Braces and posts Bracket brace for roof Brads and points for glazing.. hot water. greenhouses for Arrangement of houses Barnard heater 195 21 Fluted and rough plate glass. arrangement of. wooden 7 80 frame. strength of Glazing... slate bottoms. Conservatories.. experimental tests. steam Interior arrangement of conservatories Iron houses Iron posts and sills 138 163 162 93 113 129 172 44 3j 209 . 58 Flues for heating conservatolies Bench Bench Bench Bench Bench Bench bottoms.. construction of. Brick walls.. Heater. use and construction of Conservatory. points for. lire Hotbeds. greenhouse 126 Boiler. Carmody Heater. Spence Heater. Gutters. wooden 6 Benches. the making of Hotbed yards Hot water heaters. grades of Glass. Polmaise system Heating with hot water Heating with steam Helliwell patent glazing History of greenhouses of.. arrangement of Hotbeds. Graperies. hot water. gas pipe for '6 frame.. flues for 25 29 135 115 119 121 116 117 116 115 120 131 Heating greenhouses Heating. Weathereds' conical. .) of greenhouses Frames. Heating. heating Conservatories. Conservatories.. Barnard 76 90 185 195 Cheap ventilating machine Cold frames and pits Combined wood and iron houses — Commercial establishments Connecting different systems. Conservatories.. steam. Hitchings' corrugated. wooden Heater. o use Boilers. forms and construction of 178 Greenhouse.. cold Galvanized iron sash bars Glass and glazing Glass... Builders. Furman Heater. construction of. and their locat 135 84 82 Forms 7'. . cellarway Continuous ventilation Cool houses Curvilinear houses Dealers in greenhouse material Details for iron and wood roof Details for wooden roof Double and single strength glass Drip gutters in sash bars Heater. size of. 136 90 137 91 123 46 1 Even span houses Fire heat for orchard houses. Hitchings' base burning Heater. Fire hotbeds Fire surface. Greenhouses for amateurs Grout walls.. size of Glass. .

Over vs. gas pipe 157 ard" Ventilating shafting Ventilators Veranda conservatory Walls for greenhouses 70 67 196 24 Water bench houses tor propagating 42 158 Wooden walls. arrangement of. "Chal- — Polmaise system of glazing 29 60 137 lenge"". cost of Sash. Rose houses. a cheap. arrangement of. iron Refraction of light by glass painting greenhouses Ridge and In now houses Ri< lee size and form of lie] . for steam Pipes. 103 Roots. the optimum Pitcli of the roof Plan for commercial establish- ment Plates and gutters Points and brads. construction of 154 Location and arrangement of 40 59 64 40 50 87 11 houses Machinery. Gasser's glazing Three-quarter span houses 16 Tile for benches 82 Valves and expansion tank 112 Ventilating machine. galvanized 47 12 Lean-to houses Lettuce houses. iron 32 Posts and sills. metallic shading greenhouses Short span to the south Shutters and mats Side-hill houses Sills and posts. const ruction of Orchid houses. construction of. details for Roofs.' 69 24 161 for 53 110 New departure ventilating machine New methods of glazing Outside shafting Overhead piping North side propagating houses Orchard houses. over vs. under bench 72 66 157 182 177 74 108 piping. 22 Propagating case 158 Propagating houses.am heating Steam vs.— 210 GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION". steam Size of glass Slate for benches Slope of pipes Solid beds amount and size of. basement Pits. construction of Roofs. cold of. forms of Sash bars. piping . for . arrangement of. ''New De- parture" Ventilating machine. 74 72 73 Ventilating machine. Purlins and rafters. benches for Rose houses. under bench 124 103 204 165 51 41) St. . slope of Pipes and piping for hot water Pipes and piping for steam Piping.. ventilating •• Paint bulb Painting and shading Paradigm patent glazing Permanent sash bars Pipe. 74 Ventilating machine.. "Standard" ventilating apparatus water Piping. for hot — 125 99 97 124 115 Span roof houses. ventilating 21 Masonry walls Mats and shutters Measuring the pitch Narrow houses. hot water Pitch. construction of. iron Potting room. iron Putty and its application Putty bulbs and machines Rafters and purlins.. iron 38 33 38 49 140 142 149 68 34 45 88 55 161 14 32 104 125 57 84 99 84 6 72 123 129 174 65 Size and amount of pipe for hot water amount and size of. construction of 27 22 Work room. pitch of Rose houses. for Size and amount of pipe for hot water Pipe. construction of Purlin. arrangement st cam Pits. 40 Iron rafters and purlins Iron sash bars. 64 85 47 37 104 Sash bars. . glazing 141 Stove houses Strip. "Stand- Portable conservatories 201 Portable frames 160 35 Portable roof 43 Posts and braces. . Piping..

50 Cloth 100 pages." and will be found especially valuable to those who desire an introduction to the subject. Net. on receipt of catalog price. There is no subject of more vital importance to the farmer than that of the best method of maintaining the fertility of the soil. Illustrated. Shoesmith. have convinced the intelligent farmer that the agriculture of the future must be based upon more rational practices than those which have been followed in the past. We have felt for some time that there was a place for a brief.STANDARD BOOKS PUBLISHED BY ORANGE JUDD COMPANY NEW YORK Ashland Building 315-321 Fourth Avenue 150 CHICAGO People's Gas Building Michigan Avenue Any of these bool(s will be sent by mail. A . $1. concise and interesting study of corn. Professor Vivian's experience as a teacher in the short winter courses has fitted him to present this matter in a popular style. Cloth. The very evident decrease in the fertility of those soils which have been under cultivation for a number of years. combined with the increased competition and the advanced price of labor. cation. free on applibooks. treatise on this important subject of Soil Fertility. all of which carry their own story and contribute their part in making pictures and text matter a clear. First Principles of Soil Fertility By Alfred Vivian. V. 5x7 inches.00 admirably The Study By of Corn most helpful book to all Prof. and at the same time comprehensive. It is pre-eminently a "First Book. and cordially invite them to address us on any matter pertaining to rural Send for our large illustrated catalog. Illustrated. In this little book he has given the gist of the subject in plain language. postpaid. M. practically devoid of technical and scientific terms. farmers and students interested in the selection and improvement of corn. We are always happy to correspond with our patrons. $0. 265 pages. and who intend to do subsequent reading. Net. to any part of the world. It is profusely illustrated from photographs. 5x7 inches.

100 pages. for the first time. 5x7 inches. This splendid little book has been written from a practical point of view. it should be of value to the The time has come when the sucpractical dairyman. a plain. upon which dairy industry is based. involved in the handling of milk. and a great many drawings picturing diseases.00 The Farmer's Veterinarian By Charles William Burkett. and wherever it is possible. Illustrated. their symptoms and familiar attitudes assumed by farm animals when affected with disease. cessful dairyman must study his business from a purely scientific point of view. . containing brief and popular advice on the nature. clear type. Cloth. delivery to factory. and disease troubles. Net. of Cattle for this book will that it is the first Thomas Shaw. being free from technical terms. Fully illustrated.50. 90 pages. The place once apparent when it is stated book that has ever been written which discusses the management and feeding of cattle. to fill a place in dairy literature long needed. an elementary text-book for colleges and for use especially It embodies underlying principles in short-course classes. practical and satisfactory guide for farmers who are interested in the common diseases of the farm. and is easily understood by the average farm boy.50 Cloth 5x7 inches. 496 pages. First Lessons in Dairying By Hubert E. The book is handsomely printed on fine paper. cause and treatment of disease. and in this book the scientific principles. Ross. Illustrated. 5^4x8 inches. $0. Net. A practical treatise on the diseases of farm stock. whether on the block or at the pail. and should be in the hands of every farmer in the country. and the manufacture of butter on the farm. popular way. This book abounds in helpful suggestions and valuable information for the most successful treatment of ills and accidents. Cloth.The Management and Feeding By be at Prof.50. and presents. Net. shipping station. $2. from large. The book is just the thing for the every-day dairyman. these principles are illustrated by practical problems and examples. It is designed primarily as a practical guide to successful dairying. Van Norman. (2) By H. $1. are stated clearly and simply. Cloth Net. the common ailments and the care and management of stock when sick. It is written in a simple. 288 pages. from the birth of the calf until it has fulfilled its mission in life. 5x7 inches. containing a number of halftone illustrations. for use in the laboratory. $0. A Dairy Laboratory Guide While the book is intended primarily E. It is profusely illustrated.

Illustrated. producers and handlers of milk. $0. as have also the questions on cream separation. The author of this practical little book is to be congratulated on the successful manner in which he has treated so important a subject. This book meets the needs of the average dairy farmer. of Dairying Lane. and if carefully followed will It may also be used as an lead to successful dairying. and especially in shortcourse classes. Its purpose is to present in a clear and concise manner various business methods and systems which will help the dairyman to reap greater profits. This book covers fully the principles of breeding and feeding for both fat stock and dairying type. The entire subject of butter-making in all its branches has been most thoroughly treated. 5x7 inches. in book. Shamel. Troy. faced in the profitable production of stock. 100 pages. and Hugh C. Shamel's new 288 pages. and many new and important features have been added. It has been prepared for the use of dairy students. Net. The tests for moisture. the swine industry and the horse market. $0. Illustrated. Cloth. Publow. Publow. 100 pages. and all who make dairying a business. Cloth. and creamery management. commercial starters. elementary textbook for colleges. No other treatise of its kind is available. Cloth.50 Questions and Answers on Milk and Milk Testing By Chas. 5x7 inches. and statistics show a production far short of the There are many problems to be actual requirements. $1. salt and acid have received special attention. marketing of butter.50 (3) . Net. It tells of sheep and mutton raising.25 Questions and Answers on Buttermaking By Chas A. Mr.Profitable Stock Raising By Clarence A. cream ripening. the study of milk and milk products. cream overrun. 5x7 inches. Net. and no book of its size gives so much practical and useful information in Illustrated. and is undoubtedly in a class by itself. hot house lambs. A book that no student in the dairy industry can afford to be without. Finally.50 The Business By C. $1. pasteurization. 5x7 inches. life. This book is entirely different from the usual type of dairy books. and these are fully and comprehensively covered Illustrated. 300 pages. B. Cloth Net. A. he tells of the preparation of stock for the market and how to prepare it so that it will bring a high market Live stock is the most important feature of farm price.

The book is profusely illustrated by photographs and drawings made expressly for this work.Soils By Charles William Burkett. well fitted by the broad experience in both practical The Book By P.00 Cloth and theoretical (4) . Chase. Profusely tical farmer. therefore a most important and vital one for American farmeri This treatise will enable the farmer to treat his field to remove weeds. Cloth Net. 520 Net. This book comprises a complete study of everything pertaining to wheat. $1. It is the work of a student of economic as well as agricultural conditions. caused by weeds stimulate us to adopt a better system of agriculture. The enormous losses. book popular work of the of this sort is dry and uninteresting. H. The author has put into it his in- The most complete and kind ever published. equally useful for the prac5^2x8 inches. T. as well as a discussion of the problems of crop growing and crop feeding. PAM MEL. make this book equally valuable to the farmer. Net. Cloth pages. Modern farm machinery is indispensable in present-day farming operations. Although written primarily as a text-book. but in this case it reads like a novel. $2. a soils. student and teacher. As a rule.00 of Wheat Dondlinger. Net. cultural Director Kansas Agri- Experiment Station. B. It is designed for the farmer. YV. student as well. of many of the more important farm machines. their dividuality. it is illustrated. Cloth. and the general application of power to the work of the farm. $1. Farm Machinery and Farm Motors is the first American book published on the subject of Farm Machinery since that written by This was before the development J. amounting to several hundred million dollars annually in the United States. land owner. 303 pages.50 Farm Machinery and Farm Motors By J. and the 370 pages. Thomas in 1867. The story of the properties of the improvement and management. . Illustrated. $2. and will prove invaluable to every farmer. Davidson and L. and which were prepared from practical experience and a thorough review of the literature pertaining to the subject. J.25 5y 2 xS inches. The weed question is. gardener and park superintendent. 5x7 inches. 5><x8 inches. 300 pages. The book has been written from lectures used by the authors before their classes for several years. and a practical book like Farm Machinery and Farm Motors will fill a much-felt need. Illustrated. Weeds of the Farm Garden By L. lines to tell the whole story in a condensed form. the teacher.

00 Clean Milk In this book the author sets forth methods for the exclusion of bacteria from milk. Cornell University. D. postpaid. and every crop treated is presented in the light of individual study of the plant.Agri. to the consumer. $2. "The Cereals in America. and the' increasing demand for still more information on the subject has induced the author to prepare the present volume. Hunt. F. First-hand knowledge has been the policy of the author in his work. Price. D. 450 pages. rice. Like its famous companion. Cultivation and Merits.. barley. you have Illusthe latest and most up-to-date information available. Illustrated. practical 5x7 (S) .S. student and teacher who wishes all the latest and most important information on the subject of forage and fiber crops. as related particularly to American conditions. with gold stampIt is unquestionably the handsomest agricultural refering. maize. and how to prevent contamination of milk from the stable inches. The subject-matter includes a comprehensive and succinct treatise of wheat. 6V2 x 9 inches. and Fertilizer. it treats of the cultivation and improvement of every one of the forage and fiber crops. Hunt. It treats of the cultivation and improvement of every grain crop raised in America in a thoroughly practical and accurate manner. This book indicates. F. ." by the same author. written upon the subject. ence book that has ever been issued. $100 Cloth. oats.The Cereals in America By Thomas F. $i/5 inches. is 5^x8 The Book of Alfalfa Its Uses as a Forage History. It is in every way the best book on the subject that has ever been written. 5J^x8 Cloth inches. By S. Coburn's little book on Alfalfa a few years ago has been a profit revelation to thousands of farmers throughout the country. Belcher. complete and valuable work on this forage crop published anywhere. With this book in hand. D. Cloth trated. $175 The Forage and Fiber Crops By Thomas It in is America exactly what its title indispensable to the farmer.. Professor of Agronomy. sorghum (kafir corn) and buckwheat. If you raise five acres of any kind of grain you cannot afford to be without this book. M. 146 pages. . It is printed on fine paper and illustrated with many full-page photographs that were taken with the especial view of their relation to the text. Bound in cloth. If you have this book you have the latest and best that has been Illustrated. 336 pages.D. which is by far the most authoritative. rye. M. The appearance of the Hon. 428 pages.

$0. Tracy. insects and fungous pests. planting. B. R. their propagation.50 5x7 Celery Culture By W. experiences of the best-posted expert on tomatoes in the world. Illustrated. While the practical side has been emphasized. and where quick results are desired. This interesting book describes in detail the several varieties of dwarf fruit trees. reliable and authoritative book on the potato ever published in America. care and general management. The work is complete in every detail. It contains many illustrations giving a clear conception of the practical side of celery culture. 5x7 inches. inches. This book is destined to rank as a standard work upon Potato Culture. this book will meet with a warm welcome.Bean Culture By Glenn C. to the handling and marketing of celery in carload lots. Cloth. Dwarf Fruit Trees By F. both to the growej and to the student. Fulton. harvesting. It is no secondhand work of reference. 144 pages. Illustrated. A practical guide for beginners and a standard reference of great interest to persons already engaged in celery growing. 150 pages. composition and feeding value.50 The Potato By Samuel Fraser. Cloth $0. Where planting. Beattie.75 . Cloth 150 pages. seed selection and breeding. best varieties. Illustrated. Illustrated. Cloth. The author has rounded up book the most complete account of tomato culture in in this all its phases that has ever been gotten together. Cloth $0. it is the most complete. Fully illustrated. from sowing a few seeds in a window-box in the house for early plants. 112 pages. pruning. 200 pages.S. and the information given is of value. inches. but a complete story of the practic. A practical book for the grower and student alike. with a special chapter on markets by Albert W. $0. the reader has here suggestions and information nowhere else available. Waugh. there is a limited amount of ground to be devoted to orchard purposes. Whether grown for home use or commercial purposes. $0. A practical treatise on the production and marketing of beans. A. Taken all in all. .50 5x7 Tomato Culture By Will W. 5 x 7 inches. inches. soils and fertilizers adapted. the scientific part has not been neglected.50 5x7 (6) ^ . Sevey. No gardener or farmer can afford to be without the book. It includes the manner of growth.




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