Dust Collection Technical Handbook

Index Page
2 35 42 Glossary Filter Media/Fibers Gas/Air Tables Electrical References (Missing Section) 54 59 82 87 Industrial Ventilation References Material Properties Miscellaneous References Conversion Tables

The following pages were prepared as a reference for designing industrial dust collection and ventilation systems. This is not a complete application and sizing manual. DISCLAIMER: The information on the following pages is for reference only. There are no warranties, express or implied, concerning the application or use of this information.

Glossary

A
Abrasion-Flex – Where cloth has abraded in a creased area by excessive bending. Abrasion Surface – Localized area where the cloth’s surface has been abraded uniformly. Absolute Temperature – In degrees Rankine, where absolute 0°R = -459.7°F. °R = °F + 460°. ρ = Density of air ρ(actual) = ρ(std at 70°F) x Absorber – A kind of scrubber utilizing the absorption principle. Absorption – The penetration of a substance into or through another; distinct from adsorption. Acceleration Loss – The velocity pressure required to accelerate the air from rest to the duct velocity or slot velocity, whichever is higher. ACFM – Actual Cubic Feet per Minute of gas volume at the actual condition temperature, pressure, moisture, elevation and gas composition. See gas flow rate. ACGIH – The American Conference Governmental Industrial Hygienists is a Professional Society devoted to the development of administrative and technical aspects of worker health protection. Membership is limited to professional personnel in governmental agencies or educational institutions engaged in occupational safety and health programs. The ACGIH issues guidelines and recommendations in the form of Threshold Limit Values (TLV’s) which are published annually. Acid Deposition – (Acid Rain) A complex chemical and atmospheric phenomenon that occurs when emissions of sulfur and nitrogen compounds and other substances are transformed by chemical processes in the atmosphere, often far from the original sources, and then deposited on earth in either a wet or dry form. The wet forms, popularly called “acid rain”, can fall as rain, snow or fog. The dry forms are acidic gases or particulates. Acrylic – A synthetic polymerized fiber which contains at least 85% acrylonitrile. Acrylonitrile – A colorless, volatile, flammable liquid nitrile C3H3N used chiefly in organic synthesis and for polymerization. Actuator – Mechanical device attached to a damper to move its blades. May be manual, electric, pneumatic, or hydraulic. Adsorbent – In addition to the adjectival meaning, the term describes any of several substances that collect gaseous pollutants. Used both for measurement and control. Adsorption – The adhesion of a substance to the surface of a solid or liquid. Aerosol – Particle of solid or liquid matter that can remain suspended in the air because of its small size. Particulates under 1 micron in diameter are generally called aerosols. AF – Fan wheel design with airfoil-shaped blades. 2

___70°F + 460°__ Actual °F + 460°

Air Changes Per Hour (ACH) – The movement of a volume of air in a given period of time; if a building has one air change per hour, it means that all of the air in the building will be replaced in a one-hour period. Air Conditioning – Treating air to meet the requirements of a conditioned space by controlling its temperature, humidity, cleanliness, and distribution. Air Contaminant – An impurity emitted to the outside air. It can be solid (dust, particulate matter), liquid (vapor/mist), or gas (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide). Air Curtain – Mechanical air-moving device designed to limit the influx of unwanted air at a building opening. Air Handling Unit – Factory-made encased assembly consisting of a fan or fans and other equipment to circulate, clean, heat, cool, humidify, dehumidify, or mix air. Air Horsepower – The theoretical horsepower required to drive a fan if there are no losses in the fan, that is, if its efficiency is 100%. Air Leakage – Unwanted air intruding into an exhaust system (holes in ducts, missing and ineffective seals, etc.). Airlock – Term generally applied to a rotary vane valve that keeps air from entering a dust collector, yet allows a collected particulate to continuously discharge from the device. Air Monitoring – The continuous sampling for and measuring of pollutants present in the atmosphere. Air Quality Criteria – As the Federal government uses the term, the varying amounts of pollution and lengths of exposure at which specific adverse effects to health and welfare take place. Air Quality Standards – The approximate concentration level of a selected pollutant that is permitted in the atmosphere to minimize detrimental effects. Air Pollution – The presence in the atmosphere of gases, fumes, or particulate matter alone or in combination with each other, in sufficient concentration to disturb the ecological balance; cause objectionable effects, especially sensory offenses; cause transient or chronic illnesses; or impair or destroy property. Air, Standard – Dry air at 70°F and 29.92 inches (Hg) barometer. This is substantially equivalent to 0.075 lb/ ft³. Air-to-Cloth Ratio – See air to media ratio. Air-to-Media Ratio – The ratio of air volume (ACFM) to square feet of effective filter media area. Also referred to as the apparent or face velocity through the media (FPM). Typically 3 to 12 fpm for bag medias and 0.5 to 6 for pleated type medias. Air Toxics – Any air pollutant for which a national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) does not exist (i.e., excluding ozone, carbon monoxide, PM-10, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) that may reasonably be anticipated to cause cancer, developmental effects, reproductive dysfunctions, neurological disorders, heritable gene mutations or other serious or irreversible chronic or acute health effects in humans. Air Velocity – Rate of speed of an airstream, expressed in FPM.

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ARI – Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute. 408” water gauge. Aspect Ratio – The ratio of the width to the length. Attenuation reduces the amplitude only of a sound wave while leaving the frequency unchanged. Some aromatics are toxic. ASME – American Society of Mechanical Engineers. An area may be an attainment area for one pollutant and a non-attainment area for others. static pressure regain.258 Ambient – Immediate surroundings or vicinity. such as benzene or toluene.Altitude – The height above sea level of a given location. Aromatics – A type of hydrocarbon. usually applied to aluminum. AR=W/L ASTM – American Society of Testing Materials.73x10-6)Z]5. 4 . Atmospheric Pressure – One atmosphere is approximately 14. Anneal – The process of relieving stress and brittleness in metals by heating. In fan applications. safety. APC – Air Pollution Control. API – American Petroleum Institute. isolation. Appurtenances – Accessories added to a fan for the purposes of control.7 PSI. Attenuation – Absorption of sound pressure. ANSI – American National Standards Institute. added to gasoline in order to increase octane. AMCA – Air Movement and Control Association. Anodize – An electrolytic action of affixing a protective coating or film. Refrigeration. Airflow is the result of a difference in pressure (above or below atmospheric) between two points. ASHRAE – American Society of Heating. Area Source – Any small source of non-natural air pollution which is not large enough to be classified as a major source or point source. wear. Anemometer – A device which reads air velocity such as a wind vane. Attainment Area – An area considered to have air quality as good as or better than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards as defined by the Clean Air Act. Density (Alt) = Density (Std) x [1-(6. it is usually a spinningvane-type instrument used at read low velocities at registers and grills. Density corrections for altitude are made using the following formula where Z is the feet above seal level. etc. and Air Conditioning Engineers.

Baghouse – An air pollution abatement device that traps gas born particulates by forcing the gas through filter bags. up to 64 bags. In terms of air movement. B Backdraft Damper – Damper used in a system to relieve air pressure in one direction and to prevent airflow in the opposite direction. (c) designates cartridges instead of bags. 5 . MAC Equipment acronym for its square bottom bag removal pulse jet dust collectors. Bernoulli’s Theorem – The principle that the total energy per unit of mass in the streamline flow of a moving fluid is constant. BACM (Best Available Control Measure) – A term used in the CAAA referring to the “best” measures (according to EPA guidance) for controlling emissions. and extreme non-attainment areas. Under Title 1 of the CAAA. Blade-Pass Frequency – The tone generated by the blades passing a fixed object. (2) In a ventilation system. AVR (c) – Air Vent Round. Barometric Pressure – A measurement of the pressure of the atmospheric. Axial Fan – Fan where the airflow through the impeller is predominantly parallel to the axis of rotation. One of the 3 basic contributing processes of air pollution.92” Hg. severe. Can be unsupported (dust on inside) or used on the outside of a grid (cage) support (dust on outside). Balancing – (1) On a fan. the kinetic energy. the others being vaporization and combustion. etc. being the sum of the potential energy. The impeller is contained in a cylindrical housing. the theorem states that the static pressure plus velocity pressure as measured at a point upstream in the direction of airflow is equal to the static pressure plus velocity pressure as measured at a point downstream in the direction of airflow plus the friction and dynamic losses between the points. (c) designates cartridges instead of bags. BACT (Best Available Control Technology) – An emission limitation based on the maximum degree of emission reduction achievable. and the energy due to pressure. standard is 29. Axial Flow – In-line air movement parallel to the fan or motor shaft. EPA will establish BACT standards for serious. MAC Equipment acronym for its round bottom bag removal pulse jet dust collectors. BI Fan – Centrifugal fan with backward inclined blades that move air more efficiently than straight blade fans. Blade Liners – Pieces of material added over the wheel blades to reduce abrasion of the blades. Also known as tube. stocking. Blast Area – The fan outlet area less the projected area of the cut-off. the process of adding (or removing) weight on a rotor in order to move the center of gravity toward the axis of rotation. AVS (c) – Air Vent Square. it’s the process of measuring or calculating the airflow at a branch and altering duct size or a valve to attain desired airflow at that branch. Bag – The customary form of filter element.Attrition – Wearing or grinding down by friction. BI fans are usually on the clean side of a piece of control equipment as the blades are not very abrasion resistant.

6 . C CAAA – Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Frequently caused by the dust on the bags getting wet.Bleed – Particles of dust or fumes that are able to leak through filter media. Blind (Blinding) – The blockage of filtration media by dust. Boiler Horsepower – The capability to evaporate 34. thereby reducing the thickness of the cloth by spreading the warp and filling yarns into a ribbon shape. Rise x CFM x 1. Blue Smoke – A descriptive term for the gaseous hydrocarbons that escape from hot asphalt and other sources of VOC. Often referred to as pull-out torque or maximum torque. at sea level. Brake Horsepower – The horsepower actually required to drive a fan. heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water by 1°F. Once enough material has built up. 33.085 Bulked Yarn – Filament yarn which has been processed by high pressure air passing through the yarn and relaxing it into gentle loops. required to raise the temperature of a volume of standard air a specific number of degrees is calculated by the formula: Btu/hr = Temp.5 pounds of water per hour into dry steam at 212°F. Calendered Finish – An available smooth finish for felt bags. bends. BTU – British Thermal Unit. where heat and pressure press down “hairs” on the felt. Breakdown Torque – Maximum torque a motor will produce without a sudden decrease in speed. Calendering – The application of either hot or cold pressure to smooth or polish a fabric. fume or liquid covering the filter media and not being discharged by the cleaning mechanism. etc. The BTU/hr. Bridge – Material building across an opening (such as a screw conveyor) and blocking off that opening. This includes the energy losses in the fan and can be determined only by actual tests of the fan (this does not include the drive losses between motor and fan). Blow-pipe – See manifold. imparting a smooth finish that improves dust release. Felt is drawn between two hot oil-filled rolls. air flow is severely restricted and the elements have to be cleaned or replaced. Title I: Nonattainment: Ambient Air Quality Title II: Motor Vehicles Title III: Hazardous Air Pollutants Title IV: Acid Rain Title V: Permits Title VI: Stratospheric Ozone Title VII: Enforcement Title VIII: Miscellaneous Caking – Material crusted on a bag that cannot be removed by the cleaning mechanism.500 BTU/hr.

odorless gas which is toxic because of its tendency to reduce the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. Carrying Velocity – The gas velocity that is necessary to keep the dust airborne. commonly used in refrigeration and automobile air conditioning. Centrifugal Collector – Any of several mechanical systems using centrifugal force to remove particulate from a gas stream. Celsius – A thermometric scale in which water boils at 100° and freezes at 0°. High-starting and breakdown torque. packaging insulation. Cellulose – The chief part of fibrous products which are used to make the filter media for many cartridge filters. Carbon Monoxide – A colorless. compressors. CAS (Chemical Abstracts Service) – Registry Number is a numeric designation assigned by the American Chemical Society’s Chemical Abstracts Service which uniquely identifies a specific chemical compound. See gas flow rate. medium starting current. etc. – 32°] CFCs (Chlorofluorocarbons) – A family of inert. because CFCs are not destroyed in the lower atmosphere they drift into the upper atmosphere where chlorine is released and destroys ozone. Capture Velocity – The air velocity at any point in front of a hood or at a hood opening necessary to overcome opposing air currents and to capture the contaminated air at the point by causing it to flow into the hood. same as centigrade: °C = . Dividing the gas volume by the cross sectional area of the collector determines “can velocity”. Cellplate – See tubesheet. 100% spun bonded media equipped filters have been placed in commerce. and easily liquefied chemicals used in refrigeration.5556 x [°F. air conditioning. the gas velocity within the collector. 7 . The cartridges are typically made with pleated cellulose paper media. CFM – Cubic Feet (of any gaseous matter) per Minute. Also. see interstitial velocity. Recently. Cartridge – See pleated filter elements. pumps. Used in hard-starting applications. CFC-12 – A chlorofluorocarbon with a trademark name of Freon. Cartridge Filter – An air pollution control device that traps gas-borne particulates by forcing the gas through filter element cartridges. Also referred to as “paper” media. non-toxic. Can Vel = __CFM__ ABH CFM = Gas volume through baghouse ABH = Cross sectional area of baghouse Capacitor Start Motor – Type of single-phase induction motor with a capacitor connected in series with the starting winding. or as solvents or aerosol propellants. Usually 3500 to 4599 ft/min in ductwork depending upon the nature of the dust.Can Velocity – As related to baghouses.

Usually understood to mean a woven felted or textile fabric. knitted. COH – Abbreviation for coefficient of haze. Cold Temperature – A standard for automobile emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) to be met at a low temperature (i. as in “cyclone. ethanol. Combustion Air – Amount of air necessary to burn the available fuel. wire. per inch of thickness..” Compressibility – A factor used by fan manufacturers to correct performance ratings in higher pressure ranges to account for the fact that air is a compressible gas that does not follow the perfect gas laws.” Combustion – The production of heat and light energy through a chemical process. Also referred to as “combustion contaminants. Coefficient of Conductivity – The rate of heat transfer through a material. methanol. nitrogen. Conventional catalytic converters are less efficient upon start-up at low temperatures. The ratio of particles entering the collection device vs.Clean Coal Technology – Any technology not in widespread use as of the date of enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments which will achieve significant reductions. Collecting Efficiency – The ability of a dust collector to remove particulate from the exhaust gas. and called by the symbol “K”.” or mechanical collector. One of the 3 basic contributing processes of air pollution. 20°F). which is one of the basic materials used in blast furnaces for the conversion of iron ore into iron. or other suitable material. Compression – A phenomenon related to positive pressure. However. Clean Fuel – Blends and/or substitutes for gasoline fuels. Cloth – In general. the volume of air at the inlet of a fan may have to be adjusted by the ratio of absolute pressure at the entrance of the fan versus the design requirements in the system. Combustion Products – 1) Primarily gaseous matter such as carbon oxides. unit of measurement of visibility interference. Coke Oven – An industrial process which converts coal into coke. 8 . a plant fabric. Cloth Weight – Is usually expressed in ounces per square yard or ounces per square foot. particles leaving is expressed in percent. When air is forced into a system it is compressed and becomes more dense. Figures are usually expressed for basic materials. and water vapor – resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels. cotton sateen is often specified as a certain number of linear yards per pound of a designated linear yards per pound in a 54” width.” “cartridge filter. such as wood or insulation. Cold Spot – On an insulated baghouse.e. oxygen. These include compressed natural gas. expressed in Btu transmitted per hour through one square foot of surface per degree difference in temperature across the material. Depending on the volume or weight of air required down stream in the positive pressure portion of the system. usually oxidation. felted or otherwise formed of any textile fiber. and others. 2) In the context of emission control – the gaseous products resulting from the burning of any kind of material containing carbon in a free or combined state. the others being attrition and vaporization. inlet loading – outlet loading x 100 inlet loading Collector – Used interchangeably with “baghouse. woven . a point where metal goes through insulation. creating an uninsulated area where heat dissipates rapidly.

CSA – Canadian Standards Association. The treatments enhance filter life and moisture resistance. Silicone Treated) – A type of filter media used in high quality cartridges. Convection – The transfer of heat through a liquid or gas by the actual movement of the molecules. moisture. Conversion Factors – See pages 87 through 106. lbs per 1000 lbs of gas. Curve. Cotton Number – Staple yarns are generally sized on the cotton system. Delta P (∆P) – Change in pressure. Cotton System – A system of yarn manufacturing for spinning cotton fiber yarn whereby the individual fibers are aligned parallel. Cyclone Collector – A kind of centrifugal collector equipment. D Damper – Change in pressure. Conveying Velocity – The air velocity required in a duct system to maintain entrainment of a specific material. CRST (Cellulose Fibers. or pressure drop that occurs across a piece of control equipment. Example: an 18 singles yarn is of such a size that 18 hanks weighs one pound (each hank contains 840 yards). Conduction – The transfer of heat by physical contact between substances. or pressure drop that occurs across a piece of control equipment.Concentration – The amount of dust in gas. they contain information both on the economic and technological feasibility of available techniques. Decibel – The logarithmic ratio between some known reference and some quantity of electrical or acoustic signal power. Fan Performance – A graphic representation of static or total presence and fan BHP requirements over an airflow volume range at a stated inlet density and fan speed. Resin Impregnated. CTG (Control Techniques Guideline) – Guidance documents issued by EPA which define Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT) to be applied to existing facilities that emit certain threshold quantities of air pollutants. Denier – The weight in grams that 9000 meters of a fiber weighs. dbA – Sound-pressure level corrected to the “A” weighing network. Corrosion – The deterioration of a material by chemical or electrochemical reaction resulting from exposure to weathering. parts per million. Usually expressed in terms of grains per ft³. or other agents in the environment in which it is placed. 9 . or milligrams per cubic meter. CRP – Certified Ratings Program. chemical. Sets safety standards for motors and other electrical equipment used in Canada. System – A graphic representation of the pressure versus flow characteristics of a given system and density. Curve.

Dilution Ventilating – The mixing of contaminated air with uncontaminated supply air for the purpose of attaining acceptable working or living conditions. or the transfer of a powder into a state of suspension through the action of air currents or by vibration. it is the temperature at which liquid water begins to condense for a given state of humidity and pressure as the temperature is reduced. (For air containing water vapor. centrifugal collectors. DOP – Acronym for dioctylphthalate. 10 . The product of the density factor and the density of standard air (0. standard air is . DNAPLS – Dense non-aqueous phased liquids. it is retained by the van der Waals forces existing between the particle and the fiber.) DFT – Dry-film thickness usually expressed in thousandths of an inch (mils). but behave more like gases than particulate. out.075 lbs. DSCFM – Dry Standard Cubic Feet per Minute.Density – The measure of unit mass equal to its weight divided by its volume (lbs/ft³). Dust Collector. Diaphragm Valve – A compressed air operated valve that opens to allow a pulse to go the filter bags or cartridges. Density Factor – Ratio of actual air density of standard air. These particles do not follow the air stream. Dry Collector – Dust collectors which use mechanical means (centrifugal force. Dry Bulb Temperature – The actual temperature of a gas. Dust Collector Efficiency – See collecting efficiency. Cyclone – A mechanical device that utilizes the centrifugal force of the inlet gas to remove large particulate matter suspended in the gas. with the bottom open for dirty air entrance./ft³. knockout boxes. taken with a conventional thermometer. to non-destructively test high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. but not necessarily effective. cartridge filters and baghouses. cloth area in a given size baghouse. it is the set of conditions at which liquid sulphuric acid begins to condense as the temperature is reduced. Puts more. Dew Point – The temperature at which the equilibrium vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the existing partial pressure of the respective vapor. Dust Collector – An air-cleaning device used to remove heavy-particulate loadings from exhaust systems prior to discharge. When a particle does strike a fiber. They move across the direction of air flow in a random fashion. Such as: expansion chambers. See gas flow rate. impingement. For flue gas containing water vapor and SO3. a chemical. Double Bag – Features a conventional bag on a cage and an inner bag that filters from inside.075 lbs/ft³) will give the actual air density in pounds per cubic foot. Dust – A dispersion aerosol formed by the grinding or atomizing of a solid. Diffusion – Takes place on particles so small that their direction and velocity are influenced by molecular collisions. Devices not using H2O. filtration) to remove particulate matter from exhaust gas. used in aerosol form. Dimensional Stability – Ability of the fabric to retain its size in hot or moist atmosphere.

Dynamic Insertion Loss – A reduction of airborne noise levels affected by the installation of an acoustical silencer. Emission – Release of pollutants into the air from a source. Dynamic Balance – The mechanical balancing of a rotating part of assembly in motion.Dust Permeability – Defined as the mass of dust (grains) per square foot of media divided by the resistance (pressure drop) in inches of water gauge (WG) per unit of filtering velocity. Electrostatic Attraction – Mutual attraction. DWDI – Double-width. Elevation – The distance of the subject site above or below sea level. 11 . by which particles tend to draw together or adhere. Arrangement 3. Electrostatic Precipitator – A kind of precipitator that first charges particulate (ESD). DYNE – A unit of force equal to that which would accelerate one gram by one centimeter per second. MAC Equipment’s airlock to place under a dust collector when a pneumatic convey system will be utilized beneath the airlock. Mechanical Total – The ratio of fan output to the power applied to the fan. E Early Reduction/Early Compliance – A provision in the CAAA which provides incentives to a company for complying with new standards before they are required to by Law. It is the actual stack height plus the plume rise. Effective Stack Height – The height at which a plume becomes essentially level. Static – The ratio of fan output less the kinetic energy [outlet-velocity pressure] leaving the fan to the power applied to the fan: SE = ______SP x CFM______ 6356 x BHP Effluent – A discharge or emission of a fluid (liquid or gaseous). allowing electrostatic forces to attract particles to a collection point. double-inlet fans. Emission Control Equipment – Machinery used to remove air contaminants from the discharge of industrial exhaust streams. Efficiency. Not to be compared with cloth permeability. Emission Control Diagnostics – Computerized devices placed on vehicles to detect malfunction of emissions controls and notify the owner of the need for repair. or manufacturer for the same application: ME = ______TP x CFM______ 6356 x BHP Efficiency. EMD Airlock – Environmental Multi Duty airlock. type. Can be helpful in selecting fan size. feet per minute (fpm). caused by static electricity.

End Reflection – A known value of sound radiated back into duct or opening. and increased repair waiver cost.Emission Factor – The statistical average of the amount of a specific pollutant emitted from each type of polluting source in relation to a unit quantity of material handled. End – See warp thread. Excess Air – Air in excess of the amount necessary to combust all the available fuel. EPA – Environmental Protection Agency. Rule or measurement established to regulate or control the amount of a given pollutant that may be discharged to the outdoor atmosphere from its source.. Exhaust Gas – The gases emitting from an industrial process. Evase – A diffuser at the fan outlet which gradually increases in area to decrease velocity and to convert kinetic energy to static pressure [regain]. Entry Loss – The loss in pressure caused by air flowing into a system.g. by type of source. Enthalpy – The heat content per unit mass of a substance. in amounts (commonly tons) per day. the emission factor of oxides in nitrogen in fuel oil combustion is 119 lbs. per 1. Exhaust Stack Temperature – The temperature of the exhaust gas. products of combustion and water vapor) leaving the exhaust stack usually measured in ACFM. it is possible to compute emissions for that source – information necessary for an emission inventory. The purpose of Enhanced I&M is to reduce automobile emissions by assuring that cars are running properly.000 gallons of fuel oil used. Enhanced I&M (Enhanced Inspection & Maintenance) – An improved automobile inspection and maintenance program that includes. processed or burned. This may also include annual. the number of pounds of fly ash per cubic foot of gas that may be emitted from a coal-fired boiler. as a minimum. Emission Inventory – A list of primary air pollutants emitted into a given community’s atmosphere. Emission Standard – The maximum amount of a pollutant that is permitted to be discharged from a single polluting source. By using the emission factor of a pollutant and specific data regarding quantities of material used by a given source. The emission inventory is basic to the establishment of emission standards. or centralized inspections.5 Evaporation – The physical transformation of a liquid to a gas at any temperature below its boiling point. under-the-hood inspections to detect tampering with pollution control equipment.g. Also see emission factor. E. measured in the discharge stack. End Count – See warp count. computerized. generally a combustion process. tighter stringency of inspections and improved management practices to ensure more effectiveness. Exhaust Volume – The amount of exhaust gas (air. Equivalent Duct Diameter – For rectangular duct with sides a and b is: D = (4ab/π)0. 12 . increases in coverage of vehicle types and model years. e. normally expressed in fractions of velocity pressure.

13 . This cake assists in the filtering of dust. a plan containing control measures developed and promulgated by EPA in order to fill gaps in a State Implementation Plan (SIP).8 x °C) +32° Fan – A power-driven machine which moves a continuous volume of air by converting rotational mechanical energy to an increase in the total pressure of the moving air. Also called bag collector or cartridge. Filament – Mono – One continuous strand of fiber to indefinite length. Filament – Multi – More than one mono-filament strand grouped together of definite length. Filter Collector – A mechanical filtration system for removing particulate matter from a gas stream. aerosol. etc. for measurement. Fan Capacity – Performance requirement for which a fan is selected to meet specific system calculations given in terms of ACFM at the fan inlet. Flashing – Sheet metal strip placed at the junction of intersecting exterior building surfaces to make the joint watertight. Federal Implementation Plan (FIP) – Under current law. Also called bag collector. and BHP for a given fan used in a given fixed system: CFM varies as RPM SP varies as (RPM)² BHP varies as (RPM)³ FC – Fan wheel design using forward-curved blades. Fan Class – Operating limits at which a fan must be physically capable of operating safely. SP. Fines – Fine particulate. Fan Laws – Theoretical constant relationships between CFM. Fiber – The fundamental unit comprising a textile raw material such as cotton. Felted Fabric – Type bag used on most all pulse jet dust collectors. analysis. Features a heavy. °F = (1. Filter Cake – The accumulation of dust on a bag before cleaning. or control.F Fabric – A collective term applied to cloth no matter how constructed. regardless of the kind of fiber used. Under the Senate bill. Fill Count – Number of threads per inch of cloth. thick cloth of short fibers on a woven backing. a Federally implemented plan to achieve attainment of an air quality standard. RPM. Fahrenheit – A thermometric scale in which water boils at 212° and freezes at 32°. wool. used when a State is unable to develop an adequate plan. Filters are designed in a variety of sizes and materials for specific purposes. Fill – Crosswise threads woven by loom.

generally after volatilization from molten metal. Fume – Solid particulates generated by condensation from the gaseous state. Fossil Fuels – Coal. Forced Draft – How air is provided in a process such as a combustion process.) – Torque rating or requirement.-Lb. GACT – (Generally Available Control Technology) Methods. Free Field – The surroundings of a specific equipment location in which no obstructions or reverberant surfaces exist to distort or amplify sound waves. commonly defines air velocity (to determine velocity pressure or suitability for material conveying). Also see Smog. Also see induced draft. Usually expressed in cycles per second (cps) or just “cycles”. Friction Loss – Resistance to air flow through any duct or fitting. G Garbadine Weave – A regular or “steep” twill with higher warp than fill count. Dimensions include: shaft diameter. Fugitive Emissions – Emissions not caught by a capture system. shaft/bearing speeds (used to determine lubrication requirements) and wheel tip speeds. and techniques which are commercially available and appropriate considering economic impacts and the technical capabilities of the firms to operate and maintain the emissions control systems. Foot-Pound (Ft. Fog – The condensation of water vapor in air. EPA will establish either GACT or MACT standards for each source of HAPs. given in terms of static pressure. and natural gas. Full-Load Torque – The torque required to produce the rated horsepower at full-load speed. FRP – Abbreviation for fiberglass-reinforced-plastic. equal to 12 in-lb. Fly Ash – The particulate impurities resulting from the burning of coal and other material. FPM – Feet per minute. or contracting and expanding. Frame Size – A set of physical dimensions of motors as established by National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) for interchangeability between manufacturers. Forced Draft Burner – A burner which has its secondary air supplied under pressure. Full-Load Speed – The speed at which the rated horsepower is developed. This speed is less than synchronous speed and varies with the motor type and manufacturer. shaft height. alternating current. and motor mounting footprint. and often accompanied by a chemical reaction. Under Title III of the CAAA. equivalent to the force required to move a one-pound weight one foot in distance. such as oxidation. Fumes flocculate and sometimes coalesce. so-called because they are the remains of ancient plant and animal life. 14 . Frequency – Any cyclic event whether vibration. when air is blown or forced into a process. This is normally done by surrounding the dryer opening by a plenum or windbox and supplying the air with a low pressure fan. oil. practices.Flexing – Bending. or rotational speed. it is known as a “forced draft” system.

Ground Motor – A short circuit between any point in the motor’s electrical circuit and its connection to the ground. Equal to one seven thousandth of a pound. Grain – A dust weight unit commonly used in air pollution control. 15 . Cubic Feet per Minute (CFM) – The volume of process gas at any point of the plant exhaust system measured in terms of minutes.375 3. DSCFM – The gas flow reduced to 70°F (standard temperature) and standard pressure (latm) and without volume of steam or water vapor contained in the exhaust gas (Dry Standard Cubic Feet per Minute). Gasoline Volatility – The property of gasoline whereby it evaporates into a vapor. fluorine. and chlorine used in fighting fires. Does not imply a grey (gray) color. with a higher number reflecting more gasoline evaporation.50 Gauge Pressure – The pressure differential between atmospheric and that measured in the system. Gasoline vapor is a VOC (Volatile Organic Compound). H Cyclone – MAC Equipment’s medium efficiency cyclone dust collector.1793 . Gas Flow Rate. Gases diffuse.Gases – Normally.125 2. iodine. There are several units of measurement: ACFM – The actual gas flow measured (Actual Cubic Feet per Minute). All HAP sources will have to comply with GACT or MACT standards.²) 7. SCFM – The gas flow volume reduced to 70°F (standard temperature) and standard pressure (latm) by calculation (Standard Cubic Feet per Minute).1345 .50 5. that break down in the atmosphere depleting stratospheric ozone. Griege (Griege goods) – Same as grey or unfinished goods.0598 Weight of Steel (Lbs/Ft. formless fluids which occupy the space of its enclosure and which can be changed to a Liquid or solid state only by the combined effect of increased pressure and decreased temperature.1046 . H Halons – A family of compounds containing bromine.0747 . some examples for steel are: Gauge 7 10 12 14 16 Thickness (Inches) . Measurement is made by the number of grains per cubic foot of gas emitted. (See page 33 for a complete listing).625 4. Gasoline volatility is measured in pounds per square inch (psi). Gauge (gage) – Metal manufacturers’ standard measure of thickness for sheer stock. One grain = 1 LB 7000 Grain Loading – The rate at which particles are emitted from a pollution source. HAPs (Hazardous Air Pollutants) – Any of the 189 chemicals listed under Title III of the CAAA.

Horsepower can be calculated by: HP = _Torque (ft.97% by count of a standard 0. Hertz – Frequency measured in cycles per second. Relative – The ratio of the actual partial pressure of water vapor in a space to the saturated pressure of pure water vapor in a space to the saturated pressure of pure water at the same temperature. the pressurized pipe that contains the compressed air supply for pulsing. insufficient cleaning air will flow through the valve. also equal to 0. HON – Hazardous Organic NESHAPS. Header – As applied to pulse-jet baghouses.lbs. Humidity.000 ft. lbs. HVAC – Heating. Some of the hydrocarbon compounds are major air pollutants. Pressure is often measured in inches of mercury. 16 . If it is undersized. and which are significantly less damaging to stratospheric ozone than other CFC’s. HE Cyclone – MAC Equipment’s High Efficiency cyclone dust collector.) x RPM_ 5250 Humidity. MAC Equipment’s all purpose. HD Airlock – Heavy Duty airlock. A device used in the measurement and analysis of suspended particulate pollution. found especially in fossil fuels. lowest priced cast iron airlock. Horsepower – (As applied to motors) is an index of the amount of work the machine can perform in a period of time. they may be carcinogenic or active participants in the photochemical smog process.746 kilowatts. Hi-Volume Sampler – Also called a Hi-Vol. ventilating. HEPA Filter (High Efficiency Particulate Air Filter) – Capable of removing at least 99. Absolute – The weight of water vapor per unit volume. Hg – Symbol for mercury. Hydrophobic Fibers – Those fibers or materials not readily water absorbent. (1” Hg = 13. and air conditioning. Hygroscopic – Materials having an affinity for water. of work per minute.3 micron challenge particulate (DOP test).HCFC’s – Chlorofluorocarbons that have been chemically altered by the addition of hydrogen. pounds per cubic foot or grams per cubic centimeter. Hydrocarbon – Any of the vast family of compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in various combinations.64” WG) High Pressure Cleaning Air – Air at 80-100 PSIG used for cleaning air in baghouses and cartridge filters. Heat Exchanger – A device such as a coil or radiator which is used to transfer heat between two physically separate fluids. 1HP equals 33.

pathological. The contact is not dependent on inertia and the particle is retained on the fiber because of the inherent adhesive forces that exist between the particle and fiber. liquid or gaseous wastes under controlled conditions. See mechanical and cyclone collectors. Inclined Manometer – A testing instrument using a liquid column. Induced Draft – How air is provided in a process. Instability – The point of operation at which a fan or system will “hunt” or pulse. 17 . see WR². enable a fiber to trap a particle without the use of inertia. it is commonly a lightweight fiberglass mat.I Impeller – Another term for fan “wheel”. These forces.. Normally used to read velocity pressure. Also see forced draft. they do not follow the air stream and collide with a fiber. or hazardous solid. the voids. where air is drawn or pulled through a process.e. Inch of Water – A unit of pressure equal to the pressure exerted by a column of water one inch high at a standard temperature. Incinerator – A device which burns household. because its size is very small in relation to the fiber. Larger dust particles. it changes direction as it passes around each fiber. called van der Waals forces. In baghouses. Induction – The production of an electric current in a conductor in a changing magnetic field. such as a combustion process. (407” WC = 14. set at an incline to increase reading accuracy. makes contact with a fiber while following the tortuous air flow path of the filter. As a result. Interstices – The openings between the interlacings of the warp and filling yarns. Inlet-Vane Damper – Round multiblade damper mounted to the inlet of a fan to vary the airflow. Inspection & Maintenance (I&M) – A program providing for periodic inspections of motor vehicles to ensure that emissions of specified pollutants are not exceeding established limitations. to measure pressure.7 PSI) Inches WG (Inches of Water Gauge) – See inch of water. Impeller Diameter – The maximum diameter measured over the impeller blades. industrial. The rotating portion of the fan designed to increase the energy level of the gas stream. common in FC fans and some other fan types where the point of operation is left of the peak of the static-pressure curve. but. Interception – A special case of impingement where a particle is small enough to move with the air stream. Inertia – Tendency of an object to remain in the state it is in. Insulation – Any method which will retard the flow of heat through a wall. Impingement – When air flows through a filter. however cannot follow the abrupt changes in direction because of their inertia. i. Inertial Separators – Air pollution control equipment that uses the principle of inertia to remove particulate matter from a stream of air or gas.

It is found by dividing the collector gas volume by its cross sectional area. Kilopascal – Kpa. K Kelvin – Absolute Temperature in the SI system scale. Lower Explosive Limit – The lower limit of flammability or explosibility of a gas or vapor at ordinary ambient temperature expressed in percent of a gas or a vapor in air by volume. Leno – A weave in which the adjacent warp yarns are twisted on either side of the interlacing filling yarn. also known as B-10. MAC Equipment acronym for its square top bag removal pulse jet dust collectors from 64 to 144 bags. one inch water gauge is 0. Liquide Flowrate – The amount of water or “scrubbing liquid” introduced into a wet collector. measure of power equal to 1. Laminar Flow – Gas or fluid in parallel layers with some sliding motion between the layers. Knockout Box – See primary collector. (c) designates cartridges instead of bags.Inversion – An atmospheric condition caused by a layer of warm air preventing the rise of cooling air trapped beneath it. LST (c) – Large Square Top removal.24836 Kpa. metric pressure unit. or the most stringent emission limit achieved in practice. LVS (c) – Large Air Vent Square.34 horsepower. (c) designates cartridges instead of bags. L L-10 Bearing Life – The theoretical number of hours after which 90% of the bearings subjected to a given set of conditions will still be in operation. after the cross sectional of the bags have been subtracted from the collector cross sectional area. when mounted in an opening. permits the flow of air but inhibits the entrance of undesirable elements. LAER (Lowest Achievable Emission Rate) – The rate of emissions which reflects either the most stringent emission limit contained in the implementation plan of any state (unless it is proved that such limitations are not achievable). Low Pressure Cleaning Air – Air at less than 30” WC used for cleaning baghouses. 18 . Kilowatt – Kw. Low Nox Burners – One of several combustion technologies used to reduce emission of Nox. Interstitial Velocity – The apparent velocity of a gas as it passes by a filter bag matrix. Louver – A device comprised of multiple blades which. This prevents the rise of pollutants that might otherwise be dispersed and results in a concentration of the air pollution. MAC Equipment acronym for its square bottom bag removal pulse jet dust collectors from 64 to 144 bags. whichever is most stringent.

Miasma is a word meaning toxic materials in the air. The difference in the level of the water columns is equivalent to the pressure differential. In non-attainment areas.. Sometimes called a blow-pipe.. Micro – A prefix meaning 1/1. Major Source – A stationary source which emits a large amount of pollution. Mega – A prefix meaning 1 million.. Examples of mechanical collectors are cyclones. the CAAA defines MACT as “the maximum degree of reduction in emissions. devices are generally called scrubbers. used in fan engineering where air moving at a mach of 0. and various types of impingement collectors. Serious. the pressure difference causes water to rise or fall. and MACT for new sources will have to be even stricter.taking into account the cost of achieving such reductions.000 abbreviated by the Greek letter µ. or 9/10 the speed of sound. the pipe that extends over the bags with a hole over each bag. Manometer – A u-shaped device for measuring the static pressure at a point relative to some other point. respectively. Severe.” MACT standards for existing sources must be at least as stringent as the average level of control achieved at the best controlled 12 percent of facilities. (c) designates cartridges instead of bags. 19 . Medium Pressure Cleaning Air – Air at 5-10 PSIG used for cleaning baghouses. under Title III of the CAAA. Mechanical Collector – Devices that are functionally dependent on the laws of mechanics governing the motion of bodies in space. When operated wet. MAC Equipment acronym for its dust collector that utilizes 7 psi air to clean the bags through a rotating mechanism that is timed to release the air precisely over the bags.0000146 PSI.. and MACT is Maximum Achievable Control Technology. It distributes the compressed pulse to the bags. Maximum Continuous Rating – The point at which the fan is expected to operate. MACT (Maximum Achievable Control Technology) – The standard to which sources of HAPs will have to comply. 50. or Extreme.M Mach Number – A fraction of the speed of sound. MIASMACT is an overlay of the words Miasma and MIACT. MCF (c) – Medium Pressure Controlled Fire. MIASMACT – MAC Equipments trademark name for its Automatic Cleaning HEPA filter. settling chambers. 0. Microbar – A unit of pressure equal to one-millionth of an atmospheric pressure. under Title I of the CAAA. Make-up Air – A ventilating term which refers to the replacement of air lost because of exhaust air requirements.9. This patented dust collector is available from 22 to 1652 bags.000. Can be operated dry or wet. a major source is one which emits more than 100. a major source is one which can emit more than 10 TPY of any one HAP or 25 TPY of total HAPs. For hazardous air pollutants. or 10 tons per year depending on whether the area is classified as Marginal or Moderate. begins to deviate from the fan laws. Micrometer – See micron. Mactiflo – MAC Equipment’s trademark name for its down flow cartridge filter.achievable for new or existing sources. Manifold – As used in conjunction with pulse jet baghouses. 25.

calls for phase-out of CFCs. NEDS – National Emission Data System. represents the sum of the weights of all the atoms in a molecule. usually expressed in pounds per square inch. Milli – A prefix meaning 1/1. Mist – Suspended liquid droplets generated by condensation from the gaseous to the liquid state or by breaking up a liquid into a dispersed state. and carbon tetrachloride by the year 2000. Napped – The rupturing of the filling yarns to produce a fleecy surface on woven fabrics. pushing and pulling fibers to form an interlocking of adjacent fibers. as required by OSHA’s Hazard Communication Standard. Mullen Burst – The pressure necessary to rupture a secured cloth specimen. particles down to 10 microns can be seen without the aid of magnification. Mildew Resistant Finish – An organic or inorganic finish to repel the growth of fungi on natural fibers. As air is a gas mixture. such as by splashing. N NACE – National Association of Corrosion Engineers. halons. a unit of length equal to one millionth of a meter. Natural Frequency – The frequency at which a component or system resonates. 20 .Micron – Symbol µ. In general.0.000. Needled Felt – A felt made by the placement of loose fiber in systematic alignment with barbed needles. Modeling – An investigate technique using computer mathematical. NEC – National Electrical Code. 29 CFR 1910. Multi-Filament (Multi-fill) – A yarn composed of a number of filaments. or physical representation of a system that accounts for all or some of its known properties. it does not have a true molecular weight. It is the most commonly used construction method since it is stronger than pressed felt. foaming and atomizing. but an apparent molecular weight determined by the percentages of the molecular weights of each gas in a composition. MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) – Compilation of data and information on individual hazardous chemicals produced by the manufacturers and importers of that chemical. and provides financial assistance to help developing countries make the transition from ozone-depleting substances. An average human hair is 70 microns in diameter. Montreal Protocol – An international environmental agreement to control chemicals that deplete the ozone layer. which was renegotiated in June 1990. The protocol. MIL – A unit of measure equal to 25 microns or one thousandth of an inch.1200. Modacrylic – A synthetic fiber which contains less than 85% acrylonitrile. a phase-out of chloroform by 2005. Molecular Weight – The weight of a molecule expressed on a scale in which the carbon isotope weighs exactly 12. The needles move up and down.

125.733 inches of water. OSI – Ounces per square inch. OSHA – Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 21 . the trade association establishing standards of dimensions. chemical information. in a graphical form. matting of fibers or compressed with a bonding agent for permanency. It is also a major precursor to acid rain. in the presence of heat and sunlight to term ozone. Nox (Nitrogen Oxides) – Chemical compounds containing nitrogen and oxygen.). measurement techniques. Normal measurement technique used by EPA method 9. Onboard Controls – Devices placed on vehicles to capture gasoline vapor during refueling. and control technologies. Non-Woven Felt – A felt made by either needling. and other information compiled by OSHA on subjects related to occupational safety and health. and providing professional education as well as health and safety information. A wire in which one volt produces a current of one ampere has a resistance of one Ohm. Capacity – Refers to the amount of light that can pass through. ratings enclosures.NEMA – The National Electrical Manufacturers Association. a unit of pressure equal to one-sixteenth PSI or 1. NIOSH is part of the Centers for Disease Control under the Department of Health and Human Services. and other design criteria for electric motors. 250. Noise Criteria – A way for an architect to specify the maximum permissible sound-power level in each of the eight octave bands. NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) – Created by the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. Opposed-Blade Damper – A type of damper where the blades rotate in the opposite direction. training materials. Octave Bands – Ranges of frequencies. Ohm – A measure of electrical resistance. identifying and evaluating workplace hazards. Non-Attainment – An area which has not achieved air quality as good as the National Ambient Air Quality Standards as defined by the CAAA. the construction or reconstruction of which is commenced after the proposal date of the standard. normally refers to the degree of visibility of an exhaust plume. New Source – A stationary source. O OCIS (OSHA Computerized Information System) – A comprehensive database that contains information and data on standards interpretation. NESHAP – National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. approximately 45% of Nox emissions come from mobile sources. Nationwide. Its mandate includes conducting research in developing criteria and/or recommendations to be used in setting occupational exposure standards. Also NSPS (New Source Performance Standard). etc. hazardous waste activity 5(a)(1) citations. a health hazard evaluation index. reacts with volatile organic compounds. and 15% from industrial fuel combustion. NC curves give. 35% from electric utilities. These octave bands are identified by their center frequencies (63. maximum permissible intensity per octave band. insulation.

Photochemical Process – The chemical changes brought about by the radiant energy of the sun acting upon various polluting substances. Piezometer Ring – A device consisting of a number of pressure taps connected to a common manifold to measure pressure. Fabric – Measured on Frazier porosity meter or Gurley permeometer. There is a natural layer of ozone in the upper atmosphere which shields the earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation.. pH7 is taken as neutral. It is formed through chemical reactions in the atmosphere involving volatile organic compounds. This dimension is necessary for accurate drive calculations. nitrogen oxides. Ozone – A compound consisting of three oxygen atoms. 8 to 14 increasingly alkaline. Permeability. PEL (Permissible Exposure Limits) – Limits developed by OSHA to indicate the maximum airborne concentration of a contaminant to which an employee may be exposed. 22 . The ability of air to pass through the fabric. The products are known as photochemical smog. etc. Ozones can initiate damage to the lungs as well as damage to trees.Oxygenated Fuels – Gasoline which has been blended with alcohols or ethers that contain oxygen in order to reduce carbon monoxide and other emissions.g. 6 to 0 increasingly acid. or equivalent control document issued by EPA or an approved state agency to implement the requirements of an environmental regulation. and sunlight. Permit – An authorization. Two identical fans in parallel will effectively deliver twice the rated flow of any one of the fans at the same static pressure. e. Pilot Valve – The small solenoid valve that is electrically operated to relieve pressure on one side of the diaphragm and cause the operation of a larger diaphragm valve. P Parallel-Blade Damper – A type of damper where the blades rotate in the same direction. and materials. pH – A symbol as part of a logarithmic designation to indicate acidity or alkalinity on a scale from 0 to 14. crops. Particulate Matter – Any solid or liquid material in the atmosphere. a permit to operate a facility that may generate harmful emissions. A parallel fan arrangement is generally used to meet volume requirements beyond that of single fans. Pick – See fill. Permanent Split Capacitor Motor – Very low starting torque.5 H2O pressure differential. Performance and applications similar to shaded pole but more efficient. expressed in cubic feet of air per minute per square foot of fabric with 0. license. with lower line current and higher horsepower capabilities. Not to be confused with dust permeability. that is the primary constituent of smog. Parallel Fans – Two or more fans which draw air from a common source and exhaust into a common duct or plenum. Particulate – A particle of solid or liquid matter. Pitch Diameter – The mean diameter or point at which V-belts ride within a sheave.

PPM (Parts Per Million) – The number of parts of a given pollutant in a million parts of air. See electrostatic precipitator.e. PM 10 – A new standard for measuring the amount of solid or liquid matter suspended in the atmosphere (“particulate matter”). the periphery of the tube has several holes through which static pressure is measured. or chemical means to collect particulates. Ply – Two or more yams joined together by twisting. Pounds Per 100 Pounds of Gas – A common quantitative definition of air pollution concentration. The POLIPLEET can be used in MAC Equipment’s entire product line of dust collectors. Pressure Drop – The differential pressure between two points in a system. Also. Precipitators – Any number of devices using mechanical. The smaller PM10 particles penetrate to the deeper portions of the lung. Pleated Filter Element – Filter elements made from any pleated filter media. Plenum – Pressure equalizing chamber. Pre-Coating – The application of a relatively coarse. Originally a designation for the amount of air in a fabric. Pressure. Atmospheric – The pressure due to the weight of the atmosphere. 23 . any single identifiable source of pollution. Porosity – Sometimes erroneously used as a synonym for permeability.Pilot Tube – A metering device consisting of a double-walled tube with a short right-angle bend. but primarily applying those equipped with 100% synthetic fabric. Used for measurement. It is the pressure indicated by a barometer. dry dust to a bag or cartilage before start-up to provide an initial filter cake to enhance immediate high efficiency. The resistance to flow between the two points. affecting sensitive population groups such as children and people with respiratory diseases. may be designated as velocity pressure divided by static pressure or by a given CFM and SP. Point of Operation – The intersection of a fan’s static pressure curve and the system curve to which the fan is being applied. blankets. standard atmospheric pressure is 29. i. Units are expressed by weight or volume. electrical. POLIPLEET – MAC Equipment’s trademark for its line of pleated spun bond 100% polyester cartridges. Pressed Felt – A type of felt manufactured by pressing fibers into the skrim. analysis or control. Refers to the amount of particulate matter under 10 micrometers in diameter. the bend end of the tube has a hole through which total pressure is measured when pointed upstream in a moving gas stream.92 inches of mercury. Point Source – A stationary location or facility from which pollutants are emitted. Polymerized – A chemical reaction in which two or more small molecules combine to form larger molecules that contain repeating structural units of the original molecules. Plenum Pulse – Type of pulsing collector where entire sections of the clean air plenum are isolated and pulsed with either compressed air or air from a high pressure blower.

Pulse Jet Cleaning – A cleaning method where a momentary burst of compressed air is introduced through tube or nozzle to the top cap of a bag. For a fluid in motion it is measured in a direction normal (90°) to the direction of now. R RACM (Reasonably Available Control Measures) – A broadly defined term referring to technologies and other measures that can be used to control pollution. temperature. PSIG (Pounds per Square Inch Gauge) – The pressure relative to atmosphere. used extensively in comfort ventilation. In the case of PM10. includes Reasonably Available Control Technology and other measures. Pulse Interval – The time between pulsing one row of bags and pulsing the next row. and open burning. Velocity – The kinetic pressure in the directional flow necessary to cause a fluid at rest to flow at a given velocity. humidity. Pressure. Promulgate – To make a new law known and put it into effect. Process Weight – The weight per hour that is run through the process. Psychromatic Chart – A graphic depiction of the relationship between pressure.7 PSIA. it refers to approaches for controlling small or dispersed source categories such as road dust. Pulse Jet – Generic name given to all pulsing collectors.7” water gauge. however would more correctly be the description of the length of time the manifold is pressurized (120-180) milliseconds. The EPA promulgates a rule when it issues the final version in the Federal Register. For instance. Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) – EPA program in which state and/or federal permits are required that are intended to restrict emissions for new or modified sources in places where air quality is already better than required to meet primary and secondary ambient air quality standards. Usually expressed in inches water gauge when dealing with air. 24 . woodstoves. Usually expressed in inches water gauge. This is the more common pressure term. the interval of time between pulsing a row of bags and that row being pulsed again. Atmospheric pressure is 14. PSIA (Pounds per Square Inch Absolute) – The absolute pressure without reference to another point.Pressure. Pulse Cycle – As used in conjunction with pulse jet baghouses. A bubble of air flows down the bag. 1 psi equals 27. Commonly used in APC codes to determine the maximum allowance pollution exhausted. causing bag walls to collapse behind it. density. Static – The potential pressure exerted in all directions by fluid at rest.7 PSIA. 10 PSIG equals 24. and enthalpy for any gas-vapor mixture. Generally described as the length of time the electrical signal the pilot valve open (20-40 milliseconds). Primary Collector – A dry or wet collector which is followed by a secondary collector with greater filtering efficiency. Pulse Duration – The length of time a pulse lasts. Generic name given to all pulsing collectors. PSI (Pounds per square inch) – A measure of pressure.

radioactive. REL (Recommended Exposure Limits) – Issued by NIOSH to aid in controlling hazards in the workplace. The number of ends and picks in the repeat may be equal or unequal but in every case the repeat must be in a rectangular form. high pressure fan selection must be based on rarefied inlet density. Radon – A colorless. Relative Humidity – The ratio of existing water vapor to that of saturated air at the same dry-bulb temperature. Same as reverse air baghouse. These limits are generally expressed as 8 or 10 hour TWAs for a 40-hour work week and/or calling levels with time limits ranging from instantaneous to 120 minutes. it is caused by friction of the air against any surface. Radionuclide – Radioactive element which can be man made or naturally occurring. Repowering – The replacement of an existing coal-fired boiler with one or more clean coal technologies. Rarefication – A phenomenon related to negative pressure. and becomes less dense than at the entry to the system. to cause dust cake release. 25 . and are believed to have potentially mutagenic effects on the human body. defined by EPA in a Control Techniques Guideline (CTG) and adopted and implemented by states. Ravel Strip Tensile – The tension strength. with blades positioned in straight radial direction from the hub.RACT (Reasonably Available Control Technology) – An emission limitation on existing sources in non-attainment areas. Rankine – See Absolute Temperature. Repressuring Baghouse – Baghouse using bags that are cleaned by flowing air backwards through the cloth. ASTM specs are available at technical libraries. cut just over one inch wide. in order to achieve significantly greater emission reduction relative to the performance of technology in widespread use as of the enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments. Under Title I of the CAAA. Repeat – The number of threads in a weave before the weave repeats or starts over again. Radial Blade – Fan wheel design. or by changing the momentum of the gas. Occurs when dust is pulsed from a bag and then caught up by an upward moving air stream. Residual Risk – The quantity of health risk remaining after application of the MACT (Maximum Achievable Control Technology). and serious non-attainment areas. naturally occurring. in pounds per inch of a 6” long textile sample cut. EPA will establish RACT standards for marginal. (with yarns peeled off each side down to exactly one inch wide) pulled in two lengthwise between jaws set 3” apart and pulled at a constant specified speed. moderate. They can have a long life as pollutants. When air is drawn put through resistance into a fain inlet. Resistance – In air flow. The type of test always used unless specified. Re-entrainment – The phenomenon whereby dust is collected from the air stream and then is returned to the air stream. Reverse Air Baghouse – Baghouse using bags that are cleaned by flowing air backwards through the cloth. or rarefied. While negligible at low pressure and volumes. the air is stretched out. Random Noise – A sound that has an average amplitude and constantly changing frequency. inert gaseous element formed by radioactive decay of radium atoms in soil or rocks.

used to define fan proportionality. 1 is equivalent to 20 percent black. RTECS (Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances) – A database that lists an identification number. SCFM (Standard Cubic Feet per Minute) – The volume that a gas would occupy at standard temperature and pressure conditions (70°F and 14. Saturated Air – Air containing the maximum amount of water vapor for a given temperature and pressure. top bag removal pulse jets that start at 196 bags and go up as high as needed. viscosity. that simulate various smoke densities. a series of charts. EPA Toxic Substances Control Ad (TSCA) Information. synonyms. MAC equipment acronym for its large rectangular. Rotor – The rotating part of most AC motors. 26 . OSHA and Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) air exposure limits. A Ringelman No. or densities. the formed piece to which housing sides are welded. Ringelman numbers were sometimes used in setting emission standards. Department of Transportation (DOT) hazard label information. SB Fan – MAC Equipment’s Strait Blade fan. (c) designates cartridges instead of bags. Satin Weave – A form of twill except that the points of intersection are separated from one another in a consistent or inconsistent manner. and dimensions in a system of flow. Grades opacity from 0 to 5. (C) designates cartridges instead of bags. Ringelman – A measure of the opacity caused by pollution from a stack. RPM – Revolutions per minute. by presenting different percentages of black.7 PSIA). Sateen – Cotton cloth made with a satin weave.Reverse Jet – See pulse jet.g. density. e. expressed as warp sateen or filling sateen. indicated by the charts. See gas flow rate. Reynolds Number – A mathematical factor used to express the relation between velocity. 5.. and animal and human toxicologic data. by matching with the actual effluent. where 0 is an invisible discharge and 5 is totally opaque. the various numbers. Scroll – The general shape of a centrifugal fan housing. RPT (c) – Rectangular Pulse Top removal. They are used for measuring the opacity of smoke rising from stacks and other sources. numbered from 0 to 5. Scour – A soap and water wash to “off loom” fabric. RT (c) – Round top removal. a Ringelman No. to 100 percent. This all purpose fan can be placed on the clean air or dirty air side of the dust collector in most cases. a ban on construction of new sources. Ringelman Chart – Actually. MAC Equipment acronym for its round top bag removal pulse jet dust collectors. S Sanctions – Actions taken against a State or local government for failure to plan or to implement a SIP.

seeding is used to start the crystallization process. (Types include spray towers. is removed from a gas stream by liquid droplets. Gas – Any device in which a contaminant. Series Fans – A combination of fans connected such that the outlet of one fan exhausts into the inlet of another. International System of Units. Solid and liquid particulates are removed through contact with the spray. which identifies actions and programs to be undertaken by the State and its subdivisions to implement their responsibilities under the Clean Air Act. Usually used on direct-drive fans. Fans connected in this manner are capable of higher pressures than a single fan and are used to meet pressure requirements greater that single fans. Settling Chamber – A dry collection device which removes particulate matter from the gas stream by slowing down the exhaust gas velocity. packed towers. The “hairs” are burned off to provide a smoother finish. Sensible Heat – Any portion of heat which affects a change in a substance’s temperature but does not alter that substance’s state. Also. The gases are removed either by absorption or chemical reaction. 27 . cleaning occurs by shaking bags from the top. Shaded-Pole Motor – A special type of single-phase induction motor. Secondary Collector – A dust collector which is preceded by primary collector(s). Shaft Seal – A device to limit gas leakage between the shaft and fan housing. Most commonly used on Dacron polyester and fiberglass bags. solid or gaseous. Singed Finish – A felted bag finish that is designed to provide a finish similar to calendering. Singles – The term used to imply only one yarn. cyclone scrubbers. low cost. SI Units – Systeme International d’Unites. in crystallizing. any one of the units of measure in the international meter-kilogram-second system. Scrubbers are used for both the measurement and control of pollution. Low starting torque. Singeing – The burning off of the protruding fibers from the warp and filling yarns of the fabric. orifice scrubbers. and submitted to EPA for approval.Scrubber – A device that uses a liquid spray to remove aerosol and gaseous pollutants from an air stream. venturi scrubbers. impingement scrubbers. and mechanical scrubbers). Silicone Finish – A treatment of felted bags with silicone to provide a slick finish for improved dust release. dry dust to a bag or cartridge before start-up to provide an initial filter cake for immediate high efficiency and to protect bags from blinding. Service Factor – The number by which the horsepower rating is multiplied to determine the maximum safe load that a motor may be expected to carry continuously. Seeding – The application of a relatively coarse. Shaker Baghouse – A baghouse using woven cloth bags. Scrubber. jet scrubbers. SIP (State Implementation Plan) – Documents prepared by states. The secondary filter normally has a higher filtering efficiency.

. Spun Fabric – Fabric woven from staple spun fabric.1 micrometers in size which result from the incomplete combustion of carbonaceous materials such as coal. non-flammable acidic gas. Source – Any place or object from which pollutants are released. used on easy-starting equipment.Sizing – A protective coating applied to yarn to ensure safe handling. Smoke – Carbon or soot particles. Skrim – A woven fabric that felt is needled onto. see photochemical process. tar and tobacco. having its conductors uniformly distributed around the periphery of the machine and joined by continuous end rings. SP – Static pressure. Second-Power Level – Acoustic power radiating from a sound source. Specific Gravity – The ratio of the weight or mass of a given volume of any substance to that of an equal volume of some other substance taken as a standard. SO2 – Sulfur dioxide is an invisible. The ratio of the density of andy gas to the density of dry air at the same temperature and pressure is the specific gravity of the gas. moderate starting torque. usually uninsulated and chiefly used in induction motors. Slippage – The movement of yarns in a fabric due to insufficient interlacings. AMCA standard of guidelines for general methods of fan construction when handling potentially explosive or flammable particles. SO3 – Sulfur trioxide oxidized from SO2 combines with atmospheric moisture to form sulfuric acid mist (H2SO4). Squirrel-Cage Winding – A permanently short-circuited winding . less than 0. pressure as measured in all directions within an air-handling system. SRC – Spark-Resistant Construction. oil. Specific Heat – The ratio of the quantity of heat required to raise a certain volume one degree to that required to raise an equal volume of water one degree. notably those from automobile exhaust. or vapors. SPI – Society of the Plastics Industry. such as belt-drive fans. e. high starting current. SSPC – Steel Structure Painting Council 28 . Expressed in watts or decibels. formed during combustion of fuel containing sulfur. Slip – The percentage difference between synchronous and operating speeds. Soot – Very finely divided carbon particles clustered together in long chains. fumes. Split-Phase Motor – The most common type of single-phase induction motor. abrasion-free during weaving. Smog – The irritating haze resulting from the sun’s effect on certain pollutants in the air.g. Sound-Pressure Level – The acoustic pressure at a point in space where the microphone or listener’s ear is situated. Also a mixture of fog and smoke. not including the force or pressure of air movement. Expressed in units or pressure or in decibels. high breakdown torque.

Surge Limit – That point near the peak of the pressure curve which corresponds to the minimum flow at which the fan can be operated without instability.ST (c) – Square Top removal. Stack – A smokestack. Measured in inches of water (WG). considered major air pollutants. Starting Torque – The torque produced by a motor as it begins to turn from a standstill and accelerate. especially for asthmatics and is the major precursor to the formation of acid rain. colorless gases formed primarily by the combustion of fossil fuels. and 29. STEL is set by OSHA for each pollutant and expressed in terms of ppm or mg/m³. corresponds approximately to dry air at 70°F. It is a respiratory irritant. Hg. (c) designates cartridges instead of bags. In reality. Static Pressure (Fan) – The static pressure for which a fan is to be selected based on system calculations. Sulfur Oxides – Pungent. air in excess of the stoichlometric ratio is usually provided to encourage complete combustion of the fuel. pungent. SWSI – Single-Width Single-Inlet Centrifugal Fans. 29 . Standard Air Density – 0. Synchronous Speed – Rated motor speed expressed in RPM. Stage II Controls – Systems placed on service station gasoline pumps to control and capture gasoline vapors during an automobile refueling. Static Pressure (Hot) – The pressure caused by the resistance to air flow through the system at actual conditions. Synchronous speed = 120 x frequency divided by number of poles./ft³. STEL (Short Term Exposure Limit) – The employee’s 15 minute time weighted average exposure which cannot be exceeded at any time. Stoichlometric Air – The exact quantity of air required to combine with the given fuel so that the ensuing combustion reaction is perfect and no free oxygen or unburned constituents remain. colorless air pollutant formed primarily by the combustion of fossil fuels. Sometimes called locked rotor torque. a vertical pipe or flue designed to exhaust gases. Stator – The stationary parts of a magnetic circuit with associated windings. MAC acronym for its square top bag removal pulse jet dust collectors up to 64 bags. fan SP = SP outlet-Sp inlet-VP inlet. Streamline Flow – Fluid flow in which the velocity pressure and fluid density of a given particle remains constant with time. if this is a possibility.92 in. Static Pressure (Cold) – The pressure caused by the resistance to air flow through the system if the gas were at standard conditions or colder.0750 lbs. Static Balance – The mechanical balance of a rotating part or assembly by adding weights to counter-balance gravitational rotating of the part without power driving it. Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) – A heavy. sulfur oxides may damage the respiratory tract as well as vegetation.

and the standardized connections used in laboratory tests to obtain fan-performance ratings. System Effect – The effect on the performance of a fan resulting from the difference between the fan inlet and outlet connections to the actual system. It allows air sampling to be made automatically at predetermined times. etc. the sum of velocity pressure plus static pressure.) = HP x 5250 RPM Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) – A listing of pollutants and emissions Levels from each major source. Tip Speed – Fan wheel velocity at a point corresponding to the outside diameter of the wheel blades. rotation. expressed in pounds per square inch. Hence any kind of fabric.-lbs. Tensile Strength – The maximum stress a material can withstand before it breaks. or lends to produce. A listing of TLVs may be found in the ACGIH’s “Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices for 1988-1989. or in.-lbs. TP – Total pressure. normally expressed in feet per minute (circumference times RPM). usually in RPM. designed to guide the flow of air. scavenger air. leakage air). filters. Torque can be calculated by: Torque (Ft.-lb.. not along the crank. Threshold Limit Values (TLV) – Represents the air concentrations of chemical substances to which it is believed that workers may be exposed daily without adverse effect. 30 .” Torque – A force which produces. or vapor to and from one or more locations. Test Block – An operating point above and beyond the maximum specified continuous rating demonstrating the fan margin to the customer. System Curve – Graphic presentation of the pressure versus volume flow rate characteristics of a particular system. Tape Sampler – A device used in the measurement of both gases particulates. diffusers.System – A series of ducts. on the shaft if the force is provided perpendicular to. Comes from the Latin “Texere” to weave. A fan provides the energy necessary to overcome the system’s resistance to flow and causes air or gas to flow through the system. System gas Volume – All gases flowing through the exhaust gas system (including excess air. elbows. the center of which is displaced one foot from the center of the shaft. produces a torque of one ft. gas. A force of one pound applied to the handle of a crank. TLV®(Threshold Limit Value) – A registered trademark for an exposure limit developed by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Textile – That which is or may be woven. conduits. commonly measured in ft. Thread Count – The number of warp and filling yarns in a fabric commonly expressed in square inch. T Tachometer – an instrument which measures the speed of rotation.-lbs.

evenly distributed areas that are each tested. TSD (Facility) – Treatment. TPY – Tons per year. Uniform Flow – Airflow in which velocities between any two given points remain fairly constant. was passed by Congress to protect human health and the environment by requiring testing and necessary use restrictions to regulate the commerce of certain chemical substances. frequently the pilot valve and the diaphragm valve pulse are considered as one. a term usually used for inside collector baghouses. lanes.” van der Waals – Adhesive forces that exist between the particle and fiber. Tubeaxial Fan – Axial fan without guide vanes. e. Separates the clean air and dirty air sections of the baghouse. compensating for errors caused by uneven gas flow in the duct.TPI – Twist Per Inch. V Valve – In baghouses. Includes fixed-pitch. adjustable-pitch. “Z” or “S” respectively. and Disposal. Sometimes called cellplate. Tubular Centrifugal Fan – Fan with a centrifugal impeller within a cylindrical housing discharging the gas in an axial direction. Transportation Control Measures (TCM’s) – Steps taken by a locality to adjust traffic patterns (e. in a right or left direction. Turbulent Flow – Airflow in which true velocities at a given point vary erratically in speed and direction. 31 .g. Turning Vanes – Baffles put in a duct to straighten out the air flow. A traverse divides the duct into equal. Twist – The number of complete spiral turns in a yarn. TWA (Time Weighted Average) – Employee’s average airborne exposure which can not be exceeded in any 8 hour work shift. Traverse – A method of sampling points in a duct where pressure readings will be taken to determine velocity. and variable-pitch impellers. TSCA (Toxic Substances Control Act) – Administered by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).g. right turn on red) or reduce vehicle use (ridesharing. high-occupancy vehicle Lanes) to reduce vehicular emissions of air pollutants. Tubesheet – The steel plate that bags and cages are suspended from. TWA is set by OSHA and expressed in mg/m³. Vaneaxial Fan – Axial fan with either inlet or discharge guide vanes or both. simply called “valve. U Unbalance – The condition of a rotor in which its rotation results in centrifugal force being applied to the rotor’s supporting bearings.. Storage.

its operation is similar to an inclined manometer. does not include methane and other compounds determined by EPA to have negligible photochemical re-activity. VP is used to get the velocity of a gas stream. either by increasing the pressure or decreasing the temperature alone. Usually granted to allow time for engineering and fabrication of abatement equipment to bring the operation into compliance. and phase. components of which are amplitude. Volt – A unit of electrical potential or pressure. Examples of VOC’s include gasoline fumes and oil-based paints.S. the others being attrition and combustion. Vapors diffuse. but requires large horsepower to do so. Designed such that when a pulse is introduced at the top. ______ Velocity (SFPM) = 4005√ VP ______ Velocity (AFPM) = 1096√ VP/ρ ρ = Actual density of the air (lb/ft³) VP = inches of water column VP/SP – Velocity pressure divided by static pressure. The gas and dust particles are accelerated in a venturi throat. Velometer – A simple instrument for determining the velocity of gas in a duct. VP – Velocity pressure. Viscosity – The characteristic of all fluids to resist flow. Vapors – The gaseous form of substances which are normally in the solid or liquid state and which can be changed to these states. frequency. Variance – Permission granted for a limited time. a single number reference used to define a fan’s point of operation. increasing cleaning energy. the kinetic energy pressure of air in motion. Venturi Scrubber – A wet type dust collector that can obtain very high efficiency. 32 . and secondary air is induced into the venturi. under stated conditions. for a person or company to operate outside the limits prescribed in a regulation. One of the 3 basic contributing processes of air pollution. Designed with converging circular sides to a throat and then diverging sides. except that it automatically converts the reading to velocity.Vaporization – The change of a substance from the liquid to a gaseous state. Venturi – Device used to theoretically increase the efficiency of a compressed air pulse. a negative pressure zone is created outside the top. Vena Contracta – The smallest flow area for flow through a sharp-edged orifice. Each system curve has a unique VP/SP value. VOC’s (Volatile Organic Compounds) – A group of chemicals that react in the atmosphere with nitrogen oxides in the presence of heat and sunlight to form ozone. where finely atomized water is introduced and water/dust take place. Vibration – Alternating mechanical motion of an elastic system. 110 or 220 volts are normally found in the U. Ventilation – Supplying and removing air by natural or mechanical means to and from any space.

Worsted System – A system of yarn manufacturing suited for medium and longer wools. Weft – See fill. Woolen System – A system of yarn manufacturing suited for the shorter wools. Watt – A unit of power in electrical terms. The resulting yarn is compact and level.The unit designation of fan wheel rotational inertia in lb. 746 watts are equal to one horsepower. Warp Yarns – Yarn in a fabric running lengthwise. the light gauge steel or aluminum covering put over insulation. Wet-Bulb Depression – The difference between the dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperature at the same location. satin. WR² -. Warp Sateen – The face of the cloth having the warp yarns floating over the filling yarns and being greater in number than the filling yarns. Includes additional processing steps resulting in the most uniform yarn. and hopper level and displays it in a user friendly graphical interface. Woven Cloth Bag – A bag made of woven material. Wet-Bulb Temperature – The temperature of a gas stream taken with a wetted thermometer. etc. various wastes. Wizard – MAC Equipment trademark for its intelligent dust collector controller. Weave – The pattern of weaving. temperature. Warp Thread – Yarn or threads in a fabric running lengthwise. 33 . the product of voltage and amperage. see inch of Water. Wrapper – Used in electrostatic precipitators. wet fans). Woof – See fill. Water Gauge – Inches water is a pressure term defined as a pressure equal to that exerted by a column of water of the same height. It is approximately equal to the adiabatic saturation temperature of the gas. also known as WK². airflow.-ft².g.W Warp Count – Number of warp threads per inch width. venturis. pressure drop. The MAC Baghouse Wizard controls the pulse cleaning of a dust collector and monitors emissions. 27. e. Wet Collector – Dust collector which uses water to remove particulate matter from the exhaust gas (wet washers. plain twill. similar to normal cloth. Used in re-pressuring and shaker baghouses. etc. WG – Water gauge. reclaimed wools..7” WG equals 1 PSI.

Z Z-Twist – The yarn spirals conform in slop to the center portion of the letter “Z. Yield Strength – Maximum stress to which a ductile material can be subjected before it physically distorts. the coarser the yarn.Y Yarn – A term for an assemblage of fibers or filaments forming a strand (thread) which can be otherwise formed into a textile material. Yarn Size – A relative measure of fineness or coarseness of yarn.” 34 . The smaller the number in spun yarns.

Technologies used in three primary manufacturing industries: textile. or forming porous films concurrent with their extrusion. nonwovens are fabrics that are made by: (a) (b) (c) (d) mechanically. and porous. interlocking fibers or filaments concurrent with their extrusion. accomplished by mechanical chemical. more broadly. Paper technology base includes dry laid pulp and modified wet laid paper systems designed to accommodate fibers longer than wood pulps. Jargon associated with fabrics. “meltblown”. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM D 1117-80) defines a nonwoven fabric as: “A textile structure produced by bonding or interlocking of fibers. Fabrics produced by these systems are referred to as dry laid nonwovens and carry terms such as “garneted”.” How nonwoven fabrics are made – A basic concept used in making a nonwoven is to transform fiber-based materials into flat. form the basis of the processes for manufacturing nonwovens. are manufactured with machinery associated with staple fibers bonded by stitching filaments or yarns. and “textured” or “apertured film” nonwovens. The extrusion technology base includes spunbound. or solvent means and combinations thereof. nonwovens are planar structures that are relatively flat. paper. hammer mills) and paper forming (i. perforating films. Needle-felt fabric is produced by textile-based technology.e. and porous film systems. fiber structures are simultaneously formed and manipulated. manufactured fiber spinning. and extrusion and various combinations of established processes from one or more of these industries. a fabric that is different from traditional woven or knitted fabrics. The textile technology base includes garneting. Like all fabrics.e. “carded”. or. In polymer laid systems. 35 . wet laid equipment.” These fabrics. meltblown. or hybrid (combination). film casting. Nonwoven – Nonwovens are defined by what they are not.e. depending on the fiber material used and/or the fabric characteristics desired. or fiber-network structures. Fabric produced by these systems are referred to as “dry laid pulp” and “wet laid” nonwovens. generically. Nonwoven is a generic term used to describe fabric that is produced differently from a fabric made by weaving or. These fabrics are manufactured with machinery associated with pulp fiberizing (i. can be nearly as arcane as any found in the Military’s or Silicon Valley’s lexicon. Fabrics produced by these systems are referred to individually as “spun bounded”. as “polymer laid” nonwovens. paper. Accordingly. this is accomplished several ways. flexible. porous. All wet laid cartridge paper contains high percentages of cellulose. sheet structures with fabric characteristics. or thermally interlocking layers of networks or fibers or filaments or yarns. process for manufacturing nonwoven fabric can be grouped into four general technology bases: textile. or both. Unlike traditional fabrics that re made by mechanically interlacing (weaving) or interlooping (knitting) yarns composed of fibers of filaments. extrusion coating). carding and aerodynamic forming of textile fibers into preferentiallyoriented webs. slurry pumping onto continuous screens) designed to manipulate short fibers suspended in a fluid. HEPA media is also produced on specialized. and “air laid. Most cartridge filter media is produced by the wet laid systems. The fabrics are produced with machinery associated with polymer extrusion (i. reducing its resistance to moisture. terms and acronyms. flexible. extrusion.Filter Media / Fibers Definitions Every industry has unique buzz words. In practice. chemically. Fabric filtration is especially blessed with a full vocabulary. This section has been prepared to give you a basic understanding of the different filtration medias in the dust collection marketplace.

Where polyesters are not suitable. Recommended operating temperature is 275 degrees F maximum. carbon bake. Aromatic polymide (Nomex®) – Nomex® nylon was a proprietary (patent has expired) aromatic-polymide (aramide) linked structure. Enka Polyester® (American Enka). Polyester is the most widely used needled felt for pulse jet applications. Under moist. In the presence of a saturated vapor. 250°F degrees. Diameters are typically 15 to 35 microns. it withstands these conditions better than many other fibers. Homopolymer felt is a candidate for hot gas applications of less than 284 degrees F. but at temperatures above 700 degrees F. mild alkali. for high-pressure cleaned needled felts. and the remainder a copolymer. gold and copper ores. Crylor® (Crylor SA). In dry heat up to and including 375 degrees F. coal. and surfaces are striated. It is unaffected by florines and gases from metallurgical and rock processing operations. and many other hot gas processes. only acrylic homopolymer fabric should be used. and Kodel® (Eastman Chemical). galvanizing. high active oxidizing agents. However. in which the fiber forming substance is any long chain polymer composed of at least 85% acrylonitrile units. Fiber cross sections are dumbbell-shaped. the fibers will hydrolyze. duPont de Nemours. Characteristics of Selected Fibers Acrylic Fibers – Acrylic fibers are man made fibers. Fiber is available under various trade names: Dacron® (duPont).I. Nomex® will progressively lose strength. and most hydrocarbons. clinker coolers. 36 . Polyester – a manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming substance is any long chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 85% by weight of an ester of a dihydric alcohol and terephtalic acid. to form a combination media. Nomex® is a non-thermoplastic so it does not melt. Nomex® withstands the attack by mild minerals and inorganic acids. Temperature resistance of copolymers is less. Orlon® (Dupont). is the MIASMACTTM HEPA media. a homopolymer (100% acrylonitrile). Acilian® (Monsanto). Acrylic is non-thermoplastic. will rapidly degrade Nomex®. The single biggest use for Nomex®. is a widely used acrylic. because of potential hydrolysis.The hybrid base combine elements of the first three technologies. However. particularly under acid conditions. wet laid media is laminated with spun bounded support sheets. An example of a hybrid product. and low temperature flue gas applications. near-saturation. such as sulphur oxides. Polyester is superior for most dry heat applications. For MAC Equipment applications. Fortrel® (Fiber Industries/Celanese). Zefran® (BASF). When exposed to saturated steam at high temperatures. Draylon-T® (or equivalents). This material is a thermoplastic. Acrylic felts are used in drying raw flour. and Draylon-T® (Bayer) are trade names used by various producers of acrylic fibers. weakening the fabric. is asphalt batch plant dryers and drum-mix plants. for applications requiring dimensional stability and high heat resistance. needled felt. developed by E. this fabric may be used satisfactorily as long as there is no acid dew point problem. acrylics offer a combination of abrasion resistance and resistance to wet heat degradation. Nomex® is unaffected by small amounts of water vapor and high temperatures. heat conditions. Other uses include raw and finish mill grinding on cement plants. Creslan® (American Cyanimid). Polyester (PE) is superior to most synthetics in dry heat installations but it is not comparable to Teflon® nor Nomex®. degradation sets in rapidly. polyester is inferior to other synthetics.

and with a laminated PTFE membrane. It resists weak alkalis. it is available in 12. Polypropylene has very low heat resistance. woodworking. will cause some decomposition. Examples are: gold and copper ore processing./yd² versions. metalized-antistatic (ME). composed of at least 85% by weight of olefin units.I. The fibers combine excellent resistance to most acids and alkalis.yd² carrier base. Teflon® is the most chemically resistant fiber used in conventional dust filtration. Composites generally have a 4 oz. especially in length. duPont. PP is a good choice for replacement of cotton in low temperature applications. manufactured by E. reducing agents and organic solvents. (about the same price as polyester). at high temperatures. Teflon® is not affected by any known solvents except some prefluorinated organic liquids at temperatures above 570 degrees F. with efficient filtration and good energy absorption characteristics. carbolic and nitric acids. 37 . weight. incinerators. strong alkalis. handling large particulate. having a high surface area-todiameter ratio. Exposure to temperatures above 550 degrees F. and in 100% form may be used for temperatures of 500 degrees F. plus high strength. Extensive testing has shown that P84 fabric approaches Gortex® in efficiency. but other weights are available. P84 needled felt. It is composed of long chain carbon molecules in which all of the available bonds are completely saturated with fluorine. polypropylene provides good resistance to mineral and organic acids. P84 (Polyimide) – P84 is a proprietary fiber produced by Lenzing in Austria. Herculon® (Hercules) and Reevon® (Phillips) are trade names used by various producers of polypropylene (PP) fibers. These strong carbon-to-fluorine bonds create fibers that are exceptionally stable to both heat and chemicals. but has all of the advantages of a needled felt. and most organic solvents except high concentrations of sulfuric. As needled felt. boilers. The use of 12 oz. mineral acids. chemical and other applications where chemical and mechanical characteristics are compatible. Since it does not absorb moisture. It is. However. and should not be exposed to prolonged temperatures of over 165 degrees F. however. and 18 oz. Filtration efficiency is not quite as good as polyester.PE provides good resistance to most oxidizing agents. even less than cotton. Its fiber is highly convoluted. to provide the benefits of the base fiber. The fabric is widely used in many of the industries served by MAC Equipment. and various chemical processes. Teflon® .is a proprietary fluorocarbon fiber. and is one of the most economical synthetics. although it is slow to develop. It is used in agricultural. It has one of the lowest specific gravities of any synthetic fiber. soluble at 160 degrees F in chlorinated hydrocarbons. It may be layered on top of lower cost fibers. will dissolve the fabric. Polyester fiber makes an excellent filter fabric. but at lower costs than a 100% version of the P84 felt. are used in many industrial applications where high efficiency is required. PP absorbs no moisture and provides excellent cake discharge and resistance to blinding./yd² should be reserved for non-critical applications. 16. P84 is a non-thermoplastic. Teflon® bags shrink when exposed to high temperatures. its degradation characteristics in dry heat and moist heat are virtually the same. Within its limited temperature range. Polypropylene – (polyolefin) is a manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming substance is any long chain synthetic polymer. needled to a 12 oz. 100% P84 is readily available in 14 oz. water/oil resistant (TR). Spunbonded POLIPLEETTM media is available in plain.yd² P84 fiber layer. and composites. It resists alkalis.

Ryton® is resistant to sulphur oxides. 38 . soda ash. and is not as efficient as other medias. Ryton® (Polyphenylene Sulfide) – Ryton® (Phillips) is a long chain synthetic polysulfide. as the extruded glass may be drawn and broken by jets of compressed air into staple of lengths 8 to 15 inches. Suitable applications for this material are limited. Gas stream oxygen content should not exceed 15%. usually in the presence of oxidizing agents. Teflon® fibers’ chemical inertness and resistance to dry and moist heat degradation makes it ideal for use under severe conditions. Woven fiberglass and felted fiberglass medias are available for high energy cleaned fabric filters. other companies have similar products. soil remediation systems. HEPA – High Efficiency Particulate Air filter is the maximum efficiency available in particulate filtration. is a borosilicate microfiber glass. or efficiency requirements. In addition. Woven fiberglass. Consult MAC Equipment engineering before using these products for any application. a non-crystalline silicate analogous to other fiber polymeric materials. and incinerators have been equipped with Teflon® products. These are specialty products and are used for very specific applications. and is used for high temperature gas streams. in 1973. Glass – Glass fiber is a product of fusion. Huyglas® (Air Purator Corporation) felted fiberglass medias are available in a variety of weights. Some boilers. This felt is a blend of 85% Teflon® and 15% fiberglass fibers. Recently a lower cost version. Ryton® does not hydrolyze and has flame retarding characteristics. however. up to 360 degrees F. The resin was developed by Phillips Petroleum. Available weights are 16 to 22 oz. limestone. and borax or other ingredients are melted at about 2500 degrees F. Tefaire®. Or. the fibers are process much like the more conventional fibers. Commercial uses are limited to extreme chemical environments where the advantages of Teflon fibers’ great chemical resistance outweighs cost disadvantages. Some common trade names for woven fiberglass are GL65 Tri-LoftTM (BHA). Teflon® needled felt is extremely expensive. carbon black plants. and the mixture is extruded through spinnarets. Other fibers and medias are available for very special temperature. MAC Equipment’s style FG134/2 cleanable HEPA media. in particular. Refer to MAC Equipment for more application information./yard². The fibers are then treated with a lubricant which is of great importance in the durability of the eventual fabric. Rated for temperatures up to 275°F. Consult MAC Equipment for more details. Selected silica sands.The low friction properties of Teflon® fibers provide excellent cake discharge. The resulting filaments may be drawn while still molten and later twisted and plied into filament yarn. Following drying. is very easy to damage. has been introduced. supported by polyester webbing on each side.) temperatures. with at least 85% of the sulfide linkages attached directly to two aromatic rings. chemical. and FL57 Hi-LoftTM (BHA). Felted fiberglass tends to be heavy and difficult to handle. Usually offered as a static after filter following a dust collector. Standard fiber is 3-denier. a pulse cleaned version is available. form 14 to 27 oz. pressure drop./yd². Bag/cage fit & support is very critical – check with the vendors involved for specific recommendations. involving high (up to 500 degrees F. Typical applications are industrial/municipal solid waste incinerators and coal-fired boilers.

°F Abrasion Energy Absorption Filtration Properties Moist Heat Hydrolysis Alkalines Mineral Acids Oxygen (15%+) Relative Cost Polypropylene 170 Excellent Good Good Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent X Polyester 275 Excellent Excellent Excellent Poor Good Fair Excellent X Acrylic 275 Good Good Good Excellent Fair Good Excellent XX Fiberglass® 500 Fair Fair Fair Excellent Fair Poor** Excellent XXX Nomex® 375 Good Good Excellent Good Good Poor Excellent XXXX Ryton® 375 Good Good Very Good Excellent Excellent Excellent Poor XXXXX P-84TM 500 Good Good Excellent Good Fair Good Excellent XXXXXX Teflon® 500 Excellent Good Fair Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent XXXXXXX * Sensitive bag-to-cage fit ** Fair with acid resistant finishes Note: Combinations of variables alter the resistance of the fiber to the specified performance ratings. temperature and gas stream chemistry. Operating Temperature °F Calcium Chloride (Ca Cl2) Ferrous Chloride (Fe Cl2 4H2O) Sodium Acetate (C2 H4 Na O2) Sodium pyrosulfite (Na2 O5 S2) (metan sulfite) Sodium Bromide (Na Br) Sodium Perchbrate (Cl Na O4) Sodium Cyanide (Na Cn) Sodium Nitrate (Na NO3) (Chile Saltpeter) Sodium Sulfate (Na2 SO4) (Glaubers Salt) Sodium Sulfide (Na2 S) A=Excellent Suitability B=Limited Suitability C=Not Recommended Dralon T® (Poly Acrylic) 275 A A A C A A A A A A Acrylic (Poly Acrylic) 275 A A A A A A A A A A Nomex® 375 B B B B A A B B A A Polyester 275 A A A A A A A A A A Polypropylene 170 A A A A A A A A A A Teflon® 500 A A A A A A A A A A Glass 500 B C B A C B B B B P84 500 B B B B C B B B B B Chemical Compatibility of Fabrics with Common Chemicals Oxidizing Agents Max.Properties of Filtration Fabrics Temp. Operating Temperature °F Bromine Calcium (Br) Calcium Hypochlorite (Ca(OCL)2) Carbon (C) (Graphite/Diamond) Fluorine (F) Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) Iod Ozone (O3) Potassium Chloride (K Cl) (Sylvine) Sodium Chlorate (Na Cl O3) Sodium Hypochlorite (Na Ocl) (Eau-de-Labarraque) A=Excellent Suitability B=Limited Suitability C=Not Recommended Dralon T® (Poly Acrylic) 275 B A B B A A A A B Acrylic (Poly Acrylic) 275 B A B B A A A A A A Nomex® 375 B - Polyester 275 B A B B B A A B Polypropylene 170 A A A A A A B A A B Teflon® 500 A A A A A A A A A A Glass 500 A A A C A A A A A A P84 500 B B B B B B B B B B 39 . i. time.e. Chemical Compatibility of Fabrics with Common Chemicals Salts Max..

Operating Temperature °F Ammonia (H3 N) Calcium Hydroxide (Ca (OH)2) (Hydrated Lime) Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) (Caustic Potash) Potassium Carbonate (K2 CO3) (Potash) (Salt of Tarter) Sodium Hydroxide (Na OH) (Caustic Soda) Sodium Carbonate (Na2 Co3) (Washing Soda) A=Excellent Suitability B=Limited Suitability C=Not Recommended Dralon T® (Poly Acrylic) 275 B A B B B A Acrylic (Poly Acrylic) 275 B A C B B A Nomex® 375 B A B A B A Polyester 275 C A B B B A Polypropylene 170 A A B A B A Teflon® 500 A A A A A A Glass 500 B A C C C C P84 500 B B B B C B 40 . Operating Temperature °F Chromium Trioxide (Cr O3) (Chromic Acid Anhydride) Hydrogen Chloride (H Cl) (Hydrochloric Acid) (Muriatic Acid) Hydrofluoric Acid (HF) Nitric Acid (HN O3) Tripotic Acid (HO)3 P(O) Sulphuric Acid (H2 SO4) (Sulphuric Acid) (Vitrol) A=Excellent Suitability B=Limited Suitability C=Not Recommended Dralon T® (Poly Acrylic) 275 A A A A A B Acrylic (Poly Acrylic) 275 A A A A B B Nomex® 375 C C C B A B Polyester 275 A A B A A B Polypropylene 170 B A A B A A Teflon® 500 A A A A A A Glass 500 A A C A A A P84 500 B B B B B B Chemical Compatibility of Fabrics with Common Chemicals Organic Acids Max. Operating Temperature °F Acetic Acid (C2 H4 O2) Benzoic Acid (C7 H6 O2) Phenol (C6 H6 O) (Carbolic Acid) Formic Acid (CH2 O2) Lactic Acid (C3 H6 O3) Oxalic Acid (C2 H2 O4) (Acid of Sugar) Salicylic Acid (C7 H8 O3) A=Excellent Suitability B=Limited Suitability C=Not Recommended Dralon T® (Poly Acrylic) 275 A A A A A A A Acrylic (Poly Acrylic) 275 A A A A A A A Nomex® 375 A B C B B C B Polyester 275 A A B A A A A Polypropylene 170 A A A A A A A Teflon® 500 A A A A A A A Glass 500 A A C A B A C P84 500 B B B C B B B Chemical Compatibility of Fabrics with Common Chemicals Bases Max.Chemical Compatibility of Fabrics with Common Chemicals Mineral Acids Max.

Operating Temperature °F Acetaldehyde (H3 C-CHO) (Aldehyde) Vinyl Alcohol (H2 C-CH2 O) (Ethenolivinol) Glycerol (C3 H8 O3) Glycerin Clycol (C2 H6 O2) Mineral Oil Benzene.Chemical Compatibility of Fabrics with Common Chemicals Organic Solvents Max.3) (Toluene) O-Xylene (C6 H4 (CH3)2) A=Excellent Suitability B=Limited Suitability C=Not Recommended Dralon T® (Poly Acrylic) 275 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A Acrylic (Poly Acrylic) 275 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A Nomex® 375 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A Polyester 275 A A A B A A A A A A A A A A A A Polypropylene 170 B B A C B B B B A A A B B A B B Teflon® 500 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A Glass 500 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A P84 500 C C B B B B B B B C C B B B C C Chemical Compatibility of Fabrics with Common Chemicals Miscellaneous Max. Nitro (C6 H5 NO2) (Essence of Mirbane) A=Excellent Suitability B=Limited Suitability C=Not Recommended Dralon T® (Poly Acrylic) 275 A A A A A A Acrylic (Poly Acrylic) 275 A A A A A A Nomex® 375 A A A A A A Polyester 275 A A A C A A Polypropylene 170 B A A A A Teflon® 500 A A A A A A Glass 500 A A A A A A P84 500 B B B B B B 41 . Operating Temperature °F Acetone (H3 C-CO-CH3) ((CH2)4H3) Benzene (C6 H6) (Benzol) Carbon Disulfide (C S2) Carbon Tetrachloride (C Cl3) Chloroform (CH Cl3) Cyclohexane (C6 H12) Acetoin (C2 H6 O2) Ethylalcohol or Methane Ether (C2 H6 O) (Vanillin) Butyl Alcohol or Ethyl Ether (C4 H10 O) Methanol (CH4 O) MEK Nitrogen (N) Ethylenes trichloro (C2 H CL3) Methyl Benzene (C6 H5 CH.

% Volume 78.457 0.0560 0.930 0.0515 Density factor 1.02 parts/million 0.0272 Air density lb.0292 0.654 0. 0 500 1.500 8.0651 0.0342 0.0623 0.000 3.715 0.500 4.934 percent 0.2 parts/million 1.02 parts/million 0.772 0./cu. 42 .0589 0.0612 0.817 0.0736 0.000 1.0 to trace >99.500 9.500 10.92 in.0749 0. 0.697 0. **Dry air at 70°F.075 0.0525 0.848 0.803 0.52 1.0635 0.0709 0.0490 0.525 0.0710 0.500 2.000 Density factor 1. °F 0 70 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1.000 Altitude – Density** Elevation ft.982 0.998% The above table is an average for clean. dry air at sea level.09 parts/million 0.880 0.0328 0.0723 0.896 0. ft.07 parts/million 0.0659 0.5 parts/millions 0.616 0.743 0.964 0.2 parts/million 5.0647 0.1 parts/million 1.0 0.947 0.0303 0.477 0.0315 0.786 0.000 8.376 0.000 9.0672 0.421 0.500 7.5 parts/million 0.404 0.869 0.01 parts/million 0.701 0.0 parts/million 2.0536 0.500 5.0546 0.500 0.0864 0.500 6.1.0600 0.000 6. 1 part/million = 0. 0. Composition of Air Component of Air Nitrogen Oxygen Argon Carbon dioxide Neon Helium Krypton Sulfur dioxide Methane Hydrogen Nitrous oxide Hydrogen Xenon Ozone Ozone – Winter Nitrogen dioxide Iodine Carbon monoxide Ammonia Symbol N2 O2 Ar CO2 Ne He Kr SO2 CH4 H2 N2O H2 Xe O3 O3 NO2 I2 CO NH3 Content .0393 0.552 0.438 0.0557 0.947 percent 0.0578 0.500 3.0 to 0.0 parts/million 0.000 0.084 percent 20.0414 0.757 0.0282 0.688 *Table based on 29.0697 0.000 5.946 0.832 0.729 0.0001 percent.363 Wt.864 0.000 7.390 0.0602 0.582 0.747 0.0 to 0.0358 0.0522 0. ft.913 0.033 percent 18.000 2.0436 0.0 to trace 0.0462 0.801 0. per cu. Hq.Gas / Air Tables Temperature and Altitude Corrections Temperature – Density* Temp.0567 0.5 parts/million 0.000 4.0684 0.0375 0.

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Type 12 – Dust-tight and Drip-tight – Indoor. spraying of water. oil and non-corrosive coolant. F. Type 12K – Same as Type 12 except enclosures have knockouts. depending on specific design as defined in the National Electrical Code. by oil immersion. Type 11 – Corrosion Resistant & Drip-proof – oil immersed indoor. Provide. Protects against dust. Type 10 – Mining Enforcement Safety Administration. with or without coal dust. Explosion proof. Horsepower Formulas Air Horsepower = CFM X TP 6356 Brake Horsepower = CFM X TP 6356 X MEfan Where MEfan = Mechanical Efficiency of Fan 51 . May be classified Groups E. Indoor hazardous locations. For use in mines with atmospheric containing methane or natural gas. Protects against dust. falling dirt and dripping non-corrosive liquids.Type 9 – Class II. or G. protection against the corrosive effects of liquids and gases. Type 13 – Oil tight and Dust-tight – Indoor.

... ..NEMA Electric Motor Frames Motor Frame 42 48 56 66 143T 145T 182 182 184 184T 213 213T 215 215T 254T 254U 256T 256U 284T 284TS 284U 286T 286U 324T 324U 326T 326TS 326U 364T 364U 365T 365U 404T 404U 405T 405U 444T 444U 445T 445U D 2-5/8 3 3-1/2 4-1/8 3-1/2 3-1/2 4-1/2 4-1/2 4-1/2 4-1/2 5-1/4 5-1/4 5-1/4 5-1/4 6-1/4 6-1/4 6-1/4 6-1/4 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 NEMA Frame Dimension – Inches E F U V M+N 1-3/4 2-1/8 2-7/16 2-15/16 2-3/4 2-3/4 3-3/4 3-3/4 3-3/4 3-3/4 4-1/4 4-1/4 4-1/4 4-1/4 5 5 5 5 5-1/2 5-1/2 5-1/2 5-1/2 5-1/2 6-1/4 6-1/4 6-1/4 6-1/4 8-1/4 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 27/32 1-3/8 1-1/2 2-1/2 2 2-1/2 2-1/4 2-1/4 2-3/4 2-3/4 2-3/4 2-3/4 3-1/2 3-1/2 4-1/8 4-1/8 5 5 4-3/4 4-1/4 4-3/4 5-1/2 5-1/2 5-1/4 5-1/4 6 6 6 5-5/8 5-5/8 6-1/8 6-1/8 6-1/8 6-1/8 6-7/8 6-7/8 7-1/4 7-1/4 8-1/4 8-1/4 3/8 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 7/8 7/8 1-1/8 7/8 1-1/8 1-1/8 1-3/8 1-1/8 1-3/8 1-5/8 1-3/8 1-5/8 1-3/8 1-7/8 1-5/8 1-5/8 1-7/8 1-5/8 2-1/8 1-7/8 2-1/8 1-7/8 1-7/8 2-3/8 2-1/8 2-318 2-1/8 2-7/8 2-3/8 2-7/8 2-3/8 3-3/8 2-7/8 3-3/8 2-7/8 ..... 3/16x3/32 3/16x3/32 3/16x3/32 3/16x3/32 3/16x3/32 1/4x1/8 3/16x3/32 1/4x1/8 1/4x1/8 5/16x5/32 1/4x1/8 5/16x5/32 3/8x3/16 5/16x5/32 3/8x3/16 5/16x5/32 1/2x1/4 3/8x3/16 3/8x3/16 1/2x1/4 3/8x3/16 1/2x1/4 1/2x1/4 1/2x1/4 1/2x1/4 1/2x1/4 5/8x5/16 1/2x1/4 5/8x5/16 1/2x1/4 3/4x3/8 5/8x5/16 3/4x3/8 5/8x5/16 7/8x7/16 3/4x3/8 7/8x7/16 3/4x3/8 The above standards were established by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) 52 . 2 2 2 2-1/2 2 2-1/2 2-3/4 3-1/8 2-3/4 3-1/8 3-314 3-1/2 3-3/4 3-1/2 4-3/8 3 4-518 4-318 4-5/8 5 5-3/8 5 3-1/2 5-3/8 5-5/8 6-1/8 5-518 6-1/8 7 6-7/8 7 6-7/8 8-1/4 8-3/8 8-1/4 8-3/8 4-1/32 5-3/8 6-1/8 7-7/8 6-1/2 7 7-1/4 7-3/4 7-3/4 6-1/4 9-1/4 9-5/8 10 10-3/8 12-3/8 12-1/8 13-1/4 13 14-1/8 13-1/2 14-2/8 14-7/8 15-1/8 15-3/4 16-1/8 16-1/2 15 16-7/8 17-3/8 17-7/8 17-7/8 1-3/8 20 19-7/8 20-3/4 20-5/8 23-1/4 23-3/8 24-1/4 24-318 Keyway .... .. . .

NEMA Electric Motor Frames V U F F M+N Frame dimensions for previous page D E E 53 .

Industrial Ventilation References 54 .

5 15.0 15.40 5.04 7.9 11.72 6.34 4.3 15.1 25.3 12.8 13.4 24.3 16.21 5.3 10.9 13.3 17.9 14.3 14.9 11.8 12.81 4.86 7.7 10.79 8.9 19.9 27.6 19.4 14.9 15.25 8.7 12.5 21.38 8.3 11.7 22.17 7.2 20.6 23.1 13.5 21.4 10.4 12.5 27.28 6.50 9.8 20.11 6.67 5.9 19.1 23.46 9.5 26.25 6.7 14.4 18.9 4 4.1 15.0 21.12 4.6 14.86 7.72 4.5 12.82 9.8 14.2 22.0 12.4 10.7 29.5 20.38 7.0 25.1 16.2 19.85 7.0 28.1 15.72 9.0 27.02 7.9 4 1/2 4.90 5.85 9.2 25.1 14.17 8.97 5.6 16.8 22.3 22.5 15.8 13.9 12.74 7.58 7.4 26.6 10.32 5.0 11.4 14.1 12.4 23.60 7.3 15.5 8.36 5.0 14.2 14.3 10.9 12.9 11.5 24.1 22.3 31.3 28.0 24.7 14.8 11.4 21.6 21.59 8.8 18.55 4.6 11.85 10.1 17.8 3 1/2 4.71 4.2 11.29 7.7 28.0 14.8 17.2 20.7 19.08 6.0 23.6 24.4 17.63 9.54 4.6 13.37 8.1 15.5 16.6 20.4 18.1 22.39 9.5 25.87 10.00 8.8 20.01 6.5 29.7 14.5 16.97 6.3 15.6 29.65 7.34 5.5 13.4 14.99 8.3 25.0 25.3 27.6 17.31 8.58 8.8 21.9 17.88 5.4 25.5 26.8 24.7 17.3 10.37 9.9 31.2 14.5 12.2 10.6 15.76 6.58 5.17 4.6 13.90 10.4 16.47 6.7 19.8 27.3 10.5 10.8 20.47 8.33 9.7 25.04 3.98 7.2 20.3 25.4 13.2 19.51 6.3 13.5 24.43 4.4 21.43 7.54 8.4 26.66 8.1 19.1 21.9 6 6.4 11.04 9.56 8.42 6.66 9.7 16.0 13.3 21.2 31.0 11.20 5.9 11.99 9.7 11.8 17.0 14.3 19.1 16.4 26.2 12.62 9.03 9.8 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 7.8 31.0 13.0 15.1 15.76 10.8 18.24 8.86 10.98 7.24 6.1 24.9 23.91 5.81 10.77 4.5 24.06 9.0 26.8 12.65 3.7 12.16 7.46 9.09 4.90 10.5 19.5 12.2 28.2 12.17 8.5 23.9 16.1 17.5 14.3 18.0 23.2 20.76 5.8 24.55 9.63 5.2 30.5 13.3 27.8 30.09 9.9 20.3 13.6 21.2 15.25 7.87 8.33 9.18 5.21 7.61 6.81 10.4 11.1 18.6 30.0 14.3 16.8 23.0 15.7 11.8 21.72 9.87 8.83 8.70 10.3 13.0 11.7 14.7 18.0 26.3 22.4 11.30 9.0 22.93 8.0 18.84 7.22 6.2 17.6 14.08 8.3 26.1 11.03 8.8 12.07 7.4 10.7 17.65 6.3 20.2 21.67 9.07 8.5 18.8 25.2 10.5 3 3.04 9.02 9.37 3.5 11.9 5 4.56 7.7 16.3 14.95 8.3 22.9 23.51 5.0 12.9 13.10 5.6 15.63 7.5 20.8 15.9 14.21 5.8 15.69 9.88 5.7 10.6 13.5 14.1 13.7 28.85 9.33 7.2 19.0 21.4 25.1 13.3 19.7 18.1 9.6 12.6 26.25 8.73 6.9 12.9 17.1 11.12 7.5 23.90 4.9 16.21 7.42 6.4 10.2 16.9 11.75 6.22 9.44 6.42 3.1 14.2 12.06 9.40 7.5 15.7 16.6 24.7 20.2 16.8 55 .4 15.2 29.5 11.37 4.8 21.7 12.4 17.0 10.Circular equivalents of rectangular ducts for equal friction Sides 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 2 3.9 30.8 23.48 5.9 11.1 10.03 8.66 6.3 10.6 16.8 12.0 14.5 10.44 6.27 8.96 5.9 16.1 10.75 7.46 8.7 11.6 11.9 5 1/2 5.64 5.1 12.0 16.5 16.89 8.1 18.11 9.6 17.0 29.2 27.3 18.6 11.5 17.0 25.2 13.6 21.58 6.0 13.5 18.1 10.5 12.8 16.7 13.96 6.5 14.2 11.8 15.5 28.75 7.9 22.9 12.62 9.79 9.77 10.3 13.68 9.80 8.8 26.1 10.4 17.71 9.6 19.5 17.5 14.4 11.0 19.1 12.7 18.88 10.9 26.34 8.80 6.10 9.06 5.2 23.1 18.73 8.6 10.2 30.9 28.3 15.02 8.7 23.3 12.3 22.34 8.0 22.4 15.1 10.3 22.0 26.5 13.2 25.5 11.6 23.62 7.0 24.3 18.63 8.4 30.74 5.6 15.53 8.2 11.45 5.6 19.7 28.94 6.8 11.55 4.8 13.49 7.7 26.5 14.7 15.7 15.8 22.64 7.5 29.0 16.1 14.2 18.4 13.44 9.10 2 1/2 3.22 7.2 13.7 15.1 22.0 11.9 29.18 4.2 15.7 27.8 20.0 16.25 9.9 24.5 19.4 21.7 13.4 16.2 16.0 19.74 9.5 12.98 6.45 8.0 22.0 13.5 14.3 27.0 19.7 17.8 32.7 16.5 18.3 22.55 7.4 19.5 11.25 9.0 12.3 32.2 16.3 12.8 17.3 19.7 20.3 11.5 13.08 6.2 10.6 22.9 18.3 11.4 12.27 6.8 27.1 17.7 19.42 6.5 18.7 25.3 21.1 20.8 13.2 12.

34 2.192 6.113 6.985 4.583 4.927 5.49 2.266 1.38 0.123 4.99 2.728 9.00 5.676 12.010 8.256 6.748 5.79 0.651 1.166 6.179 6.301 2.884 3.582 3.09 0.477 5. and less than 20” WC static pressure.11 1.70 4.30 5.24 1. 29.96 1.298 5.034 6.10 0.945 3.940 5.081 4.89 1.269 6.623 5.24 2.16 0.44 0.25 0.20 4.683 8.820 6.468 3.496 8.144 5.54 0.19 2.03 1.061 6.90 7.924 3.08 1.842 3.00 4.53 0.32 V 4.047 6.43 0.921 4.67 1.626 2.06 0.535 5.872 5.12 1.531 4.15 0.386 4.790 5.90 5.469 2.76 1.066 5.60 5.332 6.10 2.478 4.664 5.704 7.00 13.00 8.35 0.75 0.38 2.62 0.34 1.551 1.16 1.30 1.307 6.71 0.873 4.821 3.46 0.254 3.37 1.305 8.779 3.28 0.366 10.201 1.579 5.69 0.21 2.94 0.40 6.98 0.997 4.656 2.43 1.87 0.56 1.49 1.294 6.175 5.91 0.498 1.005√ VP = Velocity FPM.619 4.52 0.30 6.938 4.687 2.050 3.564 5.20 1.83 0.444 1.47 0.33 1.29 0.100 VP 1.709 3.71 1.36 1.581 6.044 9.23 0.36 0.289 10.61 14.351 3.205 6.14 0.276 4.64 0.Velocity pressures for different velocities: standard air Design procedure Dry air at 70°F.418 VP 0.32 1.601 4.889 4.722 4.00 13.052 10.30 0.48 2.566 4.40 3.74 0.93 1.97 1.967 5.537 3.128 6.34 0.845 5.69 1.68 1.387 1.653 4.84 1.230 6.61 0.943 2.447 5.81 0.00 56 .050 5.01 0.832 2.003 2.344 12.20 0.734 5.95 4.20 2.80 0.762 5.45 2.491 5.986 VP 1.261 2.328 5.25 2.219 4.253 5.268 5.12 0.59 0.55 1.034 6.162 4.688 4.636 4.60 3.208 8.13 1.423 4.279 3.10 4.501 2.840 VP 0.50 2.596 10.30 3.56 1.33 2.82 0.58 0.14 2.856 4.18 1.114 5.19 1.85 0.33 0.32 0.00 7.37 2.462 5.806 4.888 2.230 2.66 1.30 2.549 4.17 2.831 5.37 0.30 4.229 3.68 0.41 0.51 1.01 1.891 9.70 0.90 4.53 1.790 4.50 9.823 4.343 5.445 3. ____ From: V = 4.60 1.368 4.41 2.02 0.625 3.665 13.85 1.103 4.03 0.57 0.671 4.77 1.50 0.72 1.90 1.369 2.282 6.074 6.42 0.899 5.791 1.405 5.05 1.40 V 5.45 1.50 6.433 5.18 0.283 5.133 1.051 7.52 1.55 0.90 6.80 6.491 3.80 5.39 2.11 2.965 3.50 8.82 1.157 2.00 6.810 9.22 0.550 5.50 5.440 14.275 7.07 2.817 5.70 2.307 9.26 1.994 6.39 1.005 4.88 0.86 1.859 5.018 5.775 2.807 7.66 0.23 2.758 3.401 VP 1.09 2.04 2.44 2.09 V 2.800 3.129 5.142 4.385 7.73 1.72 0.63 0.00 2.102 3.70 6.179 3.392 9. VP = Velocity pressure.64 1.38 1.210 10.905 4.181 VP 0.678 5.22 1. inches of water V 400 566 694 601 896 981 1.045 4.164 7.42 2.77 0.13 2.02 2.04 1.92 0.57 1.21 1.40 5.595 2.23 1.133 9.916 2.15 1.986 5.00 3.804 2.669 5.775 14.63 1.076 3.45 0.28 2.835 1.021 6.49 0.60 4.153 3.217 6.739 4.47 2.222 5.773 4.70 5.283 13.08 2.17 1.80 4.313 5.132 10.13 0.533 2.303 3.127 3.388 5.17 0.92 1.705 4.458 6.204 3.257 4.65 1.26 2.521 5.10 1.563 2.874 14.081 2.46 2.83 V 4.01 2.06 2.746 2.14 1.78 0.02 1.18 2.96 0.98 1.374 5.220 9.238 4.58 2.15 2.328 1.39 0.657 3.436 2.75 1.35 1.78 1.970 2.690 3.84 1.21 0.328 11.064 4.604 3.886 5.962 2.460 4.47 1.00 12.36 2.91 1.43 2.314 4.89 0.62 1.599 7.191 5.804 5.015 12.913 5.514 3.08 0.20 5.706 5.31 1.098 5.97 0.024 3.40 0.332 4.776 5.608 5.968 11.60 0.27 1.16 2.22 2.11 0.909 8.087 6.70 3.729 3.970 4.937 7.879 1.200 4.61 1.59 1.20 6.422 3.492 7.955 9.590 8.981 5.90 0.00 11.00 1.237 5.00 9.67 0.520 10.60 2.295 4.720 5.398 3.865 8.10 3.495 4.95 0.153 6.87 1.119 3.699 1.359 5.40 2.860 2.403 5.645 9.756 4.44 1.94 1.40 1.48 1.403 2.19 0.92” barometer.002 5.560 3.140 6.375 3.27 2.954 4.07 0.51 0.746 1.904 3.54 1.48 0.243 6.99 1.350 4.921 1.320 6.79 1.602 1.442 4.93 0.26 0.24 0.50 10.972 10.80 3.65 0.86 0.206 5.651 5.07 1.692 5.81 1.41 1.27 0.25 1.109 8.954 5.513 4.335 2.008 6.04 0.50 4.702 6.863 3.327 3.31 0.05 2.80 2.477 9.593 8.10 5.29 1.160 5.03 2.060 1.10 6.28 1.90 3.193 2.70 1.60 6.082 5.42 1.35 2.31 2.29 2.74 1.562 9.444 10.20 3.716 2.50 3.506 5.46 V 3.80 1.637 5.025 4.88 1.05 0.12 2.774 8.50 1.06 1.76 0.042 2.73 0.

01 5.10 16.80 42.47 1.42 13.80 10.60 28.25 13.13 14.75 18 2.25 18.85 16.25 17.86 5.20 34.50 20 1.60 9.85 9.50 19.50 4.21 6.74 13. Ft.14 2.92 6.40 8.80 32.48 2.96 3.43 2.02 7.17 2.55 6.09 6.78 11.25 23.98 4.20 11.22 23.30 12. Gauge size 26 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 Lbs Sq.47 8.41 7.18 5.53 1.30 18.89 3.00 8.13 1.40 24.01 6.20 1.63 6.20 6.28 8.30 23.22 3.54 11.10 8.43 5.43 7.85 4.28 16.38 7.Weights of galvanized sheet metal ducts Straight runs Weight per linear foot Duct dia.93 13.21 5.01 4.10 19.52 4. length in feet Two gauges heavier than duct 14 3.97 7.60 32.25 5.40 3.70 22.80 21.90 Elbow Equiv.27 3.65 1.72 0.77 6.13 6.62 8.22 5.05 11.10 8.25 12.70 8.29 16.80 4.75 10.68 2.65 5.19 3.27 4.86 11.84 16.76 4. 1.00 17.27 4.80 7.82 4.97 2.39 1.30 44.27 4.91 17.76 1.44 57 .18 26.87 5.17 12.44 4.56 3.01 7.30 22 1.48 3.66 14.17 3.82 11.83 3.51 9.61 6.18 2.10 3.30 16 3.83 1.00 29.40 14.54 7.80 2.34 3.60 14.87 8.60 37.63 12.90 27.57 2.67 10.96 3.26 18.15 9.88 9.28 24 1.00 16.10 17.45 6.66 4.71 19.19 10.00 27.90 12.73 14.40 24.61 6.66 5.20 25.47 2.75 2.86 3.30 10.18 12.20 13.59 3.35 11.22 9.74 4.42 8.60 22.80 2.80 30.36 14.50 8.67 10.57 13.45 11.33 7.84 21.40 7.20 3.05 9.30 29.02 9.85 16.05 4.81 4.70 25.45 13.38 9.45 10.08 2.15 20.71 7.40 39.15 9.00 2.30 34.50 2.00 35.62 1.57 10.15 8.60 47.70 2.05 5.27 12.00 7.50 13.20 15.80 3.95 1.81 18.91 2.08 22.00 49.51 3.50 7.41 2.00 28.08 1.99 6.54 5.53 6.72 5.44 2.83 5.39 5.69 2.50 15.40 5.18 4.90 10.62 9.70 12 5.30 8.62 19.

1 153.18 15. 1.56 11.73 9.1 2827.8 706. Ft.1 452.63 28.54 113.349 .57 13. Vel.83 2.61 3.23 5.14 14.52 12.62 10.28 6.06 1.58 6. 304 476 686 934 1221 1547 1910 2750 3610 4860 6160 7630 9240 10990 12880 14950 17180 19530 22050 24740 27560 30545 33675 36960 40395 43980 47225 51620 55665 59865 64220 68720 CFM at 4000 4500 FPM FPM Vel.56 19.91 5.0 2642.27 38.48 50.68 4.57 1.10 18.90 17.9 1134.19 4.30 7.54 12.05 1. 348 544 784 1066 1396 1768 2180 3140 4240 5560 7040 8720 10560 12560 14720 17080 19640 22320 25200 28380 31500 34905 38485 42235 46165 50265 54540 58990 63620 68415 73390 78540 391 612 882 1201 1570 1989 2450 3530 4770 6250 7920 9810 11880 14130 16560 19215 22090 25110 28350 31810 35440 39270 43295 47515 51935 56550 61360 66365 71570 76970 82565 88360 5000 FPM Vel.1 245. In.545 .61 14.04 12.71 3500 FPM Vel.6 1963.6 1385.70 5.64 14.18 2.80 7.95 10.35 2.136 .57 13.75 6.14 3.9 804.26 63.27 4.785 1.35 19.61 78.39 1.47 11.42 9.9 1809.442 .66 15.5 1661.66 4.087 .33 7.85 8.7 2290.41 3. .9 615.90 9. 435 680 980 1335 1745 2210 2730 3920 5300 6950 8800 10900 13200 15700 18400 21350 24550 27900 31500 35350 39380 43630 48105 52795 57705 62830 68175 73740 79520 85520 91740 98175 58 .07 7.1 1256.4 530.00 11.09 2.5 314.88 8.31 1.09 13.9 1017.196 .63 Cir In Ft.4 1520.2 907.5 2123.2 380.367 .4 Sq.2 2463.76 2.64 3.75 15.Duct Data Chart Duct Dia Inches 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 Area Sq. 12.9 201.38 8.

carbonate Calcium chloride Calcium sulphate Carbide.22 0. ft.09 0. phosphor Calcium. coal. dry.20 .35 0. loose Caustic soda Celluloid Cellulose Cement.37 0.0749 165 48 414 153 64 40 47 86 85 118 43 56 43 75 109 75 530 163 118 509 554 177 134 185 50 195 140 88 90 94 94 37 26 48 142 34 23 12 43 59 Specific heat Btu per lb.Material Properties Weights and specific heats of material mean values Material Air Aluminum Aluminum chips Antimony Asbestos Asbestos. wheat Chalk Charcoal.18 .33 0. bulk barley. crushed Carbonundum Carbonundum.20 0. dry. loose Cereals. per deg.21 0.05 0.16 0. 0.09 0. cu. F. ground Borax Borax.17 0. crushed Brass Brass chips Brick. corn oats rye.38 0. hard-wood softwood broken Cinders Density lb. per. wood. crushed Bone.20 0. masonry Bronze Bronze. dry Ashes. laminated wood filler asbestos filler crushed Baking powder Bauxite. .20 0. dry.36 0. dry Bakelite.19 0. dry.20 0.24 0. loose Ashes.22 0.38 0.09 0.16 0.

per deg.12 . piled Coffee Coke Coke.20 0. flint pyrex ground Granite loose.30 0. piled Coke. 0.20 0.23 0. dry and loose Earth.16 0. per. F. ft. dry. alundum Cotton. grind dust Flour.19 0. moist and loose Emery Feldspar Feldspar. dry moist Coal.48 0. crushed Ferrous. anthracite anthracite. baled loose Dolomite Duralumin Earth. piled bituminous bituminous.18 0.09 0.55 0. dry Glass. gray cast 60 Density lb.44 0.32 0.26 0.22 0. piled Graphite Gravel.20 0.31 0. compressed barreled loose Fullers earth. cu.Weights and specific heats of material mean values (cont’d) Material Clay.20 0.13 0. loose. crushed Concrete. crushed Copper oxide Cork Corn meal Conundum. loose.32 0. plied Grit blast dust Gypsum compressed loose Iron. cinder stone Copper Copper ore.19 0. crown Glass.20 0. 63 110 98 54 85 47 48 75 28 15 97 142 556 190 190 15 40 247 93 30 181 175 76 78 250 160 88 125 47 28 30 160 215 140 90 165 96 132 120 160 152 70 442 Specific heat Btu per lb.

36 0. crushed Sawdust Shale.40 0.25 0.21 0. 150 710 567 56 53-64 163 74 214 109 30 259 183 556 0. riprap Shavings.03 0. ground Resin Rubber.22 0.22 0.32 0. India compound hard hard sponge tire reclaim.52 . ft.11 0.55 0. solid tire reclaim.21 0. crushed Mica Monel metal Natural gas Nickel Nylon Paper Strawboard or newspaper Paraffin Peat.06 0. 0. ground Porcelain Potash Quartz Quartz. granulated Density lb.Weights and specific heats of material mean values (cont’d) Material Iron ore. loose Sand.69 0.48 0. wet Sandstone Sandstone. shred Salt. per deg. per. F. Iron Slag. gran.22 0.21 0.20 0. cu.26 0. dry.13 0.526 0. planer Slag.04475 547 70 58 33-44 56 30 75 150 60 165 84 67 58 115 75 30 74 27 48 80 99 110 144 82 7-15 105 7-15 172 60 61 Specific heat Btu per lb. loose Lead Lead oxide (red) Leather Lime Limestone Lucite Magnesia Magnesium Magnesium dust Manganese ore.33 0. and piled Saltpeter Sand. dry Phosphate.

28 0. F.09 0.15 0.27 0. 172 74 30 91 141 167 95 35 487 100 55 126 50 170 69 113 457 16 62. cu.28 0.12 62 .40 0.4 443 350 Specific heat Btu per lb. crushed Talc Tar.21 0.30 0. granulated Sodium carbonate Sodium nitrate Sodium sulphate Starch granulated Steel Sucrose Sugar. bulk Sulphur Sulphur.21 0. bituminous Tile Tin Tobacco Water Zinc Zinc oxide Density lb. ft.17 0. per deg.0 0. per.05 1.Weights and specific heats of material mean values (cont’d) Material Slate Soda ash Soda ash. 0.12 0.

000 5.000 PARTICLE SIZE .000 10.PARTICLE CHART RAIN DROPS SAND TAILINGS MIST GROUND LIMESTONE POLLENS FLOUR MILL DUST FOUNDRY DUST ASPHALT PAVING INSECTICIDE DUST SEA FOG SPRAY DRIED MILK CEMENT DUST SOOT BLOWING – BOILER TUBES BACTERIA PLANT SPORES PLANT DUST 0.5 1 5 10 50 100 500 1.01 0.MICRONS 63 .0005 0.0001 0.001 0.1 0.005 0.05 0.

05 0.0005 0.PARTICLE CHART FERTILIZER PLANT DUST & FUMES SMELTER DUST & FUMES SULPHURIC ACID DUST & FUMES PAINT PIGMENTS COAL SMOKE OIL SMOKE PULVERIZED FUEL ASH ATMOSPHERIC DUST RESIN SMOKE TOBACCO SMOKE MAGNESIUM OXIDE SMOKE CONDENSATION NUCLEI OPEN HEARTH STEEL FURNACE FUMES CARBON BLACK VISIBLE TO EYE 0.000 10.000 5.000 PARTICLE SIZE .MICRONS 64 .5 1 5 10 50 100 500 1.0001 0.005 0.01 0.001 0.1 0.

powdered Baking powder Barley Bauxite. crushed. Hard Coal Ashes. minus 1/8” Boneblack Bonechar Borax. crushed Beans. Soft Coal Asphalt. borings Cast Iron Caustic Soda CODE: VA – very abrasive M – mildly abrasive A – abrasive N – less abrasive N N N VA M M VA N M VA VA VA M M N N N VA N A N M M M M M VA N M N A N A A M M M VA M VA VA M 65 . Bentonite Bicarbonate of Soda Bonemeal Bones. dry Brick Buckwheat Calcium carbide Calcium carbonate Carbon. shred Ashes. dry Asbestos. channel Carbon black powder. graphitic Carbon black powder. spent.ABRASION CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS DUSTS Alfafa meal Almonds. minus 1/2” Bones. furnace Carborundum Casein Cast Iron. amorphous. broken or whole Alum Alumina Aluminum Ammonium chloride. crushed Ammonium sulphate Bagasse Bakelite. crystalline Antimony Apple pomace. powdered Bran Brass Brewers grain. granulated or ground. -meal etc.

dry Clover seed Coal. powdered Cocoa beans Coconut. Portland Cement. crushed Chalk. shelled etc. granulated Glass batch Glue. Cornmeal Cottonseed Cullet (broken glass) Dicalcium phosphate Dolomite Ebonite. cracked. coal Clay. ground Gluten mean CODE: VA – very abrasive M – mildly abrasive A – abrasive N – less abrasive M VA VA A A N A A N A A N N N N A A VA N M N N N A M A N N M A A N N N M A VA A N VA M N 66 . petroleum Copper Copra (dried coconut) Cork. shredded Coffee Coke. fine ground Corn. bituminous Coke. clinker Chalk. anthracite Cocoa. crushed Egg powder Epsom salts Feldspar Ferrous sulphate Fish meal Flaxseed Flour Flue dust. bituminous Coal. pulverized. dry Fluorspar Fly ash Fullers earth Gelatine. minus 100 mesh Charcoal Cinders.ABRASION CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS DUSTS Cellulose Cement.

dried Peas Phosphate rock Phosphate sand CODE: VA – very abrasive M – mildly abrasive A – abrasive N – less abrasive N A A N N N VA VA VA A A A A VA A VA A A VA VA A N A N A A M N M M N N VA N N N N N N N VA VA 67 . hard Marble Marl Mica. dry Manganese sulphate Maple. malted. hydrated Limestone Litharge Lucite Magnesite Magnesium Magnesium chloride Malt.ABRASION CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS DUSTS Grains. distillery. dry Graphite Grass seed Gypsum Hops. dried. ground Lime. crushed Ilmenite ore Iron Cast Iron Oxide Lead Lead Arsenate Lead oxide Lignite Lime. dry Oxalic acid crystals Peanuts Peas. ground Milk. dry Ice. powdered Monel metal Muriate or potash Mustard seed Naphthalene flakes Nickel Oats Oak Orange peel.

rock Salt. crushed Sugar Sugar beet pulp. soft Rye Salt. furnace. crushed Slag. granulated Slate Soap. heavy Sodium Nitrate Sodium Phosphate Soybeans. pulverized Saltpeter Sand Sandstone Sawdust Shale. coarse Salt. dry. ground Timothy seed Tin Titanium Tobacco Vermiculite ore Wheat White lead Zinc Oxide CODE: VA – very abrasive M – mildly abrasive A – abrasive N – less abrasive 68 N M VA M N N N N N A A A N VA VA N A VA A N N M M M A A N N A A N N N M M N A VA N A N A A . meal and whole Starch Steel Steel chips. flakes Soap powder Soapstone talc Soda ash. dry.ABRASION CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS DUSTS Pine Porcelain Quartz Resin Rice Rubber. light Soda ash. dry Sulphur Talc Tanbark. hard Rubber. ground Rubber. chips.

1 11 49 29 Particle Size Distribution Food Feed Dust Type Gravy powder (21% starch) Citrus pellets Dextrose. 2 96 75 85 91 58 100 66 83 57 73 18 <10 54 208 18 52 190 157 69 64 St. 1 (St. (Chipboard) Wood/ cardboard/jute Wood/cardboard/jute/resin Lignin dust Paper dust Paper tissue dust Paper ( henolresin treated) Peat (15% moisture) Peat (22% moisture) Peat (31% moisture) Peat (41% moisture) Peat (from bottom of sieve) Peat (dust deposit) Paper Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 98 92 58 57 Median 32 38 20 47 43 30 71 72 71 90 55 70 63 20 25 3 7 39 µm 44 51 33 80 43 26 KSt Explos. 1 St.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Cotton Wood Peat Dust Type Cotton Cellulose Wood dust Wood dust Wood dust. 2) 90 26 40 43 40 22 33 76 25 3 15 20 18 23 58 46 38 39 74 84 82 87 88 78 58 65 76 76 48 66 93 51 144 168 St. < 63 µm Class bar•m/s 12 39 22 80 330 92 320 150 200 18 23 20 35 102 28 St. 2 69 . Fish meal Fructose (from filter) Fructose Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 63 100 100 100 38 76 100 68 99 92 11 75 23 39 15 17 3 24 100 12 7 94 71 5 4 Median 32 20 µm KSt Explos. 1 bar•m/s 24 66 102 St. 1 St. < 63 µm Class St. 2 St. 1 St. ground Dextrose Fat/whey mixture Fat powder (48% fat) Do.

1 St. 1 70 .Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Particle Size Distribution Food Feed Dust Type Fructose Barley grain dust Do. 1 St. 2 St. 2) (St. 2 90 11 68 500 65 22 23 165 165 235 46 88 400 29 20 32 <10 16 120 18 18 20 49 44 43 21 69 29 81 117 90 75 109 83 38 74 57 79 110 43 (89) 128 158 190 190 132 12 53 St. 1 St. 1 St. 1 (St. 2) St. < 63 µm Class bar•m/s 27 240 83 14 112 295 80 125 <10 St. 2) (St. 1 St. Oats grain dust Wheat grain dust Wheat grain dust Coffee (from filter) Coffee (refined) Cocoa bean shell dust Cocoa/sugar mixture Potato granulate Potato flour Lactose (from filter) Lactose (from cyclone) Maize seed waste (9% moisture) Milk powder Milk powder Milk powder (low fat spray dried) Milk powder (full fat spray dried) Whey fat emulator Olive pellets Rice flour Rye flour Soy bean flour Potato starch Potato starch Maize starch Maize starch Rice starch (hydrolyzed) Rice starch Rice starch Wheat starch Tobacco Tapioca pellets Weight %<Size (µm) 500 81 79 64 51 24 48 100 81 50 100 100 100 53 20 100 86 53 83 97 98 98 100 100 67 40 34 15 99 30 62 7 94 2 100 100 76 85 100 100 99 94 29 99 86 81 64 61 50 98 81 15 74 62 84 29 42 17 94 60 54 52 50 58 63 15 50 23 18 8 60 17 26 60 70 16 17 47 41 32 25 100 8 30 25 99 89 8 3 Median 32 20 µm 400 250 125 71 63 KSt Explos.

< 63 µm Class bar•m/s 44 No Ignition 67 123 143 107 108 1 115 St.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Particle Size Distribution Food Feed Dust Type Tea (6% moisture) Tea (black from dust collector) Meat flour Wheat flour Wheat flour Wheat flour 550 Milk sugar Milk sugar Sugar (Icing) Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 63 100 64 69 97 48 52 60 60 99 98 88 26 31 32 34 92 64 70 16 21 25 25 77 32 52 Median 32 20 µm KSt Explos.) Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 99 88 84 83 75 71 65 69 60 56 66 93 18 91 13 82 99 95 36 83 97 76 65 54 93 46 32 85 37 99 Median 32 80 64 38 40 27 38 43 85 55 88 85 30 24 80 35 67 58 63 20 55 µm 18 22 46 41 55 60 40 <10 290 28 14 19 >500 29 <10 38 4 KSt Explos. 1 St. 1 117 No Ignition 117 55 86 59 71 . 1 St. 1 St. < 63 µm Class bar•m/s 68 76 62 50 57 56 10 27 19 59 106 87 42 75 82 St. 1 Coal Coal products Dust Type Activated Carbon Activated Carbon Activated Carbon (16% moisture) Brown coal Brown coal (from electrostatic filter) Brown coal (dust from grinding) Brown coal/ anthracite (80-20) Brown coal/ anthracite (20-80) Brown coal coke Brown coal (graphitized) Charcoal Charcoal Charcoal Asphalt Bituminous coal Bituminous coal (Petchora) Bituminous coal (high volat. 1 20 No Ignition 10 St.

1 St. 1 St. 1 St. 1 bar•m/s 35 109 105 90 52 93 14 27 28 5 St. 1 100 98 81 72 . malted Leather dust (from collector) Linen (containing oil) Lycopodium Oil shale dust Oil shale dust Grass dust Walnut shell powder Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 66 Median 32 26 250 125 24 71 10 57 78 61 9 63 20 5 13 57 µm 245 55 48 85 490 KSt Explos. 2) St. Epoxy Resin (or powder coating) Cellulose-2 5-Acetate Polyester resin with glass Rubber (dust from grinding) Resin (from filter) Epoxy resin 60% resin + 36% TO2 Epoxy resin Epoxy resin with Al Melamin resin Melamin resin Phenol resin Phenol Formaldehyde resin) Polyamid resin Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 63 32 20 Median µm KSt Explos. 1 Plastics Resins Rubber Dust Type AcryinitrateButadieneStyreneCo-polym. 2) 138 108 155 129 208 110 172 129 105 St. 2) (St. 2 63 21 100 99 71 96 26 91 79 50 50 39 300 20 32 200 17 35 No Ignition 47 St. 1 (St.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Other natural organic products Dust Type Cotton seed expellers Dextrin Wheat gluten (after mill) Blood flour Hops. < 63 µm Class bar•m/s 79 37 100 24 82 100 58 28 89 80 43 97 99 95 90 99 66 100 72 12 44 67 60 46 84 24 99 50 95 30 84 43 36 55 13 94 64 53 200 55 19 14 80 40 23 26 34 18 57 <10 60 15 147 147 180 (St. 2) 92 91 89 78 (St. < 63 µm Class St.

L(+)Ascorbic acid Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 63 100 100 93 92 75 38 98 61 15 <10 14 39 Median 32 20 µm KSt Explos. 2) bar•m/s 217 238 48 111 (St. 1 (St.-form) Melamineformaldehyde (mold. 2) 73 . < 63 µm Class (St.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Plastics Resins Rubber Dust Type Polymethacrylate Silicon resin Caoutohouc Polystyrene (Copolymer) Polystyrene (Hard-foam) Polyurethane Polyvinylacetate (Copolymer) Polyvinylalcohol Polyvinylalcohol Polyvinylchloride Polyvinylchloride Polyvinylchloride (Em. 2) (St. 2) (St. 97.) Ureaformaldehyde (mold. 1 St. 2) 91 86 70 66 33 95 75 70 13 14 29 22 29 10 Pharmaceutical Cosmetics Pesticide Dust Type Acetyl salicylic acid Amino phenazone Ascorbic acid.5% PVC) Polyvinylchloride (Em. < 63 µm Class bar•m/s 199 80 192 110 23 (156) 86 128 83 168 68 42 63 45 30 10 100 74 57 46 15 97 60 66 30 99 93 100 100 100 100 23 90 83 55 29 100 73 31 50 44 9 760 3 20 26 56 <10 125 25 51 105 137 St. stat...-form) El. coating powder (Polyurethane) Shellac Wax (NN Ethylene distearmide) Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 56 91 Median 32 33 20 20 250 125 59 58 32 71 39 40 11 5 63 100 20 13 µm 100 95 155 KSt Explos. 2) St. stat. 1 (St. 1 No Ignition 136 189 100 89 144 269 St. coating powder (Epoxy) El.) Polyvinylchloride (Susp. 2) St. 1 26 14 St. 1 (St. 97% PVC) Polyvinylchloride (Susp.

1 74 . 2) (St.) Fungecide (Maneb) Methionine Methionine Sodium – L(+) ascorbate Paracetamole Pesticide Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 100 100 59 Median 32 98 95 42 100 63 100 20 94 69 µm <10 15 46 <10 KSt Explos. zinc comp. 2) St.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Pharmaceutical Cosmetics Pesticide Dust Type Coffein Cysteine hydrate L-Crystin Digitalis leaves Dimethylaminophenazone 2-Ethoxybenzamide Fungicide (Captan) Fungicide (Org. 2) 93 34 4 74 98 41 99 100 97 50 96 100 99 89 20 87 69 12 30 10 60 17 65 77 78 (St. 1 St. < 63 µm Class (St. 2) Intermediate products Auxiliary Materials Dust Type Adipinic acid Aging protective Anthracene Anthrachinone Anthrachinone Azodicarbonamide Benzoic acid Betaine hydrochloride Betaine monohydrate Diphenol ketylene Calcium acetate Casein Sodium caseinate (from filter) Carboxy methyl cellulose Carboxy methyl cellulose Methyl cellulose Methyl cellulose Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 89 Median 32 92 67 100 90 100 85 80 25 75 250 125 20 71 98 7 100 63 100 20 µm <10 <32 235 <10 12 <10 <10 710 15 92 40 17 <15 KSt Explos. 1 115 71 22 29 St. 1 (St. 2) bar•m/s 165 40 142 73 337 214 100 100 99 93 99 98 100 100 97 100 99 98 98 <10 97 99 98 67 96 93 95 87 45 5 <10 <10 <10 <10 23 (St. 1 154 143 128 119 156 151 St. 2) bar•m/s 97 256 231 364 91 176 114 63 270 9 24 117 184 127 157 152 (St. 2) St. < 63 µm Class (St.

30% fat) Ferrocene Fumac acid Epoxy resin hardener Urea Hexamethylene tetramine Hexamethylene tetramine Cellulose ion exchange resin Cellulose ion exchange resin Condensation product (phenol) D(-)-Mannite Melamine Melamine peroxide Melamine phosphate Melamine phtalate Metal soap (Ba/Pb-stearate) Metal soap (Zn-behenate) Methacrylamide Naphtalene Naphtalic acid anhydride Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 98 69 Median 32 37 40 3 98 93 250 79 125 33 20 71 93 66 63 13 20 12 µm 37 40 170 260 <10 <10 1300 KSt Explos. 2) 27 92 61 98 61 100 99 100 100 42 89 66 35 9 74 24 95 56 79 89 48 80 12 97 69 65 50 13 88 46 112 20 67 <10 24 22 16 580 95 16 119 113 178 90 75 .3-Diethyldiphenyl urea Dimethyl terephtalate Diphenyl urethane Diphenyl urethane Emulgator (50% CH. 2) (St. 2) 64 St. 2) (St. 1 52 180 St. 1 (St. 1 St.3-Diethyldiphenyl urea 1. 1 286 224 91 112 171 54 1 73 (St. 2) (St. < 63 µm Class St.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Intermediate products Auxiliary Materials Dust Type Methyl cellulose Ethyl cellulose Chloroacetamide Cyanoacrylicacid methylester Dicyandiamide 1. 1 St. 2) St. 1 St. 2) (St. 2) 99 98 8 97 83 60 93 31 49 89 71 24 <1 100 100 30 9 69 42 27 50 33 15 97 4 2 11 11 85 60 27 128 1100 71 95 215 17 2900 27 155 <10 100 75 (St. 1 bar•m/s 209 162 269 9 163 116 247 218 51 167 267 (St. 2) (St. 2) (St.

1 (St. 2) 48 56 4 36 2 1 1 St. 1 76 . 2) St. 2) St. < 63 µm Class (St. 1 St. 1 St. 2) St.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Intermediate products Auxiliary Materials Dust Type 2-Naphtol Sodium amide Sodium cyclamate Sodium hydrogen cyanamide Sodium lingo sulphonate Oil Adsorber (hydrophobic cellulose) Paraformaldehyde Paraformaldehyde Pectin Pectinase Pentaerythrite Pentaerythrite (from filter) Pentaerythrite Phtalic acid anahydride Polyethylene oxide Polysaccharide Propyleneglycol alginate Salicylic acid Saponin Lead stearate Lead stearate Calcium stearate Calcium stearate Calcium stearate Magnesium stearate Sodium stearate Zinc stearate Zinc stearate Stearin/Lead Stearin/Calcium Stearic acid Terephthalic acid dinitrile 2. 1 77 90 92 92 67 86 95 89 100 78 27 65 80 90 84 80 45 72 75 64 100 43 25 92 95 99 100 13 <10 12 <10 <10 145 22 13 15 16 1300 (St. 1 42 175 222 59 177 120 188 158 (St. 2) 12 (St.2-Thiodiacetic acid Thio urea Trimellitic anhydride Trisodium citrate Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 97 Median 32 96 2 28 8 250 52 125 13 95 100 65 71 100 63 5 20 94 µm <10 250 40 58 KSt Explos. 2) St. 2) 162 61 47 98 6 20 86 90 47 99 83 53 57 99 24 93 96 99 29 100 14 78 115 23 115 82 150 152 99 155 123 111 133 34 260 18 75 460 1250 800 72 8 33 (St. 1 bar•m/s 137 90 63 51 89 86 86 91 100 33 36 47 St. 1 (St. 2) 20 31 65 58 21 41 37 21 20 86 3 12 65 23 27 34 <10 85 135 (St.

< 63 µm Class 73 bar•m/s <10 249 237 288 65 100 33 98 23 95 52 <10 (St. 1 267 (St.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Intermediate products Auxiliary Materials Dust Type Tyrosine (final product) Tyrosine (raw product) Viscose flock Tartaric acid Zinc cyanamide Zinc cyanamide Zinc pyridine thione Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 100 99 100 47 5 34 Median 32 48 250 125 99 96 1 71 63 20 µm 10 15 13 480 <10 600 KSt Explos. 2) (St. < 63 µm Class (St. 1 St. ign. 2) St.) Wax raw material (Alkylaryl sulphonate) Wax raw material (Olefin sulphonate) Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 63 99 Median 32 20 98 µm 95 <10 KSt Explos. 1 Other Technical/ Chemical products Dust Type Organic dyestuff (blue) Organic dyestuff (red) Organic dyestuff (red) Organic dyestuff (Azo. 1) 60 28 105 115 77 . 1 St. 1 92 93 77 85 83 <10 <15 65 24 19 275 St. 1 bar•m/s 91 100 99 27 74 94 96 14 100 94 (53) No. 2) (St. 2) (St. 2) St. St. 1 96 74 23 11 97 100 100 100 88 14 86 45 26 <10 36 260 73 115 63 214 310 111 St. yellow) Organic dyestuff (brown) Organic dyestuff (Pthalocyanine) Fushsin base Bituminous hydrocarbon Light protection agent Light protection agent Soap Surfacer (Epoxy based) Surfacer (Polyester based) Washing agent (Na-sulph.

< 63 µm Class bar•m/s 515 400 1100 415 320 100 (St. WC. 1 300 St. 1 90 18 22 21 28 12 <10 <10 <10 17 21 43 25 28 240 21 31 420 200 50 111 86 84 169 87 (St. Mo) Co-Al-Ti (62:18:20) Magnesium Magnesium FeSiMg (24:47:17) Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 94 98 99 94 100 99 6 20 17 93 47 95 37 18 97 68 94 87 98 96 99 99 97 100 95 92 100 99 1 99 70 47 68 75 55 82 82 97 77 70 40 61 70 41 86 60 46 48 67 96 73 90 57 47 68 48 Median 32 88 70 64 60 96 16 63 20 79 45 47 17 2 µm <10 22 22 29 23 41 170 190 240 21 130 KSt Explos. TiN. 2) 78 . 1) St. 2) (St.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Particle Size Distribution Metal Alloys Dust Type Aluminum powder Aluminum powder Aluminum powder Aluminum powder Aluminum grit Aluminum grit Aluminum grit Aluminum shavings Aluminum shavings Aluminum/Iron (50:50) Aluminum/ Magnesium Aluminum/ Nickel Aluminum/ Nickel (50:50) Bronze powder Calcium/ Aluminum (30:70) Calcium/Silicon (from cyclone) Calcium/Silicone Iron (from dry filter) Iron Carbonyl Ferrochromium Ferromanganese FeSiMg (22:45:26) Ferrosilicon (22:78) Hard metal (TiC. VC. 3) 92 80 79 26 35 29 230 52 <10 St. 1 134 508 12 267 (St.

1 83 94 100 79 . < 63 µm Class bar•m/s 157 69 St.) Manganese (electrolyt. < 63 µm Class bar•m/s 21 71 St. 3) 85 93 125 176 (St.) Steel (100 Cr6) dust Tantalum/Niobium Titanium Titanium (pre-oxidized) TiTiO2 (dust deposit) Zinc (from zinc coating) Zinc (from zinc coating) Zinc (dust from collector) Zinc (dust from collector) Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 82 70 100 87 44 24 99 9 Median 32 70 41 96 3 98 100 63 20 57 92 97 99 57 80 24 26 µm 16 33 <10 250 <10 <10 16 <10 30 35 310 KSt Explos.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Particle Size Distribution Metal Alloys Dust Type Manganese (electrolyt. 1 St. 2) St. 1 53 19 21 99 97 91 72 <10 10 Other Inorganic Products Dust Type NH4NO3/ Dicyanimide (66:34) Graphite (99. 1 92 93 51 86 92 75 75 22 64 59 53 59 14 47 18 99 19 15 71 22 526 5 37 47 3 14 85 St. 1 St. 1 126 116 100 (82) 37 (St. 2) 90 100 97 98 77 61 40 28 91 93 12 70 74 90 55 46 6 72 70 (St.) Molybdenum Niobium (6% Al) Silicon Silicon (from filter) Silicon (from cust extr.5% C) Carbon fibers (99% C) Molybdenum disulphide Petroleum coke Petroleum coke Petroleum coke (calcinated) Phosphorous (red) Soot Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 60 100 Median 32 42 97 63 20 35 µm 50 7 KSt Explos.

1 St. < 63 µm Class bar•m/s 88 12 151 70 23 7 (St. comp. 1 123 (St. 2) St. 1 St. < 63 µm Class No. 1 80 . 1 St. + org. 2) St. Pb and Ca stearate mixture Break liner (grinding dust) Brush dust (Al-brushes) CaC/Diamide lime/Mg (72:18:10) Mud from settling chamber Dust from polishing (Al) Dust from polishing (Zn) Dust from polishing (brass) Dust from grinding (Al) Dust from grinding (Zn) Dust from grinding cardbd. Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 100 87 90 98 86 89 98 98 99 99 99 44 60 35 93 91 26 15 2 70 95 74 87 62 55 69 41 45 23 35 89 30 80 45 Median 32 92 61 71 63 99 20 48 µm 6 21 54 42 35 KSt Explos. 2) Particle Size Distribution Other Materials Dust Type Flyash (from electrofilter) Ash concentrate Bentonite/ Asphalt/Coal/ Org. 1 100 100 70 64 44 25 85 67 10 160 (214) (24) (St.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Other Inorganic Products Dust Type Soot (from filter) Sulphur Sulphur Sulphur Sulphur Titanium carbide Titanium hydride Titanium monoxide Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 97 96 86 53 Median 32 20 85 51 63 µm <10 71 20 40 120 KSt Explos. 2) (St. Ign. (15:45:35:5) Bentonite/Coal (50:50) Bentonite der. 1 (St. 2) <10 25 8 23 150 190 71 360 30 96 18 St. bar•m/s 35 91 St.

< 63 µm Class bar•m/s 153 237 (St.226*Pstat) Variables: Pstat (bars) – Vent Release Pressure Pred (bars) – Max.000571 eˆ(2*Pstat) b = 0. 1) Equations per NFPA 68. 1 St.1.978 eˆ(-0. Sec.105* Pstat) c = -0.) Toner Toner Toner Toner Toner/iron powder Toner/resin Zinc stearate/ Bentonate (90:10) Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 98 97 89 64 37 84 18 Median 32 95 60 4 63 20 93 41 µm <10 25 170 KSt Explos. 7-1. During Venting Kst (bar*m/sec) – Deflagration Index V (mˆ3) – Volume of Vessel Av (mˆ2) – Required Vent Area See Reference #3 81 . 2) Zinc stearate/ Bentonate (20:80) Explosion Classes St. 68-27 Av = a*Vˆ(2/3)*Kstˆb*Predˆc where a = 0. + synth. 2 = 300 kst or less (St.687 eˆ(. Press. 1 = 200 kst or less St. 1 100 100 58 98 96 95 37 78 100 100 48 30 55 <10 <10 21 23 60 18 (St. p.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Particle Size Distribution Other Materials Dust Type Dust from grinding polyester Dust from grinding polyester Dust from grinding (Ti) Dust from grinding + polishing (polyester) Blasting dust (light metals) Immersion polishing agent Textile fibers (nat.1. 2) 99 100 46 96 82 91 <10 242 600 11 196 137 134 145 169 (St. 2) St.

0508 to .0164 . Ref.0359 .0636 .0149 .0179 .0822 .95 25.0269 .0141 to .625 1.0389 .0283 to .0284 .0313 to .1419 to .313 1.0710 . ft.1644 .968 to 2.438 1.125 1.438 3.0673 .750 1.374 to 2.938 .0156 to .0709 to .1196 .0972 .063 4.50 Thickness 11/16 3/4 7/8 1 Weight per sq.1570 .0538 .0239 .812 to .437 to 1.0314 .687 to 4.750 3.657 2.874 to 1.718 to .1271 .0567 to .0418 .313 5.0299 .0142 .124 to 1.062 to 3.657 .375 2.062 to .0747 . 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Weights of steel plate Thickness 3/16 1/4 5/16 3/8 Weight per sq.0568 .1120 to .0329 .875 .812 2. Weight of rolled steel MSG no.250 5. 28.0821 to .624 to 1. 7.625 .1420 .312 to 1.250 1.938 5.562 Order limit pounds 7.593 to .000 1.0194 to .675 6.1495 .0344 .125 2.656 to .1716 to .0598 .Order limit alent inches inches .0195 .89 82 .0971 to .1345 .0225 .20 12.74 15.563 6.0449 .1569 to .60 35.Misc.813 .532 MSG no. ft.656 to 2.0448 to .0157 .0343 to .437 to 2.03 30. lbs.000 4.500 1.0172 .0135 .375 3.250 2.375 1.0478 . 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Thickness Sheet equiv.719 .937 to .125 2.1121 .187 to 1. lbs.187 to 6.0388 to .188 1.688 4.0255 . lbs.0171 to .0128 Weight Pounds per square foot 6.625 5.0897 .063 1.86 20.500 2. ft. 17.65 10.1270 to .70 40.875 1.29 Thickness 7/16 1/2 9/16 5/8 Weight per sq.750 .0224 to .937 to 5.0209 .0509 .312 to 4.1046 .594 .40 22.000 .0635 to .0254 to .688 .969 2.562 to 5.

Standard Sieve Series* Tyler Inch/Mesh 3 1/2 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 20 24 28 32 35 42 48 60 65 80 100 115 150 170 200 250 270 325 400 U.0024 0.0555 0.0165 0.0787 0.132 0.0280 0.0049 0.0021 0.0232 0.0070 0.0661 0.0394 0.0029 0. Standard Inch/Sieve # 3 1/2 4 5 6 7 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 100 120 140 170 200 230 270 325 400 Sieve Opening Inches Microns 0.0041 0.0015 5660 4760 4000 3660 2830 2380 2000 1680 1410 1190 1000 840 710 590 500 420 350 297 250 210 177 149 125 105 88 74 62 53 44 37 *Sieve analysis is limited in its usefulness in industrial ventilation and dust collection because it does not register particles in the submicron range.0.0937 0.0469 0. 83 .0331 0.223 0.187 0.S.0117 0.111 0.0059 0.0197 0.0098 0.0083 0.35 0.157 0.0017 0.0138 0.

c = Distances cos A = _b_. b = a cot A. Find A. c = _b_ cos A Given A and c. a b a Given a and b. Find B. c = √a2 + b2 = a√ 1 + _b2 b a2 Given a and c. B. c a. a = c sin A. c = _a_ sin A Given A and b. a. B. and c ______ _______ tan A = _a_ = cot B. c B = 90°-A. b ________ _______ sin A = _a_ = cos B. Find A. b. B. b = √(c+a) (c-a) = a√ 1 . c B = 90°-A a = b tan A. tan A = _a_ c b cot A = _b_. Find B._a2 c c2 Given A and a.Right Triangle Trig Formulas A. C = Angles sin A = _a_. a.b. b = c cos A 84 . b B = 90°-A. cosec A = _c_. sec A = _c_. Find B.

a and b. sin 1/2 A = √(s – b)(s – c) 2 bc __________ sin 1/2 B = √(s –a)(s – c) . c = a sin C sin A tan 1/2 (A – B) = (a – b) tan 1/2. Find Area ________________ s = a + b + c .Given A. Find b. C. a C = 180° .(A + B).(A + B). c = a sin C sin A Given a. and c b = a sin B . C = 180° . B. and c A + B = 180° .(A + B) ac Given a. and C __________ s=a+b+c. Find A. c = a sin C sin A Given A. Area = √s(s – a)(s – b)(s – c) 2 Area = bc sin A . (A + B) a+b Given a. C.B and a. Find A.C. Find B. sin A C = 180° . and c sin B = b sin A . 2 Area = a²sin B sin C 2 sin A 85 . b and c. B. b and c.b and C.

B. lateral length L. r. h. Volume = π/3 h² (3r-h)=π/24 h (3c²+4h²) Curved Surface = 2πrh = π/4(4h²+c²) ___ Volume = 1/3h (B + T + √BT) Lateral Surface = Pbh Lateral Surface = PL Volume = Bh Volume = AL 86 . Area of section perpendicular to sides A. h. Area of base. Frustum of Any Pyramid or Cone (Parallel Ends) Areas of base. Pyramid or Cone (Right or Oblique. c. h. r. perpendicular to sides. B. B. Regular or Irregular) Area of base. perpendicular height. perpendicular height. T. lateral length L. h. P. perpendicular height. Sphere Area = 4πr² Volume = 1/2/³π Radius. and top. ___ Volume = 1/3 √Bh = 1/3 the volume of prism or cylinder of same base and perpendicular height or 1/2 the volume of hemisphere of same base and perpendicular height. height. perpendicular height. h.Surface and volume of Solids Cylinder (Right or Oblique. Spherical Segment Radius. length of chord. Circular or Elliptic) Perimeter or base. Pb. Perimeter.

763 5.669 17.28125 0.1516 to obtain Circumference circle Side of equal square Volume of sphere Square mils Imperial gallons (Brit. of mercury (0°C) Knots by 3.62500 0.700 U.43750 0.S.S.288 15.Conversion Tables Decimal and metric equivalents of common fractions of an inch U.431 22.S.4912 1.938 8.03125 0.113 11. gallons Cubic feet Feet of water (4°C) In.90625 0.50000 Mm 0.256 19.556 6.7854 0.81250 0.5236 0.68750 0.) Cubic feet Pounds of water (20°C) Pounds of water (4°C) Pounds per sq. gallons U.31250 0.S.144 7. inch Miles per hour To obtain divide into 87 .S.350 7.46875 0.794 1.87500 0.8862 0.37500 0.40625 0.00000 Mm 13.050 19.813 24. sphere cubed Circular mils U.400 Conversion ratios Multiply Diam.06250 0.588 2.12500 0. gallons U.15625 0.427 0.319 11.56250 0.1337 8.225 23.59375 0.525 10.381 3.731 9.330 62. circle Diam.75000 0.606 25.1416 0.71875 0.175 3.25000 0.8327 0.844 20.969 4. inch Pounds per sq.34375 0.494 14.081 15.463 18.53125 0.21875 0.906 12.4336 0. circle Diam.875 16.78125 0.638 21.09375 0.18750 0. inch FracDecimal tion 1/32 1/16 3/32 1/8 5/32 3/16 7/32 1/4 9/32 5/16 11/32 3/8 13/32 7/16 15/32 1/2 0.84375 0. inch FracDecimal tion 17/32 9/16 19/32 5/8 21/32 11/16 23/32 3/4 25/32 13/16 27/32 7/8 29/32 15/16 31/32 1 0.93750 0.019 23.96875 1.65625 0.

Pressure equivalents 1 Atmosphere = = 14. difference in elevation at 4.000 ft.000 ft. in.1441 ft. = 25. cm. per sq. mercury = 2. in. water = 2. water = 29.000 ft. water 1 mm.000 ft. of mercury = 760 mm. ft. mercury = = 0. ft.340 mm.03937 in. per sq.06895 megabars (or megadynes) per sq.01934 lb. water 1. in.5357 in. per sq.7 mm. in. = 0. 1 in. per sq.70 lb. = 16 oz. difference in elevation at 4. of mercury represents 1. water = 0.4 mm. water = 0. water = 27. per sq. = 51. water 1 gm. mercury = 1.00425 atmospheres = 44.3 lb. water = 0. per sq.2 in. per sq.000 ft. = 2.02896 in.0625 lb.000 ft.1272 in.06804 atmospheres = 703. per sq.61 in. = 1.92 in. of mercury 1. mercury = 234. mercury 1 lb. = 2116.96 ft.5774 oz.000 to 6. = 0. ft. in. ft.309 ft.6 mm.02 mm. = 9.6 in.000 ft.4 mm.71 mm. in. water = 0. mercury = 7. difference in elevation at 4. mercury = 0. = 5. = 0.134 ft. per sq. ft. represents 13. of air by 1/4 or 1% 1 in. per sq.23 mm. water 1 in. 1 oz.00 lb. in. mercury = 0. in. per sq. difference in elevation at 4.000 ft. cm. per cu. of water = 407. per sq.000 ft.036 in. ft. of water represents 74 ft. = 0. per sq.54 oz. of water = 0. mercury = = 0. = 25. water = 0. elevation 1 in. = 10. elevation 1. = 70. difference in elevation at sea level to 4.733 in. water = 1. ft.3094 oz.0735 in. water = = 0.08333 ft. in.002456 atmospheres = 0. = = 0.491 lb. of mercury represents 900 ft. per sq.000 to 6.70 in. of water represents 66 ft.11 in.000 ft. = 33.04464 ft. = = 144 lb. of water resistance lowers wt.001316 atmospheres = 0. = 0. per sq.696 lb. per sq.52 in.000 ft.0361 lb.876 mm. difference in elevation at sea level to 4. water = 0.196 lb. represents 1 in. mercury 88 .61 mm.86 oz. of mercury 1. in. per sq. per sq. = 0. water 1 in.789 lb. difference in elevation at sea level represents 15. mercury = 0. per sq. cm. difference in elevation at seal level represents 1. 1 in.0703 kg.394 in. water = 13. of water 1 in. in. mercury = 3. water = 13.03342 atmospheres = 345. in. per sq.

2759 cord 3.9463 liter 0.S.150. 0. liq.2 feet 1 cubic foot 1 cubic yard 1 cord (wood) 1 ton (shipping) 1 standard bu.9 qt.317 cubic dec.1 yards 5/8 of a mile 2-5/8 bushels 2-1/2 acres 2-1/5 pounds 1/4 of a cord 2.6 pounds Cloth Measure 21/8 inches 4 nails 4 quarters 1 nail 1 quarter 1 yard Miscellaneous 3 inches 4 inches 6 inches 18 inches 21.728 cubic inches 27 cubic feet 128 cubic feet 40 cubic feet 2.3785 dekaliter 0.280 feet 6. 1.080.8375 bushels 0.881 dekaliter 2. dry 1.204. rods 640 acres 36 sq. chains or 160 sq.42 cubic inches 231 cubic inches 1 cubic foot Dry Measure 2 pints 8 quarts 4 pecks 36 bushels Mariners’ Measure 6 feet 120 fathoms 71/2 cable lengths 5. 1 ounce 12 ounces 1 pound Used for weighing gold. 29. interest 366 days lp.3524 hektoliter 4 inches 1.908 qt.0353 cubic foot 28. silver and jewels 60 seconds 60 minutes 24 hours 7 days 28. 30 or 31 days 1 month 30 days 365 days 1 year 1 minute 1 hour 1 day 1 week 1 cal.624 steres 0.308 cubic yards 0.7646 cubic meter 0.0567 qt. 20 pwt.39 cubic cent. Measure of Volume 1 U. miles (6 miles sq. 1 cubic centimeter about 4/5 of a bushel 1 cubic inch 1 cubic decimeter 1 cubic foot 1 quart 1 cubic meter 1 peck 1 cubic yard 1 bushel 1 stere 1 chaldron 1 cord 1 liter 1 quart dry 1 fathom 1 quart liquid 1 cable length 1 dekaliter 1 mile 1 peck 1 statute mile 1 hektoliter 1 nautical mile 1 bushel 1 link 1 rod 1 chain 1 acre 1 sq. month in comp. dry 1.061 cu.06 quarts liquid. yr.101 liters 0.) Approximate Metric Equivalents 89 . 1 palm 1 hand 1 span 1 cubit 1 Bible cubit 1 military pace .92 inches 25 links 4 rods 10 sq. 1. mile 1 township 1 decimeter 1 liter 1 meter 1 kilometer 1 hektoliter 1 hectare 1 kilogram 1 stere or.Weights and measures Time Measure Troy Weight 24 grains 1 pwt. 0. inch foot 16. standard gal.8 inches 2-1/2 feet Cubic Measure 1. cubic meter 1 metric ton Surveyors’ Measure 7.

) = 0.) Blood Heat Linear measure 1 foot = 12 inches 1 yard = 3 feet 1 rod = 5-1/2 yards 1 furlong = 40 rods Circular measure 1 minute = 60 seconds 1 deg.655.S.135 oz.518 lb.4536 kg. per sq. rod Liquid measure 1 pint = 4 gills 1 quart = 2 pints 1 gallon = 4 quarts Volume 1 cu. 367.0160 ton (met. gal./min.217 ft. yd. Oz. per sq. = 0.0648 9. = 0.76 lb.88 to 0.8824 kg.235 lb.Weights and measures (cont’d) Temperatures Milk Water Olive Oil Wines Vinegar Alcohol Water Eggs Hatch Petrol.560 sq.2048 lb.098 kg. Lb. per sq. ft. Hat and energy units 1 ton (refrig. 1 quadrant = 90 deg. = 1. = 4. rods = 1 acre 43.94 Pressure 1 kg. 1 league = 3 miles 1 radian = 57.000 grains 90 Fahrenheit Freezes 30° above Zero Freezes 32° above Zero Freezes 36° above Zero Freeze 20° above Zero Freezes 28° above Zero Boils at 173° above Zero Boils at 212° above Zero 104° above Zero Boils at 360° above Zero 98. 30-1/4 sq. in. = 1 sq.240 pounds 1 pound = 7. per sq. 1 barrel = 31-1/2 gallons 1 hogshead = 2 barrels 1 Imp.) = 200 Btu/min. 1 kg. Ton (sht. foot = 7.000 joules 3.-lb. (av. per sq.000 w/hr. Ton (sht. per sq. = 0.-hr. ft.9678 normal atmosphere Heat and Energy units 1. 160 sq.0703 kg./hr. of water raised from 62 to 212°F. 22. m.p. = 1 sq. = 28. m.280 feet 1 naut mile = 6. Apothecaries’ weight 1 scruple = 20 grains 1 ounce = 8 drams 1 dram = 3 scruples 1 pound = 12 ounces Grain = 0. = 1 acre 640 acres = 1 sq.3410 h. from and at 212°F.080 ft. 1 lb. water evap. ft.413 Btu.9072 ton (met. ft. 2.) = 907. 1. cm. carbon oxidized with perfect efficiency 3.) Mineral lubricating oil has specific gravity of 0. per sq.48 gallons 1 gallon = 231 cu.600. = 1 sq.3437 grains 1 ounce = 16 drams 1 pound = 16 ounces 1 quarter = 25 pounds 1 hundredweight = 4 quarters 1 short ton = 2. 9 sq. per sq. 3.3495 9. = 14. mile 1 kw.000 pounds 1 long ton = 2.223 lb. 1 kg. 1 lb. = 2. inches 1 gal. = 60 minutes 1 circle = 4 quadrants = 2 πradians or 360 deg. 0.296 deg.) Ton (lg. cm.-hr. Square measure 144 sq. = 0. yd. in.) .) = 1. cm. in.-m.2 gal (U. ft. Avoirdupois weight 1 dram = 27.4° above Zero 1 stat mile = 8 furlongs 1 stat mile = 5. 860 kg.-cal.1848 kg. per sq.

of carbon oxidized with perfect efficiency 1 kg.p.97 lb. m.255 kw. per cu.2844 kw.000 ft.3814 h. carbon oxidized with perfect efficiency 14. dry wood oxidized (varies) 26.000 ft.-hr. ft. natural gas (varies) 14.0668 lb. water evap. = 8.745 kg.p. of water evap.-hr. 91 .-cal.622 lb.980.-cal.-cal.0089 kg. 1 lb.709 h.9 cu. manufactured gas (varies) 12.5555 kg. 1 kg. ft. 970. per lb.023.1849 lb.2520 kg.-m.8987 kg. m. per kg.-hr.37 Btu per cu. carbon oxidized with perfect efficiency 2. 273.8000 Btu per lb.-cal.-lb. = 0. from and at 212°F. per kilogram = 1.-hr.315 lb. 1 kg. water evaporated from and at 212°F.-lb. anthracite oxidized (varies) 2.4 cu. 1 lb. per liter = 112. ft. from and at 212°F.400 kg. = 0. per cu. ft.7457 kw.-m. 2.500 joules 756. = 3. 0. 1. 1.545 Btu. 1 kg.-cal. 11.300. 14. 0.9685 Btu 1 Btu = 0. 0. ft. 1 Btu per pound = 0.500 ft. ft.520 Btu 1.2 Btu 104. 1 Btu per cu. 1 Btu per cu.-hr.1085 lb.-cal. – hr.-lb.-cal. 0. 5.1124 Btu per cu. 0.Heat and Energy units (cont’d) 1 h.-cal.p.

Petroleum – bbl x 0.6 = Kilogram-force-meters (kgf • m) -4 = Kilowatt-hours (kW • h) x 2.96 = Feet of water (ftH2O) at 68°F x 1.00 = Centimeters of mercury (cmHg) at 0°C x 29.S.15899 x 42 Bars – bar x 100 x 14.325 = Kilopascals (kPa) absolute x 14.S.0197 x 0.53 x 1.S.11924 = Cubic meters (m³) x 31. gal) oil = Kilopascals (kPa) = Pounds-force per square inch (psi) = Feet of water (ftH2O) at 68°F = Inches of mercury (inHg) at 0°C = Kilograms-force per square centimeter (kg/cm²) = Atmospheres (atm) sea-level standard = Tons-force per square foot (tonf/ft²) = Torr (torr) (= mmHg at 0°C) British Thermal Units – Btu (See note) x 1055 = Joules (J) x 778 = Foot-pounds-force (ft • lbf) x 0.92 = Inches of mercury (inHg) at 0°C x 33.98692 x 1.0443 x 750.06 = Cubic meters (m³) = U. – bbl x 0.02358 = Horsepower (hp) Centares x1 Centimeters – cm x 0. gal) liquid Barrels. gallons (U.5 = U.01325 = Bars (bar) absolute x 1.504 x 33.97 = Foot-pounds-force per second (ft • lbf/s) x 0. Liquid.58 = Watts (W) x 12.0332 = Kilograms force per square centimeter (kg/cm²) absolute x 1.52 x 29.3937 = Square meters (m²) = Inches (in) 92 .93 x 10-4 = Horsepower-hours (hp • h) British Thermal Units per Minute – Btu/min (See note) x 17.696 = Pounds-force per square inch absolute (psia) x 76.Metric Conversions Atmospheres – atm (Standard at sea-level pressure) x 101.S. gallons (U.93 x 10 x 3.252 = Kilocalories (kcal) x 107.0581 = Tons force per square foot (tonf/ft²) absolute x 760 = Torr (torr) (= mmHg at 0°C) Barrels. U.S.

02832 = Cubic meters per second (m³/s) x 1.19337 = Pounds-force per square inch (psi) x 0.362 = Inches of water (inH2O) at 68°F x 0.0 = Cubic centimeters per second (cm³/s) x 1.S.85 = Pounds-force per square foot (lbf/ft²) x 0. gal) = Imperial gallons (imp gal) = Liters (l) = Cubic meters (m³) = Cubic centimeters (cm³) = Cubic inches (in³) = Cubic yards (yd³) = U.S.Metric Conversions (cont’d) Centimeters of Mercury – cm/Hg at 0°C x 1.S. gps) x 62.03281 = Feet per second (ft/s) x 0.02237 = Miles per hour (mph) Cubic Centimeters – cm³ x 3.9685 = Feet per minute (ft/min) x 0.308 x 10-6 x 2.4468 = Feet of water (ftH2O) at 68°F x 5.699 = Cubic meters per minute (m³/min) x 448.03600 = Kilometers per hour (km/h) x 0.642 x 10-4 x 2.S.013595 = Kilograms force per square centimeter (kg/cm²) x 27.1024 x 10-2 x 1. gallons (U. gpd) 93 .S.S.4720 = Liters per second (l/s) x 0. gallons (U. gal) = Imperial gallons (imp gal) = Liters (l) Cubic Feet per Minute – cfm x 472. gallons per day (U.S.699 = Cubic meters per hour (m³/h) x 0.03704 x 7.832 x 104 x 1728 x 0.013158 = Atmospheres (atm) standard x 10 = Torr (torr) (= mmHg at 0°C) Centimeters per Second – cm/s x 1.6000 = Meters per minute (m/min) x 0.6463 = Million U.30 = Pounds of water per minute (lbH2O/min) at 68°F Cubic Feet per Second – cfs x 0. gallons per second (U.S.5315 x 10-5 x 6.02832 x 2.3332 = Kilopascals (kPa) x 0.ft³ x 0. gpm) x 0.013332 = Bars (bar) x 0.S.481 x 6.32 = Cubic feet (ft³) = Cubic inches (in³) = Cubic yards (yd3) = U.8 = U.200 x 10-4 x 1000 x 10-3 Cubic Feet . gallons per minute (U.S.1247 = U.229 x 28.

Metric Conversions (cont’d)
Cubic Inches - In³ x 1.6387 x 10-5 x 16.387 x 0.016387 x 5.787 x 10-4 x 2.143 x 10-5 x 4.329 x 10-3 x 3.605 x 10-3 Cubic Meters - m³ x 1000 x 35.315 x 61.024 x 10³ x 1.3080 x 264.2 x 220.0 = Cubic meters (m³) = Cubic centimeters (cm³) = Liters (l) = Cubic feet (ft³) = Cubic yards (yd³) = U.S. gallons (U.S. gal) = Imperial gallons (imp gal) = Liters (l) = Cubic feet (ft³) = Cubic inches (in³) = Cubic yards (yd³) = U.S. gallons (U.S. gal) = Imperial gallons (imp gal)

Cubic Meters per Hour - m³/h x 0.2778 = Liters per second (l/s) -4 x 2.778 x 10 = Cubic meters per second (m³/s) x 4.403 = U.S. gallons per minute (U.S. gpm) Cubic Meters per Second – (m³/s) x 3600 = Cubic meters per hour (m³/h) x 15.85 x 10³ = U.S. gallons per minute (U.S. gpm) Cubic Yards - yd³ x 0.7646 x 764.6 x 7.646 x 105 x 27 x 46,656 x 201.97 x 168.17 Degrees Angular (°) x 0.017453 x 60 x 3600 x 1.111 = Cubic meters (m³) = Liters (l) = Cubic centimeters (cm³) = Cubic feet (ft³) = Cubic inches (in³) = U.S. gallons (U.S. gal) = Imperial gallons (imp gal) = Radians (rad) = Minutes (‘) = Seconds (“) = Grade (gon)

Degrees per Second, Angular (°/s) x 0.017453 = Radians per second (rad/s) x 0.16667 = Revolutions per minute (r/min) x 2.7778 x 10-3 = Revolutions per second (r/s) Drams (dr) x 1.7718 x 27.344 x 0.0625 = Grams (g) = Grains (gr) = Ounces (oz) 94

Metric Conversions (cont’d)
Fathoms x 1.8288 x6 Feet – ft x 0.3048 x 30.480 x 12 x 0.3333 = Meters (m) = Feet (ft) = Meters (m) = Centimeters (cm) = Inches (in) = Yards (yd)

Feet of Water – ftH2O, at 68°F x 2.984 = Kilopascals (kPa) x 0.02984 = Bars (bar) x 0.8811 = Inches of mercury (inHg) at 0°C x 0.03042 = Kilograms-force per square centimeter (kg/cm²) x 62.32 = Pounds-force per square foot (lbf/ft²) x 0.4328 = Pounds-force per square inch (psi) x 0.02945 = Standard atmospheres Feet per Minute – ft/min x 0.5080 x 0.01829 x 0.0051 x 0.3048 x 0.016667 x 0.01136 = Centimeters per second (cm/s) = Kilometers per hour (km/h) = Meters per second (mps) = Meters per minute (m/min) = Feet per second (ft/s) = Miles per hour (mph)

Feet per Second per Second – ft/s² x 0.3048 = Meters per second per second (m/s²) x 30.48 = Centimeters per second per second (cm/s²) Foot-Pounds-Force – ft • lbf x 1.356 = Joules (J) = British thermal units (Btu) (see note) x 1.285 x 10-3 x 3.239 x 10-4 = Kilocalories (kcal) x 0.13825 = Kilogram-force-meters (kgf • m) x 5.050 x 10-7 = Horsepower-hours (hp • h) x 3.766 x 10-7 = Kilowatt-hours (kW • h)

95

Metric Conversions (cont’d)
Gallons U.S. – U.S. gal x 3785.4 x 3.7854 x 3.7854 x 10-3 x 231 x 0.13366 x 4.951 x 10-3 x8 x4 x 0.8327 x 8.328 x 8.337 Gallons, Imperial – imp gal x 4546 x 4.546 x 4.546 x 10-3 x 0.16054 x 5.946 x 10-3 x 1.20094 x 10.000 = Cubic centimeters (cm³) = Liters (l) = Cubic meters (m³) = Cubic inches (in³) = Cubic feet (ft³) = Cubic yards (yd³) = Pints (pt) liquid = Quarts (qt) liquid = Imperial gallons (imp gal) = Pounds of water at 60°F in air = Pounds of water at 60°F in vacuo = Cubic centimeters (cm³) = Liters (l) = Cubic meters (m³) = Cubic feet (ft³) = Cubic yards (yd³) = U.S. gallons (U.S. gal) = Pounds of water at 62°F in air

Gallons, per Minute, U.S. – U.S. gpm x 0.22715 = Cubic meters per hour (m3/h) x 0.06309 = Liters per second (l/s) x 8.021 = Cubic feet per hour (cfh) x 2.228 x 10-3 = Cubic feet per second (cfs) Grains – gr av. or troy x 0.0648 Grains per Cubic Foot x 2288.1 = Grams (g) = milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3)

Grains per U.S. Gallon – gr/U.S. gal at 60°F x 17.12 = Grams per cubic meter (g/m³) x 17.15 = Parts per million by weight in water x 142.9 = Pounds per million gallons Grains per Imperial Gallon – gr/imp gal at 62°F x 14.25 = Grams per cubic meter (g/m3) x 14.29 = Parts per million by weight in water Grams – g x 15.432 x 0.035274 x 0.032151 x 2.2046 x 10.3 = Grains (gr) = Ounces (oz) av. = Ounces (oz) troy = Pounds (lb)

96

600 x 10-3 Grams per Cubic Centimeter – g/cm3 x 62. gallons = Pounds per cubic foot (lb/ft³) = Parts per million by mass = Square meters (m²) = Square feet (ft²) = Watts (W) = Kilowatts (kW) = Foot-pounds-force per minute (ft • lbf/min) = Foot-pounds-force per second (ft • lbf/s) = British thermal units per minute (Btu/min) (see note) = Kilocalories per minute (kcal/min) = Horsepower (metric) = British thermal units per hour (Btu/h) (see note) = Kilowatts (kW) Horsepower-Hours – hp • h x 0. gal) = Pounds per 1000 U.480 x 9.807 x 10-3 = Newtons (N) Grams – Force per Centimeter – gf/cm x 98.S.42 x 8.S.000 x 550 x 42.540 = Centimeters (cm) 97 .7457 x 33.03613 = Pounds per cubic inch (lb/in³) Grams per Liter – g/l x 58.69 x 1.06243 x 1002 Hectares – ha x 1.S.7 x 0.5 = Kilocalories (kcal) = Kilogram-force-meters (kgf • m) x 2.0764 x 105 Horsepower – hp x 745.43 = Pounds per cubic foot (lb/ft³) x 0.345 x 0.07 = Newtons per meter (N/m) = Pounds-force per inch (lbf/in) x 5. gallon (gr/U.000 x 104 x 1.809 = Grains per U.Metric Conversions (cont’d) Grams-Force – gf x 9.0139 Horsepower – hp boiler x 33.7457 = Kilowatt-hours (kW • h) = Foot-pounds-force (ft • lbf) x 1.976 x 106 x 2545 = British thermal units (Btu) (see note) x 641.732 x 105 Inches – in x 2.43 x 10.

193 = Pounds-force per square foot (lbf/ft²) x 0.807 = Newtons per meter (N/m) x 0.223 = Pounds-force per square inch (psi) x 0.9484 x 10-3 x 0.205 = British thermal units (Btu) (see note) = Calories (cal) thermochemical = Foot-pounds-force (ft • lbf) = Watt-hours (W • h) = Pounds (lb) = Tons (ton) short = Newtons (N) = Pounds-force (lbf) Kilograms-Force per Meter – kgf/m x 9.87 = Feet of water (ftH2O) at 68°F x 28.03386 = Bars (bar) x 1.2390 x 0.62 = Inches of water (inH2O) at 68°F x 0.Metric Conversions (cont’d) Inches of Mercury – inHg at 0°C x 3.807 = Megapascals (MPa) x 1.454 x 10-3 = Standard atmospheres Joules – J x 0.03606 = Pounds-force per square inch (psi) x 2.73 = Pounds-force per square foot (lbf/ft²) x 0.9678 = Standard atmospheres Kilograms-Force per Square Millimeter – kgf/mm² x 9.6721 = Pounds-force per foot (lbf/ft) Kilograms-Force per Square Centimeter – kg/cm² x 98.5770 = Ounces-force per square inch (ozf/in²) x 5.7376 x 2.96 = Inches of mercury (inHg) at 0°C x 2048 = Pounds-force per square foot (lb/ft²) x 14.03453 = Kilograms-force per square centimeter (kg/cm²) x 70.2046 x 1.07342 = Inches of mercury (inHg) at 0°C -3 x 2.03342 = Standard atmospheres Inches of Water – in H2O at 68°F x 0.2487 = Kilopascals (kPa) -3 = Bars (bar) x 2.487 x 10 x 0.000 x 106 = Kilograms-force per square meter (kgf/m²) 98 .778 x 10-4 Kilograms – kg x 2.807 x 2.07 = Kilopascals (kPa) x 0.3864 = Kilopascals (kPa) x 0.535 x 10 = Kilograms-force per square centimeter (kg/cm²) x 0.135 = Feet of water (ftH2O) at 68°F x 13.9807 = Bars (bar) x 32.102 x 10-3 Kilograms-force – kgf x 9.4912 = Pounds-force per square inch (psi) x 0.

667 = Meters per minute (m/min) x 0.2200 = Cubic centimeters (cm³) = Cubic feet (ft³) = Cubic inches (in³) = Cubic yards (yd³) = U.2778 = Meters per second per second (m/s²) x 27.1450 x 0.3410 = pascals (Pa) or newtons per square meter (N/m²) = Pounds-force per square inch = Kilograms-force per square centimeter (kg/cm²) = Inches of mercury (inHg) at 32°F = Feet of water (ftH2O) at 68°F = Inches of water (inH2O) at 68°F = Foot-pounds-force per minute (ft • lbf/min) = Foot-pounds-force per second (ft • lbf/s) = British thermal units per minute (Btu/min) (see note) = Kilocalories per minute (kcal/min) = Horsepower (hp) = Joules (J) = Foot-pounds-force (ft • lbf) = British thermal units (Btu) (see note) = Kilocalories (kcal) = Kilogram-force meters (kgf • m) = Horsepower-hours (hp • h) Knots – kn (International) x 0.2953 x 0.024 x 1.6214 = Miles per hour (mph) Kilometers per Hour per Second – km • h-1 • s-1 x 0.425 x 104 x 737.6 x 106 x 2.3410 Kilowatt-Hours – kW • h x 3.28 = Miles per minute (mi/min) Kilopascals – kPa x 103 x 0.671 x 105 x 1.78 = Centimeters per second per second (cm/s²) x 0.035315 x 61.6 x 56.Metric Conversions (cont’d) Kilometers per Hour – km/h x 27.308 x 10-3 x 0.010197 x 0.3351 x 4.90 x 14.S.151 = Miles per hour (mph) Liters – l x 1000 x 0.021 Kilowatts – kW x 4.78 = Centimeters per second (cm/s) x 0.33 x 1. gallons (U.655 x 106 x 3413 x 860 x 3.53996 = International knots (kn) x 0. gal) = Imperial gallons (imp gal) 99 .9113 = Feet per second per second (ft/s²) Kilometers per Second – km/s x 37.9113 = Feet per second (ft/s) x 54.S.5144 = Meters per second (m/s) x 1.68 = Feet per minute (ft/min) x 16.2642 x 0.

1020 Meters – m x 3.237 x 0.03728 = Kilometers per hour (km/h) = Kilometers per minute (km/min) = Feet per minute (ft/min) = Feet per second (ft/s) = Miles per hour (mph) = Miles per minute (mi/min) Micrometers .885 x 10-4 x 4. gpm) = Imperial gallons per minute (imp gpm) = Pascals (Pa) or newtons per square meter (N/m²) = Kilopascals (kPa) = Pounds-force per square inch (psi) = Kilograms-force per square millimeter (kgf/mm²) = Feet (ft) = Inches (in) = Yards (yd) Meters per Minute – m/min x 1.0600 x 196.µm (micron) x 0.281 x 2.0936 = Limits per second (l/s) = Cubic feet per second (cfs) = U.85 x 13.S. gallons per second (U. gallons per minute (U.0600 = Kilometers per hour (km/h) x 3.S.S.000001 = Meters (m) Miles – mi x 1.03728 = Miles per hour (mph) Meters per Second – m/s x 3.281 x 39.6093 x 10³ x 1. gal/s) = Imperial gallons per second (imp gal/s) = Cubic meters per second (m3/s) = Cubic meters per hour (m³/h) = Liters per minute (l/min) = U.403 x 10-3 x 3.666 x 10-3 Liters per Second – l/s x 10-3 x 3.600 x 0.281 = Feet per minute (ft/min) x 0.20 Megapascals – Mpa x 106 x 10³ x 145.6093 x 5280 x 1760 = Meters (m) = Kilometers (km) = Feet (ft) = Yards (yd) 100 .0 x 0.37 x 1.Metric Conversions (cont’d) Liters per Minute – l/min x 0.8 x 3.600 x 60 x 15.S.6667 = Centimeters per second (cm/s) x 0.01667 x 5.05468 = Feet per second (ft/s) x 0.

35 x 2.395 = Grams-force per square centimeter (gf/cm²) 101 . x 28. = Ounces (oz) av.1 = Pascals (Pa) x 0.6093 x 2682 x 88 x 60 Minutes. Angular – (‘) x 2.2248 x 7.10197 x 0.8046 = Centimeters per second (cm/s) = Kilometers per hour (km/h) = Meters per minute (m/min) = Feet per minute (R/min) = Feet per second (ft/s) = International knots (kn) = Kilometers per minute (km/min) = Centimeters per second (cm/s) = Feet per second (ft/s) = Miles per hour (mph) = Radians (rad) = Kilograms-force (kgf) = Pounds-force (lbf) = Poundals = Dynes = Grams (g) = Tonnes (t) metric ton = Drams (dr) av.S.790 x 10-5 Ounces – oz troy x 31.82 x 88 x 1.5 x 0.0971 Ounces – oz U.02957 x 1.9115 x 2.06250 x 0. fluid x 0.Metric Conversions (cont’d) Miles per Hour – mph x 44. = Grains (gr) = Pounds (lb) av.6093 x 26.70 x 1. = Ounces (oz) troy = Tons (ton) long = Grams (g) = Grains (gr) = Pennyweights (dwt) troy = Pounds (lb) troy = Pounds (lb) av.06250 = Pounds-force per square inch (psi) x 4.4667 x 0.8690 Miles per Minute – mi/min x 1.06857 x 1.233 x 105 Ounces – oz av.909 x 10-4 Newtons – N x 0. = Liters (l) = Cubic inches (in) Ounces-Force per Square Inch – ozf/in² x 43.835 x 10-5 x 16 x 437.08333 x 0.103 x 480 x 20 x 0.

0583 = Grains per U. gal) at 60°F x 0. gallon (gr/U. = Drams (dr) av.5552 x 24 Poises – P x 0.4536 Pounds – lb.Metric Conversions (cont’d) Parts per Million by Mass – mass (weight) in water x 0.9991 = Grams per cubic meter (g/m³) at 15°C x 0.0700 = Grains per imperial gallon (gr/imp gal) at 62°F x 8.2 x 12 x 240 x 5760 x 0. gallons at 60°F Pascals – Pa x1 x 1.6 x 16 x 256 x 7000 x 5 x 10-4 x 1. = Ounces (oz) av.448 x 0.6735 x 10-4 x 4.0886 x 10-3 x 0.2153 Pounds per Cubic Foot x 7000 x 1.0197 x 10-5 x 10-3 Pennyweights – dwt troy x 1.S.8229 x 13.1143 x 10-4 x 3.6x107 Pounds – lb troy x 373.166 x 3.7324 x 10-4 = Newtons per square mater (N/m²) = Pounds-force per square inch (psi) = Kilograms-force per square centimeter (kg/cm²) = Kilopascals (kPa) = Grams (g) = Grains (gr) = Newton-seconds per square meter (N • s/m²) = Centipoises (cP) = Pound-force-seconds per square foot (lbf • s/ft²) = Pounds per foot second (lb/ft • s) = Newtons (N) = Kilograms-force (kgf) = Grams (g) = Ounces (oz) av. = Tons (ton) long = Tons (ton) short = Tonnes (t) metric tons 102 .S.450 x 10-4 x 1. x 453.1000 x 100 x 2. av.328 = Pounds per million U.06721 Pounds-Force – lbf av. = Mg/cubic meter = Grams (g) = Ounces (oz) troy = Pennyweights (dwt) troy = Grains (gr) = Pounds (lb) av. = Grains (fr) = Tons (ton) short = Pounds (lb) troy = Grams/cubic ft. x 4.S.

70 = Cubic inches (in³) x 0.06805 = Standard atmospheres x 2.895 = Kilopascals (kPa) x 0.488 = Kilograms-force per meter (kgf/m) x 14.73 = Inches of water (inH2O) at 68°F x 2.98 = Cubic centimeters (cm³) x 0.4 x 57. gal) Pounds of Water per Minute at 60°F x 7.311 = Feet of water (ftH2O) at 68°F x 27.88 = Pascals (Pa) x 0.944 x 10-3 = Pounds-force per square inch (psi) Pounds-Force per Square Inch – psi x 6.882 x 10-4 = Kilograms-force per square centimeter (kg/cm²) x 6.68 = Grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm³) x 1728 = Pounds per cubic foot (lb/ft³) Pounds-Force per Foot – lbt/fl x 14.675 x 10-4 = Cubic feet per second (cfs) Pounds per Cubic Foot – lb/ft³ x 16.768 x 104 = Kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m³) x 27.07031 = Kilograms-force per square centimeter (kg/cm²) Quarts – qt dry x 1101 x 67.1199 = U.576 = Cubic centimeters per second (cm³/s) x 2.59 = Newtons per meter (N/m) x 1.036 = Inches of mercury (inHg) at 0°C x 0.75 = Cubic centimeters (cm³) = Cubic inches (in³) = Cubic centimeters (cm³) = Cubic inches (in³) 103 .01603 =Cubic feet (ft³) x 27.018 = Kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m³) x 0.20 Quarts – qt liquid x 946.01605 = Feet of water (ftH2O) at 68°F x 4.Metric Conversions (cont’d) Pounds-Mass of Water at 60°F x 453. gallons (U.88 = Grams-force per centimeter (gf/cm) Pounds-Force per Square Foot – lbf/ft² x 47.45398 = Liters (l) x 0.S.016018 = Grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm³) -4 x 5.787 x 10 = Pounds per cubic inch (lb/in³) Pounds per Cubic Inch – lb/in³ x 2.S.

47 = Pounds (lb) Mexico x 101. = Tons (ton) short Tonnes – t metric ton.S. millier x 1000 = Kilograms (kg) x 2204. gallons per minute (U.076 x 10-3 Tons-Mass – tonm long x 1016 x 2240 x 1.6 x 0.6 = Pounds (lb) Tonnes-Force – tf metric ton-force x 980.S.46 = Pounds (lb) U.Metric Conversions (cont’d) Quintals – obsolete metric mass term x 100 = Kilograms (kg) x 220.54 = Pounds (lb) Brazil x 101.41 = Pounds (lb) Chile x 101. x 101.43 = Pounds (lb) Peru Radians – rad x 57.1200 = Square meters per second (m²/s) = Square feet per second (ft²/s) = Kilograms (kg) = Pounds (lb) av.8929 = Kilograms (kg) = Tonnes (t) = Pounds (lb) av.33 = Pounds of water per hour (lb/h H2O) at 60°F x 0.03789 = Cubic meters per hour (m³/h) x 83.2 x 0.30 = Degrees per second (°/s) angular Stokes – St x 10-4 x 1.9072 x 2000 x 32000 x 2430.7 = Newtons (N) Tons – ton short x 907. = Pounds (lb) troy = Tons (ton) long Tons of Water per 24 Hours at 60°F x 0. gpm) x 1. = Ounces (oz) av.S.1668 = U.338 = Cubic feet per hour (cfh) 104 . av.30 = Degrees (°) angular Radians per Second – rad/s x 57.28 = Pounds (lb) Argentina x 129.

413 x 2655 x 1. While many handbooks and standards give factors contained in this table to six or more significant figures. However.860 x 367. At present the accuracy of process instrumentation.Metric Conversions (cont’d) Watts .341 x 10-3 x 0.05690 x 44. in many cases.341 x 10-3 x 0. The advent of the pocket calculator (and the use of digital computers in process instrumentation) tends to lead to use of many figures as the calculator will handle. determine the number of significant figures which should be used.01433 Watt-Hours – W • h x 3600 x 3. Hence this table is confined to four or five significant figures.1 = British thermal units per minute (Btu/min) (see note) = Foot-pounds-force per minute (ft – lbf/min) = Foot-pounds-force per second (ft – lbf//s) = Horsepower (hp) = Kilocalories per minute (kcal/min) = Joules (J) = British thermal units (Btu) (see note) = Foot-pounds-force (ft • lbf) = Horsepower-hours (hp • h) = Kilocalories (kcal) = Kilograms-force-meters (kgf • m) NOTE: Significant Figures The precision to which a given conversion factor is know. the fact that different sources disagree.25 x 0.W x 0. or the accuracy of the application. 105 . such a practice is misleading and timewasting. in the fifth or further indicates that four or five significant figures represent the precision for these factors fairly.7376 x 1. thus needing only three significant figures. and its application. when this exceeds the precision of the data. analog or digital. is in the tenth percent region at best.

0 284.4 206.0 338. Zero (0°K) on the scale is the temperature at which a perfect gas has lost all of its energy.0 12.6 96.8 104.8 131.4 -2.4 -20.8 23.2 -13.8 185. °C = 5/9 (°F-32) °F = 9/5 °C + 32 Absolute Zero = 0°K = -273.2 127. 1 unit is 1/100 of the difference between the temperature of melting ice and boiling water at standard temperature and pressure.8 -34.0 -14.0 21.2 64.0 -130.8 77.8 14.4 35.4 197.0 192.0 459.6 87.4 143.0 -112.0 248.6 24.6 42.0 138.2 154.4 53.0 120. 106 .8 32.0 102.0 221.8 194.0 210.6 177.0 257.6 195.8 203.6 141.0 302.8 5. This scale is based on the average kinetic energy per molecule of a perfect gas and uses the same ske degrees as the Centigrade scale.0 239.0 -238.2 145.8 149.6 78.2 1.69°F °K = Degrees Kelvin (Absolute temperature).0 320.6 -36.8 122.0 30.4 179.6 186.0 275.Temperature Conversions °C 10000 9500 9000 8500 8000 7500 7000 6500 6000 5500 5000 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 950 900 850 800 750 700 650 600 590 580 570 560 550 540 530 520 510 500 490 480 470 460 450 440 °F 18032 17132 16232 15332 14432 13532 12632 11732 10832 9932 9032 8132 7232 6332 5432 4532 3632 2732 1832 1742 1652 1562 1472 1382 1292 1202 1112 1094 1076 1058 1040 1022 1004 986 968 950 932 914 896 878 860 842 824 °C 430 420 410 400 395 390 385 380 375 370 365 360 355 350 345 340 335 330 325 320 315 310 305 300 295 290 285 280 275 270 265 260 255 250 245 240 235 230 225 220 215 210 205 °F 806 788 770 752 743 734 725 716 707 698 689 680 671 662 653 644 635 626 617 608 599 590 581 572 563 554 545 536 527 518 509 500 491 482 473 464 455 446 437 428 419 410 401 °C 200 195 190 185 180 175 170 165 160 155 150 145 140 135 130 125 120 115 110 105 100 99 98 97 96 95 94 93 92 91 90 89 88 87 86 85 84 83 82 81 80 79 78 °F 392.8 50.0 165.16°C = -459.2 91.4 116.6 105.8 -7.0 -58. °F = Degrees Fahrenheit. 1 unit is 1/180 of the difference between the temperature of melting ice and boiling water at standard temperature and pressure.0 347.2 136.0 174.0 75.2 -31.4 17.2 208.0 57.0 39.6 168.2 19.2 10.8 158.2 82.8 176.8 68.2 100.0 -328.6 69.4 26.6 -9.0 230.4 62.4 161.0 111.2 37.2 28.0 -32.0 129.6 6.4 71.0 374.8 113.4 98.6 132.2 -40.0 183.2 73.2 181.0 -148.6 -27.2 46.2 163.2 118.0 66.0 293.6 123.2 109.0 °C 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 °F 93.6 150.0 212.4 89.0 201.0 329.6 60.2 172.0 -23.0 -76.4 44.0 365.8 140.4 -11.8 95.0 48.0 -94.4 80.6 °C -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 -14 -15 -16 -17 -18 -19 -20 -21 -22 -23 -24 -25 -26 -27 -28 -29 -30 -31 -32 -33 -34 -35 -36 -37 -38 -39 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 -90 -100 -125 -150 -200 -250 -273 °F 15.4 -0.4 134.6 114.0 147.4 °C = Degrees Centigrade (Celsius scale).4 188.6 51.2 -4.0 383.0 156.4 -29.8 41.6 159.0 266.4 -38.8 -16.2 190.2 55.0 -5.2 -22.2 199.4 125.0 -193.0 3.0 311.8 59.0 356.8 167.8 -25.4 107.4 152.6 -18.6 33.0 -418.4 °C 77 76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 °F 170.4 8.0 84.6 204.8 86.

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