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Ayush Kulshrestha 201001219 b.tech 2010 DA-IICT Gandhinagar
The performance of a network is a fundamental and necessary component for use in effective applications, including applications that require quality of service (QoS Quality of Service), such as telephony, video on demand, video conferencing or real-time applications. QoS is defined as a set of requirements to be provided by the Network for carrying traffic from a source to a destination. These needs can be brought to a pre-specified set of attributes and measurable in terms of: · Deadline for end to end · Variance of delay (jitter) · Bandwidth, · Loss of packets. The QoS metrics can be additive, multiplicative or concave; An additive metric A m is defined as
where Li is the value of themetric m on link Li h represents the length of the path P. A concave metric defines the minimum value of a path P and represented as follows:
A multiplicative metric is the product of the values of QoS metrics, itis defined as the product of Li(m) with i ranging from 1 to H The bandwidth is a concave metric, while the delay and jitter are metric additive. The availability of a link, based on criteria such as the likelihood of loss of link on it is a multiplicative metric. 3.1 Bandwidth Bandwidth is the transmission source occupies or receives in a stream. The management of bandwidth is an important element in ensuring the quality of service 3.2 Time from start to finish The term "time" actually encompasses three different temporal aspects: 1.the propagation delay, determined by the physical distance between the source of destination. 2. and the waiting time of packet processing within the queues, determined by the network load, and treatment policies of information in routers for maximum flow of the flow information. 3. transmission time depending on the size of the waves. This parameter is alsoclosely related to network usage and sharing of the available bandwidth. Guarantee period, implies the need to implement mechanisms to better manage the flow of information to the destination in the shortest time, taking into account three types of delays mentioned above 3.3 The jitter (delay variation)
Jitter is the variation in transmission delay from end to end between different packets of a flow through a network. 3.4 Packet loss It occurs when there are errors on data integrity. The packet loss occurs mainly when the traffic intensity on the link output becomes greater than capacity flow The example of this type of service requirement is VOIP (voice over internet protocol which has the following matrices Metric quality Good D Time (start to finish) D <150 ms G jitter <20 ms P packet loss <1% Average Poor 150 ms <D <400 ms 400 ms <D 20 ms <G <50 ms 50 ms <G 1% <P <3% 3% <P
1Introduction The protocol for this study is similar to the the protocol AODV studied in detail in class.As we have seen, the paths drawn up by the protocol AODV standard allows no guarantee of service quality criteria. That's why it seems important to have an extension of the protocol to ensure a certain quality of service. The integration of QoS in AODV has the following objectives: Improve QoS in mobile ad hoc networks. Introduce a more appropriate that the distance metric (number of hops). In this section, we will discuss the specifications of a solution which integrates the QoS in the protocol AODV BASED metric delay from end to end. The choice of metric end to end delay is justified by the need for deployment of applications sensitive to this metric in MANETs such as VoIP. To do this, we first begins with a description of the estimation method of the period which will be used to help integrate AODV has this metric. 2 AODV routing with QoS To develop a protocol for QoS routing based on delay as metric, A method for estimating the delay is essential for this, we first perform a study of a method to estimate the delay. The method adopted in this study is based on the work of C. Sarr . 2.1 Estimated time in MANETs The most conventional method to estimate the delay is to calculate the difference between the transmission time and the time of reception of a package deal. This method is not precise because it is based on the assumption of synchronization of mobile units, which is difficult to ensure in an ad hoc network this is the basic property that makes it ifferent from the others. 2.2 Estimated time to jump The end to end delay is an additive metric. It is equal to the set of delays which a packet has on a hop on the path from the source to the destination. The latter can be decomposed into two parts: The delay between the instant the packet enters the queue of the transmitter node and the instant it passes the MAC layer. The delay between the time the packet is received by the MAC layer up the receipt of the corresponding payment by the receiver node 2.2.1 Determination of the time in the queue A wireless node 802.11 can be seen as a buffer that is filled by incoming packets from upper layers. Thus a single server provides necessary treatment for these packets. The system to be modeled as a queue (as shown in Figure) possessing the following properties: The guest arrival follows an exponential distribution with parameter λ Treatment clients also follows an exponential law of parameterμ. There is only one server for the processing of incoming clients. The size of the queue is bounded by the value K. A customer is lost if there is already K customers in the system .
The parameter λ represents the desired flow by the application that is explicitly provided in the request phase drive with QoS. The parameter μ represents the free bandwidth around this node. This value can be estimated by calculating the percentage of free time Tl which is then multiplied by the maximum capacity of the radio medium Cmax by the following formula μ=Tl*Cmax................................ 4.1 Indeed, the free bandwidth is not the same on all nodes in the network. That depends on the node through the traffic and activity transmissions from neighboring nodes Let the queuing delay be R thus we can calculate R as the following where ρ=λ/μ
………………………4.2 2.2.2 Determination of the propagation delay The propagation delay is the delay that elapsed since the arrival of a packet layerMAC until the reception of the packet acknowledgment from the receiver node, including all retransmissions in case of collision. P be the probability of collision on the link considered. N be the number of retransmissions associated to the probability of collision p. X be the random variable representing the number of retransmissions. We therefore have following equalities in terms of probability:
P(X0) p0 (1p) P(X1) p1 (1p) P(X2) p2 (1p) . . . P(Xj)p j (1p)Of j6 In IEEE 802.11 the maximum number of retransmissions is fixed at 7 so: P(X7) p7 P(Xi)0If i8
Note that the factor (1-p)is not present when X>7Because after 7 retransmissions without receipt of an acknowledgment, the corresponding data packet is drops by the MAC layer. We can therefore deduce expectancy variable random X corresponding to the average number of retransmissions n: For a simplified expression nin terms of pthe results are used in differentiability geometric sums: We know that: Diferentiating this expression with respect to the variable p we obtain:
p).p we finally obtain:
Moreover, according to the IEEE 802.11 standard, at each collision the size of the contention window is lined and at ith successive collision ( i window of backoff is 2^i*CWmin . The backoff being a uniform distribution, at each course backoff we take the mean value to represent the value of backoff to be selected for package will be issued. And the propagation delay of the channel notes Prop. D is given by the formula:
………………………………4.4 Tm represents the mean delay of a packet over the medium. This value is constant when the capacity of the medium is the same at any point. This is the time necessary to transmit in MAC headers, physical and data package has emit. Thus the delay on a link for a packet of size m D grade is: D=R*D Prop................................................ 4.5 As shown in the above formula, the delay of transmission depends on the probability of collision between a transmitter and receiver node. If we consider a single transmitter, the rate of collision is not the same to all of these neighbor nodes. Thus, the delay is different according to which the neighbor wants to send the data. The probability of collision can be estimated using periodic sending of messages HELLO. Each node calculates the probability using the following formula: P=Number of hello packets input s collide/Number of hello packets that should receive……..4.6 2.3 Determination of multi-hop delay The delay is an additive metric, ie the average time from start to finish between source sand a destination d Note Ds,d is equal to the sum of the delays D i means links constituents that way.
3 Integration in AODV To introduce the quality of service AODV, an admission control is necessary to allow verification of the conditions of QoS requested. The idea is based on the addition one or more fields in the packet control. The information contained in these fields will be used to facilitate admission control performed during the establishment roads. The principle of operation adopted, we changed the format two packages, the petition drive RREQ and HELLO messages. 3.1 Extension of the RREQ The petition drive is extended to include three new fields, the first specifies the maximum period demand application, the second for Desired bandwidth and third is calculated jump delay at the reception of the petition drive.
Type Desired bandwidth RREQ ID Destination Originator IP Address RREQ packet in AODV-D
J|R|G|D|G Reserved Hop Count Timeout requested time computed jump IP Address Destination Sequence Number Originator Sequence Number
3.2 Extension of HELLO messages HELLO messages are extended to include a new field, it specifies the probability of collision whch is calculated using the formula HELLO for messages described 4.6
Type R | A Reserved Prefix Destination IP Address Destination Sequence Number Originator IP Address Lifetime Probability of collision : Format HELLO message in AODV-D.
3.3 Mechanism of AODV routing-D 3.3.1 Route Discovery To facilitate admission control performed during the broadcast RREQ, a proactive approach will be used to estimate the propagation delay at each active link. Using the periodic broadcast of HELLO messages we perform the AODV protocol, each node then deduces the value of the probability of collision at each link by using the equation 4.6 which allows it to calculate the propagation delay on the link concerned with equations 4.3 and 4.4. Another value is calculated periodically which is the residual bandwidth (free) for each node by using equation 4.1. It will be used for the calculation of the period probably spent in the queue of the relevant node with the equation 4.2. We then deduce the jump time by a simple addition to the propagation delay according to equation 4.5, When a source node wants to communicate with another node which does not have a valid route in its routing table for the destination, a route discovery procedure is initiated. The source node broadcasts a RREQ through the network ,When a intermediate node receives a RREQ, it first checks if there is a valid route to the routing table if there is a way it returns a RREP to the source, if not before retransmitting the message, it performs an admission control for the test period. This is to compare the value of "Max asked time" field of the query with the RREQ calculated time. If it is lower than the RREQ then this value will be subtracted from the value of the RREQ, then the message will be broadcast to the destination. Otherwise the RREQ will Dropped by the intermediate node When the destination receives the RREQ, It is the same control, if verified, it sends an application RREP mode unicast to the source by the opposite way to validate the relevant road , each intermediate node must update its table routing. Communication between the source and the destination can then take place in accordance the delay required by the source, until one ends closes the connection, or until the road used to break or degrade.
3.3.2 Maintenance of roads For the maintenance of roads, AODV-D protocol maintains the same mechanism the standard AODV protocol. Breaks roads are detected through sending periodic HELLO messages. If a node does not receive a message of a HELLO neighbor during an interval known predefined time, it marks the routes using that neighbor as invalid and sends an error message RERR neighboring upstream of the road. Only source initiates a new route discovery procedure of after receiving the message error.
5 Implementation of AODV-D NS-2
In this section, we will discuss the implementation details of the protocol AODV-D in the NS-2 simulator. 5.1 Estimation of the period at the MAC layer The time estimate is made at the MAC layer, as it is simpler and relevant. In the estimation method adopted we decomposed the time to jump two parts: the delay in the queue noted and the propagation delay noted 5.1.1 Estimation of free bandwidth on a node To estimate the free bandwidth, changes in the file are mac_802.11.cc necessary, namely the class Mac.802_11. The method used to calculate the free bandwidth is based on the calculation of the percentage of free time around a node. The idea is simple, it is to add a timer (Timer), In each period (T) MAC802.11 tests the object. The timer is declared in the and file mac_timers.h and implemented in the file mac_timers.cc . The timer T is chosen randomly between two values: MinHelloInterval and MaxHelloInterval as defined by the AODV protocol to send HELLO messages. Whenever we have a hello packet we have sendTime andreceive Time . Busy_time=Rcv_time+Send_time / T 5.1.2 Estimation of propagation delay The second part of the time a jump is the propagation delay is the delay time between the time the packet is received by the layer until receipt ofMAC corresponding acknowledgment from the receiver node including all retransmissions possible due to collisions. The method that is chosen based on the estimation of collision probability using the periodic sending of messages HELLOOnce the probability of collision known we can calculate the period with propogation equations 4.3 and 4.4. 6 Changes in the network layer After finishing with the estimate of the time at MAC, Now go to the network layer. It is at this level that the routing agent executes these AODV functionality. To simplify the implementation of changes we kept same name of the agent and the same functionality (the package management control, routing table ...). 6.1 The packet format in RREQ in AODV-D Three fields are added to the packet format : The first is the max_delay not be exceeded (required by the application), the second is the desired bandwidth (theparameter),and the jump time which is Is restricted to the last computed jump delay at the MAC layer. The modification of the package is made in aodv_packet.h file 6.2 The format of the RREP packet in AODV-D The format of the RREP packet has been modified by adding a field that is reserved for the collision probability (see listing5.9). This field will be filled when sending messages HELLO (note here that the HELLO messages using the format of RREQ packets) 6.3 Admission Control The routing agent can be receiving packets from higher layers or lower by the recv () method located in the file aodv.cc. If the packet came from MAC layer. The routing agent will test packet type with the method recv(P).If this package is a RREQ The method recvRequest (p) is called. Depending on the case, the packet will be discarded by calling the drop method (p) or rebroadcast by the forward () method to the neighbors. In Standard route request is dropped by a node for two reasons: either AODV the node is the source itself that is to say, it received its own request, the packet is either already passed through this node. A third reason is added that is There is a control AODV-D admission that tests delay metric, as QoS parameters (max time and band desired bandwidth) are provided with RREQ The admission control is performed at
Method recvRequest () with the necessary changes. These changes involve comparing the max_delay field (the time required by the application) with a time of layer jump recoveree by MAC. If it is greater than the time Max, the package will Dropped , it will be subtracted from the allowed delay field in theRREQ and then forwarded. 6.2 The delay variation (jitter) Discussion When the standard AODV protocol is enabled, delay variations are frequent and have greater delays (up to 300 ms and often exceeds 100 ms) especially before the second 25. This is always justified by choosing the shortest path without no constraints (the path through 10 to 15 in our case), it is disturbed by other connections. After the 25th second road is released and the connection stabilizes. For AODV-D protocol, the choice of the route is subject to the constraint of time that must not exceed 150 ms, in fact, the route chosen is the most stable in terms of time and Accordingly, jitter values obtained at most 150 ms and not more than 50 ms in most of the time, which is acceptable for the average quality of VoIP
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