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LI GII THI I HC

KHI A V A1 NM 2013
V Quc B Cn
I. PHN CHUNG CHO TT C TH SINH (7.0 im)
x3 + 3x2 + 3mx

Cu 1. (2.0 im) Cho hm s y =


s thc.

1 (1); vi m l tham

a) Kho st s bin thin v v th (C) ca hm s (1) khi m = 0:


b) Tm m hm s (1) nghch bin trn khong (0; +1):
Li gii. b) Ta c
y0 =

3x2 + 6x + 3m:

D thy y 0 bng 0 ti hu hn im trn R: Hm s cho nghch bin trn


min (0; +1) khi v ch khi y 0 0 vi mi x 2 (0; +1); tc ta phi c
m

x2

2x;

8x 2 (0; + 1):

Xt hm s f (x) = x2 2x trn (0; +1); ta c f 0 (x) = 2x


x = 1: Bng bin thin ca f (x) trn (0; +1) nh sau:

2 v f 0 (x) = 0 khi

:::
Da vo bng bin thin, ta thy minx>0 f (x) =
m

f (x); 8x 2 (0; +1)

c tha mn khi v ch khi m

1: Vy m

Cu 2. (1.0 im) Gii phng trnh:


p
1 + tan x = 2 2 sin x +
Li gii. iu kin: cos x 6= 0; tc x 6=
1 + tan x = 1 +
v

1 v iu kin

1 l iu kin cn tm.

+ k (k 2 Z): Ta c

sin x
sin x + cos x
=
cos x
cos x

p
2 2 sin x +

= 2(sin x + cos x):


4
Do , phng trnh cho tng ng vi
sin x + cos x
= 2(sin x + cos x) , (sin x + cos x)(2 cos x
cos x
T y, ta c sin x + cos x = 0 hoc 2 cos x = 1:
1

1) = 0:

Vi sin x + cos x = 0; ta c tan x =


mn iu kin xc nh).

1 v x =

+k

(k 2 Z) (tha

Vi 2 cos x = 1; ta c cos x = 12 : phng trnh ny, ta tm c hai h


nghim l x = 3 + 2k (k 2 Z) v x = 3 + 2k (k 2 Z): C hai h
nghim trn u tha mn iu kin ca bi.
Vy phng trnh cho c ba h nghim nh trn.
Cu 3. (1.0 im) Gii h phng trnh sau trn tp s thc:
(p
p
p
x+1+ 4x 1
y 4 + 2 = y (1)
x2 + 2x(y

Li gii: iu kin: x
vit di dng:

1) + y 2

6y + 1 = 0

(2)

1: Xt phng trnh (2); ta thy rng n c th c


(x + y

1)2 = 4y:

(3)
p
4

Tp suy rapy 0: Xt phng trnh (1); t a = x 1 (a 0): Khi , ta


c x + 1 = a4 + 2 v phng trnh (1) c th c vit li thnh:
p
p
a4 + 2 + a = y 4 + 2 + y:
(4)
p
D thy hm s f (t) = t4 + 2 + t lin tc v ng bin trn [0; +1) nn t
(3), ta d dng suy ra a = y; tc x = y 4 + 1: Thay kt qu ny vo (3); ta c
"
y=0
(y 4 + y)2 = 4y , y y(y 3 + 1)2 4 = 0 ,
y(y 3 + 1)2 4 = 0
Do y 0 nn hm s g(y) = y(y 3 + 1)2 4 lin tc v ng bin trn [0; +1).
Suy ra phng trnh y(y 3 + 1)2 4 = 0 c ti a mt nghim trn [0; +1): Li
thy y = 1 tha mn phng trnh nn cng l nghim duy nht. Ni cch
khc, ta c
(y 4 + y)2 = 4y y = 0 ) x = 1 y = 1 ) x = 2
Vy h cho c hai nghim (x; y) = (1; 0) v (x; y) = (2; 1):
Cu 4. (1.0 im) Tnh tch phn:

I=

Z2

x2 1
ln xdx:
x2

8
8
1
>
< u = ln x
< du = dx
x
2
Li gii. t
th ta c
: p dng cng thc tch
1
1
: dv = x
>
:
dx
v
=
x
+
2
x
x
2

phn tng phn, ta c

I=

1
x+
x
5
ln 2
2

Z2

ln x
1

1
x

1
x+
x

1
2

Z2

1+

1
x2

dx

=
1

1
5
dx = ln 2
x
2

5
ln 2
2

3
:
2

Cu 5. (1.0 im) Cho hnh chp S:ABC c y l tam gic vung ti A;


\ABC = 30 ; SBC l tam gic u cnh a v mt bn SBC vung gc vi
y. Tnh theo a th tch khi chp S:ABC v khong cch t im C n mt
phng (SAB):
Li gii. (a) Tnh VS:ABC : Gi H l trung im ca BC: Do SBC l tam gic
u nn SH ? BC: Li c (SBC) ? (ABC) v (SBC) \ (ABC) = BC nn t
y, ta suy ra SH ? (ABC): Nh vy, ta c
VS:ABC =

1
1
SH SABC =
SH AB AC:
3
6

Do
SH l ng cao ca tam gic u cnh a nn ta d dng tnh c SH =
p
a 3
2 : Xt tam gic ABC vung ti ti A c \ABC = 30 nn ABC l tam gic
na u v ta d dng tnh c
p
p
a 3
BC
a
BC 3
=
; AC =
= :
AB =
2
2
2
2
Cui cng, ta thu c
VS:ABC

p
p
1 a 3 a 3 a
a3
=
=
(vtt).
6
2
2
2
16

B
T

(b) Tnh d C; (SAB) : K HT k AC ct AB ti T v HP ? ST ct ST ti P:


Ta c AC ? AB nn HT ? AB: Li c SH ? AB (do SH ? (ABC)) nn ta
suy ra AB ? (SHT ): Mt khc, do HP
(SHT ) nn t kt qu ny, ta thu
c HP ? AB: Kt hp vi HP ? ST; ST \ AB = T v ST; AB (SAB);
ta suy ra HP ? (SAB): Ni cch khc, ta c
d H; (SAB) = HP:
By gi, xt tam gic ABC; ta c H l trung im ca BC v HT k AC nn
HT l ng trung bnh ng vi cnh AC ca tam gic ABC; tc ta c
HT =

AC
a
= :
2
4

Xt tam gic SHT vung ti H c HP l ng cao. p dng h thc lng


trong tam gic vung, ta c
1
1
1
4
16
52
=
+
= 2 + 2 = 2:
HP 2
SH 2
HT 2
3a
a
3a
p

Do , d H; (SAB) = HP = a 2639 : Ti y, ta c rng ba im B; H; C


thng hng, H l trung im ca BC v B 2 (SAB) nn
p
a 39
d C; (SAB) = 2 d H; (SAB) =
:
13
Cu 6. (1.0 im) Cho cc s thc dng a; b; c tha mn iu kin (a + c)(b +
c) = 4c2 : Tm gi tr nh nht ca biu thc:
p
32a3
32b3
a2 + b2
P =
+
:
(b + 3c)3
(a + 3c)3
c
4

Li gii. t x = ac v y = cb : Khi , ta c (x + 1)(y + 1) = 4 v biu thc P


c th c vit li thnh
P =

p
x2 + y 2

32y 3
32x3
+
3
(y + 3)
(x + 3)3

S dng bt ng thc AM-GM, ta c


32x3
1 1
+ +
(y + 3)3
2 2

6x
32x3
)
y+3
(y + 3)3

6x
y+3

1:

Tng t,
32y 3
(x + 3)3

6y
x+3

Do ,

6x
6y
+
y+3 x+3

1:

x2 + y 2

2:

Ti y, tip tc s dng bt ng thc AM-GM, ta li c


6x
3x(y + 3)
+
y+3
8

3x )

6x
y+3

15x

3xy
8

nh gi tng t, ta cng c
6y
x+3

15y

3xy
8

Do , ta nh gi c
15x

3xy
8

15
(x + y)
8

15y

3xy
8

3
xy
4

p
x2 + y 2

x2 + y 2

2:

By gi, ta c ch rng gi thit (x + 1)(y + 1) = 4 c th c vit li thnh


xy + x + y = 3:
p
T , ta c xy + 2 xy xy + x + y = 3; tc xy
th ta c x + y = 3 t v
x2 + y 2 = (x + y)2

2xy = (3

1: t t = xy; 0 < t

t)2

2t = t2

29
8

21
t
8

8t + 9:

Do ,
P

15
(3
8

t)

3
t
4

t2

8t + 9

2=

p
t2

8t + 9 = f (t):

Ta c
f 0 (t)

4 t
21
+p
=
2
8
t
8t + 9
21
8
21
8

21
4 t
+p
8
(t 1)2 6t + 8
r
21
4 t p
4 t
=
4 t
+p
+
8
8 6t
6t + 8
r
r
3 p
3
21
+
+2
< 0:
4 t<
2
8
2

iu ny chng t f (t) l hm nghch bin trn (0; 1] v ta thu c


p
2; 8t 2 (0; 1]:
P f (t) f (1) = 1
ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi x = y = 1; tc a = b = c: Vy min P = 1

2:

II. PHN RING (3.0 im)


A. Dnh cho chng trnh Chun
Cu 7.a. (1.0 im) Trong mt phng vi h ta Oxy; cho hnh ch nht
ABCD c im C thuc ng thng d : 2x + y + 5 = 0 v A( 4; 8): Gi M
l im i xng ca B qua C; N l hnh chiu vung gc ca B trn ng
thng M D: Tm ta cc im B v C; bit rng N (5; 4):
Li gii. Ta c \BCD = \BN D = 90 nn bn im B; C; N; D cng thuc
mt ng trn. Li c ABCD l hnh ch nht nn bn im A; B; C; D cng
nm trn ng trn ng knh AC: Kt hp vi l lun trn, ta suy ra nm
im A; B; C; D; N cng nm trn ng trn ng knh AC: Ni ring, ta
c AN ? N C: Suy ra
AN 2 + N C 2 = AC 2 :
A

Gi s C c ta l C(t;

2t

5): Khi , ta tnh c

AC 2 = (t + 4)2 + (8 + 2t + 5)2 = 5t2 + 60t + 185;


N C 2 = (t

5)2 + (2t + 5

4)2 = 5t2

6t + 26

v
AN 2 = (5 + 4)2 + (4 + 8)2 = 225:
Thay vo h thc trn, ta thu c
225 + (5t2

6t + 26) = 5t2 + 60t + 185:

Gii phng trnh ny, ta c t = 1 v do C(1;


phng trnh ca AC l:
3x + y + 4 = 0:

7): Ta d dng vit c

By gi, do BN ? M N v C l trung im ca BM (theo tnh cht ca php


i xng) nn ta c CN = CB = CM: T , ta suy ra hai tam gic vung
ABC v AN C bng nhau do c cnh huyn chung v hai cnh gc vung BC;
CN bng nhau. Kt qu ny cho thy B v N i xng vi nhau qua AC: M
! = (1; 3) nn ta vit c phng trnh ca BN nh sau:
nAC
1 (x

5)

3 (y + 4) = 0 , x

3y

17 = 0:

Gi I l giao im ca AC v BN: Khi , ta ca I l nghim ca h


phng trnh:
8
1
(
>
<x =
3x + y + 4 = 0
1
11
2
)I
;
:
,
11
>
2
2
x 3y 17 = 0
:y =
2
V B v N i xng vi nhau qua I nn t y, ta tm c B( 4; 7): Vy
B( 4; 7) v C(1; 7):
Cu 8.a. (1.0 im) Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz; cho ng thng
z+2
: x 36 = y+1
(P ) i
2 = 1 v im A(1; 7; 3): Vit phng trnh mt phng
p
qua A v vung gc vi : Tm im M thuc
sao cho AM = 2 30:
Li gii. (a) Vit phng trnh mt phng (P ): ng thng
i qua B(6;
1; 2) v c u! = (3; 2; 1): Do (P ) ?
nn ta suy ra n!
=
u! = (3; 2;
P
1): T , ta vit c phng trnh ca mt phng (P ) nh sau:
3 (x

1) + 2 (y

7)

1 (z

3) = 0 , 3x + 2y

(b) Tm ta im M: Gi s M (6 + 3t; 2t
AM 2 = (3t + 5)2 + (2t

1;

14 = 0:

2): Khi , ta c

8)2 + (t + 5)2 = 2(7t2 + 4t + 57):

Theo gi thit, ta li c AM 2 = 120: Do ,


7t2 + 4t + 57 = 60 , 7t2 + 4t

3 = 0 , (t + 1)(7t
7

3) = 0:

T y, ta tm c t = 1 (tng ng, M (3; 3; 1)) hoc t = 37 (tng ng,


1
17
M 51
7 ;
7;
7 ). Vy, c hai im M tha mn yu cu bi nh trn.

Cu 9.a. (1.0 im) Gi S l tp hp cc s t nhin gm ba ch s phn bit


c chn t tp hp cc ch s 1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7: Xc nh s phn t ca S:
Chn ngu nhin mt s t S; tnh xc sut s c chn l s chn.
Li gii. (a) S phn t ca S: Do S l tp hp cc s t nhin c ba ch s
khc nhau c lp nn t cc ch s 1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7 nn ta c
nS = A37 = 210:
(b) Gi T l tp hp cc s t nhin chn c ba ch s khc nhau c lp nn
t cc ch s 1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7 v p(T ) l xc sut mt s c chn ngu
nhin ra t S l s chn. Trc ht, ta s tnh nT : Xt mt s bt k thuc T;
do y l s chn nn ch s hng n v ca n ch c 3 cc chn. Vi hai ch
s cn li, ta c A26 cch chn. Do , ta tnh c
nT = 3A26 = 90:
V nh vy, ta c
p(T ) =

3
90
nT
= :
=
nS
210
7

B. Dnh cho chng trnh nng cao


Cu 7.b. (1.0 im) Trong mt phng vi h trcp
ta Oxy; cho ng thng
: x y = 0: ng
trn
(C)
c
bn
knh
R
=
10 ct
ti hai im A v
p
B sao cho AB = 4 2: Tip tuyn ca (C) ti A v B ct nhau ti mt im
thuc tia Oy: Vit phng trnh ng trn (C):
Li gii. Gi I l tm ca (C); M l giao im ca cc tip tuyn ti A v B p
ca
(C); v T l giao im ca AB v IM: D thy IM ? AB v AT = T B = 2 2:
p dng h thc lng trong tam gic IAM vung ti A c AT l ng cao,
ta c
1
1
1
1
1
1
=
= p 2
:
p 2 =
AM 2
AT 2
AI 2
40
2 2
10

A
I

Suy ra AM 2 = 40: T y, s dng nh l Pitago trong tam gic AT M vung


ti T; ta tnh c
M T 2 = AM 2

p
2 2

AT 2 = 40

p
= 32 =) M T = 4 2:

Ngoi ra, ta cng c


IM 2 = IA2 + AM 2 =

10

+ 40 = 50:

By gi, do M nm trn tia Oy nn ta ca M c dng M (0; a) vi a 0:


Ta c
a
j0 aj
=p :
M T = d M;
=p
2
12 + ( 1)2
p
Do pa2 = 4 2; tc a = 8 v M (0; 8): T y, do IM ? AB nn ta vit c
phng trnh ca IM nh sau:

x+y

8 = 0:

V I 2 IM nn ta ca im I c dng I(t; 8

t): Khi , ta tnh c

IM 2 = t2 + t2 = 2t2 :
Do IM 2 = 50 nn ta c t2 = 25; suy ra t =
Vi t =

5 hoc t = 5:

5 th I( 5; 13) v ta vit c phng trnh ca (C) l:


(x + 5)2 + (y

13)2 = 10:

Th li, ta thy khng tha mn v trong trng hp ny (C) khng ct


:
Vi t = 5 th I(5; 3) v ta c (C) : (x
thy tha mn.

5)2 + (y

3)2 = 10: Th li, ta

Cu 8.b. (1.0 im) Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz; cho mt phng


(P ) : 2x + 3y + z 11 = 0 v mt cu (S) : x2 + y 2 + z 2 2x + 4y 2z 8 = 0:
Chng minh rng (P ) tip xc vi (S). Tm ta tip im ca (P ) v (S):
Li gii. (a) Chng
p min (P ) v (S) tip xc. Mt cu (S) c tm I(1;
v bn knh R = 14: Ta c
d I; (P ) =

j2 1 + 3 ( 2) + 1
p
22 + 32 + 12

11j

2; 1)

14 = R:

Do , (P ) v (S) tip xc nhau.


(b) Tm ta tip im ca (P ) v (S): Gi M l tip im ca (P ) v (S):
! = n! = (2; 3; 1): T y, ta vit c phng
Khi , ta c IM ? (P ) nn uIM
P
trnh ca ng thng IM nh sau:
8
>
< x = 1 + 2t
y = 2 + 3t (t 2 R):
>
:
z =1+t
Nh th, ta ca im M c dng M (1 + 2a;
nn ta c
2(1 + 2a) + 3( 2 + 3a) + (1 + a)

2 + 3a; 1 + a): Do M 2 (P )

11 = 0 , a = 1:

Vy ta im M cn tm l M (3; 1; 2):
p
Cu 9.b. (1.0 im) Cho s phc z = 1 + 3i: Vit dng lng gic ca s
phc z: Tm phn thc v phn o ca s phc w = (1 + i)z 5 :
Li gii. (a) Dng lng gic ca z: Ta c
p !
p
3
1
+
i = 2 cos + i sin
z = 1 + 3i = 2
:
2
2
3
3
(b) Tm phn thc v phn o ca w: Ta c
z5

5
5
5
+ i sin
= 32 cos
+ i sin
3
3
3
3
p !
p
1
3
i = 16 1
3i :
2
2

32 cos

32

Do ,

h
i
p
p
3i = 16 1 + 3 + 1
3 i :
p
p
Vy phn thc ca w l 16 1 + 3 v phn o ca w l 16 1
3 :
w = 16(1 + i) 1

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