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EVOLUTION OF PRIMITIVE DWELLINGS
EVOLUTION
OF PRIMITIVE
DWELLINGS
EVOLUTION OF PRIMITIVE DWELLINGS Prof. Crisencio Paner, MSc.

Prof. Crisencio Paner, MSc.

PREHISTORIC DWELLINGS
PREHISTORIC DWELLINGS

Early humans are often thought of as dwelling in

caves, largely because that is where we find traces of

them.

The flints they used, the bones they gnawed, even

their own bones - these lurk for ever in a cave but get

scattered or demolished elsewhere.

lurk for ever in a cave but get scattered or demolished elsewhere. Primitive cave dwelling, Dar

Primitive cave dwelling, Dar al Uqur Road, Jabal Shams

PREHISTORIC DWELLINGS
PREHISTORIC DWELLINGS

Caves are winter shelter.

On a summer's day, which of us chooses to remain inside? The response of our ancestors seems to have been the same.

But living outside, with the freedom to roam widely for the purposes of hunting and gathering, suggests the need for at

least a temporary shelter.

And this, even at the simplest level, means the beginning of something approaching architecture.

a temporary shelter.  And this, even at the simplest level, means the beginning of something
PREHISTORIC DWELLINGS
PREHISTORIC DWELLINGS

The modern history of the cave homes in Spain's northern Andalucia stretches back hundreds of years.

If you wander the hills and valleys surrounding Galera

you will be amazed to see just how many abandoned

cave houses there are.

Just forty years ago almost all of these rather

primitive dwellings were inhabited and it is only since

then that they have been abandoned.

ago almost all of these rather primitive dwellings were inhabited and it is only since then
PREHISTORIC DWELLINGS
PREHISTORIC DWELLINGS

Confronted with the need for a shelter against sun or rain, the natural instinct is to lean some form of

protective shield against a support - a leafy branch, for example, against the trunk of a tree.

is to lean some form of protective shield against a support - a leafy branch, for
PREHISTORIC DWELLINGS
PREHISTORIC DWELLINGS

If there is no tree trunk available, the branches

can be leant against each other, creating the inverted V-shape of a natural tent.

The bottom of each branch will need some support to hold it firm on the ground.

Maybe a ring of stones.

to hold it firm on the ground.  Maybe a ring of stones. Large Yakut conical

Large Yakut conical birch bark summer tent similar to ancient Yakut Urasa

firm on the ground.  Maybe a ring of stones. Large Yakut conical birch bark summer
PREHISTORIC DWELLINGS
PREHISTORIC DWELLINGS

The first reliable traces of human dwellings, found from as early as 30,000 years ago, follow precisely these logical principles.

There is often a circular or oval ring of stones, with evidence of local materials being used for a tent-like

roof.

evidence of local materials being used for a tent-like roof. circular or oval ring of stones

circular or oval ring of stones

of local materials being used for a tent-like roof. circular or oval ring of stones Prehistoric

Prehistoric home unearthed in Scotland

of local materials being used for a tent-like roof. circular or oval ring of stones Prehistoric
PREHISTORIC DWELLINGS
PREHISTORIC DWELLINGS

Such materials may be reeds daubed with mud in

wet areas; or, in the open plains, mammoth bones

and tusks lashed together to support a covering of hides.

A good example of such an encampment, from

about 25,000 years ago, has been found at Dolni

Vestonice in eastern Europe.

from about 25,000 years ago, has been found at Dolni Vestonice in eastern Europe. Early encampment
from about 25,000 years ago, has been found at Dolni Vestonice in eastern Europe. Early encampment

Early encampment at Dolni Vestonice

FROM TENTS TO ROUND HOUSES:

8000 BC

Once human beings settle down to the business of

agriculture, instead of hunting and gathering, permanent settlements become a factor of life.

The story of architecture can begin.

The tent-like structures of earlier times evolve now into round houses.

 The story of architecture can begin.  The tent-like structures of earlier times evolve now
 The story of architecture can begin.  The tent-like structures of earlier times evolve now

FROM TENTS TO ROUND HOUSES:

8000 BC

Jericho is usually quoted as the earliest known town.

A small settlement here evolves in about 8000 BC into a town covering 10 acres.

And the builders of Jericho have a new technology - bricks, shaped from mud and baked hard in the sun.

In keeping with a circular tradition, each brick is

curved on its outer edge.

from mud and baked hard in the sun.  In keeping with a circular tradition, each
from mud and baked hard in the sun.  In keeping with a circular tradition, each

FROM TENTS TO ROUND HOUSES:

8000 BC

The round tent-like house reaches a more complete form in Khirokitia, a settlement of about 6500 BC in Cyprus. Most of the rooms here have a dome-like roof in corbelled

stone or brick.

One step up from outside, to keep out the rain, leads to several steps down into each room; seats and storage spaces are shaped into the walls; and in at least one house there is a ladder to an upper sleeping platform.

and storage spaces are shaped into the walls; and in at least one house there is
and storage spaces are shaped into the walls; and in at least one house there is

FROM TENTS TO ROUND HOUSES:

8000 BC

The round house has remained a traditional shape.

Buildings very similar to those in Khirokitia are still lived in today in parts of southern Italy,

where they are known as trulli .

similar to those in Khirokitia are still lived in today in parts of southern Italy, where

FROM TENTS TO ROUND HOUSES:

8000 BC

Whether it is a mud hut with a thatched roof in tribal Africa, or an igloo of the Eskimo, the

circle remains the obvious form in which to build a roofed house from the majority of

natural materials.

Eskimo , the circle remains the obvious form in which to build a roofed house from

STRAIGHT WALLS WITH WINDOWS:

6500 BC

But straight lines and rectangles have proved of more

practical use.

One of the best preserved neolithic towns is Catal Huyuk, covering some 32 acres in southern Turkey.

Here the houses are rectangular, with windows but no doors. They adjoin each other, like cells in a honeycomb, and the entrance to each is through the roof.

windows but no doors. They adjoin each other, like cells in a honeycomb, and the entrance
ICE AGE TENT
ICE AGE TENT

Reconstructions of Ukrainian shelters depict a low

domical shape covered with animal skins and the tent

is restrained by heaped mammoth bones.

Later shelters are crude teepees reminiscent of those used by present day reindeer herders in Northern

Asia.

Mousterian domical shelter comprising a wood frame covered with skins (44,000 years old).

herders in Northern Asia.  Mousterian domical shelter comprising a wood frame covered with skins (44,000
ICE AGE TENT
ICE AGE TENT

The support structure of the Keti is of particular interest because it consists of a two-pole foundation with two additional poles, one on

either side of the entrance, a single pole at the back and two rings, one at bench height and

another at head height.

on either side of the entrance, a single pole at the back and two rings, one

ICE AGE TENT

A kibitka is a tent of the nomad tribes of the

Kirghiz Tartars.

The frame consists of twelve stakes, each 6.5 feet high, set up in a circle 12 feet in diameter on

which is laid a wheel-shaped roof-frame, consisting also of twelve stakes, united at one

extremity but free at the other, so that the stakes radiate like spokes.

consisting also of twelve stakes, united at one extremity but free at the other, so that
consisting also of twelve stakes, united at one extremity but free at the other, so that
ICE AGE TENT
ICE AGE TENT

The whole is covered with thick cloth made of sheep's wool, with the exception of an aperture in the centre for the escape of smoke. The door is formed by the removal of a stake.

the exception of an aperture in the centre for the escape of smoke.  The door
the exception of an aperture in the centre for the escape of smoke.  The door

HUT

A hut is a structure of a lower quality than a house (durable, well built dwelling) but higher

quality than a shelter (place of refuge or safety)

such as a tent and is used as temporary or

seasonal shelter or in primitive societies as a

permanent dwelling .

tent and is used as temporary or seasonal shelter or in primitive societies as a permanent

Early Japanese hut

HUT
HUT

Huts are vernacular architecture in that they are built

of readily available materials such as wood, snow, ice,

stone, grass, palm leaves, branches, hides, fabric,

and/or mud using techniques passed down through the

generations.

Huts exist in practically all nomadic cultures.

Some huts are transportable and can stand most conditions of weather.

Huts may be built on the ground, underground or in- between.

can stand most conditions of weather.  Huts may be built on the ground, underground or
can stand most conditions of weather.  Huts may be built on the ground, underground or

Early English hut

TYPES OF HUTS
TYPES OF HUTS

The nipa hut also known as bahay kubo, is an indigenous house used in the Philippines.

The native house has traditionally been constructed with bamboo tied together and covered with a thatched roof using nipa/anahaw

leaves.

traditionally been constructed with bamboo tied together and covered with a thatched roof using nipa /
traditionally been constructed with bamboo tied together and covered with a thatched roof using nipa /
TYPES OF HUTS
TYPES OF HUTS

Nipa huts were the native houses of the indigenous people of the Philippines before the Spaniards arrived.

They are still used today, especially in rural areas.

Different architectural designs are present among the different ethnolinguistic groups in the country, although

all of them conform to being stilt houses, similar to those

found in neighboring countries such as Indonesia,

Malaysia, and other countries of Southeast Asia.

to those found in neighboring countries such as Indonesia , Malaysia , and other countries of
TYPES OF HUTS
TYPES OF HUTS

A nipa hut is an icon of Philippine culture as it represents the Filipino value of bayanihan , which refers to a spirit of communal unity or effort to achieve a particular objective.

Filipino value of bayanihan , which refers to a spirit of communal unity or effort to
TYPES OF HUTS
TYPES OF HUTS

Barabara - An earth sheltered winter home of

TYPES OF HUTS  Barabara - An earth sheltered winter home of the Aleut people
TYPES OF HUTS  Barabara - An earth sheltered winter home of the Aleut people
TYPES OF HUTS
TYPES OF HUTS

Bothy - Originally a one room hut for men farm workers in the United Kingdom, now a mountain hut for overnight hikers.

Bothy - Originally a one room hut for men farm workers in the United Kingdom, now
Bothy - Originally a one room hut for men farm workers in the United Kingdom, now
TYPES OF HUTS
TYPES OF HUTS

Burdei or bordei - a dugout or pit-house with a sod roof in Ukraine, Canada

TYPES OF HUTS  Burdei or bordei - a dugout or pit-house with a sod roof
TYPES OF HUTS  Burdei or bordei - a dugout or pit-house with a sod roof
TYPES OF HUTS
TYPES OF HUTS

Cabana - an open shelter Choza also spelled chozo - Spanish for hut, term also used in Mexico

- an open shelter  Choza also spelled chozo - Spanish for hut, term also used

Cabana

hut

- an open shelter  Choza also spelled chozo - Spanish for hut, term also used

Choza

hut

- an open shelter  Choza also spelled chozo - Spanish for hut, term also used
TYPES OF HUTS
TYPES OF HUTS

Clochán - A dry stone hut in Ireland

Earth lodge - Native American dwelling

 Clochán - A dry stone hut in Ireland  Earth lodge - Native American dwelling

Clochan

 Clochán - A dry stone hut in Ireland  Earth lodge - Native American dwelling

Earth

lodge

 Clochán - A dry stone hut in Ireland  Earth lodge - Native American dwelling
TYPES OF HUTS
TYPES OF HUTS

Hytte - A cabin or hut in Norway

TYPES OF HUTS  Hytte - A cabin or hut in Norway Hytte hut- exterior and

Hytte hut- exterior and interior

TYPES OF HUTS  Hytte - A cabin or hut in Norway Hytte hut- exterior and
TYPES OF HUTS
TYPES OF HUTS

Kolba Afghanistan Mitato - A small, dry stone hut in Greece

TYPES OF HUTS  Kolba – Afghanistan  Mitato - A small, dry stone hut in

Kolba

TYPES OF HUTS  Kolba – Afghanistan  Mitato - A small, dry stone hut in

Mitato

TYPES OF HUTS  Kolba – Afghanistan  Mitato - A small, dry stone hut in
TYPES OF HUTS
TYPES OF HUTS

Orri - A French dry stone and sod hut Rondavel - Central and South Africa

TYPES OF HUTS  Orri - A French dry stone and sod hut  Rondavel -

Orri

TYPES OF HUTS  Orri - A French dry stone and sod hut  Rondavel -

Rondavel

TYPES OF HUTS  Orri - A French dry stone and sod hut  Rondavel -
TYPES OF HUTS
TYPES OF HUTS

Tipi - Central North America tent Tule hut - Coastal North America, West Coast, Northern California

- Central North America tent  Tule hut - Coastal North America, West Coast, Northern California

Tipi

- Central North America tent  Tule hut - Coastal North America, West Coast, Northern California

Tule hut

TYPES OF HUTS
TYPES OF HUTS

Quinzhee - A shelter made in a pile of snow

Yurt - Central and North Asia

TYPES OF HUTS  Quinzhee - A shelter made in a pile of snow  Yurt

Quinzhee

TYPES OF HUTS  Quinzhee - A shelter made in a pile of snow  Yurt

Yurt

TYPES OF HUTS  Quinzhee - A shelter made in a pile of snow  Yurt

THANK YOU!

BACKGROUND OF PROF. CRISENCIO M. PANER:

Ph.D. in Biological Science (Candidate), UST M.S. in Microbiology, UST B.S. Biochemistry, UST Italian Government Scholar College Scholar Certificate in Education 10 th Placer Licensure Exams for Teachers 20 years of experience as a teacher (College, High School, Elementary) Expert in Internet, Computer (Software, Hardware, and Repair) Researcher and Blogger Art Restorer/Conservator PLS. CHECKOUT ALSO THE FOLLOWING BLOGS OF MINE:

http://letsecrets.blogspot.com (HOW TO PREPARE FOR LET)

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