Technical details of Jugnu
IIT Kanpur with its Nanosatellite Mission, Jugnu, is ready to set new highs in space research. A team of students has worked under the guidance of faculty members of the institute and scientists from the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) to launch India's first Nanosatellite. The mission hopes to serve the nation by providing indigenous miniaturized technologies for future space missions. Moreover, it aims at providing real-life design and development experience of actual space systems to students. Weighing less than 3 Kg (10 cm x 10 cm x 32 cm in size) with most functionalities of a normal satellite on a small platform, the payloads of the satellite will include an indigenously designed camera for near IR remote sensing, a GPS receiver and an Inertial Measurement Unit. 'Jugnu' will transmit a 'Beacon' - blinking signal, at all times - all over the earth. Amateur frequency bands will be used for communication so that the 'Beacon' can be tracked by amateur HAM community anywhere in the world. The making of Jugnu was part of Golden Jubilee celebrations of IIT Kanpur. Jugnu is being launched by ISRO’s PSLV C-18 on 12th Oct 2011 along with Megha tropiques. After its launch, Jugnu will be continuously monitored and controlled by the Ground Station located at IIT Kanpur. The satellite design is mostly indigenous. For the most part, non- space grade, commercial-offthe-shelf (COTS) components are used to keep the cost low. Unlike conventional satellites which have a large number of redundant systems, Jugnu has minimal redundancies at component level. Some redundancy is maintained at the functional level and efforts are made to achieve single point failure tolerant design for the satellite. The satellite comprises nine subsystems - six for housekeeping (Attitude Determination and Control System, Communication System, On Board Computer, Power, Structure and Thermal Control System) and three payloads (GPS, IR-Imaging and IMU). Additionally, another system Ejection Mechanism, has been designed for the separation of the satellite from the launch vehicle. The Ground Station for control and monitoring of the satellite has been set up at IIT Kanpur. The telemetry data (for Health Monitoring) collected for all the subsystems at Ground Station will validate the performance of the sensors and the miniaturized technology in the satellite subsystems. Experiments related to payloads - GPS, Imaging and IMU will demonstrate the performance of the hardware and algorithms used in their design. Images collected will also be useful in studying the vegetation and the water bodies. Other image related applications are also being envisaged. Most of the performance tests for the subsystems of satellite have been carried out in the institute itself, using existing infrastructure. However, launch critical tests have been carried out at ISRO centers. Two models of the satellite were built – Engineering Model and Flight model. 1
Systematic documentation has not only helped the team to learn from errors but has also set design protocols for universities all over the country. development and production. implementation and maintenance of standard practices during design. The aim of this mission does not end with making of Jugnu – the objective is to develop a long term infrastructure and human resources in the institute for future space research programs in the institute in collaboration with ISRO. Jugnu has been designed to overcome these challenges. the satellite´s systems will be exposed to a hard vacuum and the materials should not degas. heat dissipation is limited to radiation and conduction modes. project associates and institute staff have been engaged in accomplishing this challenging exercise. Satisfactory performance of the Qualification Model gave the green signal for the launch of the Flight Model. The satellite and its systems will also be subjected to wide thermal variations as it orbits the Earth.
. Faculty members also provided every possible support to address all technical and management issues. Vibration and Radiation tests. ISTRAC Lucknow apart from following its normal academic curriculum. There are many functionality constraints on the satellite hardware due to limited power availability. Even before ejection from the rocket. Providing sufficient thermal isolation to the satellite from the external environment is a challenge for thermal system designers. Mechanical Engineering Department (located in Northern Labs) that has the past history of synergizing diverse technologies for Railway Safety for Indian Railways and the Automotive CAR project. The Jugnu team has been operating from the Mission Office. the system has to survive high vibration load. The satellite will also have to survive high doses of radiation that have potential of causing damage to the system memory. students from first year undergraduates to final year postgraduates drawn from different disciplines. ISAC Bangalore. The designed life span of the satellite is proposed to be one year. the project team comprising of faculty members from different departments.Fabrication of both the models comprised exactly similar material and procedures.
Over the last three years. The Flight Model has been subjected to minimal non-destructive tests. Quality has been strictly controlled through planning. In the vast emptiness of space. The student team met regularly for discussion. Online documentation has been maintained to make sure that there is easy information flow among team members. Learning has been the most important aspect of this mission. The entire journey of Jugnu will be very challenging. Moreover. worked for extended hours in the lab and was also able to spare time for the educational trips to VSSC. Integration with the PSLV is done after Thermo Vacuum. Every aspect of the project has been analyzed in depth.
Ejection • Separates the satellite from launch vehicle • Interface between launch vehicle and Jugnu Thermal • Maintains the satellite within specified temperature limits • Passive thermal control system Power • Power management system with sufficient protection • Surface mounted solar panels • Rechargeable batteries Structure • Skeleton structure • Houses all other systems • Bears the vibration and thermal loading IMU • MEMS based accelerometer and gyros in space • Vibration data logging GPS • Synchronizes time • Corrects orbital position to ADCS system
Communication & Ground Station • Transmits beacon round the orbit • Controls satellites & its payloads • Operates in full duplex mode • Tracks the satellite • Payloads and health log acquisition OBC • Data Handling • Computation for other subsystem • System health log • Command execution • Payload operation ADCS • Controls orientation of satellite in space • Maintains stability and maneuvers for imaging. peak power tracking & communication Imaging • Near IR imaging system • Helps in studying vegetation patterns
low emissivity tapes. 24 bit ADC (i) MSP 430(8 MHZ) processor. 12 ch.-4 Position accuracy~20 m. OOK. F no.197 m. 2400 bps Data Uplink: 145. 3 axis Magnetorquers Li-ion batteries. 3 axis Magnetometer. 3 axis rate gyros. Passive system.
Ground Station rotary system Thermal Control System
Yagi-Uda(Uplink). Focal length. 64 KB RAM 512 flash
Data Storage Ejection System Attitude Determination and Control System Power System Communication
Triple modular redundancy memory. GUI interface in LabVIEW. Yagi-Uda (Downlink).980 MHz. 4 Reaction wheel. Avg. GSD . 600 bps Beacon Downlink: 437. Patch antenna Analog Device ADXL Accelero-meter. 8 KB RAM and 128 KB Flash (ii) ARM 7 core (AT91SAM7x).275 MHZ.SD card 2 GB IIT K Deployer System
3 axis stabilized. power 3 Watts Data Downlink: 437.505 MHz.35mm. FSK. OSR. black tape nnn
.Orbit Mass Structure Imaging (Payload) GPS (Payload) IMU (Payload) On Board Computer
Equatorial Orbit. FSK. 860 Km 3 Kg 10 cm x 10 cm x 32 cm Near IR range(700-850 nm).