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Schooling— even public schooling—was limited to those areas in which children were easy to reach and willing to attend. In the early 1990s, however, the international community began a global campaign to get more children into school. At a 1990 World Conference on Education for All, held in Jomtien, Thailand, and at a series of regional meetings that preceded and followed that major event, governments pledged to expand schooling and improve its quality, and international funding agencies pledged to support them. These agreements set the agenda for basic education and became the framework for subsequent activities of governments and international agencies. 2 Since the conference, governments have made concerted efforts to increase access to primary schools, and school enrollment rates have risen in most countries. (Unfortunately, population numbers have also grown, reducing the impact of higher enrollment numbers on enrollment rates, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa.) A second worldwide Education for All conference was held in 2000 in Dakar, Senegal, where governments were encouraged to keep on the path staked out in 1990.video to introduce the phonetic alphabet. To purchase the
supporting nomenclature in PDF format, please ... More videos for alphabet and phonetic sounds » The sounds of English and the International Phonetic Alphabet ... www.antimoon.com/how/pronunc-soundsipa.htm
All the sounds used in the English language with sound recordings and symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet. The ASCII Phonetic Alphabet - Phonetic transcription - Printable IPA/ASCII chartSuggested topics for the training:
- Communication involving the integration of all the four language skills (speaking, listening, reading and writing). - Improvement of the coordinators own English language skills. - mentoring and monitoring: how to observe classroom lessons, write down observations and how to give feedback and ensure implementation of suggestions - supervised teaching in actual classrooms, mentored teaching and a practicum -ELT skills; pedagogy for English: pedagogic skills, language skills development, knowledge about Communicative Language Teaching - Inputs/activities on how to generate writing and reading skills among students. - Inputs on language development. -Classroom management - Lesson planning basics - inputs on training skills, how to train, grammar topics and English skills
Experiential Learning by doing -. Learners form groups in which they collaborate. Self Paced Referring to materials. courses. especially designed to provide sensor motor pathways to higher learning. Writing A learning event in which the learner writes something. Reinforcement Refers to learning that is practiced in order to remember. films. Role Playing The deliberate acting out of a role (possibly a role that one would not normally occupy.COMMON TEACHING METHODS Cooperative Demonstration Lecture Field trip Project based Role-play Drill and practice Inquiry based Problem based Student presentation/seminar Experiential Learning Definition Teaching Strategy Teaching Method Cooperative Learning Demonstration Ways of presenting instructional materials or conducting instructional activities. Montessori Child-centered approach to teaching used in the early Method childhood years. A learning event in which an individual demonstrates how to do something. Project-Based A task or problem engaged in by a learner or group of Learning learners to supplement and apply classroom studies. learning. to reexamine the learning that occurred during a unit of study. Reading Occurs when a learner reads something. share and delegate responsibilities. models. etc where the Learning student is free to learn at his own pace. Visual Instruction with a great variety of illustrative materials such Instruction as visual slides. .includes knowledge and skills acquired Learning outside of book\lecture Field Trip A learning event that typically takes place outside of school grounds. Review To study material again.
frequent change of speaker keeps attention from lagging LIMITATIONS: . anecdotes Lecture With Discussion STRENGTHS: .communication in one way PREPARATION: .needs time and content limit to be effective .experts may not be good speakers .audience can question.Lecture STRENGTHS: .needs clear introduction and summary .can provoke better discussion than a one person discussion .briefs panel Brainstorming STRENGTHS: .allows experts to present different opinions .involves audience at least after the lecture .personalities may overshadow content .stimulates thinking to open discussion .requires that questions be prepared prior to discussion Panel of Experts STRENGTHS: .time may limit discussion period .useful for large groups LIMITATIONS: . logical manner .quality is limited to quality of questions and discussion PREPARATION: .contains experience which inspires .audience is passive .should include examples.subject may not be in logical order PREPARATION: .experts are not always good teachers . introduces and summarizes .presents factual material in direct.learning is difficult to gauge .facilitator coordinates focus of panel. clarify & challenge LIMITATIONS: .
keep group's attention .pools ideas and experiences from group .can raise too many issues to have a focused discussion .effective after a presentation. criticism and evaluation may occur PREPARATION: .must have some ideas if group needs to be stimulated Videotapes STRENGTHS: .is time consuming .spirit of congeniality is created .requires careful planning by facilitator to guide discussion ..requires question outline Small Group Discussion .encourages full participation because all ideas equally recorded .draws on group's knowledge and experience .allows everyone to participate in an active process LIMITATIONS: .few people can dominate .if not facilitated well.people may have difficulty getting away from known reality .7 minutes .listening exercise that allows creative thinking for new ideas .need to set up equipment .needs to be limited to 5 .discussion may not have full participation .effective only if facilitator prepares questions to discuss after the show Class Discussion STRENGTHS: . film or experience that needs to be analyzed .looks professional .stimulates discussion LIMITATIONS: .can get off the track PREPARATION: .others may not participate .one idea can spark off other other ideas LIMITATIONS: .entertaining way of teaching content and raising issues .not practical with more that 20 people .facilitator selects issue .can be unfocused .only as effective as following discussion PREPARATION: .
provides opportunity to practice skills LIMITATIONS: .develops analytic and problem solving skills .people may be too self-conscious . case studies.groups may get side tracked PREPARATION: .not appropriate for large groups .allows for large group discussion of role plays. and small group exercise .people may not see relevance to own situation .allows for exploration of solutions for complex issues .allows participation of everyone .insufficient information can lead to inappropriate results PREPARATION: .provides opportunity for people to assume roles of others and thus appreciate another point of view .trainer must give very clear instructions Report-Back Sessions STRENGTHS: .can reach group consensus LIMITATIONS: .case must be clearly defined in some cases .STRENGTHS: .introduces problem situation dramatically .needs to prepare specific tasks or questions for group to answer Case Studies STRENGTHS: .allows student to apply new knowledge and skills LIMITATIONS: .case study must be prepared Role Playing STRENGTHS: .trainer has to define problem situation and roles clearly .people often more comfortable in small groups .allows for exploration of solutions .people may feel threatened PREPARATION: .needs careful thought as to purpose of group .
contact speakers and coordinate .can be used only for short period of time PREPARATION: .gives structure to discussion .trainer has to prepare questions for groups to discuss Worksheets/Surveys STRENGTHS: .allows people to discuss values in a safe environment .personalizes topic .people may not do exercise PREPARATION: .opportunity to explore difficult and complex issues LIMITATIONS: ..allows people to thing for themselves without being influences by others .each group takes responsibility for its operation LIMITATIONS: .may not be a good speaker PREPARATION: .opportunity to explore values and beliefs .can be repetitive if each small group says the same thing PREPARATION: .facilitator has to prepare handouts Index Card Exercise STRENGTHS: .gives people a chance to reflect on experience .individual thoughts can then be shared in large group LIMITATIONS: .breaks down audience's stereotypes LIMITATIONS: .introduce speaker appropriately Values Clarification Exercise STRENGTHS: .facilitator must prepare questions Guest Speaker STRENGTHS: .
people may be too self-conscious PREPARATION: .LIMITATION: .facilitator must carefully prepare exercise .people may not be honest .must give clear instructions .facilitator must prepare discussion questions .
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