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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL VOLUME 2

EMPRESA BRASILEIRA DE AERONUTICA S.A.

This manual is applicable to the EMB-135BJ airplanes all models equipped with AE3007A1E engines, operating under FAA certification.
NOTE: THE EMB-135BJ MODEL DESIGNATION OF LEGACY. HAS THE COMMERCIAL

THIS PUBLICATION IS INCOMPLETE WITHOUT OPERATIONS MANUAL AOM135/1542 VOLUME 1

AIRPLANE

AOM135/1542-07 NOVEMBER 30, 2001


REVISION 7 MARCH 31, 2005
Copyright 2001 by EMBRAER - Empresa Brasileira de Aeronutica S.A.. All rights reserved. This document shall not be copied or reproduced, whether in whole or in part, in any form or by any means without the express written authorization of Embraer. The information, technical data, designs and drawings disclosed in this document are property information of Embraer or third parties and shall not be used or disclosed to any third party without permission of Embraer.

TRANSMITTAL LETTER

Subject: REVISION 7 of the AOM135/1542-07 Airplane Operations Manual Dear Madam or Sir, You are receiving REVISION 7 of the AOM. To help you to better understand this revision, we are presenting the main points in the Highlights of Change inside the manual. This revision incorporates all preceding temporary revisions. Therefore all yellow pages should be discarded from the manual. The revised pages supersede the current ones. Therefore, the affected pages must be replaced and the new pages inserted following the numbered sequence. The Section 1-03-36 code 01 is being deleted. Current pages must be removed from manual and discarded. The information must be replaced by Section 1-03-36 code 02.

In case of any question, please contact Embraer Flight Operations Engineering Department by E-mail: opereng@embraer.com.br or by phone: (+55 12) 3927 1706 THIS PAGE IS NOT PART OF THE MANUAL AND MUST NOT BE INCORPORATED IN YOUR AOM. PLEASE DISCARD IT AFTER READING.

CUSTOMER COMMENT FORM


Airplane Operations Manual
AOM135/1542

Please use this Customer Comment Form to notify us of any discrepancies or problems you find in the Airplane Operations Manual. We would also welcome constructive suggestions on how we can further improve our documentation or service. Your feedback will be acknowledged, and we will advise you of the action we intend to take.

Sincerely, Embraer Operations Support

Please return this form to:


Embraer - DSF/GSO/SEO - PC176 Av. Brigadeiro Faria Lima, 2170 CEP 12227-901 So Jos dos Campos - SP - BRASIL P.O. Box 8050 Phone: +55 12 3927-1706 Fax: +55 12 3927-2477 E-mail: opereng@embraer.com.br

Airplane Operations Manual


AOM135/1542
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SECTION 2-13 FLIGHT CONTROLS


TABLE OF CONTENTS Block Page General .............................................................................. 2-13-05 ..01 Pitch Control....................................................................... 2-13-10 ..01 General........................................................................... 2-13-10 ..01 Elevator .......................................................................... 2-13-10 ..02 General ....................................................................... 2-13-10 ..02 Jammed Elevator........................................................ 2-13-10 ..02 Jammed Elevator Operation ....................................... 2-13-10 ..02 Tabs................................................................................ 2-13-10 ..02 General ....................................................................... 2-13-10 ..02 Servo Tabs ................................................................. 2-13-10 ..02 Spring Tabs ................................................................ 2-13-10 ..02 Pitch Trim System .......................................................... 2-13-10 ..04 General ....................................................................... 2-13-10 ..04 System Components .................................................. 2-13-10 ..04 Horizontal Stabilizer Control Unit (HSCU) ............. 2-13-10 ..04 Horizontal Stabilizer Actuator (HSA) ..................... 2-13-10 ..04 System Operation ....................................................... 2-13-10 ..04 Pitch Trim Channels Priority ....................................... 2-13-10 ..06 Pitch Trim System Protection ..................................... 2-13-10 ..06 Switch Protection................................................... 2-13-10 ..06 Runaway Protection .............................................. 2-13-10 ..06 Inadvertent Actuation Protection ........................... 2-13-10 ..06 HSA Excessive Load Protection............................ 2-13-10 ..07 EICAS Messages ........................................................... 2-13-10 ..08 Controls and Indicators................................................... 2-13-10 ..10 Control Stand .............................................................. 2-13-10 ..10 Control Wheel ............................................................. 2-13-10 ..11 Control Pedestal Aft Panel.......................................... 2-13-10 ..12 EICAS Indication......................................................... 2-13-10 ..14

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Roll Control......................................................................... 2-13-15.. 01 Aileron Control System ................................................... 2-13-15.. 02 Roll Trim System ............................................................ 2-13-15.. 04 EICAS Messages............................................................ 2-13-15.. 06 Controls and Indicators................................................... 2-13-15.. 06 Flight Controls Panel .................................................. 2-13-15.. 06 Control Stand.............................................................. 2-13-15.. 08 Control Pedestal Aft Panel.......................................... 2-13-15.. 10 EICAS Indications....................................................... 2-13-15.. 11 Yaw Control ........................................................................ 2-13-20.. 01 Rudder Control System .................................................. 2-13-20.. 02 Automatic Shutoff Through the Speed Switch............ 2-13-20.. 04 Rudder Hardover Protection ....................................... 2-13-20.. 04 Rudder Deflection ........................................................... 2-13-20.. 05 Airplanes Under CTA and FAA Certification............... 2-13-20.. 05 Airplanes Under JAA Certification .............................. 2-13-20.. 05 Yaw Trim System............................................................ 2-13-20.. 06 EICAS Messages............................................................ 2-13-20.. 08 Controls and Indicators................................................... 2-13-20.. 09 Flight Controls Panel .................................................. 2-13-20.. 09 Control Pedestal Aft Panel.......................................... 2-13-20.. 10 Main Panel.................................................................. 2-13-20.. 11 EICAS Indications....................................................... 2-13-20.. 12 Gust Lock System .............................................................. 2-13-25.. 01 Electromechanical Gust Lock System ............................ 2-13-25.. 01 Locking Operation ...................................................... 2-13-25.. 02 Unlocking Operation ................................................... 2-13-25.. 04 Controls and Indicators................................................... 2-13-25.. 06 Glareshield Panel ....................................................... 2-13-25.. 06 Control Stand.............................................................. 2-13-25.. 07 Flap System........................................................................ 2-13-30.. 01 Flap System Operation ................................................... 2-13-30.. 02 EICAS Messages............................................................ 2-13-30.. 04 Controls and Indicators................................................... 2-13-30.. 04 Control Pedestal Aft Panel.......................................... 2-13-30.. 04 EICAS Indications....................................................... 2-13-30.. 06 Spoiler System ................................................................... 2-13-35.. 01 Ground Spoiler................................................................ 2-13-35.. 02 Speed Brake ................................................................... 2-13-35.. 02 EICAS Messages............................................................ 2-13-35.. 04 Controls and Indicators................................................... 2-13-35.. 04 Control Stand.............................................................. 2-13-35.. 04 EICAS Indications....................................................... 2-13-35.. 06
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GENERAL
The primary flight control system consists of elevators, ailerons and rudder. Elevators are mechanically actuated. The ailerons and rudder are hydraulically powered and may also be mechanically actuated in case of loss of both hydraulic systems. Trim system is provided in all axis. Tabs are provided for pitch control only, and are not available for ailerons and rudder. A gust lock system blocks elevator controls on the ground, avoiding damage to the control systems in case of strong wind gusts. The rudder and ailerons are hydraulically damped for the same purpose. An electrically operated flap system is provided with five discrete positions. Speed brakes installed overwing allow increased descent rate and help in decelerating the airplane. Ground spoilers destroy lift, thus providing better braking effectiveness.

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PITCH CONTROL
GENERAL
Pitch control is provided by mechanically-actuated elevators and an electrically-positioned horizontal stabilizer which is commanded through the Pitch Trim System. Tabs are automatically positioned, thus reducing pilots effort.

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ELEVATOR
GENERAL The primary pitch control system is performed by the elevators, which are actuated through a fully duplicated set of command circuits. JAMMED ELEVATOR In case of jamming of one of the circuits (left or right), both elevator panels may be disconnected through a handle located on the control pedestal. This procedure will release the free elevator panel from its jammed counterpart, allowing the free panel to be commanded. When disconnected, an amber light illuminates on the control stand. Controls cannot be reconnected during flight, requiring maintenance action. JAMMED ELEVATOR OPERATION The autopilot elevator servo and the stick pusher servo are connected on the left side of the disconnection device. Once disconnection is actuated, the stick pusher will actuate only on the left side and autopilot must not be used.

TABS
GENERAL There are four tabs, two on each elevator panel, located near the elevator root. The outer tabs are servo tabs and the inner tabs are spring tabs. SERVO TABS The deflection of the servo tabs is proportional to the elevator deflection. Since the servo tabs proportionally deflects in the opposite direction to the elevators, it promotes a reduction in the forces required. SPRING TABS The spring tabs are connected in such a way that elevator deflection in one direction causes the spring tab to move in the opposite direction, thus reducing the amount of force required to move the elevator. Spring tab deflection is proportional to the control column force and, therefore, to the aerodynamic load imposed on the elevator. At low speeds, the spring tab remains in the neutral position. At high speeds, where the aerodynamic load is greater, the tab functions as an aid in moving the elevator.
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ELEVATOR SCHEMATIC
(*) The thick marks represent, respectively, 4 nose down (top of the scale), neutral, and 10 nose up (bottom of the scale) and each intermediate marks represent a 2 variation.
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PITCH TRIM SYSTEM


GENERAL Pitch trim is accomplished by an electrically-actuated movable horizontal stabilizer. The system may be either automatically or manually commanded. In both cases, the pitch trim signal is sent to the Horizontal Stabilizer Control Unit (HSCU) channels, which after processing it, command the electric motor in the Horizontal Stabilizer Actuator (HSA). SYSTEM COMPONENTS Horizontal Stabilizer Control Unit (HSCU) The Horizontal Stabilizer Control Unit (HSCU) is located in the rear electronic compartment at the rear fuselage. It incorporates two identical control channels, main and backup. These channel operations are totally independent from each other. If the pitch trim main channel is inoperative, the horizontal stabilizer can still be commanded through the backup channel. The HSCU controls the trimming rate (in degrees/second) based upon the airplane airspeed. The trimming rate reduces as the airspeed increases. The HSCU also checks the stabilizer surface position. When the Takeoff Configuration Check Button is pressed, if the surface is not within the takeoff green band limits, an aural warning message is sounded to the crew. Horizontal Stabilizer Actuator (HSA) The Horizontal Stabilizer Actuator (HSA) consists of an electromechanical actuator driven by two DC motors. One of the motors is driven by the main control channel of the Horizontal Stabilizer Control Unit (HSCU) and the other motor is driven by the backup channel of the HSCU. Only one motor will be driven at a time. SYSTEM OPERATION Pitch trim commands may be done manually through the main switches on the control wheels or through backup switch on the control pedestal aft panel and automatically commanded through the autopilot or speed brake actuation. When using the main control wheel trim switches or the backup trim switch, it is necessary to command both halves simultaneously because, if just one half is commanded, the control unit will not provide any command to the actuator. In the case of activation of any stick shaker, the pitch trim up command will be inhibited.
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PITCH TRIM CHANNELS PRIORITY Command priorities are: LH switch actuation overcomes the RH switch actuation, which, in turn, overcomes the autopilot. There is no priority with respect to the actuation of the main pitch trim switches and the backup pitch trim switches, the first being commanded takes priority. The main and backup pitch trim switches should not be commanded simultaneously. For the case of a simultaneous command of both channels, the message PTRIM MAIN INOP or PTRIM BACKUP INOP will be displayed on the EICAS, associated to the second switch commanded. This message will disappear around 4 seconds after the second pitch trim switch is released. PITCH TRIM SYSTEM PROTECTION Switch Protection When only one half of the main control wheel trim switch or backup trim switch is commanded for more than 7 seconds continuously, the control unit will recognize that one half of the switch is failed stuck at the commanded position and will disregard any other command coming from that faulty switch. A TRIM voice message is provided to alert pilots that just one half of switch is being commanded and the messages PTRIM CPT SW FAIL, PTRIM F/O SW FAIL and PTRIM BKP SW FAIL will be displayed on the EICAS. Runaway Protection A quick-disconnect button on each control wheel allows disconnection from the entire pitch trim system. In case of a runaway horizontal stabilizer, the button must be kept pressed until a definite disengagement is accomplished through the cutout buttons on the control pedestal. Inadvertent Actuation Protection A continuous command of any trim switch is limited to 3 seconds, even if the trim switch is pressed longer than 3 seconds. As a result, when manually actuating the trim, it is necessary to release the switch after a 3-second actuation, then actuate it again to continue the trim command. This feature intends to minimize the effects of an inadvertent trim command of the main and backup trim switches or Ground Spoiler/Speed Brake Unit. The autopilot command is not limited in time and has another logic to preclude inadvertent actuation.

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NOTE: For airplanes equipped with an HSCU -5009 MOD.2 or newer and AWU -5 a TRIM voice message is provided to alert pilots that the trim switch is being pressed for more than 3 seconds. HSA Excessive Load Protection The crew should keep the airplane trimmed to avoid excessive loads on the Horizontal Stabilizer Actuator (HSA), especially after takeoff. High loads on horizontal stabilizer may stall the HSA, inducing a temporary loss of pitch trim command. If the pitch trim switches are actuated during the period when the Horizontal Stabilizer Actuator is stalled, the message PTRIM MAIN INOP or PTRIM BACKUP INOP will be displayed on the EICAS. The message will disappear if the trim switch is released or any horizontal stabilizer motion is detected. If the trim switches are actuated for a period of time that totalizes 16 seconds during the period when the horizontal stabilizer actuator is stalled, the control unit will switch the associated system (main or backup) off and the message PTRIM MAIN INOP or PTRIM BACKUP INOP will be permanently displayed on the EICAS.

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EICAS MESSAGES
TYPE MESSAGE PTRIM MAIN INOP MEANING Pitch trim main system is inoperative, or Quick Disconnect button is kept pressed for more than 11 seconds. This message will disappear after the button is released, or Main trim switch(es) actuation associated with the horizontal stabilizer being commanded by the backup switch, or Main trim switch being actuated with the HSA stalled. Pitch trim backup system is inoperative, or Quick Disconnect button is kept pressed for more than 11 seconds. This message will disappear after the button is released, or Backup trim switch actuation associated with horizontal stabilizer being commanded by the main channel, or Backup trim switch being actuated with the HSA stalled. Pilots pitch trim switch is inoperative. Copilots pitch trim switch is inoperative. Pitch trim backup switch is inoperative.

WARNING PTRIM BACKUP INOP

PTRIM CPT SW FAIL CAUTION PTRIM F/O SW FAIL PTRIM BKP SW FAIL

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CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


CONTROL STAND 1 - ELEVATOR DISCONNECTION HANDLE When pulled, disconnects pilot's from copilot's controls. To pull the handle, the safety lock button must be pressed. 2 - ELEVATOR DISCONNECTION LIGHT Illuminates to indicate that the elevator mechanism disconnected.

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1 - PITCH TRIM SWITCH (spring-loaded to neutral) Allows trimming the airplane when the autopilot is not engaged. The trim switch is a 3-position (UP/OFF/DN) rocker switch. Operating the switch while the autopilot is engaged causes the autopilot to disengage. It is divided into two segments, which have to be actuated together to provide command. 2 - QUICK-DISCONNECT BUTTON (momentary action) When pressed, disconnects all trim systems.

CONTROL WHEEL

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CONTROL PEDESTAL AFT PANEL 1 - PITCH TRIM MAIN SYSTEM CUTOUT BUTTON (safety guarded) Cuts out (pressed) or enables (released) the Main Pitch Trim system. A striped bar illuminates inside the button to indicate that it is pressed. Autopilot is not available. 2 - PITCH TRIM BACKUP SYSTEM CUTOUT BUTTON (safety guarded) Cuts out (pressed) or enables (released) the Backup Pitch Trim system. A striped bar illuminates inside the button to indicate that it is pressed. Autopilot is available. 3 - PITCH TRIM BACKUP SWITCH (spring-loaded to neutral) Pressed forward or backward actuates the pitch trim through the backup channel. Operation of the switch while the autopilot is engaged causes the autopilot to disengage. It is divided into two segments, which have to be actuated together to provide command.

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EICAS INDICATION 1 - PITCH TRIM INDICATION A green pointer moving on a white vertical scale represents the amount of pitch compensation. Trim position is indicated digitally in a white box. The letters UP or DN are presented above the box to indicate that the airplane is trimmed up or down. Scale ranges from 4 nose down (bottom of scale) to 10 nose up (top of scale). Every thick mark on the scale represents 3.5 of pitch. A green band is provided on the analog scale from 4 to 8 nose up to indicate the allowable takeoff position range for the horizontal stabilizer. NOTE: Due to the systems resolution, its possible to have the digits, box and pointer turning amber, in spite of the fact that the pitch trim indication is displayed at 4 or 8. The trim setting color displayed on the EICAS depends on the horizontal stabilizer surface position. For the unit 8 displayed on the EICAS the surface position can be between 7.7 and 8.7 going upward and between 8.3 and 7.3 going downward. The color change would occur when the surface position is 8.1. For this reason, when setting pitch trim to 8, first select 7. Then, increase slowly and stop trimming immediately when the value 8 is displayed. For the unit 4 displayed on the EICAS, the surface position can be between 3.7 and 4.7 going upward and between 4.3 and 3.3 going downward. The color change would occur when the surface position is 3.9. For this reason, when setting pitch trim to 4, first select 5. Then, decrease slowly and stop trimming immediately when the value 4 is displayed. This procedure prevents to set the trim at the top or bottom of the green band in order to avoid the possibility of encountering takeoff config warnings. In the event of a pitch trim miscomparison, the pointer, digital value, and the direction indication are removed from display. If the pitch trim is out of the green band and the airplane is on the ground, the pointer and digital indications will turn amber.

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If the airplane is on the ground and any thrust lever angle is above 60 and pitch trim is outside the green band, the digits, box, and pointer turn red and sound the aural warning TAKEOFF TRIM and the EICAS message NO TAKEOFF CONFIG is also displayed.

EICAS INDICATIONS

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ROLL CONTROL
Roll control is provided by hydraulically-actuated ailerons controlled by either control wheel.

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AILERON CONTROL SYSTEM


The ailerons are positioned by the pilots control wheels, which are linked together by a torque tube and cables to supply mechanical input to two separate hydraulic actuators. Each aileron actuator is supplied by both hydraulic systems. Either hydraulic system is capable of providing full power control. If necessary, each hydraulic system supply can be shut off, by means of a button installed on the overhead panel. In case of loss of both hydraulic systems, rotation of the pilots control wheels mechanically positions the ailerons. In case of jamming of either aileron, both panels may be disconnected through a handle located on the control pedestal. This procedure will release the free aileron from its jammed counterpart allowing the free panel to be commanded. When disconnected, an amber light illuminates on the control stand. Controls cannot be reconnected during flight, requiring maintenance action. An autopilot servo is installed on the left side of the torque tube. The roll trim servo and the artificial feel unit are installed on the right side of the torque tube. In case of system disconnection, the artificial feel unit will actuate on the right aileron only and the autopilot must not be used. The artificial feel unit is provided to give pilots a aerodynamic load feedback imposed on the aileron surface.

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ROLL TRIM SYSTEM


Roll trim is performed by relocating the ailerons neutral position. It is provided through an electromechanical actuator linked to the artificial feel unit and commanded through a switch on the control pedestal aft panel. If the aileron trim switches are activated with the autopilot engaged, the aileron neutral point is repositioned. When the autopilot is disengaged, the ailerons move to the repositioned aileron neutral point. A continuous command of the roll trim switch is limited to 3 seconds, even if the trim switch is pressed longer than 3 seconds. As a result, when manually actuating the trim, it is necessary to release the switch after a 3-second actuation, then actuate it again to continue the trim command. This feature intends to minimize the effects of an inadvertent trim command failure. When using the roll trim switch, it is necessary to command both segments simultaneously since, if just one segment is commanded, the control unit will not provide any command for the actuator. A quick-disconnect button installed on the control wheels allows, while kept pressed, to disconnect the roll trim.

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EICAS MESSAGES
TYPE CAUTION MESSAGE AIL SYS 1 (2) INOP MEANING Aileron actuation through hydraulic power is inoperative.

CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


FLIGHT CONTROLS PANEL 1 - AILERON SHUTOFF BUTTON Enables (pressed) or disables (released) the associated aileron hydraulic actuator. A striped bar illuminates in the button to indicate that it is released.

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CONTROL STAND 1 - AILERON DISCONNECTION HANDLE When pulled, disconnects pilot's from copilot's controls. To pull the handle, the safety lock button must be pressed. 2 - AILERON DISCONNECTION LIGHT When the striped bar is illuminated, indicates that the aileron disconnection mechanism is actuated.

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CONTROL PEDESTAL AFT PANEL 1 - ROLL TRIM SWITCH (spring-loaded to neutral) Pressed left or right actuates the roll trim to roll left or right.

CONTROL PEDESTAL AFT PANEL


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Indicated by a green pointer moving on a white semicircle scale. Center of the scale is zero trimming. Each mark represents 50% of trimming range for the associated side.

EICAS INDICATIONS
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YAW CONTROL
Yaw control is provided through hydraulically-powered rudders, which may also be mechanically commanded. A yaw trim system assists in moving and holding the rudder in the desired position.

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RUDDER CONTROL SYSTEM


Directional control about the yaw axis is provided by two in-tandem rudders. Forward rudder is driven by the control system, while the aft rudder is linked to the forward rudder and deflected as a function of forward rudder deflection. Either set of rudder pedals will position the rudder through a Power Control Unit (PCU). The mechanical control is fully duplicated, consisting of cables running from the pedals in the cockpit to the rear fuselage, where the PCU is commanded to position the forward rudder. The rudder can also be commanded through the autopilot. The rudder PCU is a dual hydraulic unit, simultaneously powered by both hydraulic systems. Each PCU hydraulic circuit controls the hydraulic power to one respective rudder actuator. Therefore, the rudder system is divided into Rudder System 1 and Rudder System 2. The PCU also incorporates an artificial feel device that provides the pedals with an artificial feel of the aerodynamic load imposed on the rudder. Rudder System 1 and/or Rudder System 2 may be either manually or automatically shut off. The manual shut off operation is provided through the Rudder Shutoff Buttons, located on the Overhead Panel. The automatic shut off operation is provided through the speed switch and through the hardover protection function. When operating under mechanical mode the aerodynamic loads on the rudder are directly transmitted to the pedals and, therefore, to the pilots. Since no rudder hydraulics control is available, artificial feel and trim functions will also not be available. Some characteristics can be observed: greater control forces; sluggish response of rudder to pedals inputs; backlash of rudder pedals around neutral position when changing the force application from one to the other pedal.

If either or both rudder systems are inoperative, caution messages are presented on the EICAS.

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FLIGHT CONTROLS

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

AUTOMATIC SHUTOFF THROUGH THE SPEED SWITCH During normal operation both systems are powered at speeds below 135 KIAS. Above 135 KIAS, Rudder System 1 is automatically shut off. If the automatic shut off fails to shut off a system above 135 KIAS, a caution message is presented on the EICAS. In this case, it is necessary to manually shut off system 1 or 2, according to the checklist. If Rudder System 2 hydraulic power supply fails, Rudder System 1 automatically takes over the rudder and an associated caution message is presented on the EICAS. RUDDER HARDOVER PROTECTION The rudder hardover protection function automatically selects the mechanical reversion mode as a function of pedal input force, rudder deflection, and airplane engine operation (two or single-engine operation). This feature is applicable in the case of a runaway rudder and a caution message is presented on the EICAS. The rudder systems are automatically shut off if all conditions below are met simultaneously: Rudder deflected above 5 1. Force above 59 kg (130 lb) on the pedal to counteract rudder deflection. Both engines running above 56% N2. CAUTION: DO NOT RESET THE RUDDER SYSTEMS IF THE MECHANICAL REVERSION MODE WAS RESULTANT OF HARDOVER PROTECTION ACTIVATION. If mechanical reversion mode was not resultant of hardover protection, a reset function is available on the Overhead Panel, by pressing both Rudder Shutoff Buttons off and on again. The following remarks are applicable to the rudder hardover protection: The signal from the Pedal Spring-Loaded Cartridges to shut off the rudder systems are applicable only if the pilots are applying force to one side with the rudder deflected above 5 1 to the opposite side. If pilot command input and the rudder deflection are in the same direction, the system will not be shut off, regardless of how strong the pilot input.
Page Code

2-13-20

4 01

REVISION 6

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

FLIGHT CONTROLS

The rudder hardover protection is disabled at high airspeeds, when the rudder deflection authority decreases to less than 5. During single-engine operation, when the rudder system is more significantly required, the shut off function is disabled. If a disagreement between FADECs from the same engine occurs, rudder hardover protection is deactivated and a caution message is presented on the EICAS.

RUDDER DEFLECTION
AIRPLANES UNDER CTA AND FAA CERTIFICATION The rudders main control primary stops, limit rudder deflection at 15 on ground or in flight. AIRPLANES UNDER JAA CERTIFICATION These airplanes are equipped with movable rudder primary stops, which provide two different ranges of rudder deflection: On ground: maximum rudder deflection is 15. In flight: maximum rudder deflection is 10. The Movable Rudder Primary Stops System comprises a hydraulic actuation system, which operates according to the air/ground logic and will limit rudder deflection to 10 in the extended position and to 15 in the retracted position. An amber indication light is provided on the main panel to alert the crew in case of a disagreement between the actuator position and the air/ground condition.

Page

Code

NOVEMBER 30, 2001

2-13-20

5 01

FLIGHT CONTROLS

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

YAW TRIM SYSTEM


Yaw trim is accomplished by an electromechanical actuator, which receives signals from the yaw trim knob. A continuous command of the yaw trim knob is limited to 3 seconds, even if the trim knob is actuated longer than 3 seconds. As a result, when manually actuating the trim, it is necessary to release the knob after a 3-second actuation, then actuate it again to continue the trim command. This feature intends to minimize the effects of an inadvertent trim command failure. Yaw trim position is presented on EICAS display. A quick-disconnect button installed on the control wheels allows, while kept pressed, disconnecting the yaw trim.

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Code

2-13-20

6 01

NOVEMBER 30, 2001

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

FLIGHT CONTROLS

YAW TRIM SCHEMATIC

Page

Code

NOVEMBER 30, 2001

2-13-20

7 01

FLIGHT CONTROLS

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

EICAS MESSAGES
TYPE MESSAGE RUDDER SYS 1 INOP MEANING Rudder System 1 is inoperative. Message is presented under the following conditions: Below 135 KIAS. Above 135 KIAS if airspeed of both ADCs is invalid. Rudder System 2 is inoperative. Both Rudder Systems are inoperative.

RUDDER SYS 2 INOP

RUDDER SYS 12 INOP

CAUTION RUDDER OVERBOOST

Both rudder systems hydraulic actuators are pressurized above 135 KIAS. RUD HDOV PROTFAIL Disagreement between both FADECs of a same engine. Rudder position microswitches indicate rudder to right and left simultaneously. RUD STOP DISAGREE (*) The rudders movable stop presents disagreement: 15 in flight or 10 on ground.

(*) Applicable to airplanes operating under JAA certification and not equipped with rudder movable stops indication light.

Page

Code

2-13-20

8 01

NOVEMBER 30, 2001

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

FLIGHT CONTROLS

CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


FLIGHT CONTROLS PANEL 1 - RUDDER SHUTOFF BUTTON Enables (pressed ) or disables (released) the associated rudder hydraulic actuator. A striped bar illuminates in the button to indicate that it is released.

FLIGHT CONTROLS PANEL

Page

Code

ORIGINAL

2-13-20

9 01

FLIGHT CONTROLS

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

CONTROL PEDESTAL AFT PANEL 1 - YAW TRIM KNOB (spring-loaded to neutral) Rotated clockwise or counterclockwise actuates the yaw trim, right or left .

CONTROL PEDESTAL AFT PANEL


Page Code

2-13-20

10 01

REVISION 4

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL MAIN PANEL

FLIGHT CONTROLS

1 - MOVABLE RUDDER STOPS INDICATION LIGHT (APPLICABBLE TO AIRPLANES OPERATING UNDER JAA CERTIFICATION) Color: amber Illuminates to indicate an incorrect position of at least one hydraulic actuator of the movable rudder stops system, as follows: - Airplane in flight with movable rudder stops at 15 position. - Airplane on ground with movable rudder stops at 10position. A time delay of 5 seconds is provided to prevent fault indication during transient. NOTE: For some airplanes, the indication light will be replaced by the EICAS message RUD STOP DISAGREE.

MAIN PANEL

Page

Code

NOVEMBER 30, 2001

2-13-20

11 01

FLIGHT CONTROLS

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

EICAS INDICATIONS 1- YAW TRIM POSITION Indicated by a green pointer moving on a horizontal scale. Center of the scale is zero trimming. Each mark represents 50% of trimming range for the associated side.

EICAS INDICATIONS
Page Code

2-13-20

12 01

NOVEMBER 30, 2001

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

FLIGHT CONTROLS

GUST LOCK SYSTEM


A gust lock system is provided to lock the elevator to avoid damage to elevator components in the case the aircraft is subject to strong gusts on the ground. The aileron and rudder surfaces do not need to be mechanically locked since their actuation systems naturally damp any undesired movement.

ELECTROMECHANICAL GUST LOCK SYSTEM


The electromechanical gust lock can be identified by a yellow and black striped safety lock device on the control pedestal with the inscription ELEC GUST LOCK, and by two indication lights on the glareshield panel. The electromechanical gust lock acts directly on the elevator panels, preventing them from moving. Basically, the system is composed of locking pins driven by an electromechanical actuator, which is commanded by the gust lock lever. Gust lock system operation (locking and unlocking) is possible on the ground only. Once airborne, the system is deenergized to prevent gust lock lever movement and inadvertent actuation. The gust lock indication lights located on the glareshield panel illuminate to indicate the unlocking cycle or when a failure in the system occurs or when it is pressed for test. For airplanes Post-Mod. SB 145LEG-27-0011 or with an equivalent modification factory incorporated, when the TLA is higher than 59 and the gust lock system is still locked, the light will illuminate indicating that an unlocking cycle has initiated. The system is fed by DC Bus 2 and has a dedicated circuit breaker, located on the overhead circuit breaker panel.

Page

Code

REVISION 5

2-13-25

1 01

FLIGHT CONTROLS

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

LOCKING OPERATION To lock the elevator proceed as follows: A. Pull the control column backwards to any position from neutral to full nose up. B. Lift the safety lock device (1) and move the gust lock lever from the unlocked to the locked position (2). C. Push the control column fully forward until the control column movement is restricted. Locking is completed. In locked position, the thrust levers are prevented from moving beyond the thrust setting needed for ground maneuvering. However, the gust lock lever was designed to allow extra travel for one of the thrust levers. NOTE: During the locking operation, indication lights remain off.

Page

Code

2-13-25

2 01

ORIGINAL

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL TO LOCK:

FLIGHT CONTROLS

Page

Code

NOVEMBER 30, 2001

2-13-25

3 01

FLIGHT CONTROLS

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

UNLOCKING OPERATION To unlock the elevator proceed as follows: A. Lift the safety lock device (1) and move the gust lock lever to its intermediate detented position (2). B. At this position, the locking pins are commanded to open and the elevators will be unlocked after approximately 8 seconds. The indication lights will illuminate during the unlocking cycle, remaining off after that. After the indication lights go off, pull the control column backwards to any position from neutral to full nose up. C. Lift the safety lock device (3) and pull the gust lock lever from the intermediate position to its full forward inflight resting position (4), completing the unlocking cycle. NOTE: Gust lock lever command from the intermediate to the unlocked position is not possible prior to pulling column rearward.

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Code

2-13-25

4 01

NOVEMBER 30, 2001

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL TO UNLOCK:

FLIGHT CONTROLS

Page

Code

ORIGINAL

2-13-25

5 01

FLIGHT CONTROLS

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


GLARESHIELD PANEL GUST LOCK INDICATION LIGHTS Color: amber Illuminates during the unlocking cycle to indicate that the locking pins were commanded to unlock the elevator surfaces. Illuminates in case of failure. Illuminates when it is pressed.

Page

Code

2-13-25

6 01

REVISION 5

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL CONTROL STAND GUST LOCK LEVER

FLIGHT CONTROLS

Actuated backward, locks both elevator and thrust control levers. The safety lock has to be lifted to move the lever.

CONTROL STAND
Page Code

NOVEMBER 30, 2001

2-13-25

7 01

FLIGHT CONTROLS

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

THIS PAGE IS LEFT BLANK INTENTIONALLY

Page

Code

2-13-25

8 01

NOVEMBER 30, 2001

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

FLIGHT CONTROLS

FLAP SYSTEM
The flaps are electrically operated, consisting of two double-slotted flap panels installed to each wing.

Page

Code

NOVEMBER 30, 2001

2-13-30

1 01

FLIGHT CONTROLS

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

FLAP SYSTEM OPERATION


The Flap Selector Lever provides four detent settings at 0, 9, 22 and 45 positions. Intermediate positions cannot be selected. When any position is selected, the selector lever signals to the Flap Electronic Control Unit (FECU) to move the flap panels. The FECU also monitors system failures and flap position, sending signals to the EICAS and other related systems. Flap Power and Drive Unit (FPDU) drive the flap panels. The FPDU is a gearbox with two electric motors connected to that unit. Each motor is controlled by the FECU through one independent channel. Both motors drive all the flap actuators through flexible shafts. If a motor, or its associated FECU control channel, or associated velocity sensor or transmission brake fail, the affected channel is disengaged and its associated motor actuation is interrupted. The remaining motor can drive all flap panels at half speed. An EICAS message is presented to indicate that flaps are being moved at a lower speed. If both motors or control channels fail, an EICAS message is presented to indicate that the system is inoperative. Flap actuators are torque-limited to safeguard structure against excessive loading should flaps or actuators jam. Velocity sensors installed at the end of the flexible shafts detect panels asymmetry. In such cases, the system is disabled. On the ground a protection circuit prevents flap movement when the airplane is energized and a disagreement is detected between flap position and flap selector lever. To override such protection, it is necessary to lift up and release the flap selector lever. Two switches on the Flap Selector Lever send signals to the Landing Gear Warning System to alert pilots any time the airplane is in a landing configuration and the gear legs are not locked down. Flap position is shown on the EICAS display. There are also flap marks on the wing trailing edge, indicating 9 and 22, which becomes visible when flap moves to those positions.

Page

Code

2-13-30

2 01

NOVEMBER 30, 2001

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

FLIGHT CONTROLS

FLAP SCHEMATIC
Page Code

NOVEMBER 30, 2001

2-13-30

3 01

FLIGHT CONTROLS

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

EICAS MESSAGES
TYPE MESSAGE CAUTION FLAP FAIL MEANING Both flap channels are inoperative or flap asymmetry is 2 or more. One flap channel is inoperative.

ADVISORY FLAP LOW SPEED

FLAP AURAL WARNING (TAKEOFF FLAPS) If any thrust lever angle is above 60 and the flaps are not in the appropriate takeoff position while the aircraft is on the ground, the TAKEOFF FLAPS aural warning and the EICAS configuration warning will be activated.

CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


CONTROL PEDESTAL AFT PANEL 1 - FLAP SELECTOR LEVER Moved to the detent positions, selects each discrete flap position. To move the lever it is necessary to pull it up. Intermediate positions are not enabled. NOTE: The flap position 18 can not be selected.

Page

Code

2-13-30

4 01

NOVEMBER 30, 2001

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

FLIGHT CONTROLS

CONTROL PEDESTAL AFT PANEL

Page

Code

REVISION 4

2-13-30

5 01

FLIGHT CONTROLS

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

EICAS INDICATIONS 1- FLAPS POSITION Ranges from 0 to 45, with discrete indication on 0, 9, 22 and 45. Colors: Box: white. Digits: - green (except 0, which is white). - changes to a green dash when flaps are in transit. In-transit flap position is replaced by the actual flap position if flap fails. If data is invalid, digits are replaced by amber dashes and box becomes amber. NOTE: The Flap position can be seen on RMU display.

EICAS INDICATIONS
Page Code

2-13-30

6 01

REVISION 4

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

FLIGHT CONTROLS

SPOILER SYSTEM
Spoiler system consists of speed brake and ground spoiler subsystems. Speed brakes allow increased descent rate and assist in decelerating the airplane. Ground spoilers destroy lift, thus providing better braking effectiveness. Spoilers are electrically commanded and hydraulically actuated. A Spoiler Control Unit is responsible for permitting the spoiler panels to open or not. Four spoiler panels are provided, two per wing surface. The outboard spoilers provide both speed brake and ground spoiler functions, while the inboard spoilers provide only a ground spoiler function. The actuation of either subsystem is fully independent.

Page

Code

ORIGINAL

2-13-35

1 01

FLIGHT CONTROLS

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

GROUND SPOILER
The Spoiler Control Unit (SCU) automatically performs ground spoiler opening, without pilots' interference. The SCU enables the ground spoilers to open whenever the following conditions are met: Airplane on the ground. Main landing gear wheels running above 25 kt. Both engines thrust lever angles set to below 30 or both engines N2 below 56%. If any of those conditions is not met, the ground spoilers will not open. A status indication is presented on the EICAS to indicate that the spoilers are open or closed. If a failure is detected, a caution message is presented on the EICAS.

SPEED BRAKE
When speed brake is commanded with autopilot engaged, the auto pitch trim is provided through the autopilot; when the autopilot is not engaged the Spoiler Control Unit provides the auto pitch trim command. The speed brakes will open when the speed brake lever is set to open and the following conditions are met: Thrust lever angle of both engines set to below 50. Flaps at 0 or 9. If the speed brake lever is commanded to the OPEN position and any of the speed brake open condition is not met, the speed brake panels are kept closed and a caution message is presented on the EICAS. If the speed brake panels are open and any of the speed brake open condition is not met, the speed brake panels automatically close and an EICAS message is presented. In both cases, the speed brake lever must be moved to the CLOSE position to remove the EICAS message.

Page

Code

2-13-35

2 01

REVISION 6

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

FLIGHT CONTROLS

SPOILER SYSTEM SCHEMATIC

Page

Code

NOVEMBER 30, 2001

2-13-35

3 01

FLIGHT CONTROLS

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

EICAS MESSAGES
TYPE MESSAGE SPOILER FAIL MEANING Any spoiler panel open inadvertently, failed to open or any failure in the input signals. Speed Brake Lever commanded to OPEN but opening logic is not satisfied.

CAUTION SPBK LVR DISAGREE

SPOILER AURAL WARNING (TAKEOFF SPOILERS) If any thrust lever angle is above 60 and any spoiler/speed brake panel is deployed, the spoiler OPN label turns red and the TAKEOFF SPOILERS aural warning and the EICAS configuration warning will be activated.

CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


CONTROL STAND 1 - SPEED BRAKE LEVER Actuated to the OPEN position commands outboard spoiler panels to open, provided enabling conditions are met.

Page

Code

2-13-35

4 01

NOVEMBER 30, 2001

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

FLIGHT CONTROLS

CONTROL STAND

Page

Code

NOVEMBER 30, 2001

2-13-35

5 01

FLIGHT CONTROLS

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

EICAS INDICATIONS 1- SPOILERS INDICATION Displays OPN when any of the surfaces are open, or CLD when all of the surfaces are closed. Colors: Box: white. CLD: white. OPN: - green in normal condition. - red if any surfaces are open during takeoff.

EICAS INDICATIONS
Page Code

2-13-35

6 01

NOVEMBER 30, 2001

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

OXYGEN

SECTION 2-16 OXYGEN


TABLE OF CONTENTS Block Page General .............................................................................. 2-16-05 ..01 Flight Crew Oxygen............................................................ 2-16-10 ..01 EICAS Message............................................................ 2-16-10 ..05 ECS Page on MFD ....................................................... 2-16-10 ..06 Crew Mask Stowage Boxes .......................................... 2-16-10 ..08 Crew Mask .................................................................... 2-16-10 ..09 Controls and Indicators (EROS Mask).......................... 2-16-10 ..10 Smoke Goggles ............................................................ 2-16-10 ..12 Passenger Oxygen............................................................. 2-16-15 ..01 EICAS Message............................................................ 2-16-15 ..04 ECS Page on MFD ....................................................... 2-16-15 ..04 Passenger Dispensing Unit and Mask .......................... 2-16-15 ..06 Controls and Indicators ................................................. 2-16-15 ..08 Portable Oxygen ............................................................... 2-16-20 ..01 Portable Oxygen Cylinder ............................................. 2-16-20 ..01 Protective Breathing Equipment.................................... 2-16-20 ..04 Minimum Oxygen Pressure for Dispatch ........................... 2-16-25 ..01 Flight Crew Oxygen Subsystem.................................... 2-16-25 ..01 Passenger Oxygen Subsystem..................................... 2-16-25 ..01 Portable Oxygen Cylinder ............................................. 2-16-25 ..01 Oxygen Pressure Correction Chart............................... 2-16-25 ..02 Oxygen Consumption Chart.......................................... 2-16-25 ..04

Page

Code

REVISION 7

2-16-00

1 01

OXYGEN

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

THIS PAGE IS LEFT BLANK INTENTIONALLY

Page

Code

2-16-00

2 01

ORIGINAL

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

OXYGEN

GENERAL
The oxygen system supplies, in case of cabin decompression, protective and supplemental oxygen for the crew and only supplemental oxygen for the passengers. It is a conventional, highpressure gaseous type system, in which the oxygen is stored in a cylinder at high pressure and distributed at low pressure to the masks. The system is composed of three subsystems that operate independently: The Flight crew oxygen subsystem, the Passenger oxygen subsystem and the portable oxygen subsystem. The first two subsystems are monitored so that all the necessary parameters are informed to the flight crew and flight attendants.

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Code

NOVEMBER 30, 2001

2-16-05

1 01

OXYGEN

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

THIS PAGE IS LEFT BLANK INTENTIONALLY

Page

Code

2-16-05

2 01

NOVEMBER 30, 2001

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

OXYGEN

FLIGHT CREW OXYGEN


The flight crew oxygen subsystem employs a 50-cu.ft cylinder, installed on the right side of the cockpit/passenger cabin partition, in which the oxygen is stored at high pressure (1850 psi) to supply the cockpit crew members (Pilot, Copilot and Observer) masks. The system is protected from overpressurization by a safety disc located on the lower right side of the aircrafts nose. Discharge through the safety disc may be visually verified when the discharge indicator (green disc) has been blown out. If the cylinder pressure drops below 400 psi (for airplanes equipped with EICAS prior to version 20.5) or 450 psi (for airplanes equipped with EICAS version 20.6 and on), a caution message is presented on the EICAS. The cylinder is provided with an integrated shutoff/regulator valve, that controls oxygen outlet pressure. The regulator valve at the ON position supplies the crew distribution lines at a low-pressure rate (70 psi). A relief valve opens if the pressure exceeds 90 psi. On the left side of the oxygen service panel, located on the right side of the front fuselage, there is a crew charging valve and a pressure gauge to check oxygen quantity. Some airplanes may have a factory installed removable panel located behind the copilots seat that provides access to the oxygen cylinder and its replacement. The cylinder pressure is also indicated on the MFD (ECS page). The cockpit is provided with a quick donning diluter/demand-type mask (or a pressure/demmand type for 41000 ft operation), available inside mask stowage boxes adjacent to each crew station, and a smoke protection kit, which consists of two smoke goggles to be used by the pilot and copilot with the diluter/demand masks (or pressure/demmand masks for 41000 ft operation). There are two different types of flight crew oxygen masks, as follows: Flight crew oxygen mask with dilution demand regulator type, required for airplanes with altitude ceiling of 39000 ft; Flight crew oxygen mask with pressure demand regulator type, required for airplanes with altitude ceiling of 41000 ft. NOTE: The two types of flight crew oxygen masks presents no differences in its size and operation.

Page

Code

REVISION 7

2-16-10

1 01

OXYGEN

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

FLIGHT CREW OXYGEN SYSTEM SCHEMATIC


Page Code

2-16-10

2 01

REVISION 7

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

OXYGEN

CREW OXYGEN CYLINDER


Page Code

NOVEMBER 30, 2001

2-16-10

3 01

OXYGEN

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

OXYGEN SERVICE PANEL


Page Code

2-16-10

4 01

NOVEMBER 30, 2001

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

OXYGEN

EICAS MESSAGE
TYPE MESSAGE CREW OXY LO PRESS MEANING Crew oxygen cylinder pressure below 400 psi (for airplanes equipped with EICAS prior to version 20.5) or 450 psi (for airplanes equipped with EICAS version 20.6 and on). Remaining oxygen sufficient for approximately 12 minutes for pilot, copilot, and observer.

CAUTION

Page

Code

REVISION 7

2-16-10

5 01

OXYGEN

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

ECS PAGE ON MFD


1 - ANALOGIC OXYGEN PRESSURE INDICATION AIRPLANES EQUIPPED WITH EICAS PRIOR TO VERSION 20.5 Pointer: Green between 410 to 1850 psi. Amber between 250 to 400 psi. Red between 0 to 240 psi. AIRPLANES EQUIPPED WITH EICAS VERSION 20.6 AND ON Pointer: Green between 460 to 1850 psi. Amber between 260 to 450 psi. Red between 0 to 250 psi. 2 - DIGITAL OXYGEN PRESSURE INDICATION AIRPLANES EQUIPPED WITH EICAS PRIOR TO VERSION 20.5 Digits are green between 410 to 1850 psi. Digits are amber between 250 to 400 psi. Digits are red between 0 to 240 psi. (Ranges from 0 to 1850 psi, with a resolution of 10 psi). AIRPLANES EQUIPPED WITH EICAS VERSION 20.6 AND ON Digits are green between 460 to 1850 psi. Digits are amber between 260 to 450 psi. Digits are red between 0 to 250 psi. (Ranges from 0 to 1850 psi, with a resolution of 10 psi).

Page

Code

2-16-10

6 01

REVISION 7

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

OXYGEN

CREW ECS PAGE ON MFD


Page Code

ORIGINAL

2-16-10

7 01

OXYGEN

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

CREW MASK STOWAGE BOXES


The crew mask stowage boxes are directly connected to the oxygen distribution line and to the communications system. The pilot and copilot boxes incorporate a shutoff valve, which keeps the mask regulator unpressurized while in the stowed position. When the box doors are opened, the shutoff valve is brought to the open position, thus allowing oxygen to flow to the mask. After the mask has been taken out of the stowage box, the doors can be closed without interrupting oxygen supply to the mask. To stop the oxygen flow, it is necessary to close the left door and activate the Test/Shutoff Sliding Control. Pilot and copilot mask stowage boxes are also provided with a flow indicator. NOTE: The observers mask stowage box is not provided with Test/ Shutoff Sliding Control (EROS Mask) and, although the mask is permanently pressurized, oxygen will flow only on demand.

Page

Code

2-16-10

8 01

REVISION 7

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

OXYGEN

CREW MASK
The crew mask is a quick donning oro-nasal mask assembly that can supply breathing protection up to 39000 ft or 41000 ft and allows oxygen flow on demand or under pressure, as required. The mask is provided with an automatic oxygen dilution system that supplies pure oxygen at a cabin altitude of over 33000 ft. It can also be manually selected to the 100% position to provide pure oxygen at all altitudes or to the EMERGENCY position to maintain in the venting orifice 100% pure oxygen (or positive pressure if it is an oxygen mask with pressure demand regulator type). The quick donning operation is as follows: Hold the mask with one hand by the mask regulator and the inflation control valve (red ears). Pull the mask out of the box. Press the inflation control valve (red ears) firmly. The harness inflates rapidly, and takes a round shape large and rigid enough to allow the user to don it quickly. Release the regulator ears. The harness will then deflate, securing the mask to the user's face. NOTE: The EROS Mask is provided with two red ears. One inflates the harness when pressed and the other is fixed. The oxygen mask with dilute demand regulator type (applicable to airplanes with altitude ceiling of 39000 ft) is equipped with a flow indicator only for the observer mask. The flow indicator for the pilot and copilot is located in the respective crew mask stowage boxes. The oxygen mask with pressure demand regulator type (applicable to airplanes with altitude ceiling of 41000 ft) is equipped with a flow indicator for the pilot, copilot and observer.

Page

Code

REVISION 7

2-16-10

9 01

OXYGEN

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

CONTROLS AND INDICATORS (EROS MASK)


MASK STOWAGE BOX/CREW MASK 1 - TEST/SHUTOFF SLIDING CONTROL (spring-loaded in the pilot and copilot boxes only) When pressed, with the mask stowed, allows testing of the oxygen mask. Flow indicator turns yellow for a short time. The OXY ON flag appears on the lid face. When pressed, with the mask not stowed and the left door closed, shuts off oxygen to the mask. The OXY ON flag disappears on the lid face. 2 - OXY ON FLAG (white) Appears when the box shutoff valve is open and oxygen is supplied to the mask. 3 - FLOW INDICATOR (pilot and copilot boxes only) A yellow star appears when oxygen is flowing. 4 - VENTING VALVE CONTROL (pilot and copilot masks only) When actuated forward, opens the venting valve. A red band is visible to indicate that the control is actuated. 5 - HARNESS INFLATION CONTROL VALVE (red ear) When pressed, inflates the harness and allows mask donning. 6 - FLOW INDICATOR The black shutter disappears when pressure is applied to the mask. 7 - TEST/EMERGENCY SELECTOR KNOB When rotated clockwise, 100% oxygen is supplied under positive pressure at all cabin altitudes. This mode must be selected when using smoke goggles. When pressed, tests if the regulator demand mechanism operates satisfactorily. 8 - NORMAL/100% SELECTOR N - Oxygen/air mixture is supplied on demand. Mixture ratio depends on the cabin altitude. Above 33000 ft, pure oxygen is supplied. 100% - Pure oxygen is supplied at all cabin altitudes on demand (or on positive pressure if it is an oxygen mask with pressure demand regulator type). This mode must be selected in conjunction with the EMERGENCY position, when protective breathing is required.
Page Code

2-16-10

10 01

REVISION 7

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

OXYGEN

MASK STOWAGE BOX/CREW MASK (EROS MASK)


Page Code

ORIGINAL

2-16-10

11 01

OXYGEN

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

SMOKE GOGGLES
The smoke goggles were designed for use with the crew mask assembly, matching the mask face cone. The venting valve, located on the mask shell and manually actuated by the user, allows direct communication between venting orifice and goggles. When mask regulator is selected to emergency position, a metered oxygen flow will be directed to the goggles cavity so as to allow continuous venting and preventing any infiltration of harmful gases.

SMOKE GOGGLES

Page

Code

12 01 2-16-10 (Pages 13 and 14 deleted)

REVISION 7

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

OXYGEN

PASSENGER OXYGEN
The passenger oxygen subsystem employs one or two oxygen cylinder(s), installed in the closeout panel near the galley, in which the oxygen is stored at high pressure (1850 psi) to supply the passenger oxygen masks. The subsystem shares with the crew oxygen subsystem the overpressure discharge indicator (safety disk), located on the lower left side of aircrafts nose. For that reason, in case of over pressurization the same indicator blows out and can be visually inspected. If the cylinder pressure drops below 750 psi, a caution message is presented on the EICAS. The Passenger Oxygen Control Panel is located on the right lateral console, above the copilots mask stowage box. Under normal operating conditions, when the AUTO mode is selected on the passenger oxygen control panel and the cabin altitude reaches 14000 ft, the altimetric switch energizes a time delay relay, which energizes the passenger oxygen on-off solenoid valve to initiate the oxygen flow and pressurize the oxygen distribution manifold. The pressure, in the distribution line, activates the pneumatic latch, opening the door and dropping the masks from their dispensing units. At the same time, the OXYGEN indicator light, on the passenger oxygen control panel, as well as the NO SMOKING and FASTEN SEAT BELTS signs in the passenger cabin are turned on. The MANUAL selection on the passenger oxygen control panel activates the system when the automatic system fails or at any time as required. On the right side of the oxygen service panel, are the passenger charging valve and the passenger pressure gauge, which allows access to charge the passenger oxygen cylinder and monitoring of passenger oxygen quantity. NOTE: The addition of a second oxygen cylinder, will not effect or change any of the controls, indications or safety features of the Passenger Oxygen subsystem.

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REVISION 7

2-16-15

1 01

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Code

2-16-15

2 01

ORIGINAL

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

OXYGEN

PASSENGER OXYGEN SYSTEM SCHEMATIC


Page Code

REVISION 7

2-16-15

3 01

OXYGEN

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

EICAS MESSAGE
TYPE CAUTION MESSAGE PAX OXY LO PRESS MEANING Passenger Oxygen cylinder(s) pressure below 750 psi.

ECS PAGE ON MFD


1 - ANALOGIC OXYGEN PRESSURE INDICATION AIRPLANES EQUIPPED WITH EICAS PRIOR TO VERSION 20.5 Pointer: Green between 760 to 1850 psi. Amber between 210 to 750 psi. Red between 0 to 200 psi. AIRPLANES EQUIPPED WITH EICAS VERSION 20.6 AND ON Pointer: Green between 760 to 1850 psi. Amber between 310 to 750 psi. Red between 0 to 300 psi. 2 - DIGITAL OXYGEN PRESSURE INDICATION AIRPLANES EQUIPPED WITH EICAS PRIOR TO VERSION 20.5 Digits are green between 760 to 1850 psi. Digits are amber between 210 to 750 psi. Digits are red between 0 to 200 psi. (Ranges from 0 to 1850 psi, with a resolution of 10 psi). AIRPLANES EQUIPPED WITH EICAS VERSION 20.6 AND ON Digits are green between 760 to 1850 psi. Digits are amber between 310 to 750 psi. Digits are red between 0 to 300 psi. (Ranges from 0 to 1850 psi, with a resolution of 10 psi).

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Code

2-16-15

4 01

REVISION 7

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

OXYGEN

ECS PAGE ON MFD

Page

Code

NOVEMBER 30, 2001

2-16-15

5 01

OXYGEN

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

PASSENGER DISPENSING UNIT AND MASK


The passenger oxygen masks dispensing units are located on the right and left overhead valance panels in the passenger seating area, at the flight attendant station, at the galley and in the lavatory. Each unit is equipped with two continuous flow masks and a lanyard valve per mask. The passenger oxygen mask assembly possesses a reservoir bag, a flow indicator, an oxygen supply tubing and a head strap for securing the mask to the passengers face. In addition, one lanyard and one PULL streamer is fitted to each oxygen mask. In the event of a decompression, the mask and the PULL streamer remain attached to the oxygen flow valve by the lanyard The passenger must pull the mask to his face or pull the PULL streamer to release the lanyard valve pin to obtain oxygen flow.

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Code

2-16-15

6 01

NOVEMBER 30, 2001

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

OXYGEN

DISPENSING UNITS/PASSENGER MASKS


Page Code

REVISION 7

2-16-15

7 01

OXYGEN

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


PASSENGER OXYGEN CONTROL PANEL 1 - OXYGEN ON INDICATOR LIGHT (white) Indicates that the passenger oxygen system is ON, and the distribution manifold pressure is at or above 45 psig. 2 - OXYGEN VLV CLOSED INDICATOR LIGHT (white) Indicates that the passenger oxygen pressure regulator is OFF or if the pressure at the outlet of the oxygen regulator drops below 50 to 55 psi. 3 - PASSENGER OXYGEN SELECTOR KNOB CLOSED - Disables the automatic deployment of passenger masks. Also resets oxygen ON indicator and passenger cabin signs after system activation either on automatic or manual mode. AUTO - Automatically deploys the passenger masks provided that cabin pressure altitude is above 14000 ft. MANUAL (momentary position) - Actuates the passenger oxygen system at any altitude, overriding the altimetric switch, and may be used in case of AUTO mode failure.

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Code

2-16-15

8 01

REVISION 3

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

OXYGEN

PASSENGER OXYGEN CONTROL PANEL


Page Code

JANUARY 17, 2003

2-16-15

9 01

OXYGEN

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

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Code

2-16-15

10 01

NOVEMBER 30, 2001

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

OXYGEN

PORTABLE OXYGEN
The portable oxygen subsystem includes one portable oxygen cylinder and two Protective Breathing Equipment (PBE).

PORTABLE OXYGEN CYLINDER


The portable oxygen cylinder is located in the passenger cabin entertainment rack and is used for passenger fist-aid therapeutic treatment only. The cylinder, with 11-cu.ft and three flow outlets, provides a constant flow breath for up to 3 passengers or crew members. Also, It is equipped with a pressure gauge indicating supply, a high-pressure safety relief device, a carrying strap and an on-off pressure regulator. To get specified flow, the mask must be connected to one of the cylinder outlets and the handle turned to the FULL ON position. NOTE: This equipment is intended to be used only for aviation applications and is to be used only by, or under the supervision of, a pilot or crew member trained and qualified in its use.

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REVISION 6

2-16-20

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OXYGEN

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

PORTABLE OXYGEN CYLINDER


Page Code

2-16-20

2 01

ORIGINAL

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

OXYGEN

PORTABLE OXYGEN CYLINDER LOCATION


Page Code

ORIGINAL

2-16-20

3 01

OXYGEN

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

PROTECTIVE BREATHING EQUIPMENT (PBE)


The PBE unit is used for respiratory and visual protection against effects of smoke and harmful gases while figthing fire in the aircraft. It is designed to provide breathing protection for a minimun duration of 15 minutes. There are two EROS PBE installed in the airplane, one is installed in the entertainment equipment rack and the otherone is installed in the LH cockpit/passenger cabin partition, behind the pilot seat. The device features a hood which encloses the entire head and na integrated life support unit which uses a solid state oxygen supply (chemical generator). OPERATION 1 - Take the box, push the spring lock. 2 - Pull the box cover upward. 3 - Extract the hood and deploy the hood by a brisk downward movement. 4 - Put the hood on head (It can accommodate bears, long hair and glasses when properly worn). 5 - Pull to actuate ring from the unit. The over-hood gives protection to the head from flames or incandescent objects which may fall from burning structures or interiors. The end of autonomy is felt when oxygen flow noise can not be heard anymore. Hood has then to be removed. CAUTION: THE OXYGEN PRODUCED BY PBE UNIT WILL VIGOROUSLY ACCELERATE COMBUSTION. DO NOT INTENTIONALLY EXPOSE THE PBE UNIT TO DIRECT FLAME CONTACT OR REMOVE IT IN THE IMMEDIATE PRESENCE OF FIRE OR FLAME. DUE TO OXYGEN SATURATION OF THE HAIR. DO NOT SMOKE OR BECOME EXPOSED TO FIRE OR FLAME IMMEDIATELY AFTER REMOVING PBE UNIT.

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Code

2-16-20

4 01

REVISION 7

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

OXYGEN

PROTECTIVE BREATHING EQUIPAMENT LOCATION


Page Code

ORIGINAL

2-16-20

5 01

OXYGEN

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

HOOD SCHEMATIC AND STOWAGE - EROS


Page Code

2-16-20

6 01

REVISION 7

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

OXYGEN

MINIMUM OXYGEN PRESSURE FOR DISPATCH


FLIGHT CREW OXYGEN SUBSYSTEM
Crew comprising Pilot and Copilot: 1100 psi. Crew comprising Pilot, Copilot and Observer: 1500 psi.

PASSENGER OXYGEN SUBSYSTEM


Airplane equipped with one cylinder: 1730 psi. Airplane equipped with two cylinders (Optional): 1250 psi. NOTE: The minimum oxygen pressure for dispatch was calculated at an ambient temperature of 21C (70F). For other temperatures, refer to Oxygen Pressure Correction Chart as a function of the cylinder compartment temperature.

PORTABLE OXYGEN CYLINDER


The minimum portable oxygen cylinder pressure for dispatch is 1200 psi (calculated for a maximum utilization period of 30 minutes).

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Code

JANUARY 17, 2003

2-16-25

1 01

OXYGEN

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

OXYGEN PRESSURE CORRECTION CHART


An Oxygen Pressure Correction Chart is provided for the maintenance personnel's use when recharging the oxygen cylinder. Additionally, it may be used by the crew to check if the oxygen cylinders pressure is above the minimum oxygen pressure for dispatch. To use the chart for recharging purposes: Enter the chart with the cylinder compartment temperature (cockpit temperature) and go vertically up to the desired pressure at 21C. From the intersection point, trace to the left to read the indicated gauge pressure to be attained. To use the chart for dispatching purposes: Enter the chart simultaneously with the cylinder compartment temperature (cockpit temperature) and indicated gauge oxygen pressure (on MFD or oxygen service panel). The intersection determines the oxygen cylinders equivalent pressure at 21C, by interpolating the two adjacent standard curves. EXAMPLE Associated condition: Crew............................................................PILOT, COPILOT AND OBSERVER Indicated gauge pressure............................1600 PSI Cylinder compartment temperature ............30C As the intersection is above the dashed line for the associated condition, the airplane may be dispatched.

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Code

2-16-25

2 01

NOVEMBER 30, 2001

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

OXYGEN

OXYGEN PRESSURE CORRECTION CHART


Page Code

ORIGINAL

2-16-25

3 01

OXYGEN

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

OXYGEN CONSUMPTION CHART


The Oxygen Consumption Chart is provided to allow the Flight Crew to know the remaining number of pre-flight oxygen mask tests available before the oxygen cylinder recharging is necessary. This chart should be used by the maintenance personnel to choose the best moment to recharge the oxygen cylinder. The Oxygen Consumption chart has been plotted for 21C (70F) conditions. For different temperatures, the Oxygen Pressure Correction chart must be used to obtain the pressure at 21C and then see what is the number of the remaining oxygen mask tests. EXAMPLE Associated condition: Crew .................................................................PILOT, COPILOT, AND OBSERVER Indicated Gauge Pressure ...............................1750 psi Cylinder Compartment Temperature................30C According to the Oxygen Pressure Correction chart, for the associated conditions, the pressure for 21C is 1700 psi. According to the Oxygen Consumption chart, for 1700 psi there are approximately 22 remaining pre-flight tests before recharging the oxygen cylinder becomes necessary. The airplanes dispatch being therefore allowed. NOTE: The oxygen consumption chart is used only for the crew oxygen subsystem, since there is no test for the passenger oxygen subsystem.

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Code

2-16-25

4 01

REVISION 4

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

OXYGEN

OXYGEN CONSUMPTION CHART

Page

Code

ORIGINAL

2-16-25

5 01

OXYGEN

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

OXYGEN DURATION TABLES


The oxygen duration tables allow the Fight Crew to estimate the time available for flying above 10000 ft to perform a mountain clearence, for example, using the emergency oxygen. The values presented on the following tables were obtained considering the airplane flying at 41000 ft when the decompression occurs and an emergency descent, to a terrain clearence altitude, was applied (all engines in idle, landing gear down, flaps up and speed brakes open). After the time allowed for the terrain clearence there will be sufficient oxygen to procedure the airplane descent to 10000 ft. AIRPLANES EQUIPPED WITH ONE 77 FT OXYGEN BOTTLE
Altitude (ft) 15000 18000 Crew Members
0 pax 1 pax 3 pax
3

Passengers on board
5 pax 7 pax 9 pax 11 pax 13 pax 14 pax

with observer without observer with observer without observer

115 150 107 150

115 150 107 150

115 117 107 117

85 85 85 85

66 66 66 66

53 53 53 53

44 44 44 44

38 38 38 38

35 35 35 35

NOTE: - The values above are in minutes. - The calculation of the terrain clearence time was based on a dispatch pressure of 1730 psig or above for crew and passenger systems. Also it was considered the presence of one flight attendant in all calculations.

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Code

2-16-25

6 01

REVISION 7

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL


3

OXYGEN

AIRPLANES EQUIPPED WITH TWO 77 FT OXYGEN BOTTLE


Altitude Crew Members (ft) 15000 18000 20000 with observer without observer with observer without observer with observer without observer Passengers on board
0 pax 1 pax 3 pax 5 pax 7 pax 9 pax 11 pax 13 pax 14 pax

115 150 107 150 92 150

115 150 107 150 92 150

115 150 107 150 92 150

115 150 107 150 92 129

115 150 107 150 92 102

115 126 107 126 84 84

106 106 106 106 71 71

91 91 91 91 61 61

86 86 86 86 57 57

NOTE: - The values above are in minutes. - The calculation of the terrain clearence time was based on a dispatch pressure of 1730 psig or above for crew and passenger systems. Also it was considered the presence of one flight attendant in all calculations. AIRPLANES EQUIPPED WITH ONE 115 FT OXYGEN BOTTLE
Altitude Crew Members (ft) 15000 18000 20000 with observer without observer with observer without observer with observer without observer Passengers on board
0 pax 1 pax 3 pax 5 pax 7 pax 9 pax 11 pax 13 pax 14 pax
3

115 150 107 150 92 150

115 150 107 150 92 126

115 140 107 140 92 93

110 110 107 110 73 73

90 90 90 90 60 60

76 76 75 75 50 50

65 65 65 65 43 43

56 56 56 56 38 38

53 53 53 53 35 35

NOTE: - The values above are in minutes. - The calculation of the terrain clearence time was based on a dispatch pressure of 1730 psig or above for crew and passenger systems. Also it was considered the presence of one flight attendant in all calculations.

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Code

REVISION 5

2-16-25

7 01

OXYGEN

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL


3 3

AIRPLANES EQUIPPED WITH ONE 115 FT AND ONE 77 FT OXYGEN BOTTLES


Altitude (ft) 15000 18000 20000 Crew Members
0 pax 1 pax 3 pax

Passengers on board
5 pax 7 pax 9 pax 11 pax 13 pax 14 pax

with observer without observer with observer without observer with observer without observer

115 150 107 150 92 150

115 150 107 150 92 150

115 150 107 150 92 150

115 150 107 150 92 132

115 150 107 150 92 108

115 138 107 138 92 92

115 119 107 119 80 80

105 105 105 105 70 70

99 99 99 99 66 66

NOTE: - The values above are in minutes. - The calculation of the terrain clearence time was based on a dispatch pressure of 1730 psig or above for crew and passenger systems. Also it was considered the presence of one flight attendant in all calculations.

Page

Code

2-16-25

8 01

REVISION 5

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

ICE AND RAIN PROTECTION

SECTION 2-15 ICE AND RAIN PROTECTION


TABLE OF CONTENTS Block Page General .............................................................................. 2-15-05 ..01 Bleed Air Thermal Anti-Icing System ................................. 2-15-10 ..01 Wing, Stabilizer and Engine Anti-icing Valves Operational Logic............................ 2-15-10 ..03 EICAS Messages ........................................................... 2-15-10 ..07 Windshield Heating System ............................................... 2-15-10 ..08 EICAS Messages ........................................................... 2-15-10 ..08 Sensor Heating System ..................................................... 2-15-10 ..09 EICAS Messages ........................................................... 2-15-10 ..10 Lavatory Water Drain and Nipple Heating System ............................................... 2-15-10 ..10 Ice Protection Controls and Indicators ............................... 2-15-10 ..11 Ice Protection Control Panel........................................... 2-15-10 ..11 Ice Detection System ......................................................... 2-15-15 ..01 EICAS Messages ........................................................... 2-15-15 ..02 Control and Indicators .................................................... 2-15-15 ..03 Main Panel.................................................................. 2-15-10 ..03 Windshield Wiper System (if installed) .............................. 2-15-15 ..04 Windshield Wiper Control Panel .................................... 2-15-15 ..04

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REVISION 5

2-15-00

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ICE AND RAIN PROTECTION

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

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Code

2-15-00

2 01

ORIGINAL

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

ICE AND RAIN PROTECTION

GENERAL
Airplane ice protection system is provided by heating critical ice build up areas through the use of either hot air or electrical power. The system is fully automatic and under icing conditions, activates the entire protection system (the only exception is the windshield heating system). The hot air-heated areas are: Wing and horizontal stabilizer leading edges. Engine air inlet lips. The electrically heated areas are: Windshields. Pitot tubes, Pitot-static tube, AOA sensors, TAT probes, ADCs and pressurization static ports. Lavatory water drain and potable water service nipples. Two fully independent wiper systems remove rain from the windshields. All ice protection systems provide signals to the EICAS for malfunctioning system display.

Page

Code

NOVEMBER 30, 2001

2-15-05

1 01

ICE AND RAIN PROTECTION

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

ICE AND RAIN PROTECTION SYSTEM


Page Code

2-15-05

2 01

NOVEMBER 30, 2001

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

ICE AND RAIN PROTECTION

BLEED AIR THERMAL ANTI-ICING SYSTEM


The bleed air thermal anti-icing system is supplied with hot air tapped from the engines. In the automatic mode, the system is turned on through activation of either ice detector. Manually, setting the OVERRIDE Knob to the ALL position activates the system. Adequate ice protection for the wing and horizontal stabilizer leading edges and engine air inlet lips is ensured by heating these surfaces. Hot air supplied by the Pneumatic System is ducted through perforated tubes, known as Piccolo tubes. Each Piccolo tube is routed along the surface, so that hot air jets flowing through the perforations heats the surface. Dedicated slots are provided for hot air exhaustion after the has been surface heated. During night flights, inspection lights, installed on the wing-to-fuselage fairing, illuminate the wing leading edges, allowing the crew to check for ice accumulation. Each subsystem comprises an anti-icing valve (pressure regulating/shutoff valve). A restrictor limits the airflow rate supplied by the Pneumatic System. It is monitored by pressure sensors, that indicate abnormal low and high air pressure conditions. The pressure sensors protect the respective subsystem against either insufficient or excessive airflow rate. The wing and stabilizer low pressure protection mode has a redundant detection by means of a second low pressure sensor on the stabilizer system and a differential pressure switch ( 2 psi) that compares root pressure on the left and right half-wing Piccolo tubes. Air leakage is detected by thermostats installed close to each duct connection. Low pressure switches provide an additional protection against unacceptable leakage level. The Piccolo tubes integrity is monitored as follows: Horizontal stabilizer: By one differential pressure switch comparing the left and right Piccolo tubes pressure. Half-wing: It depends on the airplane model. By one differential pressure switch in each Piccolo tube comparing the root and tip pressures or, by manometric switches measuring the tip pressure only.

Page

Code

ORIGINAL

2-15-10

1 01

ICE AND RAIN PROTECTION

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

Engine ice protection is provided by heating the engine air inlet lip, through the use of non-temperature-controlled hot air tapped directly upstream of each high stage valve. As the engine air inlet has enough airflow surrounding the lip when the engine is running, the engine air inlet lip anti-icing system can be operated on the ground normally and with no limitations. Each engine has its own protection system independent of the airplanes pneumatic system. The left hand Pneumatic System supplies the horizontal stabilizer antiicing subsystem. Each half-wing anti-icing subsystem is supplied by its respective side of the Pneumatic System. The bleed air thermal anti-icing system may be deactivated by buttons, located on the overhead panel. On the ground, the FADEC incorporates an automatic logic to reduce the maximum available thrust to avoid a sudden engine thrust loss during lift-off, even with the thrust lever set at MAX position. In flight, the FADEC allows the engines to deliver the maximum rated thrust to compensate for the effect of the high bleed air consumption by the wing and horizontal stabilizer thermal anti-icing subsystems. Moreover, the FADEC provides an automatic logic to ensure a minimum available thrust during icing conditions, even during low thrust setting conditions. This logic is automatically inhibited when the landing gear is extended, in order to improve the airplanes rate of descent and glide slope path adjusting capability. The APU bleed air is not hot enough to perform anti-icing functions. Therefore it must not be used for such applications. A caution message is presented on the EICAS if the thermal anti-icing system is turned on during non-icing conditions.

Page

Code

2-15-10

2 01

REVISION 5

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

ICE AND RAIN PROTECTION

WING, STABILIZER AND ENGINE ANTI-ICING VALVES OPERATIONAL LOGIC


Since the Bleed Thermal Anti-icing System is supplied by the Pneumatic System, it is integrated to the functional logic that provides automatic control and protection for the system. The Wing and Stabilizer Anti-icing Valves receive an electrical input that open when the following conditions occur: The Ice Detection Test Knob is set to 1 or 2, or The airplane is in-flight or attained a ground speed above 25 knots, and The Ice Detection Override Knob is set to ALL, or The Ice Detection Override Knob is set to AUTO or ENG and any ice detector is activated. NOTE: - The Wing and Stabilizer Anti-icing Valves are inhibited from opening on the ground and at a ground speed below 25 knots to prevent structural damage caused by surface heating, except during ice detection testing. The ice detection test should not be activated for more than 15 seconds.

The Engine Anti-icing Valves receive an electrical input to open when the following conditions occur: The Ice Detection Override Knob is set to ALL or ENG, or The Ice Detection Override Knob is set to AUTO position and any ice detector is activated, or The Ice Detection Test Knob is set to 1 or 2. The engine anti-ice system logic has a narrow range between normal operating pressures and a low pressure value that, if reached, would trigger an E1(2) A/ICE FAIL message on the EICAS. This message may be presented in flight whenever the engines are set at low thrust settings. This message may be cleared increasing the engine anti-ice system pressure by advancing the thrust levers with Ice Detection Override Knob in AUTO. If the message does clear and the related Engine Air Inlet OPEN inscription remains illuminated, the system is operating normally and the flight may be continued.
Page Code

REVISION 5

2-15-10

3 01

ICE AND RAIN PROTECTION

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

WING ANTI-ICING SYSTEM SCHEMATIC


Page Code

2-15-10

4 01

ORIGINAL

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

ICE AND RAIN PROTECTION

WING ANTI-ICING SYSTEM SCHEMATIC


Page Code

NOVEMBER 30, 2001

2-15-10

5 01

ICE AND RAIN PROTECTION

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

Page

Code

2-15-10

6 01

NOVEMBER 30, 2001

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

ICE AND RAIN PROTECTION

EICAS MESSAGES
TYPE WARNING A/ICE CAPACITY LOW MESSAGE ICE COND-A/I INOP MEANING Any Bleed Air Thermal antiicing subsystem not functioning properly under icing conditions. Low pressure condition downstream of any wing or stabilizer anti-ice valve or wing pressure asymmetry. Any anti-icing valve opened in flight out of icing conditions. Any Bleed Air Thermal antiicing button turned off. Low pressure condition. Valve failure. Any switch failure. Overpressure condition. Any system failure. Low pressure condition (on ground or inflight), or Disagreement between valve position and system command. Low pressure condition. Valve failure. Any switch failure. Duct leakage. Any system activation failure. Low pressure condition, or Disagreement between valve position and system command, or Piccolo tube failure. Asymmetrical degradation of half-wings anti-ice systems thermal performance. Low pressure condition. Valve failure. Any switch failure. Duct leakage. Any system activation device failure. Inflight overpressure condition detected.
Page Code

NO ICE-A/ICE ON A/ICE SWITCH OFF E1 (2) A/ICE FAIL (if applicable)

CAUTION

ENG1 (2) A/ICE FAIL (if applicable) WG1 (2) A/ICE FAIL (if applicable)

WG A/ICE FAIL (if applicable)

WG A/ICE ASYMETRY STAB A/ICE FAIL CAUTION

ADVISORY

ENG A/ICE OVERPRES

ORIGINAL

2-15-10

7 01

ICE AND RAIN PROTECTION

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

WINDSHIELD HEATING SYSTEM


The windshields are electrically heated to prevent ice and fog formation or for deicing and defogging purposes. Due to a higher thermal inertia to bring heat to windshield inner layer, when Descent phase is initiated the system must be turned ON to prevent fogging. During all the others flight phases, the system must be kept OFF except when icing conditions are anticipated or if situation requires. The outer glass layer has no structural significance but provides a rigid, hard and protected surface. Windshield heating is accomplished through an electric conductive grid embedded in its interlayer, which functions as an electric resistor. Individual buttons located on the overhead panel control left and right windshield heating. Separate power supplies are provided for each windshield heating element and its control circuit. Each windshield element is provided with three temperature sensors. One sensor is used for temperature control and a second sensor is used for overheat protection. A third sensor is provided as a spare for use by maintenance personnel, should a failure occur in any of the two sensors. For airplanes Pre-Mod. SB 145LEG-30-0033, each windshield element has a dedicated temperature controller that receives a signal from the associated temperature sensors and controls the windshield temperature. When the temperature reaches the upper limit (45C), power supply to the heater is interrupted. When the temperature is below the lower limit (40C), power supply is automatically restored. A caution message W/S HEAT FAIL is presented on the EICAS when a system failure is detected or the windshield temperature exceeds 55C.

Page

Code

2-15-10

8 01

REVISION 5

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

ICE AND RAIN PROTECTION

For airplanes Post-Mod. SB 145LEG-30-0033 or with an equivalent modification factory-incorporated, the temperature controller has two modes of operation, defog heat and anti-ice heat mode. When the windshield heating push button is set to ON, the controller continuously monitors the windshield temperature. As temperature drops below 26C (defog mode), it modulates power input to the electric conductive grid and maintains this temperature. If ice detectors sense ice formation, the controller automatically increase power input to maintain the temperature at 43C (anti-ice mode). If both ice detectors are inoperative, the Override knob on the Overhead Panel set to ALL position provides manual means to put both systems into anti-ice mode automatically increasing power input to maintain the temperature at 43C. A caution message W/S HEAT FAIL is presented on the EICAS when a system failure is detected or the windshield temperature exceeds 65C.

EICAS MESSAGES
TYPE MESSAGE W/S 1 (2) HEAT FAIL MEANING For airplanes Pre-Mod. SB 145LEG-30-0033, associated windshield heating system failure (< 38C) or associated overheat condition (> 55C). For airplanes Post-Mod. SB 145LEG-30-0033, associated windshield heating system failure or associated overheat condition (> 65C).

CAUTION

SENSOR HEATING SYSTEM


The Sensor Heating System provides automatic operation for the heater elements of Pitot tubes 1 and 2, Pitot/Static 3, Pressurization System and ADS Static Ports, TAT sensors 1 and 2, and AOA vanes 1 and 2, thus providing constant temperature and ice-free operation during all flight phases. All the sensors are electrically heated and controlled by three buttons, located on the overhead panel. In the automatic mode, the sensor heating system operates according to three functional logics:
Page Code

REVISION 5

2-15-10

9 01

ICE AND RAIN PROTECTION

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

Pitot 1 and 2 and Pitot/Static 3, AOA 1 and 2, ADS Static Ports 1, 2, 3 and 4, and Pressurization Static Ports 1 and 2 are heated whenever at least one engine is running (N2 above 54.6%). A separated logic assures Pitot/Static 3 and Pressurization System Static Port 2 heating in any flight condition. TAT 1 and 2 are heated provided any of Engine 1 or 2 anti-icing subsystem is functioning or airplane is in flight. Heater deactivation is accomplished either when the above conditions are not met or when the associated control button is manually pressed. Caution messages are presented on the EICAS to indicate that the sensor heating is inoperative. These messages are inhibited during the takeoff and approach phases.

EICAS MESSAGES
TYPE MESSAGE PITOT 1 (2, 3) INOP MEANING Associated sensor heating inoperative with any engine running (N2 above 60%). Both engines N2 below 50%. Associated sensor heating inoperative with any engine running (N2 above 60%) and airplane airborne. Both engines N2 below 50%. Associated sensor heating inoperative in icing conditions and airplane airborne.

AOA 1 (2) HEAT INOP CAUTION

TAT 1 (2) HEAT INOP

LAVATORY WATER HEATING SYSTEM

DRAIN

AND

NIPPLE

The lavatory waste water drain and potable water service nipples (overflow and fill) are heated by electric resistors to prevent clogging by water freezing under any atmospheric conditions on the ground and in flight. The heating is automatically turned on when the DC BUS 1 is powered. Refer to Section 2-2 Equipment and Furnishings.
Page Code

2-15-10

10 01

REVISION 5

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

ICE AND RAIN PROTECTION

ICE PROTECTION CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


ICE PROTECTION CONTROL PANEL
1 - ENGINE AIR INLET ANTI-ICING BUTTONS Turns off (released) or permits (pressed) the automatic activation of the associated engine air inlet anti-icing subsystem. A striped bar illuminates inside the button to indicate that it is released. An OPEN inscription illuminates inside the button to indicate that the associated engine air inlet anti-icing valve is open. 2 - WING ANTI-ICING BUTTON Turns off (released) or selects the automatic mode (pressed) of the half-wing anti-icing subsystems. A striped bar illuminates inside the button to indicate that it is released. An OPEN inscription illuminates inside the button to indicate the following conditions: Both valves are open with the system commanded to open. At least one valve is open with the system not commanded to open. 3 - HORIZONTAL STABILIZER ANTI-ICING BUTTON Turns off (released) or permits (pressed) the automatic activation of the horizontal stabilizer anti-icing subsystem. A striped bar illuminates inside the button to indicate that it is released. An OPEN inscription illuminates inside the button to indicate that the horizontal stabilizer anti-icing valve is open. 4 - SENSOR HEATING BUTTONS The left button controls Pitot tube 1, AOA 1 vane, TAT 1 probe, ADC Static Ports 1 and 3, and pressurization static port 1. The central button controls Pitot/Static tube 3 and pressurization static port 2. The right button controls the Pitot tube 2, AOA 2 vane, TAT 2 probe and ADC static ports 2 and 4. When pressed, the associated sensor heating system operates in the automatic mode according to its functional logic. When released, the associated sensor heating system is turned off. A striped bar illuminates inside the button to indicate that it is released.
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5 - ICE DETECTION TEST KNOB Permits the half-wing, horizontal stabilizer and engine air inlet antiicing subsystems to operate for test purposes, by simulating an icing condition on ice detectors 1 and 2. The adequate system operation is confirmed by the illumination of the OPEN inscriptions in the anti-icing buttons, which indicate the current valve position. NOTE: The ICE CONDITION, ICE DET 1 (2) FAIL and BLD 1 (2) LOW TEMP messages are displayed during test. The CLR ICE 1, CLR ICE 2, CLR/I INOP 1 and CLR/I INOP 2 caution messages are displayed on the EICAS and the lights CLR ICE 1 and CLR ICE 2 illuminate only when the Ice Detection Test Knob is selected to 1. 6 - ICE DETECTION OVERRIDE KNOB ENG - Turns on the engine air inlet anti-icing subsystems for ground speeds below 25 knots. Above 25 knots the wing and horizontal stabilizer anti-icing subsystems are also turned on if icing condition is detected. AUTO- Allows the automatic operation of the bleed air anti-icing system. NOTE: If ground speed is equal or above 25 knots and an icing condition is detected, wing and horizontal stabilizer anti-icing subsystems are turned on. The engine anti-icing subsystem is turned on as soon as an icing condition is detected. ALL - Turns on the complete bleed air anti-icing system provided airplane is in flight. NOTE: On ground, below 25 knots, only engine anti-icing is turned on. 7 - WINDSHIELD HEATING BUTTON Turns on (pressed) or turns off (released) the windshield heating system. A striped bar illuminates inside the button to indicate that it is released.

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ICE DETECTION SYSTEM


Ice detectors 1 and 2 are respectively installed at the airplanes left and right nose section, to provide icing condition detection. The ice detector was designed to pick up ice quickly. Therefore, in the most cases, ice will be detected before it can be noticed by the crew. NOTE: Notwithstanding ice detector monitoring, the crew remains responsible for monitoring icing conditions and for manual activation of the ice protection system if icing conditions are present and the ice detection system is not activating the ice protection system. A 0.5 mm (0.020 inch) ice thickness, on any probe, causes bleed air anti-icing system automatic mode activation, a SPS angle of attack set values reduction (refer to Stall Protection System on Section 2-4 Crew Awareness), and an advisory message to be presented on the EICAS. During ice encounters, the icing signal remains active during 60 seconds. Simultaneously, an internal ice detector heater is activated to de-ice the unit and probe. When the probes natural frequency is recovered, heating is de-energized. Once deiced, the sensing probe cools within a few seconds and is ready to once more monitor ice build-up. Then a new detection cycle begins and remains as long as the ice condition persists. In case of failure of any or both ice detectors, a caution message is presented on the EICAS and the bleed air thermal anti-icing system may be activated through the OVERRIDE knob on the Ice Detection panel. The systems normal operation may be checked through the TEST knob on the Ice Protection panel. WING CLEAR ICE DETECTION SYSTEM The clear ice phenomena may occur on the wing upper surfaces when the airplane performs a prolonged operation in high altitude with the wing fuel tanks quantity is kept above 70% until ground. Then, if the airplane is exposed to conditions of high humidity, rain, drizzle, or fog even at ambient temperatures above freezing, the water contained in the atmosphere, when in contact with the cold wing, may condense and freeze. Once the clear ice accumulation is difficult to be detected visually, clear ice detectors 1 and 2 are respectively installed on the airplanes left and right wing upper surface.
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Each sensor is flush mounted with the surface and consists of a vibrating diaphragm. Any ice build-up is sensed by the diaphragm and a caution message is presented on the EICAS and the Clear Ice Indication Light illuminates. In case of failure of any or both ice detectors, a caution message is also presented on the EICAS. The systems normal operation may be checked through the TEST knob on the Ice Protection panel.

EICAS MESSAGES
TYPE MESSAGE ICE DETECTORS FAIL ICE DET 1 (2) FAIL CAUTION CLR ICE 1 (2) MEANING Both ice detectors have failed. Associated ice detector has failed. Ice build-up over the left or right wing upper surface. Associated clear ice detector has failed. Airplane is flying under icing conditions.

CLR/I INOP1 (2) ADVISORY ICE CONDITION

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CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


MAIN PANEL 1- CLEAR ICE LIGHT Color: amber Illuminates CLR ICE 1 to indicate that there is ice build-up over the left wing upper surface. Illuminates CLR ICE 2 to indicate that there is ice build-up over the right wing upper surface.

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WINDSHIELD WIPER SYSTEM (IF INSTALLED)


A two-speed windshield wiper is provided for the left and right windshields. Each system comprises a motor-converter, a wiper arm, and blades. A control box provides speed control, synchronization, and off-screen park functions for both systems through independent channels. Each system has its own independent power supply and a four-position knob on the overhead panel.

WINDSHIELD WIPER CONTROL PANEL


1 - WINDSHIELD WIPER SELECTOR KNOB TIMER - Provides intermittent operation of the associated windshield wiper in single cycles (two strokes) with an 8 second time interval between two cycles, in high speed. OFF - Associated wiper blades travel to the windshield inboard position, parking out of pilots vision.

LOW - Associated wiper operates at approximately 80 strokes per minute. HIGH - Associated wiper operates at approximately 140 strokes per minute. NOTE: Dry windshield operation leads the motor-converter to a stall condition, due to the high friction level. The controller senses the motor-converter current surge and drives the arm directly to the parked position. The system remains inoperative until the Windshield Wiper Selector Knob is set to OFF position and a new operation mode is selected.

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SECTION 2-18 NAVIGATION AND COMMUNICATION


TABLE OF CONTENTS Block Page General ...............................................................................2-18-01 .. 01 Radio Management System (RMS) ....................................2-18-05 .. 01 Integrated Communication Unit (RCZ-851E) ..................2-18-07 .. 01 Integrated Navigation Unit (RNZ-851).............................2-18-09 .. 01 Radio Management Unit (RMU)......................................2-18-11 .. 01 RMU Pages .................................................................2-18-11 .. 01 RMU Normal Operation ...............................................2-18-11 .. 03 RMU Abnormal Operation ...........................................2-18-11 .. 09 RMU Controls and Indicators ......................................2-18-11 .. 10 Tuning Backup Control Head ..........................................2-18-13 .. 01 Normal Mode ...............................................................2-18-13 .. 01 Emergency Mode ........................................................2-18-13 .. 01 Self-Test ......................................................................2-18-13 .. 01 TBCH Controls and Indicators.....................................2-18-13 .. 02 Digital Audio Panel ..........................................................2-18-15 .. 01 Normal Mode ...............................................................2-18-15 .. 01 Emergency Mode ........................................................2-18-15 .. 01 Digital Audio Panel Controls and Indicators ................2-18-15 .. 03 Communication Controls and Indicators .........................2-18-20 .. 01 HF Communication System - KHF-950 () .........................2-18-21 .. 01 HF Operating Modes .......................................................2-18-21 .. 01 HF Normal Operation KCU-951 CONTROL UNIT ..........2-18-21 .. 03 HF Controls and Indicators .............................................2-18-21 .. 08 HF Normal Operation KFS-954 CONTROL UNIT...........2-18-21 .. 13 HF Controls and Indicators .............................................2-18-21 .. 19 Third VHF Communication System - Collins 22A ()..........2-18-22 .. 01 Third VHF COM Controls and Indicators ........................2-18-22 .. 01 Third VHF Communication System - Honeywell RS-833/853() ....................................................................2-18-22 .. 07 Third VHF COM Controls and Indicators ........................2-18-22 .. 12 NOTE: Optional equipment are marked with an asterisk () and its description may not be present in this manual.

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SELCAL System () ........................................................... 2-18-23.. 01 SELCAL Controls and Indicators .................................... 2-18-23.. 02 Honeywell Mark III CMU ()................................................ 2-18-24.. 01 CMU Normal Operation .................................................. 2-18-24.. 04 CMU Abnormal Operation .............................................. 2-18-24.. 04 CMU Controls and Indicators.......................................... 2-18-24.. 06 Printer Controls and Indicators ....................................... 2-18-24.. 08 Aircraft Communication Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS) () ............................ 2-18-24.. 11 ACARS Operation........................................................... 2-18-24.. 14 ACARS Controls and Indicators ..................................... 2-18-24.. 15 ACARS Printer Controls and Indicators.......................... 2-18-24.. 18 Cockpit Voice Recorder...................................................... 2-18-25.. 01 Self-Test ......................................................................... 2-18-25.. 01 Erase Function................................................................ 2-18-25.. 01 Cockpit Voice Recorder Controls and Indicators............ 2-18-25.. 02 Passenger Address System ............................................... 2-18-27.. 01 Passenger Address Operating Modes............................ 2-18-27.. 02 Satcom System () ............................................................. 2-18-28.. 01 Introduction ..................................................................... 2-18-28.. 01 Satcom Operation........................................................... 2-18-28.. 01 Satcom Controls and Indicators...................................... 2-18-28.. 05 Iridium Stellite Telecommunication System () .................. 2-18-29.. 01 Iridium Controls and Indicators ....................................... 2-18-29.. 02 Iridium Operation ............................................................ 2-18-29.. 04 Inertial Reference System (IRS) () ................................... 2-18-30.. 01 Inertial Reference System Components ......................... 2-18-30.. 04 IRS Operating Modes ..................................................... 2-18-30.. 05 IRS Operating Procedures.............................................. 2-18-30.. 10 IRS EICAS Messages..................................................... 2-18-30.. 12 IRS Controls and Indicators............................................ 2-18-30.. 14 IRS Indications on the PFD ............................................ 2-18-30.. 16 Flight Management System (FMZ 2000) ()....................... 2-18-35.. 01 FMS Operating Modes.................................................... 2-18-35.. 04 FMS Controls and Indicators .......................................... 2-18-35.. 07 Navigation Displays ............................................................ 2-18-40.. 01 Displays Controls and Indicators .................................... 2-18-40.. 02 NOTE: Optional equipment are marked with an asterisk () and its description may not be present in this manual.

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Weather Radar System...................................................... 2-18-45 ..01 General........................................................................... 2-18-45 ..03 Weather Radar Normal Operation ................................. 2-18-45 ..04 Interpreting Weather Radar Images............................... 2-18-45 ..04 Radar Warm Up Period .................................................. 2-18-45 ..06 Ground Operation Precautions....................................... 2-18-45 ..06 Weather Radar Operating Modes and Functions........... 2-18-45 ..07 Radome.......................................................................... 2-18-45 ..18 Weather Radar Controls and Indicators......................... 2-18-45 ..19 Lightning Sensor System (LSS) ().................................... 2-18-50 ..01 LSS Operation ................................................................ 2-18-50 ..02 LSS Controls and Indicators........................................... 2-18-50 ..05 Identification Friend or Foe System (IFF) () ..................... 2-18-80 ..01 Selector Panel ................................................................ 2-18-80 ..02 IFF Transponder Controls and Indicators....................... 2-18-80 ..04 Precision Area Navigation (P-RNAV) (*) ............................2-18-85...01 Limitations.......................................................................2-18-85 ...01 P-RNAV System .............................................................2-18-85...03 Normal Procedures.........................................................2-18-85 ...04 Contingency Procedures.................................................2-18-85...06 Incident Reporting...........................................................2-18-85 ...07

NOTE: Optional equipment are marked with an asterisk () and its description may not be present in this manual.
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GENERAL
The standard EMB-135 BJ navigation and communication resources are provided by the Radio Management System (RMS). The RMS is controlled through two Radio Management Units (RMU 1 and 2), an auxiliary control unit, the Tuning Backup Control Head (TBCH), and three individual Digital Audio Panels (DAP). The two RMUs provide radio frequency and mode control. Alternatively, the RMU 2 frequencies may be selected through the TBCH. The Audio System is controlled via three individual Digital Audio Panels, available for the captain, copilot and observer. The Radio Management System also provides interface with the Passenger Address System, Aural Warning Unit and Cockpit Voice Recorder. Optional communication equipment includes an HF transceiver, Third VHF NAV/COM, SELCAL and Aircraft Communication Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS). The navigation may be performed using only the standard navigation radio sensors, or using the Flight Management System (FMS) resources. The FMS is an optional equipment that uses the standard navigation radio sensors, GPS (Global Positioning System) sensors, and, also optionally, the IRS (Inertial Reference System) for positioning and navigation. Heading inputs to the Integrated Navigation Unit are provided by the AHRS (Attitude and Heading Reference System) or by the IRS. These equipment also provide roll and pitch attitudes for the Electronic Attitude Director Indicator (EADI). The navigation information is normally presented on the PFD and MFD and may also be available on the RMU, through its navigation backup page.

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RADIO MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (RMS)


The EMB-135 BJ models are equipped with a Radio Management System (RMS) that provides management of the following equipment and associated functions: Dual VHF COM; Dual VHF NAV (VOR, LOC, GS and Marker Beacon); Single or dual (optional) ADF; Single or dual (optional) Transponder (ATC and Mode S); TCAS; MLS (optional); Single or dual (optional) DME (including DME Hold); Digital Audio Panel.

The RMS consists basically of the following major components: Remote mounted: Integrated Navigation Unit (INU); Integrated Communication Unit (ICU). Cockpit Mounted: 2 Radio Management Unit (RMU); 1 Tuning Backup Control Head (TBCH); 3 Digital Audio Panel (DAP). With the exception of the Digital Audio Panel, all components of the RMS are connected through the digital Radio System Buses (RSB) that allows complete control and information exchange between the units of the entire RMS. Audio switching control is provided by means of the controls on the Digital Audio Panel itself. The audio signals are transmitted from the remote units to the Digital Audio Panel through dedicated digital audio buses. The navigation and communication data are displayed on the RMU, PFD and MFD displays.

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INTEGRATED COMMUNICATION UNIT (RCZ-851E)


The Integrated Communication Unit incorporates an internal VHF communication transceiver module and the ATC transponder module which interfaces through a cluster module to the Radio System Bus for operation. This unit provides digitized audio signals to the Digital Audio Panel and conventional analog audio interfaces to other systems. The following modules are provided in this unit: VHF Communication Transceiver Module (TR-850) - This module is a conventional VHF COM transceiver that operates in the frequency range of 118 to 136.975 MHz. ATC Mode S Transponder Module (XS-850) - The Mode S Transponder module has the encoding and decoding capability required for Mode S operation in addition to the capability to operate as a conventional Air Traffic Control Radio Beacon Service (ATCRBS) transponder. The Mode S operation allows digital addressing of an individual airplane and the transmission of messages back and forth between the air and the ground. ATCRBS Transponder Module (XS-850A) - This transponder module provides only conventional ATC Radio Beacon System transponder capabilities. Mode S Diversity Transponder Module (XS-852) - This transponder module provides full ATCRBS, Mode S and TCAS data communications capability. TCAS Interface Module (XI-851) - The Interface Module allows the Integrated Communication Unit (ICU) to interface with separate Mode S diversity transponder and TCAS. The TCAS interface module replaces the XI-851 Mode S transponder module when installed in the ICU.

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INTEGRATED NAVIGATION UNIT (RNZ-851)


The Integrated Navigation Unit is a complete self-contained navigation system. The system consists of the VOR, localizer, glide slope and marker beacon receiver modules, the ADF module, a six-channel scanning DME module, and audio digitizers. The system also incorporates two L-Band antenna (optional), two ADF antenna (optional), two MB antenna, two VOR/ILS antenna and one GS dual antenna. The following modules are provided in this unit: VHF NAV Receiver Module (NV-850) - The VHF NAV receiver is a module of the Integrated Navigation Unit and houses the major navigation functions of the VOR/LOC receiver, glide slope receiver and marker beacon receiver. The ILS meets Category II instrument landing requirements. Housed within the NAV receiver is a glideslope receiver which provides 40 channels of glideslope information for the conventional ILS. Also includes a 75 MHz marker beacon receiver which detects and transmits the tones of the marker beacons to the Audio System. DME Transceiver Module (DM-850) - The DME module is a six-channel DME that simultaneously tracks four selected channels for distance, groundspeed and time to station as well as monitoring two additional channels for the ident functions. This feature gives the system the capability of tracking four channels and having the decoded identifier readily available from two additional channels. The unit dedicates two of the four selected channels to the FMS (if installed). Thus, with the FMS installed, there are two remaining channels to control and display ident, distance, time to station and ground speed. Even with the FMS installed, the preset or standby VOR channel, when selected, provides instant station identification since it was one of the two additional channel being monitored. ADF Receiver Module - The ADF System comprises the ADF receiver (DF-850) and the companion ADF antenna (AT-860). The ADF receiver operates in the frequency ranges of 100 to 1799.5 kHz and 2181 to 2183 kHz (marine emergency frequency range).

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RADIO MANAGEMENT UNIT (RMU)


The Radio Management Unit consists of a display and a bezel panel that provide control of the communications and radio navigation equipment. Additional airplane systems information is also available on specific RMU selectable pages. The EMB-135 BJ is equipped with two RMUs, each one responsible for controlling the on-side radio equipment (e.g., RMU 1 controls the NAV/COM 1). However, through the cross-side operating mode it is possible to select the opposite side radio frequencies. There is no master switch for the RMUs: when the airplane is energized, both RMUs (and the EICAS) are automatically turned ON. However, only the COM 1 radio is available (dashes on the remaining RMUs fields) until the AVIONICS MASTER is switched ON. Additionally, in the event of an electrical emergency the RMU is a backup display for the main panel (PFDs and MFDs). In this condition the main panel is turned off and the NAVIGATION Backup Page, that presents basic navigation information, may be accessed through RMU page. RMU PAGES Available RMU pages are as follows: RADIO Page, NAV and COM MEMORY Pages, ATC/TCAS Control Page, NAVIGATION Backup Page, ENGINE Backup Pages 1 and 2, SYS SELECT Page (COM band options) and MAINTENANCE Page. Pressing the Page Control Button (PGE) selects the Page Menu. Pressing the Line Select Button associated with the desired page will cause the respective page to be displayed. The RADIO Page will be displayed again when the Line Select Button associated with the RETURN TO RADIOS label is pressed. RADIO PAGE Normally presented after power up, the RADIO Page is divided into five dedicated windows. Each window groups the data associated with a particular function: COM, NAV, ATC/TCAS, ADF and MLS (optional). In addition the windows provide complete control of the frequency and operating modes of the associated function.

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NAVIGATION/COMMUNICATION MEMORY PAGES The Memory Page presents two similar displays called First Memory Page and Second Memory Page. The First Memory Page shows memory locations 1 through 6 and the Second Memory Page shows memory location 7 through 12. Both the COM and NAV Memory Pages are functionally identical. ATC/TCAS CONTROL PAGE The ATC/TCAS Control Page allows the pilot to select various TCAS operational features: Intruder Altitude REL: Targets altitude displayed relative to ones own airplane (default). FL: Targets altitude displayed as flight level (reverts to REL after 20 sec). TA Display AUTO: Traffic targets displayed only when TA or RA target conditions exist. MANUAL: All traffic targets displayed within the viewing airspace. Flight Level ID Allows Mode S coding to reflect the current flights call sign. Flight Level 1/2 Display of the transponders encoded altitude and the air data source for that altitude. NAVIGATION BACKUP PAGE The NAVIGATION Backup Page consists of a backup navigation display that presents HSI, MB, DME, NAV (VOR) and ADF information. ENGINE BACKUP PAGE The ENGINE Backup Page displays information normally presented on the EICAS, as engine and systems indications, as well as EICAS messages. The ENGINE Backup Page is divided into two pages. The first presents only engine indications, while the second presents systems indications and EICAS messages. For further information on Engine Backup Page refer to Section 2-10 - Powerplant and 2-4 - Crew Awareness.

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The SYS SELECT Page allows the selection of COM 1 and COM 2 between Narrow and Wide bands. MAINTENANCE PAGE This page displays test results information depending upon the type of test that is being carried out (power on self-test or pilot activated selftest). Two pages may be presented if a failure is detected, depending if the failure is in the RMS or in one of the radios. This page is not available in flight. RMU NORMAL OPERATION RMU SELF-TEST On the ground, the RMS performs a self-test each time power is applied after power off periods greater than 10 seconds. This test monitors the primary and secondary radio buses as well as the individual Radio Systems for proper operation. Each function test status is displayed in its respective window. Under normal conditions, the COM will be operational within 7 seconds after power on and the remaining radio equipment units within 50 seconds. The test can be terminated by pressing the Test Button in the RMU Bezel Panel. If any bus or radio test parameter failure occurs, an associated error message will be displayed on the test failure window, below the COM and NAV windows. Radio System failures are displayed in the first failure window and function failures in a second failure window. The failure windows may be removed by pressing and holding the Test Button. If the test is successfully completed the RMU will display the RADIO Page with the same radio configuration prior to the last power down. NOTE: Any radio equipment that is not powered up when the test is initiated by the RMU will generate an error message.

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Additionally the pilot may perform a test by pressing the Test Button on the RMU Bezel Panel which causes the activation of the self-test of the component associated with the window in which the yellow cursor is located. Upon successful completion of this test, a PASS message will be displayed for a short time in the window, indicating the successful completion of the test. If this test is not successful completed, an error message (ERR) will be displayed in the window. NOTE: Errors detected by the self-test indicate one or more parameter outside their self-test limit but may not necessarily indicate nonoperation of the function. The pilot should verify the operation of the function. CROSS-SIDE OPERATION The RMU is provided with a feature called cross-side operating mode. This feature allows the RMU to be changed from its normal operating mode of tuning the on-side radio equipment to the mode of tuning the opposite side radio equipment. The cross-side operation is selected by pressing the cross-side Transfer Button, labeled 1/2, on the RMU Bezel Panel, with the yellow cursor box in any window, except the ATC/TCAS window. The entire RMU display and operation is transferred from the opposite side to the side that has commanded the Cross-side Operating Mode. If the yellow cursor box is in the ATC/TCAS window, pressing the cross-side Transfer Button selects which transponder (1 or 2) will be in operation. In the cross-side operation, the RMU Window/Control Side Ident will be displayed in magenta on the side that has selected the operation and any change made will be displayed in yellow on the opposite side RMU to indicate that the change was carried out remotely.

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The normal COM operation is enabled with the RMU RADIO Page displayed. The COM window has two frequency lines. The upper line displays the active COM frequency while the lower line displays the preset frequency. Pressing the Line Select Button associated with the preset frequency will cause the yellow cursor box to move to enclose that frequency. In this condition the enclosed preset frequency may be changed through the Frequency Tuning Knobs. When the Frequency Tuning Knobs are actuated the label MEMORY and the associated memory location number, both below the lower frequency line, will change to a TEMP label indicating that the new preset frequency is not yet stored in the memory of the RMU. Frequency storage may be accomplished by pressing the Memory Storage Button, labeled STO, on the RMU Bezel Panel. This action will also provide the previous MEMORY label and the associated memory location number to replace the TEMP label, indicating that the new preset frequency has been stored in the indicated memory location. Placing the yellow cursor box to enclose the MEMORY label, by pressing a second time the Line Select Button beside the COM window, will allow scrolling through the entire RMU stored memory. This may be performed by rotating the Frequency Tuning Knob either clockwise to memory location increment or counterclockwise to decrement. The exchange between the active frequency displayed in the upper line of the window and the preset frequency displayed in the lower line may be accomplished by pressing the Frequency Transfer Button on the upper left corner of the RMU Bezel Panel. This effectively causes the COM to change to the new active frequency that previously was the preset frequency. In this condition, the previous active frequency drops down to the second line of the COM window and becomes a temporary preset frequency. This is indicated by the TEMP label displayed under that frequency. The TEMP label also indicates, in this case, that the frequency displayed in the second line has not been stored in a memory location. NOTE: The RMU controls the third VHF for airplanes equipped with Honeywell Third VHF System RCZ-833/853 models.

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Direct COM Tuning Direct COM tuning is accomplished by pressing and holding for approximately 3 seconds the Line Select Button beside the COM preset frequency line. The yellow cursor box will enclose the active frequency allowing direct COM tuning to that frequency, and the preset frequency line will be blank. To exit from direct COM tuning, press and hold the Line Select Button beside the preset frequency line, until the preset frequency appears on the COM window. Squelch Function The COM squelch function is controlled through the Squelch Control Button, labeled SQ, on the RMU control bezel. Pressing this button will cause the COM radio to open its squelch and allow any noise or signal present in the receiver to be heard in the Audio System. The squelch open condition is indicated by the SQ label displayed on the top of the COM window. Pressing the Squelch Control Button again will close the radio squelch immediately. Automatic Time-Out After approximately two minutes of continuous transmission, the transceiver turns its transmitter off and a beep sound in the audio system alerts the pilot to the fact. The transceiver then reverts to receiver mode in order to prevent a stuck microphone button from blocking the communications channel. Should the time-out occur, the pilot can reset it by simply releasing the push to talk button and pressing it again.

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL NAV OPERATION

NAVIGATION AND COMMUNICATION

The NAV operation is identical to the COM operation. However, NAV controls are accomplished by actuation of the Frequency Transfer Button and the Line Select Button located on the upper RH of the RMU Bezel Panel. Furthermore, the NAV window has an additional function called DME Split Tuning Mode. The operation in the DME Split Tuning Mode is similar to the operation in the DME Hold Mode. The NAV system also incorporates FMS autotuning capability. Through the NAV Memory Page it is possible for the FMS to perform automatic tuning of the navigation radios (raw data) along the route by pressing the upper RH Frequency Transfer Button, which enables or disables the FMS autotuning capability. When the VOR or the ILS frequency is autotuned by the FMS, a magenta VOR or ILS frequency and a magenta AUTO label will be displayed on the top border of the RADIO Page NAV window. DME OPERATION In the normal DME operations only one of the six DME channels is paired with the VOR active frequency and one other with the preset VOR frequency. However, pressing the DME Select Button, labeled DME, on the RMU Bezel Panel, will enable the DME to be tuned independently of the VOR active frequency. Pressing the DME Select Button once will cause the NAV window to split into two windows. The top window will display the active VOR frequency and the lower window, with the DME label, will display the active DME frequency in VHF format. When the NAV window is split, an H (DME Hold) label is displayed in the DME window to indicate that the DME is not paired with the active VOR/ILS frequency. In this case the DME hold condition will also be announced on the PFD. In this condition, the DME may be tuned directly by simply pressing the associated Line Select Button beside the DME window and tuning the new DME channel through the Frequency Tuning Knobs. Pressing the DME Select Button again will cause the frequency to be displayed in the channel format (TACAN). Pressing the DME Select Button for the third time will cause the NAV window to resume its normal mode with the active and preset frequencies being displayed while returning the DME to the condition of channeling with the active VOR frequency.

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ADF OPERATION The tuning of ADF frequencies is similar to that performed on the airplanes other radios equipment. Pressing the Line Select Button beside the ADF frequency display will move the yellow cursor box to surround the ADF frequency in the RMU display. Then, slowly turning the Frequency Tuning Inner Knob clockwise causes the ADF frequencies to advance in 0.5 kHz increments while slowly turning the outer knob clockwise will cause the frequencies to advance in 10 kHz increments. ADF tuning through the Frequency Tuning Knobs is accomplished using proportional rate. If the knobs are turned in slow deliberate steps the frequency will follow likewise. However, if the knob is turned rapidly, the frequency will skip several steps, depending upon the speed at which the knob is turned. This allows accomplishing large frequency changes with a very slight rotation of the knob. The RMU also has the capability of storing an ADF frequency. This is accomplished by selecting the desired ADF frequency and then pressing the Memory Storage Button on the RMU Bezel Panel. To retrieve the stored frequency from memory, the ADF frequency Line Select Button must be pressed for 2 seconds. The ADF is provided with a mode control capability. ADF operational modes can be selected by moving the yellow cursor box to the ADF modes field in the ADF window and then pressing the Line Select Button beside the ADF modes field or rotating the Frequency Tuning Knobs. Repeatedly pressing the Line Select Button will cause the modes to step in one direction while rotating the Frequency Tuning Knobs will select the modes either up or down the current location. The ADF operational modes are the following: - The ADF receives signal only. - The ADF receives signal and calculates relative bearings to station. - BFO - The ADF adds a beat frequency oscillator for reception of CW signals. - VOICE - The ADF opens width of IF bandwidth for better aural reception. NOTE: Bearing information is available in the ADF and BFO modes only. - ANT - ADF

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL TRANSPONDER AND TCAS OPERATION

NAVIGATION AND COMMUNICATION

Transponder operation is similar to other radio equipment since it requires moving the yellow cursor box to a desired function. In order to tune a desired ATC code, press the Line Select beside the ATC code display. This action will enable the Frequency Tuning Knobs to change the ATC codes. The outer knob sets the thousands and hundreds digits and the inner knob sets the tens and ones digits. Pressing and holding the code Line Select Button will recall the stored preset code (typically used for VFR). A new code may be stored by setting the code and then pressing the Memory Storage Button on the RMU Bezel Panel. Pressing the Line Select Button associated with the transponder operating mode display will move the yellow cursor box to surround the mode annunciation in the ATC/TCAS window allowing to set a new transponder mode if a non-standby mode is selected. Once the mode annunciation is surrounded, pressing the Transfer Button 1/2 will select which transponder will be in operation (e.g., 1 ATC ON to 2 ATC ON). The transponder operational modes are the following: ATC ON - Replies on Modes S and A, no altitude reporting. ATC ALT - Replies on Modes A, C and S, with altitude reporting. TA ONLY - TCAS Advisory Mode is selected. TA/RA - TCAS Traffic Advisory/Resolution Advisory Mode is selected.

RMU ABNORMAL OPERATION Loss of the Primary Radio Bus will disable the cross-side control capability and also the TBCH. However, no radio functions will be lost. The radios on both sides will still be functional through the Secondary Radio Buses. Loss of the left and/or right Secondary Radio Bus will not disable the radio functions. The radios may be tuned, in this condition, through the Primary Radio Bus or through the cross-side control feature. As a safety feature of the RMU, if any component of the Radio System fails to respond to the commands from the RMU, the frequencies or the operating commands associated with that particular function will be removed from the RMU display and replaced with dashes.

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RMU CONTROLS AND INDICATORS RMU BEZEL PANEL 1 - FREQUENCY TRANSFER BUTTON When pressed, the active frequency (upper line) and the preset frequency (lower line) in the COM or NAV windows exchange location and function. 2 - LINE SELECT BUTTONS The first press of the button moves a yellow cursor box to surround the data field associated with that particular Line Select Button. This enables the Frequency Tuning Knobs to change the data or the mode marked by the cursor. For some functions, additional pressing of the Line Select Button will toggle modes or recall stored frequencies. The Line Select Buttons, if kept pressed, allows ADF and ATC memories to be recalled, and to enter or exit Direct Tune Mode for COM and NAV. 3 - FREQUENCY TUNING OUTER KNOB Allows the data field enclosed by the cursor to be modified. The data may be frequency setting, stored frequencies or mode, depending upon the data field. When setting a frequency, this knob controls the digits to the left of the decimal point. Furthermore, this knob also controls the RMU brightness, which is enabled by pressing the Dimming Button. 4 - FREQUENCY TUNING INNER KNOB Is functionally similar to the Frequency Tuning Outer Knob except that when setting the frequency, this knob controls the digits to the right of the decimal point. 5 - MEMORY STORAGE BUTTON Pressing this button will cause a temporary (TEMP) COM or NAV pre-select frequency to be stored in the memory and assigned numbered location, provided the cursor has first been placed around that frequency. NOTE: ADF and ATC have only one memory location.

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6 - DME SELECT BUTTON Allows selection of the DME Hold Mode, tuning a different DME channel, not paired with the VOR/ILS frequency, without changing the active VOR frequency. Repeated pressing of this button enables display and selection of the DME channels in VHF and TACAN formats, and then back to the paired VOR/DME mode. 7 - CROSS-SIDE TRANSFER BUTTON With the cursor in any window, except the ATC or TCAS display, pressing this button will transfer the entire RMU operation and display from the cross-side system. With the cursor in the ATC or TCAS window, pressing this button selects which transponder will be in operation. With enhanced TCAS, the button allows control of TCAS data in the cross-side display. 8 - TEST BUTTON When pressed, causes the component associated with the present position of the yellow cursor box to activate its internal self-test circuits for a complete end-to-end test of the function. To properly accomplish the equipment self-test, the Test Button must be pressed and held down as follows: About 2 seconds for COM transceiver self-test. From 5 to 7 seconds for DME, ATC and ADF self-test. About 20 seconds for NAV (VOR/ILS) self-test. Releasing the Test Button at any time immediately returns the equipment to its normal operation in the actual function. If the Test Button is held pressed for 30 seconds or more, the radios are automatically commanded back into normal operation. 9 - PAGE CONTROL BUTTON Provides access to the page menu. 10 - DIMMING BUTTON The RMU features an automatic screen brightness adjustment, within a limited range, to keep the display visibility optimized. The Dimming Button enables RMU brightness to be controlled manually through the Frequency Tuning Outer Knob. The manual dimming control can be disabled by pressing the Dimming Button again or any Line Select Button.

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11 - TRANSPONDER IDENTIFICATION MODE BUTTON Selects the Transponder Identification Response Mode. The ident squawk will stop after 18 seconds. 12 - SQUELCH CONTROL BUTTON Causes the COM radio to open its squelch allowing any noise or signal present in the radio to be heard in the Audio System. The label SQ is displayed on the top line of the COM window when the squelch is open. When pressed a second time the Squelch Control Button closes the squelch.

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RMU DISPLAY PAGE MENU 1 - PAGE MENU IDENTIFICATION Indicates that Page MENU is selected. Color: White. 2 - COM AND NAV MEMORY PAGE LABEL To access the COM or NAV MEMORY Pages press the Line Select Button adjacent to the desired page. Color: Green. 3 - ATC/TCAS PAGE LABEL To access the ATC/TCAS Page press the Line Select Button adjacent to this label. Color: Green. 4 - NAVIGATION PAGE LABEL To access the NAVIGATION Page press the Line Select Button adjacent to this label. Color: Green. 5 - ENGINE PAGE LABEL To access the ENGINE Page press the Line Select Button adjacent to this label. Color: Green. 6 - SYS SELECT PAGE LABEL To access the SYS SELECT Page press the Line Select Button adjacent to this label. Color: Green. 7 - MAINTENANCE PAGE LABEL To access the MAINTENANCE Page press the Line Select Button adjacent to this label. Color: Green. 8 - RETURN TO RADIOS PAGE LABEL To return to the RADIOS Page press the Line Select Button adjacent to this label. Color: Green.

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RADIO PAGE 1 - PRESET FREQUENCY MEMORY LOCATION (ONLY FOR NAV AND COM WINDOWS) Identifies the preset frequency as temporary (TEMP label) or retrieved from the memory (MEMORY label followed by its memory location). Colors: Cyan for on-side operation. Yellow for cross-side operation. When marked by the yellow cursor box, the memory location labels and their associated stored frequencies can be scrolled by using the Frequency Tuning Knobs. 2 - COM WINDOW/CONTROL SIDE IDENTIFICATION Identifies the window and which source equipment (side 1 or 2) is active in that RMU. Colors: White for on-side source. Magenta for cross-side source. 3 - VHF COM ACTIVE FREQUENCY Indicates the active frequency for that window. Colors: White for on-side operation. Yellow for cross-side operation. Digits are replaced by dashes in case of any failure in the associated source. 4 - VHF COM PRESET FREQUENCY Indicates the preset frequency. Colors: Cyan for on-side operation. Yellow for cross-side operation. NOTE: When DME Hold is not selected, the NAV Window also presents a similar preset frequency field.

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5 - NAV WINDOW/CONTROL SIDE IDENTIFICATION Identifies the window and which source equipment (side 1 or 2) is active in that RMU. Colors: White for on-side source. Magenta for cross-side source. 6 - VHF NAV ACTIVE FREQUENCY Indicates the active frequency for that window. Colors: White for on-side operation. Yellow for cross-side operation. Digits are replaced by dashes in case of any failure in the associated source. 7 - DME HOLD MODE ANNUNCIATION Indicates that the DME is in Hold Mode and the active DME channel is selected separately from the active VOR/ILS frequency. Color: Yellow. 8 - DME STATION IDENTIFICATION CODE Displays the digital identification code of the ground station to which the DME is tuned with. Color: White. 9 - DME HOLD MODE FREQUENCY Indicates the active frequency in DME Hold Mode operation, in VHF (represented) or TACAN formats. Color: White. 10 - ADF WINDOW/CONTROL SIDE IDENTIFICATION Identifies the window and which source equipment (side 1 or 2) is active in that RMU. Colors: White for on-side source. Magenta for cross-side source.

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11 - ADF ACTIVE FREQUENCY Indicates the active frequency for that window. Colors: White for on-side operation. Yellow for cross-side operation. Digits are replaced by dashes in case of any failure in the associated source. 12 - ADF MODES FIELD Displays the ADF modes as selected either through the second ADF Line Select Button (achieved by repeated pressing) or through the Frequency Tuning Knobs when the yellow cursor box is located in this field. Color: Green. 13 - TRANSPONDER OPERATING MODE ANNUNCIATION Displays the active transponder operating mode as selected through the Frequency Tuning Knobs when the yellow cursor box is located in this field. Pressing the Line Select Button beside this field will alternate between the pre-selected transponder mode and the standby mode. Color: Green. 14 - ATC CODE Displays the active ATC code number. Color: White. 15 - ATC/TCAS WINDOW Identifies the window as the ATC/TCAS window. Colors: White.

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COM MEMORY PAGE 1 - MEMORY PAGE IDENTIFICATION Identifies the page as a COM Memory Page. Color: White. 2 - ACTIVE COM FREQUENCY Identifies the COM frequency that is currently active. Color: White. 3 - SQUELCH MODE INDICATION Indicates if squelch is open. Color: Yellow 4 - MEMORY PAGE SELECTED ANNUNCIATION Indicates that the Memory Page is selected. Color: Green. 5 - MEMORIES DISPLAY Displays the preset frequencies and their associated locations. When there is no frequency stored in a memory location only the location number will be displayed in the associated memory display line. Colors: Memory identifications are green. Frequency is cyan.

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6 - MEMORY INSERT PROMPT If it is desirable to insert a new frequency in a particular memory location, simply press the Line Select Button beside the location line, moving the yellow cursor box to that line. Then press the Line Select Button beside the Insert prompt label. This will cause all the data in memory from the insert location downward to shift one position down. The cursor will remain in the insertion selected location allowing the new frequency to be tuned and stored in that memory location. A MEM FULL (Memory Full) annunciation will be displayed in the RMU display if the 12 memory locations are filled and the Line Select Button associated with the Insert prompt is pressed. Color: Green. 7 - MEMORY DELETE PROMPT To delete a frequency from the memory, press the Line Select Button adjacent to the line associated with the frequency to be deleted. Then press the Line Select Button adjacent to the Delete prompt. The frequency enclosed by the cursor will be deleted from the memory. Higher numbered memory locations will then move upward to fill the empty memory location. Color: Green. 8 - RADIO PAGE RETURN PROMPT Pressing the associated Line Select Button will return the RMU display to the RADIO Page. Color: Green. 9 - MEMORY MORE PROMPT The More prompt allows to display memory locations 7 through 12, by pressing the associated Line Select Button. All actions described for memory locations 1 through 6 are also applicable to memory locations 7 through 12. If locations 1 through 6 are not filled, the Second Memory Page will not be accessible. Color: Green.

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NAV MEMORY PAGE 1 - MEMORY PAGE IDENTIFICATION Identifies the page as a NAV Memory Page. Color: White. 2 - ACTIVE COM FREQUENCY Identifies the NAV frequency that is currently active. Color: White. 3 - NAV FMS STATUS ANNUNCIATION In the NAV Memory Page, this field displays the FMS ENABLED or DISABLED annunciation. This will be present whether or not the Radio System interfaces with the FMS. Color: Yellow NOTE: When the VOR or the ILS frequency is autotuned by the FMS, a magenta VOR or ILS frequency and a magenta AUTO label will be displayed on the top border of the RADIO Page NAV window. 4 - MEMORY PAGE SELECTED ANNUNCIATION Indicates that the Memory Page is selected. Color: Green. 5 - MEMORIES DISPLAY Displays the preset frequencies and their associated locations. When there is no frequency stored in a memory location only the location number will be displayed in the associated memory display line. Colors: Memory identifications is green. Frequency is cyan.

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6 - MEMORY INSERT PROMPT If it is desirable to insert a new frequency in a particular memory location, simply press the Line Select Button beside the location line, moving the yellow cursor box to that line. Then press the Line Select Button beside the Insert prompt label. This will cause all the data in memory from the insert location downward to shift one position down. The cursor will remain in the insertion selected location allowing the new frequency to be tuned and stored in that memory location. A MEM FULL (Memory Full) annunciation will be displayed in the RMU display if the 12 memory locations are filled and the Line Select Button associated with the Insert prompt is pressed. Color: Green. 7 - MEMORY DELETE PROMPT To delete a frequency from the memory, press the Line Select Button adjacent to the line associated with the frequency to be deleted. Then press the Line Select Button adjacent to the Delete prompt. The frequency enclosed by the cursor will be deleted from the memory. Higher numbered memory locations will then move upward to fill the empty memory location. Color: Green. 8 - RADIO PAGE RETURN PROMPT Pressing the associated Line Select Button will return the RMU display to the RADIO Page. Color: Green. 9 - MEMORY MORE PROMPT The More prompt allows to display memory locations 7 through 12, by pressing the associated Line Select Button. All actions described for memory locations 1 through 6 are also applicable to memory locations 7 through 12. If locations 1 through 6 are not filled, the Second Memory Page will not be accessible. Color: Green.

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ATC/TCAS CONTROL PAGE 1 - INTRUDER ALTITUDE DISPLAY REL (green): Targets altitude displayed relative to ones own airplane (default). FL (cyan): Targets altitude displayed as flight level (reverts to REL after 20 sec). 2 - TA DISPLAY AUTO (green): Traffic targets displayed only when TA or RA target condition exists. MANUAL (cyan): All traffic targets displayed within the viewing airspace. 3 - FLIGHT LEVEL ID Allows Mode S coding to reflect the current flights call sign. The outer tuning knob moves the character position designator and the inner tuning knob selects the desired alphanumeric character. Color: White 4 - FLIGHT LEVEL 1/2 Display of the transponders encoded altitude and the air data source for that altitude. Color: Green. 5 - RADIO PAGE RETURN PROMPT Pressing the associated Line Select Button will return the RMU display to the RADIO Page. Color: Green.

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NAVIGATION BACKUP PAGE NOTE: - The navigation information presented on the Navigation Backup Page are operationally identical to that normally presented on the PFD. - The compass card is presented only in arc partial format. - The selected course and the DME distance to station are boxed. - NAV and ADF active frequencies are also presented. 1 - ACTIVE NAV FREQUENCY 2 - BEARING 1 POINTER 3 - BEARING 2 POINTER 4 - ACTIVE ADF FREQUENCY 5 - COURSE DEVIATION BAR 6 - COURSE DEVIATION SCALE 7 - DME DISTANCE TO STATION 8 - MARKER BEACON DISPLAY 9 - SELECTED COURSE 10 - BEARING 2 SOURCE ANNUNCIATION 11 - BEARING 1 SOURCE ANNUNCIATION 12 - COMPASS CARD DISPLAY

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SYSTEM SELECT PAGE 1 - SYSTEM SELECT PAGE IDENTIFICATION Identifies the SYS SELECT Page. Color: White. 2 - COM 1 AND COM 2 BANDWIDTH SELECTION FIELD Indicates the current COM 1 and COM 2 status regarding bandwidth selection. Pressing the Line Select Button beside the COM 1/COM 2 line field will toggle the receiver bandwidth from WIDE (2 digits at the right of the decimal point) to NARROW (3 digits at the right of the decimal point) or vice-versa. Color: Cyan for COM 1 (2) BNDWD label. Green for WIDE/NARROW indication. 3 - RADIO PAGE RETURN PROMPT Pressing the associated Line Select Button will return the RMU display to the RADIO Page. Color: Green.

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MAINTENANCE PAGE (POWER ON SELF-TEST) 1 - TEST PAGE IDENTIFICATION Indicates where a failure has been detected. Color: White. 2 - FAILURE SIDE IDENTIFICATION Indicates the side of the detected failure. Color: Green. 3 - FAILURE IDENTIFICATION Identifies the detected failure according to the table below. Color: Red.
ERROR MESSAGE

MEANING

ACTION

DECISION

One or more 1. Check that CDH is not in internal EMERG Mode. parameters were If tuning test fails, 2. On main tuning page, and the RMU is not RMU ERR measured perform tuning test on all found to be fully operable. radios by setting freoutside their selfquency and determining test limit. that radio is operating. Full RMU com- 1. Check that all radio munications with circuit breakers are on. all COMs, NAVs, cross-side 2. Check RMU ON/OFF PRI BUS and Page for all functions RMU cannot be ON. established on the 3. Check that CDH is not in primary bus. EMERG Mode. Full RMU com- 4. If 1 or 2 (or 3 if installed) Any of these munications with are sources, correct and messages indithe on-side COM turn RMU power off for cate that system 10 seconds. Reapply redundancy has SEC BUS and NAV cannot be established power to start new been reduced. using the seconPOST. dary bus. 5. If error persists, The NAV units perform on-side and and/or COM units cross-side tuning off all cannot fully radios and activate auxiliary tuning sources NAV UNIT/ communicate with to determine which COM UNIT both RMUs over primary bus and/or functions are still the on-side RMU available. over secondary bus.

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MAINTENANCE PAGE (PILOT ACTIVATED SELF TEST) 1 - SYSTEM TEST IDENTIFICATION Indicates which unit is being tested. Color: Amber. 2 - TEST RESULT INDICATION Indicates whether the tested system is operating normally or not. Color: Green for successful tests. Red for unsuccessful tests.

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TUNING BACKUP CONTROL HEAD


The Tuning Backup Control Head is a unit that provides an alternative means of tuning the NAV 2 and COM 2. The TBCH is energized only when the AVIONICS MASTER is switched ON, and in normal operation it displays the RMU 2 NAV and COM active frequencies (NAV 2 and COM 2). NORMAL MODE In the Normal Mode, the TBCH displays the RMU 2 NAV and COM active frequencies. Each time these frequencies are tuned via RMU, the TBCH display is updated automatically. The same occurs when these frequencies are tuned via TBCH, the RMU 2 NAV and COM active frequencies being also updated automatically. It is also possible to tune the RMU 1 NAV and COM active frequencies using the RMU cross-side operational mode (see 2-18-11). EMERGENCY MODE When the TBCH is set to the Emergency Mode, the Radio Management System will accept only the NAV and COM tuning via TBCH, ignoring the RMUs control. The RMUs will recover their capability of tuning the radio frequencies only when the TBCH is set to the Normal Mode again. SELF TEST After power up, the Tuning Backup Control Head performs a self-test. This test consists of saving the frequencies that the COM and NAV units are tuned to as indicated by the Radio System Bus (RSB), and then changing the frequency outputs to the COM and NAV and verifying that they have changed on the RSB. Failures are announced in the display line associated with the function as an error message followed by an error code ERXX, with the XX showing a two-digit error code. This test is performed only on the ground, when the unit is turned on.

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TBCH CONTROLS AND INDICATORS 1 - SYSTEM INSTALLATION ANNUNCIATION Indicates to which Radio System the Tuning Backup Control Head is connected. 2 - TUNING CURSOR Indicates which frequency may be changed by the Tuning Knobs. 3 - NAV AUDIO ON ANNUNCIATION Indicates that the NAV audio is selected on. 4 - EMERGENCY MODE ANNUNCIATION Indicates when the unit has been selected to the Emergency Mode, which inhibits RMU tuning capability. NOTE: This annunciation is not related to the emergency COM frequency of 121.5 MHz. 5 - SQUELCH ANNUNCIATION Indicates that the squelch is opened by the SQ Switch. 6 - TRANSMIT ANNUNCIATION Indicates that the COM transmitter is ON. 7 - NAV AUDIO BUTTON Toggles NAV audio on and off. 8 - SQUELCH BUTTON Toggles the COM squelch on and off. 9 - TUNING KNOBS Change the frequency indicated by the tuning cursor. Inner knob changes the frequency decimal digits in steps of 0.025 MHz for VHF and 0.050 MHz for VOR/LOC.

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It also changes the frequencies in the VHF sub-band that contains the 8.33 kHz spaced channels according to appropriate selection on the RMU. These frequencies are identified in voice communications by the channel names as exemplified below:
Frequency (MHz)
132,0000 132,0000 132,0083 132,0166 132,0250 132,0250 132,0333 132,0416 132,0500 132,0...

Spacing
25 8.33 8.33 8.33 25 8.33 8.33 8.33 25 8....

Channel Name
132,000 132,005 132,010 132,015 132,025 132,030 132,035 132,040 132,050 132,...

Outer knob changes the frequency non-decimal digits in steps of 1 MHz for both VHF and VOR/LOC. 10 - NORMAL/EMERGENCY MODE SELECTOR BUTTON When knob rotated clockwise selects normal Mode. When knob rotated counterclockwise selects Emergency Mode. EMRG button toggles the Emergency mode on and off. 11 - TRANSFER BUTTON Alternately selects between the COM frequency (top) or the NAV frequency (bottom) to be connected to the Tuning Knobs. In the NAV only or COM only configurations, toggles the active (top) frequency with the preset (bottom) frequency. In addition, holding the button down for two seconds will remove the preset frequency and place the unit in the Direct Tuning Mode. To return to the Active/Preset Tuning Mode, hold down the transfer key for two seconds. 12 - RADIO TUNING ANNUNCIATION Identifies the frequency at the top and bottom lines.

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

NAVIGATION AND COMMUNICATION

TUNING BACKUP CONTROL HEAD

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

NAVIGATION AND COMMUNICATION

DIGITAL AUDIO PANEL


The EMB-135 BJ is equipped with three individual Digital Audio Panels (DAP), one each for the captain, copilot and observer. This unit allows each flight crew member to select an individual transceiver, the intercommunication function further permitting individual selection and audio level adjustment of the following communications equipment: VHF communication; Crew/ramp station intercommunication; Passenger address; Reception and amplification of the NAV/COM audio signals.

NORMAL MODE In the normal mode, each flight crew member may select one COM transceiver (VHF COM 1, VHF COM 2, VHF COM 3 or HF), the interphone function and, simultaneously, several audio receivers (COM 1, 2 and 3, HF, NAV 1 and 2, ADF 1 and 2, and DME 1 and 2). Also, the unit may provide volume control for each radio equipment, microphone selection between Boom and Mask (Oxygen Masks), and audio output selection between Speakers and Headphones. Other features are the capability to filter the NDB/VOR audio signals, attenuating morse code or voice signals. Finally, Normal Mode allows marker beacon audio sensitivity control, which also may silence temporarily that type of signal. EMERGENCY MODE The emergency mode must be selected in case of Digital Audio Panel power loss. In this case the captain will be directly connected to the COM 1 and NAV 1 and the copilot to the COM 2 and NAV 2. The interphone function will also be lost. If power is recovered the Digital Audio Panel may be returned to the normal mode of operation by selecting another MICROPHONE button (COM 1, 2, 3 or HF).

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DIGITAL AUDIO PANEL CONTROLS AND INDICATORS 1 - MICROPHONE SELECTOR BUTTONS When pressed enables transmission and reception of radio signals through the respective COM unit (COM 1, COM 2, COM 3, HF). Simultaneous selection of more than one microphone selector button is not possible. Pressing a different microphone selector button will cause the previously selected button to be deselected. A bar illuminates inside the button to indicate that it is pressed. 2 - AUXILIAR BUTTON When depressed enables pilots communication through the SATCOM (if installed). 3 - PASSENGER BUTTON When pressed enables the crew to make the speech to the passenger cabin while simultaneously deselecting the previously selected COM transmitter. 4 - EMERGENCY BUTTON In case of power loss to the Digital Audio Panel, connects microphone directly to the emergency COM mic outputs and headphone unit to COM and NAV audio. The captain is connected to COM 1 and NAV 1 and the copilot to COM 2 and NAV 2. Observer radio communications capability is lost. 5 - BOOM/MASK BUTTON Alternates selection between the boom (pressed) and the mask (released) microphones. 6 - ID/VOICE BUTTON When pressed (ID position), NDB and VOR audio signals are filtered in order to enhance morse code identification. When depressed (VOICE position), VOR/ILS audio signals are filtered in order to reduce morse code signal, enhancing the VOR/ILS voice associated messages (e.g., ATIS messages).

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

7 - HEADPHONE MASTER VOLUME CONTROL KNOB Allows adjustment of headphone amplifier volume. 8 - INTERPHONE SELECTOR KNOB When depressed, enables communications between captain, copilot, observer, and ramp station via airplane interphone. When rotated, provides interphone volume control. NOTE: To enable the interphone function the respective control wheel and observer communications switch must also be set at the HOT position. 9 - MARKER BEACON SENSITIVITY/MUTE KNOB The mute function is enabled by pressing the marker beacon sensitivity/mute knob and it is used to temporarily silence the marker beacon audio signal. The audio signal will be automatically re-enabled according the following schedule: If the mute function was selected when the marker beacon audio level was above a certain threshold setting, the audio will be re-enabled 5 seconds after the audio level descends below that threshold setting. If the mute function was selected when the marker beacon audio level was below that threshold setting, the audio signal will be mute during 20 seconds, and then it will be re-enabled. The marker beacon sensitivity/mute knob, when rotated, also controls the sensitivity of the Marker Beacon receiver. 10 - MARKER BEACON VOLUME KNOB When rotated, allows to control the marker beacon audio volume. NOTE: Does not allow volume settings below a certain level in order to prevent the marker beacon audio from being adjusted too low to be heard, that the marker signal could be missed. 11 - SIDETONE KNOB This knob selects the speaker ON (depressed) or OFF (pressed). It must be pressed when the headphones are used. The sidetone control is made by rotating the sidetone knob, which prevents undesirable feedback of speaker sidetone audio into the transmitting microphone.
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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL 12 - SPEAKER MASTER VOLUME CONTROL KNOB

NAVIGATION AND COMMUNICATION

When rotated, allows adjustment of speaker volume. 13 - AUDIO CONTROL KNOBS When depressed, turns on the associated COM/NAV audio. When rotated, provides volume control for the associated COM/NAV audio. NOTE: The COM 3 can be used for data transmission. When it is not being used for voice transmissions, the COM 3 Audio Control Knob should remain pressed on all audio panels.

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

NAVIGATION AND COMMUNICATION

COMMUNICATION CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


COCKPIT CONTROL WHEEL COMMUNICATIONS SWITCH (PTT) 1 - CONTROL WHEEL COMMUNICATIONS SWITCH PTT POSITION - Momentary position. When pressed allows VHF and HF transmissions and speech to the passengers through Passenger Address System. Releasing this button, it returns to the HOT position and VHF, HF or passenger cabin transmissions will be interrupted. NOTE: For VHF transmissions, a continuous command of PTT switch is limited to 2 minutes. If the PTT switch is pressed longer than 2 minutes, the message MIC STK will be displayed on RMU, and the microphone will be disabled. HOT POSITION - Allows communication between crew members and between crew members and ramp station. OFF POSITION - Allows only audio reception.

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

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CONTROL WHEEL

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GLARESHIELD COMMUNICATION SWITCH (PTT) 1 - GLARESHIELD MIC PTT BUTTON When pressed allows VHF and HF transmission and speech to passengers through the Passenger Address System. Releasing this button will interrupt transmission.

GLARESHIELD PANEL

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL CAPTAIN AND COPILOT HAND MICROPHONE

NAVIGATION AND COMMUNICATION

1 - HAND MIC PTT BUTTON When pressed allows VHF and HF transmission and speech to passengers through the Passenger Address System. Releasing this button will interrupt transmission.

PILOT AND COPILOT CONSOLE

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

CAPTAIN AND COPILOT JACK PANELS 1 - CAPTAIN AND COPILOT JACKS Allows to plug in headphone, boom microphone, and hand microphone.

PILOT AND COPILOT JACK PANELS

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OBSERVER JACK PANEL AND COMMUNICATION SWITCH (PTT) 1 - BOOM JACK Allows to plug in the boom microphone. 2 - HEADPHONE JACK Allows to plug in the headphone. 3 - OBSERVER MICROPHONE SWITCH HOT POSITION - Allows communication with crew members and ramp station. OFF POSITION - Allows only audio reception. PTT POSITION - Momentary position. When pressed allows VHF and HF transmissions and speech to passengers through the Passenger Address System. Releasing this button, it returns to the OFF position and transmissions will be interrupted, remaining only in audio reception.

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

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OBSERVER JACK PANEL


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RAMP STATION FRONT AND REAR RAMP PANELS 1 - COCKPIT CALL BUTTON (momentary action) When pressed, generates a tone in the headphones and cockpit speakers. 2 - MICROPHONE/HEADPHONE JACK Allows ramp crew to plug in a headphone and a microphone equipped with a PTT Button. NOTE: Ground crew panel is linked to the Hot Mic.

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FRONT AND REAR RAMP PANELS

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

NAVIGATION AND COMMUNICATION

HF COMMUNICATION SYSTEM - KHF-950


The airplane may be equipped with a KHF-950 High-Frequency Communication System. All functions of the KHF-950 System are controlled by the KCU-951 Control Panel located at the control pedestal.

HF OPERATING MODES
The KHF-950 High-Frequency Communications System provides the following operating modes: AMPLITUDE MODULATION Amplitude modulation (AM) is a transmission process in which a selected frequency (called carrier frequency) and two sidebands (frequencies above and below the carrier) are generated and transmitted. The upper sideband (USB) is the sum of the carrier frequency and the voice, while the lower sideband (LSB) is the difference between the two. The disadvantages of AM are that it occupies a wide spectrum and is inefficient in the sense that a great deal of unneeded carrier is generated, as well as redundant information in the unused sideband. SINGLE SIDEBAND Single sideband operation achieves the same function as AM with considerably greater efficiency. The SSB transmitter electronically eliminates most or all of the carrier wave and one of the sidebands. The major advantages of SSB (either USB or LSB) as opposed to AM are greater talking power (about eight times that of AM for a given power input), reduced power drain, longer range and conservation of the spectrum (since only one sideband is required to transmit the message).

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SUPPRESSED CARRIER AND REDUCED CARRIER (OPTIONAL) The SSB operation with the carrier frequency eliminated is referred to as single sideband suppressed carrier and is designated as the A3J mode in the KHF-950. If a small portion of the carrier frequency is transmitted along with the sideband, then the operation is referred to as single sideband reduced carrier, and is designated as the A3A mode in the KHF-950. SIMPLEX, SEMI-DUPLEX AND RECEIVE-ONLY OPERATION Simplex operation means that the transmission and reception frequencies are the same. An example of simplex operation would be communications with a control tower using a VHF COMM transceiver. Semi-duplex means transmit on one frequency and reception on another frequency. Receive-only operation allows the system to operate as a receptor only. The 99 user programmed channels can be programmed for either simplex, semi-duplex or receive only operation, and can operate in any of the available modes (AM, USB or LSB). NOTE: The use of LSB is legal for some international and off-shore communications, but is not authorized for use in the United States and most European countries.

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HF NORMAL OPERATION KCU-951 CONTROL UNIT


There are two types of operation: - Discrete frequency tuning. - Programmable channel. DISCRETE FREQUENCY TUNING OPERATION In the discrete frequency mode of operation, the user may directly tune any one of 280,000 frequencies over the range of 2.0 to 29.9999 MHz. 1 - Access discrete frequency operation. Apply power to the system by rotating the volume (V) knob clockwise from the OFF position. Wait for about two minutes, until the system has warmed up. Until then, no frequency is displayed. Make sure that the FREQ/CHAN button is depressed, in the FREQ position. Confirm this by seeing that no channel number is annunciated in the frequency display. If the button is pressed, a momentary press unlatches it and engages FREQ (direct tune) operation. 2 - Select the transmission mode. Press the mode button to select the transmission mode (USB, LSB or AM). 3 - Enter the frequency. Each digit in a frequency is selected individually. The large concentric knob on the lower right of the control unit may be rotated in either direction and causes one of the displayed frequency digits to flash. This flashing cursor indicates which frequency digit will be changed by rotating the smaller concentric knob. Rotate the larger knob until the digit you wish to change flashes, and then select the desired number into view by rotating the smaller knob. 4 - Tune the antenna. Momentarily key the PTT to initiate the antenna coupler tuning cycle. During the tuning process the TX annunciator will flash and the frequency numbers will blank. When the TX stops flashing and the frequency reappears , the antenna tuning cycle is complete and you are ready to transmit on the selected frequency.

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REVISION 5

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NOTE: - The discrete frequency mode always provides simplex operation (transmit and receive frequencies are the same). - Always key the PTT after selecting a new frequency to initiate antenna tunning, otherwise you may experience poor reception or miss an important call. PROGRAMMABLE CHANNEL OPERATION In the channel mode operation, the user may select user programmed channels by their channel numbers. For user programmed channels: 1 - Access channelized operation. Apply power to system (rotate the VOLUME knob from the OFF position). Wait for about two minutes, until the system has warmed up. Until then, no frequency is displayed. Make sure that the FREQ/CHAN button is pressed, in the CHAN position. 2 - Select the channel. Rotate the small inner concentric knob to select the desired channel number. 3 - Tune the antenna. Momentarily key the PTT to initiate antenna coupler tuning cycle. Adjust volume and squelch controls, as desired. THE 99 USER CHANNELS PROGRAMMING PROCEDURE The 99 user programmable channels available in the KHF-950 system can be programmed on the ground or in flight. All programmed information is stored in a nonvolatile memory and can be recalled by selecting the desired user channel number. There are three types of channels that can be programmed: 1 - Semi-duplex The user programs two different frequencies, one for receive and one for transmit. The user also assigns one of the available operating modes (USB, LSB or AM) to the selected channel. Semiduplex operation is available only when the KHF-950 is being operated in the CHAN mode.

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

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2 - Simplex The user programs the same frequency for receive and for transmit. The user also assigns one of the available operating modes (USB, LSB or AM) to the selected channel. Simplex operation is used by ARINC, ATC (Air Traffic Control), and others. 3 - Receive-only The user programs a frequency for reception and assigns one of the available operating modes (USB, LSB or AM), but leaves the transmit portion of the preset channel blank. The transmitter and power amplifier are locked out and cannot be used when a channel has been programmed for receive-only operation. Receive-only channels are used to listen to frequency standards (W W V ) for example, time, weather, Omega status, and geophysical alert broadcasts. SEMI-DUPLEX CHANNEL PROGRAMMING PROCEDURE 1 - Access channelized and program mode. Apply power to the system by rotating the VOLUME (V) knob clockwise from the OFF position. Make sure that the FREQ/CHAN button is pressed, in the CHAN position. Activate the program mode by pressing the PGM switch with a pointed object. 2 - Select the desired user channel. Rotate the inner concentric knob to select the channel number to be programmed. 3 - Select emission mode. Use the MODE button to select emission mode (USB, LSB or AM). Press the MODE button until the desired mode appears. 4 - Enter the receive frequency. Use the outer larger concentric knob to position the flashing cursor on each digit of the receive frequency and use the smaller inner knob to select the desired number in each position. 5 - Store the receive frequency and mode of operation. Push the STO button once and the receive frequency is entered in the electronic memory. The TX annunciator will begin to flash in the display window indicating the receive frequency is stored and you are ready to program the transmit frequency.
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6 - Enter and store the transmit frequency. Use the outer larger concentric knob to position the flashing cursor on each digit of the transmit frequency and use the smaller inner knob to select the desired number in each position. 7 - Store the transmit frequency. Push the STO button again and the transmit frequency is now stored. If additional user channels are to be programmed, repeat steps 2 through 7 at this time. 8 - Exit the program mode Press the PGM switched with pointed object. 9 - Tune the antenna. Momentarily key the PTT to initiate the antenna coupler tuning cycle. Adjust the volume (V) and squelch (S) controls, as desired. SIMPLEX CHANNEL PROGRAMMING PROCEDURE When you program a channel for simplex operation, both the receive and the transmit frequencies will be the same. Programming a simplex channel is similar to programming a semi-duplex channel, except the STO button is pressed twice after the receive frequency and mode of operation are entered to store the frequency in both the receive and the transmit positions. RECEIVE-ONLY CHANNEL PROGRAMMING PROCEDURE 1 - Access channelized and program mode. Apply power to the system by rotating the VOLUME (V) knob clockwise from the OFF position. Make sure that the FREQ/CHAN button is pressed, in the CHAN position. Activate the program mode by pressing the PGM switch with a pointed object. 2 - Stow the cursor. Stow the cursor if a frequency digit is flashing. The cursor is stowed by rotating the larger concentric knob until no frequency digit is flashing. With the cursor stowed in the program mode, the smaller inner knob is now used to select a channel number to be programmed.

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3 - Select channel number. Use the smaller inner concentric knob to select the channel number you wish to program. Simply rotate the smaller knob until the desired channel appears on the right side of the display. 4 - Select operating mode. Push the MODE button until the appropriate mode (USB, LSB or AM) appears in the lower part of the display window. 5 - Set the frequency. Move the cursor into position by rotating the larger concentric knob, and then use the smaller concentric knob to set the desired number under each cursor position. 6 - Store the information. Push the STO (store) switch with a pointed object. The information you have entered will be stored in the electronic memory. After you push the STO button, the TX annunciator will flash indicating that the frequency you have just entered is stored in the receive position, but nothing is entered in transmit. Since a receive-only is being set, ignore the flashing TX. 7 - Exit the program mode. Press the PGM switched with pointed object. All information you have stored is locked into CHANNEL memory. FAULT INDICATION If the system detects a fault during transmission or during the tuning of the antenna coupler, the frequency digits on the display begin to flash. Simply key the PTT button and the automatic antenna coupler begins a new tunning cycle to clear the fault.

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

HF CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


KCU-951 CONTROL PANEL 1 - FREQUENCY DISPLAY Displays the operation frequency, in either FREQ or CHAN mode. 2 - MODE DISPLAY Displays emission mode, transmit indicator and program mode indication. 3 - CHANNEL DISPLAY Displays the set channel. If in FREQ mode, the channel display will not show numbers. 4 - PHOTOCELL Automatically adjusts the display brightness. 5 - MODE SWITCH Selects transmission and reception mode. Momentary depression cycles the KHF-950 from upper sideband (USB) to lower sideband (LSB) to AM. 6 - FREQ/CHAN SWITCH Allows the user to select between the two methods of frequency selection. In the FREQ mode (depressed switch) the user may direct tune any of the 280,000 available frequencies, simplex operation only. In the CHAN mode (pressed switch), the user presets the transmit and receive frequencies in up to 99 available channels.

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL 7 - PROGRAM SWITCH

NAVIGATION AND COMMUNICATION

Used on the 99 user-programmed channels programming. 8 - LARGER CONCENTRIC KNOB Moves the cursor which selects the digit of the frequency to be changed. 9 - SMALLER CONCENTRIC KNOB Increments or decrements the frequency digit under the cursor (flashing digit). 10 - STORE SWITCH Used to store data when programming the user programmable channels. 11 - POWER AND VOLUME KNOB Turns the system on and off and controls volume. Clockwise rotation past the first click turns the system on. Further rotation increases audio level. After turning on, the system takes about two minutes to warm up. Until then, no frequencies are displayed. 12 - SQUELCH KNOB Reduces background noises when rotated counterclockwise. Must be set by rotating the knob clockwise until background noise can be heard and then turning it counterclockwise until background noise is eliminated or barely audible.

13 - CLARIFIER KNOB Clarifier is used only in SSB communications, and is not applicable to AM mode; It must be used when due to off frequency ground station transmissions the audio voice quality from KHF-950 may sound unnatural;

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To operate the clarifier, pull the knob out and rotate the knob in either direction until the audio quality is optimized. When the knob is pushed in, the clarifier has no effect. When voice quality is good and natural, the carifier knob should remain pushed in.

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

NAVIGATION AND COMMUNICATION

KCU-951 CONTROL PANEL

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HF NORMAL OPERATION KFS-954 CONTROL UNIT


There are two types of operation: - Discrete frequency tuning. - Programmable channel. DISCRETE FREQUENCY TUNING OPERATION In the discrete frequency mode of operation, the user may directly tune any one of 280,000 frequencies over the range of 2.0 to 29.9999 MHz. 1 - Access discrete frequency operation. Apply power to the system by rotating the volume knob clockwise from the OFF position. Wait for about two minutes, until the system has warmed up. Until then, no frequency is displayed. Make sure that the EMMISSION MODE switch is in LSB, USB or AM position. The last frequency or the last channel used is displayed. In order to change the last used channel into a discrete frequency, check first to see that the display is showing a flashing zero in the channel position or is blank in that position. If a channel number other than zero is displayed, it will be necessary to move the cursor by depressing the Frequency/Channel control knob. A digit on the display will begin to flash. This flashing cursor indicates which digit in the display will be changed by twisting the Frequency/Channel control knob. Each additional time you depress the knob the cursor will move one digit. Move the cursor until it is on the channel number. Rotate the Frequency/Channel control knob until the channel number is set to zero. 2 - Select the transmission mode. Select the EMMISION MODE switch to the transmission mode (USB, LSB or AM). 3 - Enter the frequency. Press the Frequency/Channel control knob to cycle the cursor until the first digit in the frequency to be changed is flashing. (notice that the channel number has changed from 0 to blank.) Rotate this knob until have selected the desired number. Using the Frequency/Channel control knob in this same manner, change all the digits necessary to display the desired frequency.

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NOTE: The first one or two digits (MHz) of the frequency are displayed in the upper right of the display while the last four digits (kHz) of the frequency are displayed at the bottom of the display. To stow the cursor, depress the Frequency/Channel control knob repeatedly until no digit on the display is left flashing, or key the PTT momentarily. 4 - Tune the antenna. Momentarily key the PTT to initiate the antenna coupler tuning cycle. During the tuning process the TX annunciator will flash and the frequency numbers will blank. When the TX stops flashing and the frequency reappears , the antenna tuning cycle is complete and you are ready to transmit on the selected frequency. NOTE: - The discrete frequency mode always provides simplex operation (transmit and receive frequencies are the same). - Always key the PTT after selecting a new frequency to initiate antenna tunning, otherwise you may experience poor reception or miss an important call.

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REVISION 5

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL PROGRAMMABLE CHANNEL OPERATION

NAVIGATION AND COMMUNICATION

In the channel mode operation, the user may select user programmed channels by their channel numbers. For user programmed channels: 1 - Access channelized operation. Apply power to the system by rotating the volume knob clockwise from the OFF position). Wait for about two minutes, until the system has warmed up. Until then, no frequency is displayed. Make sure that the mode selector knob is in the desired position (USB, LSB or AM) and that a channel number is showing in the display. If one is not showing (discrete frequency tuning operation), or if you wish to change the channel, move the cursor by pressing the Frequency/Channel control knob until the channel number is flashing. 2 - Select the channel. Change the channel number by rotating the Frequency/Channel control knob until the desired channel number appears. The previously programmed receive frequency associated with that channel will appear in the display. 3 - Tune the antenna. Momentarily key the PTT to initiate antenna coupler tuning cycle. Adjust volume and squelch controls, as desired. THE 19 USER CHANNELS PROGRAMMING PROCEDURE The 19 user programmable channels available with the KFS 954 Control Display Unit can be easily programmed by the pilot on the ground or in flight. Each of the 19 channels can be assigned a separate frequency or frequencies (semi-duplex operation). The operating mode (USB, LSB or AM) of the stored channel is determined by the position of the EMMISION MODE selector knob at the time the pilot is using the channel.

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REVISION 5

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There are two types of channels that can be programmed: 1 - Simplex The user programs the same frequency in receive and transmit. 2 - Semi-duplex The pilot programs two different frequencies, one for receive and one for transmit. All programmed information is stored in a nonvolatile memory and can be recalled by selecting the desired user channel number. SIMPLEX CHANNEL PROGRAMMING PROCEDURE 1 - Change the first frequency digit to enter the program mode. Pushing the Frequency/Channel control knob move the cursor to the first digit in the frequency to be changed. Twist the Frequency/Channel control knob until the desired number has been selected for this frequency digit. As the knob is twisted, a flashing dash will appear to the right of the channel number to signify that you are in the program mode. You will be unable to receive or transmit on the frequency displayed as long as the dash is flashing to indicate you are in the program mode. It is possible to change the last digit (one tenth kHz) of the frequency without entering the program mode. 2 - Select the rest of the desired frequency. Use the cursor by pressing the Frequency/Channel control knob to address each additional digit you want to change. Once the digit is flashing, again twist the knob to select the desired number. NOTE: You may exit the program mode at any time and return to the previously stored frequency simply by keying the PPT. 3 - Store the frequency in the receive portion of memory. Once the user have selected the desired frequency, press the STO button to enter the displayed frequency in the receive portion of memory. The TX light will begin to flash indicating that memory is ready to receive the transmit frequency.

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4 - Store the same frequency in the transmit portion of memory. This is a simplex channel. Press the STO button a second time to store the same frequency in the transmit portion of memory. After the STO button is pressed the second time, the cursor will stow and the flashing dash will disappear to indicate the KFS 954 is no longer in the program mode. Additional channels can be programmed by continuing to use the cursor and Frequency/Channel control knob in this manner. 5 - Tune the antenna. Key the PTT to tune the antenna. After tuning is completed you are ready to transmit. SEMI-DUPLEX CHANNEL PROGRAMMING PROCEDURE 1 - Change the first frequency digit to enter the program mode. Pushing the Frequency/Channel control knob, move the cursor to the first digit in the frequency to be changed. Twist the Frequency/Channel control knob until the desired number has been selected for this frequency digit. As the knob is twisted, a flashing dash will appear to the right of the channel number to signify that you are in the program mode. You will be unable to receive or transmit on the frequency displayed as long as the dash is flashing to indicate you are in the program mode. It is possible to change the last digit (one tenth kHz) of the frequency without entering the program mode. 2 - Select the rest of the desired frequency. Use the cursor by pressing the Frequency/Channel control knob to address each additional digit you want to change. Once the digit is flashing, again twist the knob to select the desired number. NOTE: You may exit the program mode at any time and return to the previously stored frequency simply by keying the PPT. 3 - Store the frequency in the receive portion of memory. Once the user have selected the desired frequency, press the STO button to enter the displayed frequency in the receive portion of memory. The TX light will begin to flash indicating that memory is ready to receive the transmit frequency. 4 - Select the desired transmit frequency.

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REVISION 5

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Use the cursor and the Frequency/Channel control knob again to select a new transmit frequency. 5 - Store the transmit frequency in memory. Press the STO button again to store the transmit frequency. After the STO button is pressed the second time the cursor will stow and the TX light will go out. The flashing dash will also disappear to indicate the KFS 954 is no longer in the program mode. Additional channels may be programmed by continuing to use the cursor and Frequency/Channel control knob in the same manner. 6 - Press the PTT button to tune the antenna. After tuning is complete you are ready to transmit. Before keying the PTT to talk, you may want to press the STO button momentarily. This will allow you to listen momentarily to the transmit frequency to avoid overriding someone elses transmissions. FAULT INDICATION If the system detects a fault during transmission or during the tuning of the antenna coupler, the frequency digits on the display begin to flash. Simply key the PTT button and the automatic antenna coupler begins a new tunning cycle to clear the fault.

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HF CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


KFS-954 CONTROL PANEL 1 - OFF/VOLUME KNOB (inner concentric) Turns system on and adjusts audio volume. 2 - LAST FOUR DIGITS (kHz) Operating frequency are displayed in this area with EMISSION MODE switch in LSB, USB or AM position. 3 - READOUT DISPLAY All frequencies and present channel numbers are displayed. 4 - USER PROGRAMED CHANNEL NUMBER DISPLAY Channel number is displayed in this area when using one of the 19 programmable channels. 5 - DASH Indicates unit is in the PROGRAM MODE. 6 - FIRST ONE OR TWO DIGITS (MHz) With EMMISSION MODE switch in LSB, USB or AM position, the first one or two digits (MHz) of the operating frequency are displayed. 7 - TRANSMITION INDICATION Indicates unit is transmitting. 8 - PHOTOCELL Dims display automatically. 9 - STO (store) SWITCH

Stores frequency in memory when pressed.

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10 - FREQUENCY/CHANNEL CONTROL KNOB (inner concentric) Allows the user to perform a variety of channel and frequency changing functions. Depressing switch causes flashing "cursor" to move to the digit that the user desires to change. Appropriate frequency or channel is then selected with rotary action. This switch also serves as the clarifier function to adjust receive frequency and improve speech quality in SSB operating mode. 11 - EMMISION MODE SWITCH Selects transmission and reception mode 12 - SQUELCH KNOB (outer concentric) Reduces background noises when rotated counterclockwise. Must be set by rotating the knob clockwise until background noise can be heard and then turning it counterclockwise until background noise is eliminated or barely audible.

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KFS-954 CONTROL PANEL

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HF SELECTION PANEL
Airplanes equipped with two HF equipment have a HF selection panel on the glareshield panel. This panel has a knob that allows to switch from HF1 and HF2 and vice-versa. This procedure turns off the previous selected HF Control Panel turning automatically the other on.

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THIRD VHF COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM COLLINS 22A


The airplane may be equipped with a third VHF Communications System. All functions of the Collins VHF-22A System are controlled by the CTL-22 VHF Control Panel located at the control pedestal. The Avionics Master DC Bus 1 supplies the third Communications System with a protective 5A circuit breaker. VHF

THIRD VHF COM CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


1 - ACTIVE FREQUENCY DISPLAY Displays the active frequency (frequency to which the equipment is tuned) and diagnostics messages. 2 - XFR/MEM SWITCH This is a 3-position, spring-loaded toggle switch. When held to the XFR position, the preset frequency is transferred up to the active display and the equipment retunes. The previously active frequency becomes the new preset frequency and is displayed in the lower window. When held to the MEM position, one of the six stacked memory frequencies is loaded into the preset display. Successive pushes cycle the six memory frequencies through the display. 3 - FREQUENCY SELECT KNOBS Two concentric knobs control the preset or active frequency displays. The large knob changes the digits to the left of the decimal point in 1 MHz steps. The smaller knob changes the digits to the right of the decimal point in 0.005 MHz steps. Numbers roll over at the upper and lower frequency limits.

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4 - ACTIVE BUTTON Push the ACT button for about 2 seconds to enable the frequency select knobs to directly retune the VHF-22A (active frequency). The bottom window will display dashes and the upper window will continue to display the active frequency. Push the ACT button a second time to return the control to the normal 2-display mode. 5 - TEST BUTTON The self-test diagnostic routine is initiated in the transceiver by pushing the TEST button. The active and preset display intensity will flash, modulating its brightness from minimum to maximum indicating self-test in progress. The active frequency display will show four dashes and the preset frequency display will show 00. An audio tone will be heard from the audio system. At the completion of the self-test program, the display will return to its normal operation if no problem occurs. In case of a detected failure, diAG (diagnostic) letters will be displayed in the active and a 2-digit diagnostic code will be displayed in the preset display. Record any diagnostic codes displayed to help maintenance personnel in locating the problem. 6 - STORE BUTTON The STO button allows up to six preset frequencies to be selected and entered into the controls non-volatile memory. After presetting the frequency to be stored, push the STO button. The upper window displays the channel number of available memory (CH1 through CH6); the lower window continues to display the frequency to be stored. For approximately 5 seconds, the MEM switch may be used to advance through channel numbers without changing the preset display. Push the STO button a second time to commit the preset frequency to memory in the selected location. After approximately 5 seconds, the control will return to normal operation.

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7 - POWER AND MODE KNOB OFF - Turns off the system. ON - Turns on the system. SQ OFF - Disables the receiver squelch circuits. Use this position to set volume control or, if necessary, to try to receive a very weak signal that cannot operate the squelch circuits. 8 - ANNUNCIATORS The COM control contains MEM (memory) and TX (transmit) annunciators. The MEM annunciator illuminates whenever a preset frequency is being displayed in the lower window. The TX annunciator illuminates whenever the VHF-22A is transmitting. 9 - PRESET FREQUENCY DISPLAY Displays the preset (inactive) frequency and diagnostics messages. The frequencies displayed on the COM control show only five of the six digits. 10 - COMPARE ANNUNCIATOR ACT momentarily illuminates when active and preset frequencies are being switched. ACT flashes if the actual radio frequency is not identical to the frequency shown in the active frequency display.

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CTL-22 VHF CONTROL PANEL

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THIRD VHF COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM HONEYWELL RC-833/853


The airplane may be equipped with a third VHF communications system. All functions of the Honeywell RC-833/853 System are controlled by the RMU and by the DMU, if installed. The active frequency will appear in the third COM window of the RMU display when operating in voice mode. The desired frequency should be selected by the pilot using the RMU select knob. Communication can be established pressing the third COM button on the audio panel and the PTT button. When in data mode, the third VHF transmits the data on the frequency selected by the DMU unit, while on the RMUs third COM window the active frequency will display DATA. The third VHF has a pilot-activated self-test that performs a check of individual parts. A self-test is initiated when power is supplied to the RMU. The Avionics Master DC Bus 1A supplies the third VHF Communications System.

THIRD VHF COM NORMAL OPERATION


In order to operate the third COM unit for voice communications, it is necessary to properly set the RMU. By pressing the PGE bezel button on the RMU, the page menu will be displayed. On the page menu the SYS SELECT option should be chosen. Once selected, the System Select page will be displayed containing the available COM pairs (1/2, 1/3 and 2/3), bandwidth of each COM unit and the COM3 operating mode. After selecting the COM pair to the corresponding RMU, the change between each COM mode of the selected pair is achieved by pressing the 1/2 bezel button. The switch between data and voice modes can be accomplished by means of the SYS SELECT page. The voice mode can also be entered selecting the COM3 window and turning the RMU knob. The data mode cannot be entered during a voice transmission. If a DMU is installed and connected to the third VHF, it will enter the data mode and DATA will be displayed in active frequency window when the third VHF starts a data transmission.
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It is possible to enter a frequency, store it, and perform a self-test using the same procedures applicable to regular COM units. The announcements also will be the same. Should any radio component fail or a disagreement occur between the frequency selection and the subsequent transmission, the frequency or operating command will be removed from the RMU and replaced by dashes. This is an indication that the operation of that radio system is not normal.

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RMU PAGE MENU


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RMU SYSTEM SELECT PAGE


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RMU RADIO PAGE WITH THIRD VHF IN VOICE MODE


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SELCAL SYSTEM
The Ground-to-Air Selective Calling (SELCAL) System operates in conjunction with the communication radios. The SELCAL provides continuous monitoring of a pre-set frequency, eliminating the need to continuously monitor the communication frequencies by the flight crew. The SELCAL permits ground stations, equipped with encoding equipment, to call individual airplane by transmitting a coded signal. This coded signal will activate only one SELCAL unit to respond to that particular coded signal. In this case, a SELCAL voice message is activated through the Aural Warning Unit. Once activated, the system is reset for further monitoring by pressing the SELCAL Button, located on the Main Panel, or actuating the PTT function (on Control Wheel or glareshield panel). NOTE: - For some airplanes the SELCAL enables only the VHF 2 operation or only the HF operation. - SELCAL will recognize the coded signal from ground stations only if the associated system (HF or VHF2) is powered on and its frequency is adjusted to the ground station frequency.

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SELCAL CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


1 - SELCAL BUTTON A striped bar illuminates inside the associated button to alert the crew that communication is desired on VHF 2 or HF. A SELCAL voice message sounds simultaneously. When pressed, after a system activation, the striped bar extinguishes and the system is reset.

SELCAL PANEL

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HONEYWELL MARK III COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT UNIT (CMU)


The airplane may optionally be equipped with Honeywells Mark III Communications Management Unit (CMU). Additional information on functions and operations can be obtained in the manufacturers manual. The Mark III Communications Management Unit (CMU) is an airborne communications router that supports data link service access between the following aircraft data link applications and their corresponding ground service providers: Aeronautical Operational Communication (AOC)/Airborne Flight Information System (AFIS). Controller Pilot Data Link Communication (CPDLC). Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS). The CMU is based on ARINC Characteristic 758 and can be upgraded, by software download, to an Aeronautical Telecommunications Network (ATN) router when protocols and application infrastructure are available to support Communications, Navigation and Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) data link applications. The CMU provides an Aeronautical Radio, Inc. (ARINC) 724B compatible data link router through which all character-oriented data are transmitted to and from the ground Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS) network. There are several levels of user interfacing. The CMUs operational crew interface is provided through a Control Display Unit (CDU), printer, and data loaders. Access to the ground network is provided via several ACARS airground sub-networks listed below: Satellite Communications (SATCOM). Very High Frequency (VHF). High Frequency (HF). Mode-S (future). Ultrahigh Frequency (UHF) (future).

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The CMU functions as a router, with growth capacity as a gateway and an end system for hosting data link applications. As a gateway, the CMU can implement future protocols and provide the appropriate protocol conversions to support airborne systems whose architectures do not allow updates to future communication protocols but host the data link applications. Currently, the CMU is compliant with ARINC 758 level 0, which means that the CMU is able to perform ACARS functions. The other ARINC 758 levels will be available in the equipment as soon as the software upgrades are released by the manufacturer. The CMU is powered by the Avionic Switched DC Bus 1B. The CMU interfaces with other airplane systems and equipment through the following equipments: FMS The pilot CMU interface is accomplished through the Honeywell FMS (NZ-2000) Control and Display Units (CDU). It may be utilized with single or dual FMS installation. Transmit and receive data with ground bases. Provides a hard copy data printout. to download configurations

VHF #3 Printer

Portable Data Loader Used to upload and information, customized and messages. CMC OOOI

Sends maintenance information to the ACARS. Used to inform if the airplane is in one of the following situations: OUT - parking brake released and doors closed; OFF - airplane lift-off (Weight Off Wheels); ON - airplane has landed (Weight On Wheels); IN - parking brake applied and doors opened.

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CMU NORMAL OPERATION


Pilot interface is accomplished through the FMS Control and Display Unit (CDU). Data is entered in any field highlighted by a cursor. Generally, when accessing a FMS page, the cursor will park off the page. Selecting the ENTER key will place the cursor over the first enterable field on the page. Data is then entered into the field with the alphanumeric keys. In some situations, flight progress and related data from the FMS will prefill into the field but it is possible to change that data by overriding that value with a manual data entry. When SEND is pressed, the message goes into a queue for transmission. If the aircraft is flying over a region or is grounded at an airport not covered by a DSP (Data Link Service Provider) reception or transmission of messages to or from a ground station will not be successful. Communications are eased by the use of the Main Menu page and several submenus to quickly access each function or service available.

CMU ABNORMAL OPERATION


The CMU has a Built-In Test (BIT) function that contains a continuous monitor and self-test monitor. The continuous monitor function monitors critical system parameters and record faults found during normal operation. The self-test monitor function is activated upon command from the system controller, external discrete input, front test panel switch, maintenance computer or a power-up event. The self-test monitor will exercise various system functions, record faults found, and annunciate the results of the test.

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CMU CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


CONTROL DISPLAY UNIT (CDU) 1 - LINE SELECT BUTTONS There are four line selection buttons on each side of the Control Display Unit (CDU) that provide selection of submodes within major modes when in an indexed display. 2 - PREV/NEXT BUTTONS PREV - Changes the current page to the previous page. NEXT - Changes the current page to the next page.

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PRINTER CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


The CMU may be optionally equipped with a Printer. The Printer will provide a hard copy printout of data collected by the CMU including uplinked printer messages. For additional information on functions and operations, refer to the manufacturers manual. 1 - PAPER ADVANCE When pressed, advances paper. 2 - SELF-TEST When pressed, it produces a test pattern, comprising full character complement of printer, and activates both external aural/visual alert functions. If button is pressed and held, printer will successively print 40-, 60-, 80-column test patterns. Otherwise, each time the button is pressed, printer will print the next test pattern in sequence. 3 - POWER ON A green light indicator illuminates when power is on. 4 - ALERT RESET Will reset the aural/visual alert function and causes Printer Busy indicator to go out. 5 - PRINTER BUSY An amber indicator illuminates upon receipt of first text character and will remain on until the paper has advanced three lines beyond tear-off edge. The indicator will flash continuously after paper advance until the reset button is depressed.

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COCKPIT VOICE RECORDER


The Solid State Cockpit Voice Recorder System records all audio signals transmitted and received by the crew members via the Digital Audio Panels, and any audible noise in the cockpit, through an area microphone installed below the standby compass. The CVR is in operation whenever the essential DC Bus 2 is energized, storing the last 2 hours of recorded information in a solid state crash survivable memory unit. Any data older than 2 hours is automatically overwritten by the most recent audio inputs. A crash impact switch cuts off power to the CVR immediately after experiencing a 5 G impact in order to preserve the recorded data. The CVR also incorporates an Underwater Locator Beacon (ULB). Powered by a dedicated battery, the ULB starts transmitting an acoustic signal in the 37.5 kHz frequency once it senses contact with water, thus easing wreckage site location of a submerged airplane. The signal is transmitted during approximately 30 days. A signal from the captains clock allows timing correlation between CVR and FDRS.

SELF TEST
When the TEST button is pressed the unit performs a functional selftest to verify the integrity of the system. A successful self-test results in a one-second activation of the status LED on the control panel and a two-second 800 Hz tone that may be heard if a headphone is plugged to the CVR control panel jack. If a failure is detected during the test, the status LED will not be activated and the 800 Hz aural tone will not be heard.

ERASE FUNCTION
Previously recorded CVR data may be made unavailable if the ERASE button on the CVR control panel is pressed, provided the airplane is on the ground and with the parking brake applied. In this case, only the CVR manufacturer will be able to recover the erased data. When the ERASE button is pressed, a two-second 400 Hz tone may be heard if a headphone is plugged to the CVR control panel jack, confirming that the erase command was successful.

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COCKPIT VOICE INDICATORS

RECORDER

CONTROLS

AND

1 - ERASE BUTTON Erases previously recorded data from the crash survivable memory. Function is available only on the ground, with the parking brake applied. 2 - TEST BUTTON Tests system integrity. A successful self-test results in a one second activation of the status LED. In case of failure, the status LED on the control panel is not activated. 3 - HEADPHONE JACK Allows plugging a headphone to monitor the 800 Hz test tone, 400 Hz erase tone and recorded audio signals. 4 - STATUS LED Illuminates during one second to indicate a successful test.

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PASSENGER ADDRESS SYSTEM


The Passenger Address System (PAS) provides communication and announcements from cockpit to the passenger cabin. The PAS also interfaces with the audio entertainment and prerecorded announcement systems to provide music and safety briefing/flight information through the passenger loudspeakers. The following functions are available through the PAS: Voice announcement transmission (speech) to the PAX cabin. Call function from passenger to attendant, through chime tone. Chime tone for NO SMOKING and FASTEN SEAT BELTS signals. Interface to boarding music and passenger briefing.

The PAS component responsible for sending signals to passenger entertainment and prerecorded announcement systems is the Passenger Address Amplifier (PAA), located in the airplane electronic compartment. The PAA establishes the priority among the input signals from the several sources and then drives these signals to the proper cabin loudspeakers. The PAA also provides the logic for generation of the aural and visual annunciators, chimes for passenger and NO SMOKING and FASTEN SEAT BELTS signals.

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PASSENGER ADDRESS OPERATING MODES


MUTED MODE The Muted Mode is automatically selected during power up and when no other mode is selected. In this mode there will be no chimes, no lights and no microphones enabled during power up or power supply transients. PILOT-TO-PASSENGER MODE The Pilot-to-Passenger Mode is enabled by pressing the Passenger Button, labeled PAX, on the Digital Audio Panel. When this mode is enabled the captain, copilot or observer may transmit announcements to the passengers, by pressing the respective PTT. The priority of the transmission through the system is the following: captain, copilot, observer. There are no chimes in this mode.

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SATCOM SYSTEM
INTRODUCTION
The airplane may be equipped with a TT-3000 Series Aero-M SATCOM, that is capable of performing global communication through the INMARSAT satellite network. The system provides one channel voice 4800 BPS AMBE coding, fax 2400 BPS on 2 wire RJ-11 type interface, circuit mode data 2400 BPS, and can be interfaced with a PC via a RS-232 serial port for data communication. NOTE: The information presented in this manual has the purpose of assisting the user to perform basic operations on the SATCOM system. For advanced operation refer to the manufacturers user manual.

SATCOM OPERATION
When the Aero-M system is powered-up, after a short pause the handset will display the initialization page. Once that has ocurred, the display will shift to the Wait for GPS page. This means that the system is acquiring GPS (Global Positioning System) satellite signals and determining the systems position. The display will then shift to the Wait for NCS (Network Coordinating Station) page, indicating that the system is attempting to logon to a satellite network and acquire a bulletin board. Finally, the display will then shift to the Logon Display and the user is now ready to proceed with Pre-Operational Requirements.

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PRE-OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS Before attempting to initiate or receive a call, the user must verify that the Aero-M System has logged on to the satellite network. There are two indications that the system has power applied and the system has logged onto the satellite network: Both the left and green handset LED indicators will be illuminated and the signal strength indicator will display a measurement; The Aero-M logon display will appear in the handset display. The top line of the display will indicate which Ocean Region Satellite is in use followed by a colon. This will be: AORW : Atlantic Ocean Region West Satellite; AORE : Atlantic Ocean Region East Satellite; POR : Pacific Ocean Region Satellite; IOR : Indian Ocean Region Satellite. NOTE: The Aero-M system requires the user to determine the ocean region in which the aircraft is currently located. The user must enter the user menu and setup the system for that ocean region. SELECTION OF OCEAN REGION SATELLITE From Logon display, or Wait for NCS display, enter Area Menu, by pressing 2nd and 3 keys. The indicates the current ocean region selected. Scroll through menu to the correct region, using the key. Select correct ocean region pressing the OK key. The display will revert to Wait to NCS page and when NCS is acquired the display will return to Logon Display with the new ocean region used. After the colon, the display will indicate what Land Earth Station (LES) is in use for routing your calls. If the LCD display is on another display, you can always return to the Logon display by pressing the Exit key repeatedly to step back from MENU operation. Many functions require starting from the Logon display.

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This section contains information on types of calls and procedures for dialing and completing calls. GROUND CALLS All ground-to-air calls must be placed as international calls. Each INMARSAT Satellite has an assigned three digit code that is, for all practical purposes, the country code for the satellite. It is necessary to first dial the international access code that is used in your country, followed by the satellite country code and the number issued by the Ground Service Provider for the Airborne Earth Station (AES). In some countries, call routing by the Public Switched Telephone Network can be routed to the 870 country code. 870 is the Single Network Access Code (SNAC). SNAC is a special country code that contacts the Network Coordinating Station for INMARSAT Aero-M services and automatically routes the call to the satellite that Airborne Earth Station is logged on to. In countries where calls do not route to 870, it is necessary to manually include the appropriate country code for the INMARSAT Satellite that is serving the Airborne Earth Station. If the incorrect satellite/country code is dialed, an automatic response will inform that the station you are calling is not currently logged onto this ocean region. If you are sure the AES is logged on to a satellite, you can redial the number using another satellite country code in order to contact the AES. Country codes for the INMARSAT Satellites: AREA/OCEAN REGION Single Network Access Code Atlantic Ocean Region East Pacific Ocean Region Indian Ocean Region Atlantic Ocean Region West SNAC AORE POR IOR AORW INTERNATIONAL ACCESS CODE 870 871 872 873 874

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VOICE CALLS Receiving calls If a handset is receiving a call, the handset will ring and the Yellow Ring LED will flash. To establish a connection the user can either press the Toggle Hook key (key 5 on HANDSET KEY FUNCTIONS figure) or lift handset from cradle. When a connection has been established the Yellow Ring Led will be illuminated. Standard telephone calls Dial a telephone number by entering call prefixes, country and area codes and number, then press the # key or the Toggle Hook key (key # 5 on HANDSET KEY FUNCTIONS figure) in the handset keypad. To finish the call press the the Toggle Hook key (key # 5 on HANDSET KEY FUNCTIONS figure). Calls from handset #2 and #3 Handset #2 can initiate short code, service code, handset to handset, as well as standard telephone calls.

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SATCOM CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


The TT-3000 Series Aero-M SATCOM System uses the TT-5621A Handset as the main user interface. The handset contains a keypad with 21 separate function keys, a 2X12 character Liquid Crystal Display (LCD), four indicator LEDs, and a volume control. The handset allows the user to: Navigate the user menu; Place and receive calls; Save and recall phonebook entries; Configure system parameters; View phone log; Monitor system operations; View system errors as they occur. HANDSET #1 KEYS FUNCTIONS The handset #1 keypad consists of 21 keys (12 numeric and nine function keys). These keys are designed to perform multiple functions, that are dependent on the selected mode. The handset has three modes that determine the function of the keys: Normal mode: keys perform their primary functions; Alpha mode: keys perform alphanumeric functions; 2nd mode: keys perform their alternate functions.

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The following table lists all the handset #1 keys and defines their functions: MODE Figure Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 NORMAL Accept selection Toggles handset audio mode Enable alpha mode Move one selection up Toggle hook Move one selection down 3 2 6 5 9 8 # 0 7 4 1 Enable 2nd mode Delete/Back space one character / Delete display (hold 2 seconds) Exit menu / Cancel selection ALPHA 2nd

Disable alpha mode

Delete entry Edit entry

Mute

-?!,.:$()+/ 1 Enable 2nd mode

Access user menu Disable 2nd mode Insert entry

20

21

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HANDSET #2 AND #3 KEYS FUNCTIONS (OPTIONAL) The handset #2 and #3 are optional and are installed on the connected in parallel. Their keypad consists of 21 keys (12 numeric and nine function keys). These keys are designed to perform multiple functions, that are dependent on the selected mode. The handsets #2 and #3 have two modes that determine the function of the keys: Normal mode: keys perform their primary functions; Alpha mode: keys perform alphanumeric functions. The following table lists all the handset #2 and #3 keys and defines their functions: MODE Figure Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 NORMAL Transfer call Memory Memory location 3 Memory location 2 Toggle hook Microphone mute 3 2 6 5 9 8 # 0 7 4 1 Last number redial Memory location 1 Storage ALPHA

DEF3 ABC2 MNO6 JKL5 WXYZ9 TUV8

PQRS7 GHI4 -?!,.:$()+/1

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HANDSET #1 LCD DISPLAY The handset uses a LCD to display all data. The LCD is a 2X12 character alphanumeric display. Additionally, the LCD will display ten symbols to indicate operating status and alert the user of any errors that may occur. The following table lists all display symbols, referring to the figure in the next page, and defines their meaning.

FIGURE NUMBER

NAME

DESCRIPTION Indicates that additional entries are available above and can be displayed by pressing the Edit key. A recorded MES message for the SDU/SIM is waiting at the LES. Indicates the strength of the signal being received by the system. Indicates that a call is in progress. The speaker in the cradle is active. Indicates that pressing or keys can change the current selection. Indicates that the Del key was pressed and the alpha mode is active. The next key pressed will perform its alpha mode function.

More entries above flag

New AES messages flag

3 4 5

Signal strength indicator Hook off flag Speaker active flag

Toggle field flag

Alpha mode flag

Continued
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NAME

DESCRIPTION Indicates that the handset has been locked and can only be accessed by entering a valid PIN code. Indicates the 2nd key was pressed and the 2nd mode is active. The next key pressed will perform its alternate function. Indicates that entries are below and displayed by the key . additional available can be pressing

Security enabled flag

2nd mode flag

10

More entries below flag

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The figure below shows all the symbols found on the handset display.

HANDSET DISPLAY
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HANDSET #1 LED INDICATORS The handset uses four colored LEDs as indicators. These LEDs alert the user of the following indications: FIGURE NUMBER 1

LED Left Green

DESCRIPTION Indicates power to handset. System is logged or is logging into the satellite network. When on, the antenna strength indicator will show a measurement. When on, indicates call in progress, the LED will flash when a call is received. Illuminates when an error has occurred in the system.

Right Green

Yellow

Red

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HANDSET #2 AND #3 LED INDICATORS The handset uses two colored LEDs as indicators. These LEDs alert the user of the following indications: FIGURE NUMBER 1 2 LED DESCRIPTION Indicates power to handset. Ring indicator.

Left Green Right Green

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POTS TELEPHONE ADAPTER (OPTIONAL) The pots telephone adapter provides the interface between the SATCOM system and the airplane cockpit headset audio system. This equipment provides remote dialing capability for the SATCOM system. This interface allows the cockpit to maintain full headset utilization for SATCOM calls or normal headset operation at the touch of the AUX button on the pilots or copilots digital audio panel. The pots telephone adapter keypad consists of 17 keys (12 numeric and 5 function keys). The following table lists all pots keys and their functions. Figure Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 CONTROL HOOK 1 2 3 4 5 6 REDIAL VOL FLASH # * 0 9 8 7 HOLD FUNCTION Hook switch key

Redial key Volume control key Flash key Send key

Hold key

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IRIDIUM SATELLITE TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM


The airplane may be equipped with an AirCell mobile transmitter, ST 3100 Iridium-based telecommunication system. The ST 3100 telephone accesses the Iridium Satellite Network composed of 66 Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites and operates in the frequency range of 1616 MHz to 1625.5 MHz. When in use, the telephone system controls the power level at which the phone transmits. The transmission power level of the ST 3100 can range up to a maximum of 7 watts.

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CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


HANDSET 1 - OPERATING DISPLAY AND STATUS INDICATORS Provide a visual indication of telephone numbers and system operational status. 2 - InUse Illuminates when the phone is in use. 3 - NoSvc Illuminates when the telephone is not registered. 4 - VOLUME KEYS Adjust ear piece volume 5 - VOLUME/SCROLL DOWN KEY Scrolls Down/Volume Down.. 6 - VOLUME/SCROLL UP KEY Scrolls Up/Volume Up. 7 - DOT IN LOWER LEFT CORNER OF DISPLAY Illuminates when the phone is on.

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OPERATION
POWER ON Anytime the airplane is energized the phone has power. During initial power up, a small dot appears in the lower left corner of the display. The dot will remain as long as the phone has power. The word IRIDIUM will also appear in the display. During this time, the words NoSvc (No Service) will briefly appear at the bottom center of the display. However, a call cannot be placed until the NoSvc light is extinguished. NOTE: Power off can only be achieved by turning off the main avionics switch. PLACING A CALL FROM THE AIRPLANE 1 - With the power on and the NoSvc light out, enter the number that you would like to call (USA/Canada Only-001+Area Code+Number) OR (International Calls-00+Country Code+Number). 2 - Press the SND key. 3 - When a call has been placed an InUse message will illuminate at the bottom left of the display. The InUse message will remain until the phone call has been terminated by pressing the END key. 4 - The caller may hear up to five beeps in the 10-12 seconds required for the system to complete the call.

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL RECEIVING A CALL

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When the telephone rings, remove the handset from the cradle and press the SND key to answer the phone. END A CALL Always press the END key to terminate the current call. AUTOMATIC REDIAL To redial the last number that was called, press the SND key and the number will be redialed but will not appear on the display. PLACING A CALL TO THE AIRPLANE FROM THE GROUND NOTE: - Placing a call to an AirCell ST 3100-equipped airplane through the Iridium Network is simple and easy. All calls to and from Iridium-based telephone systems are considered international calls; in fact, the Iridium Satellite Network has its own Country Code. Therefore, when calling an Iridiumequipped airplane, always use 8816 as the Iridium Country Code. - Direct-dialed calls to an AirCell ST 3100-equipped airplane are billed by long distance providers as an international call. These rates can vary greatly. Callers may wish to consult their long distance provider for rate information prior to making a call. As a cost-effective alternative to Direct-Dialing, callers may wish to use Two-Stage Dialing that is explained below. - Some long distance providers do not recognize the Iridium Satellite Country Code of 8816. In addition to providing the least-cost method of calling an AirCell ST 3100-equipped airplane, Two-Stage Dialing will recognize the Iridium Country Code.

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In the following procedures, **00 represents the International Direct Dial (IDD) access code prefix of the country from which the call is being placed. In many countries, the International Direct Dial (IDD) code is 00. However, this is not always the case. For the most current and an extensive listing of codes, please consult the Iridium Web site page: www.iridium.com/customer and refer to the User Manual section or one of the many Internet sites that contain this information.

DIRECT DIALING Placing a call from a ground phone (USA/Canada) to an Iridiumequipped airplane, dial: 011 (International Direct Dial access code prefix) + 8816 (Iridium Country Code) + XXX.XXXXX (the Xs denote the Iridium Network Number). Caller may hear a pause of up to 25 seconds as the system completes the call. Placing a call from a ground phone (outside the USA/Canada) to an Iridium-equipped airplane, dial: **00 (International Direct Dial access code prefix of the country from which the call is being placed) + 8816 (Iridium Country Code) + XXX.XXXXX (the Xs denote the Iridium Network Number). Caller may hear a pause of up to 25 seconds as the system completes the call. TWO-STAGE DIALING Two-Stage Dialing may provide the most cost-effective method of calling an AirCell ST 3100-equipped airplane. Utilizing this dialing method, the calling party is charged by their long distance telephone provider for a long distance call to Tempe, Arizona, USA for the duration of the call. The called party (in the airplane), is charged AirCell per minute charges for airtime from the time the call connects in Tempe, Arizona, USA until the call is terminated.

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When placing a call from a ground phone to an AirCell ST 3100equipped airplane, dial the automated Iridium Call Routing Center 480.768.2500. Note that the Call Routing Center is located in Tempe, Arizona, USA. As a result, long distance charges will be billed to the caller as if they were dialing someone in Tempe, Arizona, USA. Placing a call from a ground phone (USA/Canada) to the Iridium Call Routing Center, dial: 1.480.768.2500. Placing a call from a ground phone (outside the USA/Canada) to the Iridium Call Routing Center, dial: **00 (International Direct Dial access code prefix) + 1 (USA Country Code) + 480.768.2500. An automated recording will answer and instruct the caller to dial the Iridium Phone Number 8816 + XXX.XXXXX. The call will be routed to the AirCell ST 3100-equipped airplane. If the system is registered on the network, in four to six seconds the system will ring. The called party may receive the call by pressing the SND key on the handset. After completing the call, the user may end the call by pressing the END key. PLACING A CALL TO ANOTHER IRIDIUM PHONE To place an Iridium-to-Iridium call, dial 00 + 8816 + XXX.XXXXX (other subscribers Iridium phone number).

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INERTIAL REFERENCE SYSTEM (IRS)


The Inertial Reference System (IRS) is responsible for generating attitude and heading data on EMB-135 BJ. The airplane is equipped with two identical and independent IRS. The dual IRS installation is used as an additional navigation sensor for the FMS, and it may also provide accurate attitude and heading data to the Head-Up Guidance System (HGS), when this equipment is installed. Another possibility for HGS-equipped airplanes is the installation of a single IRS tailored for that equipment, while PFDs, MFDs and RMUs receive information from two AHRS. Basically, the IRS provides attitude and heading reference data for the airplane displays and navigation data for the FMS by sensing linear motion and angular rates through inertial sensors. The IRS interface with the airplanes systems and equipment is as follows: Air Data Computers (ADC 1 and ADC 2): The IRS 1 and IRS 2 receive altitude, altitude rate and true airspeed information from the ADC 1 and ADC 2 respectively, to improve the precision of computed navigation data. Integrated Computers (IC1 and IC2): The IRS 1 and IRS 2 provide pitch, roll and heading information to the respective PFD, and heading information to the respective MFD, through the IC-600s. Data is transmitted separately to both sides, to ensure that a single IC failure does not compromise the data path. Radio Management units (RMU 1 and RMU 2): the IRS 1 provides heading information to both RMUs via DAU 2. Autopilot System: The IRS 1 provides pitch, roll and acceleration information to the Autopilot System via IC-600-1. Weather Radar: The IRS 2 provides attitude information to the Weather Radar for antenna stabilization. Flight Management System (FMS): The IRS provides attitude, heading and navigation information to the FMS. The IRS receives position, magnetic heading, UTC time and date from the FMS. EGPWS: The IRS 1 provides attitude and heading information to the EGPWS.

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Stall Protection System (SPS): The IRS provides attitude rate variation and vertical acceleration information to the SPS. Integrated Standby Instrument System (ISIS): The IRS 1 provides heading information to the ISIS. Head-Up Guidance System HGS: The IRS 1 (or the dedicated IRS) provides acceleration, speed, attitude, heading and wind information to the HGS. Windshear Detection And Escape Guidance System: The IRS 1 provides attitude rate variation and vertical acceleration information to the windshear computer. Flight Data Recorder (FDR): The IRS 1 provides attitude and heading information to the FDR via DAU 2 and IC-600.

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INERTIAL REFERENCE SYSTEM COMPONENTS


Each IRS consists of an Inertial Reference Unit (IRU) and a Mode Select Unit (MSU). Each IRU uses two 28 VDC power inputs, one for normal power (primary source) and the other for backup power (airplane batteries). The IRU 1 primary power source is the Essential DC Bus 1 and its backup power source is the Backup Essential Bus. The IRU 2 primary power source is the DC Bus 2 and its backup power source is the Backup Bus 2. If the IRU loses the primary power, it automatically switches to backup power. When the IRU operates solely on backup power, it will operate for 30 minutes and the ON BATT annunciator on the Mode Selector Unit will illuminate. The IRS 1 (2) ON BATT advisory message will be presented on the EICAS. INERTIAL REFERENCE UNIT (IRU) The Inertial Reference Unit contains three laser gyros and three accelerometers that are mounted on each of the three axis inside the IRU, which it uses to measure inertial motion. The IRU requires initialization data from the Flight Management System and Air Data Computer. From the inertial measurements, initialization data, and air data inputs, the IRU performs the calculations necessary to provide position, velocity, heading and attitude data to the airplane. The IRUs are located in the forward electronics compartment. MODE SELECTOR UNIT (MSU) The Mode Selector Unit is a cockpit-mounted control panel that provides mode selection, status indication and test initialization for the associated IRU. It has a four-position mode select switch and status and fault annunciators.

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IRS OPERATING MODES


The IRS operating modes may be selected by setting the MSU mode select switch to the desired mode. Under certain conditions the IRU may automatically revert to specific modes and sub-modes. ALIGNMENT MODES MSU SET FROM OFF TO ALIGN OR NAV In the alignment mode, the IRU aligns its reference axis to the local vertical and true north, and estimates the horizontal earth rate components to compute latitude. The latitude at which the IRU is aligned affects the alignment time. The relationship between alignment time and latitude is shown in the chart below.
20

ALIGNMENT TIME - minutes.....

15

10

0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80

ALIGNMENT LATITUDE - degrees Northern and Southern

The airplane must remain stationary during alignment, while the MSU ALIGN annunciator is lit and IRS 1 (2) ALN advisory message presented on the EICAS. If the IRU detects excessive airplane motion IRS 1 (2) EXC MOTION advisory message is presented on the EICAS and it starts an automatic full realignment 30 1 seconds after the motion stops. Normal passenger-loading or cargo-loading activities should not cause an excessive airplane motion condition.

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NOTE: To complete the alignment, the IRU requires a valid input of the airplanes present position (latitude and longitude) from the FMS. While the present position is not entered on FMS the IRS 1 (2) NO PPOS caution message will be presented on EICAS. If the present position is not entered during the normal alignment time, the MSU ALIGN annunciator flashes and the IRS 1 (2) ALN FAULT caution message will be presented on the EICAS. The IRU will not complete the alignment phase and/or will not enter the NAV mode until it receives a valid position input from the FMS. The IRU accepts multiple entries of latitude and longitude. More than one entry may be necessary to confirm, update or correct the position. However, the IRU does not accept new position inputs until 2 seconds after the previous input. A new position entry overwrites the previous entry, and the IRU uses only the latest entry for its calculations. The IRU conducts a position comparison test on latitude and longitude immediately after each data has been entered. To pass the test, the entered data must compare within 1 degree of the stored latitude/longitude from the last power down from the NAV mode. If the test fails, the MSU ALIGN annunciator flashes and an IRS 1 (2) ALN FAULT caution message will be presented on the EICAS. If a second present position entry do not pass in the test the IRS 1 (2) FAIL will be presented on the EICAS. No attitude and heading is displayed during align mode. MSU SET FROM NAV TO ALIGN OR NAV TO ALIGN AND BACK TO NAV (TO BE USED ON THROUGH FLIGHTS): This command will revert the IRU to the align down-mode, which zeroes residual velocity errors accumulated during the previous navigation mode operation. The fine leveling process of the align mode is reactivated, and heading accuracy is updated. When the IRU enters the align down-mode, the ALIGN annunciator illuminates and an IRS 1 (2) ALN advisory message is presented on the EICAS. The airplane must be stationary (ground speed less than 20 knots) during the align down-mode otherwise an automatic full realignment will begin in 30 seconds after an excessive aircraft motion stops.

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The ANR is entered automatically and concurrently with normal mode operations, when the IRU senses that the airplane has completed a no motion period (between 7.5 and 15 minutes, as a function of latitude). In the ANR sub-mode, the IRU applies corrections by zeroing velocities, resetting the attitude platform, and correcting heading errors accumulated during the previous navigation mode operation. When the IRU enters the ANR sub-mode, the ALIGN annunciator illuminates and an IRS 1 (2) ALN advisory message is presented on the EICAS. NAVIGATION MODE The IRU enters the NAV mode after completing its alignment when the IRU MSU switch is set to NAV. In the NAV mode, the IRU uses the last valid position data entered during the align mode or align down-mode as its initial present position and updates the present position based only on inertial data while it remains in the NAV mode. The IRU algebraically adds computed magnetic variations from a magnetic variation topographical map (MAGVAR) to true heading and true track to produce magnetic heading and track magnetic angle. The magnetic heading and magnetic tracking angle outputs are set to no computed data (NCD) inside a northern and southern latitude cutout area. ATTITUDE MODE The attitude mode is the IRUs reversionary mode. It is automatically entered by the IRU if it experiences in-flight loss of power, or it may be selected by the crew if the FAULT annunciator lights and an IRS 1 (2) FAIL caution message is presented on the EICAS, indicating a critical fault, that invalidates all outputs. CAUTION: THE MSU SWITCH MUST NOT BE SET TO ATTITUDE MODE INADVERTENTLY. IF THIS OCCURS ON THE GROUND, IT IS NECESSARY TO SET THE MSU SWITCH TO OFF FOR AT LEAST 3 SECONDS, THEN BACK TO ALIGN OR NAV. IF ATTITUDE MODE IS SET IN-FLIGHT, IT IS NOT POSSIBLE TO RECOVER THE NAV MODE.

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This mode provides a quick attitude restart: during the first 20 seconds the IRU enters the erect attitude transitional mode. In this transitional mode the IRU computes a new level axis set. The airplane must be held steady, straight and level until the MSU ALIGN annunciator extinguishes itself and an IRS 1 (2) ALN advisory message disappears from the EICAS. When operating in the attitude mode the IRS 1 (2) ATT MODE caution message is presented on the EICAS. In this mode, attitude outputs are not as accurate as when operating in the NAV mode, and magnetic heading must be entered periodically through the FMS Control Display Unit. POWER-OFF MODE The IRU enters the power-down mode when the MSU switch is set to OFF and remains in that position for 3 seconds (to prevent inadvertent selection). After that, power continues for 10 to 15 seconds to transfer the last calculated latitude and longitude and other IRS parameters to its non-volatile memory. The ALIGN annunciator illuminates when the IRU is in the power-down mode (and an IRS 1 (2) ALN advisory message is presented on the EICAS). NOTE: The airplane must not be de-energized before the ALIGN annunciator light extinguishes. De-energizing the airplane before the ALIGN annunciator extinguishes itself (and an IRS 1 (2) ALN advisory message is removed from the EICAS) may interrupt the transferring process of the IRUs last calculated position and other IRS parameters to its non-volatile memory, which will affect the next alignment. TEST MODE The test mode is selected by pressing the MSU test switch. The test mode can be selected in either the align mode or the NAV mode without affecting basic IRS function. The test mode is inhibited in the attitude mode and in the NAV mode when aircraft ground speed exceeds 20 knots.

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MAGNETIC VARIATION LATITUDE CUTOUTS

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IRS OPERATING PROCEDURES


POWER-ON AND ALIGNMENT Check the MSU switch set to OFF. After energizing the airplane press the AVIONICS MASTER Buttons. Set the MSU switch to ALIGN or NAV. ALIGN annunciator illuminates. (ON BATT and NO AIR annunciators may illuminate briefly). An IRS 1 (2) ALN advisory message is displayed on the EICAS. Through the FMS initial position page, accept one of the present position options. Wait for completion of alignment. When selecting NAV directly, the IRU automatically enters the NAV mode after successful completion of alignment. NAVIGATION MODE ENTRY If the MSU switch was set to NAV, make sure that the ALIGN annunciator goes out and an IRS 1 (2) ALN advisory message disappears from the EICAS. If the MSU switch is set to ALIGN, set the MSU switch to NAV when the NAV RDY annunciator lights. The IRU outputs inertial data to all displays and systems. ALIGNMENT DOWNMODE (FAST ALIGNMENT - to be used on through flights) The airplane must be stationary. Pull the MSU switch out of NAV detent and set it from NAV to ALIGN. The ALIGN annunciator will illuminate and an IRS 1 (2) ALN advisory message displayed on the EICAS. If the IRU position is the same as the known position, set MSU switch to NAV after the ALIGN annunciator illuminates and an IRS 1 (2) ALN advisory message is presented on the EICAS. The IRU automatically enters NAV mode after 30 seconds. If the IRU position is different from the known position, re-initialize the IRU with a new position entry through the FMS CDU.

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL ATTITUDE MODE SELECTION

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The following procedure applies to the selection of the ATT mode after the FAULT annunciator has illuminated and an IRS 1 (2) FAIL caution message is presented on the EICAS: Set the MSU switch to ATT. If the FAULT annunciator extinguishes itself, the ALIGN annunciator will illuminate for 20 seconds and an IRS 1 (2) ALN advisory message is presented on the EICAS. Hold the airplane steady, straight and level until the ALIGN annunciator extinguishes itself and an IRS 1 (2) ALN advisory message disappears from the EICAS. Initialize the IRU with magnetic heading through the FMS CDU. Update heading periodically through the FMS CDU. When operating in the attitude mode the IRS 1 (2) ATT MODE caution is presented on the EICAS. CAUTION: WHEN OPERATING IN THE ATTITUDE MODE, ATTITUDE OUTPUTS ARE NOT AS ACCURATE AS WHEN OPERATING IN THE NAV MODE, AND MAGNETIC HEADING MUST BE ENTERED PERIODICALLY, THROUGH THE FMS CDU. POWER DOWN Set the MSU switch to OFF. The ALIGN annunciator illuminates and an IRS 1 (2) ALN advisory message is presented on the EICAS. After the ALIGN annunciator extinguishes itself and an IRS 1 (2) ALN advisory message is removed from the EICAS, de-energize the airplane.

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IRS EICAS MESSAGES


TYPE MESSAGE IRS 1 (2) OVERHEAT IRS 1 (2) ATT MODE IRS 1 (2) ALN FAULT CAUTION IRS 1 (2) FAIL IRS 1 (2) NO PPOS IRS 1 (2) NO MAG HDG IRS 1 (2) ALN MEANING The associated IRS is overheated. The associated IRS is selected to attitude mode. The associated IRS did not complete the alignment phase successfully. The associated IRS has failed. The present position has not been entered. There is no magnetic heading available. The associated IRS is in the alignment phase or the IRU mode select switch is set at ALIGN position. The associated IRS is being powered by the airplane batteries. The associated IRS detected excessive motion during the alignment phase.

ADVISORY IRS 1 (2) ON BATT

IRS 1 (2) EXC MOTION

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IRS CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


MSU CONTROL PANEL 1 - TEST SWITCH TEST When the TEST switch is pressed the IRU enters the self-test sub-mode. 2 - ANNUNCIATORS ALIGN Indicates that the IRU is in the align mode. A flashing ALIGN annunciator indicates that latitude/longitude was not accepted by the IRU. FAULT Indicates an IRU fault. ON BATT Indicates that the IRU is being powered by the airplane batteries. BATT FAIL Indicates that the airplane batteries are incapable of sustaining IRS operation on backup power operation. NAV RDY Indicates that alignment is complete, if the MSU switch is set to ALIGN. NO AIR Indicates that cooling air is inadequate to cool the IRU. 3 - MODE SELECTOR SWITCH OFF: The IRU circuitry is OFF. However, when the IRU is operating and the MSU switch is moved from another position to OFF, there will be a delay of 3 seconds before the IRU starts the power-down routine, in order to prevent its inadvertent selection. ALIGN: Once this mode is selected the IRU starts the full alignment or alignment down-mode. ALIGN annunciator is ON and an IRS 1 (2) ALN advisory message is presented on the EICAS. NAV: There is a detent in the NAV position. The switch must be pulled out of the detent to be moved to another position. ATT: If the MSU switch is placed at this position, after 2 seconds (time delay incorporated to prevent inadvertent selection of the ATT mode) the IRU enters the erect attitude sub-mode for 20 seconds, during which the ALIGN annunciator illuminates. Then the IRU enters the attitude mode and the IRS 1 (2) ATT MODE caution message will be presented on the EICAS. On the ground, the MSU switch must be set to OFF for at least 3 seconds before the ALIGN or NAV mode can be re-established.

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ELECTRONIC ATTITUDE DIRECTOR INDICATOR (EADI) 1 - ATTITUDE SPHERE Color: Sky: blue. Ground: brown. 2 - ROLL SCALE Color: White Range: 360 degrees. Resolution: 10, 20, 30 and 60 degrees for left and right roll attitudes. Fixed pointers (unfilled triangles) are located at zero degrees and 45 degrees (LH and RH). 3 - ROLL POINTER Color: White. Provides the roll angular indication against the roll scale. 4 - EXCESSIVE PITCH CHEVRONS Color: Red Marks 45 and 65 degrees pitch up, and 35, 50 and 65 degrees pitch down. 5 - PITCH SCALE Color: White. Range: 0 to 90 degrees (pitch up and pitch down). Marks: Pitch up: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 60 and 90 degrees. Pitch down: 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60 and 90 degrees. 6 - GROUND/SKY REFERENCE EYEBROW Color: Blue or brown. The eyebrow provides a quick ground/sky reference for attitudes where the horizon line is out of the display.

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ATTITUDE DECLUTTER When there is an excessive attitude situation, certain indicators are removed in order to declutter the PFD. Excessive attitude situation occurs when roll attitude is greater than 65 degrees, or pitch attitude greater than 30 degrees nose up or 20 degrees nose down. In this case, the following symbology shall be removed from the display: Flight Director couple arrow, Low Bank limit arc, Flight Director command bars, Vertical Deviation scale, pointer and label, Radio Altitude digits, label and box, Marker beacons indicators, Decision Height digits and labels, Selected Airspeed bug and indicators, Vertical Speed bug and indicators, Selected Altitude bug, indicators and box, All failure flags associated with the items listed above, The Heading, Radio Altitude, LOC, GS, and ILS comparison monitor displays.

The PFD indicators will be restored when the two conditions below are met: Roll attitude less than 63 degrees left and right. Pitch less than 28 degrees nose up and greater than 18 degrees nose down.

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ELECTRONIC HORIZONTAL SITUATION INDICATOR (EHSI) 1 - COMPASS CARD DISPLAY May be displayed in the Full Compass or Arc formats, selected via the Display Control Panel (see section 2-18-40). Color: white. Range: 360 degrees. Resolution: 5 degrees. 2 - HEADING LUBBER LINE (FULL COMPASS FORMAT) Color: White. Provides the current heading reading against the heading scale. 3 - CURRENT HEADING DIGITAL DISPLAY (ARC FORMAT) Color: Open box: white Digits: white Range: 0 to 360 degrees. Resolution: 1 degree.

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COMPARISON MONITORS 1 - ATTITUDE COMPARISON MONITOR DISPLAY Label: ROL, PIT or ATT. Color: Amber. If roll information deviates by more than 6 degrees between the PFD 1 and PFD 2, a ROL comparison monitor will be displayed inside the attitude sphere. If pitch information deviates by more than 5 degrees between the PFD 1 and PFD 2, a PIT comparison monitor will be displayed in the upper-left portion of the attitude sphere. Simultaneous activation of the both pitch and roll comparison monitors will be announced by an ATT label displayed in the upper-left portion of the attitude sphere, in the same field of the ROL and PIT comparison monitors. 2 - ATTITUDE FAILURE DISPLAY Removal of the pitch scale and roll pointer. Coloring the attitude sphere overall blue. A red ATT FAIL label is displayed on the top center of the attitude sphere. 3 - ATTITUDE SOURCE ANNUNCIATION Label: ATT1 for IRS 1 and ATT2 for IRS 2. Color: Amber when one AHRS supplies both sides or both IRS are supplying cross-side. Annunciations are removed when both IRS are supplying onside PFDs. 4 - HEADING SOURCE ANNUNCIATION Label: MAG1 or MAG2 when cross-side IRS source is selected. Color: For MAG: amber when the same IRS is supplying both sides or both IRS are supplying cross-side. When both IRS are supplying on-side, annunciation is removed. If a heading source becomes invalid the heading source annunciation will refer to the invalid heading source, HDG1 or HDG2, as applicable.

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5 - HEADING COMPARISON MONITOR DISPLAY Color: Amber. Label: HDG Activated when a difference of 6 degrees between both PFDs is found and the airplane roll is less than 6 degrees. For airplane rolls greater than 6 degrees, annunciation will be displayed if the difference between both PFDs is greater than 12 degrees. The HDG threshold will be restored to 6 degrees if the airplane roll is less than 5 degrees for 90 seconds. Otherwise, a 12 degrees HDG threshold will be maintained. 6 - HEADING FAILURE DISPLAY Digital heading bug symbol is removed and a red HDG FAIL annunciation is displayed on the PFD and MFD compass cards. The bearing pointers, map display, To/From, selected heading bug, drift angle, selected course/track and course deviation displays will be removed. Heading source annunciation will be HDG 1 or HDG 2. Heading select and course select/desired track digital display will be replaced by amber dashes. 7 - COURSE DEVIATION FAILURE Pointer is removed. Red X displayed over the scale.

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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (FMZ 2000)


The FMZ 2000 Flight Management System (FMS) controls a complete range of navigation functions. Its primary purpose is to provide high accuracy in long range lateral and vertical navigation. The system may be installed with a single or dual configuration. Should the airplane have a dual configuration, each unit can provide navigation data to the other unit. For additional information on functions and operation, refer to the manufacturers manual. The FMS is mainly composed of the following components: Control Display Unit (CDU). Navigation Computer (NZ). Data Loader (DL) or Portable Data Transfer Unit (PDTU). The FMS operates in the following situations: Oceanic, Remote, North Atlantic Minimum Navigation Performance Specification Airspace, Enroute, Terminal, Non-Precision Approach and Required Navigation Performance 10. The FMS interfaces with the followings systems and equipment: GPS sensor(s), ADC 1 and 2 - The GPS receives satellite data through the passive GPS antenna, processing and blending collected data with ADC data and sends the resulting information to the FMS computer. IRS 1 and 2 - Provides the necessary data to compute wind and for Dead Reckoning Mode, when the subsystem is not capable of navigating by itself. MFD and PFD - The FMS provides data for display navigation guidance on the PFD and navigation map data on the MFD. RMU 1 and 2 - The RMU interfaces with the FMS computer to control the operating frequencies, modes and channels of the various radios. For the dual configuration, each RMU supplies each respective on-side NZ. COM 1 and 2, NAV 1 and 2 - The FMS includes a radio-tuning page on which the pilot can manually select the VHF NAV and COM frequencies. Only the NAV frequency is fed back to the FMS computer for verification of the tuning action. COM 1 and 2 interface with FMS through the RMUs. The FMS can also automatically select the NAV radio frequencies. The FMS also provides latitude and longitude to TCAS. The Control Display Unit (CDU), located on the control pedestal, provides control functions management and operating modes for proper FMS operation.

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FMS FUNCTIONS NAVIGATION The navigation function computes the airplane position and velocity for all phases of flight. The navigation priority modes, based on sensor accuracy, are as follows: GPS DME/DME VOR/DME IRS (if installed)

The GPS is the most accurate sensor. When the GPS is in use, the other sensors are still monitored for position differences, but they do not contribute to FMS position, unless the GPS becomes inaccurate, unavailable or is manually deselected. In this case, the FMS automatically tunes the DME/DME in order to provide position. When DME/DME is not accurate, the VOR/DME is selected. On airplanes equipped with dual Inertial Reference System (IRS), replacing the AHRS, the IRS is used as a primary navigation sensor when other navaid are not available. If all position sensors and radios are lost, the FMS shifts to Degrade Mode (DGRAD) and in approximately 2 minutes it enters the Dead Reckoning Mode (DR). In this mode, the position is calculated using the last known airplane position. The ground speed and track are estimated with IRS heading, ADC TAS and the last known wind data. The dual FMS configuration may operate with dual IRS and dual GPS providing four long-range navigation sensors. The sensors status may be accessed in the NAV INDEX 1/2 page. In this configuration, on-side FMS outputs and flight plan information are available to the opposite-side FMS through an interconnecting bus. The automatic tuning is made through the RMU for computing an optimum position. The FMS also includes a radio-tuning page on which the pilot can manually select VHF NAV, COM, ADF and transponder frequencies. The FMS has the capability of tuning communication frequencies in the 8.33 kHz channel spacing.

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The flight planning function computes the active flight plan with both lateral and vertical definition. When the FMS long-range navigation is selected, the flight director command bars will provide the visual command to bank the airplane to the desired track. The VNAV is applicable only for the descent path and it is not coupled to the flight director, being only a reference information displayed on the PFD glide slope scale. Additionally the navigation computer can be programmed by the operator to automatically fly different types of holding patterns. DATA BASE The database contains worldwide coverage of navaids, airways, departure procedures, approach procedures, Standard Terminal Arrival Routes (STARs), airports and runways. This information is updated every 28 days. The database can also store up to 200 pilotdefined flight plans and waypoints, which are only updated when changed by the pilot. In single configuration, the Data Loader (DL) is used to update the Database, transferring data to and from the Navigation Computer. In this configuration, this unit can be installed on the left lateral console, close to the pilots mask stowage box. In dual configuration, the Portable Data Transfer Unit (PDTU) is used to reload entire information package at each update by using a 3 1/2" floppy disk. NAVIGATION DISPLAY A multiple waypoints map, based on the airplanes present position, can be displayed on the MFD. It comprises the Waypoints connected by white lines defining a pre-planned route, and also navaids and airports.

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FMS MODES The dual FMS configuration provides four operating modes that may be accessed through the FMS MAINTENANCE 1/3 page: DUAL MODE In this mode, the following information is automatically transferred to the cross-side FMS: flight plan, performance data, waypoints defined by the pilot, flight plans created in one system and radio tuning. NOTE: For the proper operation in DUAL mode it is necessary to use the same software version, same NAV and CUSTOM data bases and same settings for both systems in the Configuration Modules. The initial position difference between both systems shall not be more than 10 NM. INITIATED TRANSFER MODE In this mode the flight plan and performance data entry will only be transferred to the cross-side FMS through the prompt command available in the last page of the ACTIVE FLT PLAN pages. Waypoints defined by the pilot, created flight plans and radio tuning are automatically transferred to the cross-side FMS. NOTE: For the proper operation in INITIATED TRANSFER mode it is necessary to use the same software version, same NAV and CUSTOM data bases and same settings for both systems in the Configuration Modules. The initial position difference between both systems shall not be more than 10 NM. INDEPENDENT MODE In this mode, only the radio tuning is automatically transferred to the cross-side FMS. NOTE: To operate in the INDEPENDENT mode, it is necessary to use the same software version and same settings in the Configuration Modules. If any of these requirements is not accomplished, the system automatically passes for the possible operating mode. For instance, if only the CUSTOM database differs in both systems, the operating mode automatically switches from DUAL to INDEPENDENT. SINGLE MODE No information is exchanged between both systems.
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FMS CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


CONTROL DISPLAY UNIT (CDU) 1 - ANNUNCIATORS The annunciators are located on the top of the LCD display. Colors: White: indicating advisory annunciation. Amber: indicating alerting annunciation. DSPLY (White) Illuminates when the CDU displays a page that is not relative to the current airplane lateral or vertical flight path. This annunciator is not shown on the PFD. Illuminates when a radio updating loss occurs, as well as all other position sensors, for a period longer than 2 minutes. Illuminates when the FMS cannot guarantee the position accuracy for the present phase of the flight. Illuminates when there is a message (advisory or alert) on the scratchpad. The annunciator turns off when the message is cleared from the scratchpad. Illuminates when a lateral offset path has been entered in the FMS. The annunciator turns off when the offset is removed. Illuminates when the FMS is selected as navigation source and the following conditions are valid: a non-precision instrument approach has been activated from the navigation database, the airplane position is between 2 NM outside the final approach fix and the missed approach point, the DGRAD must be off and FMS using approved sensors for non-precision approach.

DR (Amber)

DGRAD (Amber)

MSG (White)

OFFSET (White)

APRCH (White)

NOTE: The FMS transmits all the annunciators to the PFD, except the DSPLY annunciator, so the pilot must not trust only on the FMS CDU for checking the FMS system status.

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2 - LINE SELECT BUTTONS There are four line select buttons on each side of the CDU that provide the following functions: Select submodes within major modes when in an indexed display. Used as direct access to the other FMS modes when in a non-indexed display. Enter data to the scratchpad. 3 - BRIGHTNESS CONTROL BUTTON Used to manually control the brightness of the display. Using this button, the photo sensors are activated and maintain the brightness level through a wide range of lighting conditions. The brightness is adjusted pressing up or down the Bright/Dim button, and a control bar will be displayed in the scratchpad. The brightness can be adjusted so that, during daylight conditions, the display cannot be seen. 4 - MODE BUTTONS PERF Displays the performance pages. NAV FPL Displays the NAV index pages. It may be used to display the first page of the active flight plan, if the flight plan was previously entered, to manually create a flight plan, to select a stored flight plan and to create a flight plan for storage. Displays the first progress page, the current status of the flight. Displays the active flight plan with the DIRECT and INTERCEPT prompts. Consist of alphabet letters, the numbers 0 through 9, a decimal and a slash. It is used to enter inputs to the FMS. A SP (Space) key is used to insert a space following a character in the scratchpad, and a +/- (Plus/Minus) key will result in a - being entered, changing to + in a subsequent press. The alphanumeric keys make entries only on the scratchpad.

PROG DIR

5 - ALPHANUMERIC BUTTONS

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6 - FUNCTIONS BUTTONS PREV Changes the current page to the previous page. NEXT CLR Changes the current page to the next page. Clears alphanumeric entries in the scratchpad or a scratchpad message. DEL Works together with line select buttons in order to delete waypoints and other items displayed on the CDU. This button is inhibited when a message is displayed. The CDU has five function buttons directly above the LCD display that will not work if pressed. The following messages will be displayed in the scratchpad: VIDEO VIDEO NOT AVAILABLE. GRAPHIC GRAPHIC NOT AVAILABLE. ATC ATC NOT AVAILABLE. BACK BACK COMPLETE. FN FN NOT AVAILABLE. 7 - SCRATCHPAD It is the working area, located on the bottom line of the display, where the pilot can enter data and/or verify data before line selecting the data into its proper position. Data is retained on the scratchpad throughout all mode and page changes. The scratchpad also provides advisory and alerting messages to be displayed. The colors are designed to highlight important information. Color assignments are coordinated as much as possible with other displays. See below the parameters associated to each color: Vertical Cyan (Blue) Atmospheric Data Cyan (Blue) Lateral Green FROM Waypoint Yellow TO Waypoint Magenta Prompts and Titles White Flight Plan Names Orange Index Selections Green

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JOYSTICK (OPTIONAL) The joystick functions are available through the joystick controller that is located on the control pedestal and through the selection of the MFD JSTK menu. When the MFD joystick menu is selected, the joystick controller is available to control the Designator Symbol movement on the MFD FMS flight plan. JOYSTICK OPERATION On power-up, the designator is co-located with the present flight plan waypoint position. If MAP mode is selected, moving the joystick controller, will cause the Designator Symbol to be displayed in blue color with a broken line which moves in the same direction from its last waypoint position. If PLAN mode is selected, moving the joystick controller, the flight plan moves to the opposite direction from its last position, while the Designator Symbol remains fixed at the center of the plan format.

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JOYSTICK MENU BUTTONS FUNCTION AT MAP MODE SKIP ("SKP") button: Skips the designator to the position of the next waypoint in the flight plan in case of the designator is co-located with a plan waypoint. Otherwise, the designator broken line tail skips to the next waypoint in the flight plan. RECALL ("RCL") button: Positions the designator at the present position of the airplane and removes the designator box from the display in case of the designator is co-located with the flight plan waypoint. Otherwise, the designator is positioned over the waypoint from which the designator line is extended and the designator line is removed from the display. ENTER ("ENT") button: The latitude and longitude coordinates of the designator are transmitted to the selected FMS scratchpad as a requested waypoint. JOYSTICK MENU BUTTONS FUNCTION AT PLAN MODE SKIP ("SKP") button: Positions the flight plan so the next waypoint is displayed over the designator in case of the designator is colocated with a flight plan waypoint. Otherwise, skips the tail of the designator line to the next waypoint in the flight plan. RECALL ("RCL") button: Positions the designator at the present position of the airplane and removes the designator box from the display in case of the designator is co-located with a flight plan waypoint. Otherwise, it positions the designator over the waypoint from which the designator line is extended and removes the designator line from the display. ENTER ("ENT") button: The latitude and longitude coordinates of the designator are transmitted to the selected FMS scratchpad as a requested waypoint.

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NAVIGATION DISPLAYS
The navigation data provided by the Radio Management System and Flight Management System are displayed to the crew through the PFDs, MFDs and RMUs. ADF and/or VHF NAV bearings and VHF NAV or FMS CDI (Course Deviation Indicator) are displayed on the PFD in an Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator (EHSI). The EHSI navigation sources as well as the display format (Full Compass or Arc) may be selected by the crew via the Display Control Panel (DCP). Several other navigation data are also presented on the PFDs: GS (Glide Slope) pointer, DME distance, Ground Speed/Time-to-go, marker beacon indicators, wind intensity and direction vector, etc. The MFDs present Weather Radar, TCAS and the route selected on the FMS. Additional information is also presented on the MFD: wind intensity and direction vector, TAS, Time-to-go, etc. The RMUs NAV Backup Page also present the EHSI, in the Arc format only (see section 2-18-11).

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DISPLAYS CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


DISPLAY CONTROL PANEL (DCP) 1 - DISPLAY FORMATS SELECTOR BUTTON Pressing the FULL/WX Button alternates the EHSI presentation on the PFD between Full Compass format and Arc format. In Arc format the Weather Radar Display is also presented whenever the Weather Radar is operating. 2 - GROUND SPEED AND TIME-TO-GO SELECTOR BUTTON Pressing the GSPD/TTG Button alternates the respective information on the PFD between ground speed and time-to-go. 3 - ELAPSED TIME SELECTOR BUTTON The first actuation enters the Elapsed Time Mode on the PFD respective field. The subsequent actuation provides the following sequence of control: RESET - ELAPSED TIME STOP - REPEAT. 4 - NAVIGATION SOURCES SELECTOR BUTTON Provides the selection of the VHF NAV (VOR, ILS and MLS) as navigation source for the EHSI. If the VHF NAV is already selected, pressing the NAV Button selects the opposite VHF NAV as navigation source for the on-side EHSI. Pressing the NAV Button once again will restore the normal operation: VHF NAV 1 information presented on the PFD 1 and VHF NAV 2 information presented on the PFD 2. 5 - FMS SOURCE SELECTOR BUTTON (OPTIONAL) Provides the selection of the FMS as navigation source for the EHSI. On airplanes equipped with dual FMS, pressing the FMS Button for the second time selects the opposite FMS as navigation source for the on-side EHSI (and for the on-side MFD MAP). Pressing the FMS Button once again will restore the normal operation: FMS 1 information presented on the PFD 1 (and MFD 1) and FMS 2 information presented on the PFD 2 (and MFD 2).

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6 - BEARING SELECTOR KNOB OFF The associated PFD bearing pointers are disabled. NAV 1 (2) Selects the respective VHF NAV as source for the associated bearing pointer. ADF Selects the respective ADF as source for the associated bearing pointer. FMS Selects the FMS as source for the associated bearing pointer. 7- DECISION HEIGHT SETTING AND IC-600 TEST KNOB Provides the Radio Altimeter (RA) decision height setting. When pressed on ground provides the IC-600 and RA test activation. Refer to Section 2-4 Crew Awareness for further information on test function and Section 2-17 Flight Instruments for further information on decision height setting and RA test in flight.

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FMS SOURCE SELECTION ON THE MFD As explained on the Display Control Panel (DCP) description, pressing the FMS Button on that panel selects the FMS as navigation source for the PFD and MFD. On airplanes equipped with dual FMS, pressing the FMS Button (on the Display Control Panel) for the second time selects the opposite side FMS as navigation source for the on-side EHSI (and for the onside MFD MAP). Pressing the FMS Button once again will restore the normal operation: FMS 1 information presented on the PFD 1 (and MFD 1) and FMS 2 information presented on the PFD 2 (and MFD 2). However, on airplanes equipped with dual FMS it is possible to select the opposite side FMS as MFD navigation source even if the FMS is not selected as navigation source for the PFD. In this case, pressing the MFD Bezel Button adjacent to the MFD SRC label (presented on the MFD submenu), the on-side MFD will display the opposite side FMS data. This label is not presented if the FMS is already selected as navigation source for the PFD.

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ADF, VHF NAV AND DME INDICATIONS ON THE PFD 1 - VERTICAL DEVIATION DISPLAY Color: Scale: white. GS Pointer: - green. - yellow if the same source is supplying both sides. GS label: green. For glide slope presentation the pointer will be parked up or down of the deviation display when the deviation exceeds the external dots. Glide slope information will be displayed when SRN NAV is selected for display and tuned to LOC is active. 2 - MARKER BEACON DISPLAY Color: O label: cyan. M label: amber. I label: white. Box: white. An O, an M or an I flashing annunciation is displayed when the outer marker, the middle marker or the inner marker is detected, respectively. A beacon box surrounding the MB flashing annunciations will be shown when a SRN is displayed, tuned-to-localizer is active and a marker is also active. 3 - BEARING POINTER Color: Cyan for Bearing 1 White for Bearing 2 Circle coded for #1 source {VOR 1, ADF (for single installation) or ADF 1 (for dual installation)}. Diamond coded for #2 source {VOR 2, ADF (for single installation) or ADF 2 (for dual installation)}. Pointer is removed if the selected source signal is invalid.

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4 - TO/FROM POINTER Color: White. Displayed towards the nose or the tail of the airplane to indicate, respectively, "TO" or "FROM" the navigation aid. 5 - DME FIELD Displays Ground Speed, Time-to-go, and Elapsed Time. GROUND SPEED DISPLAY Color: Digits: green. GSPD label: white. Range: 0 to 550 KIAS. Resolution: 1 KIAS. TIME TO GO DISPLAY Color: Digits: the same of the NAV source color. TTG label: white. Range: 0 to 399 min. Resolution: 1 minute. ELAPSED TIME Color: Digits: green. ET label: green. Range: 00:00 to 09:59 h. Resolution: Displayed in the format minutes: seconds (for less than one hour), and hours (minutes for more than one hour). 6 - COURSE DEVIATION SCALE Color: White. 7 - COURSE DEVIATION BAR Color: Green: when the source is the on-side VOR. Yellow: when the source is the cross-side VOR. Indicates against the course deviation scale, the difference between the selected course and the VOR bearing.

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8 - BEARING SOURCE ANNUNCIATIONS Label: VOR1, VOR2, ADF1 or ADF2. Color: Cyan for Bearing 1 White for Bearing 2 Circle coded for #1 source {VOR 1, ADF (for single installation) or ADF 1 (for dual installation)}. Diamond coded for #2 source {VOR 2, ADF (for single installation) or ADF 2 (for dual installation)}. Indicates the current source of input to the bearing pointers. Source annunciation will be retained on the PFD, even in case of an invalid bearing signal. 9 - DME HOLDING AND DISTANCE ANNUNCIATION Color: Digits: green. NM label: white. H label: amber. Range: Short Range NAV: 0 to 300 NM. Resolution: 0.1 NM. When the DME hold is active an H label is displayed on the RH of the DME distance digital readout. In this condition the H label replaces the distance NM label. 10 - COURSE DEVIATION NAV SOURCE ANNUNCIATION Label: VOR1, VOR2, ILS1, ILS2 or FMS (optional) Color: Yellow: when the same source is selected for both sides or is supplying cross-side. Green: when both sides present on-side sources, even if they are different.

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FMS INDICATION ON THE PFD 1 - VERTICAL ALERT ANNUNCIATION Label: VTA Color: Amber The VTA is displayed when the vertical alert bit is received from the FMS. 2 - VERTICAL DEVIATION DISPLAY When the FMS VNAV is selected the Vertical Deviation is activated. The Vertical Deviation Display indicates the vertical deviation between the airplane and the selected vertical path. Label: FMS Color: Amber The FMS label and the scale are white. If the FMS is the navigation source for only one side, the pointer will be magenta, otherwise it will be amber. 3 - MESSAGE ANNUNCIATION Label: MSG Color: Amber The MSG is displayed when a message is available on the FMS Panel. 4 - GROUND SPEED/TIME TO GO DATA Label: GSPD for Ground Speed. TTG for Time To Go. Color: Labels and units are white. For single configuration, if the FMS is the navigation source for only one side, the GSPD and TTG readouts will be magenta, otherwise, they will be amber. For dual configuration, if each FMS is the navigation source of the respective side, the GSPD and TTG readouts will be magenta. Otherwise, they will be amber. The Ground Speed unit is knots (KTS) and the Time To Go unit is minutes (MIN). The resolution of the digital values is 1 unit. For invalid values, the digits will be replaced with three amber dashes.

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5 - DRIFT ANGLE BUG Color: Magenta. The Drift Angle Bug rotates around the compass card, providing the reading of the airplane tracking. 6 - COURSE DEVIATION BAR Color: If the FMS is the navigation source for only one side, the Course Deviation Bar will be magenta, otherwise, it will be amber. 7 - TO/FROM POINTER Color: White. 8 - BEARING POINTER Color: Cyan for Bearing 1 (circle shaped). White for Bearing 2 (diamond shaped). 9 - BEARING SOURCE ANNUNCIATIONS Color: Cyan for Bearing 1 (circle shaped). White for Bearing 2 (diamond shaped) in single FMS configuration. In dual configuration there will be an indication if FMS 1 or 2 is being used. 10 - WIND VECTOR DISPLAY Color: Magenta. A single vector shows the direction of the wind relative to the airplane symbol. The digits indicate the wind intensity in knots. 11 - DEGRADE MODE/DEAD RECKONING MODE/WAYPOINT ANNUNCIATIONS Label: DGRAD for Degrade Mode (single FMS configuration only) DR for Dead Reckoning mode. WPT for waypoint. Color: Amber WPT is lit when the airplane is approaching the next waypoint. 12 - DISTANCE DISPLAY Color: In single configuration, if the FMS is the navigation source for only one side, the distance readout will be magenta. Otherwise, it will be amber. In dual configuration, if each FMS is the navigation source of the respective side, the distance readout will be magenta, otherwise it will be amber. The unit is white. The distance unit is nautical miles (NM).
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13 - TO WAYPOINT SYMBOL Label: Waypoint identifier name (Ex: KDVT). Color: Magenta. For dual configuration, when using cross-side information, the color is amber. In the sequence established, the TO waypoint is the next one from the current airplane position. 14 - APPROACH/TERMINAL AREA ANNUNCIATIONS Label: APP for Approach. TERM for Terminal Area. Color: Cyan. When APP is displayed it indicates that the FMS is in the flight approach phase and also can indicate that the lateral deviation scaling has been set to approach scale factor. In the APP mode the deviation indicator sensitivity and FMS tracking gains are increased. The TERM annunciator is displayed when the airplane enters in the terminal area or when the lateral deviation scaling has been set to the enroute scale factor. Priority is given to the APP message. 15 - FMS SOURCE ANNUNCIATION Label: FMS. Color: For single configuration, if the FMS is the navigation source for only one side, the FMS label will be magenta. Otherwise, it will be amber. For dual configuration, if each FMS is the navigation source for the respective side, the FMS label will be magenta, otherwise it will be amber. FMS is displayed only when a single source is installed. 16 - HEADING ANNUNCIATION Label: HDG SEL (For dual FMS configuration). Color: White. For dual configuration, if each FMS is the navigation source for the respective side the color will be white, otherwise it will be amber.

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17 - SELECTED COURSE/DESIRED TRACK ANNUNCIATIONS AND READOUTS Label: DTK for Desired Track. CRS for Selected Course. Color: For single configuration, if the FMS is the navigation source for only one side, the CRS label will be green and DTK will be magenta. Otherwise, both labels will be amber. For dual configuration, if each FMS is the navigation source for the respective side, the CRS and DTK labels will be magenta. Otherwise they will be amber. The readouts will have the same color as the CRS and DTK annunciations. DTK is displayed when the FMS is the selected navigation source. 18 - CROSSTRACK ANNUNCIATION Label: SXTK Color: For single configuration, if the FMS is the navigation source for only one side the label will be magenta, otherwise it will be amber. For dual configuration: The color will be ever amber. SXTK is displayed to indicate that the airplane is off track. 19 - CAPTURED LATERAL MODE Refer to Section 2-19 - Autopilot.

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FMS INDICATION ON THE PFD

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FMS INDICATION ON THE MFD 1 - FMS SOURCE ANNUNCIATION Label: FMS for single configuration. FMS1 or FMS2 for dual configuration. Color: Magenta: when the source is the on-side FMS. Yellow: when the source is the cross-side FMS. 2 - DRIFT ANGLE BUG Color: Magenta: when the source is the on-side FMS. Yellow: when the source is the cross-side FMS. The Drift Angle Bug rotates around the compass card, providing the reading of the airplane tracking. 3 - WAYPOINT SYMBOL Label: Waypoint identifier name (Ex: KDVT). Color: All Waypoints are white except the TO waypoint. Waypoint is displayed as a four pointed star at the geographical locations, referenced to the current present position, where the selected transitions of the flight plan occur. A maximum of 10 Waypoints can be displayed, including the FROM waypoint. A navigation aid or airport can also be located on the flight plan at a transition point and is accounted in the maximum allowable number of Waypoints. 4 - AIRPORT ANNUNCIATION Label: APT. Color: Cyan. Appears when an airport symbol is shown along the route. 5 - NAVAID ANNUNCIATION Label: NAV. Color: Cyan for single or green for dual configuration. Appears when a navaid symbol is shown along the route. 6 - DESIGNATOR RANGE AND BEARING READOUT Color: Cyan. The range readout indicates the distance between the airplane and the Designator Symbol. The bearing readout bearing location of the Designator Symbol related to the airplane position.

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7 - TO WAYPOINT SYMBOL Color: Magenta: when the source is the on-side FMS. Yellow: when the source is the cross-side FMS. In the sequence established, the TO Waypoint is the next one from the current airplane position. 8 - LATERAL DEVIATION DISPLAY Color: White. Right after the values there is a letter which may be L or R standing for Left and Right respectively. 9 - WIND VECTOR DISPLAY Color: Magenta: when the source is the on-side FMS. Yellow: when the source is the cross-side FMS. A single vector shows the direction of the wind relative to the airplane symbol. The digits indicate the wind intensity in knots. 10 - DESIGNATOR SYMBOL Color: Same color of the Waypoint: If the Designator is co-located with a connected Waypoint. Cyan: If it is not connected. The Designator symbol is displayed as an unfilled rectangle applied in two distinct methods: co-located with a Waypoint or positioned with the joystick. Designator will not be displayed if it represents the current position. 11 - TO WAYPOINT DATA ANNUNCIATIONS It is composed of the annunciators and presented as follows: Identification. Distance in nautical miles (NM). Time to the TO Waypoint in minutes (MIN). Color: For single FMS configuration the identification is magenta. The distance and the time are white. For dual FMS configuration the identification, distance and time are magenta, when the source is the on-side FMS, or yellow, when the source is the cross-side FMS.

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WEATHER RADAR SYSTEM


The airplane can be equipped with P-660 or P-880 weather radar models and 12 inch antenna. For additional information on functions and operations, refer to the manufacturers manual. The weather radar system is designed for detection and analysis of precipitation in storms along the flight path of the airplane. The system provides the flight crew with visual indications regarding rainfall intensity and turbulence content. Precipitation intensity level is displayed in four bright colors (magenta, red, yellow and green) contrasted against a deep black background on the PFDs and MFDs radar mode field. Magenta represents the heaviest rainfall intensity while green indicates the lightest. The radar may also be used for ground mapping. When operating in ground mapping mode, prominent landmarks are displayed, which allows identification of coastlines, mountainous regions, cities or even large structures.

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GENERAL
The weather radar system consists of an integrated Receiver/Transmitter/Antenna unit (RTA) and a dedicated control panel. The RTA transmits and receives on the X-band radio frequency. The RTA processes radar echoes received by the antenna. The scanconverted data are displayed on PFDs and MFDs radar mode field. The weather radar system run on 28 V DC powered by one of the Avionics Switched DC Buses. Should a power supply failure occur, the weather radar system will become inoperative, as there is no backup power source for this system. The weather radar interfaces with other airplane systems and equipment as presented in the schematic diagram below:

WEATHER RADAR SCHEMATIC

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WEATHER RADAR NORMAL OPERATION


The weather radar is controlled through the weather radar control panel and via the MFD Bezel Buttons. The weather radar control panel provides control functions and operating modes management for proper weather radar operation. The airplane is equipped with two weather radar control panels located on the glareshield panel.

INTERPRETING WEATHER RADAR IMAGES


The weather radar is a water detector. It is calibrated to best see water in its liquid form and with an ideal raindrop diameter. The weather radar can see rain, wet snow, wet hail and dry hail (depending on its diameter). The radar can not see water vapor, ice crystals and small dry hail. At higher altitudes, there is less humidity in the air and consequently there is less water condensation. It means that heavy precipitation and dense cells are less likely to occur. As a result, flight level 200 (FL200) is defined as "FREEZING LEVEL", i.e., presence of water in its liquid form is not forecast above this level. However, CBs and other phenomena may push humidity and water, sometimes supercooled water, to higher altitudes due to convective activity.

WARNING: DRY HAIL CAN BE PREVALENT AT HIGHER ALTITUDES. SINCE ITS RADAR REFLECTIVE RETURN IS POOR, IT MAY NOT BE DETECTED. Use increased gain when flying near storm tops in order to display the normally weaker returns that could be associated with hail.

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RADAR WARM UP PERIOD


When power is first applied to the radar, a period of 40 to 100 seconds is required to allow its magnetron to warm up. The radar displays the WAIT message on the PFDs and MFDs radar mode field and does not transmit or perform an antenna scan. After the completion of warm-up period, the radar automatically become operational in the selected mode or goes to forced standby (FSBY) if the airplane is on the ground.

GROUND OPERATION PRECAUTIONS


If the radar system is to be operated in any mode other than standby or forced standby while the airplane is on the ground, the following precautions should be taken:

Direct nose of airplane so that antenna scan sector is free of large metallic objects such as hangars or other airplanes for a distance of 30 meters (100 ft).The antenna must be tilted fully upwards. Avoid using the weather radar during airplane refueling or within 30 meters (100 ft) of any other airplane undergoing refueling operations. Avoid using the weather radar if personnel are standing too close to the 270 forward sector of airplane.

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WEATHER RADAR FUNCTIONS


TEST MODE (TST)

OPERATING

MODES

AND

After the radar warm-up period is over, the TEST mode may be selected. A special test pattern made up of color bands is displayed. A series of green/yellow/red/magenta/white bands indicate that the signal to color conversion circuits are operating normally. A 100 mile range is automatically selected. A green TEST label will be displayed on the PFDs and MFDs radar mode field. When the airplane is on the ground and the TEST mode is entered, the first page always includes RADAR OK or RADAR FAIL to indicate the current state of the radar, as follows: RADAR OK: indicates that no faults were found and the radar is ready for service. It is combined with the END OF LIST page. RADAR FAIL: indicates a radar fault. During the weather radar test, several fault messages may be presented to the crew. The POC (Power On Counter), aside recording an existing fault, also stores fault information from previous power-on cycles. However, if the first page announces "RADAR OK", the radar is ready for service. STANDBY MODE (SBY) The standby mode should be selected any time it is desired to keep the system powered without transmitting. When SBY mode is selected the WX radar remains in a ready state, with the antenna scan motionless and stowed in a tilt-up position. In addition, the transmitter is inhibited and the display memory is erased. Placing only one controller in SBY does not shut the transmitter OFF. Instead, the no-SBY controller governs radar operation. If both controllers are placed in SBY, the transmitter is shut OFF. In standby mode a STBY label is displayed on the PFDs and MFDs radar mode field.

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FORCED STANDBY MODE (FSBY) The FSBY is an automatic, non-selectable radar mode, that forces the radar into standby when the airplane is on the ground (weight-onwheels logic) regardless of the selected active radar mode. This is a safety feature that inhibits the transmitter on the ground to eliminate X-band microwave radiation hazards. In FSBY mode, the transmitter and the antenna scan are both inhibited, memory is erased and a FSBY label is displayed on the PFDs and MFDs radar mode field. The forced standby mode may be overridden on the ground by pushing the STAB button 4 times in 3 seconds. CAUTION: IF FSBY MODE IS OVERRIDEN ON THE GROUND AND ANY RADAR ACTIVE MODE IS SELECTED, THE TRANSMITTER IS TURNED ON. THE RADAR MUST NOT BE OPERATED UNDER THIS CONDITION WHILE REFUELING, NEAR FUEL SPILLS OR PEOPLE.

WEATHER DETECTION MODE (WX) The WX mode is used to detect areas of severe weather. This will allow the pilots to avoid dangerous weather conditions and possible turbulence areas. WX may be used on the ground, often prior to takeoff, in order to monitor the weather in the immediate vicinity. In this case, the forced standby mode may be overridden. In WX Mode, the weather radar system is fully operational and all internal parameters are set for enroute weather detection. A WX label is displayed on the PFDs and MFDs radar mode field. The levels and colors associated with the storm category are as follows: LEVEL 4 3 2 1 0 COLOR Magenta Red Amber Green Black RAINFALL CATEGORY Extreme/Intense Very Strong/Strong Moderate Moderate/Weak Weak

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL RAIN ECHO ATTENUATION FUNCTION (REACT or RCT) COMPENSATION

NAVIGATION AND COMMUNICATION

TECHNIQUE

The REACT is a sub mode of the weather detection mode and when selected activates three separate but related functions: Attenuation Compensation - Storms with high rainfall rates can attenuate the radar energy making it impossible to see a second cell hidden behind the first cell. In the REACT mode, the radar incorporates a function that automatically adjusts receiver gain by an amount equal to the amount of attenuation, i.e., the greater the amount of attenuation, the higher the receiver gain and thus, the more sensitive the receiver. Cyan REACT Field - Since there is a maximum limit to receiver gain, strong targets (high attenuation levels) cause the receiver to reach its maximum gain value and weather targets can no longer be calibrated. The point where red level weather target calibration is no longer possible is highlighted by changing the background field from black to cyan. Cyan areas should be avoided. Any target detected inside a cyan area should be considered very dangerous. All targets in the cyan th field are displayed as a magenta-colored 4 level precipitation. Shadowing - This is an operating technique similar to the Cyan REACT Field. To use the shadowing technique, tilt the antenna down until the ground is being painted just in front of the storm cell(s). An area characterized by no ground returns behind the storm cell has the appearance of a shadow. The cell that produces radar shadowing is a very strong and dangerous cell and should be avoided by 20 NM. FLIGHT PLAN MODE (FP) When the Flight Plan Mode is selected a singular display of navigation data and a FLTPLAN label are presented on the PFDs and MFDs radar mode field. The radar is put in standby and there is no radar data displayed in this mode.

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GROUND MAPPING MODE (GMAP) This mode is used to alert the flight crew regarding hazards caused by ground targets. This is especially useful in areas of rapidly changing terrain, such as mountainous regions. In this mode the system is fully operational and all internal parameters are set to enhance returns from ground targets. The TILT control should be turned down until the desired amount of terrain is displayed. The degree of down-tilt depends upon airplane altitude and the selected range. Receiver characteristics are altered to provide equalization of ground-target reflection versus range. The selection of calibrated GAIN will generally provide the desired mapping display. If required, variable gain may be used to reduce the level of strong returns. In the ground mapping mode a GMAP label is displayed on the PFDs and MFDs radar mode field, and the color scheme is changed to cyan, yellow and magenta. Cyan represents the least reflective return, yellow is a moderate return and magenta represents the most highly reflective target return. It is possible to have one pilot working the GMAP while the other one is using the regular WX mode. CAUTION: WEATHER TYPE TARGETS ARE NOT CALIBRATED WHEN THE RADAR IS IN THE GMAP MODE. THEREFORE, THE PILOT SHOULD NOT USE THE GMAP MODE FOR WEATHER DETECTION.

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TURBULENCE DETECTION FUNCTION (TRB) (P-880 MODEL ONLY) When this mode is selected, the radar processes return signals in order to determine if a turbulence condition is present. Areas of potentially hazardous turbulence are displayed as white. Any areas shown as turbulence should be avoided. Turbulence detection function may only be engaged in the WX mode and at selected ranges of 50 NM or less. When the TRB function is active, a T letter will be displayed on the PFDs and MFDs radar mode field. CAUTION: ALTHOUGH TURBULENCE MAY EXIST WITHIN ANY STORM CELL, WEATHER RADAR CAN ONLY DETECT TURBULENCE IN AREAS OF RAINFALL. TARGET ALERT (TGT) Target alert is selectable in all but the 300 mile range. When selected, target alert monitors for red or magenta weather beyond the selected range and 7.5 on either side of the airplanes heading. If such weather is detected within the monitored area and outside the selected range, the target alert annunciation TGT label changes from a green armed condition to an yellow TGT alert condition on the PFDs and MFDs radar mode field. This annunciation advises the flight crew that potentially hazardous targets lie directly in front and outside of the selected range. When this warning is received, the flight crew should select longer ranges to view the questionable target. The target alert is inactive within the selected range. Selecting target alert forces the system to calibrate gain, and turns off the variable gain mode. Target alert can only be selected in WX and FP modes. NOTE: Keep TGT alert enabled when using short ranges. This allows the issuing of an alert if a new storm cell develops ahead of the airplanes flightpath.

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ANTENNA STABILIZATION (STAB or STB) The antenna is normally pitch and roll-stabilized by using attitude information from the IRS. Momentarily pushing the STAB (or STB) button disables antenna stabilization and an amber STAB annunciation label is presented on the PFDs and MFDs radar mode field. RECEIVER GAIN (GAIN) The GAIN knob is a rotary control and push/pull switch that controls radar receiver gain. Two gain modes are available: calibrated or variable. Calibrated: When the GAIN knob is pushed in, receiver gain is preset and calibrated, which is the normal mode of operation. In calibrated gain, the rotary function of the GAIN knob is disabled. Variable (VAR): When the GAIN knob is pulled out, the system enters the variable gain mode. Variable gain is used for additional weather analysis and for ground mapping. In the WX mode, variable gain can increase receiver sensitivity over the calibrated level to show very weak targets or can be reduced below the calibrated level to eliminate weak returns. In the GMAP mode, variable gain is used to reduce the level of strong returns from ground targets. Rotation of the knob counter-clockwise reduces receiver sensitivity. Rotating clockwise increases receiver sensitivity until its maximum. A digital readout and gain setting label are displayed on the PFDs and MFDs radar mode field. NOTE: When REACT or TGT modes are selected, the system will be forced into calibrated gain. CAUTION: VARIABLE GAIN MAY BE USED ONLY FOR SHORT PERIODS OF TIME. DO NOT LEAVE THE RADAR IN VARIABLE GAIN SINCE SIGNIFICANT WEATHER TARGETS MAY NOT BE DISPLAYED.

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TILT Tilt management is crucial to the safe operation of weather radar. If improperly managed, weather targets can be missed or underestimated. Proper tilt management demands that tilt be changed continuously. To find the best tilt angle after the airplane is airborne, adjust the TILT antenna downward until a few ground targets are visible at the edge of the display. The table below gives the approximate tilt settings for minimal ground target display for different altitudes and ranges. If the altitude changes or a different range is selected, adjust the tilt control as required to minimize ground returns. When flying at high altitudes, tilt downward frequently to avoid flying above storm tops. When in low altitude or approaching for landing, tilt management must be performed manually, with the radar beam vertically sweeping from up to down to avoid flying above or below a storm line. During takeoff, the radar must be adjusted to a minimum range scale, with a horizontal RH and LH scan and with the antenna positioned upwards (climbing angle).

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TILT SETTINGS FOR MINIMAL GROUND TARGET DISPLAY (12 inch antenna)

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The figure below helps to visualize the relationship between tilt angle, flight altitude and selected range. It shows the distance above and below airplane altitude that is illuminated by the radar during level flight with 0 tilt (high altitude) and a low altitude situation, with antenna adjusted for 2.8 up-tilt.

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ALTITUDE COMPENSATED TILT (ACT) (P-880 MODEL ONLY) In ACT, the antenna tilt is automatically adjusted with regard to the selected range and airplane altitude. ACT adjusts the tilt to show a few ground targets at the edge of the display. The TILT knob can be used for fixed offset corrections of up to 2. NOTE: Proper tilt management demands that tilt be changed continuously, even in airplanes equipped with ACT. SLAVE (SLV) One controller can be slaved to the other by selecting OFF on that controller only. This condition is annunciated by the illumination of SLV on the control panel. The slave mode allows one controller to set the radar modes for both sides. In the slave mode, the PFDs and MFDs radar information are identical and simultaneously updated. NOTE: In the slaved condition, both control panels must be set to off before the radar system turns off.

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RADOME
The radome is the primary factor behind degraded weather radar performance. The problems affecting the radome are as follows: - A water film over the radomes surface when flying in rain. - Greased radome. - Cracked radome. - Holes caused by lightning strike/electrostatic discharges. - Excessive application of antistatic paint. Water Film Over The Radomes Surface: When flying in rain, there is indication that at some specific altitudes and speeds a water film is formed on the radome, altering the weather radar indications. The radar display may disappear or turn red. To avoid this problem, there is a hydrophobic coating product named Cytonix that can be applied to the radome surface. Greased Radome: The presence of grease or dirt over the radomes surface also impairs radar transmission. These should be reported immediately to maintenance personnel for cleaning or corrective action. Electrostatic Discharges: Static electricity influences radar performance. The right bonding is necessary. Bonding is accomplished through two metallic meshes that link the radomes metallic bulkhead (diverters) to the airplanes airframe. It is important to make sure that they are in good condition and not painted. If both the metallic meshes and screws are painted, this will isolate the static power generated in the radome, resulting in electrical discharges that will follow towards the radar antenna and/or generate noise in the audio system. Cracked Radome: Small holes caused by electrostatic discharges, minor damage to structure or paint can cause water infiltration in the radomes honeycomb composite structure. It can result in significant radar signal attenuation, distortion and in some cases, can cause dark spots on the radar screen.

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WEATHER RADAR CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


WEATHER RADAR CONTROL PANEL 1 - RANGE SELECT BUTTONS Allow selection of the radars operating range, from 5 to 300 NM full scale in WX, REACT, or GMAP mode. In FP mode, additional ranges of 500 and 1000 NM are available. In test mode the range is automatically set to 100 NM. The up-arrow button selects increasing ranges, while the down-arrow button selects decreasing ranges. Upon reaching maximum or minimum range, further pushing of the button causes the range to rollover to minimum or maximum range, respectively. 2 - TURBULENCE DETECTION FUNCTION BUTTON (P-880 Model Only) Alternate pressings turns on or off the radars turbulence detection function. Function can be used only in WX or RCT mode, with selected range of 50 NM or less. 3 - STABILIZATION FUNCTION BUTTON When momentarily pressed, disables antenna stabilization function. The STAB OFF annunciator will illuminate on the control panel. On the ground, after warm-up period, pressing the STB button four times within 3 seconds will inhibit the forced standby (FSBY) function. 4 - SLAVE ANNUNCIATOR Illuminates to indicate that one controller is slaved to the other. 5 - TARGET ALERT CONTROL BUTTON Alternate pressing selects or cancels the target alert feature. Selectable only in the WX and FP Modes. 6 - SECTOR SCAN BUTTON (SECT) When momentarily pressed, selects either the radars normal 12 sweeps per minute for a 120 full scan or the faster update 24 sweeps per minute for a 60 sector scan.

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7 - ANTENNA TILT CONTROL KNOB The TILT knob is a rotary control that allows manual control of the antennas tilt angle. Clockwise rotation tilts the beam upward 0 to +15. Counter-clockwise rotation tilts beam downward 0 to 15. A digital readout of the antenna tilt angle is displayed on the MFD. The range between +5 and -5 is expanded for setting ease.
ALTITUDE COMPENSATED TILT (PULL ACT) (P-880 Model Only)

Pulling out the TILT knob activates the auto tilt control, which automatically readjusts tilt between 2 based on changes in barometric altitude and/or selected range. 8 - RADAR MODES CONTROL KNOB OFF - Turns off the weather radar. SBY - Selects the weather radar standby operating mode. WX - Selects the weather radar detection operating mode. RCT- Selects the REACT function (P-880 Model only). GMAP - Selects the weather radar ground mapping operating mode. FP - Selects the weather radar flight plan operating mode. TST - Selects the weather radar test mode. 9 - GAIN CONTROL KNOB Allows receiver gain control. When pushed in, receiver gain is preset and calibrated. Rotary function of the GAIN knob is disabled. When pulled out, sets receiver gain to variable (VAR) mode. 10 - RAIN ECHO ATTENUATION COMPENSATION TECHNIQUE FUNCTION BUTTON (P-660 Model Only) When pressed (momentarily), enables the REACT. REACT is always selected in test mode. REACT is available in all modes except MAP.

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WEATHER RADAR CONTROL PANEL


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MFD BEZEL PANEL 1 - WEATHER RADAR DISPLAY SELECTOR BUTTON Alternate pressing of the weather radar display selector button allows the weather radar to be displayed or removed from the MFD. Control of all other weather radar functions is accomplished by the radar control panel. When the weather radar is selected, the WX label on the MFD menu, above this button, will be highlighted by a white box. The weather radar can only be selected for display in map format. If the weather radar is selected with plan format already selected on the MFD, it will force the display to revert to map format. 2 - MAP/PLAN FORMATS CONTROL BUTTON Alternate pressing of the map/plan formats control button will cause the MFD to toggle between map and plan formats. A white box around will highlight the selected MFD format. If the weather radar is displayed on the MFD and the plan format is selected, the weather radar will be removed from the display. However, if the MFD map format is selected again, the weather radar display will be restored on the MFD.

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MFD BEZEL PANEL


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WEATHER RADAR DISPLAY ON THE PFD AND MFD 1 - ANTENNA POSITION INDICATOR (API) Color: Amber. The API is displayed as an arc at the current range outer limit. Indicates the radar antenna alternate sweep position and provides a picture bus activity indication. 2 - WEATHER RADAR PATCH Indicates an area of radar reflection. Color: Magenta: high intensity reflection. Red: medium-high intensity reflection. Yellow: medium intensity reflection. Green: low intensity reflection. 3 - WEATHER RADAR TURBULENCE INDICATION Indicates an area of detected turbulence. Color: white. 4 - WEATHER RADAR REACT INDICATION Indicates an area where radar receiver gain compensation has reached its maximum value. Color: cyan. 5 - WEATHER RADAR RANGE ARC VALUE Color: white. Indicates the radar range selected in the weather radar control panel. 6 - WEATHER RADAR ANTENNA TILT ANGLE DISPLAY Color: green. Range: 15 to +15. Resolution: 1. 7 - WEATHER RADAR TARGET MODE AND ALERT ANNUNCIATION Color: TGT label: green or amber. VAR label: amber. The VAR label will be displayed in the same field as that used for TGT annunciation to indicate a variable gain indication. Priority is given to TGT annunciation.

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8 - WEATHER RADAR MODES ANNUNCIATION DISPLAY Indicates the selected mode in the weather radar control panel.

DISPLAY ANNUNCIATION COLOR

MODE DESCRIPTION

STAB TGT TGT

AMBER GREEN AMBER

VAR WX WX TX

AMBER GREEN AMBER GREEN

TX

AMBER

WAIT STBY FSBY TEST FAIL RCT FPLN GMAP GCR R/T WX/T

GREEN GREEN GREEN GREEN AMBER GREEN GREEN GREEN AMBER GREEN GREEN

Stabilization off. Target alert enable. Target alert enable and level 3 WX return detected in the forward 15 of antenna scan. Variable gain. Normal WX ON and selected for display. Invalid WX control bus. WX is transmitting but not selected for display, or in STBY or FSTBY. WX is transmitting and weight on wheels indicates on ground, but not selected for display, or in STBY and FSTBY. Warm up period of approximately 40 to 100 seconds. Normal standby. Forced standby. Test mode and no faults. Test mode and faults. Normal WX with REACT. Flight plan mode. Ground map mode. Normal WX with ground clutter reduction. WX with REACT and turbulence. Normal WX with turbulence.

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WEATHER RADAR DISPLAY ON PFD

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WEATHER RADAR DISPLAY ON MFD

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NAVIGATION AND COMMUNICATION

LIGHTNING SENSOR SYSTEM (LSS)


The P-880 Weather Radar Model may be optionally equipped with a Lightning Sensor System (LSS). For additional information on functions and operations, refer to the LSZ-850 Lightning Sensor System Pilots Handbook. The Lightning Sensor System is designed to detect and locate areas of lightning activity, in a 100-nautical-mile radius around the aircraft, and to give the operator a visual display of its position and rate-ofoccurrence on the MFDs. The Lightning Sensor System is inhibited on the ground and during HF transmission (HF PTT), being powered by one of the 28 V DC Avionics Switched DC Buses. Should a power supply failure occur, the Lightning Sensor System will be inoperative, as there is no backup power to it. The Lightning Sensor System interfaces with other airplane systems and equipment as follows: MFDs - The LSS provides lightning activity data to the MFDs. IC-600s - Signals between the LSS and the IC-600s are transmitted through a Serial Data Bus.

LIGHTNING SENSOR SYSTEM SCHEMATIC


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LSS OPERATION
The Lightning Sensor System is controlled through a dedicated control knob, located on the Weather Radar Control Panel. The Lightning Sensor System Control knob provides control functions and operating modes management for proper Lightning Sensor System operation. The Lightning Sensor System detects both visible and invisible high energy electromagnetic discharges (lightning), indicating areas of turbulent activity and displaying such information on the MFDs. The Lightning Sensor System may be operated with the Weather Radar System turned on or off. If the Weather Radar is turned off, the LSS Range Selection is done through the MFDs knobs. When power is first applied to the system, a self-test is automatically performed and, in the event of failure, an amber LX/F will be displayed on the MFDs. The LSS also performs self-calibration each time the system is turned on. The green LX/C annunciation is removed after calibration is completed. Strong interfering signals outside the aircraft, or equipment malfunction may prevent the calibration of the system, in which case the C will not be removed from the display. If the C is removed after takeoff, this means that only outside interference was preventing calibration. In this case the LSS should be switched off and set back to LX mode to force recalibration for greater accuracy. If the C persists after takeoff, a test should be performed. LSS OPERATING MODES AND FUNCTIONS STANDBY MODE (STBY) When the Standby Mode is selected, no lightning data is shown on the MFDs. However, the receiving and processing equipment is active and lightning strikes are being counted and accumulated into areas.

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL LIGHTNING DETECTION MODE (LX)

NAVIGATION AND COMMUNICATION

When operating in Lightning Detection Mode, the Lightning Sensor System is fully operational and lightning strikes are collected, processed, and displayed. The LSS shows areas of lightning activity with white lightning symbols, which represents the center of a circular area with a radius of nine nautical miles. Three different lightning symbols are used to represent three different lightning rates-of-occurrence within each 18-mile diameter cycle. Because of the large variation in lightning electromagnetic discharge, sometimes the system can not determine, within its occurring criteria, lightning bearing and distance. Rather, only the bearing is measured. Activity that only provides bearing information is presented in magenta lightning symbols near the outer range marks. When operating the LSS with the Radar in STBY Mode, 360 of data is displayed. A green LX will be displayed on normal operation. Lightning Sensor Display symbology is as follows: LEVEL 1 2 3 ALERT LIGHTNING CATEGORY white headless lightning symbol white single-headed lightning symbol white double-headed lightning symbol magenta headless lightning symbol

CLEAR/TEST MODE (CLR/TST) When the Clear/Test mode is selected, all lightning rate symbols are erased from the display and a special pattern is displayed to allow verification of the Lightning Sensor System operation. The Test must be accomplished by selecting 50 NM or a greater display range and the CLR/TST Mode. The LSS CLR/TST Mode can be selected in any radar mode. In the event of a failure, an amber LXmn will be displayed, where mn is a failure code, which will help the technician in troubleshooting the system. When CLR/TST mode is selected, a green LX/CL is displayed on the MFDs and, after three seconds, LX/CL is replaced by LX/T.

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LSS CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


1- LIGHTNING SENSOR SYSTEM CONTROL KNOB OFF - Turns off the Lightning Sensor System. SBY LX - Selects the Lightning Sensor System Standby Mode. - Selects the Lightning Sensor System Detection Operating Mode.

CLR/TST- Selects the Lightning Sensor System Test Mode.

WEATHER RADAR CONTROL PANEL WITH LSS

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LIGHTNING SENSOR SYSTEM DISPLAY ON THE MFD 1 - LEVEL 1 LIGHTNING ACTIVITY INDICATION Color: White Indicates the center of an 18-mile diameter area of lightning activity with 1 strike every 2 minutes. 2 - LEVEL 2 LIGHTNING ACTIVITY INDICATION Color: White Indicates the center of an 18-mile diameter area of lightning activity with 2 strikes every 2 minutes. 3 - LEVEL 3 LIGHTNING ACTIVITY INDICATION Color: White Indicates the center of an 18-mile diameter area of lightning activity with 3 strikes every 2 minutes. 4 - LEVEL 4 (ALERT) LIGHTNING ACTIVITY INDICATION Color: Magenta Indicates only the bearing of lightning activity, determining the distance.

without

5 - LIGHTNING SENSOR SYSTEM MODES AND FAULTS ANNUNCIATION DISPLAY Indicates, above the Weather Radar annunciation display, the selected mode in the Lightning Sensor System Control Knob .
DISPLAY ANNUNCIATION COLOR MODE DESCRIPTION

LX/OFF LX LXmn LX/F STBY LX/CL LX/T LX/I LX/C LX


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GREEN AMBER AMBER AMBER GREEN GREEN GREEN GREEN GREEN GREEN 6 01

LX Power is off. LX Power is on and LX Communication Bus is Inactive. LX Fault Code Enabled. LX Fault LX Standby LX Clear LX Test Mode LX Antenna Inhibit LX Auto Calibrate LX Normal NOVEMBER 30, 2001

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IDENTIFICATION FRIEND OR FOE SYSTEM (IFF)


The Mode-S/IFF Transponder System integrates military IFF functions and civilian Mode-S/ATCRBS surveillance functions into a single system. The IFF system is a cooperative surveillance system designed to classify airborne targets as friendly or hostile. It employs ground-based and airborne interrogations and transponders. A key feature of the Mode-S system that distinguishes it from ATCRBS is that each airplane is assigned a unique address code. Using this unique code, interrogations can be directed to a particular airplane and replies can be positively identified. Channel interference is minimized because a sensor can limit its interrogations to targets of interests. By proper timing of interrogations, replies from closely spaced airplane can be received without mutual interference. The Mode-S/IFF Transponder System consists of the following major components: one Mode-S transponder, one Mode-S/IFF transponder, Mode-S/IFF control panel, one selector panel and top and bottom antennas. The transponder is capable of receiving/transmitting signals through any one antenna, thus inhibiting the shadow effect caused by the airplane structure while maneuvering. The reply signal provides an identity, an altitude, an identification position, or an emergency message. The Mode-S/IFF transponder operates in Mode 1, 2, 3/A, C and S, the system receiving interrogations on 1030 MHz and transmitting on 1090 MHz. Avionics Master DC Bus 2A powers the Mode S/IFF transponder and there is a 7.5 A circuit breaker for power wiring protection. The ModeS/IFF Transponder System will not operate in the event of either a failure in the control panel or in the event of an electrical/generator failure. The transponder reply-transmit capability is disabled when the system is in STANDBY mode. The Weight-On-Wheels (WOW) circuitry disables the ATCRBS transponder reply capability while the airplane is on the ground. However, the air/ground switch does not disable ModeS transponder replies and airplane status is included in the Mode-S/IFF transponder reply data.

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SELECTOR PANEL
The selector panel, on the main control panel, provides the means for the flight crew to select either the Mode-S on transponder 1 or the Mode-S/IFF transponder, according to mission requirements at that particular moment. The Mode-S/IFF transponder will be used normally in the mission area. 1 - IFF POSITION Selects the Mode-S/IFF transponder. All indications on the RMU pages are related to the transponder 1 system and TCAS functions will be dashed. In this case all TCAS II operations is made through the ModeS/IFF control panel. 2 - XPDR POSITION Selects the Mode S transponder. Both Mode-S/IFF transponder unit and Mode-S/IFF control panel are turned off.

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

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TRANSPONDER SELECTOR KNOB


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IFF TRANSPONDER CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


The Mode-S/IFF control panel is located on the control pedestal and allows the selection of the Mode-S/IFF transponder operation modes (Off, Standby, Normal and Emergency), selection of interrogation and reply modes (1, 2, 3/A, C and S), and selection of codes. 1 - DISPLAY SELECT ROTARY KNOB The Mode-S/IFF control panel has a six position rotary knob to select the different display modes. MODE 1: MODE 2: Selecting 1 with the DPL SEL knob enables Mode 1 display and keypad entry mode. Selecting 2 with the DPL SEL knob enables Mode 2 display and keypad entry mode.

MODE 3/A: Selecting 3A with the DPL SEL knob enables the Mode 3/A display and keypad entry mode. MODE S: Selecting S with the DPL SEL knob enables the Mode S display and keypad entry mode.

FLIGHT ID: Selecting FLT ID with the DPL SEL knob enables FLIGHT ID display and keypad entry mode. The Mode-S Aircraft Identification Subfield (AIS) allows the operator to select the airplane Flight ID to be downlinked as part of Downlink Format (DF) message 20 and 21 from the control panel. The Mode S Flight ID is typically the airplane flight number or airplane registration number. STAT: Messages from the transponder are displayed on the LCD only if the STAT position in the DPL SEL knob is selected. Transponder messages have he lowest priority after transponder failure indications. When a new transponder message is received by the control panel, the GO annunciator illuminates.

2 - ALPHA-NUMERIC CHARACTER LCD The Mode-S/IFF control panel has an eight alphanumeric character, liquid crystal display. The display has white characters on a black background.
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3 - GO ANNUNCIATOR The Mode-S/IFF control panel has a dead front green light GO annunciator to indicate no failures in the system or to indicate a new transponder message has been received by the control panel. 4 - NO-GO ANNUNCIATOR The Mode-S/IFF control panel has a dead front amber light NO-GO warning annunciator to indicate system failure. 5 - TEST BUTTON The TCAS/IFF control panel is provided with a momentary push-button test to activate the System Functional Test. The Mode-S/IFF Transponder System test may be accomplished with the Mode/TCAS rotary knob in the TA or TA/RA position and pressing the TEST push button. In addition, the TCAS is tested when the test is performed. Pressing the TEST push button the Mode-S/IFF control panel starts a lamp test, turning all front panels LCD indicators segments on. Additionally, a control panel self-test is performed when the TEST push button is pressed for more than five seconds. 6 - MASTER CONTROL KNOB The Master Control knob has OFF, STBY, NORM, and EMER positions. A mechanical interlock prevents inadvertent switching to either EMER or OFF positions. OFF: In the OFF position all primary power supplies are removed from the system, except control and lighting circuits. In the STBY position the system disables the transponder reply transmit (Modes 1, 2, 3/A, C, and S). STBY is typically engaged on the ground to prevent unnecessary RF traffic. It is disengaged just prior to takeoff and engaged again upon landing.

STANDBY:

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL The NORM position enables the transponder to respond to all proper modes (1, 2, 3/A, C, and S), as well as TCAS TA and TA/RA interrogations, if selected.

NORMAL:

EMERGENCY: The EMER position enables transponder modes 1, 2, 3/A, and S to reply with an emergency code automatically, irrespective of settings of the MODE/TCAS rotary knob. Modes 1, 2, and 3/A automatically respond with a military emergency. Mode 3A replies is changed to code 7700. 7 - MODE/TCAS ROTARY KNOB The MODE/TCAS rotary knob has six positions (OFF, 3A, C, S, TA, and TA/RA) that enables the different modes of operation and allows for selection of TCAS functions. OFF: MODE 3/A: Disables the Modes 3A, C and S. When Mode 3/A is enabled, replies to Mode 3/A interrogations and Mode C framing pulses are enabled. Mode 3/A control is provided for pilot or operator selection of 4096 response codes. Code selection range is 0000 to 7777, inclusive. When the EMER mode is enabled, the Mode 3/A military emergency code 7700 shall be displayed. The Mode 3/A code remains at 7700 as long as the Master Control knob is in EMER position. When Mode C is enabled, the system replies to valid Mode C interrogations. The mode C control disables or enables the Air Data Source input to the transponder. This control function enables/disables Mode S operation. When mode S is enabled, the system replies to valid ATCRBS/Mode S All-call and mode S interrogations.

MODE C:

MODE S:

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL TCAS TA:

NAVIGATION AND COMMUNICATION

This TCAS control function enables TA operation only. The TA ONLY Mode-S enables the TCAS computer, in conjunction with the Mode S/IFF transponder, to provide traffic advisories. The TA Mode is electrically tied to the Mode S enable (ON) mode. The system automatically selects this mode when the aircraft is flying under 1000 ft above ground level.

TCAS TA/RA: The TCAS TA/RA Mode S enables the TCAS computer, in conjunction with the mode-S/IFF transponder, to provide traffic and resolution advisories. TA/RA is electrically tied to the Mode S enable (ON) mode. This is the normal operation mode, supplying full TCAS coverage. 8 - CODE ENTRY KEYPAD There are 12 push-button keys in the keypad. 9 - TCAS HORIZONTAL RANGE ROTARY KNOB The TCAS range control allows the pilot to select traffic advisory horizontal display range in nautical miles. This control function gives the pilot the option of selecting four possible ranges: 6, 12, 20, 40 NM. 10 - TCAS VERTICAL RANGE ROTARY KNOB This knob provides the operator with the capability to select an altitude range, in relation to the airplane, for traffic display on the MFD. ABV Mode: BLW Mode: Range limits are 9900 ft above and 2700 ft below airplane.

Range limits are 9900 ft below and 2700 ft above airplane. NORM Mode: The display range is 2700 ft above and below the airplane. NOTE: If the TCAS does not receive the altitude limit information from the transponder, the default altitude limit presented will be 7000 ft instead of 9900 ft.

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11 - IDENT MIC/OFF SWITCH The Mode-S/IFF control panel has a two-position locking lever toggle switch. The control provides the means to activate Ident function remotely by keying the operators microphone (MIC position) or pressing the front panel IDNT push-button switch (OFF position). 12 - IDNT PUSH-BUTTON A control panel function is supplied for enabling Identification of Position (I/P) operation, either directly by the operator or remotely by keying the operators microphone. Momentarily pressing the IDNT button control causes the ATCRBS reply and/or Mode S Uplink (UF)-4 and UF-5 replies to contain a Special Position Identifier (SPI) as an identifier to the ground. The SPI supplies the ground station with more positive identification of airplane position. This is typically activated upon verbal command of the Air Traffic Controller. The IDNT control is a momentarily activated button to inhibit continuous selection. When pressure is removed from the momentary button, the IDNT control returns to the OFF position. 13 - LOAD PUSH-BUTTON The LOAD push-button is used to transmit a completed code display on the LCD. 14 - MODE 1/2 ROTARY KNOB OFF: MODE 1: Disables Modes 1 and 2. Enables Mode 1 operation. Mode 1 control is provided for pilot or operator selection of 32 response codes. Code selection range is 00 to 73, inclusive. Enables Mode 2 operation. Mode 2 control is provided for pilot or operator selection of 4096 response codes. Code selection range is 0000 to 7777, inclusive.

MODE 2:

MODE 1+2: Enables Modes 1 and 2 operation. 15 - MODE 4 CONTROL SWITCHES AND KNOB The Mode 4 operation controls are disabled for this airplane.

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

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MODE S/IFF TRANSPONDER CONTROL PANEL


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PRECISION AREA NAVIGATION (P-RNAV)


P-RNAV defines European RNAV operations, which satisfy a required track-keeping accuracy of 1 NM for at least 95% of the flight time, path coding in accordance with ARINC 424 (or an equivalent standard), and the automatic selection, verification and, where appropriate, de-selection of navigation aids. P-RNAV operations determines aircraft position in the horizontal plane using inputs from the following types of positioning sensors (in no specific order of priority): Distance Measurement Equipment (DME) giving measurements from two or more ground station (DME/DME); VHF Omni-directional Range (VOR) with a co-located DME (VOR/DME), where it is identified as meeting the requirements of the procedures; Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS); Inertial Navigation System (INS) or Inertial Reference System (IRS), with automatic updating from suitable radio based navigation equipment. P-RNAV is used for departures, arrivals and approach (FAWP - Final Approach Waypoint), and not used on final approach, i.e. from FAWP to RWY and missed approach.

LIMITATIONS
For P-RNAV operations in terminal airspace, obstacle clearance protection, up to the FAWP, will assume that aircraft comply with the P-RNAV accuracy requirements; Obstacle clearance altitude has been based upon the infrastructure giving the poorest precision; The minimum flight crew are 2 Pilots; It is not permissible to use, for any period of time, data from an inertial system as the only means of positioning; The system must display essential information in the Pilots primary field of view such as: Lateral Deviation; TO/FROM waypoints; Failure flag (failure of P-RNAV system);

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

Unless automatic updating of the actual departure point is provided, the flight crew must ensure initialization on the runway either means of a manual runway threshold or intersection update, as applicable. This is to preclude any inappropriate or inadvertent position shift after take-off; Where reliance is placed on the use of radar to assist contingency procedures, its performance has been shown to be adequate for that purpose, and the requirement for a radar service is identified in the AIP; P-RNAV operations must use FMS to control all lateral navigation functions. For FMS limitations, refer to Limitations Section 1-01-60 (System: FMS) of AOM; The system must have means to display to the flight crew the following items: The active (TO) waypoint and distance/bearing to this point; Ground speed or time to the active (TO) waypoint; Automatic tuning of VOR and DME navigation aids used for position updating together with the capability to inhibit individual navigation aids; RNAV system failure; Alternate means of displaying navigation information, sufficient to perform cross-checks procedures.

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NORMAL PROCEDURES
Verify NOTAM (Notice to Airman) for non-available P-RNAV procedure, if navigational aids, identified in the AIP as critical for a specific P-RNAV procedure, are not available; Use phraseology appropriate to P-RNAV operations; When the VOR or DME is not available or shutdown, the flight crew have to inhibit the navigation aid from the automatic selection process; The flight crew must notify ATC of any problem with the RNAV system that results in loss of the required navigation capability, together with the proposed course of action; Discrepancies that invalidate a procedure must be reported to the navigation database supplier and affected procedures must be prohibited by an operators notice to its flight crew. PRE-FLIGHT PLANNING Verify the required navigation aids critical to the operation of specific procedure, and if they are identified in the AIP (Aeronautical Information Publication) and on the relevant charts; Check availability of the navigation infrastructure and onboard equipment for the period of intended operation; The navigation database must be appropriate for the region of the intended operation and must include the navigation aids, waypoints, and coded terminal airspace procedures for the departure, arrival and alternate airfields; When specified in the AIP that dual P-RNAV procedure are required for specific terminal P-RNAV procedure, the availability of dual P-RNAV system must be confirmed; If a stand-alone GPS is to be used for P-RNAV, the availability of RAIM must be confirmed; DEPARTURE Both Pilots must verify if the navigation database is current and if aircraft position has been entered correctly; The PNF (Pilot Not Flying) must verify the desired path and the aircraft position relative to the path; The active flight plan should be checked by comparing the charts with the MAP display and the MCDU;
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A procedure shall not be used if doubt exists as to the validity of the procedure in the navigation database; The creation of new waypoints by manual entry into the RNAV system by the flight crew is not permitted; Route modifications in the terminal area may take form of radar headings or direct to clearances; Prior to take off, the flight crew must verify that the R-NAV system is available and operating correctly and, where applicable, the correct airport and runway data have been loaded; Unless automatic updating of the actual departure point is provided, the flight crew must ensure initialization on the runway either by means of a manual runway threshold or intersection update, as applicable. This is to preclude any inappropriate or inadvertent position shift after take-off. Where GNSS is used, the signal must be acquired before the take-off roll commences and GNSS position may be used in place of the runway update; During the procedure and where feasible, flight progress should be monitored for navigational reasonableness, by cross-checks, with conventional aids using the primary displays in conjunction with the MCDU; When automatic update for departure is not available, the procedure should be flown by conventional navigation means. A transition to the P-RNAV structure should be made at the point where the aircraft has entered DME/DME coverage and has had sufficient time to achieve an adequate input. If a procedure is designed to be started conventionally, then the latest point of transition to the P-RNAV structure will be marked on the charts. If a Pilot elects to start a P-RNAV procedure using conventional methods, there will not be any indication on the charts of the transition point to the P-RNAV structure. ARRIVAL Prior to the arrival phase, the flight crew should verify that the correct terminal procedure has been loaded. The active flight plan should be checked by comparing the charts with the MAP display and the MCDU. This includes confirmation of the waypoint sequence, reasonableness of track angles and distances, any altitude or speed constraints, and, where possible, which waypoints are fly-by and which are fly-over.

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NAVIGATION AND COMMUNICATION

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

If required by procedure, a check will need to be made to confirm that updating will exclude a particular navigation aid. A procedure shall not be used if doubt exists as to the procedure in the navigation database; Where the contingency to revert to a conventional arrival procedure the flight crew must make the necessary preparation; During the procedure and where feasible, flight progress should be monitored for navigational reasonableness by cross-checks with conventional navigation aids using the primary displays in conjunction with the MCDU. In particular, for a VOR/DME RNAV procedure, the reference VOR/DME used for the construction of the procedure must be displayed and checked by the flight crew. For RNAV systems without GNSS updating, a navigation reasonableness check is required during the descent phase before reaching the Initial Approach Waypoint (IAWP). For GNSS based systems, absence of an integrity alarm is considered sufficient. If the check fails, a conventional procedure must then be flown; Route modifications in the terminal area may take the form of radar headings or direct to clearances and the flight crew must be capable of reacting in a timely fashion. This may include the insertion of tactical waypoints loaded from the database. Manual entry or modification by the flight crew of a loaded procedure, using temporary waypoints or fixes not provided in the data base, is not permitted; Although a particular method is not mandated, any published altitude or speed constraints must be observed.

CONTINGENCY PROCEDURES
The flight crew must notify ATC of any problem with the RNAV system that results in the loss of required navigation capability, together with the proposed course of action; In the event of communication failure, the crew should continue with the RNAV procedure in accordance with the published lost communication procedure; In case of loss of P-RNAV capability, the flight crew should navigate using an alternative means of navigation. The alternate means need not be an RNAV system; Cautions and warnings for the following conditions: Failure of the RNAV system components including those affecting flight technical error;
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NAVIGATION AND COMMUNICATION

Flight director discontinue the P-RNAV procedure following the approved missed approach procedure or if feasible revert to a conventional or IRS procedure and inform ATC; Automatic Flight continue the approach using manual flight, and if the flight path cannot be followed perform a approved missed approach procedure and inform ATC; Multiple system failures If a multiple system failures occurs such as affecting GNSS, Flight Director, and any other used for P-RNAV procedure, a missed approach procedure must be performed and inform ATC; Failure of navigation sensors - discontinue the P-RNAV procedure following the approved missed approach procedure or if feasible revert to a conventional or IRS procedure and inform ATC.

INCIDENT REPORTING
Significant incidents associated with the operation of the aircraft which affect or could affect the safety of RNAV operations, need to be reported on the appropriate report manifest. Specific examples may include: Aircraft system malfunctions during P-RNAV operations which lead to: Navigations errors not associated with transitions between different navigation modes; Significant navigation errors attributed to incorrect data or a navigation database coding error; Unexpected deviations in lateral or vertical flight path not cause by Pilot input; Significant misleading information without a failure warning; Total loss or multiple navigation equipment failure; Problems with ground navigational facilities leading to significant navigational errors not associated with transitions between different navigation modes.

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SECTION 2-14 PNEUMATICS, AIR CONDITIONING AND PRESSURIZATION


TABLE OF CONTENTS Block Page General .............................................................................. 2-14-05 ..01 Pneumatic System ............................................................. 2-14-05 ..02 EICAS Messages ........................................................... 2-14-05 ..05 Air Conditioning System ..................................................... 2-14-10 ..01 ECU Operation ............................................................... 2-14-10 ..02 Cabin Temperature Control............................................ 2-14-10 ..04 Air Conditioning Distribution ........................................... 2-14-10 ..06 Pneumatic System Function Logic ................................. 2-14-10 ..07 EICAS Messages ........................................................... 2-14-10 ..10 Controls and Indicators................................................... 2-14-10 ..11 Pressurization System ....................................................... 2-14-15 ..01 Operation in Automatic Mode ......................................... 2-14-15 ..02 Operation in Manual Mode ............................................. 2-14-15 ..11 EICAS Messages ........................................................... 2-14-15 ..11 Controls and Indicators................................................... 2-14-15 ..12 Pressurization Indication on EICAS................................ 2-14-15 ..14 Electronic Bay Cooling System .......................................... 2-14-20 ..01 Forward Electronic Bay .................................................. 2-14-20 ..01 Rear Electronic Bay........................................................ 2-14-20 ..02 EICAS Messages ........................................................... 2-14-20 ..02 Baggage Ventilation System .............................................. 2-14-25 ..01

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GENERAL
The pneumatic system can be supplied by the engines, APU or a ground pneumatic source. The APU or ground pneumatic source supplies the system prior to the engine start. The engines normally supply bleed air for pneumatics after engine start. The air conditioning system receives air from the pneumatic system and provides conditioned air to the cabin. The system is controlled by two Environmental Control Units (ECU). The pressurization system uses bleed air from the air conditioning system to pressurize the airplane. Cabin pressure is controlled by modulating the outflow valves. The system is controlled by an automatic mode and has a manual back-up mode. Cooling for rear and forward electronic compartments is provided by the ventilation system. System information and messages are presented on the EICAS.

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PNEUMATIC SYSTEM
The pneumatic system receives compressed and hot air from the following sources: Engines compression stage; APU; Ground pneumatic source. The pneumatic system is used for: engine start, air conditioning, pressurization and anti-ice system. Engine bleed air comes from the 9 pressure) engine stages.
th th

(low pressure) and 14

th

(high

The 14 stage High Stage Valve (HSV), which is electrically controlled and pneumatically-actuated, opens automatically during low engine thrust operations, engine cross bleed start and anti-ice operation. As thrust increases, the HSV closes and the 9 BACV (Bleed Air Check Valve) opens supplying bleed air to the system. Bleed air for engine anti-ice system is provided through the tapping upstream of the HSV. An Engine Bleed Valve (EBV), which is electrically controlled through the Bleed Air Button and pneumatically-actuated, is installed downstream of the pre-cooler. Bleed air for the Air Turbine Starter (refer to Section 2-10 - Powerplant) is provided through the tapping downstream of the EBV. Each engine supplies air to its corresponding air conditioning pack and anti-ice system. A Cross-Bleed Valve (CBV), which is electrically controlled through the Cross Bleed Knob and pneumatically actuated, provides the segregation or interconnection between both sides in case of APU operation or one engine pneumatic supply. The pneumatic systems functional logic opens or closes automatically the EBV, if the Cross Bleed Knob is on AUTO position, during engine start, in order to select the available pneumatic source: APU, ground pneumatic source or opposite engine.
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The functional logic also opens automatically the CBV and both HSV and closes one air conditioning pack whenever the anti-icing system is operating. Bleed air from the APU, that is used primarily as a auxiliary pneumatic source, is provided in the left side of the pneumatic system to supply the air conditioning and engine starting either on ground or inflight. An APU Bleed Valve (ABV), which is electrically controlled through the APU Bleed Button and pneumatically-actuated, provides APU bleed control. The pneumatic system functional logic automatically closes the ABV whenever any engine is supplying bleed air to the left pneumatic side. An APU Check Valve is installed downstream of the APU bleed valve. A ground pneumatic source connection, including a check valve, is installed on the right side of the pneumatic system. Its main purpose is to supply pressurized air to start the engines. Leak detectors (thermal switches) are installed along all the pneumatic lines. Should a duct leakage occur, these detectors activates a warning message in the EICAS. Should any hot air leakage occur, the bleed sensors and/or three Massive Leakage Detectors (thermal switches the former located along the pneumatic system ducting and the latter in the rear electronic compartment area) will close the EBV and the HSCV of the affected side, as well as the CBV. Bleed temperatures upstream and downstream of the pre-cooler are monitored through temperature sensors. Temperature downstream of the pre-cooler is presented on a vertical bar indication on the MFD.

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EICAS MESSAGES
TYPE MESSAGE BLD 1 (2) LEAK BLD APU LEAK MEANING Duct leakage in the associated bleed line. Temperature in the duct region exceeds 91C (195F). The switch deactivates at 79C (175F). Associated pre-cooler downstream temperature above 305C (581F). Disagreement between actual position and commanded position of the APU Bleed Valve. Abnormal low or asymmetric bleed temperature, or precooler outlet temperature sensor failure. Disagreement between actual position and commanded position of the associated Engine Bleed Valve. Disagreement between actual position and commanded position of the Cross-Bleed Valve. Cross Bleed Knob selected CLOSED with at least one engine running after brake release. Disagreement between actual position and commanded position of the associated High Stage Valve. Associated Engine Bleed Valve position. This message is inhibited on ground or during associated engine start. Cross Bleed Valve open.

WARNING BLD 1 (2) OVTEMP

APU BLD VLV FAIL

BLD 1 (2) LOW TEMP

BLD 1 (2) VLV FAIL

CAUTION CROSS BLD FAIL

CROSS BLD SW OFF

HS VLV 1 (2) FAIL

BLD 1 (2) VLV CLSD ADVISORY CROSS BLD OPEN

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AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM


Airplane air conditioning is provided by two the Environmental Control Units (ECU) supplied by the Pneumatic System. Each side is provided with independent controls, protection devices, and cross-connected air distribution lines for the various modes of operation. Cockpit and passenger cabin temperature selections are independent and may be controlled either manually or automatically. The left ECU controls the temperature in the cockpit and the right ECU controls the temperature passenger cabin. The system is normally operated in the automatic mode. In case of automatic mode failure, a manual mode is available. The pilots may transfer the passenger cabin temperature control to the Attendant Panel. The air conditioning distribution is performed by the gasper system and general outlets with cross-connection between the cockpit and passenger cabin lines. This feature, associated with the ram air inlets, allows the cockpit and passenger cabin to be supplied with fresh air, in case of failure of both ECUs. Recirculating air, driven by two electrical fans, is mixed to fresh air in order to improve passenger and crewmembers' comfort. A ground cart connection is available at the right-hand duct, connected to the outside through a check valve in the fuselage. The preconditioned air from the ground cart is delivered to the cabin directly through the distribution lines. The air conditioning system incorporates protection features in the temperature controllers which shut off the system in case of malfunctions (duct leakage, duct overtemperature, and pack overtemperature). The cockpit and passenger cabin temperature indications are presented on the MFD. Caution and advisory messages are presented on the EICAS.

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ECU OPERATION
Each ECU consists of a dual heat exchanger, an air cycle machine (compressor, turbine, and fan), a condenser, a water separator and related control and protective devices, installed forward of the airplane wing root, inside the wing-to-fuselage fairing. The automatically-controlled bleed air from the pneumatic system supplies the ECU. Downstream pressure is regulated by the Pack Valve (Pressure Regulating and Shutoff Valve). After the Pack Valve, the airflow is divided into two lines: - One cold line that passes through to the Air Cycle Machine. - One hot line that bypasses the Air Cycle Machine. Both airflow lines are gathered at the expansion turbine discharge. In the Air Cycle Machine (ACM), air is cooled in the primary heat exchanger and passes through the compressor, thus causing a pressure increase. The air then goes to the secondary heat exchanger where it is cooled again. After leaving the secondary heat exchanger, the high-pressure cooled air passes through a condenser and a water separator for condensed water removal. Spray nozzles uses the separated water to improve the heat exchanger efficiency. The main airstream is ducted to the turbine and expanded to provide power for the compressor and cooling fan. This energy removal produces very low turbine discharge temperatures, achieving adequate low temperatures in the process. The cold exit air is mixed with warm air supplied by the recirculation fan and/or with the hot bypass air immediately upon leaving the turbine. A check valve is provided in the recirculation duct to prevent reverse flow if the recirculation fan is inoperative. The ECU outlet air temperature is controlled through the dual temperature control valve. One valve adds hot bleed air to the turbine discharge while the other valve restricts the compressor inlet flow. The ECUs are cooled in flight by external the ACM fans, using the external ram air. On the ground, the ECUs are cooled by the ACM fans only. The system has emergency ventilation, as an alternate means to allow the outside air into the cabin. The impact air passes through the same ram air inlets that are used to cool the dual heat exchangers.
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When the ECUs air supply is shut off in flight, the emergency ram air is activated and the ram air valves are opened automatically, allowing ram air to be routed to the distribution lines. Ram air may also be used to ventilate the airplane interior for cabin smoke evacuation and cabin ventilation purposes with the airplane depressurized and the ECUs turned off. NOTE: The Pneumatic System automatic logic closes the left Pack Valve whenever the anti-icing system is operating below 24600 ft.

CABIN TEMPERATURE CONTROL


AUTO MODE In the automatic mode (temperature knobs pressed), the temperatures in the passenger cabin and in the cockpit are controlled by the digital temperature controllers that receive information from the temperature sensors (ducts, passenger cabin, or cockpit), maintaining the temperature set on the associated temperature knob. MANUAL MODE In manual mode (temperature knobs pulled), the temperature in the passenger cabin and in the cockpit are controlled by the temperature control module, that receives information from the temperature knobs and the duct temperature sensor. The manual mode should be used only if a failure occurs in the automatic mode and may be noticed when the temperature is not maintained within the temperature limits of the automatic mode (between 18 and 29C) after cabin temperature stabilization. If switching from auto mode to manual mode is required, proceed as follows: Set the knob to mid range position (12 oclock). Wait for system to stabilize (approximately 30 seconds). Switch to manual. Smoothly turn the knob to the required point. Once in the manual mode, the pilot must continuously monitor the temperature and actuate on the Temperature and Mode Selector Knob.

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INTEGRATED PNEUMATIC SYSTEM SCHEMATIC


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AIR CONDITIONING DISTRIBUTION


The air conditioning distribution system provides conditioned air to the cockpit and passenger cabin. The main source of conditioned air to the cockpit is the left pack, with a single distribution system for cooling or heating air. The cockpit is provided with two FEET AIR handles and air outlets, allowing each pilot to individually control the airflow. For CRT displays ventilation, a shutoff valve on each side, electricallydriven and independently controlled by a thermal switch, allows cold air to be supplied for this function only. The main source of conditioned air to the passenger cabin is the right pack and partially by the left pack, through a cross connection duct. The air distribution system for the passenger cabin is divided into three lines. One line is distributed to the lower ducts, installed at the foot level on both cabin sidewalls. The second line is for the upper ducts of both sidewalls. The third line is dedicated to the gasper. If the duct temperature is below 24C (75F), the associated temperature switches command the recirculation fans to increase airflow. The gasper air subsystem provides air to individual air outlets (gasper), as well as for the rear electronic compartment, oxygen cylinder compartment and relay box ventilation. The air to the gasper is provided by a gasper fan and by one branch from the cross connection of the general distribution system. The gasper fan is similar to the recirculation fan, but it is operated in normal condition only. One thermal switch is installed in the branch line to close fresh air in case of heating condition (above 24C). In this case, only air from the gasper fan is available. The recirculation air subsystem, consists of two recirculation fans, and is usually operated to save the engine bleed. It must be kept off should there be smoke in the cabin, or on hot days while on the ground. This reduces the pull-down period and should be turned on in cold soak conditions to reduce pull-up period. The operational logic to open the Engine Bleed, Cross-bleed, APU Bleed, and Pack Valves will be analyzed herein separately, for better system comprehension. This system also actuates on the Anti-icing System Valves. For further information, refer to Section 2-15 - Ice and Rain Protection.

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PNEUMATICS AIR CONDITIONING AND PRESSURIZATION

PNEUMATIC SYSTEM FUNCTIONAL LOGIC


The pneumatic system functional logic provides automatic control and protection for itself and the user systems, giving priority according to the airplane operation or condition. ENGINE BLEED VALVE LOGIC The Engine Bleed Valve (EBV) receives an electrical input to open when the following conditions occur simultaneously: Bleed Air Button is pressed to open the valve; Respective Essential Bus is energized; There is no massive leakage on the respective side of the rear electronic compartment; There is no leakage along the pneumatic system ducting; Respective engine N2 is above 56.4%; and Respective engine fire extinguishing handle is not pulled. APU BLEED VALVE OPERATIONAL LOGIC The APU Bleed Valve (ABV) receives an electrical input to open when the following conditions occur simultaneously: APU Bleed Button is pressed to open the valve; Essential DC Bus 1 is energized; Engine 1 bleed valve is closed (no pressure from the left side); Engine 2 bleed valve or cross-bleed valve is closed (no pressure from the right side); APU rpm above 95%, plus 7 seconds; and There is no massive leakage on the APU line.

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PACK VALVE OPERATIONAL LOGIC The Pack Valve receives an electrical input to open when the following conditions occur simultaneously: Air Conditioning Pack Button is pressed to open the valve; Respective DC Bus is energized; Respective engine is not starting; No engine is starting using the APU as pneumatic source; No failure in the related pack is detected (overpressure, overtemperature or duct leakage downstream of the Pack Valve); and No discrete ECS (Environmental Control System) OFF signal is sent from any related FADEC (A or B). The FADEC`s discrete ECS OFF signals are produced according to the following conditions: 1- During Takeoff or Go Around: ACTIVATION CONDITIONS FOR ECS OFF SIGNALS PRESSURE ALTITUDE / TAT C ALL ENGINES ONE OPERATIVE ENGINE (takeoff only) INOPERATIVE (3) Up to 1700 ft above takeoff altitude (1) Lower than 9700 ft (2)

ENGINE FADEC

MODE ALT T/O-1 T/O-1 or T/O RSV

A1P

ALL

A1E

ALL

ALT T/O-1 T/O-1, Up to 1700 ft above E T/O, takeoff altitude (1) T/O RSV or E T/O RSV

Lower than 9700 ft (2)

NOTE: 1) TAT above 19C (66F) at sea level, decreasing linearly to 5C (23F) at 9700 ft. 2) The ECS OFF signal is activated for the Pack associated with the operating engine if the pressure altitude is lower than 9700 ft and TAT is above 19C at sea level, decreasing linearly to 5C at 9700 ft (area A in the following envelope). 3) A Low N1 condition (actual N1 does not achieve requested N1) is considered one engine inoperative.
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145AOM2140013.MCE

FADECS ECS OFF ENVELOPE The ECS OFF logic is valid only when the packs are using engine bleed. If APU bleed is being used, the ECS OFF logic is inhibited and the pack valves will not shut down. The FADECs discrete ECS OFF signal is not produced when using ALT-T/O-1 mode during takeoffs with all engines operative. If a FADEC commands its associated pack to close, through the ECS OFF signal, the pilot must reset the pack when the conditions for the automatic shut down of the pack cease to exist, i.e., an automatic restart of the pack does not exist. For airplanes S/N 145462, 145516, 145591, 145644 and on, the packs are automatically reset when the conditions for the ECS OFF signal cease to exist. When both packs are automatically reset, pack 2 will be commanded to open 10 seconds after pack 1 opening, to avoid passenger discomfort due to packs return. 2- During reverse use: The ECS OFF signal is always activated during reverse use.

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CROSS BLEED VALVE OPERATIONAL LOGIC The Cross-Bleed Valve (CBV) receives an electrical input to open when the following conditions occur: Essential DC Bus 2 is energized; There is no leakage along the pneumatic system ducting or a massive leakage in the Rear Electronic Compartment; and Cross-Bleed Knob is set to OPEN; or Cross-Bleed Knob is set to AUTO and one of the following conditions occurs: Horizontal Stabilizer Anti-Icing System is operating; or Engine 2 is starting; or Engine 1 is starting assisted by engine 2 or external pneumatic source (with APU Bleed Valve manually commanded to the close position).

EICAS MESSAGES
TYPE MESSAGE PACK 1 (2) OVLD MEANING Associated ECU compressor temperature above 243C (470F) or ECU inlet pressure above 55 psig. Associated ECU outlet temperature above 93C (200F). Disagreement between associated valve actual position and commanded position. Left pack valve closed with no icing condition, or Left pack valve closed with airplane above 24600 ft. Right pack valve closed.

PACK 1 (2) OVHT CAUTION PACK 1 (2) VLV FAIL RAM AIR VLV FAIL

PACK 1 VLV CLSD ADVISORY PACK 2 VLV CLSD

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CONTROLS AND INDICATORS AIR CONDITIONING AND PNEUMATIC CONTROL PANEL


1 - COCKPIT TEMPERATURE AND MODE SELECTOR KNOB PRESSED - Controls the left pack in automatic mode through the Digital Temperature Controller. The cockpit temperature may be set between 18C (65F) and 29C (85F). PULLED - Controls the left pack in manual mode through the temperature control module. No temperature range is established. 2 - PASSENGER CABIN TEMPERATURE AND MODE SELECTOR KNOB PRESSED - Controls the right pack in automatic mode through the Digital Temperature Controller. The passenger cabin temperature may be set between 18C (65F) and 29C (85F). PULLED - Controls the right pack in manual mode through the manual mode circuit in the temperature control module. No temperature range is established. ATTD - The passenger cabin temperature control is transferred to the attendants panel in automatic mode only. 3 - RECIRCULATION BUTTON Turns on (pressed) or turns off (released) both recirculation fans. A striped bar illuminates inside the button to indicate that it is released. 4 - AIR CONDITIONING PACK BUTTON Opens (pressed) or closes (released) the Pressure Regulating and Shutoff Valve of the associated ECU. A striped bar illuminates inside the button to indicate that it is released.

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5 - GASPER BUTTON Turns on (pressed) or turns off (released) the gasper fan inflight only. A striped bar illuminates inside the button to indicate that it is released. On ground, the gasper fan is turned on as soon as the associated DC Bus is energized. 6 - CROSS-BLEED KNOB CLOSED- Closes the Cross-bleed Valve. AUTO - Selects automatic operation mode of the Cross-bleed Valve. OPEN - Opens the Cross-bleed Valve. 7 - BLEED AIR BUTTON Opens (pressed) or closes (released) the associated Engine Bleed Valve. A striped bar illuminates inside the button to indicate that it is released. A LEAK inscription illuminates inside the button to indicate a duct leakage in the associated bleed line. The LEAK inscription is not available on some airplanes. 8 - APU BLEED BUTTON Opens (pressed) or closes (released) the APU Bleed Valve. A striped bar illuminates inside the button to indicate that it is pressed. An OPEN inscription illuminates inside the button to indicate that the APU Bleed Valve is in the open position.

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ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM (ECS) AND PNEUMATIC PAGE ON MFD


1 - PASSENGER CABIN TEMPERATURE INDICATION Indicates the temperature inside the passenger cabin. Digits are green. Legends are white. Ranges from 10 to 50C (14 to 122F). 2 - COCKPIT TEMPERATURE INDICATION Indicates the temperature inside the cockpit. Digits are green. Legends are white. Ranges from 10 to 50C (14 to 122F). 3 - BLEED TEMPERATURE INDICATION Indicates the bleed air temperature downstream of the precooler on the left and right engine. Scale and Pointer: White for the scale, below 260C (500F) to indicate potentially low thermal energy availability to the anti-icing system. Amber for the pointer, only if the pointer is in the white band of the scale and the message BLD 1 (2) LOW TEMP is shown on EICAS. If the pointer is in the white band of the scale and the message BLD 1 (2) LOW TEMP is not presented in the EICAS, the pointer will be green. Green from 260 to 305C (500 to 581F) to indicate the acceptable range. Red above 305C (581F) to indicate an overtemperature condition. In case of an outlet temperature sensor failure, the respective pointer is removed from the vertical temperature bar.

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GALLEY CONTROL PANEL


1 - CABIN TEMPERATURE INDICATION Indicates the cabin temperature in bargraph format. 2 - CABIN TEMPERATURE CONTROL Increase or decrease the cabin temperature through the s and t keys.

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PRESSURIZATION SYSTEM
The Cabin Pressure Control System (CPCS) controls the cabin pressure by regulating the cabin air exhaust rate supplied by the ECUs. The CPCS comprises two subsystems: - One digital electropneumatic subsystem (automatic mode). - One pneumatic subsystem (manual mode). The Cabin Pressure Control System comprises a digital controller, a manual controller, an electropneumatic outflow valve, a pneumatic outflow valve, an air filter, two pressure regulator valves, an ejector pump, two static ports, and a Cabin Pressure Acquisition Module (CPAM). Both outflow valves receive static pressure signals from static ports for overpressure relief and negative pressure relief functions, actuating pneumatic devices to inhibit airplane structural damage or injury in case of improper system operation. The safety devices provide the following features: Airplanes up to S/N 854 and Pre-Mod. SB 145LEG-00-0007: Positive cabin differential pressure relief: 8.4 psi maximum. Negative cabin differential pressure relief: - 0.3 psi. Cabin altitude limitation (when in the auto mode): 15000 ft maximum. Airplanes S/N 863 and on or Post-Mod. SB 145LEG-00-0007: Positive cabin differential pressure relief: 8.6 psi maximum. Negative cabin differential pressure relief: - 0.3 psi. Cabin altitude limitation (when in the auto mode): 15000 ft maximum. The system is normally operated in the automatic mode. The manual mode is used in case of automatic mode failure. The cabin air filter is provided to prevent nicotine and dust to enter the outflow valve chamber. Indications of cabin altitude, cabin differential pressure, and cabin altitude rate of change are presented on the EICAS. A caution message is presented on the EICAS in case of automatic mode failure, requiring the crew to select the manual mode.

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The CPAM and CPCS have internal tolerances of 100 ft and 200 ft, respectively. Then, depending on these tolerances accumulation, the displayed cabin altitude may be increased up to 300 ft. If, however, the cabin altitude indication continuously increases and the system is out of its normal range of operation, causing a cabin depressurization, the CPAM sends a signal to the aural warning system to alert the crew when cabin altitude is above 9900 100 ft.

OPERATION IN AUTOMATIC MODE


The automatic mode maintains minimum cabin altitude according to the airplane operating altitude, imposing minimum cabin altitude rate of change. The automatic mode is controlled by the digital controller and requires a landing altitude to be entered prior to takeoff. According to the landing altitude, the measured cabin pressure, ADC inputs (airplane altitude, altitude rate of change and barometric correction), air/ground position, and thrust lever position, the digital controller determines the adequate opening of the electropneumatic outflow valve. On airplanes up to S/N 854 and Pre-Mod. SB 145LEG-00-0007, the pneumatic outflow valve is slaved to the electropneumatic outflow valve and both operate simultaneously, maintaining the same position while in the automatic mode. On airplanes S/N 863 and on or Post-Mod. SB 145LEG-00-0007, during the operation on the automatic mode only the electropneumatic outflow valve is actuated, being the pneumatic outflow valve closed. Different operation sequences are automatically initiated by the Digital Controller following the received inputs. The Digital Controller schedules a cabin altitude that is the value that the measured cabin altitude must be equal to. Cabin altitude rate of change varies according to the different operation sequences.

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PNEUMATICS AIR CONDITIONING AND PRESSURIZATION

Proper operation of the pressurization system in the automatic mode requires that the following conditions be met: Automatic mode is selected on the Digital Controller (button not pressed and MAN inscription not illuminated). The pressurization system is in the automatic mode when electrical power is first applied. Landing altitude is entered in the Digital Controller prior to the takeoff. Should the landing altitude not be entered, the system will automatically consider 8000 ft as the landing altitude. Manual Controller is set to DN position (full counterclockwise). If the Manual Controller is out of the DN position, the pneumatic valve tends to open causing inappropriate automatic mode operation. DETERMINATION OF THE THEORETICAL CABIN ALTITUDE The theoretical cabin altitude is a function of the airplane operating altitude. It is calculated in such a way that the maximum cabin differential pressure is reached at the lowest possible airplane altitude considering a minimum cabin altitude rate of climb and a maximum airplane rate of climb. The maximum cabin differential pressure is 8.1 psi for airplanes up to S/N 854 and Pre-Mod. SB 145LEG-00-0007 and 8.4 psi for airplanes S/N 863 and on or Post-Mod. SB 145LEG-00-0007.

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

CABIN PRESSURE CONTROL SYSTEM SCHEMATIC APPLICABLE TO AIRPLANES UP TO S/N 854 AND PRE-MOD. SB 145LEG-00-0007
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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

PNEUMATICS AIR CONDITIONING AND PRESSURIZATION

CABIN PRESSURE CONTROL SYSTEM SCHEMATIC APPLICABLE TO AIRPLANES S/N 863 AND ON OR POST-MOD. SB 145LEG-00-0007
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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

AUTOMATIC PREPRESSURIZATION SEQUENCE ON GROUND This sequence is initiated and maintained as long as the airplane is on the ground and the thrust lever is set to THRUST SET position or above. For airplanes up to S/N 854 and Pre-Mod. SB 145LEG-00-0007, it causes the cabin altitude to descend toward an altitude equivalent to 400 ft (0.2 psi) below the takeoff altitude. For airplanes S/N 863 and on or Post-Mod. SB 145LEG-00-0007, it causes the cabin altitude to descend toward an altitude equivalent to 750 ft (0.4 psi) below the takeoff altitude. The purpose of the automatic pre-pressurization is to avoid cabin bumps due to the irregular airflow on the fuselage during rotation and takeoff and also to keep a controlled cabin altitude just after rotation, as the cabin altitude tends to follow the airplane altitude. In the case of takeoff with air conditioning supply, the cabin altitude is controlled with an altitude rate of descent equal to 450 ft/min. In the case of takeoff without air conditioning supply, the outflow valves are closed, also avoiding cabin bump. TAKEOFF SEQUENCE This sequence is initiated after the airplane leaves the ground with the purpose of avoiding reselecting the landing altitude, in case it is necessary to return to the takeoff airport. For airplanes up to S/N 854 and Pre-Mod. SB 145LEG-00-0007, it causes the cabin altitude to continue descending towards the altitude equivalent to 400 ft below the takeoff altitude. If an altitude of 400 ft below the takeoff altitude has already been reached during the pre-pressurization sequence, the cabin altitude does not change. For airplanes S/N 863 and on or Post-Mod. SB 145LEG-00-0007, it causes the cabin altitude to continue descending towards the altitude equivalent to 750 ft below the takeoff altitude. If an altitude of 750 ft below the takeoff altitude has already been reached during the pre-pressurization sequence, the cabin altitude does not change. The takeoff sequence lasts until the theoretical cabin altitude becomes greater than the actual cabin altitude, or until 15 minutes have elapsed since the sequence initiation, whichever occurs first.

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL FLIGHT SEQUENCE

PNEUMATICS AIR CONDITIONING AND PRESSURIZATION

This sequence is initiated after the takeoff sequence is finished, to establish a cabin altitude and a cabin altitude rate of change during flight. For airplanes up to S/N 854 and Pre-Mod. SB 145LEG-00-0007, the Digital Controller schedules a cabin altitude that is the greatest value between the theoretical cabin altitude and the selected landing altitude minus 300 ft. For airplanes S/N 863 and on or Post-Mod. SB 145LEG-00-0007, the Digital Controller schedules a cabin altitude that is the greatest value between the theoretical cabin altitude and the selected landing altitude minus 650 ft. The cabin altitude rate of change is controlled at different values depending on the scheduled cabin altitude and the airplane vertical speed, but is limited to 450 ft/min during descent and 700 ft/min while climbing. Barometric correction, when required, is automatically provided by the Air Data Computer (ADC).

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

AUTOMATIC MODE OPERATION SCHEMATIC APPLICABLE TO AIRPLANES UP TO S/N 854 AND PRE-MOD. SB 145LEG-00-0007
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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

PNEUMATICS AIR CONDITIONING AND PRESSURIZATION

AUTOMATIC MODE OPERATION SCHEMATIC APPLICABLE TO AIRPLANES S/N 863 AND ON OR POST-MOD. SB 145LEG-00-0007
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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

AUTOMATIC INCREASED RATE OF DESCENT SEQUENCE This sequence is initiated when the airplane descent rate is greater than 200 ft/min, in order to satisfy all airplane rapid descent cases. The cabin altitude rate of change limits may be accordingly increased, depending on the remaining flight time which is calculated considering the airplane operating altitude, airplane vertical speed and the selected landing altitude. Therefore, the cabin altitude rate of descent limit may be increased to a value between 450 ft/min and 500 ft/min. In case the selected landing altitude is higher than 8000 ft, the cabin altitude rate of descent limit may be increased to a value between +700 ft/min and +1500 ft/min. AUTOMATIC DEPRESSURIZATION SEQUENCE ON GROUND This sequence is initiated when the airplane is on the ground and the thrust lever is in the IDLE position. To avoid a cabin bump during the landing, it is necessary that the airplane land with the cabin being submitted to a small differential pressure. For that reason, the automatic mode always controls, for landing, a cabin altitude equal to the selected landing altitude minus 300 ft (for airplanes up to S/N 854 and Pre-Mod. SB 145LEG-00-0007) or 650 ft (for airplanes S/N 863 and on or Post-Mod. SB 145LEG-00-0007). This sequence cancels this differential pressure corresponding to 300 ft or 650 ft, as well as reduces cabin bump when the air conditioning is turned off or the main door is open. Cabin depressurization is controlled at a rate of climb equal to 650 ft/min, up to the full opening of the outflow valves. In automatic mode, the rapid cabin depressurization is commanded by the Dump Button.

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PNEUMATICS AIR CONDITIONING AND PRESSURIZATION

OPERATION IN MANUAL MODE


Manual operation is accomplished through the manual controller which actuates only the pneumatic outflow valve, while the electropneumatic outflow valve is kept closed, by selecting MAN in the Pressurization Mode Selector Button and rotating the Manual Controller until the desired cabin rate of change is reached. The crew is responsible for monitoring cabin differential pressure within acceptable values. In manual mode, the DUMP button is not effective and a rapid cabin depressurization is commanded by turning the manual controller to the UP position (clockwise stop). In this mode, the cabin altitude limitation at 15000 ft does not exist as it does in the automatic mode.

EICAS MESSAGE
TYPE CAUTION MESSAGE PRESN AUTO FAIL MEANING Automatic pressurization mode failure.

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


DIGITAL CONTROLLER 1 - LANDING ALTITUDE INDICATOR Displays the selected landing altitude. Displays a failure code if any failure is detected during power-up and continuous monitoring tests . In this case, the selection of the landing altitude is disabled. Successful power-up test is displayed (all light segments illuminated) until a landing altitude is selected. Displays blanks when Dump button or Mode Selector Button is pressed. 2 - LANDING ALTITUDE SELECTOR SWITCH Sets the landing altitude in the Landing Altitude Indicator. Altitude changes in 100-ft steps. Holding the selector for more than 5 seconds changes the altitude in a 1000 ft/sec rate. Landing altitude setting from 1500 ft to +14000 ft. 3 - PRESSURIZATION MODE SELECTOR BUTTON (guarded) Provides selection of either automatic mode (button released) or manual mode (button pressed) of operation. When pressed, the MAN inscription illuminates inside the button. NOTE: In case of electrical failure that leads to the complete turning off of the automatic mode turning off, manual mode should be selected by pressing the Pressurization Mode Selector Button, but the MAN inscription will not be illuminated. 4 - PRESSURIZATION DUMP BUTTON (guarded) Provides rapid cabin depressurization up to 14500 ft. When pressed, an ON inscription illuminates inside the button. This button is effective in the automatic mode only. MANUAL CONTROLLER KNOB Selects cabin rate of change between 1500 ft/min (at DN position) and approximately + 2500 ft/min (at UP position), when in the manual operating mode. When operating in the AUTO mode, it must be set to the DN position.
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PNEUMATICS AIR CONDITIONING AND PRESSURIZATION

PRESSURIZATION CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

PRESSURIZATION INDICATION ON EICAS


AIRPLANES UP TO S/N 854 AND PRE-MOD. SB 145LEG-00-0007 1 - CABIN ALTITUDE INDICATION Displays cabin altitudes, regardless of the operating mode. Ranges from 1500 to 39000 ft, with a resolution of 100 ft. Green: from 1500 to 8300 ft. Amber: from 8400 to 9900 ft. Red: from 10000 to 39000 ft. 2 - DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE INDICATION Displays the differential pressure between the cabin interior and the outside, regardless of the operating mode. Ranges from 0.5 to 10.0 psi, with a resolution of 0.1 psi. Green: from 0.0 to 8.2 psi. Amber: from 0.3 to 0.1 psi and from 8.3 to 8.6 psi. Red: from 0.5 to 0.4 psi and from 8.7 to 10.0 psi. 3 - CABIN RATE OF CHANGE INDICATION Displays the cabin rate of change, regardless of the operating mode. Ranges from 2000 to 2000 ft/min, with a resolution of 50 ft/min. Green full range. For rates out of range the indication is replaced by amber dashes.

PRESSURIZATION INDICATION ON EICAS


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PNEUMATICS AIR CONDITIONING AND PRESSURIZATION

AIRPLANES S/N 863 AND ON OR POST-MOD. SB 145LEG-00-0007 1 - CABIN ALTITUDE INDICATION Displays cabin altitudes, regardless of the operating mode. Ranges from 1500 to 41000 ft, with a resolution of 100 ft. Green: from 1500 to 8300 ft. Amber: from 8400 to 9900 ft. Red: from 10000 to 41000 ft. 2 - DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE INDICATION Displays the differential pressure between the cabin interior and the outside, regardless of the operating mode. Ranges from 0.5 to 10.0 psi, with a resolution of 0.1 psi. Green: from 0.0 to 8.5 psi. Amber: from 0.3 to 0.1 psi and from 8.6 to 8.9 psi. Red: from 0.5 to 0.4 psi and from 9.0 to 10.0 psi. 3 - CABIN RATE OF CHANGE INDICATION Displays the cabin rate of change, regardless of the operating mode. Ranges from 2000 to 2000 ft/min, with a resolution of 50 ft/min. Green full range. For rates out of range the indication is replaced by amber dashes.

PRESSURIZATION INDICATION ON EICAS


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PNEUMATICS AIR CONDITIONING AND PRESSURIZATION

ELECTRONIC BAY COOLING SYSTEM


FORWARD ELECTRONIC BAY
An automatic cooling system is provided in the nose electronic bay, where most of the electronic equipment is installed. This system maintains the temperature inside the bay within the avionics operational limits. The system comprises two NACA air inlets, two shutoff valves, two recirculation fans, two exhaust fans, two check valves, four control thermostats, and two overtemperature thermostats. The NACA air inlets are provided with water separators and drains to deter water ingestion by the air inlets into the compartment. All the fans are powered by four dedicated Inverter Modules. When the airplane is energized, the inverter modules are turned on, supplying power to the recirculation fans. The electrical power supply to the recirculation fan 2, exhaust fan 1 and shutoff valve 1 is completely segregated from the remaining components, to prevent a total loss of the system in case of an electrical system single failure. Each recirculation fan operates continuously when its associated bar is energized. A check valve is installed on each exhaust duct (left and right) to avoid water ingestion through the exhaust fans. If the forward electronic bay internal temperature exceeds 24C (75F) the control thermostats open the shutoff valves and turn the exhaust fans on. When the temperature drops below 19C (66F), the shutoff valves are closed and the exhaust fans are turned off. In the event that the temperature limit is reached, two overtemperature thermostats are actuated and a caution message is presented on the EICAS.

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

REAR ELECTRONIC BAY


In flight or during operation with the doors closed, rear electronic bay cooling is performed by conditioned air discharged from the cabin. When this air flows from the underfloor area to the outflow valves, installed on the rear pressure bulkhead, it passes through this compartment, cooling it. During ground operation, with the airplane unpressurized, an air outlet blows air from the gasper fan line towards the rear electronic bay.

EICAS MESSAGE
MESSAGE MEANING ELEKBAY OVTEMP Temperature inside the forward bay CAUTION exceeds 71C (160F) maximum. TYPE

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FORWARD ELECTRONIC BAY COOLING SCHEMATIC

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BAGGAGE VENTILATION SYSTEM


Airplanes equipped with class-C baggage compartment have a Baggage Ventilation System installed. Although no dedicated temperature control is available (the class-C baggage compartment is heated by the passenger cabin air flowing into it), the Baggage Ventilation System provides an adequate environment for carrying live animals in the compartment. The Baggage Ventilation System is composed of two ambient check valves and a baggage compartment fan. Whenever the recirculation fan is off, the forward check valve prevents reverse flow into the baggage compartment and the two check valves prevent smoke or fire extinguishing agent penetration into the passenger cabin or into the rear electronic compartment, (refer to Section 2-7 - Fire Protection).

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

AUTOPILOT

SECTION 2-19 AUTOPILOT


TABLE OF CONTENTS Block Page

General ............................................................................2-19-05.....01 Automatic Flight Control System......................................2-19-05.....02 Flight Guidance System ...................................................2-19-05.....04 Flight Director ...............................................................2-19-05.....04 Autopilot........................................................................2-19-05.....04 Flight Director Modes .......................................................2-19-10.....01 Lateral Modes...............................................................2-19-10.....01 Heading Hold Mode ..................................................2-19-10.....01 Heading Select Mode (HDG) ....................................2-19-10.....02 VOR NAV Mode (VOR) ............................................2-19-10.....03 VOR Approach Mode (VAPP)...................................2-19-10.....04 Localizer Mode (LOC/BC).........................................2-19-10.....04 LNAV Mode ..............................................................2-19-10.....05 Vertical Modes..............................................................2-19-10.....06 Pitch Hold Mode........................................................2-19-10.....06 Altitude Hold Mode (ALT) .........................................2-19-10.....06 Altitude Preselect Mode (ASEL) ...............................2-19-10.....07 Flight Level Change Mode (FLC)..............................2-19-10.....07 Speed Hold Mode (SPD) ..........................................2-19-10.....10 Vertical Speed Hold Mode (VS) ................................2-19-10.....11 Glide Slope Mode (GS).............................................2-19-10.....12 Go Around Mode ......................................................2-19-10.....13 Windshear Escape Guidance Mode .........................2-19-10.....15 Autopilot Disengagement .................................................2-19-10.....16 EICAS Messages .............................................................2-19-15.....01 Controls and Indicators ....................................................2-19-15.....01 Flight Guidance Controller............................................2-19-15.....01 Pitch and Turn Controller..............................................2-19-15.....04 Control Wheel...............................................................2-19-15.....05 Thrust Levers ...............................................................2-19-15.....07 Display Controller .........................................................2-19-15.....08 PFD Indicators..............................................................2-19-15.....10 EICAS Indicators ..........................................................2-19-15.....16

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Category II Approach....................................................... 2-19-20 .... 01 Category II Conditions ................................................. 2-19-20 .... 01 Localizer Excessive Deviation Warning................... 2-19-20 .... 02 Glideslope Excessive Deviation Warning ................ 2-19-20 .... 02 Controls and Indicators ................................................... 2-19-20 .... 02 PFD Indicators ............................................................. 2-19-20 .... 02

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REVISION 2

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

AUTOPILOT

GENERAL
The Primus 1000 (P-1000) Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) is a fully integrated, fail passive three-axis flight control system which incorporates lateral and vertical guidance, yaw damper and automatic pitch trim functions.

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM


The Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) consists of dual IC-600s, autopilot servos, a flight guidance controller (GC-550), a pitch and turn controller (PC-400) and a display controller (DC-550), as follows: IC-600 computer - The primary component of the Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS). Controls the symbol generator, monitors, flight director and autopilot. Only the IC-600 #1 incorporates the autopilot functions. FLIGHT GUIDANCE CONTROLLER (GC-550) - Consists of a panel that allows control of both Flight Director systems and autopilot functions. The GC-550 provides means for engaging the autopilot and the yaw damper, selecting the flight director modes and the flight director coupling. The Flight Guidance Controller also provides the means for the remote selection of course, heading, vertical speed target, indicated airspeed target, Mach targets and preselected altitude. PITCH AND TURN CONTROLLER (PC-400) - Consists of a panel with a Turn Control Knob and a Pitch Control Wheel. These controls allow the pilot to manually maneuver the airplane with the autopilot engaged. DISPLAY CONTROLLER PANEL (DC-550) - The DC is used to select various features on the PFD. These include Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) formats, navigation sources, weather display and bearing pointer selection. The Automatic Flight Control System interfaces with the following systems: INERTIAL REFERENCE SYSTEM (IRS): provides pitch, roll and acceleration information to the autopilot system via IC-600-1. RADIO MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: provides navigation data to the IC-600, including short range navigation data, VOR bearings, ILS approach data, marker beacon tone detection and transmission, DME features and ADF.

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AIR DATA COMPUTERS (ADCs): supply pressure altitude, barometrically corrected altitude, true airspeed, calibrated airspeed, vertical speed, Mach number, static air temperature and total air temperature to both IC-600. RADIO ALTIMETER SYSTEM: provides radio altitude, low altitude awareness and decision height information on the PFD. STALL PROTECTION SYSTEM: provides sensitive, visual and aural indications of an impending stall. If a stall condition is near to occur, the system actuates the stick shaker, disengages the autopilot and, if necessary, actuates the stick pusher. ENHANCED GROUND PROXIMITY WARNING SYSTEM (EGPWS/GPWS): receives, from IC-600-1, the glideslope deviation, localizer deviation, selected decision height, selected course, packed discrete and selected terrain range. ELECTRONIC FLIGHT INSTRUMENT SYSTEM (EFIS): present information to the flight crew. Consists of two Primary Flight Displays (PFD), two multi function displays (MFD) and one EICAS display. HORIZONTAL STABILIZER CONTROL UNIT (HSCU): provides, to both IC-600 #1 and #2, the horizontal stabilizer position. It also receives, from IC-600, the autopilot command, when the autopilot is engaged, and the amount of trim demanded. AURAL WARNING UNIT (AWU): receives signal from the autopilot, generates the appropriate messages and tones and send the audio signal to the Audio Digital System, which routes the messages to the speakers. FLAP ELECTRONIC CONTROL UNIT (FECU): moves the inboard and outboard flap panels and sends flap position signal to the autopilot system. FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (FMS): provides high accuracy in long range lateral navigation.

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FLIGHT GUIDANCE SYSTEM


The Flight Guidance System may perform three separate functions: the Flight Director, Autopilot and Autopilot Monitoring.

FLIGHT DIRECTOR
The Flight Director function provides pitch and roll attitude commands based on data from a variety of sensors, including attitude, heading, air data, radio altimeter, navigation and pilot inputs. These attitude commands are sent to the PFD for pilot display, to the autopilot for automatic airplane control and to the autopilot monitors.

AUTOPILOT
The autopilot provides yaw stabilization and follows pitch and roll attitude commands from the flight director. The autopilot/yaw damper monitors continuously check autopilot functions and operation. In case of failure, they are capable of disengaging the autopilot and yaw damper, independent of the autopilot processor hardware.

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AUTOFLIGHT SYSTEM SCHEMATIC

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FLIGHT DIRECTOR MODES


Flight Director mode selection is accomplished through the Flight Guidance Controller. Each mode selector button is illuminated for the armed and captured mode. Also, each active mode is annunciated on the PFD display and this annunciation makes the distinction between armed and captured modes. The various modes may be divided into two categories: Lateral and Vertical modes.

LATERAL MODES
Lateral modes are those modes related to heading or roll control. They normally provide commands based on navigation sources. HEADING HOLD MODE Heading Hold mode is the default Flight Director mode when no other lateral mode is selected. The Heading Hold mode provides roll commands to maintain the heading at the moment of mode engagement. Once this mode is selected, the heading reference is established one second after the system detects a bank angle of less than 6. A bank angle command of zero degrees is used (wings level) until the heading reference is established. The ROL green label is displayed on the PFD to indicate the mode is engaged. Only the pilots side primary heading is used by this mode. If this data is invalid, the Wings Level submode is used. The Heading Hold mode is divided into Roll Hold submode, Turn Knob submode and Wings Level submode. ROLL HOLD SUBMODE The Roll Hold submode is entered from Heading Hold mode, with the autopilot engaged, by using the Touch Control Steering Button (TCS) to manually fly the airplane to a bank angle greater than 6. The system maintains the bank angle at the time the TCS button is released. Roll Hold submode may be canceled by either manually flying the airplane to less than 6 with the TCS button, by moving the Turn Control Knob out of detent or by selecting another lateral mode. This mode is annunciated on the PFD by the ROL green label.

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TURN KNOB SUBMODE The Turn Knob submode allows the pilot to generate a roll attitude command manually with the Turn Control Knob. Moving the Turn Control Knob out of detent, with the autopilot engaged, cancels all other lateral modes including Heading Hold mode in both Flight Directors. When the Turn Control Knob is out of detent, the autopilot will maintain a roll attitude proportional to the displacement of the knob. The autopilot will revert back to Heading Hold mode when the turn knob is placed in the detent position. Turn Knob submode is annunciated on the PFD by the ROL green label when out of detent and the autopilot is engaged. When the autopilot is disengaged and the Turn Control Knob is out of detent, the TKNB label is displayed in the PFD and the autopilot engagement is inhibited. WINGS LEVEL SUBMODE The Wings Level submode provides a roll command of 0. This mode is active in the Go Around mode, Windshear mode or if the primary heading data is invalid. Therefore, this mode is available even if either attitude source is invalid. This mode is annunciated on the PFD by the ROL green label. HEADING SELECT MODE (HDG) The HDG mode is selected by pressing the HDG button on the flight guidance controller or by arming LOC, VOR, VAPP, or BC. This mode allows the Flight Director to track the EHSI heading bug, as set by the heading select knob. The Heading Select mode is annunciated on the PFD by the green HDG label. The mode will be inhibited by the following conditions: Turn Control Knob out of detent with autopilot engaged. Displayed heading invalid. The mode will be canceled if any of the following conditions occur: Pressing the HDG button. Changing the displayed heading source on the PFD. LOC & BC mode capture. VOR & VAPP capture. Pressing the Go Around button.
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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL LOW BANK MODE

AUTOPILOT

The Low Bank mode allows the pilot to select reduced bank angle for the HDG mode. Bank angle limit will be reduced from 27 to 14 whenever this mode is active. The mode is selected by pressing the BNK button in the Flight Guidance Controller. This mode is annunciated only while the Heading Select mode is active, but remains selected if Heading Select mode is deactivated, being reactivated and annunciated if Heading mode is selected again. The Low Bank mode is automatically selected when climbing above 25000 ft and automatically canceled when descending below 24750 ft. VOR NAV MODE (VOR) The VOR NAV mode allows automatic capture and tracking of both inbound and outbound VOR radials. The VOR mode is selected by pressing the NAV button in the Flight Guidance Controller, with VOR selected on the PFD. Upon selection of VOR NAV mode, the HDG select mode will automatically be engaged. This triggers the green HDG annunciation on the PFD in conjunction with an armed white VOR NAV annunciation, also on the PFD. At the proper time, based on course error and beam deviation, the capture of VOR mode will cancel the HDG selected mode. The mode will be canceled or inhibited if any of the following conditions occur: Pressing the NAV button. Selecting VAPP or HDG modes. Changing the displayed NAV source on the PFD. Changing the displayed heading source on the PFD. When the displayed heading is invalid. When the displayed NAV source is invalid for more than 5 seconds. Pressing the Go Around Button. Turn Control Knob out of detent with autopilot engaged.

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AUTOPILOT

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

VOR APPROACH MODE (VAPP) The VOR Approach mode provides the same capabilities as the VOR NAV mode, with higher gain for operation close to the station. It is recommended to select VAPP mode only on the final approach segment. Therefore, the outbound segment should be flown using some other mode. This mode is selected by pressing the APR button on the Flight Guidance Controller, with VOR displayed on the PFD. This mode is canceled or inhibited by the same conditions as the VOR NAV mode. Selecting VOR Approach mode, the HDG select mode will automatically be engaged providing the green HDG annunciation on the PFD in conjunction with the armed VOR approach and white NAV annunciation, also on the PFD. LOCALIZER MODES (LOC/BC) The Localizer Modes allow automatic capture and tracking of localizer transmitters. Both front course (LOC) and back course (BC) approaches are supported. The back course approach operates similar to the front course approach, except that the beam deviation is inverted, allowing the system to approach the runway 180 from the front-course. Select the Localizer mode by pressing the NAV or APR buttons on the flight guidance controller with ILS as the selected navigation source. In this case, the HDG select mode is automatically selected and the localizer is armed. On an ILS approach, when the localizer is armed and the APR button is pressed, the Glide Slope is also armed. The localizer mode captures are based on course error and beam deviation. At the point of capture, the current armed mode (LOC or BC) is selected and locked, while HDG select mode is canceled. The LOC mode capture or BC mode capture is annunciated on the PFD by a green LOC or green BC label, respectively. After captured, the mode will be canceled or inhibited if any of the following conditions occur: Pressing the NAV or APR buttons. Selecting HDG mode. Changing the displayed NAV source on the PFD. Changing the displayed heading source on the PFD. When the displayed heading is invalid.
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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

AUTOPILOT

When the displayed NAV source is invalid for more than 5 seconds. When the displayed Glide Slope deviation is invalid for more than 5 seconds, with GS mode captured. When the on-side attitude is invalid. When the selected air data source is invalid. Pressing Go Around button. Turn Control Knob out of detent with autopilot engaged. LNAV MODE The LNAV mode allows the Flight Director to capture and track the roll steering signal from the long range navigation system (FMS/GPS). With FMS selected on the PFD, select LNAV mode by pressing the NAV button on the Flight Guidance Controller. This mode will automatically engage HDG select mode, triggering a green HDG annunciation on the PFD in conjunction with a white LNAV annunciation, also on the PFD. The mode will be canceled or inhibited if any of the following conditions occur: Pressing the NAV button. Selecting HDG mode. Changing the displayed NAV source on the PFD. Changing the displayed heading source on the PFD. When the displayed heading is invalid. When the lateral steering command is invalid. Pressing the Go Around button. Turn Control Knob out of detent with autopilot engaged.

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

VERTICAL MODES
Vertical modes are those modes related to pitch control. Due to the necessity of maintaining the wings leveled during Go Around, this vertical maneuver may also be considered as a lateral mode. PITCH HOLD MODE The Pitch Hold mode is the default mode that controls the airplane when no other Flight Director mode is selected. The Pitch Hold mode is synchronized to the existing pitch attitude and provides an error signal to the command bars and autopilot function. By pressing the Touch Control Steering Button (TCS), the pilot may manually change the pitch attitude and then allow the system to resynchronize to the new attitude when the button is released. Should the autopilot be engaged and the Flight Director is in the pitch hold mode, pitch attitude reference can be changed by rotating the pitch control wheel on the pitch and turn controller. The pitch control wheel allows continuous variable rates and amplitudes of the pitch reference. A PIT label is displayed on the PFD to indicate mode engaged. ALTITUDE HOLD MODE (ALT) The Altitude Hold mode generates an altitude error signal from a reference altitude and provides a pitch command, which allows the autopilot to maintain altitude. The Altitude Hold mode is selected by pressing the ALT button on the Flight Guidance Controller or can also be activated automatically by the altitude preselect mode. This mode is annunciated on the PFD by the ALT label. The mode will be canceled or inhibited if any of the following conditions occur: Pressing the ALT button. Selecting VS, FLC, or SPD modes. Glide slope capture. When the air data is invalid. Pressing the Go Around Button. Pitch control wheel moved with autopilot engaged.

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL ALTITUDE PRESELECT MODE (ASEL)

AUTOPILOT

The Altitude Preselect mode provides means for the system to climb or descend to a predetermined altitude and then level off and maintain the preselected altitude. Preselected altitude is set through the ASEL knob on the Flight Guidance Controller and is displayed on the top right corner of the PFD. This mode is annunciated by the white ASEL label on the PFD. Pitch Hold, Speed Hold or Vertical Speed Hold must be used to climb or descend towards the preselected altitude or Flight Level Change (FLC). The ASEL mode will arm automatically if the airplane climbs or descends towards a preselected altitude. The ASEL mode will automatically capture and cancel any existing mode at the appropriate point based on preselected altitude error and vertical speed. The system will automatically switch to altitude hold mode after the airplane has leveled off at the selected altitude. The mode will be canceled and/or inhibited if any of the following conditions occur: Changing the preselected altitude. Selecting ALT, VS, FLC, or SPD modes. Glide slope capture. When the air data is invalid. Pressing the Go Around Button.

FLIGHT LEVEL CHANGE MODE (FLC) The Flight Level Change mode (FLC) provides means of climbing or descending to a preselected altitude at a pre-programmed schedule. When the preselected altitude is above the current altitude and the flight level change mode is selected, the Flight Director provides a speed command at the predetermined climb speed schedule. When the preselected altitude is below the current altitude and FLC is selected, the FD provides a command to descend at a determined rate of descent. The PFD will display the current IAS, Mach or vertical speed bug as appropriate and the target speed can be adjusted only by deselecting the flight level change mode. As the airplane approaches the preselected altitude, the Flight Director will cycle among ASEL ARM, ASEL CAP, and ALT HOLD to capture the preselected altitude.

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REVISION 2

2-19-10

7 01

AUTOPILOT

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

The following protections are provided with this mode: Maximum normal and longitudinal acceleration: 0.1 G. Maximum airspeed: VMO or MMO. System will maintain the preselected altitude. The Flight Level Change mode may be activated by selecting an altitude and pressing the FLC button in the Flight Guidance Controller. This mode is annunciated on the PFD by the CLB label, when following the IAS/MACH climb profile, or by the DES label when following a vertical descent profile of - 2000 ft/min. The mode will be canceled or inhibited if any of the following conditions occur: Pressing the FLC button. Changing the preselected altitude. Selecting ALT, VS, FLC, or SPD modes. Glide slope capture. When the air data is invalid. Pressing the Go Around Button.

DESCENT RATE SCHEDULE: For all EICAS versions: From 41000 ft to 12000 ft, the descent rate schedule is 2000 ft/min. From 12000 ft to 10000 ft the descent rate schedule is 2000 ft/min to 1000 ft/min. From 10000 ft and below the descent rate schedule is 1000 ft/min.

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2-19-10

8 01

REVISION 7

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL CLIMB RATE SCHEDULE:

AUTOPILOT

For airplanes equipped with EICAS versions up to 20.5, the climb rate schedule is presented in the chart below:
310

IAS = 290 kt
290 290

270 INDICATED AIRSPEED - kt

250 240 230

IAS = 240 kt

M = 0.65

210 197 190

170
135BJAOM03A - 12NOV2004

150 0 3000 6000 10000 12000 12000 15000 9000 21600 24000 18000 21000 ALTITUDE - ft 27000 30000 33000 36000 39000 39000

For airplanes equipped with EICAS versions 20.6 and on, the climb rate schedule is presented in the chart below:
300 290 280 270 270 260 INDICATED AIRSPEED - kt 250 240 240 230 220 210 200 197 190 188 180 170
135BJAOM03B - 12FEV2005

IAS = 270 kt

IAS = 240 kt

M = 0.65

160 150 0 3000 60008000 9000 14000 25051 12000 15000 18000 21000 24000 27000 30000 33000 3600039000 3900041000 ALTITUDE - ft

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REVISION 7

2-19-10

9 01

AUTOPILOT

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

SPEED HOLD MODE (SPD) The Speed Hold mode is used to maintain airspeed or Mach number while flying to a new altitude. Indicated airspeed should be used below 25000 ft and Mach number above 25100 ft. The Speed Hold mode is also designed to provide overspeed and underspeed protections. Speed hold mode is selected by pressing the SPD button on the Flight Guidance Controller. This mode is annunciated on the PFD by the SPD label, when maintaining IAS, or by the MACH label when maintaining Mach number. Selection of Speed Hold mode cancels other vertical modes, except the altitude preselect arm mode and Glide Slope arm mode. Speed Hold mode is automatically selected when the FLC button is pressed and the preselected altitude is above the current altitude. Different Speed Target can be selected by using the Speed Set knob in the Flight Guidance Controller. Pressing the SPD knob allows the pilot to toggle between IAS target and MACH target to set airspeed. The following protections are provided with this mode: Maximum normal acceleration: 0.1 G. Maximum normal acceleration on entering overspeed: 0.3 G. Maximum airspeed: VMO or MMO. Minimum airspeed: Shaker actuation speed. System will maintain the preselected altitude and airspeed. The mode will be canceled or inhibited if any of the following conditions occur: Pressing the SPD button. Selecting ALT, VS, or FLC modes. Altitude preselect capture. Glide slope capture. When air data is invalid. Pressing the Go Around Button.

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2-19-10

10 01

REVISION 7

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL VERTICAL SPEED HOLD MODE (VS)

AUTOPILOT

The Vertical Speed hold mode is used to maintain or to make changes to the vertical speed. The Vertical Speed hold mode ranges from - 6000 to + 6000 ft/min, with a resolution of 100 ft/min. The Vertical Speed Hold mode is selected by pressing the VS button on the Flight Guidance Controller or automatically, when FLC button is pressed and the preselected altitude is below the current altitude. This mode is annunciated on the PFD by the VS label. Selection of this mode cancels other vertical modes, except the altitude preselect arm and Glide Slope arm. Vertical speed may be changed by using the Speed Set knob, on the flight guidance controller. The following protections are provided with this mode: Maximum airspeed: VMO. Minimum airspeed: Shaker actuation speed. The mode will be canceled or inhibited if any of the following conditions occur: Pressing the VS button. Selecting ALT, SPD, or FLC modes. Altitude preselect capture. Glide slope capture. When air data is invalid. Pressing the Go Around Button.

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REVISION 7

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01

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

GLIDE SLOPE MODE (GS) The Glide Slope mode allows automatic capture and tracking to Glide Slope transmitters. Select Glide Slope mode by pressing the APR button with ILS as a navigation source. Selecting Glide Slope mode automatically arms GS (in conjuction with LOC). The PFD will display a white localizer LOC and a white Glide Slope GS annunciation. The localizer mode capture will occur with a green LOC annunciation on the PFD. The Glide Slope mode capture, with a green GS annunciation on the PFD, will occur only after Localizer mode has been captured. After captured, the GS mode will be canceled or inhibited if any of the following conditions occur: Pressing the APR or NAV buttons. Lost Localizer mode. Selecting ALT, SPD, VS, or FLC modes. Glide slope deviation invalid for a period greater than 5 seconds. Pressing the Go Around Button.

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2-19-10

12 01

REVISION 7

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL GO AROUND MODE TAKEOFF SUBMODE

AUTOPILOT

The Takeoff submode provides a wings level command and a fixed pitch up attitude command of 14 (for flaps at 9), which is indicated by the Flight Director command bars on the EADI. This mode is selected by pressing any of the Go Around buttons on the thrust levers and annunciated by the ROL label and TO label, both on the PFD. The Takeoff submode will be canceled if any of the following conditions occur: Pushing the TCS button. Selecting ALT, SPD, VS, or FLC mode. Transition to capture Altitude Preselect mode. Air data computer source selection is changed. The Takeoff submode is available on the ground with airspeed below 60 KIAS or in flight within 400 ft above the runway. The Go Around mode, as well as the Vertical Speed Control knob, will be inhibited while Takeoff submode is engaged. After reaching the 400 ft delta, pressing the Go Around button will engage the Go Around mode. Once the 400 ft boundary is crossed, the 400 ft delta requirement will be ignored, to avoid restricting any GA maneuvers later in the flight. If the autopilot is selected with the Takeoff submode engaged, this submode will drop into Pitch Hold mode and synchronize to the current attitude. The Takeoff submode will not be coupled to the autopilot, which may be used after climbing above the airplane Minimum Engagement Height (MEH). When the autopilot is not engaged, wings level will be the active lateral mode and the ROL label will be displayed on the PFD. A Pitch Limit Indicator (PLI) is displayed on the EADI sphere when the margin prior to the stick shaker set point is below or equal to 10. In the case of an invalid Stall Protection Computer signal, the PLI will be biased out of view and an amber AOA annunciation will be displayed on the PFD.

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REVISION 7

2-19-10

13 01

AUTOPILOT

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

GO AROUND SUBMODE The Go Around Submode should be selected once the decision to discontinue the approach has been taken. Although commanding a nose up attitude, the need to maintain wings leveled causes this mode to incorporate both lateral and vertical modes features. - Speed Target Submode: The Speed Target submode will command airplane pitch in order to allow a climbing turn at an airspeed of around 1.23 VS. Once a positive rate of climb has been achieved, the Speed Target submode will limit the pitch angle at 10 nose up. The system manages airspeed, altitude and comfort. Therefore, accelerations are limited to avoid passenger discomfort, while maintaining target airspeed. If the airspeed can not be maintained, altitude will be held. The Speed Target mode will initially command the Flight Director Command Bar and the autopilot pitch up attitude to 10 nose up for at least 20 seconds. After this, the Flight Director provides a pitch up command based on the IAS Speed Hold mode following the go-around speed preselected on the airspeed bug and limited within 1.23 VS and 170 KIAS. NOTE: The Flight Director will revert automatically to IAS speed hold, without waiting 20 seconds if at the time the Go Around button is pressed or during the time the Go Around mode is engaged, the airplane is below 1.23 VS. The airspeed bug is displayed on the airspeed tape on the PFD and a pitch limit indicator is displayed on the EADI. If the Stall Protection Computer signal becomes invalid, the PLI is removed. The mode may be engaged by pressing any of the Go Around buttons on the thrust levers. The submode may be engaged only at radio altitudes below 2500 ft, or below 15000 ft pressure altitude for an invalid Radio Altimeter signal. This feature is provided to protect against inadvertent Go Around selections during cruise. The autopilot may be coupled to the Speed Target submode above the airplanes Minimum Use Height (MUH), but will not be inhibited below the MUH.

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2-19-10

14 01

REVISION 7

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

AUTOPILOT

The GA label is annunciated on the PFD during the first 20 seconds, when the 10 pitch up command exists. When the IAS preselected speed bug is used on the go-around, the GA label switches to the IAS label and the system provides the pitch command based on the IAS Hold mode. The Speed Target submode will disengage on selection of a new vertical mode. The submode will ignore a preselected altitude below the airplane and will not fly away from a preselected altitude above the airplane. Altitude Preselect mode will be inhibited if the preselect altitude is less than Speed Target submode engagement altitude plus 400 ft (pressure altitude). This feature is provided to avoid the airplane leveling off if the pilot has not readjusted the preselected altitude to the new missed approach altitude. The Speed knob will be inhibited while GA mode is engaged. When the autopilot is not engaged, wings level will be the active lateral mode and the ROL label will be displayed on the PFD. If the autopilot is engaged, the lateral mode will remain wings level and will also be displayed as ROL on the PFD. WINDSHEAR ESCAPE GUIDANCE MODE The Windshear Escape Guidance mode is provided in order to recover from a windshear situation. For further information on windshear detection and escape guidance system, refer to Section 2-4 Crew Awareness.

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REVISION 7

2-19-10

15 01

AUTOPILOT

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

AUTOPILOT DISENGAGEMENT
The autopilot is normally disengaged through the Autopilot Engage/Disengage button or through the quick disconnect button on the control wheel. A voice message AUTOPILOT is generated when the autopilot is disengaged. This message is presented at any altitude in case of intentional disengagement or due to an autopilot failure and may be canceled according to the following associated conditions: Associated Conditions Above 2500 ft radio altitude with a valid Radio Altimeter signal. Below 2500 ft radio altitude with a valid Radio Altimeter signal. Invalid Radio Altimeter signal. Cancellation Self canceled. Pressing the Autopilot Quick Disconnect Button twice. Pressing the Autopilot Quick Disconnect Button twice.

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2-19-10

16 01

REVISION 7

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

AUTOPILOT

EICAS MESSAGES
TYPE WARNING MESSAGE AUTOPILOT FAIL AUTO TRIM FAIL MEANING Autopilot has failed and has been automatically disengaged. Automatic pitch trim has failed.

AP ELEV MISTRIM A pitch mistrim condition exists. CAUTION AP AIL MISTRIM A roll mistrim condition exists.

LATERAL MODE OFF Inadvertent loss of the Lateral Flight Director mode. Inadvertent loss of the Vertical VERTICAL MODE OFF Flight Director mode. YAW DAMPER FAIL Yaw Damper has failed and has been automatically disengaged.

CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


FLIGHT GUIDANCE CONTROLLER
NOTE: All the mode selector buttons described below are illuminated to indicate whether the associated mode is armed or captured. 1 - FLIGHT DIRECTOR BUTTON Allows the Flight Director bars to be displayed on the associated PFD. 2 - LATERAL MODE SELECTOR BUTTONS Select lateral operating modes of the autoflight system, as follows: HDG: selects heading hold and heading select modes. NAV: selects VOR NAV mode and allows selection of LOC/BC and LNAV modes. APR: selects VOR approach mode and allows selection of LOC/BC and GS modes. BNK: selects Low Bank submode. 3 - AUTOPILOT ENGAGE BUTTON Pressed once engages the autopilot and the yaw damper. Pressed again, disengages the autopilot only, keeping the yaw damper engaged.
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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

4 - VERTICAL MODE SELECTOR BUTTONS Select vertical operating modes of the autoflight system, as follows: SPD: selects Speed Hold mode. FLC: selects Flight Level Change mode. VS: selects Vertical Speed hold mode. ALT: selects Altitude Hold mode. 5 - ALTITUDE PRESELECT KNOB Allows preselection of altitude in 100 ft increments. 6 - COURSE SELECTOR KNOB Allows selection of course in 1 increments. Pressing the knob synchronizes the selected course to the VOR bearing. 7 - VERTICAL SPEED CONTROL KNOB AND IAS/M SELECTOR BUTTON Pressing the knob toggles between the speed modes MACH and IAS. When in SPD mode, rotation of this knob allows selection of indicated airspeed in one-knot increments or Mach Number in 0.01 increments. When in VS mode, rotation of this knob allows selection of vertical speed in 100 ft/min increments. 8 - YAW DAMPER ENGAGE BUTTON Pressed once, engages only the Yaw Damper. Pressed again disengages the yaw damper and the autopilot, if it is engaged. 9 - AUTOPILOT COUPLE BUTTON Allows the pilots or copilots Flight Director commands to control the autopilot. The couple button can be pressed with the autopilot engaged or disengaged. However, if the Flight Director is switched, the modes will drop out and the autopilot will remain engaged (if already engaged) and revert to basic autopilot mode (pitch and roll). 10 - HEADING SELECT KNOB Allows selection of heading in 1 increments. Pressing this knob synchronizes the heading selection to the current displayed heading.
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AUTOPILOT

FLIGHT GUIDANCE CONTROLLER

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SEPTEMBER 30, 2002

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3 01

AUTOPILOT

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

PITCH AND TURN CONTROLLER


1 - PITCH CONTROL WHEEL Manually controls the pitch when the autopilot is engaged and the Pitch Hold mode is selected. Pitch control wheel operation is inhibited if any vertical mode, except the Pitch Hold mode, is selected in the Flight Director. 2 - TURN CONTROL KNOB Manually controls the roll attitude when the autopilot is engaged. The control has a center detent position at the wings leveled position. The control remains at the current position when released.

PITCH AND TURN CONTROLLER

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

AUTOPILOT

CONTROL WHEEL
1 - TOUCH CONTROL STEERING BUTTON (TCS) Allows manual maneuvering of the airplane without disengaging the autopilot. The airplane may be maneuvered to any desired pitch attitude while the TCS button is pressed. When the button is released, the following occurs: Primary servos reengage. The computer synchronizes itself to the new pitch attitude and vertical mode and maintain it. Lateral control is returned to the previously selected lateral mode (return to the lateral mode is filtered to prevent rapid maneuvers). After glide slope capture in APR mode with the autopilot engaged, if the TCS button is pressed and released, the autopilot will resume the controls and turn the airplane to the ILS center beam. 2 - QUICK DISCONNECT BUTTON Provides the means to disengage autopilot and yaw damper. The pilots and copilots buttons are interconnected to allow autopilot cancellation from either seat. In case of the autopilot is disengaged and the button is pressed, the voice message AUTOPILOT will be canceled in 2 seconds.

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AUTOPILOT

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

CONTROL WHEEL
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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

AUTOPILOT

THRUST LEVERS
1 - GO AROUND BUTTON Selects the Go Around mode (Takeoff submode, Go Around Speed Target submode and Windshear mode). The button also forces the Flight Director into either the Go Around mode or the Windshear mode, depending on the windshear signal.

THRUST LEVERS

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SEPTEMBER 30, 2002

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AUTOPILOT

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

DISPLAY CONTROLLER (DC-550)


1 - NAVIGATION SOURCES SELECTOR BUTTON Provides the selection of the VHF NAV (VOR, ILS and MLS) as navigation source for the EHSI. If the VHF NAV is already selected, pressing the NAV Button selects the opposite VHF NAV as navigation source for the on-side EHSI. Pressing the NAV Button once again will restore the normal operation: VHF NAV 1 information presented on the PFD 1 and VHF NAV 2 information presented on the PFD 2. 2 - FMS SOURCE SELECTOR BUTTON (optional) Provides the selection of the FMS as navigation source for the EHSI. On airplanes equipped with dual FMS, pressing the FMS Button for the second time selects the opposite FMS as navigation source for the on-side EHSI (and for the on-side MFD MAP). Pressing the FMS Button once again will restore the normal operation: FMS 1 information presented on the PFD 1 (and MFD 1) and FMS 2 information presented on the PFD 2 (and MFD 2). 3 - BEARING SELECTOR KNOB OFF: NAV 1 (2): ADF: FMS: The associated PFD bearing pointers are disabled. Selects the respective VHF NAV as source for the associated bearing pointer. Selects the respective ADF as source for the associated bearing pointer. Selects the FMS as source for the associated bearing pointer.

4 - DECISION HEIGHT SETTING AND IC-600 TEST KNOB Provides the Radio Altimeter (RA) decision height setting. When pressed on ground provides the IC-600 and RA test activation. Refer to Section 2-4 Crew Awareness for further information on test function and Section 2-17 Flight Instruments for further information on decision height setting and RA test in flight.

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

AUTOPILOT

DISPLAY CONTROLLER PANEL (DC-550)

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SEPTEMBER 30, 2002

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AUTOPILOT

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

PFD INDICATORS
1 - ARMED LATERAL MODE (white) Indicates which lateral mode is armed. The mode annunciation is removed if the Flight Director fails. 2 - CAPTURED LATERAL MODE (green) Indicates which lateral mode is captured. An amber FD FAIL is displayed in this field to indicate Flight Director failed. The mode annunciation is removed if the Flight Director fails. 3 - AUTOPILOT MESSAGE FIELD Indicates autopilot status. Messages are mutually exclusive and therefore only one message can be displayed at a time. The following messages may be displayed: MESSAGE COLOR MEANING Autopilot engaged. AP Green Autopilot test mode is active immediately AP TEST after power up. TCS submode is engaged (autopilot is TCS engaged). TKNB Turn control knob is out of detent Amber position (autopilot is disengaged). When the autopilot is normally disengaged, the green AP annunciation turns amber and flashes for 5 seconds, then becomes steady. If the autopilot is engaged and a failure occurs, the green AP annunciation turns red and flashes for 5 seconds, then becomes steady. The AP annunciation appears in conjunction with the AUTOPILOT FAIL message on the EICAS and is removed when the autopilot is disengaged through the Quick Disconnect Button.

AP

AP

Red

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

AUTOPILOT

4 - FLIGHT DIRECTOR COUPLE ARROW Indicates which Flight Director the autopilot is coupled to. The mode annunciation is removed if the Flight Director fails. 5 - YAW DAMPER ENGAGED ANNUNCIATION Color: Green: indicates the yaw damper is engaged. Amber: when the yaw damper is normally disengaged the annunciation flashes for 5 seconds and then extinguishes itself. If the yaw damper is engaged and a failure occurs, the annunciation flashes for 5 seconds then becomes steady until it is disengaged through the Quick Disconnect Button. 6 - CAPTURED VERTICAL MODE (green) Indicates which vertical mode is captured. The mode annunciation is removed if the Flight Director fails. 7 - MODE TRANSITION ANNUNCIATOR Each transition is annunciated by a box around the mode that is being transitioned. The box will highlight the new mode for 5 seconds and then disappear. 8 - ARMED VERTICAL MODE (white) Indicates which vertical mode is armed. The mode annunciation is removed if Flight Director fails. 9 - ALTITUDE PRESELECT DISPLAY Ranges from 900 to 45000 ft with a resolution of 100 ft. The digits and bug are cyan and the box is white. They become amber 1000 ft prior to reaching the preselected altitude. Once the airplane is within 250 ft of the preselected altitude, the box returned to white. If the airplane exceeds the preselected altitude by more than 250 ft, the box turns amber. Large digits display hundreds, thousands and tens of thousands. Smaller digits, which are always zeros, display tens and ones. The bug moves according to the digital altitude preselect value. If the preselected altitude value is not within the displayed range of the altitude scale, the bug will stay at the respective end of scale, half-visible and unfilled.

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AUTOPILOT

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

10 - COMMAND BAR AND AIRPLANE SYMBOL Color: magenta. Indicates pitch and roll Flight Director commands. Command bar is removed if the Flight Director fails or if the opposite side Flight Director selected source or tuned frequency is different. NOTE: The command bar and airplane symbol may be presented in either V-bar or cross-bar formats, depending on operator selection. 11 - SELECTED HEADING BUG Color: magenta. Displayed full time on the PFD, unless when the PFD is in arc format. When setting the selected heading value, the bug will move around the heading scale. 12 - VERTICAL SPEED TARGET DISPLAY Color: cyan. Ranges from 0 to 9900 ft/min with a resolution of 100 ft/min. Displayed only when Vertical Speed Hold mode is selected in either Flight Director. 13 - SELECTED HEADING DIGITAL READOUT Color: Digits: cyan. Label: white. Indicates the heading selected through the Flight Guidance Controller panel.

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2-19-15

12 01

SEPTEMBER 30, 2002

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL 14 - GS/LOC/ILS COMPARISON MONITOR DISPLAYS

AUTOPILOT

Label: GS, LOC or ILS. Color: amber. Glide Slope comparison monitor (GS label) is displayed while in GS CAP and below 2500 ft if there is a difference of 0.7 dot deviation between the PFDs indication. If the radio altitude output is invalid, the monitor will then be activated by GS CAP only. Localizer comparison monitor (LOC label) is displayed while in approach mode, below 2500 ft if there is a difference of 0.5 dot deviation between the PFDs indication. If the radio altitude output is invalid, the monitor will then be activated by GS CAP only. ILS comparison monitor display is annunciated when both GS and LOC comparison monitors are displayed simultaneously. 15 - AOA INDICATION Color: amber. Indicates loss of PLI indication due to an invalid Stall Protection Computer signal. 16 - OVERSPEED/UNDERSPEED WARNING DISPLAY Color: amber. Label: MAX SPD for overspeed condition. MIN SPD for underspeed condition. Activated by the Flight Director. Remains displayed as long as the condition exists. 17 - INDICATED AIRSPEED/MACH TARGET DISPLAY Color: digits are cyan and box is white. Ranges from 80 KIAS to VMO with a resolution of 1 KIAS or from 0.2 Mach to MMO with a resolution of 0.01 Mach. Displayed full time. Bug moves according to the indicated airspeed/Mach target value set. If the indicated airspeed/Mach value is not within the displayed range of the airspeed scale, the bug will stay at the respective end of the scale, half-visible and unfilled.

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REVISION 5

2-19-15

13 01

AUTOPILOT

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

PFD INDICATORS (CROSS-BAR FORMAT)

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2-19-15

14 01

REVISION 5

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

AUTOPILOT

PFD INDICATORS (V-BAR FORMAT)

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REVISION 5

2-19-15

15 01

AUTOPILOT

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

EICAS INDICATORS
1 - ROLL MISTRIM ANNUNCIATION Color: amber. Indicates that a roll mistrim exists, which may cause an abrupt roll command at the time the autopilot is disengaged. Direction of arrow indicates the side the roll trim must be commanded to eliminate the condition. It is displayed in conjunction with the AP AIL MISTRIM message on the EICAS.

ROLL MISTRIM ANNUNCIATION

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CATEGORY II APPROACH (OPTIONAL)


The IC-600 may be optionally equipped with a Category II checklist logic warning which is automatically activated whenever the Decision Height is selected between 80 and 200 ft through the RA knob on the Display Control Panel.

CATEGORY II CONDITIONS
The required conditions to obtain a Cat II valid conditions are: Radio altitude between 2500 and 80 ft. Flaps 22. NAV 1 on pilots side and NAV 2 on copilots side, both tuned to the same frequency. An active approach mode selected. Both Flight Directors operational (command bars visible). Attitude and heading valid on both PFDs. Glide slope and localizer deviation valid on both PFDs. No reversions (SG, IRS or ADC) modes selected on both PFDs. Valid airspeed and barometric altitude on both PFDs. No comparison monitors are tripped (attitude, heading, airspeed, barometric altitude, localizer, glide slope and radio altitude) on both PFDs. No back course selected. Autopilot engaged. Cat II Decision Height setting on both Display Control Panels (greater than 80 ft and less than 200 ft). NOTE: CAT II approaches are allowed using either the Autopilot or Flight Director for guidance. If all conditions are met, a green CAT 2 annunciation is displayed on the PFDs. If any of the required conditions for establishing CAT 2 goes invalid, the green CAT 2 will be replaced by flashing amber CAT 2 annunciation. It will flash for ten seconds and then go steady.

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LOCALIZER EXCESSIVE DEVIATION WARNING The Localizer Excessive Deviation Warnings are active when CAT II is valid. It is triggered between 500 ft and 80 ft of Radio Altimeter height, when the ILS lateral deviation is greater than 1/3 dot. The pilots will be alerted by: The lateral deviation bar on the EHSI are changed from green to amber. The lateral deviation scale changing from white to amber and flashing with a duty cycle of 0.5 second on followed by a 0.5 second off. NOTE: The on-side excessive deviation warning is also displayed when the cross-side system has detected an excessive deviation. GLIDESLOPE EXCESSIVE DEVIATION WARNING The Glideslope Excessive Deviation Warnings are active when CAT II is valid. It is triggered between 500 ft and 80 ft of Radio Altimeter height, when the ILS vertical deviation is greater than one dot or when the glideslope deviation warning is invalid for more than five seconds. The pilots will be alerted by: The GS pointer on the EADI changing from green to amber. The GS scale on the EADI changing from white to amber and flashing with a duty cycle of 0.5 second on followed by 0.5 second off. NOTE: The on-side excessive deviation warning is also displayed when the cross-side system has detected an excessive deviation.

CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


PFD INDICATORS
1 - CAT 2 ANNUNCIATION Indicates the Cat II condition. Label: CAT 2. Color: Normal condition: green. Abnormal condition: amber.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Block Page Introduction ........................................................................ 2-01-00 ..02 Airplane Description ........................................................... 2-01-00 ..03 Cockpit Arrangement ......................................................... 2-01-00 ..06 Interior Arrangement .......................................................... 2-01-00 ..07 Main/Glareshield Panels .................................................... 2-01-05 ..01 Control Pedestal................................................................. 2-01-05 ..02 Overhead Panel ................................................................. 2-01-10 ..01 Cockpit Partition ................................................................. 2-01-15 ..01

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INTRODUCTION
This Section is intended to present a general overview of the airplane, thus initiating the reader to the EMB-135BJ, which may, then, go through the Sections searching more detailed information on each system.

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AIRPLANE DESCRIPTION
The EMB-135BJ model is a low wing, T-tail pressurized airplane, powered by two high by-pass ratio rear mounted turbofan engines. The tricycle landing gear is all retractable, with twin tires in each leg. A glass cockpit panel has been developed with highly integrated onboard avionics, thus allowing pilots to better monitor airplane general operation. There are three passenger cabin layout options, with front galley and rear toilet, permitting to carry up to 15 passengers. Convenient accommodation is provided for the flight crew. For detailed information on each system, refer to the appropriate Section in this manual.

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INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT
CROSS SECTION

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MAIN/GLARESHIELD PANELS (OPTION 1)

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OVERHEAD PANEL
AIRPLANES UP TO S/N 854

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COCKPIT PARTITION

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SECTION 2-09 AUXILIARY POWER UNIT


TABLE OF CONTENTS Block Page General .............................................................................. 2-09-05 ..01 Control System................................................................... 2-09-05 ..04 APU Starting/Operation...................................................... 2-09-05 ..07 EICAS Messages ............................................................... 2-09-05 ..08 Controls and Indicators ...................................................... 2-09-05 ..09 APU Control Panel ......................................................... 2-09-05 ..09 EICAS Indications........................................................... 2-09-05 ..10

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GENERAL
The APU is a source of pneumatic and electrical power to be used either simultaneously with or independent of aircraft sources, while on the ground or in flight. Basically, it is a constant-speed gas turbine engine, consisting of a single-stage centrifugal compressor, a reverse-flow annular combustion chamber, and a single-stage radial turbine. The airplane is equipped with APU model T-62T-40C14, which is controlled by the Full Authority Digital Electronic Control (FADEC). The control system provides automatic, full-authority, fuel scheduling from start to full load operation, under all ambient conditions and operating modes. In addition, the FADEC automatically controls the APU to shut down on the occurrence of certain failures or events during start or operation. An automatic APU shutdown may occur either on the ground or in flight, and takes place under the following conditions: On the ground: fire overtemperature overspeed underspeed failure to start failure to accelerate failure to light loss of speed data external short loss of FADEC signal FADEC failure bleed valve opening low oil pressure high oil temperature oil pressure switch short loss of EGT.

NOTE: In the event of fire, a 10 second delay is allowed before an automatic APU shutdown is initiated.

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In flight: overspeed underspeed failure to start failure to accelerate failure to light loss of speed data external short loss of FADEC signal FADEC failure.

The APU compartment is located in the airplanes tailcone, isolated by a titanium firewall. On the left side of the APU compartment, an inspection door allows access and inspection of the APUs components. The APU starter-generator shaft drives an air-cooling fan. Air is drawn through a NACA air inlet located on the left side of the tailcone. APU draining is ducted to the airplane skin on the right side of the tailcone. Control switches, alarms, and emergency shutdown means are provided on the cockpit overhead panel. The normal APU indications and caution/warning messages are presented on the EICAS.

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APU INSTALLATION

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CONTROL SYSTEM
The APU control systems include the electrical, fuel, ignition, lubrication, and pneumatic systems. On APU Model T-62T-40C14, the electrical control system consists of the Full-Authority Digital Electronic Control (FADEC). The control system incorporates the APU starting system, control logic, and failure indication. Electric accessories provide FADEC inputs and execute output commands. Electrical power for the APU control is fed from two bus bars. One of these buses is supplied by the APU starter-generator itself, and the other is supplied by the airplane electrical system. This arrangement is provided to ensure that a loss of the airplane electrical power during the APU operation will not cause the APU shutdown. The fuel system is composed of the fuel pump, fuel solenoid valves (Main, and Maximum), acceleration control, purge valve, fuel nozzles, fuel filter, and manifold. Acceleration control provides fuel in accordance with a preprogrammed schedule. Fuel from the right wing tank is normally used to supply the APU. Alternatively, fuel from the left wing tank may be used by means of the crossfeed valve. NOTE: the fuel system for the Model T-62T-40C14 APU does not include a start fuel solenoid valve. The ignition system provides the electrical power necessary during the APU starting sequence. It consists of an exciter, igniter plugs, and wiring. The APU has a self-contained lubrication system totally integrated into the accessory gearbox. In addition to lubrication functions, the system provides the required oil cooling, with no need for an external heat exchanger. A thermostat, installed in the oil tank, sends a signal to the EICAS in case the oil temperature exceeds 166C (331F).

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The pneumatic control system consists of a modulating bleed valve and an anti-surge valve. The modulating bleed valve maintains the bleed flow below a set value, depending on the air conditioning system requirements and atmospheric conditions, thus maintaining the EGT within acceptable levels. The anti-surge valve is controlled by the FADEC, which monitors the signal from the APU bleed valve, the Air Turbine Starter (ATS) valve, and the Environmental Control System (ECS) valve.

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APU MODEL T-62T-40C14 SCHEMATIC

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APU STARTING/OPERATION
The APU starting cycle is initiated when the APU Master knob, located on the APU control panel, is moved to the ON position. At this moment, an EGT valid value is showed on EICAS. When the Master switch is momentarily set to START, DC power is applied to the startergenerator, which will drive the APU compressor up to a speed high enough to obtain sufficient airflow for combustion. On APU Model T-62T-40C14, at this time, the airframe fuel shutoff valve is energized to open. On APU Model T-62T-40C14, at approximately 3% rotor speed on the ground (or 0% in flight), the FADEC supplies power to the ignition unit as well as power to open the Main Fuel Solenoid Valve, allowing fuel flow to the combustion chamber. The APU continues accelerating and, when rotor speed exceeds 50%, the FADEC deenergizes the ignition and at 70% rotor speed the FADEC commands starter disengagement. The APU acceleration continues by the APU own means and, 7 seconds after having reached 95% rotor speed, the Maximum Fuel Solenoid Valve is energized and the FADEC circuits allow electrical and pneumatic power extraction through the starter-generator and the bleed valve. If a failure in the control system occurs, associated with an APU overspeed, the APU Model T-62T-40C14 will automatically shutdown after the rotating parts reach 104% speed. The APU is shut down by pressing the APU Stop Button or by setting the Master switch to the OFF position, whenever, a stop request signal is sent to the FADEC in order to execute the APU shutdown procedure; the FADEC overspeed protection is tested during the FADEC power-up.

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EICAS MESSAGES
TYPE MESSAGE APU FAIL APU OIL LO PRESS APU OIL HI TEMP MEANING APU has been automatically shut down. Oil pressure is below 6 psi. Oil temperature is above 166C (331F).

CAUTION

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CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


APU CONTROL PANEL
1 - APU MASTER KNOB OFF - Deenergizes the FADEC, closes the APU fuel shutoff valve, turns off the APU indications and alarms whenever APU RPM is below 10%, and commands the APU shutdown. ON - Energizes the FADEC, commands the fuel shutoff valve to open, enables indication and alarms on the EICAS and allows the APU to keep running after starting. START (momentary position) - Initiates start cycle. 2 - APU STOP BUTTON Shuts the APU down. NOTE: APU EICAS indications remain operational. 3 - APU FUEL SHUTOFF BUTTON (guarded) Cuts off fuel to the APU. A striped bar illuminates inside the button to indicate that it is pressed.

APU CONTROL PANEL

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EICAS INDICATIONS
1- APU RPM INDICATION Ranges from 0 to 120% speed. Green from 96 to 104%. Amber and boxed from 0 to 95% and from 105 to 110%. Red and boxed above 110%. 2- APU EGT INDICATION NORMAL OPERATION Ranges from 54 to 927C. Green from 0 to 680C. Amber and boxed from 681 to 717C. Red and boxed above 717C. START SEQUENCE Ranges from 54 to 927C. Green from 0 to 838C. Amber and boxed from 839 to 884C. Red and boxed above 884C. NOTE: After APU shutdown, the RPM and EGT indications are replaced by APU OFF inscription, provided the APU Master Knob is set to OFF position and APU speed is below 10%.

EICAS INDICATIONS

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SECTION 2-04 CREW AWARENESS


TABLE OF CONTENTS Block Page Index ................................................................................. 2-04-00 ..01 General .............................................................................. 2-04-05 ..01 Avionics Integration ........................................................ 2-04-05 ..01 Displays .......................................................................... 2-04-05 ..06 EICAS Messages ........................................................... 2-04-05 ..18 Controls and Indicators................................................... 2-04-05 ..20 Built-in Test..................................................................... 2-04-05 ..29 Visual Warnings ................................................................. 2-04-10 ..01 Warning Lights ............................................................... 2-04-10 ..01 EICAS Messages ........................................................... 2-04-10 ..03 EICAS Message Dictionary ............................................ 2-04-10 ..04 Displays Indications ........................................................ 2-04-10 ..11 Controls and Indicators................................................... 2-04-10 ..12 Aural Warnings .................................................................. 2-04-15 ..01 Aural Warning Unit ......................................................... 2-04-15 ..01 EICAS Message ............................................................. 2-04-15 ..04 Takeoff Configuration Warning .......................................... 2-04-20 ..01 EICAS Message ............................................................. 2-04-20 ..01 Controls and Indicators................................................... 2-04-20 ..02 Stall Protection System ...................................................... 2-04-25 ..01 General........................................................................... 2-04-25 ..01 EICAS Messages ........................................................... 2-04-25 ..04 Controls and Indicators................................................... 2-04-25 ..06 Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System................... 2-04-30 ..01 Modes and Messages .................................................... 2-04-30 ..04 EGPWS Additional Features .......................................... 2-04-30 ..24 Warning Priorities ........................................................... 2-04-30 ..32 EICAS Messages ........................................................... 2-04-30 ..33 Controls and Indicators................................................... 2-04-30 ..34 Steep Approach Operation ............................................. 2-04-30 ..39

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Windshear Detection and Escape Guidance System ........ 2-04-35.. 01 Windshear General Information...................................... 2-04-35.. 01 Windshear Detection ...................................................... 2-04-35.. 04 Windshear Escape Guidance Mode ............................... 2-04-35.. 06 EICAS Message ............................................................. 2-04-35.. 10 Controls and Indicators................................................... 2-04-35.. 10 Traffic and Collision Avoidance System ............................. 2-04-40.. 01 General ........................................................................... 2-04-40.. 01 System Description......................................................... 2-04-40.. 01 TCAS Voice Messages................................................... 2-04-40.. 08 Controls and Indicators................................................... 2-04-40.. 10 TCAS Test ...................................................................... 2-04-40.. 14

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GENERAL
The EMB-135 BJ is provided with a variety of visual, aural, and sensitive warnings to notify crew regarding systems status, malfunctions, and abnormal airplane configurations. Alarm lights provide indication whether there is an abnormal situation. Some systems also provide indicating lights, for system status indication. An Engine Indication and Crew Alerting System (EICAS) provides the flight crew with a three-level alerting and indications messages system: warning, caution and advisory. A fourth level is provided exclusively for maintenance purposes. Besides the five displays on the main panel, two back up displays are provided through the RMUs (Radio Management Unit). Some of the more critical messages also generate an aural warning. Sensitive warning is available through the Stall Protection System (SPS), which shakes the control column, if an imminent stall is detected. To aid in navigation and approach procedures, the airplane is also provided with a Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System (EGPWS), a Traffic and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS), and a Windshear Detection and Escape Guidance System.

AVIONICS INTEGRATION
The EMB-135 BJ is equipped with a variety of highly integrated computers and displays, so as to reduce pilots workload while providing high reliability and redundancy. This feature is achieved by providing different paths to each type of data, thus minimizing the possibility of losing information due to failure in one computer. The system is composed of: Two Integrated Computers (IC-600); Two Integrated Computer Configuration Modules (IM-600); Two Data Acquisition Units (DAU); One Central Maintenance Computer (CMC); One Horizontal Stabilizer Control Unit (HSCU); Two Primary Flight Displays (PFD), two Multi-Function Display (MFD) and one Engine Indications and Crew Alerting System (EICAS) display; Two Radio Management Units (RMU);

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL One Tuning Backup Control Head; One Integrated Standby Instruments System (ISIS); Two Integrated Navigation Computers; Two Integrated Communication Computers; Three Digital Audio Panels (DAP); Two Inertial Reference System (IRS); Two Air Data Computers (ADC); One Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System (EGPWS); One Aural Warning Unit (AWU); One Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR); One Flight Data Recorder System (FDRS); One or two Flight Management Systems (FMS); One Traffic and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS); One Radar System; One Stall Protection System (SPS).

The primary components of such integration are the IC-600 units, which exchange information with all the other components, either directly or through auxiliary computers. The IC-600s are responsible for the interface among the many airplane systems, besides managing information presented on the displays. Each IC-600 computes the received data and sends the appropriate information to the displays. The DAUs are the central data collection points for the EICAS. DAU 1 is dedicated to collect data from the forward airplane systems and left engine. DAU 2 collects data from the aft airplane systems and right engine. Engine data is sent to the DAUs through the FADECs and directly from the engine sensors. The discrete signals collected by the DAUs are converted into digital signals and sent to the Integrated Computer (IC-600). In the IC 600 there is a symbol generator which provides images to Display Units. Each DAU is a dual (A and B) channel unit. Channels B on both DAUs are kept as a standby source, which must be manually selected, through the DAU reversionary button in case of a channel A DAU failure. Both IC-600s use channel A of on-side DAU as the primary source of information.

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Normally IC 600 # 1 provides images to PFD 1, MFD 1 and EICAS display, while IC 600 # 2 provides images to MFD 2 and PFD 2. Both computers interact with each other and send outputs to the Aural Warning unit to generate a tone that indicates a caution or warning message whether there is an abnormal situation. If IC 600 # 1 fails, the RMU # 1 displays the first engine page automatically. After IC 600 # 1 failure, IC 600 # 2 will control the five displays by setting the Symbol Generator ("SG") button on the left reversionary panel. In this case the RMU # 1 goes back to the normal mode. If IC 600 # 2 fails, IC 600 # 1 will control the five displays after the "SG" button is set on the right reversionary panel. The RMU # 1 is not operated automatically. If both ICs fail, the RMU # 1 displays automatically the first engine backup page. Usually, airplane configuration options are set on the IC-600 through straps. If the number of installed options exceeds the maximum adjustable through the IC-600 wiring, a configuration module (IM-600) is installed. It stores information for several airplane configurations. A caution message CHK IC CONFIG appears in case of discrepancy between the following data: aircraft id, engine type, Long Range configuration or English/Metric units. CONFIG MISMATCH message is still active in case of discrepancy of the other parameters that do not trigger the CHK IC CONFIG message. If a IM-600 failure occurs, the IC-600 will use the last data read from that source (when it was still working), and an advisory IC CONFIG FAIL message will appear.

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DISPLAYS
Five Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) displays are provided to present information to the flight crew, as follows: Two Primary Flight Displays (PFD) on the pilot and copilot panel. Two Multi-Function Displays (MFD) on the pilot and copilot panel. One EICAS display on the center panel. In addition, the Radio Management Unit (RMU) displays on the main panel may be used as a back-up for the PFDs, MFDs and EICAS displays. The displays themselves are identical and interchangeable. The control panel installed just below each display, except for the RMUs, allows controlling some of the associated display features. In case of failure of one display, its information may be presented in one of the remaining operative displays.

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PRIMARY FLIGHT DISPLAY (PFD) The PFD is the primary pilots instrument. It presents the information formerly presented in a variety of instruments such as airspeed indicator, altitude indicator, ADI, HSI, vertical speed indicator. The PFD further provides radio aids, autopilot, flight director, yaw damper and radio altitude information. For further information on these parameters, refer to Sections 2-17 Flight Instruments, 2-18 Navigation and Communication, and 2-19 Autopilot. The PFD is divided into sections, each one presenting one group of information. The PFD bezel incorporates an inclinometer, buttons and a knob for barometric settings. In case of a display failure, information may be presented on the MFD by appropriately setting the MFD selector knob on the reversionary panel. The RMU is also able to present PFD information (refer to Section 218 - Navigation and Communication for further details about this feature).

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MULTI FUNCTION DISPLAY (MFD) The Multi Function Display (MFD) presents radar, TCAS, FMS, CMC and other navigation information and systems pages. There are five system pages available: Fuel: provides fuel system parameters and status. Electrical: provides electrical system parameters and status. Environmental and Ice Protection: provides air conditioning, pneumatics, oxygen, and ice and rain protection systems parameters and status. Hydraulic and Brakes: provides hydraulic and brakes systems and status. Takeoff: provides takeoff data settings, oil level and doors status. For further information on system pages, refer to each associated system description. The MFD may operate in three different presentation modes, besides the reversionary ones. The Map and Plan modes present navigation information. For further information on these, refer to Section 2-18 - Navigation and Communication. The maintenance mode permits access to maintenance messages, but is available only on the left MFD for maintenance personnel when the airplane is on ground. Selection of the different modes and pages may be made by using the controls located on the display bezel. Button functions are indicated in the menus presented in the lower part of the display, just above each button. Each button function changes, depending on which menu has been selected. Menu selection is made by using the buttons themselves. If required, radar modes and TCAS information may be shown. The MFD also operates as a back-up display for either PFD or EICAS, in case of such displays failure. Appropriate selections may be made through the reversionary panel.

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EICAS DISPLAY The EICAS display presents analogic engine indications and some systems parameters like flaps, landing gear, spoilers and trim positions, total fuel quantity, APU and environmental information. In the upper right corner, the EICAS display presents crew awareness messages: Warning messages, red colored and always presented on the top of the list. Caution messages, amber colored and presented after warning messages. Advisory messages, cyan colored and presented after caution messages. For further information on engine indications presented in the upper left corner, refer to Section 2-10 Powerplant. For information on EICAS Messages, refer to the item Visual Warnings (Section 2-04-10). In case of failure in the EICAS display, its information may be presented on the MFD, by appropriately setting the MFD selector knob on the reversionary panel. The RMU is also capable of presenting some EICAS information, should the need arise. The EICAS bezel is provided with a knob to scroll messages if the system generates more messages than the display can present at once.

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NOTE: Number inside boxes refer to Operations Manual Section where information concerning associated item can be found. EICAS DISPLAY SCHEMATIC
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RADIO MANAGEMENT UNIT The Radio Management Unit (RMU) is provided for radio controlling purposes, but may be used as a back-up for PFDs, MFDs and EICAS. The RMU display presents settings and modes for each radio (NAV and COMM), transponder, and TCAS. In case of failure of the main panel displays, the RMU may be selected to present navigation, engine or systems information, as well as some EICAS messages. The information presentation however may change, due to the size of the RMU display. Also, some items of information may not be presented to avoid display overload. For further information on RMU features, refer to Section 2-18 Navigation and Communication.

RMU DISPLAY EXAMPLE

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL NORMAL OPERATION

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When the airplane is first energized, the system performs a self-test to check abnormal conditions in the displays. On power up, the displays default information are the following: PFD: presents EADI, EHSI, airspeed, altitude, radio altitude, vertical speed scales, flight director mode, autopilot and yaw damper status. MFD: presents takeoff page, system menu and navigation data in Map format. This information is supplied as follows: MFD 1: supplied by channel A of both DAUs through IC-600 # 1. MFD 2: supplied by channel A of both DAUs through IC-600 # 2. EICAS: presents engine and fuel indications, crew awareness messages (if any), landing gear, flaps, spoilers, pressurization, APU and trims status. This information is supplied by channel A of both DAUs through IC-600 # 1.

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FAILURE MODES The system is developed to avoid absence of information in most of the failure combinations. The failures that may affect the crew awareness system are associated with electrical power supply or computer malfunctions. In both cases, the system architecture is such that only major failures will lead to loss of information presentation. Even in this condition, crew will still have essential data available to safely continue the flight, using standby instruments. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM FAILURES Each display is supplied in such a way that in case of failure in one or more electric buses, the remaining buses will still be supplying one or more displays. This feature is achieved by supplying all displays with four different buses (two DC Buses and two Essential buses). Furthermore, each pair of duplicated displays (PFDs, MFDs, and RMUs) are supplied by different buses, one for each display. COMPUTER FAILURES Since both IC-600s receive data from duplicated sources, a single failure will not lead to loss of information addressed to the flight crew. In case of any source failure, the reversionary panel permits shifting between existing sources, thus using cross side information. This feature may be used only when the system is not capable of providing information through normal means. DISPLAYS FAILURES In case of any failure in the PFD or EICAS displays, the corresponding information may be presented in one of the remaining displays, by using the reversionary panel. The MFD may present other display information, but its data may not be presented in the remaining displays. If all displays are lost, the RMU is capable of providing essential flight data.

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EICAS MESSAGES
TYPE MESSAGE DAU 1-2 ENG MISCOMP MEANING N1, N2, ITT engine parameters read from both engines are not matching. DAU 1-2 SYS MISCOMP Systems parameters for system pages generation are not matching. DAU 1-2 WRN MISCOMP Discrete signals for warning messages generation read from the many systems are not matching. DAU 1 (2) A FAIL Associated DAU channel A has failed. IC 1 (2) OVERHEAT Associated temperature of the IC-600 is too high. IC BUS FAIL A failure in the Interconnection Bus has been detected. IC 1 (2) WOW INOP ICs/Weight - On - Wheels interface not working properly. CHECK PFD 1 (2) A miscomparison on the associated PFD bus has been detected. CHECK IC 1 (2) SW Updating error on IC-600. CHK IC CONFIG Configuration module mismatch (airplane model, engine type, LR version, and units).

CAUTION

(Continued)

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ADVISORY

DAU 1 (2) B FAIL DAU 1 (2) REVERSION

CMC FAIL IC 1 (2) CONFIG FAIL

DU 1 (2, 3, 4, 5) FAN FAIL DU 1 (2, 3, 4, 5) OVHT IC 1 (2) FAN FAIL

MEANING Mismatch of any of the configurations stored in the IM-600 modules except those considered in the CHK IC CONFIG logic. Associated DAU channel B has failed. Associated DAU has been commanded to operate with channel B mode. CMC has failed. A failure in the configuration module of the IC has been detected. Associated display fan has failed. Associated display unit temperature is too high. Associated IC fan has failed.

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CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


PFD BEZEL Provides controls that allow barometric settings in the PFD. For further information, refer to Section 2-17 - Flight Instruments. MFD BEZEL MAIN MENU 1 - SYSTEM BUTTON Selects system menu. If TCAS window is being displayed, it will be replaced by the previously selected system page. 2 - MFD BUTTON Selects MFD menu. 3 - CHECKLIST BUTTON This function is not enabled. 4 - TCAS BUTTON Selects TCAS information to be presented on the MFD. For further information refer to item TCAS presented in this section. If TCAS is already selected, pressing the button restores the previously selected system page. 5 - WEATHER RADAR BUTTON Selects weather radar information to be presented on the MFD. For further information on weather radar, refer to Section 2-18 - Navigation and Communication. 6 - MAP PLAN BUTTON When the radar is being displayed, enables the Map format for radar presentation. For further information on weather radar, refer to Section 2-18 Navigation and Communication. 7 - MAP/PLAN RANGE KNOB Allows setting the Map format range that is displayed on the MFD. For further information on this feature, refer to Section 2-18 Navigation and Communication. Except for the SPDS menu, this knob function is available in all menus.

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL SYS SUBMENU 1 - RETURN BUTTON Returns to the main menu.

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2 - TAKEOFF PAGE BUTTON Selects the takeoff page to be presented on the MFD. For further information on this page refer to Section 2-2 Equipment and Furnishings and Section 2-10 Powerplant. 3 - ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM AND PNEUMATIC PAGE BUTTON Selects the environmental control system and pneumatic page to be presented on the MFD. For further information on this page refer to Sections 2-14 Pneumatics, Air Conditioning and Pressurization and Section 2-16 Oxygen. 4 - FUEL SYSTEM PAGE BUTTON Selects the fuel system page to be presented on the MFD. When fuel system page is being displayed, button function changes. For further information on this page refer to Section 2-8 Fuel. 5 - HYDRAULIC PAGE BUTTON Selects the hydraulic page to be presented on the MFD. For further information on this page refer to Section 2-11 Hydraulic. 6 - ELECTRICAL SYSTEM PAGE BUTTON Selects the electrical system page to be presented on the MFD. For further information on this page refer to Section 2-5 Electrical.

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MFD BEZEL BUTTON MENU TREE

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL MFD SUBMENU 1 - RETURN BUTTON Returns to the main menu.

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2 - REFERENCE SPEEDS BUTTON Selects SPDS menu. For further information on this menu, refer to Section 2-17 Flight Instruments. 3 - JOYSTICK BUTTON NOTE: This function is available only when the FMS is installed. Selects JSTK menu. For further information on this menu, refer to Section 2-18 Navigation and Communication. 4 - AIRPORT AND NAVIGATION AIDS BUTTON Provides selection and toggling of airport and navigation aids displays on the MFD. For further information on this feature, refer to Section 2-18 Navigation and Communication. 5 - DATA BUTTON Provides selection and toggling of waypoint identifier displays on the MFD. For further information on this feature, refer to Section 2-18 Navigation and Communication. 6 - MAINTENANCE SELECTION BUTTON (LEFT MFD ONLY) Presents maintenance messages on MFD. Function is available only on the ground.

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EICAS BEZEL Provides a knob to allow EICAS messages scrolling. For further information, refer to Visual Warnings in this Section. REVERSIONARY PANEL 1 - MFD SELECTOR KNOB PFD - presents on the MFD the information normally presented on the PFD. The PFD bezel button remains their normal function. NORMAL - Normal MFD operation mode. EICAS - presents on the MFD the information normally presented on the EICAS. 2 - ADC BUTTON Changes the ADC information from the on-side ADC to the cross-side ADC. A striped bar illuminates inside the button to indicate that it is pressed. 3 - IRS BUTTON Changes the attitude and heading source from the on-side IRS to the cross-side IRS. A striped bar illuminates inside the button to indicate that it is pressed. 4 - SYMBOL GENERATOR BUTTON Changes the symbol generator from the on-side SG to the cross-side Symbol Generator as well ADC and IRS. A striped bar illuminates inside the button to indicate that it is pressed.

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REVERSIONARY PANEL

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EICAS REVERSIONARY PANEL 1 - DAU REVERSIONARY BUTTON Allows channel B of associated DAU to supply both IC-600s. A striped bar is illuminated inside the button to indicate that it is pressed and that channel B is the current data source.

EICAS REVERSIONARY PANEL

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1 - SYMBOL GENERATOR REVERSION ANNUNCIATION Indicates that a symbol generator reversion has been selected on the reversionary panel. Presented on both PFDs. Labels: SG1 for IC-600 # 1 and SG2 for IC-600 # 2. Color: amber

PRIMARY FLIGHT DISPLAY

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DISPLAYS CONTROL PANEL NOTE: For further information on displays control panel, refer to Sections 2-17 Flight Instruments and 2-18 Navigation and Communication .

1 - TEST BUTTON On the ground: When pressed, activates the IC-600s first level test. When pressed for more than 6 seconds activates the IC 600s second level test. When released, normal operation of IC-600s is resumed. In flight: Refer to Radio Altimeter description on Section 2-17 Flight Instruments.

DISPLAYS CONTROL PANEL

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BUILT-IN TEST
There are 3 kinds of Built-In-Tests (BIT) that the IC-600 may perform: power up BIT, continuous BIT and pilot initiated BIT. All of them check the software and hardware integrity and operation. POWER UP BIT The power up BIT checks the power supply, IC-600 interfaces, memories, autopilot engagement and disengagement, and autopilot servos. CONTINUOUS BIT Memories and processors tests are continuously performed after the power up BIT, as well as autopilot functions. PILOT INITIATED BIT A pilot initiated BIT may be commanded by pressing the TEST button in the displays control panel. This test may be commanded on the ground only and is divided into two levels. The first level is indicated on airplane displays, which present the failure mode annunciations. The second level is activated if the TEST button is held pressed for at least 6 seconds, and checks the IC-600 internal interfaces. The test results are displayed on the PFD, which alternates every 10 seconds between internal and external test results pages. To perform the IC-600 test is necessary to press the TEST button localized at the display control panel.

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The PFD first level test indications are as follows: A magenta TEST is displayed in upper left center of the PFD. Indications removed: all bugs, flight director information, all pointers, low airspeed awareness, take-off speed bugs and digital readouts, VMO/MMO, and trend vectors. Indications forced: all comparison monitors, all marker beacons, and windshear annunciation. Indications presented as invalid: pitch and roll, vertical and lateral deviations, baro correction, vertical speed set digital readout, altitude preselect, heading, distance digital readout, ground speed (or time to go or elapsed time), selected heading and course (or desired track), Mach, airspeed, airspeed set digital readout, altitude. If heading is valid upon test activation, its source annunciation will remain valid (DG1 or 2 or MAG1 or 2). If heading is invalid, its source annunciation will change to HDG1 or HDG2.

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PFD TEST INDICATIONS - FIRST LEVEL


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CREW AIRPLANE AWARENESS OPERATIONS MANUAL The MFD test indications are as follows: Indications removed: heading source, TCAS, weather patch, drift bug, wind vector, heading select bug, flight plan data, airports, navaids, designator information. Indications forced: TERRAIN FAIL, EICAS CHK, WX TERRAIN, MENU INOP, HDG FAIL. Indications presented as invalid: heading, weather radar tilt, SAT, true airspeed, ground speed, distance and time to waypoint.

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CREW AIRPLANE AWARENESS OPERATIONS MANUAL The EICAS test is commanded only from the pilot's panel, and its indications are as follows: Indications removed: reversion, ignition, FADEC in control, all engine and trim bugs. Indications forced: the crew awareness field will be filled with a "X". Indications presented as invalid: landing gear status, N1, N2, ITT, fuel flow and quantity, oil pressure, temperature and quantity, vibration for LP and HP, flaps, spoilers, all cabin and APU parameters, all trim values. During IC-600 # 1 first level pilot initiated BIT, RMU 1 will display the first page of standby engine indication. The RMU 2 is not included in the IC-600 # 2 first level pilot initiated BIT.

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VISUAL WARNINGS
Visual warnings are provided through lights, illuminated buttons, EICAS messages and displays indications.

WARNING LIGHTS
Some of the airplane systems are actuated by illuminated buttons. When under normal operating conditions, such buttons are not illuminated. If the pilot has commanded the button to a position that requires crew attention, a striped bar is illuminated inside the button. There are some exceptions such as the GPU, the ice protection wing and stab, and the APU bleed buttons, which are illuminated under normal operating conditions. Some systems also provide indicating lights, for system status indication. Further details on such lights are provided in the associated systems description section. Master warning and caution lights are installed on each pilot glareshield panel. Such lights blink when any warning or caution message is presented on the EICAS or generated in the Aural Warning Unit (AWU). To stop blinking, pilots must press the associated light. To find information on illuminated buttons and any specific warning light, refer to the associated systems description.

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EICAS MESSAGES
EICAS messages are presented in the upper right corner of the EICAS display. In case of a simultaneous failure in the EICAS and MFD displays, the RMUs are capable of presenting some messages. EICAS MESSAGES LEVELS There are three message levels: warning, caution, and advisory: Warning messages are red colored and require immediate crew action. Warning messages are always presented on the top of the list, in the same order they are generated. Caution messages are amber colored and require immediate crew awareness. They follow warning in criticality level and in display presentation. Advisory messages are cyan and are dedicated to minor failures or system status. Advisory messages are displayed below caution messages. A fourth level is provided for maintenance purposes, but it is not presented to the flight crew, and its access can only be made on the ground. When the message is generated, it is displayed blinking at the top of the associated group. To stop blinking, press the associated master button on the glareshield. Advisory messages will stop blinking after 5 seconds. EICAS MESSAGES PRIORITY LOGIC If more than one message is simultaneously presented, warning will precede caution messages, which will precede advisories. The space is provided for the simultaneous display of up to 15 messages. An END label is provided after the last message, to indicate end of message listing. If more than 15 messages are being generated, a knob in the display bezel permits paging through the remaining messages. In this case, a status line is provided in the sixteenth line, to indicate how many messages are not being currently presented and where they are (above or below the currently presented messages). END label and warning messages can not be scrolled out of the display. Due to this characteristic, caution and advisory messages will be scrolled in the area left blank below the warning messages. If a new message is generated during a scrolling, it will be automatically displayed at the top of the associated group.

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INHIBITION LOGIC To avoid its nuisance effect upon the flight crew, inhibition logic is provided to prevent some messages from being displayed during takeoff and approach/landing phases. The inhibition logic is as follows: Takeoff Phase: Inhibition is valid when the airplane crosses V1 15 kt. The inhibition is deactivated when one of the following conditions is accomplished: radio altitude is greater than 400 ft or; calibrated airspeed is less than 60 kt or; after 1 minute. Approach/landing Phase: Inhibition is valid from the point when airplane crosses 200 ft radio altitude. The inhibition is deactivated when one of the following conditions is accomplished: airplane is on the ground for 3 seconds or more; after 1 minute. IC-600 RESULTS SELF-CHECK The results of both IC-600 computations are continuously compared to check for any inconsistency between both sides. A dedicated amber annunciation, CAS MSG, is provided on the PFDs to indicate whenever a difference between both IC-600s has been found, thus leading to possible unreliable messages.

EICAS MESSAGE DICTIONARY


The following table presents all the EICAS messages. Type column indicates whether the messages nature is Warning (W), Caution (C), or Advisory (A). The number in column INHIBITION indicates the following: (1) Message is inhibited during takeoff; (2) Message is inhibited during takeoff and approach/landing; (3) Message is not inhibited; (4) Message is inhibited during approach/landing; For further information regarding each messages logic, refer to the associated systems description.

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W W C C C C C W W W C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C A A A A A A A A

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TYPE MESSAGE
MAIN DOOR OPN SERVICE DOOR OPN BAGG ACCESS OPN ACCESS DOORS OPN BAGGAGE DOOR OPN EMERG EXIT OPN FUELING DOOR OPN GPWS NO TAKEOFF CONFIG SPS 1 (2) INOP DAU 1-2 ENG MISCOMP DAU 1-2 SYS MISCOMP DAU 1-2 WRN MISCOMP DAU AC ID MISCMP AURAL WARN FAIL CHECK PFD 1 (2) CHK IC CONFIG CHECK IC 1 (2) SW DAU 1 (2) A FAIL GPWS INOP IC 1 (2) OVERHEAT IC BUS FAIL IC 1 (2) WOW INOP SPS ADVANCED STICK PUSHER FAIL WINDSHEAR INOP IC 1 (2) CONFIG FAIL CONFIG MISMATCH CMC FAIL DAU 1 (2) B FAIL DAU 1 (2) REVERSION DU 1 (2, 3, 4, 5) FAN FAIL DU 1 (2, 3, 4, 5) OVHT IC 1 (2) FAN FAIL

2-2 EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

2-4 CREW AWARENESS

INHIBITION 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 4 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1
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W W C C C C C C C C C C C C A BATT 1 (2) OVTEMP ELEC ESS XFR FAIL 115 VAC BUS OFF APU CNTOR CLSD APU GEN OFF BUS APU GEN OVLD BATT 1 (2) OFF BUS BKUP BATT OFF BUS DC BUS 1 (2) OFF ELEC EMERG ABNORM ESS BUS 1 (2) OFF GEN 1 (2, 3, 4) OFF BUS GEN 1 (2, 3, 4) OVLD SHED BUS 1 (2) OFF GEN 1 (2, 3, 4) BRG FAIL

SECTION

2-5 ELECTRICAL

INHIBITION 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 REVISION 5

2-6 LIGHTING

C EMERG LT NOT ARMD W W W W C C C C C W W W W C C C C C C C C C


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2-8 FUEL

APU FIRE BAGG SMOKE ENG 1 (2) FIRE LAV SMOKE APU EXTBTL INOP APU FIREDET FAIL BAGG EXTBTL INOP E1 (2) EXTBTLA (B) INOP E1 (2) FIREDET FAIL FUEL 1 (2) LO LEVEL CHECK ACFT LOAD NO TAKEOFF CONFIG FUEL XFER CRITICAL APU FUEL LO PRESS APU FUEL SOV INOP E1 (2) FUEL LO PRESS E1 (2) FUEL SOV INOP FUEL TANK LO TEMP FUEL TK VENT OPEN FUEL XFEED FAIL FUEL XFEED MISCMD FUEL XFER CHECK

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C C C C A A A C C C W W W W W C C C C C C C C C C C C C A A A A A A

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TYPE MESSAGE
FUEL XFER 1(2) INOP FUEL XFER OVFLOW FUSELAGE FUEL IMB WING FUEL IMB APU FUEL SOV CLSD E 1(2) FUELSOV CLSD FUEL XFEED OPEN APU FAIL APU OIL HI TEMP APU OIL LO PRESS ATTCS FAIL E1 (2) ATTCS NO MRGN E1 (2) OIL LOW PRESS E1 (2) LOW N1 ENG 1-2 OUT E1 (2) EXCEEDANCE E1 (2) FPMU NO DISP E1 (2) ATS SOV OPN E1 (2) CTL FAIL E1 (2) FUEL LO TEMP ENG NO TO DATA ENG REF A/I DISAG ENG1 (2) REV DISAGREE E1 (2) NO DISP ENG 1 (2) OUT FADEC ID NO DISP ENG 1 (2) REV FAIL ENG 1 (2) TLA FAIL CHECK A1P PERF CHECK A1E PERF E1 (2) SHORT DISP E1 (2) FUEL IMP BYP E1 (2) OIL IMP BYP E1 (2) IDL STP FAIL

2-8 FUEL

(Cont.)

2-9 APU

2-10 POWERPLANT

INHIBITION 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

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HYD SYS 1 (2) FAIL HYD SYS 1 (2) OVHT E1 (2) HYD PUMP FAIL E1 (2) HYDSOV CLSD HYD PUMP SELEC OF HYD1 (2) LO QTY LG/LEVER DISAGREE BRAKE OVERHEAT BRK INBD INOP BRK OUTBD INOP EMRG BRK LO PRES LG AIR/GND FAIL STEER INOP NLG UP/DOOR OPN BRAKE DEGRADED PTRIM MAIN INOP PTRIM BACKUP INOP AIL SYS 1 (2) INOP FLAP FAIL PTRIM CPT SW FAIL PTRIM F/O SW FAIL PTRIM BKP SW FAIL RUDDER OVERBOOST RUDDER SYS 1 (2) INOP RUD HDOV PROT FAIL SPBK LVR DISAGREE SPOILER FAIL FLAP LOW SPEED BLD 1 (2) LEAK BLD APU LEAK BLD 1 (2) OVTEMP APU BLD VLV FAIL BLD 1 (2) LOW TEMP BLD 1 (2) VLV FAIL CROSS BLD FAIL CROSS BLD SW OFF ELEKBAY OVTEMP HS VLV 1 (2) FAIL

SECTION
C C 2-11 A HYDRAULIC A A A W C C 2-12 C LANDING C GEAR AND C BRAKES C C C W W C C C C 2-13 C FLIGHT C CONTROLS C C C C A W W W 2-14 C PNEUMATICS, C AIR C CONDITIONING C AND PRESSURIZATION C C C

INHIBITION 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 1 1 1 3 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

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C C 2-14 C PNEUMATICS, AIR CONDITIONING C C AND PRESSURIZATION A A (Cont.) A W C C C C C C C 2-15 C ICE AND RAIN C PROTECTION C C C C C A A C 2-16 C OXYGEN C 2-17 A FLIGHT A INSTRUMENTS A

CREW AWARENESS

TYPE MESSAGE
PACK 1 (2) OVHT PACK 1 (2) OVLD PACK 1 (2) VLV FAIL PRESN AUTO FAIL RAM AIR VLV FAIL BLD 1 (2) VLV CLSD CROSS BLD OPEN PACK 1 (2) VLV CLSD ICE COND-A/I INOP A/ICE SWITCH OFF A/ICE LOW CAPACITY AOA 1 (2) HEAT INOP CLR ICE 1 (2) CLR/I INOP 1 (2) E1 (2) A/ICE FAIL ICE DET1 (2) FAIL ICE DETECTORS FAIL NO ICE-A/ICE ON PITOT 1 (2, 3) INOP STAB A/ICE FAIL TAT 1 (2) HEAT INOP WG A/ICE FAIL W/S 1 (2) HEAT FAIL ICE CONDITION ENG A/ICE OVERPRES CREW OXY LO PRESS PAX OXY LO PRESS DFDR FAIL FDAU FAIL RAD ALT 1 (2) FAIL RAD ALT FAIL

INHIBITION 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 1 1

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IRS 1 (2) ALN FAULT IRS 1 (2) FAIL IRS 1 (2) OVERHEAT IRS 1 (2) ALN IRS 1 (2) ATT MODE IRS 1 (2) EXC MOTION IRS 1 (2) NO MAG HDG IRS 1 (2) NO PPOS IRS 1 (2) ON BATT AUTOPILOT FAIL AUTO TRIM FAIL AP ELEV MISTRIM AP AIL MISTRIM LATERAL MODE OFF VERTICAL MODE OFF YAW DAMPER FAIL

SECTION
C C C 2-18 A NAVIGATION A AND COMMUNICATION A A A A W C C 2-19 AUTOPILOT C C C C

INHIBITION 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 2

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DISPLAYS INDICATIONS
Many of the airplanes parameters are indicated on one of the displays, in analogic or digital format. ANALOGIC INDICATIONS Analogic indications are provided as pointers moving over a scale, which may be graduated or not. In both cases, if the pointer indicates a value out of the normal range for that parameter, both pointer and scale become amber or red, if the parameter goes deeply into the out of range area. Pointers are removed if the parameter signal becomes invalid. For some parameters, scale may also be removed in this condition. Scale and pointer are not presented for some parameters, when they are not required, as for EADI chevrons, V1, VR, V2 speed bugs, trend vectors, etc. DIGITAL INDICATIONS Digital indications are provided as green characters for normal values. If the associated parameter goes outside its normal range, digits become amber, with an amber box surrounding them. Both digits and box become red if the parameter goes deeply into the out of range area. If the parameter signal becomes invalid, digits are replaced by amber dashes, without boxes.

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CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


GLARESHIELD PANEL 1 - MASTER WARNING BUTTON Acknowledges the warning messages and stops the associated blinking when pressed. A red light blinks inside the button when a new warning message is displayed on the EICAS. 2 - MASTER CAUTION BUTTON Acknowledges the caution messages and stops the associated blinking when pressed. An amber light blinks inside the button when a new caution message is displayed on the EICAS.

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GLARESHIELD PANEL

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EICAS BEZEL 1 - MESSAGE SCROLLING KNOB To be used when displayed EICAS messages can not be presented at once. By rotating the knob clockwise, advances through EICAS messages. Rotated counterclockwise moves backward through EICAS messages.

EICAS BEZEL

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1 - EICAS CHECK SUM FAIL COMPARISON MONITOR DISPLAY Color: amber. Label: CAS MSG. Displayed when the number of active EICAS messages in each IC-600 is found to be different.

PRIMARY FLIGHT DISPLAY

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EICAS MESSAGES EXAMPLE


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RMU MESSAGES EXAMPLE

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AURAL WARNINGS
There are two kinds of aural warnings: voice messages and tones. Voice messages are normally associated with warning messages on EICAS or other warning systems. They are generated whenever a potentially dangerous condition exists, as determined by the EGPWS, TCAS and windshear detection system. There are some voice messages that can be cancelled, but others can only be cancelled when the cause that triggered them has been eliminated. Tones have different forms and indicate some notable airplane events, sometimes in unison with voice messages.

AURAL WARNING UNIT


In order to generate messages and tones, the Aural Warning Unit (AWU) receives signals from the following airplane systems: TCAS Windshear detection system EGPWS IC-600 Fire detection system Stall protection system Trims Flaps Brakes Spoilers Radio altimeter Autopilot Landing gear ADC Pressurization SELCAL The AWU sends the appropriate audio signal to an audio digital system, which routes the messages to the appropriate speakers. AWU POWER SOURCE The AWU is supplied by one DC bus and one Essential DC bus, and is provided with two channels, A and B. Channel B is kept as a backup for channel A and is automatically activated if channel A fails.

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AWU POWER-UP TEST An AWU power-up test is performed and generates aural warnings for one or both channels operating normally. If both channels have failed, the caution message AURAL WARN FAIL is displayed on EICAS. AURAL WARNINGS LEVELS The aural warnings are classified into four levels, presented below in a decreasing level order: Emergency - Associated with situations that may be hazardous. AWU generates a master warning tone (triple chime) before the warning and voice message may be generated. In any case, the aural warning is repeated every second until deactivated through the master warning button or until the condition that generated the warning has been eliminated. Abnormal - Associated with malfunctions or failures. AWU generates a master caution tone (single chime) every five seconds, until it is removed, canceled or replaced by a higher priority aural warning. Voice messages are generated after each tone. Advisory - Associated with minor malfunctions or failures that lead to loss of redundancy or degradation of the affected systems performance. Information - A remarkable event has occurred. AURAL WARNINGS ANNUNCIATION PRIORITY When multiple aural warnings are active, aural warnings among the highest level alert groups shall be sounded first in order and repeated. Once all alerts in the higher group are cancelled or removed, then the second tier group alerts are sounded and repeated. An alert in process shall be immediately interrupted when an alert of a higher priority needs to be generated. EXCEPTIONS TO AURAL WARNINGS PRIORITY When an internal voice message is being annunciated, it shall be completed before another alert, even of a higher priority, is annunciated. This does not apply to internally generated tones which shall be interrupted within 1 second. If an emergency arises together with a warning that generates continuous sounds, such as a fire or stall, the sound volume is reduced to avoid misunderstanding of the remaining messages, although being loud enough to still warn pilots. The master warning tone is inhibited when any other emergency alert (internal or external) is occurring at the same time.
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ASSOCIATED CONDITION/EICAS MESSAGE
Stall condition. Windshear condition (1). Ground proximity condition (1). Traffic proximity condition (1). Fire in engine or APU. ENG 1 (2) FIRE , APU FIRE. Airspeed above VMO. EMERGENCY Landing gear not locked down for landing. Cabin altitude above 10000 ft. Associated with takeoff configuration warning.

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LEVEL

PRIORITY TONE
1 2 3 4 5

VOICE CANCEL MESSAGE


NO NO NO NO (2) YES

Clacker None None WINDSHEAR (1) (1) None Bell (1) None

6 7 8 9

Associated with emergency failures. Associated with glide slope deviation. ABNORMAL Traffic proximity condition. Associated with abnormal failures.

10 None None None

Attenson HIGH 3 SPEED Attenson LANDING 3 GEAR Attenson CABIN 3 Attenson TAKEOFF 3 plus one of the following: -BRAKES -FLAPS -FUEL -SPOILER -TRIM Attenson None 3 None GLIDE SLOPE None TRAFFIC Master None Caution Tone

NO NO YES NO

NO YES YES YES

NOTE: 1) Messages are generated outside the AWU. For further details, refer to the associated system description. 2) TCAS resolution advisory warning can not be canceled. 3) Applicable to airplanes equipped with CMU.

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ASSOCIATED CONDITION/EICAS MESSAGE

LEVEL

PRIORITY TONE

VOICE CANCEL MESSAGE


AUTOPILOT MINIMUM None NO NO NO

Autopilot disengagement None None during approach. Associated with decision None None ADVISORY height crossing. Airplane is crossing or None Three has reached a 2900 Hz preselected altitude. tones Power up test detected a Not None failure in one channel of applicable AWU. Associated with incorrect None Single command of pitch trim chime main or backup channel switches. Associated with SELCAL None None INFORMATION callings. Both AWU channels are None None operating normally on power up test. Takeoff configuration test None None successful. Power 1 or 2 fail. None None

AURAL UNIT ONE CHANNEL TRIM

NO

NO

SELCAL AURAL UNIT OK TAKEOFF OK AURAL UNIT ONE POWER INCOMING CALL (3)

NO NO

NO

Not applicable NO

When CMU receives a new message.

None

None

NOTE: 1) Messages are generated outside the AWU. For further details, refer to the associated system description. 2) TCAS resolution advisory warning can not be canceled. 3) Applicable to airplanes equipped with CMU.

EICAS MESSAGE
TYPE CAUTION MESSAGE AURAL WARN FAIL MEANING Both AWU channels inoperative. are

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TAKEOFF CONFIGURATION WARNING


A dedicated warning to indicate that airplane configuration is unsuitable for takeoff is provided by the aural warning system. Such warning is activated whenever the airplane is on the ground, thrust is applied and at least one of the following conditions is met: Parking brakes are applied. Flaps are not in takeoff position. Fuselage Tank Transfer System Knob is not in off position. Any spoiler panel is deployed. Pitch trim is out of the green range.

More than one warning may be generated, if more than one condition is met. TEST BUTTON A test button is provided to allow checking the takeoff configuration warning integrity, by simulating power levers advanced. A voice message is generated after successful tests. Unsuccessful tests will generate an EICAS message and a voice message associated with the out-of-configuration item.

EICAS MESSAGE
TYPE WARNING MEANING Airplane is not in takeoff NO TAKEOFF CONFIG configuration. MESSAGE

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CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


1 - TAKEOFF CONFIGURATION CHECK BUTTON Allows checking the takeoff configuration warning.

TAKEOFF CONFIGURATION CHECK BUTTON


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STALL PROTECTION SYSTEM


GENERAL
To help detect imminent stalls and to avoid stalling the airplane, the EMB-135 BJ is provided with a Stall Protection System (SPS). The SPS is composed of one computer box with two independent channels, the SPS panel, two Angle of Attack (AOA) sensors, two stick shaker actuators, and one stick pusher actuator. The system provides sensitive, visual and aural indications of an impending stall. To avoid spurious actuation, the SPS receives signals from many airplane systems, thus correcting its set point according to flaps and landing gear position, icing and windshear conditions and Mach number. INTERFACES Each channel receives data from the following on-side airplane systems: IRS, ADC, flaps, landing gear, air/ground, windshear detection, ice detection and radio altimeter. Each Stall Protection Computer (SPC) channel receives information from its associated AOA sensor and sends it to the opposite channel in order to compensate side slip influence on angle of attack measurements. A locked AOA sensor signal is not considered in stall calculations and in this case the channel will be deactivated. If a stall condition is imminent, the system first actuates the stick shaker and disengages the autopilot. If no corrective action is taken and the airplane is on the verge of entering a stall, the stick pusher is actuated, which pitches the nose down. Simultaneously, a clacker is generated in the aural warning system. A bug in the airspeed scale on the PFD indicates the stall speed for the associated condition and a pitch limit indicator is presented on EADI to indicate the current margin to the stick shaker angle. When the airplane reaches 0.5 g, the stick pusher is inhibited, stopping its actuation over the control column. A quick disconnect button is provided in the control wheel to permit pilots to cut the system if the need arises. To disconnect the system in case of failure, the SPS panel provides one cutout button for each channel. An EICAS message is presented to indicate that the system has failed or is cutout.

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SYSTEM INHIBITION The stick pusher does not actuate in the following conditions: On the ground (except during test). Below 0.5 g. If the quick disconnect button is pressed (except for JAA certification). Below 200 ft AGL. If radio altimeter has failed, this condition reverts to a 10-second delay after takeoff. If any cutout buttons are released. Above 200 KIAS. If at least one channel is inoperative. SYSTEM TEST A test button is provided to test the system on the ground. The system operates normally if not tested. Test button remains illuminated if the system has not been tested or after unsuccessful tests. It is not possible to test the system in flight. This inhibition is valid for 30 seconds after landing, above 70 KIAS or with landing gear not downlocked. NOTE: Test button remains illuminated if quick disconnect button is pressed during test.

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EICAS MESSAGES
MEANING Associated SPS computer channel has failed or AOA vane failed. WARNING SPS 1-2 INOP Both SPS computer channels have failed or both AOA vanes have failed or stick pusher has failed or is cutout. SPS ADVANCED Stick shaker and pusher actuation is set to higher speeds due to: Flap signal disagreement. Failure in at least one SPS channel. CAUTION IRS or ADC parameters disagree. Air/Ground signs disagree. Landing gear down and locked indications disagree. STICK PUSHER FAIL Stick pusher actuator has been commanded but has not moved. SPS/ICE SPEEDS SPS actuation angle is advanced ADVISORY for flaps 9 and 22. NOTE: Advisory SPS/ICE SPEEDS messages are inhibited for the first 5 minutes after takeoff. TYPE MESSAGE SPS 1(2) INOP

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STALL PROTECTION SYSTEM PANEL 1 - CUTOUT BUTTON (guarded) Cuts out the associated channel. A striped bar illuminates inside the button to indicate that it is in the cutout position. 2 - TEST BUTTON Starts the test sequence, as follows: Button illuminates. Both stick shakers actuate. Pusher actuates. Button illumination extinguishes. NOTE: - Test sequence is completed within a maximum of 5 seconds. - The TEST button must be released at the first sign of stick shaker actuation. Button is kept illuminated after an unsuccessful test or if the system has not been tested.

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PFD INDICATIONS 1 - PITCH LIMIT INDICATOR Displayed on the EADI parallel to the airplane symbol. Indicates the remaining margin left for the stick shaker angle of attack set point. Indication is presented whenever the margin reaches 10. Color: green for margin from 10 up to 5. amber for margin between 5 and 2. red for margin below 2. 2 - LOW AIRSPEED AWARENESS Displayed in the airspeed scale when airspeed is near stall speed for the current configuration. For further details on Low Airspeed Awareness, refer to Section 2-17Flight Instruments.

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ENHANCED GROUND PROXIMITY WARNING SYSTEM


The purpose of the Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System (EGPWS) is to avoid accidents caused by Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) and also severe windshear. The EGPWS incorporates functions like Terrain Clearance Floor, Terrain Look Ahead Alerting and Terrain Awareness Display. These functions use airplane geographic position, airplane altitude and an internal terrain database to predict potential conflicts between the airplane's flight path and terrain, and to provide graphic displays of the conflicting terrain. NOTE: Airplanes equipped with EGPWS version 216 incorporates additional features like Peaks Mode, Runway Field Clearance Floor, Obstacle Alerting and Geometric Altitude. The EGPWS is a useful navigation aids when flying at low altitude, generally within 2500 ft above terrain. It provides voice messages, EICAS message and PFD indication to alert the flight crew, so that they may take appropriate action. The EGPWS interfaces with the followings systems and equipment: Radio Altimeter - The radio altimeter provides altitude above ground, how fast the altitude decreases as a result of airplane sinkage or ground profile change and the validity signal. IC-600s - The IC-600s provide glideslope deviation, localizer deviation, selected decision height, selected course, packed discrete and selected terrain range. ADCs - The ADCs provide uncorrected barometric altitude, corrected barometric altitude, computed airspeed, true airspeed, barometric altitude rate and static air temperature. IRS - The IRS provide magnetic heading, pitch and roll angle, longitudinal and normal acceleration. FMS - The FMS provides latitude, longitude, ground speed, true tracking, true heading and NAV mode. The same is applicable when the airplane is equipped with dual FMS. GPS - The GPS provides latitude, longitude and altitude. Landing gear - The landing gear provides a discrete signal that indicates gear down/locked condition. Flap - The Flap Control Unit provides one discrete signal that indicates whether or not flaps are in landing position.
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AWU - The AWU receives the aural messages to be enunciated. It also provides a discrete signal to indicate that the glideslope advisory alert may be canceled without any restriction. Terrain Inhibit Switch - It is used in approach mode, in airports not covered by an EGPWS database, assuring protection against unwanted terrain alerts. Some modes may have their associated envelopes shifted, so as to suit particular airport requirements or to avoid nuisance warnings under some flight situations. This feature is achieved either with calculations or data provided by the FMS, if installed. The EGPWS provides alerts associated with the following flight conditions: Mode 1 - Excessive descent rate. Mode 2 - Excessive closure rate to terrain. Mode 3 - Altitude loss after takeoff. Mode 4 - Insufficient terrain clearance. Mode 5 - Excessive deviation below glideslope beam. Mode 6 - Callouts. Mode 7 - Windshear (refer to Section 2-04-35). Terrain awareness alerting and warning. Terrain clearance floor.

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MODES AND MESSAGES


MODE 1 - EXCESSIVE DESCENT RATE Mode 1 provides alerts and warnings when the airplane has attained an excessive descent rate in respect to altitude above ground level (AGL) during the descent and approach phases of flight. This mode has outer (sink rate) and inner (pull up) alert/warning boundaries: Minimum Terrain Clearance (MTC) for SINK RATE message triggering: Minimum: 30 ft at 1000 ft/min of descent Altitude Rate. Maximum: 2450 ft at 5007 ft/min or greater of descent Altitude Rate. Minimum Terrain Clearance (MTC) for PULL UP message triggering: Minimum: 30 ft at 1710 ft/min of descent Altitude Rate. Maximum: 2450 ft at 7125 ft/min or greater of descent Altitude Rate. Penetration of the outer (sinkrate) boundary will result in: Aural message SINK RATE. The message will be repeated as long as the penetration increases; and Amber "GND PROX" indication on the PFD. Penetration of the inner (pull up) boundary trigger and repeat the following messages until the condition is cleared: Aural message PULL UP and red "PULL UP" indication on the PFD. If a valid ILS Glideslope front course signal is received and the airplane is above the glideslope centerline, the sinkrate boundary is adjusted to prevent unwanted alerts when the airplane is safely capturing the glideslope.

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MODE 2 - EXCESSIVE CLOSURE RATE TO TERRAIN Mode 2 provides alerts and warnings based on airspeed, airplane gear/flap configuration, radio altitude, and excessive closure rate to terrain. Mode 2 exists in two forms: 2A and 2B. MODE 2A Mode 2A is selected when the flaps are not in landing configuration and the airplane is not on the glide slope beam. Minimum Terrain Clearance (MTC) for TERRAIN TERRAIN message triggering: Minimum: 30 ft at 2038 ft/min of Closure Rate. Maximum: 1650 ft at 5733 ft/min or greater of Closure Rate, for an airspeed equal or below 220 KIAS. 2450 ft at 9800 ft/min or greater of Closure Rate for an airspeed equal or above 310 KIAS. If the airplane penetrates the Mode 2A envelope, the situation results in: Aural message TERRAIN, TERRAIN ; and Amber "GND PROX" indication on the PFD. If the airplane continues to penetrate the envelope, the aural message switches to messages described below, until the condition is cleared: Aural message PULL UP and red "PULL UP" indication on the PFD. The visual and aural messages will remain on until the airplane has gained 300 ft of barometric altitude.

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MODE 2B Mode 2B is selected when the flaps are in landing configuration or when making an ILS approach with glide slope and localizer deviations below 2 dots. Minimum Terrain Clearance (MTC) for TERRAIN TERRAIN message triggering: Minimum: 30 ft at 2038 ft/min of closure rate. Maximum: 789 ft at 3000 ft/min or greater of closure rate. This steady value can also vary from 200 ft up to 600 ft for flaps set to landing configuration. If the airplane penetrates the Mode 2B envelope with both gear and flaps in the landing configuration, the message TERRAIN is sounded. If the airplane penetrates the mode 2B envelope with either the landing gear UP or flaps not in landing configuration will result in: Aural message TERRAIN, TERRAIN ; and Amber "GND PROX" indication on the PFD. If the airplane continues to penetrate the envelope, the aural message switches to messages described below, until the condition is cleared: Aural message PULL UP and red "PULL UP" indication on the PFD.

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MODE 3 - ALTITUDE LOSS AFTER TAKEOFF Mode 3 provides alerts and warnings for a significant altitude loss after takeoff with landing gear UP or flaps in other than landing configuration. The amount of altitude loss required to trigger the warning depends on the height of the airplane above the terrain. Minimum Terrain Clearance (MTC) for DON'T SINK, DON'T SINK message triggering: Minimum: 30 ft at 5 ft of altitude loss. Maximum: 1500 ft at 143 ft or greater of altitude loss. Significant altitude loss after takeoff or during a low altitude go-around activates the aural message DON'T SINK, DON'T SINK and: Amber "GND PROX" indication on the PFD. The audio message is only annunciated twice, unless excessive altitude loss continues to accumulate. Once triggered, the visual message can only be cancelled achieving a positive rate of climb relative to the original altitude. Therefore, as long as the original altitude is not crossed, any descent will trigger the aural and visual messages again. After crossing the original altitude, a new altitude value is set every moment.

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MODE 4 - INSUFFICIENT TERRAIN CLEARANCE Mode 4 provides alerts for insufficient terrain clearance with respect to phase of flight and speed. Mode 4 exists in three forms, 4A, 4B and 4C. MODE 4A Mode 4A is active during cruise and approach with the landing gear UP. Minimum Terrain Clearance (MTC) for TOO LOW GEAR message triggering: Minimum: 30 ft. Maximum: 500 ft for an airspeed equal or less than 190 KIAS. Minimum Terrain Clearance (MTC) for TOO LOW TERRAIN message triggering: Minimum: 30 ft. Maximum: 1000 ft for an airspeed equal or higher than 250 KIAS. If during cruise the ground is slowly getting closer and the airplane is not in the landing configuration or during approach with an unintentional gear up landing, the aural message "TOO LOW TERRAIN" will be sounded. Once the message has been issued, an additional 20% altitude loss is required for the issuing of a new message. The amber "GND PROX" indication is displayed on the PFD. If the airplane penetrates below the 500 ft AGL boundary with the landing gear still up, the aural message will be "TOO LOW GEAR". Once a message is issued, an additional 20% altitude loss is required for the issuing of a new message. The visual and aural messages cease when the mode 4A is exited.

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MODE 4B Mode 4B is active during cruise and approach with the landing gear down and flaps in other than landing configuration. Minimum Terrain Clearance (MTC) for "TOO LOW FLAP " message triggering: Minimum: 30 ft. Maximum: 245 ft for an airspeed equal or less than 159 KIAS. Minimum Terrain Clearance (MTC) for TOO LOW TERRAIN message triggering: Minimum: 30 ft. Maximum: 1000 ft for an airspeed equal or higher than 250 KIAS. If during cruise the ground is slowly getting closer and the airplane is not in the landing configuration, or during approach with an unintentional gear up landing, the aural message "TOO LOW TERRAIN" will be sounded. Once the message is issued, an additional 20% altitude loss is required for the issuing of a new message. The amber "GND PROX" indication is displayed on the PFD. If the airplane penetrates below the 245 ft AGL boundary with the landing gear down and flaps in other than landing configuration, the aural message will be "TOO LOW FLAPS". Once message is issued, an additional 20% altitude loss is required for the issuing of a new message. The visual and aural messages cease when the mode 4B is exited.

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MODE 4C Mode 4C is active during takeoff phase or low altitude go-around with either the landing gear or flaps in other than landing configuration, when the terrain is rising closer than the airplane is climbing. Only in this case, the Minimum Terrain Clearance is a function of the Radio Altitude of the airplane. Minimum Terrain Clearance (MTC) for "TOO LOW TERRAIN" message triggering: Minimum: 30 ft. Maximum: 500 ft at 667 ft or greater of radio altitude for an airspeed less or equal or less than 190 KIAS. 1000 ft at 1333 ft or greater of radio altitude for an airspeed equal or above 250 KIAS. If during takeoff or low altitude go-around with either the landing gear or flaps in other than landing configuration, when the terrain is rising more steeply than the airplane is climbing, the aural message "TOO LOW TERRAIN" will be sounded. The amber "GND PROX" indication is displayed on the PFD.

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MODE 5 - EXCESSIVE DEVIATION BELOW GLIDESLOPE BEAM Mode 5 provides two levels of alerting if the airplane's flight path descends below the glideslope on ILS approaches. Minimum Terrain Clearance (MTC) for "GLIDESLOPE" message triggering: Minimum: For the Soft Alert Area, 30 ft at 2.98 dots of glideslope deviation. For the Hard Alert Area, 30 ft at 3.68 dots of glideslope deviation. Maximum: For the Soft Alert Area 1000 ft. For the Hard Alert Area 300 ft. The first alert occurs whenever the airplane is more than 1.3 dots below the beam and is called a "soft alert" because the volume level is reduced. A second alert occurs below 300 ft radio altitude with greater than 2 dots deviation from glideslope and is louder or "hard". The aural message "GLIDESLOPE" is sounded once. Follow-on alerts are only allowed when the airplane descends lower on the glideslope beam by approximately 20%. Aural messages are sounded continuously once the airplane exceeds 2 dots. The amber "GND PROX" indication is displayed on the PFD. The glideslope warning can be canceled by pressing the Master Caution Button.

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MODE 6 - CALLOUTS Mode 6 provides aural messages for descent below predefined altitudes, decision height, a minimums setting and approaching minimums. Alerts for excessive roll or bank angle are also provided. MINIMUMS CALLOUTS The message "APPROACHING MINIMUMS" is sounded only once when the airplane is 80 ft above the decision height or another target has been reached, with the landing gear down. Radio altitude for message triggering: Minimum: 90 ft. Maximum: 1000 ft. The message "MINIMUMS MINIMUMS" is sounded only once when the airplane is at decision height or another target has been reached, with the landing gear down. Radio altitude for message triggering: Minimum: 10 ft. Maximum: 1000 ft. Visual indication of minimum target is presented on PFD.

EGPWS MODE 6 - SCHEMATIC MINIMUMS CALLOUTS


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The messages "FIVE HUNDRED, TWO HUNDRED and ONE HUNDRED" will be sounded when associated radio altitude has been reached, with the landing gear down. The FIVE HUNDRED message will only be sounded whether one or more of the following conditions are satisfied: ILS is not tuned or not available. ILS is tuned in a valid signal, but with a deviation greater than 2 dots of localizer or glideslope. If a backcourse approach is detected. Radio altitude for message activation: Minimum: 50 ft. Maximum: 1000 ft.

EGPWS MODE 6 SCHEMATIC ALTITUDE CALLOUTS

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BANK ANGLE CALLOUT Minimum Terrain Clearance (MTC) for message triggering on EGPWS: Minimum: 5 ft. Maximum: Increases linearly from 30 ft at 10 of bank angle to 150 ft at 40 then from 150 ft at 40 up to 2450 ft at 55, remaining constant at 55 above 2450 ft. The aural message "BANK ANGLE, BANK ANGLE" is sounded when the airplane bank angle is too high or roll rate exceeds 1/sec during all phases of flight. The message is generated again if bank angle increases by 20%. When roll attitude increases to 40% above the initial callout angle, the callout will repeat continuously.

EGPWS MODE 6 - SCHEMATIC BANK ANGLE CALLOUT

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EGPWS ADDITIONAL FEATURES


The EGPWS also includes the Terrain Clearance Floor, Terrain Look Ahead Alerting and Terrain Awareness Display features. Airplanes equipped with EGPWS version 216 incorporates additional features like Peaks Mode, Runway Field Clearance Floor, Obstacle Alerting and Geometric Altitude. TERRAIN CLEARANCE FLOOR The Terrain Clearance Floor (TCF) provides a terrain clearance circular envelope around the airport runway, alerting the pilot of a possible premature descent for non-precision approaches regardless of the airplane's configuration. The TCF is active during takeoff, cruise and final approach and is based on current airplane position, nearest runway and radio altitude. This alert mode complements the Mode 4 by providing an alert based on insufficient terrain clearance even when the airplane is in the landing configuration. TCF alerts display GRND PROX on the PFD and the aural message "TOO LOW TERRAIN" sounds. This message sounds once when initial envelope penetration occurs and will repeat at every additional 20% decrease in radio altitude. The GRND PROX annunciator remains on until the TCF envelope is exited. In the EGPWS version 216, the TCF alert provides an envelope extension for runway sides, which is limited to a minimum value of 245 ft beside the runway, within 1 NM to 2.5 NM from runway end. This feature provides improved alerting when it is determined that the aircraft is landing to the side of the runway.

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TCF ALERT ENVELOPE

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TERRAIN LOOK AHEAD ALERTING The Terrain Look Ahead Alerting provides a caution/warning level to alert the flight crew about potential terrain conflicts. The alerts are based mainly on the airplane's current position and barometric altitude information. In the event of terrain caution or warning conditions, a specific audio alert and visual alert are triggered and the terrain display image is enhanced to highlight each of the types of terrain threats.

TERRAIN WARNING AND CAUTION AREAS

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When conditions are such as to generate a Terrain Caution alert (approximately 60 seconds prior to potential terrain conflict), the aural message "CAUTION TERRAIN, CAUTION TERRAIN" is sounded and the amber "GND PROX" indication is displayed on the PFD. This is repeated every seven seconds as long as the airplane is still in the caution envelope. When conditions have been met to generate a Terrain Warning alert (approximately 30 seconds prior to potential terrain conflict), the aural message "TERRAIN, TERRAIN, PULL UP" is sounded and the red "PULL UP" indication is displayed on the PFD. The terrain image will appear automatically on the MFD when a terrain threat event occurs.

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TERRAIN AWARENESS DISPLAY The EGPWS terrain display is designed to increase flight crew awareness of the surrounding terrain in varying density dots patterns of green, yellow and red. These dot patterns represent specific terrain separation with respect to the airplane. The following table relates the color that the terrain is displayed with its meaning: COLOR Solid red Solid yellow High density red dots High density yellow dots Medium dots density yellow MEANING Warning Terrain (Approximately 30 sec from impact). Caution Terrain (Approximately 60 sec from impact). Terrain that is more than 2000 ft above airplane altitude. Terrain that is between 1000 and 2000 ft above airplane altitude. Terrain that is between 500 ft (250 ft with gear down) to 1000 ft below airplane altitude. Terrain that is between 500 ft (250 ft with gear down) below and 1000 ft below airplane altitude. Terrain that is 1000 to 2000 ft below airplane altitude. Terrain below 2000 ft.

Medium density green dots

Light density green dots Black

NOTE: - Terrain is not shown if its elevation is within 400 ft of runway elevation of the nearest airport. - To reduce clutter on the display, any terrain more than 2000 ft below the airplane is not displayed. - Terrain that is not covered in the EGPWS database will be displayed in magenta.

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EGPWS DISPLAY COLOR CODING

EXAMPLE OF EGPWS DISPLAY ON MFD


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PEAKS MODE This is a feature provided only by EGPWS version 216 and, when selected, adds additional density patterns and level thresholds to the standard mode display levels and allows the terrain to be displayed during the cruise phase even if it is more than 2000 ft below the aircraft. When the Peaks Display is on, elevation numbers indicating the highest and lowest terrain/obstacle currently being displayed are shown on the display. These elevations are expressed in hundreds of feet above sea level (MSL) with the highest elevation on top and the lowest on the bottom. In the event that there is no appreciable difference in the terrain/obstacle elevations, only the highest value is displayed. The color of the elevation value displayed matches the color of the terrain displayed. If the aircraft is 500 ft (250 ft with landing gear down) or less above the terrain in the displayed range, the peaks color displayed will be identical to the terrain awareness display mode, with the exception of sea level displayed as cyan.

PEAKS PROFILE AT A LOW RELATIVE ALTITUDE


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When the aircraft is greater than 500 ft (250 ft with landing gear down) above all terrain in the displayed range, no yellow or red bands are displayed and low density green, medium density green and solid green will be displayed as a function of the highest and lowest elevations in view. Moreover, sea level elevations can be displayed as cyan to simulate water.

PEAKS PROFILE AT A HIGH RELATIVE ALTITUDE

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WARNING PRIORITIES
The GPWS/EGPWS warning priorities are listed below. Messages at the top will start before or override a lower priority message even if it is already in progress. MESSAGE PULL UP TERRAIN TERRAIN PULL UP TERRAIN MINIMUMS MINIMUMS CAUTION TERRAIN TOO LOW TERRAIN ALTITUDE CALLOUTS TOO LOW GEAR TOO LOW FLAPS SINKRATE DON'T SINK GLIDESLOPE APPROACHING MINIMUMS BANK ANGLE MODE 1 and 2 2 and Terrain Look-Ahead Terrain Look-Ahead 2 6 Terrain-Look Ahead 4 and Terrain Clearance Floor 6 4 4 1 3 5 6 6

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EICAS MESSAGES
EGPWS TYPE WARNING MESSAGE GPWS GPWS INOP TERR INOP MEANING One GPWS envelope, associated to Modes 1 to 4, has been penetrated. GPWS monitor has detected an internal failure. Terrain mode is not available.

CAUTION

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CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


1 - EGPWS TERRAIN SYSTEM OVERRIDE BUTTON When pressed, inhibits EGPWS in approach mode, thus avoiding unwanted terrain alerts in airports not covered by EGPWS database.

EGPWS TERRAIN SYSTEM OVERRIDE BUTTON

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MFD BEZEL PANEL 1 - EGPWS DISPLAY SELECTOR BUTTON Alternate pressing will cause the MFD to toggle between the weather radar or terrain to be displayed. The ranges available are: 5 NM, 10 NM, 25 NM, 50 NM, 100 NM, 200 NM, 300 NM, 500 NM and 1000 NM. When a terrain warning/caution condition exists and the terrain is not selected on the MFD, the terrain will be automatically displayed on the MFD with a range of 10 NM.

MFD BEZEL PANEL

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EGPWS DISPLAY ON MFD 1 - TERRAIN ANNUNCIATIONS LABEL TERR (Upper left corner) TERR FAIL TERR INHIB for Terrain Inhibition COLOR Cyan Amber White CONDITION Lit when terrain mode is selected. Lit when terrain mode is inoperative. Lit when the EGPWS terrain system override button is pressed in approach mode. Lit when EGPWS is uncertain of the airplane's position. Lit when the self test is activated.

TERR N/A

Amber

TERR TEST

Red

2 - TERRAIN INDICATION Displays an image of surrounding terrain in varying density dot patterns of green, yellow and red. These dot patterns represent specific terrain separation with respect to the airplane. The display is generated from airplane altitude compared to terrain data. 3 - TERRAIN ALERT INDICATION Indicates a terrain warning or caution condition.

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EGPWS DISPLAY ON MFD


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DISPLAY ON PFD EGPWS 1 - PULL UP/GROUND PROXIMITY ANNUNCIATIONS Label: PULL UP (red) GND PROX for Ground Proximity (amber). PULL UP is lit when either modes 1 or 2 have been activated in their more critical situation. GND PROX is lit when ground is getting closer too fast.

EGPWS DISPLAY ON PFD

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STEEP APPROACH OPERATION


Some airplanes may be optionally equipped with Steep Approach functions. Steep Approaches are approach operations performed with glide slope angle above 4.4 degrees. This kind of operation implies to the airplane a vertical speed higher than the normal, requiring means to change the range of the EGPWS Mode 1 envelope in order to avoid nuisance messages. The Steep Approach mode is selected by means of two pushbuttons installed on the glareshield panel, one at each side. When either pushbutton is pressed, an internally preset mode of the EGPWS changes the references to sound the SINK RATE and PULL UP aural warnings. When the airplane is in flight and the flaps are selected to 45, the STEEP white light illuminates on the Steep Approach pushbutton indicating that the Steep Approach mode is available. When either the flaps are retracted to a position other than 45 or airplane lands, the STEEP white light extinguishes indicating that the Steep Approach mode is no longer available. The pushbutton lower portion has two status lights, amber and green. The green light indicates that the Steep Approach mode is engaged and the amber light indicates a failed condition. If the amber light turns on, it indicates that the Steep Approach mode is failed and steep approach operations must not be performed. In this situation, the Steep Approach mode may or not be engaged and the airplane must land in an airport that not requires steep approach operation. The pilot must monitor the vertical speed during the approach and landing phases. In flight, with the STEEP inscription illuminated if the Steep Approach pushbutton is pressed, the green light illuminates to indicate that the Steep Approach mode is engaged. If the green light does not illuminate, the Steep Approach mode is not engaged and the steep approach operation must not be performed. The Steep Approach mode is deselected pressing the pushbutton or through automatic deselection. An automatic deselection of the Steep Approach mode is performed when: Airplane on the ground; Flaps setting other than 45.

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STEEP APPROACH MODE PUSHBUTTON

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL CONTROLS AND INDICATORS STEEP APPROACH BUTTON

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LIGHT INDICATION MODE DESCRIPTION STEEP Illuminates in white color when the airplane is in the air and the flaps are in 45. This means that the Steep Approach mode is available. GREEN LIGHT Illuminates when the button is pressed with the STEEP light illuminated. This means that the Steep Approach mode is engaged. With the STEEP light illuminated, if the green light does not illuminates when the pushbutton is pressed, means that the Steep Approach is not engaged; in this case, do not perform Steep Approach operations. AMBER LIGHT The Steep Approach mode is failed. Do not perform Steep Approach operations. In this situation, the Steep Approach mode may or not be engaged and the airplane must land in an airport that not requires steep approach operation. The pilot must monitor the vertical speed during the approach and landing phases.

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WINDSHEAR DETECTION GUIDANCE SYSTEM

AND

ESCAPE

The EMB-135BJ is equipped with an additional warning system dedicated to windshear detection. The system provides visual and aural alarms to warn pilots of a windshear occurrence, as well as the most appropriate maneuver to recover from such phenomenon. The Windshear Detection function is performed by the EGPWS computer, which also performs ground proximity warning functions. The Windshear Escape Guidance is a Flight Director mode provided by the avionics package.

WINDSHEAR GENERAL INFORMATION


Windshear is a sudden change in wind direction or speed, normally caused by thunderstorms, frontal systems or any topographical feature that may affect the wind flow (e.g. hills, mountains, lakes, seas,...). Due to ground proximity, the most hazardous phases of flight regarding windshear encounters are takeoff, approach and landing. On a windshear, wind may shift from a tailwind to a headwind or to a downdraft or updraft. The consequences may be an abrupt change in airspeed, lift and altitude, upwards or downwards, according to shifting direction. Although quick, windshear is not instantaneous, which may lead pilots to correction attempts in the wrong manner. For instance, an airplane facing a headwind after takeoff, appears to have good performance, characterized by high airspeed, which drives the pilot into rotating the airplane to a pitch higher than usual. When the thunderstorm core is reached, wind shifts to a downdraft and airspeed decreases, as well as vertical speed. The pilots natural reaction is to lower the airplanes nose in an attempt to maintain airspeed. Further ahead, wind shifts to tailwind component, resulting in a dramatic airspeed reduction with the nose already down. Under such scenario, it is very difficult to maintain a positive rate of climb. If the takeoff or landing can not be delayed, the correct action is to increase airspeed before being subjected to windshear encounter and to consider flying near stall speeds with high angle of attack if necessary to regain altitude.

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KINDS OF WINDSHEAR
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WINDSHEAR EFFECTS
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WINDSHEAR DETECTION
The windshear detection system is designed to identify the presence of severe windshear phenomenon and to provide timely warnings and adequate flight guidance for approach, missed approach, takeoff and climb out. The windshear computer exchanges data with AHRS, ADC, SPS, Radio Altimeter and IC-600s. The system continuously searches for any windshear clue, and then signals the PFD and aural warning unit to provide the appropriate indications. Windshear Caution alerts are given if the windshear consists of an increasing headwind (or decreasing tailwind) and/or severe updraft, which may precede an encounter with a microburst. Windshear cautions activate the Windshear Caution (WDSHEAR) amber indications on the upper left corner of both PFDs and an aural message CAUTION WINDSHEAR is also triggered. Windshear Caution indications remain on for as long as the airplane remains exposed to an increasing headwind and/or updraft condition in excess of the alert threshold. Windshear Warnings are given if the windshear consists of a decreasing headwind (or increasing tailwind) and/or severe downdraft. Windshear warnings activate the Windshear Warning (WDSHEAR) red indication on both PFDs and trigger an aural message WINDSHEAR, WINDSHEAR, WINDSHEAR. This message will not be repeated unless another, separate, severe windshear event is encountered. Windshear Warning indications remain on for as long as the airplane remains exposed to a decreasing headwind and/or downdraft in excess of the alert threshold. The threshold is adjusted in function of available climb performance, flight path angle, airspeeds significantly different from normal approach speeds and unusual fluctuations in Static Air Temperature (typically associated with the leading edges of microbursts).

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WINDSHEAR DETECTION

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WINDSHEAR ESCAPE GUIDANCE MODE


The Windshear Escape Guidance Mode is used to minimize altitude and speed loss during a windshear encounter. The strategy is to keep the airplane airborne until the windshear conditions subside or are exited. The Windshear Escape Guidance Mode provides pitch command to recover from a windshear encounter. The amplitude of the pitch command will depend upon the airplanes performance and windshear severity and phase. The Windshear Escape Guidance is a Flight Director mode engaged under the following conditions: Manually, by pressing the Go Around Button while a windshear condition (increasing/decreasing performance) is detected; Automatically, when in Go Around or Takeoff Mode and a windshear condition (increasing/decreasing performance) is detected; Automatically, when Thrust Levers Angle is above 78 and a decreasing performance windshear is detected (windshear warning). When the windshear escape guidance mode is engaged a green WSHR indication is displayed on both PFDs in the Vertical Mode field and a ROLL indication is displayed in the Lateral Mode field. Whenever the Windshear Escape Guidance mode is engaged, the Pitch Limit Indicator (PLI) symbol is drawn directly on the Attitude Display Indicator portion of the PFD. The PLI represents the remaining angle of attack margin before Stick Shaker triggering. All other Flight Director modes are canceled and the following vertical modes are inhibited when a caution or warning windshear condition is presented: Altitude Preselect Mode, Go Around and Takeoff. No lateral modes are inhibited while in the vertical mode of WSHR. The Windshear Escape Guidance mode is designed to meet the following requirements, in the listed order of priorities: Prevent the airplane from stalling; Prevent the airplane from descending; Prevent the airplane from exceeding VMO.

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The Windshear Escape Guidance Mode incorporates three control sub-modes: Alpha Sub-mode - The airplane can be commanded to descend in order to maintain airspeed when approaching stall conditions. If the flight path angle control results in an angle of attack beyond the stick shaker triggering angle, the windshear control law can keep the airplane angle of attack below the stick shaker threshold. Gamma Sub-mode - The airplane can be prevented from descending by commanding a positive flight path angle. A nominal flight path angle is used to allow an airspeed raise during an increasing performance windshear, in anticipation of a decreasing performance windshear, and also to minimize altitude loss during a decreasing performance windshear. Speed Target Sub-mode - The airplane is allowed to climb in order to exchange excessive kinetic energy for potential energy. If the control of the flight path angle results in an excessive speed increase, the windshear control law maintains the airplane indicated airspeed at the target speed. The Windshear Escape Guidance mode will be canceled if any of the following conditions occur: FLC, VS, SPD or ALT Mode is selected; Invalid IRS data; Invalid ADC data; Invalid Stall Protection Computer (SPC); Radio Altitude greater than 1500 ft.

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WINDSHEAR DETECTION AND ESCAPE GUIDANCE SYSTEM SCHEMATIC

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EICAS MESSAGE
TYPE CAUTION MESSAGE WINDSHEAR INOP MEANING Windshear detection and escape guidance system is inoperative.

CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


PRIMARY FLIGHT DISPLAY 1 - WINDSHEAR INDICATION Indicates that a windshear has been detected. Color: amber or red depending on windshear severity. 2 - ESCAPE GUIDANCE MODE ENGAGEMENT ANNUNCIATION Indicates the Windshear Flight Guidance Escape Mode engagement. 3 - PITCH LIMIT INDICATOR Refer to Stall Protection System indicators in section 2-04-25. 4 - FLIGHT GUIDANCE INDICATION Indicates the appropriate pitch to be attained, during a windshear occurrence.

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PRIMARY FLIGHT DISPLAY (V-BAR AND CROSS-BAR FORMAT)

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TRAFFIC AND COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM


GENERAL
The EMB-135BJ is equipped with a Traffic and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS), which provides the flight crew with an indication of possible in-flight traffic conflict. The system is based upon transponder signals and provides visual and aural warnings, as well as recommended evasive action. The EMB-135BJ may be equipped with TCAS software version 6.04A (TCAS II and TCAS 2000) or with TCAS software version 7.0 (TCAS 7). The TCAS 2000 presents the same operational characteristics of the TCAS II. The TCAS 7 presents the following differences when compared to the TCAS II or TCAS 2000: The altitude separation thresholds for issuing Traffic Advisory (TA) and Resolution Advisory (RA) between FL300 and FL420 are reduced for compatibility with RVSM flight operations. The thresholds for issuing RA for airplanes closing in altitude are reduced between the FL200 and FL420. Reduction in the numbers of RA eliminating those airplanes that are expected to pass with sufficient horizontal range separation. Allows RA direction reversion, i.e, change a CLIMB to a DESCENT and vice-versa in coordination with another TCAS equipped airplane. Introduction of three additional RA. Different set points and range of actuation, as presented in the text below.

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
The TCAS was developed to provide crew awareness regarding possible conflicting air traffic situations. Besides providing awareness, TCAS also displays to the flight crew the recommended vertical maneuver to avoid conflicting traffic. TCAS does not provide recommendations for horizontal maneuvers.

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CAUTION: PRIMARY RESPONSIBILITY FOR EVASIVE ACTION LIES WITH THE FLIGHT CREW AND ANY ACTION MUST ALWAYS BE PRECEDED BY A VERY CAREFUL EVALUATION OF THE SITUATION. The TCAS computer receives data from the installed transponders, radio altimeters and air-ground sensor. The signals transmitted by surrounding airplanes inform their altitude, bearing and identification, thus making it possible to track any traffic that could enter the airplanes protection zone. Based on such data, the TCAS calculates the predicted path of each intruder airplane, determining whether or not it may become a target. To determine that, an alert zone is established, based on separation and speeds of both airplanes. The size of the alert zone is not distance-based but, rather, is based on time. Therefore, the caution area corresponds to the volume in space where a conflict is expected to occur in 35 to 45 seconds, if no action is taken. A warning area corresponds to an imminent conflict in the following 20 to 30 seconds. Such time is calculated by dividing distance between airplanes by their closure rate. To inhibit the issuing of undesired warnings that constitute a nuisance effect, the system incorporates a series of protections. These apply during approaches to crowded airports, to increase protection against slow closure rates, and to prevent airplanes below 180 ft (380 ft for TCAS 7), which are about to land or have just taken-off, from creating a nuisance. When an airplane is tracked by the TCAS, the system periodically interrogates the intruders transponder. The exchange of data between two subsequent transmissions makes it possible to obtain the distance to the intruder and its altitude, and to predict its path. If the predicted path of the intruder enters the airplanes alert area, two kinds of alerts may be generated. If the area to be penetrated is the caution area, a Traffic Advisory (TA) is generated. Pilots are then requested to visually locate the intruder and perform the required preventive action.

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If the warning area is penetrated a Resolution Advisory (RA) is generated, as well as the corrective action that must be taken to permit the greatest possible separation at the Closest Point of Approach (CPA). Sometimes, the recommended action may lead to crossing of the intruders flight level or may change during the maneuver. This situation may occur when the calculation indicates that this is the best way to achieve the greatest possible separation at the CPA. For both advisory cases, a symbol is presented in the MFD to indicate the intruders relative position, altitude and danger level. A voice message is generated to help the pilots in taking the most suitable action. The PFD provides indication of the recommended vertical speed to clear the conflict. A voice message may be generated to warn the pilot into monitoring the VSI on the PFD. When TCAS computations indicate that the traffic has been cleared, a voice message advises pilots that there is no longer a conflicting situation. In this condition, if no other TA or RA is on course, the intruders indication changes, indicating that it is a safe nearby traffic. If the intruder is also equipped with a TCAS, maneuvers are coordinated between both airplanes. If the intruder is only equipped with a transponder, the system may still indicate its position, provided its transponder is at least mode C. For airplanes equipped with mode A transponder, only Traffic Advisories may be generated. CAUTION: THE TCAS CAN ONLY GENERATE RESOLUTION ADVISORIES FOR INTRUDERS EQUIPPED WITH RESPONDING MODE S OR MODE C TRANSPONDERS. TRAFFIC ADVISORIES CAN BE GENERATED FOR AIRPLANE WITH OPERATIVE MODE S, MODE C OR MODE A TRANSPONDERS. THE TCAS PROVIDES NO INDICATION OF AIRPLANE WITHOUT OPERATING TRANSPONDERS. System options may be monitored and set through the RMU. A dedicated window is provided, presenting which TCAS display is being controlled, its range and altitude band. A RMU page permits toggling between options. Controls allow selection of different ranges, either horizontal and vertically, as well as changing the way some parameters are presented.

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( )

(*) 380 ft for TCAS 7.

TCAS PROTECTED AREAS


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TCAS SITUATIONS
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TCAS VOICE MESSAGES

MEANING REMARKS An intruder is expected to For TCAS II, see enter the collision area in NOTE 1. 35 to 45 seconds. An For TCAS 7, all TA TA indication of it has just are inhibited below been displayed on the 500 ft AGL. MFD. Vertical speed is changing MONITOR VERTICAL SPEED to a non-recommended value. ADJUST VERTICAL Vertical speed has to be TCAS 7 only. adjusted to the SPEED, ADJUST recommended value PREVENTIVE indicated on the VSI. RA Maintain the vertical speed TCAS 7 only. MAINTAIN VERTICAL SPEED, indicated on the VSI. MAINTAIN Maintain the vertical speed TCAS 7 only. MAINTAIN VERTICAL SPEED, indicated on the VSI. During climb or descent, CROSSING airplane will cross MAINTAIN intruders flight level. CLIMB Climb at the vertical speed indicated on the VSI to clear the possible conflict. DESCEND Descend at the vertical See NOTE 1. speed indicated on the VSI to clear the possible conflict. Vertical Speed will CORRECTIVE be 1500 ft/min or greater. RA REDUCE CLIMB Reduce climb speed to Not valid for TCAS 7. clear the possible conflict. REDUCE Reduce descent speed to See NOTE 1 DESCENT clear the possible conflict. Not valid for TCAS 7. TRAFFIC, TRAFFIC CLIMB, CROSSING CLIMB Climb at the indicated vertical speed on the VSI to clear possible conflict. During climb, airplane will cross intruders flight level.

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MESSAGE

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TYPE MESSAGE DESCEND, CROSSING DESCEND

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INCREASE CLIMB

INCREASE DESCENT

CORRECTIVE RA

CLIMB, CLIMB NOW!

DESCEND, DESCEND NOW!

CLEAR OF CONFLICT

MEANING REMARKS Descend at the indicated See NOTE 1. vertical speed on the VSI to clear possible conflict. During descend, airplane will cross intruders flight level. Climb speed has to be Vertical Speed must be increased to the 2500 ft/min or greater. recommended value to clear the possible conflict. Descent speed has to be For TCAS II, this message is inhibited increased to the below 1450 ft AGL. recommended value to clear the possible conflict. For TCAS 7, this message is inhibited Vertical Speed must be below 1450 ft AGL 2500 ft/min or greater. while descending and below 1650 ft AGL while climbing. After a descent advisory, TCAS detected a changing situation that requires the need to climb. After a climb advisory, See NOTE 1. TCAS detected a changing in situation that requires the need to descend. The possible conflict has Not presented if the been cleared. Message is intruder track or altitude presented only if intruders information is lost. transponder signal is valid.

NOTE: 1) Inhibited below 1000 ft AGL while descending and below 1200 ft AGL while climbing. 2) All RAs are inhibited below 400 ft AGL while descending and below 600 ft AGL while climbing. 3) For TCAS II, RA messages are repeated three times (oneword messages) and twice (two-word messages). For TCAS 7, all RAs are repeated twice. 4) TA message sounds once.

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CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


RMU RADIO PAGE - ATC/TCAS WINDOW Refer to Section 2-18 - Navigation and Communication for further details on RMU controls. Refer to RMU ATC/TCAS Control Page in this Section for further details on TCAS controls. 1 - TRANSPONDER OPERATING MODE Allows selection of TCAS modes: TA ONLY - TCAS traffic advisory mode is selected. TA/RA - TCAS traffic advisory and resolution advisory modes are selected. Refer to Section 2-18 - Navigation and Communication for further details. 2 - TCAS CONTROL SIDE IDENTIFICATION Indicates which TCAS display (MFD 1 or 2) is being controlled through that RMU. The selection of TCAS DSPY 1 or 2 is accomplished through the cross-side transfer button when the yellow cursor box is placed on this field. Color: white for on-side TCAS display and magenta for crossside. 3 - TCAS RANGE DISPLAY Displays the selected TCAS range value. Color: green Possible selections are 6, 12, 20, 40 NM. Airplanes equipped with TCAS 7 also allow 80 and 100 NM selection. 4 - TCAS ALTITUDE BAND INDICATION Indicates the TCAS altitude band according to selected TCAS mode. NORMAL (green) - With the TA display set to AUTO the operational TCAS altitude band will be from 1200 ft below to 1200 ft above the airplane. With the TA display set to MANUAL the operational TCAS altitude band will be from 2700 ft below to 2700 ft above the airplane. ABOVE - The operational TCAS altitude band will be 2700 ft to +7000 ft. BELOW - The operational TCAS altitude band will be 7000 ft to +2700 ft.
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RMU ATC/TCAS CONTROL PAGE 1 - INTRUDER ALTITUDE REL (green) - Intruders altitude is displayed as a relative altitude to the airplane. Value is preceded by a plus or a minus signal, depending on whether the intruder is above or below the airplane. FL (cyan) - Intruders altitude is displayed as its flight level. This selection automatically reverts to REL after 20 seconds. 2 - TA DISPLAY AUTO - Traffic is displayed only when a TA or RA condition exists. MANUAL - All traffic detected by the system is displayed. 3 - FLIGHT LEVEL 1/2 Displays the transponder-encoded altitude and the air data source. Refer to transponder description (Section 2-18 Navigation and Communication).

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TCAS TEST
The TCAS self-test is activated through the RMU TST button and may be performed on the ground or in flight. TCAS will operate normally if not tested. To test the system proceed as follows: On the RMU radio page, set the ATC/TCAS window to the TA/RA mode. On the MFD, set TCAS mode. Press and hold for 7 seconds the RMU TST button. A white TCAS TEST message will be presented on the MFDs and PFDs. A TCAS TEST aural warning will sound. The Master Warning lights will flash. The MFDs show a traffic test parttern, which permits the checking of each of the existing intruder symbols, i.e., a hollow blue diamond, a solid blue diamond, a solid amber circle and a solid red square. On the PFDs, the VSI shows red and green arc zones. At the end of the test, the RMU shows a green TCAS PASS message and a TCAS TEST PASS aural warning will sound.

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1 - INNER RANGE RING Displayed around airplane symbol to indicate a 2 NM range. Removed if outer range indicates distance above 20 NM. 2 - OUTER RANGE RING May be selected up to 40 NM. Airplanes equipped with TCAS 7 allow selection up to 100 NM. 3 - NO BEARING ADVISORIES INDICATION Indicates data related to a detected intruder, whose bearing cannot be determined. Up to two lines may be displayed indicating the kind of advisory, its distance, relative altitude and whether it is climbing or descending in excess of 500 ft/min. Colors: No bearings RAs: red. No bearings TAs: amber. 4 - PROXIMATE TRAFFIC INDICATION Indicated by a solid cyan diamond. Represents any airplane within 6.5 NM horizontally and 1200 ft vertically, but whose path is not predicted to penetrate the Collision Area. 5 - INTRUDERS VERTICAL MOVEMENT Indicated by an arrow next to the symbol that indicates if the intruder is climbing or descending in excess of 500 ft. Color: Same as of the associated symbol. 6 - INTRUDERS ALTITUDE Indicated by a solid two-digit number below or above the intruders symbol. Color: Same as of the associated symbol. Normal presentation is relative altitude, which displays the intruders relative altitude in hundreds of feet. A plus or minus signal indicates if the intruder is above (+) or below () the airplane. Two question marks (??) are displayed if the intruders relative altitude is greater than 9900 ft, below or above. If intruder is below the airplane, intruders altitude is displayed below its symbol. If intruder is above the airplane, intruders altitude is displayed above its symbol.
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7 - RESOLUTION ADVISORY INDICATION Indicated by a solid red square. 8 - TRAFFIC ADVISORY INDICATION Indicated by a solid amber circle. 9 - OTHER TRANSPONDER REPLYING TRAFFIC INDICATION Indicated by a hollow cyan diamond. Indicates other airplanes equipped with transponder within the specified range and 2700 ft of vertical separation. Not displayed if a TA or RA is in process. 10 - OUT OF RANGE INTRUDER Indicates detected intruders that are out of display range. Indicated as half the associated symbol. 11 - INTRUDERS ALTITUDE MODE INDICATION Indicates whether the selected intruders altitude is relative or flight level. 12 - TCAS BAND SELECTED Indicates whether the selected band for TCAS is below or above. 13 - TCAS MODE ANNUNCIATIONS Indicates current TCAS mode. Colors and labels are as follows, in the order of priority: TCAS TEST - white TCAS OFF - white TCAS FAIL - amber TA ONLY - white TCAS - white TCAS AUTO - white

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MULTI FUNCTION DISPLAY


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PRIMARY FLIGHT DISPLAY For further information on Vertical Speed Indicator, refer to Section 2-17 Flight Instruments. VSI Indicates the recommended vertical speed to avoid a possible conflict. Green range - displayed along the scale, indicates the range of vertical speeds to be attained to avoid a conflict situation. Red range - displayed along the scale, indicates the range of vertical speeds prohibited for the current situation. Green range may be displayed together with the red range or split in two parts, depending on situation. Red range may be displayed alone, together with the green range, or split in two parts, depending on the situation.

PRIMARY FLIGHT DISPLAY

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SECTION 2-05 ELECTRICAL


TABLE OF CONTENTS Block Page General .............................................................................. 2-05-05 ..01 DC System ......................................................................... 2-05-05 ..02 DC System Protection .................................................... 2-05-05 ..04 External Power Source................................................... 2-05-05 ..05 Batteries ......................................................................... 2-05-05 ..06 Backup Battery ............................................................... 2-05-05 ..07 Generators...................................................................... 2-05-05 ..07 APU Starter-Generator ................................................... 2-05-05 ..08 Electrical Distribution Logic ............................................ 2-05-05 ..09 Ground Service Bus ....................................................... 2-05-05 ..10 Avionics Master .............................................................. 2-05-05 ..11 AC System (if applicable) ............................................... 2-05-05 ..12 EDL Configurations and Diagrams .................................... 2-05-10 ..01 Abnormal Operation Configurations ............................... 2-05-10 ..01 Normal, Abnormal and Emergency Operation Diagrams................................................. 2-05-10 ..13 EICAS Messages ............................................................... 2-05-15 ..01 Controls and Indicators ...................................................... 2-05-15 ..03 Electrical System Panel.................................................. 2-05-15 ..03 MFD Electrical Page....................................................... 2-05-15 ..10 Circuit Breaker Panel and Load Distribution ...................................................... 2-05-20 ..01 Circuit Breaker Panel...................................................... 2-05-20 ..01 DC Bus Load Distribution ............................................... 2-05-20 ..10

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GENERAL
The electrical power system supplies AC and DC voltage to all loads during normal or emergency operation. Two different types of sources provide electrical power supply: DC Power AC Power NOTE: Airplanes S/N 863 and on are not supplied with AC power. The DC power system supplies 28 V DC for all airplane electrical loads and recharges the batteries. It is the primary electrical power supply system. The DC power system is comprised of: Four independent generators (28 V DC/400 A/engine driven). One APU starter-generator (28 V DC/400 A). Two Nickel-Cadmium batteries (24 V DC/44 Ah/1 hour rate). One lead-acid backup battery (24 V DC/5 Ah/10 hour rate). External power source. AC power is supplied by one 250 VA/400 Hz single-phase static inverter, which converts 28 V DC into 115 V AC. A dedicated page on the MFD (electrical page) provides, on request, information regarding system configuration, load and voltage conditions as well as battery temperatures. Furthermore, warning and caution messages are presented on the EICAS to indicate an electrical system failure.

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DC SYSTEM
The 28 V DC electrical power system automatically controls power contactors, fault protection, load shedding and emergency system operation. This reduces pilot workload during normal operation, external power supply or system failures. The Electrical Distribution Logic (EDL) and Generator Control Units (GCU) perform system management. Detected system failures are automatically isolated, causing some bus(es) to be deenergized. Under normal operation, the electrical DC system is divided into isolated left and right electrical networks. The left network includes generators 1 and 3, driven by engine 1. Operated in parallel, generators 1 and 3 are connected to DC BUS 1 to supply ESSENTIAL DC BUS 1, SHED DC BUS 1 and HOT BUS 1. Battery 1 is charged by the generators connected to DC BUS 1. Similarly, generators 2 and 4 power the right network and are driven by engine 2. Both networks are interconnected through Bus Tie Contactors (BTC) in case of operation with less than four generators. APU generator may replace any inoperative generator, or may be used before engine starting when the APU generator or Ground Power Unit (GPU) may supply the electrical system.

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DC ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM SCHEMATIC


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DC SYSTEM PROTECTION
The system monitors generators current and voltage to the electrically supplied equipment to protect it from a control unit failure, such as an overvoltage or a bus failure. If an overvoltage is detected, the associated GCU deenergizes the generator, disconnecting it from the bus. A bus failure produces an overcurrent condition to one or more generators. Upon sensing this overcurrent, the GCU isolates the system networks, opening the BTCs. If any generator remains overloaded due to the failure, it is then deenergized and disconnected from the bus. As long as the generator current exceeds 400 A, a caution message is presented on the EICAS, indicating that manual load shedding is required. If no action is taken, the system will be isolated and some buses may be deenergized. System protections are designed so that normal transients will not cause generators to be disconnected from the bus inadvertently. Resetting of the generator after a failure is accomplished by releasing the associated Generator Button and then pressing it again.

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EXTERNAL POWER SOURCE


The Ground Power Unit (GPU) is connected to the airplane through an external receptacle. The GPU supplies 28 V DC to the load buses for ground operation and APU starting, independently of the internal batteries. The GPU has priority over any battery and generator when energizing the airplane. Thus, the generators and the batteries cannot operate in parallel with the GPU. The GPU Button, located on the overhead panel, controls the External power supply. As soon as the Ground Power Unit is energized, properly connected to the airplane receptacle, ready to supply power but not connected to the buses, the GPU AVAIL inscription illuminates on the GPU Button. A identical inscription above the GPU receptacle simultaneously illuminates. When GPU AVAIL is illuminated and the batteries are not connected to the buses, only the GROUND SERVICE BUS is supplied through the external power supply. When the GPU Button is pressed, the Ground Power Contactor (GPC) will close, allowing the external power to feed the load buses. When the external power comes on line, the GPU AVAIL inscription on the GPU Button extinguishes itself and the white stripe on the button lower half illuminates. An overvoltage circuit isolates the GPU from the airplanes electrical buses if the GPU voltage is incorrect. External power inverse polarity protection is also provided. To reset the system, release the GPU button and then press it again. If the GPU overvoltage persists, GPC will be kept open. The external power voltage can be monitored through the electrical page, on the MFD. The electrical system page shows the GPU box and its voltage. The GPU voltage indication is removed in flight.

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BATTERIES
Two 24 V DC, 44 Ampere-hour, nickel-cadmium batteries supply essential loads in case of an in-flight failure of all generators or if both engines are shut down simultaneously and the APU is not available. Both batteries can supply at least 40 minutes of power for essential loads in an all-generator-failure condition. During normal operation, Battery 1 is connected in parallel with generators 1 and 3 (network 1). Battery 2 is connected in parallel with generators 2 and 4 (network 2). Battery 2 also supplies power for APU starting. During APU starting, battery 1 is isolated from the load buses. While battery 2 provides power for APU start, battery 1 provides stable electrical power to the equipment that can be adversely affected by voltage transients. A selector switch on the overhead panel controls each battery. When set to the AUTO position, battery contactors (BC 1 or BC 2) actuation is controlled according to the Electrical Distribution Logic (EDL). When the GPU is connected, the battery contactors open so that only the GPU can supply the load buses. When on the ground, with the batteries as the only electrical power source, EDL deenergizes the shed buses for battery conservation. When the battery selector knob is switched to the OFF position, the battery contactor opens, isolating the battery from the system. The batteries are installed in the battery compartment, on the left side of the airplane nose section. They are ventilated in flight by forced airflow to prevent overheating. Temperature sensors installed in each battery provide temperature indication to the MFD. If battery internal temperature rises above 70C, a warning message is presented on the EICAS. If a battery is isolated from the load buses, a caution message is displayed on the EICAS.

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BACKUP BATTERY
A 24 V DC, 5 Ampere-hour sealed lead-acid battery provides stabilized power for operation of the GCUs protective function, even in case of short-circuit, when system voltage may drop near zero volts. The Backup Battery Button, on the overhead panel controls the backup battery. Pressing the button when the Battery 1 or 2 Selector Knob is set to the AUTO position connects the backup battery to the electrical system for charging. If the Backup Battery Button is released, a caution message is displayed on the EICAS.

GENERATORS
The primary source of electrical power are the four 28 V DC, 400 Amperes, independent engine-driven brushless generators, two installed on each engine accessory gearbox. Each generator is automatically controlled and protected by a dedicated Generator Control Unit (GCU), provided the Generator Control Button on the overhead panel is pressed. The generators will come on line when engine speed stabilizes above 56.4% N2. If a failure occurs and the Generator Line Contactor (GLC) opens, a reset may be attempted once by releasing the associated Generator Control Button and then pressing it again. Anytime the Generator Line Contactor is inadvertently opened or generator current is above 400 A, a caution message is displayed on the EICAS. The generator voltage and current can be monitored through the electrical page, on the MFD.

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APU STARTER-GENERATOR
A 28 V DC, 400 Amperes, APU-driven starter-generator supplies electrical power during ground operation or in flight, as an alternative source of electrical power. The APU starter generator is controlled and protected by its dedicated GCU. The APU Generator Button, on the Electrical System Panel, must be pressed for normal operation. The APU line contactor is actuated on and off by APU speed. If a failure occurs on the APU generator, a reset may be attempted releasing the APU Generator Button and pressing it again. Only one reset may be attempted. The APU generator, when operating, is connected in parallel with the generators supplying DC Bus 2. If needed, the APU generator can replace an inoperative left network generator. After starting, and with an engine driven generator inoperative, the APU generator automatically replaces the inoperative generator. Three electrical sources may be used to power an APU start: ground power unit, battery 2 or battery 2 assisted by the main generators. Battery 1 cannot be used for APU starting. Instead, it is isolated from the load buses to provide stable electrical power to supply equipment that may be affected by voltage fluctuation. During starting, the APU Starting Contactor (ASC) is closed, allowing the APU starter-generator to operate as a starter, energized through the Central DC Bus. When the APU starting cycle is completed, the ASC opens. A caution message is displayed on the EICAS if the ASC does not open. At 95% RPM plus seven seconds, the APU starter generator is available to supply electrical power to the system. In this condition, the APU Line Contactor (ALC) is closed, connecting the APU starter generator to the load buses. If the ALC does not close due to contactor failure or button not pressed, a caution message is displayed on the EICAS. The APU starter generator voltage and current may be monitored on the MFD.

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ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION LOGIC


Many different configurations are available in the Electrical Distribution Logic (EDL) to suit any particular situation. The EDLs architecture is symmetrical and the operational logic sequence for EDL 1 is the same as for EDL 2. EDL 1 is composed of DC Bus 1, Shed DC Bus 1, Essential DC Bus 1 and Hot Bus 1. The EDL 2 is composed of DC Bus 2, Shed DC Bus 2, Essential DC Bus 2 and Hot Bus 2. The Central DC Bus primary function is to connect the APU generator or GPU to the load buses through the Bus Tie Contactors (BTC). The Central DC Bus also provides bus interconnections in case of symmetrical configuration, such as generators failure or engine shutdown. EDL logic differs depending on whether the airplane is on the ground or in flight. In flight, some buses are deenergized, depending on the power source available. On the ground, all the DC buses are energized if at least one of the following conditions occurs: At least three generators are on. The GPU is on and connected to the airplane. At least one generator is on, and the Shed Buses Selector Knob is set to OVRD position. The DC distribution table below shows the Electrical Distribution Logic configuration according to the conditions of the generators. DC DISTRIBUTION TABLE CONDITION 4 or 5 Generators On 3 Generators On RESULTS Two isolated left and right electrical networks with all buses energized. Both electrical networks interconnected through Bus Tie Contactors with all buses energized. Both electrical networks interconnected through Bus Tie Contactors with shed buses deenergized. Batteries to supply the Essential Buses (in-flight condition only).

1 or 2 Generators On

Loss of all Generators

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GROUND SERVICE BUS


The Ground Service Bus is energized by connecting the GPU connector to the airplane receptacle and provided the batteries and generators are not connected to the buses (GPC, BC 1 and BC 2 are open). The Ground Service Bus supplies electrical power for airplane servicing and maintenance while on the ground. It functions independently of the Electrical Distribution Logic and does not energize all electrical distribution buses. The following lights will be powered by the Ground Service Bus: Passenger cabin lights; Lavatory lights; Galley lights; Courtesy/stairs lights; Cockpit dome lights; Baggage/service compartment lights.

GROUND SERVICE SCHEMATIC


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AVIONICS MASTER
The avionics master system allows manual disconnection of some navigation and communication equipment from the load buses. This prevents undesirable voltage transients during APU starting on the ground. The avionics master system consists of six buses: Avionics Switched DC Buses 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B and Avionics Switched Essential DC Buses 1 and 2. These buses are supplied by their associated DC buses. Two Avionics Master Buttons, located on the overhead panel, control switching the buses.

AVIONICS MASTER SCHEMATIC


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AC SYSTEM (APPLICABLE TO AIRPLANES UP TO S/N 854)


One 250 VA/400 Hz single phase static inverter converts 28 V DC electrical power into 115 V AC for airplane systems requiring AC power. The avionics system is the primary user of AC power. The inverter is power supplied by the DC Bus 1 and controlled by the AC Power Button, on the overhead panel. If DC Bus 1 is energized and the AC Power Button is pressed, the 115 V AC BUS is automatically energized. If the DC Bus 1 is deenergized, the inverter becomes inoperative. To reduce pilot workload, the AC Power Button should remain pressed, even after engine shutdown. If the AC Power Button is released, a striped bar illuminates to indicate that the button is out of normal operating condition. During normal airplane operation, if 115 V AC BUS is deenergized, a caution message is displayed on the EICAS. An inverter reset may be attempted through the AC Power Button, by releasing and then pressing it again. Under electrical emergency conditions the inverter stops the operation.

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AC GENERATION AND DISTRIBUTION SCHEMATICS FOR AIRPLANES UP TO S/N 854

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ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION LOGIC CONFIGURATIONS AND DIAGRAMS


ABNORMAL OPERATION CONFIGURATIONS

(EDL)

For the Electrical Distribution Logic configurations presented here, the initial control positions on the Electrical System Panel are the following: Generator Buttons pressed; GPU Button released; Battery Selector Knobs set to AUTO position; Essential Power Button released; Bus Tie Selector Knob set to AUTO position; Shed Buses Selector Knob set to AUTO position; Backup Battery Button pressed; Avionics Master Buttons pressed. NOTE: - All abnormal conditions considered below are in-flight conditions. - In the schematic configurations, the continuous boxes indicate energized buses while dashed boxes indicate deenergized buses.

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CONFIGURATION 1 Loss of one left side generator (network 1): Without APU generator available: GLC 1 or GLC 3 is open. ALC is open. BTC 1 is closed. With APU generator available: GLC 1 or GLC 3 is open. ALC is closed. BTC 1 is closed and BTC 2 is open. Loss of one right side generator (network 2): Without APU generator available: GLC 2 or GLC 4 is open. ALC is open. BTC 1 is closed. With APU generator available: GLC 2 or GLC 4 is open. ALC is closed. BTC 2 is closed and BTC 1 is open. Loss of two generators with APU generator available: GLCs from affected generators are open. ALC is closed. BTC 1 and BTC 2 are closed.

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CONFIGURATION 2 Loss of two generators without APU generator available: GLCs from affected generators are open. ALC is open. BTC 1 and BTC 2 are closed. SBC 1 and SBC 2 are open. Loss of three generators without APU generator available: GLCs from affected generators are open. ALC is open. BTC 1 and BTC 2 are closed. SBC 1 and SBC 2 are open. NOTE: Depending on the amount of load on the remaining buses, an overload condition may occur. In this case, pilots are required to perform an additional load shedding. Loss of three generators with APU generator available: GLCs from affected generators are open ALC is closed. BTC 1 and BTC 2 are closed. SBC 1 and SBC 2 are open.

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CONFIGURATION 3 Loss of all generators: When the last generator fails, the operational logic configures the system to dedicate the batteries to supply the Essential Buses only (electrical emergency condition). In this configuration, the Central DC Bus is also powered to allow the APU to be started. BTC 1, BTC 2, BC 1, SBC 1, SBC 2, BBR 1 and BBR 2 are open. EIC, EBC 1, EBC 2 and BC 2 are closed. NOTE:- This operational mode is activated for in-flight condition only. - A 1-second time delay is provided to avoid inadvertent switching to emergency configuration due to electrical transients. - If the automatic transfer fails, perform this function manually by pressing the Essential Power Button. - While In-flight, the electrical system is automatically reset if at least one generator is reset and supplying its associated bus. - On the ground, the system can be reset by switching both Battery Selector Knobs from AUTO to OFF and then back to AUTO.

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CONFIGURATION 3 (Electrical Emergency Condition)


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CONFIGURATION 4 Short circuit at one DC Bus with all generators on: Associated battery is removed from affected DC bus through a fuse. BTC 1 and BTC 2 are open. Both GLCs of the affected DC Bus are open, isolating the bus. Cross-side BTC and EIC are closed and affected side EBC is energized to maintain both Essential DC Buses energized and batteries charged. Short circuit at one DC Bus with loss of one associated generator and with APU generator: Associated battery is removed from the affected DC bus through a fuse. BTC 1 and BTC 2 are open. Remaining GLC of the affected DC Bus opens, isolating the bus. Cross-side BTC and EIC are closed, and affected side EBC is energized to maintain both Essential DC Buses energized and batteries charged. Short circuit at one DC Bus with loss of associated generators and with APU generator: Both batteries are removed from the affected DC bus through the fuses. BTC 1 and BTC 2 are open. EIC closes and EBC of affected side is energized to maintain the associated Essential DC Bus energized and associated battery charged.

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CONFIGURATION 4 (Only EDL 1 Failure Shown)


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CONFIGURATION 5 Short circuit at one DC Bus with loss of one associated generator and without APU generator: Both batteries are removed from the affected DC bus through the fuses. BTC 1 and BTC 2 are open. Remaining GLC of the affected DC Bus opens, isolating the bus. Cross-side BTC and EIC close, and EBC of the affected side is energized to maintain both Essential DC Buses energized and associated battery charged. Both SBCs are open. Short circuit at one DC Bus with loss of associated generators and without APU generator: Both batteries are removed from the affected DC bus through the fuses. BTC 1 and BTC 2 are open. EIC closes and EBC of the affected side is energized to maintain the associated Essential DC Bus energized and associated battery charged. Both SBCs are open. Short circuit at one DC Bus with loss of associated generators plus one generator of the other side, with or without APU generator: The EDL operational sequence is the same as in the previous condition.

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ELECTRICAL

CONFIGURATION 5 (Only EDL 1 Failure Shown)


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ELECTRICAL

NORMAL, ABNORMAL AND EMERGENCY OPERATION DIAGRAMS


The following diagrams present the Electrical System layout when operating in normal, abnormal and emergency condition.

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

EDL STATUS DURING APU STARTING WITH BATTERIES


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ELECTRICAL

EDL STATUS AFTER APU STARTING WITH BATTERIES


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EDL STATUS DURING APU STARTING WITH GPU


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EDL STATUS AFTER APU STARTING WITH GPU


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EDL STATUS DURING NORMAL OPERATION


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EDL STATUS AFTER LOSS OF GENERATOR 1 WITHOUT APU GENERATOR


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EDL STATUS DURIGN LOSS OF GENERATOR 1 WITH APU GENERATOR


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EDL STATUS AFTER LOSS OF GENERATORS 1 AND 3 WITHOUT APU GENERATOR


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EDL STATUS AFTER LOSS OF GENERATORS 1 AND 3 WITH APU GENERATOR


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EDL STATUS DURING LOSS OF THREE ENGINE GENERATORS WITHOUT APU GENERATOR
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ELECTRICAL

EDL STATUS AFTER LOSS OF ALL THE GENERATORS (ELECTRICAL EMERGENCY CONDITION)
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EDL STATUS AFTER A SHORT CIRCUIT AT DC BUS 1 WITH ALL GENERATORS ON


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EDL STATUS AFTER A SHORT CIRCUIT AT DC BUS 1 WITH LOSS OF GENERATOR 1 AND WITHOUT APU GENERATOR
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EDL STATUS AFTER A SHORT CIRCUIT AT DC BUS 1 WITH LOSS OF GENERATORS 1, 2 AND 3 WITH APU GENERATOR ON
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ELECTRICAL

EICAS MESSAGES
TYPE MEANING Associated battery temperature BATT 1 (2) OVTEMP is above 70C. ELEC ESS XFR FAIL Automatic transfer to electrical emergency condition has failed. GEN 1 (2, 3, 4) OVLD Associated generator current is above 400 A. generator is GEN 1 (2, 3, 4) OFF Associated disconnected from the BUS electrical network after engine stabilization due to generator channel failure or button released. APU generator current is APU GEN OVLD above 400 A. APU generator is APU GEN OFF BUS disconnected from electrical network, due to open ALC, with APU RPM above 95% plus seven seconds. This is caused by generator channel failure or button released. APU Starting Contactor (ASC) APU CNTOR CLSD or Line Contactor (ALC) is inadvertently closed. Associated DC Bus is DC BUS 1 (2) OFF deenergized. For airplanes up to S/N 854, if DC Bus 1 is deenergized the inverter becomes inoperative. Associated Essential Bus is ESS BUS 1 (2) OFF deenergized. SHED BUS 1 (2) OFF Associated Shed Bus is deenergized. battery is BATT 1 (2) OFF BUS Associated disconnected from the electrical network. MESSAGE

WARNING

CAUTION

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EICAS MESSAGES (continued)


MEANING Backup battery is BKUP BATT OFF BUS disconnected from the electrical network. ELEC EMERG Improper transfer to electrical emergency condition has CAUTION ABNORM occurred. 115 VAC bus is deenergized 115 VAC BUS OFF (applicable to airplanes up to S/N 854). Associated generator bearing ADVISORY GEN 1 (2, 3, 4) BRG has failed. FAIL TYPE MESSAGE

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

ELECTRICAL

CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


ELECTRICAL SYSTEM PANEL
AIRPLANES UP TO S/N 854 1 - GENERATOR BUTTON Connects (pressed) or disconnects (released) the associated generator to/from the respective DC Bus. Pressing and depressing the Generator Button causes all GCU latches protection circuits to be reset if the associated generator is running. A striped bar illuminates inside the button when it is released. 2 - GROUND POWER UNIT BUTTON Connects (pressed) or disconnects (released) the GPU to/from the electrical system. A GPU AVAIL inscription illuminates, in the upper half of the button, when the GPU is properly connected to the airplane receptacle and ready to supply power. The GPU AVAIL inscription extinguishes when the button is pressed and the external power is connected to the electrical network. A striped bar illuminates inside the button when it is pressed. 3 - APU STARTER GENERATOR BUTTON Connects (pressed) or disconnects (released) the APU starter generator, when APU RPM is above 95%, plus 7 seconds. A striped bar illuminates inside the button when it is released. 4 - BATTERY SELECTOR KNOB OFF - Respective battery contactor is kept open, disconnecting the associated battery from the electrical system. AUTO - The actuation of the respective battery contactor is controlled according to the Electrical Distribution Logic. 5 - ESSENTIAL POWER BUTTON (guarded) When pressed the system overrides the automatic transfer to the electrical emergency circuitry, connecting the batteries directly to essential buses, regardless of any other command from the Electrical Distribution Logic. When released, the power contactors operate automatically according to the Electrical Distribution Logic. A striped bar illuminates inside the button when it is pressed.
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6 - SHED BUSES SELECTOR KNOB OVRD - Closes the Shed Buses Contactors, provided the airplane is on ground and at least one generator is operative. AUTO - Controls the operation of Shed Buses Contactors according to the Electrical Distribution Logic. OFF - Deenergizes the Shed Buses manually regardless of any other command from the Electrical Distribution Logic. 7 - AVIONICS MASTER BUTTONS Connect (pressed) or disconnect (released) the navigation and communication equipment supplied by the avionics switched buses. A striped bar illuminates inside the button when it is released. 8 - BACKUP BATTERY BUTTON Connects (pressed) or disconnects (released) the backup battery to/from the electrical system. A striped bar illuminates inside the button when it is released. 9 - AC POWER BUTTON Connects (pressed) or disconnects (released) the inverter to/from the system. A striped bar illuminates inside the button when it is released. 10 - BUS TIES SELECTOR KNOB OVRD - Bus Tie Contactors (BTCs) are kept closed regardless of Electrical Distribution Logic, provided that no overcurrent is detected by one of the five GCUs. AUTO - Controls the operation of the BTCs according to the Electrical Distribution Logic. OFF - Opens the BTCs and EIC regardless of any other command from the Electrical Distribution Logic.

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

ELECTRICAL

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM PANEL FOR AIRPLANES UP TO S/N 854


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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL AIRPLANES S/N 863 AND ON

ELECTRICAL

1 - GENERATOR BUTTON Connects (pressed) or disconnects (released) the associated generator to/from the respective DC Bus. Pressing and depressing the Generator Button causes all GCU latches protection circuits to be reset if the associated generator is running. A striped bar illuminates inside the button when it is released. 2 - GROUND POWER UNIT BUTTON Connects (pressed) or disconnects (released) the GPU to/from the electrical system. A GPU AVAIL inscription illuminates, in the upper half of the button, when the GPU is properly connected to the airplane receptacle and ready to supply power. The GPU AVAIL inscription extinguishes when the button is pressed and the external power is connected to the electrical network. A striped bar illuminates inside the button when it is pressed. 3 - APU STARTER GENERATOR BUTTON Connects (pressed) or disconnects (released) the APU starter generator, when APU RPM is above 95%, plus 7 seconds. A striped bar illuminates inside the button when it is released. 4 - BATTERY SELECTOR KNOB OFF - Respective battery contactor is kept open, disconnecting the associated battery from the electrical system. AUTO - The actuation of the respective battery contactor is controlled according to the Electrical Distribution Logic. 5 - ESSENTIAL POWER BUTTON (guarded) When pressed the system overrides the automatic transfer to the electrical emergency circuitry, connecting the batteries directly to essential buses, regardless of any other command from the Electrical Distribution Logic. When released, the power contactors operate automatically according to the Electrical Distribution Logic. A striped bar illuminates inside the button when it is pressed.

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6 - SHED BUSES SELECTOR KNOB OVRD - Closes the Shed Buses Contactors, provided the airplane is on ground and at least one generator is operative. AUTO - Controls the operation of Shed Buses Contactors according to the Electrical Distribution Logic. OFF - Deenergizes the Shed Buses manually regardless of any other command from the Electrical Distribution Logic. 7 - AVIONICS MASTER BUTTONS Connect (pressed) or disconnect (released) the navigation and communication equipment supplied by the avionics switched buses. A striped bar illuminates inside the button when it is released. 8 - BACKUP BATTERY BUTTON Connects (pressed) or disconnects (released) the backup battery to/from the electrical system. A striped bar illuminates inside the button when it is released. 9 - BUS TIES SELECTOR KNOB OVRD - Bus Tie Contactors (BTCs) are kept closed regardless of Electrical Distribution Logic, provided that no overcurrent is detected by one of the five GCUs. AUTO - Controls the operation of the BTCs according to the Electrical Distribution Logic. OFF - Opens the BTCs and EIC regardless of any other command from the Electrical Distribution Logic.

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ELECTRICAL

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM PANEL FOR AIRPLANES S/N 863 AND ON


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MFD ELECTRICAL PAGE


1 - LABELS AND UNITS Labels and units are always white. 2 - GENERATOR VOLTAGE AND CURRENT INDICATION VOLTAGE: Digits are green and boxes are white during normal operation. Digits and boxes are amber when the generator is inadvertently off bus. Ranges from 0 to 40.0 V, with a resolution of 0.1 V. CURRENT: Digits are green and boxes are white during normal operation. Digits and boxes are amber when the generator is inadvertently off bus or when the current is higher than 400 A. Ranges from 0 to 600 A, with a resolution of 5 A. NOTE: The APU indication is removed when the APU is not available and/or the APU Master Selector is set to the OFF position with APU RPM below 10%. 3 - DC BUS INDICATION Green when bus is energized. Amber when bus is off. 4 - GPU VOLTAGE INDICATION Digits are always green. Box is always white. Ranges from 0 to 40.0 V, with resolution of 0.1 V. NOTE: GPU voltage indication is removed in flight. 5 - BUS LINES INDICATION Bus lines are always white.

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

ELECTRICAL

6 - BATTERY VOLTAGE AND TEMPERATURE INDICATION VOLTAGE: Digits are green and boxes are white during normal battery operation. Digits and boxes are amber when the battery is inadvertently off bus. Ranges from 0 to 40.0 V, with a resolution of 0.1 V. TEMPERATURE: Boxes are white during battery normal operation. Boxes are amber when the battery is off bus. Digits are green when the temperature is below 70C. Ranges from 40C to 150C, with a resolution of 1C. Digits and boxes are red when the temperature is equal to or greater than 70C. NOTE: The red alerts supersede any other condition.

ELECTRICAL PAGE ON MFD


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ELECTRICAL

CIRCUIT BREAKER DISTRIBUTION


CIRCUIT BREAKER PANEL

PANEL

AND

LOAD

The Circuit Breaker Panel is divided in areas associated to electrical system buses. Columns and lines on the circuit breaker panel are identified through an alphabetic (for the lines) and numeric (for the columns) code.

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CIRCUIT BREAKER PANEL MAP FOR AIRPLANES UP TO S/N 854

CIRCUIT BREAKER PANEL MAP FOR AIRPLANES S/N 863 AND ON

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

CIRCUIT BREAKER PANEL FOR AIRPLANES UP TO S/N 854 (TYPICAL I)


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CIRCUIT BREAKER PANEL FOR AIRPLANES UP TO S/N 854 (TYPICAL I)


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CIRCUIT BREAKER PANEL FOR AIRPLANES UP TO S/N 854 (TYPICAL II)


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CIRCUIT BREAKER PANEL FOR AIRPLANES S/N 863 AND ON


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ELECTRICAL

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

DC BUS LOAD DISTRIBUTION (TYPICAL)


The following list identifies the DC buses and the equipment powered by them. Optional equipment are preceded by an asterisk (*).
DC BUS 1
AILERON CONTROL SYSTEM 1 AIR/GND POSITION SYSTEM A AOA 1 SENSOR HEATING BRAKES TEMPERATURE INDICATION OUTBD CABIN LIGHTING 1 CENTRAL MAINTENANCE COMPUTER CLEAR ICE DETECTION SYSTEM - CHANNEL 1 COCKPIT READING LIGHT COURTESY/STAIR LIGHTS 2 CREW PEDAL ADJUSTMENT CREW SEAT ADJUSTMENT 1 EICAS POWER (DAU 1B) ELECTRICAL FLIGHT IDLE STOP 1 ELECTRONIC BAY COOLING (EXHAUST 1) ELECTRONIC BAY COOLING (RECIRC 2) EMER/PARKING BRAKE ENG 1 FUEL PUMPS 1C ENG 1 THRUST REVERSER COMMAND ENGINE 1 LIP ANTI-ICE FLAP POWER/COMMAND 1 FLOOD/STORM LIGHTS FUEL PRESSURE REFUELING FWD/AFT A1 FUEL PRESSURE REFUELING FWD 1 FUEL TRANSFER 1 GROUND SPOILER OUTBD HYDRAULIC ELECTRIC PUMP 2 HYDRAULIC GEN SYS 2 INDICATION ICE DETECTOR 1 INVERTER LANDING LIGHTS 1 LAVATORY FLUSH LAVATORY LIGHTS LAVATORY SMOKE DETECTOR LAVATORY WATER DRAIN HEATER LOGOTYPE LIGHTS MAIN DOOR CONTROL 1 NAVIGATION LIGHTS OVERHEAD PANEL LIGHTING PACK VALVE 1 PASS CABIN LIGHTS 1 PASSENGER SIGNS PITCH TRIM 1 PITOT 1 HEATING PNEUMATIC HSV 1 PRESSURIZATION CONTROL SPEED BRAKE STABILISER ANTI-ICE INDICATION STATIC PORT HEATING 1 STROBE LIGHTS TAT 1 SENSOR HEATING TCAS 2000 WINDSHIELD HEATING 1 WINDSHIELD WIPER SYSTEM 1 WING ANTI-ICE SYSTEM YAW TRIM SYSTEM

DC BUS 2
ADC 2 POWER/CONTROL AHRS 2 POWER AILERON CONTROL SYSTEM 2 AIR/GND POSITION SYSTEM C AOA 2 SENSOR HEATING AURAL WARNING SYSTEM 2 BAGGAGE SMOKE DETECTOR BRAKES TEMPERATURE INDICATION INBD CABIN RECIRCULATION CLEAR ICE DETECTION SYSTEM - CHANNEL 2 COMPARTMENT LIGHTS COPILOT'S CLOCK CREW SEAT ADJUSTMENT 2 DEFUELING DISPLAY PRCS/CONTROL POWER 2 (IC2) EICAS POWER (DAU 2B) ELECTRICAL FLIGHT IDLE STOP 2 ELECTROMECHANICAL GUST LOCK ELECTRONIC BAY COOLING (RECIRC 1) ELECTRONIC BAY COOLING (EXHAUST 2) ENG 2 FUEL PUMPS 2C ENG 2 THRUST REVERSER COMMAND ENGINE 2 LIP ANTI-ICE ENGINE VIBRATION SENSORS FLAP POWER/COMMAND 2 FUEL FUSELAGE PUMPS AFT/FWD 2A FUEL FUSELAGE PUMPS FWD 2B FUEL TRANSFER 2 GASPER FAN GROUND SPOILER INBD HYDR ELECTRIC PUMP 1 HYDR GEN SYS 1 INDICATION ICE DETECTOR 2 INSPECTION LIGHTS IRS 2 POWER LANDING GEAR DOOR COMMAND LANDING LIGHTS OBSERVER AUDIO (INTPH 3) OVERHEAD PANEL LIGHTING PACK VALVE 2 PASSENGER CABIN LIGHTS 2/3 PITOT 2 HEATING PNEUMATIC HSV 2 RED BEACON LIGHTS ROLL TRIM SYSTEM SENSORS HEATING CONTROL SPOILER INDICATION SPS (SHAKER 2/CHANNEL 2) SPS PUSHER STABILIZER ANTI-ICE SYSTEM STATIC PORT HEATING 2 STEERING SYSTEM TAT 2 SENSOR HEATING WINDSHIELD WIPER SYSTEM 2 WING ANTI-ICE 1 INDICATION

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AVIONIC SWITCHED DC BUS 1A
AUTOPILOT 1 DME 1 HF 1 MFD 2 POWER MLS 1 POWER/CONTROL PFD 1 POWER RADIO ALTIMETER 1

ELECTRICAL

AVIONIC SWITCHED DC BUS 2A


AUTOPILOT 2 DME 2 FMS SYSTEM 2 DATA LOADER (#) FMS SYSTEM 2 COMPUTER (#) FMS SYSTEM 2 CDU (#) MFD 1 POWER MLS 2 POWER/CONTROL PFD 2 POWER RADIO ALTIMETER 2 TUNING BACKUP CONTROL HEAD VHF SYSTEM 2

AVIONIC SWITCHED DC BUS 1B


CMU MARK III FLITEFONE FMS SYSTEM 1 DATA LOADER FMS SYSTEM 1 COMPUTER FMS SYSTEM 1 CDU RADAR SYSTEM TDR 1 POWER/CONTROL VHF SYSTEM 3

AVIONIC SWITCHED DC BUS 2B


ADF 2 GPS HF 2 OMEGA TDR 2 POWER/CONTROL VOR/ILS/MB 2

SHED DC BUS 1
COCKPIT RECIRCULATION COCKPIT IFE & PC POWER PANEL ENTERTAINMENT CABINET CB PANEL GALLEY OVEN POWER NOSE LANDING LIGHTS MUSIC PC POWER INVERTER PRE RECORD ANNOUNCEMENTS (PRA) READING LIGHTS/ATTENDANT CALL 1 WATER HEATING INVERTER 1 SELCAL SYSTEM

SHED DC BUS 2
AIR COMPRESSOR CABIN RECIRCULATION CONVECTION OVEN FLASHLIGHT GALLEY GALLEY COFFEE MAKER POWER MICROWAVE OVEN READING LIGHTS/ATTENDANT CALL 2/3 TAXI LIGHTS WATER HEATING INVERTER 2 WINDSHIELD HEATING 2

HOT BUS 1
EMERGENCY LOCATOR TRANSMITER (ELT) ENG 1 FIRE EXTINGUISHING (BTL A1) ENG 2 FIRE EXTINGUISHING (BTL A2) FUEL PRESSURE REFUELING 3 FUEL SHUTOFF VALVES 1 HYDRAULIC SHUTOFF VALVE 1

HOT BUS 2
COURTESY/STAIR LIGHTS 1 ENG 1 FIRE EXTINGUISHING (BTL B 1) ENG 2 FIRE EXTINGUISHING (BTL B 2) FUEL SHUTOFF VALVES 2 FUSELAGE FUEL ISOLATION VALVE FUSELAGE FUEL VENT VALVE HYDRAULIC SHUTOFF VALVE 2 MAIN DOOR CONTROL 2

BACKUP ESSENTIAL BUS


AHRS 1 POWER DATA ACQUISITION UNIT DISPLAY PRCS/CONTROL POWER 1 EICAS POWER IRS 1 POWER

BACKUP HOT BUS


APU GENERATION DC DISTRIBUTION DC GENERATION 1 DC GENERATION 2 DC GENERATION 3 DC GENERATION 4 ISIS

(#) Applicable only if DUAL FMS is installed


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BACKUP BUS 2
AHRS 2 POWER IRS 2 POWER

BACKUP BUS 1
NONE

ESSENTIAL DC BUS 1
ADC 1 POWER/CONTROL AHRS 1 POWER AIR/GND POSITION SYSTEM B APU BLEED AURAL WARNING SYSTEM 1 COCKPIT DOME LIGHTS DISPLAY PRCS/CONTROL POWER 1 (IC 1) EICAS DISPLAY POWER EICAS POWER (DAU 1A) ENG 1 FIRE DETECTION 1 ENG 1 FUEL PUMPS 1A ENG 2 FUEL PUMPS 2B ENGINE 1 FADEC A POWER ENGINE 2 FADEC A POWER ENGINE 1 STARTING ENGINES N2 SIGNALS 1A ENGINES N2 SIGNALS 2A FDR MANAGEMENT FUEL QUANTITY INDICATION 1 LANDING GEAR CONTROL (DOWN OVRD) LANDING GEAR NOSE INDICATION 1 IRS POWER 1 PASSENGER OXYGEN SYSTEM 1 PILOT/COPILOT AUDIO SYSTEM (INTPH 1) PILOT'S CLOCK PILOT'S PANEL LIGHTING PNEUMATIC 1 (EBV 1) RAM AIR DISTRIBUTION RMU 1 POWER/CONTROL RUDDER CONTROL SYSTEM 2 SPS (SHAKER 1/CHANNEL 1) VHF SYSTEM 1

ESSENTIAL DC BUS 2
AIR/GND POSITION SYSTEM D APU CONTROL APU FIRE DETECTION APU FIRE EXTINGUISHING APU FUEL FEED COPILOT'S PANEL LIGHTING CROSSBLEED EICAS POWER (DAU 2A) EMERGENCY LIGHTING CONTROL ENG 2 FIRE DETECTION 2 ENG 1 FUEL PUMPS 1B ENG 2 FUEL PUMPS 2A ENGINE 1 FADEC B POWER ENGINE 2 ANTI-ICE INDICATION ENGINE 2 FADEC B POWER ENGINE 2 STARTING ENGINES N2 SIGNALS 1B ENGINES N2 SIGNALS 2B FUEL CROSSFEED FUEL QUANTITY INDICATION 2 ISIS (AIRPLANES S/N 484, 495, 528, 540, 555) LANDING GEAR BRAKES INBOARD LANDING GEAR CONTROL LANDING GEAR NOSE INDICATION 2 PASSENGER OXYGEN SYSTEM 2 PEDESTAL PANEL LIGHTING PILOT/COPILOT AUDIO SYSTEM (INTPH 2) PITCH TRIM 2 PITOT HEATING 3 PNEUMATIC 2 (EBV 2) PUBLIC ADRESS RMU 2 POWER/CONTROL RUDDER CONTROL SYSTEM 1 STANDBY ALTIMETER STANDBY ATTITUDE INDICATOR VOICE RECORDER WING ANTI-ICE INDICATION 2

AVIONIC SWITCHED ESSENTIAL DC BUS 1


ADF 1 VOR/ILS/MB 1

AVIONIC SWITCHED ESSENTIAL DC BUS 2


NONE

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

SECTION 2-02 EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS


TABLE OF CONTENTS Block Page Cockpit ............................................................................... 2-02-05 ..01 Pilot Seats ...................................................................... 2-02-05 ..01 Pilot Seat Controls.......................................................... 2-02-05 ..02 Pilot Seat Adjustment ..................................................... 2-02-05 ..04 Pedal Adjustment ........................................................... 2-02-05 ..05 Observer Seat ................................................................ 2-02-05 ..06 Direct Vision Windows.................................................... 2-02-05 ..08 Attendant Station and Seat (Optional) ............................... 2-02-10 ..01 Galley ................................................................................. 2-02-15 ..01 Forward Galley - Main Components............................... 2-02-15 ..02 Galley Electrical System ................................................. 2-02-15 ..06 Galley Components ........................................................ 2-02-15 ..08 Galley Lighting ................................................................ 2-02-15 ..10 Water.............................................................................. 2-02-15 ..12 Controls and Indicators................................................... 2-02-15 ..13 Passenger Seats................................................................ 2-02-20 ..01 Controls and Indicators................................................... 2-02-20 ..04 Escutcheons....................................................................... 2-02-25 ..01 Controls and Indicators................................................... 2-02-25 ..02 Closets ............................................................................... 2-02-30 ..01 Components ................................................................... 2-02-30 ..02 Controls and Indicators................................................... 2-02-30 ..14 Partitions ............................................................................ 2-02-35 ..01 Components ................................................................... 2-02-35 ..04 Controls and Indicators................................................... 2-02-35 ..14 Water and Waste ............................................................... 2-02-40 ..01 Water.............................................................................. 2-02-40 ..01 Waste Disposal .............................................................. 2-02-40 ..06 Airstair Main Door .............................................................. 2-02-45 ..01 EICAS Message ............................................................. 2-02-45 ..01 Controls and Indicators................................................... 2-02-45 ..02 Main Door Acoustic Curtain............................................ 2-02-45 ..06

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EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

Access Doors and Hatches ................................................ 2-02-50.. 01 Baggage Door................................................................. 2-02-50.. 04 Compartment Hatches.................................................... 2-02-50.. 06 Refueling Panel Access Door ......................................... 2-02-50.. 07 Lavatory/Baggage Compartment Access Door .............. 2-02-50.. 07 Emergency Exit Hatches ................................................ 2-02-50.. 08 Doors and Hatches Indication on MFD........................... 2-02-50.. 08 Forward Lavatory Doors ................................................. 2-02-50.. 10 AFT Lavatory..................................................................... 2-02-55.. 01 Vanity Assembly ............................................................. 2-02-55.. 04 Toilet Section Components............................................. 2-02-55.. 04 Lavatory Electrical Installation ........................................ 2-02-55.. 06 Controls and Indicators................................................... 2-02-55.. 08 Forward Lavatory................................................................ 2-02-57.. 01 Toilet Section Components............................................. 2-02-57.. 04 Lavatory Electrical Installation ........................................ 2-02-57.. 06 Controls and Indicators................................................... 2-02-57.. 06 Pilot and Passenger Convenience Items ........................... 2-02-60.. 01 PC Power System .............................................................. 2-02-65.. 01 Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter ...................................... 2-02-65.. 02 Controls and Indicators................................................... 2-02-65.. 03 In-Flight Entertainment System .......................................... 2-02-70.. 01 Main Components........................................................... 2-02-70.. 02 Controls and Indicators................................................... 2-02-70.. 04 SATCOM System ............................................................... 2-02-75.. 01 Telephone System (Optional)............................................. 2-02-80.. 01

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

COCKPIT
PILOT SEATS
The pilot seats are fixed to slide rails which permit fore and aft adjustments. When the seats are in their aft most position, a lateral movement is also available, in order to facilitate crew access to the seat. The seats are fitted with adjustable armrest, seat backs, thigh support and lumbar position, and can also be adjusted for height. Backrest inclination, thigh support and lumbar positions are hydromechanically adjusted. The armrest adjustment, and seat fore, aft and lateral adjustments are made mechanically. The pilot and copilot seats are identical, except for the symmetrical arrangement of the controls. Controls on the pilots seat are on the opposite side from those on the copilots seat. A switch installed in the seat allows height adjustment, which is performed by an electrical actuator. In case of electrical actuator malfunction height adjustment may also be accomplished manually by attaching a crank to the actuator and rotating it. Extension or retraction of the actuator rod connected to the seat structure permits vertical displacement. The crew seat belts consist of five straps. The left (for the pilot seat) and right (for the copilot seat) lap belt straps are permanently fixed to a rotary buckle, provided with quick-release latch locks that are operated by turning the existing rotary device on the buckle face. The two upper straps are connected to an inertia reel attached to the seat backrest, which allows the pilot to bend forward in normal, slow movements. Abrupt movements or high acceleration locks the upper straps, preventing the pilot from impacting against the instrument panel. The inertia reel can be mechanically locked through a lever installed on the seat.

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PILOT SEAT CONTROLS


1 - SEAT FORE/AFT AND LATERAL ADJUSTMENT LEVER Pulling the lever up, the seat is free to slide along its rails. Lateral movement is allowed only when the seat is at the aft stop. Releasing the lever, the seat is locked. Fore/aft movement has predetermined fixed positions. Lateral movement has only the left and right stops. 2 - SEAT HEIGHT ADJUSTMENT BUTTON (spring loaded, center off rocker button) Pressing the button up or down causes the seat to raise or to lower respectively, provided the airplane is energized. 3 - BACKREST INCLINATION ADJUSTMENT BUTTON Pressing the button allows the occupant to select the required inclination by pressure exerted upon the backrest. Releasing the button, backrest is retained in the desired position. 4 - LUMBAR ADJUSTMENT WHEEL When rotated, provides in and out lumbar adjustment. 5 - THIGH SUPPORT ADJUSTMENT WHEEL When rotated, provides thigh support height adjustment. 6 - ARMREST ANGLE ADJUSTMENT WHEEL When rotated, allows armrest adjustment to the desired angle. 7 - INERTIA REEL LOCK LEVER LOCK - Locks the inertia reel in the current position. UNLOCK - Unlocks the inertia reel, permitting movement.

normal

belt

8 - HEIGHT ADJUSTMENT LEVER BACK-UP When attached to the height adjustment actuator and rotated, it causes the seat to raise or to lower.

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PILOT SEAT ADJUSTMENT


Seat adjustment should be accomplished to accommodate the pilots eye level and position best suited for control column actuation. The seat should be moved up or down until the pilots line of sight reaches the same horizontal plane of a sight device made up of two white spheres and a black sphere. Then, move the seat fore or aft until the opposite white sphere is aligned with the black one. The seat should not be moved anymore. To adjust the rudder pedals, refer to PEDAL ADJUSTMENT.

PILOT SEAT ADJUSTMENT

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PEDAL ADJUSTMENT
Toggle switches installed on the pilot and copilots panels allows rudder pedals adjustment, which is performed by electric actuators. Setting the switch up or down signals the actuator to move the pedals fore or aft, to assure the pilots comfort and a full rudder throw from the adjusted seat position.

PEDAL ADJUSTMENT SWITCH

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OBSERVER SEAT
The observer seat is installed behind the co-pilot seat. When in use, it lies in front of the cockpit door, and when not in use, it folds up and rotates away from the door area, stowing against the right side of the cockpit partition. The cockpit door can be opened or closed either with the observer seat in use or stowed.

OBSERVER SEAT
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DIRECT VISION WINDOWS


The normal position for the direct vision windows is closed. However, they may be partially opened on the ground, and may be totally removed in case of loss of visibility through the windshield or for cockpit emergency evacuation. Placing respective pilot seat to the aft most position facilitates window removal. A yellow pin protrudes near the opening handle when the window is not properly locked in the closed position, indicating the unlocked condition. A WINDOW NOT CLOSED inscription on the window front frame will be visible when the window is not properly closed.

DIRECT VISION WINDOW REMOVAL

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ATTENDANT STATION AND SEAT


The flight attendant station is positioned at the cockpit partition, close to the main door. This fold-away type seat avoids interference with the door passage way.

FLIGHT ATTENDANT STATION (OPTIONAL)

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GALLEY
A full height forward galley, matching the cabins contours, provides a central location to perform food and beverage preparation. The galley is installed in the forward section of the passenger cabin area and includes as standard items an oven, a microwave oven, coffee maker, trash container (13 gal / 49.2 liters volume) drawer with fire extinguisher, control panels for the water system, emergency lights, oven and galley, pop-out auxiliary work surface, paper towel roll holder, cutting boards, storage provisions for utensils and napkins, flatware storage, ice compartment drawers, glassware storage, crystal and chinaware storage and carrier, seasoning and spices storage, sink with hot water, bottle and can storage, juice can storage, liquor decanters or miniature storage, work table, work light, electrical circuit breakers panels, miscellaneous storage and in line water heaters and filters. The forward galley is composed of an aft cabinet assembly, an upper cabinet assembly, a lower cabinet assembly, and a close-out panel assembly. The cabinet structures are made of lightweight honeycomb panel and its exterior is covered with a decorative finish. The forward galley provides an area to house two oxygen cylinders for passenger main oxygen supply. The forward galley assembly is provided with an electrical installation, a plumbing installation, an electrical hot water heater and heated overboard drain system. The electrical installation is provided with a galley control module and electrical installation hardware. The galley control module controls the galley lights, valance lights, wash lights and passenger cabin temperature control. The plumbing installation allows drainage of liquids from the countertop. The waste compartment is provided for the stowage of food waste. The waste compartment comprises a trash container with trash bag and fire extinguisher. There is a water system that stores and supplies drinking water for use by cabin occupants and crew members, and both to the galley and lavatory washbasins. A pullout table assembly is also provided to give extra room for food and beverage preparation.

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FORWARD GALLEY - MAIN COMPONENTS


FOR AIRPLANES UP TO S/N 685 (INCLUSIVE). The following list enumerates the main components found in the forward galley, the figure provided on the next page indicating the location of these components. 1 - GLASS STORAGE RACK COMPARTMENT 2 - VACUUM CARAFE SETS 3 - COFFEE MAKER 4 - MISCELLANEOUS COMPARTMENTS 5 - ROLL DOOR 6 - OVEN CONTROL PANEL 7 - GALLEY CONTROL PANEL 8 - MICROWAVE OVEN 9 - PULL-OUT TABLE ASSEMBLY 10 - WASTE/AUTO FIRE EXTINGUISHING COMPARTMENT 11 - ELECTRIC OVEN 12 - BOTTLES DRAWER 13 - BUS BIN STORAGE 14 - SERVING TRAYS/FLATWARE STORAGE 15 - CE DRAWER 16 - FAUCET ASSEMBLY 17 - OXYGEN CYLINDERS 18 - PAPER TOWEL HOLDERS

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FORWARD GALLEY (FOR AIRPLANES UP TO S/N 685 (INCLUSIVE)) MAIN COMPONENTS LOCATION
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FOR AIRPLANES FROM S/N 686 (INCLUSIVE) AND SUBSEQUENT AIRFRAMES. The following list presents the main components on the forward galley, and the figure provided on the next page shows the location of these components. 1 - CRYSTAL STORAGE COMPARTMENTS 2 - MISCELLANEOUS STORAGE COMPARTMENTS 3 - EMERGENCY LIGHTS CONTROL PANEL 4 - WATER WASTE DRAIN LINES HEATER TEST CONTROL PANEL 5 - GALLEY CONTROL PANEL 6 - DRINK BOTTLES AND SEASONING STORAGE COMPARTMENTS 7 - COFFEE MAKER 8 - FLATWARE STORAGE COMPARTMENT 9 - CLEAN ICE DRAWER 10 - LONG NECK STORAGE COMPARTMENT 11 - WASTE COMPARTMENT 12 - SODA STORAGE COMPARTMENTS 13 - MISCELLANEOUS STORAGE COMPARTMENTS 14 - CHINAWARE STORAGE COMPARTMENTS 15 - WINE STORAGE COMPARTMENT 16 - ELECTRIC OVEN 17 - MICROWAVE OVEN 18 - CRYSTAL STORAGE COMPARTMENT 19 - FOOD TRAYS STORAGE COMPARTMENT 20 - MISCELLANEOUS STORAGE COMPARTMENTS 21 - OXYGEN CYLINDER 22 - FAUCET ASSEMBLY 23 - MUG STORAGE COMPARTMENT 24 - ROLL-UP DOOR 25 - OVEN CONTROL PANEL

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GALLEY ELECTRICAL SYSTEM


The galleys electrical installation supplies 28 V DC power to the galley for distribution to the associated components. The galley electrical installation receives 28 V DC from the RH power control and distribution box, located on the aft console, and supplies electrical power to the main galleys components. The galleys electrical installation also receives 28 V DC from the entertainment cabinet circuit breaker panel, located in the entertainment cabinet. This powers the water heater, 60 Hz outlet GFI (Ground Fault Interrupter), credenza lights and galley lights. The electric oven, microwave oven and coffee maker are installed in an enclosure with a door. The oven and the microwave oven have a microswitch installed on the door that controls a relay (located inside of each component) to cut their power supply when the door is closed. The coffee maker has a microswitch installed at the door that controls a relay to cut off the power supply from it when the door is closed. The galleys electrical installation is also provided with a galley control panel, galley lighting, advisory signs and a fuse box. The fuse box, installed behind the galleys structure, protects the electric oven, microwave oven and coffee maker. The galley also provides a 60 Hz outlet GFI, and electrical connectors to connect the galley components. The galleys electrical installation includes the following components: Microwave oven Electric oven Oven controller Coffee maker Water heater Galley control panel Galley lighting

The location of these components is presented in the figure on the next page.

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GALLEY ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAIN COMPONENTS LOCATION


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GALLEY COMPONENTS
MICROWAVE OVEN Microwave cooking time is set by the controls on the front of the unit. It controls the oven operation and provides an audible signal when the cooking cycle is complete. The microwave oven door operates a safety interlock switch, which disables the cooking cycle while the door is open or left ajar. There is an additional toggle-type latch installed at the top of the door to further ensure that the door will remain closed during the cooking cycle. The microwave oven is equipped with a pressure switch that cuts off the microwave oven power supply when the passenger cabin pressure exceeds 10000 ft. The microwave oven power supply will be restored when the pressure falls below 9000 ft. The solid state timer of the oven is not affected by momentary power interruptions. ELECTRIC OVEN The electric oven has a temperature range from 150F to 450F (65.5C to 232.2C) with overheat protection. A fan circulates air inside the oven for even heat distribution of 10F ( 12.2C). An external oven controller controls the electric oven. COFFEE MAKER The coffee maker uses standard coffee filters and regular or drip grind coffee. The brewer basket is locked into the coffee maker and can be removed by lifting up its respective release button. The thermal carafe is locked into the coffee maker and can be removed by pressing its respective release button. The coffee maker has automatic fill and is designed for operation with pressurized water systems. Hot and cold water can be dispensed through a spigot on the coffee maker. The coffee maker has redundant overheat protection. The water supply must be turned off and the brewer drain valve on the right hand side in the rear of the carafe must be open. Super fine grinds such as express can cause the carafe to overfill. When electrical power is available, a POWER ON red light indicator will glow. The BREW button is used to start heating the water. The flashing green light indicates that the water has not reached the proper

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temperature. The green HOT WATER light will glow to indicate that the water has reached the proper temperature and the brew process will begin. The entire brewing cycles takes approximately 6 minutes. The green BREW light turns off to indicate that the brewing process is completed. Press and hold the HOT WATER button. The hot water will come out of the spigot. Press and hold the COLD WATER button. The cold water will come out of the spigot. WATER HEATER The water heater comes on automatically when 28 V DC is applied by the water heater circuit breaker (located in the entertainment cabinet circuit breaker panel) closed. The heater maximum temperature is preselected to 115F (46.1C). It has a capacity of 1.4 liters. The water heater can not provide continuous hot water supply. Its recovery time is approximately 15 minutes. The water heater is protected against overtemperature by an overtemperature switch with manual reset and against overpressure by an overpressure switch. OVEN CONTROLLER The oven controller time allows for one hour of cooking time. A red light will come on to indicate that the oven is on (POWER ON). An amber light will come on to indicate that the heaters are on. The amber light will start flashing when the oven reaches the selected temperature. GALLEY CONTROL PANEL The galley control panel houses switches that control area for the passenger cabin temperature control switches, galley work light switch, forward upwash lights switch, aft upwash lights switch, lavatory call indicator switch, credenza lights switch, galley accent lights switch, galley area lights switch, forward downwash lights switch and aft downwash lights switch.

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GALLEY LIGHTING
Galley lighting consists of a work light installed above the sink area, two accent lights installed in the glass storage rack compartment and three area lights installed in the ceiling above the galley for aisle illumination in front of the galley. The figure on the next page presents the location of galley lighting components.

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WATER
The water subsystem includes components and equipment to store and supply drinking water for cabin occupants and crewmembers. It stores water in a pressurized tank and supplies this water to the washbasins in the lavatory and forward galley. In some airplanes the water is stored in two tanks: one in the forward galley and the other in the lavatory. If the airplane is equipped with a forward lavatory, there is another water tank for the washbasin.

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CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


FOR AIRPLANES UP TO S/N 685 (INCLUSIVE). GALLEY CONTROL PANEL The galley control panel has the ability to control the following items: 1 - CABIN TEMPERATURE The cabin temperature is displayed in bargraph format. The cabin temperature can be raised or lowered with the Up or Down TEMP buttons. 2 - GALLEY WORK LIGHTS When alternately pressed, turns ON or OFF the galley work lights. 3 - CABIN WASH LIGHTS There are controls to select the FWD Upwash, FWD Downwash, AFT Upwash and AFT Downwash lights. The selection is DIM/BRIGHT/OFF. 4 - GALLEY AREA LIGHTS When alternately pressed, turns ON or OFF the galley area lights. 5 - GALLEY ACCENT LIGHTS When alternately pressed, turns ON or OFF the galley accent lights. 6 - CREDENZA LIGHTS When alternately pressed, turns ON or OFF the credenza lights. 7 - LAVATORY CALL INDICATION When the LAV CALL button is illuminated, it indicates a passenger call in the lavatory. EMERGENCY LIGHTS CONTROL PANEL 1 - EMERGENCY LIGHTS When alternately pressed, turns ON or OFF the emergency lights.

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WATER CONTROL PANEL The water control panel is composed of the following items: 1 - TANK WATER LEVEL INDICATOR Indicates existing water level inside the storage tank. 2 - COMPRESSOR RESET SWITCH The air compressor will remain off until the tank pressure drops down to or below 20 5 psig (the overpressure switch closes) and the compressor resetting button is pressed. 3 - PUSH TO TEST BUTTON Verifies if the indications in the water system control panel illuminate. 4 - TANK OVER PRESSURE INDICATOR Provides indication of the tank overpressure condition. If the tank pressure rises to 48 2 psig, the tank overpressure switch opens and removes power from the air compressor.

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FOR AIRPLANES FROM S/N 686 (INCLUSIVE) AND ON. DRAIN HEATER CONTROL PANEL The drain heater control panel is composed of the following items: 1 - FWD HEATER TEST Tests the continuity of the forward drain heater. 2 - FWD DRN HEATER Turns on the forward drain/hose heater. 3 - AFT DRN HEATER Turns on the aft drain/hose heater. 4 - AFT HEATER TEST Tests the continuity of the aft drain heater.

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The water control panel is composed of the following items: 5 - WATER TANK LEVEL INDICATOR Indicates the existing water level inside the water storage tank. 6 - GALLEY WORK LIGHTS Turns the galley work lights on/off. 7 - GALLEY AREA LIGHTS Turns the galley area lights on/off. 8 - FWD UPWASH LIGHTS Selects the forward upwash lights bright/dimmed (DIM)/off. 9 - AFT UPWASH LIGHTS Selects the aft upwash lights bright/dimmed (DIM)/off. 10 - AFT DNWASH LIGHTS Selects the aft downwash lights bright/dimmed (DIM)/off. 11 - FWD DNWASH LIGHTS Selects the forward downwash lights bright/dimmed (DIM)/off. 12 - LAV WATER ON/OFF Selects the check carried out by the water system control unit in the lavatory tank. 13 - GALLEY WATER ON/OFF Selects the check carried out by the water system control unit in the galley tank. 14 - LAV WATER LEVEL Selects the water level indication of the lavatory tank. 15 - GALLEY WATER LEVEL Selects the water level indication of the galley tank. 16 - ATTNDNT CALL Clears the attendant call indication.

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EMERGENCY LIGHTS CONTROL PANEL The emergency lights control panel is composed of the following item: 17 - EMERGENCY LIGHTS SWITCH When alternately pressed, turns ON or OFF the emergency lights. Amber: Indicates that the emergency lights are in normal flight position. Green: Indicates that the emergency lights are turned on.

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PASSENGER SEATS
Passenger seats have a single control lever for base tracking, hidden headrests, color coordinated seat belts webbing, upholstered in leather per customer specification, thigh rest, lumbar support adjustment, armrests, leg and footrest. Each Executive Single Seat has forward, aft, swivel and lateral movement, limited recline control on inside of inboard arm, footrest, life vest storage in each seat base compartment and escape lighting. The two forward single seats facing the forward bulkhead have berthing capability. The Executive Divan (3 place) has three color coordinated seat belts, berthing capabilities, one color coordinated sleeper belt, storage for life vests and passengers rafts included. Each Single or Double Executive Seat (except the inboard club seats when mentioned below) has a control unit in the sideledge which allows the management of the reading/table lights (except the inboard club seats) and have an integrated In-Flight Entertainment System management, also in the sideledge, consisting of a headphone jack with the volume control (all seats), audio (all seats) and video source selection (except the inboard club seats). Each seat has a 6.5 plug-in type LCD monitor, except the inboard club seats and the divan, that can display the three standard video sources (video cassette player, DVD/CD player and Airshow 400). All seats have the capability to switch between all video/audio sources listed above except the inboard club seats. The audio amplifiers supply the audio to eight (8) speakers located above the tables throughout the cabin. Two subwoofers are installed within the cabin. Each seat has the ability to select the audio sources and control the volume for their associated headphone jack. There are two VIP seats in the passenger cabin. The forward VIP seat is the left single seat facing the forward bulkhead. The aft VIP seat (optional) is the left single seat facing the lavatory bulkhead. The forward VIP seat has the additional capability to control the audio source and volume for the forward cabin, overhead speaker system. Similarly, the aft VIP seat has the capability to control the audio source and volume for the aft cabin, overhead speaker system. The forward seat on the right side, facing the forward bulkhead, and aside to the VIP seat, is also provided with a SVGA port to display Microsoft PowerPoint presentations on the optional forward 15.1
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bulkhead monitor located on the also optional closet placed in the left side of the aircraft. Also, a serial printer port connection, located in the forward seat on the right side, facing the forward bulkhead, allows data to be transferred to an optional serial printer/fax in the credenza. An air-to-ground telephone system is installed with two handsets. One handset is located at the forward VIP seat and another at the midsection seating group, in the conference table.

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PASSENGER CONTROL PANELS The passenger control panels are installed on the sideledge for all seats except the VIP seat, or in the inboard club seats. These panels have the ability to control the following items: 1 - READING LIGHT The reading light can be turned ON/OFF by pressing the READ LIGHT ON/OFF switch (green = ON, amber = OFF) on the passenger control panel at each seat. 2 - TABLE LIGHT The table light can be turned ON/OFF by pressing the TABLE LIGHT ON/OFF switch (green = ON, amber = OFF) on the passenger control panel at each seat. 3 - PERSONAL VIDEO SELECTION In the sideledge, the PERSONAL VIDEO SELECT button can be used to select VCR, DVD1 or DVD2, which will be displayed on the LED display. The VCR/DVD video will appear clear and sharp on the individual 6.5 monitor installed at the seat location. In the inboard club seats, the UP and DOWN buttons can be used to select VCR, DVD1 or DVD2, which will be displayed on the LED display. The VCR/DVD video will appear clear and sharp on the individual 6.5 monitor installed at the seat location. 4 - HEADSET AUDIO SELECTION Using the HEADSET AUDIO SELECT switch, change the audio until the VCR, DVD1 or DVD2 audio can be heard from headset. The audio source selected will be displayed on the LED display.

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The forward VIP control panel is located in the left-hand side panel near the forward VIP seat. There is a headset jack and volume/temperature UP and DOWN control buttons. The audio will correspond to the chosen video selection, however, it can be selected separately from the video. This panel has the ability to control the following items: 1 - FORWARD UPWASH LIGHTS The forward cabin upwash lights can be turned ON or OFF by pressing the FWD UPWASH LIGHTS ON/OFF switch (green = ON, amber = OFF). 2 - AFT UPWASH LIGHTS The aft cabin upwash lights can be turned ON or OFF by pressing the AFT UPWASH LIGHTS ON/OFF switch (green = ON, amber = OFF). 3 - READING LIGHT The reading light can be turned ON or OFF by pressing the READ LIGHT ON/OFF switch (green = ON, amber = OFF). 4 - CABIN MONITOR ON/OFF Pressing the CABIN MONITOR ON/OFF button can turn ON or OFF the forward 15 LCD monitor (green = ON, amber = OFF). 5 - CABIN VIDEO SELECTION The CABIN VIDEO SELECT button can be used to select VCR, DVD1 or DVD2, which will be displayed on the LED display. The VCR/DVD video will appear clear and sharp on the individual 6.5 monitor installed at the seat location. 6 - SPEAKER AUDIO SELECTION Using the SPEAKER AUDIO SELECT switch, change the audio until the VCR, DVD1 or DVD2 audio can be heard from the forward cabin speakers. The audio source selected will be displayed on the LED display. 7 - SPEAKER ON/OFF Pressing the SPEAKER ON/OFF button can turn the forward cabin speakers ON or OFF (green = ON, amber = OFF).
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8 - HEADSET AUDIO SELECTION Using the HEADSET AUDIO SELECT switch, change the audio until the VCR, DVD1 or DVD2 audio can be heard from headset. The audio source selected will be displayed on the LED display. 9 - PERSONAL VIDEO SELECTION The PERSONAL VIDEO SELECT button can be used to select VCR, DVD1 or DVD2, which will be displayed on the LED display. The VCR/DVD video will appear clear and sharp on the individual 6.5 monitor installed at the seat location. 10 - CABIN TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER Pressing the CABIN TEMP CONTROL button presents the approximate cabin temperature (F). With the UP and DOWN buttons cabin temperature can be adjusted. 11 - TABLE LIGHT The table light can be turned ON or OFF by pressing the TABLE LIGHT ON/OFF switch (green = ON, amber = OFF). 12 - AFT DOWNWASH LIGHTS The aft cabin downwash lights can be turned ON or OFF by pressing the AFT DNWASH LIGHTS ON/OFF switch (green = ON, amber = OFF). 13 - FORWARD DOWNWASH LIGHTS The forward cabin downwash lights can be turned ON or OFF by pressing the FWD DNWASH LIGHTS ON/OFF switch (green = ON, amber = OFF).

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AFT VIP CONTROL PANEL (OPTIONAL) The aft VIP control panel is located in the left-hand side panel near the aft VIP seat (optional). There is a headset jack and volume/temperature UP and DOWN control buttons. The audio will correspond to the chosen video selection, however, it can be selected separately from the video. This panel has the ability to control the following items: 1 - FORWARD UPWASH LIGHTS The forward cabin upwash lights can be turned ON or OFF by pressing the FWD UPWASH LIGHTS ON/OFF switch (green = ON, amber = OFF). 2 - AFT UPWASH LIGHTS The aft cabin upwash lights can be turned ON or OFF by pressing the AFT UPWASH LIGHTS ON/OFF switch (green = ON, amber = OFF). 3 - READING LIGHT The reading light can be turned ON or OFF by pressing the READ LIGHT ON/OFF switch (green = ON, amber = OFF). 4 - SPEAKER AUDIO SELECTION Using the SPEAKER AUDIO SELECT switch, change the audio until the VCR, DVD1 or DVD2 audio can be heard from the forward cabin speakers. The audio source selected will be displayed on the LED display. 5 - SPEAKER ON/OFF Pressing the SPEAKER ON/OFF button can turn the forward cabin speakers ON or OFF (green = ON, amber = OFF). 6 - HEADSET AUDIO SELECTION Using the HEADSET AUDIO SELECT switch, change the audio until the VCR, DVD1 or DVD2 audio can be heard from headset. The audio source selected will be displayed on the LED display. 7 - PERSONAL VIDEO SELECTION The PERSONAL VIDEO SELECT button can be used to select VCR, DVD1 or DVD2, which will be displayed on the LED display. The VCR/DVD video will appear clear and sharp on the individual 6.5 monitor installed at the seat location.

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EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

8 - CABIN TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER Pressing the CABIN TEMP CONTROL button presents the approximate cabin temperature (F). With the UP and DOWN buttons cabin temperature can be adjusted. 9 - TABLE LIGHT The table light can be turned ON or OFF by pressing the TABLE LIGHT ON/OFF switch (green = ON, amber = OFF). 10 - AFT DOWNWASH LIGHTS The aft cabin downwash lights can be turned ON or OFF by pressing the AFT DNWASH LIGHTS ON/OFF switch (green = ON, amber = OFF). 11 - FORWARD DOWNWASH LIGHTS The forward cabin downwash lights can be turned ON or OFF by pressing the FWD DNWASH LIGHTS ON/OFF switch (green = ON, amber = OFF).

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NOVEMBER 30, 2001

2-02-20

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

AFT VIP SEAT PASSENGER CONTROL PANEL

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2-02-20

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EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

ESCUTCHEONS
The escutcheons are provided to support the gasper air outlets, the oxygen box assemblies, the speakers and the reading lights. There are two types of escutcheons. The first assembly comprises two reading lights, a speaker, and a speaker grill, while the second one comprises an oxygen box assembly installed in the middle of the escutcheon, a reading light, and a gasper air outlet. In the left-hand and right-hand escutcheons assemblies, the reading light and the gasper air outlet are positioned to establish symmetry between both sides of the aircraft. The escutcheons are installed in the left-hand and right-hand valance panels in sets of three units each, one first escutcheon type between two second escutcheon type, above the seats of conference table and executive tables, the executive divan seat, and the credenza, for passengers comfort. A second escutcheon type is installed in the lavatory valance panel. The escutcheons provide the following services: 1 - READING LIGHTS. 2 - AIR GASPER. 3 - OXYGEN MASKS DISPENSING. 4 - LOUDSPEAKER FOR INTERNAL COMMUNICATION.

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CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


1 - READING LIGHTS Press the READ LIGHT button on the passenger seat control panel to turn the reading lights on. To control light direction, push the reading light in the direction illumination is desired. 2 - AIR GASPER Turn the nozzle that protrudes from the ball assembly to control the airflow volume. To control airflow direction, push the nozzle in the direction in which the airflow is desired.

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ESCUTCHEONS - COMPONENT LOCATIONS

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CLOSETS
The LH (left-hand) forward closet, LH and RH (right-hand) closets, entertainment cabinet and credenza are used for stowage of passenger garments, miscellaneous items, life rafts, pillows, blankets, magazines, plug-in monitors and as a storage area for emergency equipment, umbrella, entertainment equipment and 110 V AC outlets. The LH forward closet, LH and RH closets, entertainment cabinet and credenza are made of lightweight honeycomb panels and the exterior is covered with a decorative finish and laminate. The LH forward closet is located in the forward section of the passenger cabin area. The LH and RH closets are located in the forward section, next to the pocket door. The entertainment cabinet is located in the forward section in front of the galley. The credenza is located in the mid-section of the passenger cabin area.

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COMPONENTS
LH FORWARD CLOSET The LH forward closet is composed of two hinged door assemblies, coat rod, life raft storage, and umbrella storage. The LH forward closet can storage a total of six umbrellas shelves. The interior of LH forward closet is accessed by means of two hinged door assemblies. The doors are held closed with latches. The 15 inch LCD monitor and the MHR infrared control system may be installed at the LH forward closet depending on the interior configuration. The figure on the next page presents the LH forward closet components location.

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LH FORWARD CLOSET - COMPONENT LOCATIONS

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LH AND RH CLOSETS The LH and RH closets have a hinged door assembly and a coat rod. The door is held closed with a latch. These closets offer room for coats and miscellaneous storage. The LH closet contains a 15 inch LCD monitor, and the MHR infrared control system. The RH closet is comprised of optional drawers, floor level warm outlets and ECS/decompression airflow outlets. The figure on the next page presents the LH and RH closet components location. NOTE: The LH and RH closets are only available for some passenger cabin layouts.

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LH AND RH CLOSETS - COMPONENT LOCATIONS


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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

CREDENZA The credenza has a magazine rack assembly and according to the interior arrangement there are three or four hinged door assemblies and eight or ten drawer assemblies installed. The doors and drawers are held closed with latches. The credenza includes escape path light, room for soft storage (pillows and blankets), miscellaneous items, extra china and flatware storage, printer/fax machine, magazine, headphone, and life raft storage. It also possesses space provisions for a 10.4 inch pop-up LCD monitor, 110 V AC outlet for printer/fax machine, floor level warm air outlets and ECS/decompression airflow outlets. The figures on the following pages present the credenzas components location.

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EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

CREDENZA - COMPONENT LOCATIONS (WITH THREE HINGED DOORS AND EIGHT DRAWER ASSEMBLIES)
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JUNE 20, 2002

2-02-30

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CREDENZA - COMPONENT LOCATIONS (WITH FOUR HINGED DOORS AND TEN DRAWER ASSEMBLIES)
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REVISION 1

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ENTERTAINMENT CABINET FOR AIRPLANES UP TO S/N 685 (INCLUSIVE). The entertainment equipment rack, installed in the forward section of the passenger cabin area, has two storage compartments for emergency equipment, a vented storage compartment for AC-power static inverters and laptop controller interface, entertainment circuit breakers panel compartment, systems compartments, two DVD players, a video player, Airshow Genesys, SATCOM, clear ice, an entrance control panel, entertainment control panel, a media storage rack, protective breathing equipment (PBE), aisle lights and an area of ECS/decompression air outflow. Three hinged-door assemblies and a removable panel give access to its interior. The doors are held closed with latches. The following list presents the main components on the entertainment cabinet, and the figure provided on the next page shows the location of these components. 1 - MEDIA STORAGE RACK 2 - MASTER ENTERTAINMENT CONTROL PANEL 3 - ENTRANCE CONTROL PANEL 4 - MULTI-REGION DIGITAL VIDEO DISK PLAYER 5 - HANDSET 6 - MULTI-STANDARD VIDEO CASSETTE RECORDER 7 - FIRE EXTINGUISHER 8 - CLEAR ICE PROCESSOR 9 - AUDIO AMPLIFIER 10 - TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER 11 - MH PROGRAMMMING INTERFACE 12 - PAX AC STATIC INVERTER 13 - MH INTERFACE 14 - PBE/SMOKE HOOK 15 - PORTABLE OXYGEN CYLINDER 16 - CRASH AXE WITH LEATHER POUCH 17 - FIRST AID KIT 18 - FLASHLIGHT 19 - ENTERTAINMENT CABINET CIRCUIT BREAKER PANEL 20 - MH CABIN CONTROLLER 21 - SATCOM 22 - AIRSHOW DIGITAL INTERFACE UNIT 23 - MH ENTERTAINMENT CONTROL PANEL
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2-02-30

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

ENTERTAINMENT CABINET - COMPONENT LOCATIONS (AIRPLANES UP TO S/N 685 (INCLUSIVE))

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FOR AIRPLANES FROM S/N 686 (INCLUSIVE) AND SUBSEQUENT AIRFRAMES. The entertainment equipment rack has a storage compartment for emergency equipment, a vented storage compartment for AC static power inverter, a laptop controller interface, an entertainment circuit breakers panel compartment, system compartments, two DVD players, video player, airshow genesys, SATCOM, an entrance control panel, an entertainment control panel, a media storage rack, a PBE, and a curtain storage compartment. Three hinged-door assemblies and a removable panel give access to its interior. The doors are held closed with latches. The entertainment equipment rack is installed in the forward section of the passenger cabin area. The following list presents the main components on the entertainment cabinet, and the figure provided on the next page shows the location of these components. 1 - MASTER ENTERTAINMENT CONTROL PANEL 2 - CD STORAGE RACK 3 - VIDEO STORAGE RACK 4 - ENTRANCE CONTROL PANEL 5 - FIRE EXTINGUISHER 6 - PROTECTIVE BREATHING EQUIPMENT 7 - PORTABLE OXYGEN CYLINDER AND MASK ASSY 8 - MEDICAL KIT 9 - DIGITAL VIDEO DISK PLAYER 10 - VIDEO CASSETE PLAYER 11 - CIRCUIT BREAKERS PANEL 12 - AUDIO AMPLIFIER 1 13 - COOLING FAN 14 - MH ENTERTAINMENT CONTROLLER 15 - SATELLITE DATA UNIT 16 - AIRSHOW DIGITAL INTERFACE UNIT 17 - AUDIO AMPLIFIER 2 18 - MH CABIN CONTROLLER 19 - MHP LAPTOP CONTROLLER 20 - MH INTERFACE CABIN MANAGEMENT 21 - MHR IRS 22 - TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER 23 - AC STATIC POWER INVERTER

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2-02-30

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ENTERTAINMENT CABINET - COMPONENT LOCATIONS (AIRPLANES FROM S/N 686 (INCLUSIVE) AND SUBSEQUENT AIRFRAMES)
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CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


ENTRANCE CONTROL PANEL (AIRPLANES UP TO S/N 685 (INCLUSIVE)) The entrance control panel controls the main door and entry courtesy lights. The ENTRY LIGHTS ON/OFF push-button switch can turn ON or OFF the courtesy and stair lights. Pressing the ENTRY LIGHTS AUTO push-button switch, the courtesy and the stair lights will be ON when the main door is open. The DOOR CLOSED push-button switch commands the main door to close and the DOOR BLOCKED indication shows when the main door is hydraulically blocked. 1 - ENTRY LIGHTS ON/OFF Press ENTRY LIGHTS ON/OFF to turn the courtesy and the stair lights ON/OFF. 2 - ENTRY LIGHTS AUTO Press ENTRY LIGHTS AUTO to turn the courtesy and the stair lights ON when the door is open. 3 - DOOR CLOSED Press DOOR CLOSED button to command the main door to close. 4 - DOOR BLOCKED When the DOOR BLOCKED indication becomes amber the main door actuator hydraulic line remains pressurized after door closing. In this case the main door is hydraulically blocked. Otherwise, when it becomes green the hydraulic actuator line is depressurized.

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EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

ENTRANCE CONTROL PANEL - CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


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REVISION 4

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15 01

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

ENTRANCE CONTROL PANEL (AIRPLANES FROM S/N 686 (INCLUSIVE) AND SUBSEQUENT AIRFRAMES) The entrance control panel controls the main door and entry lights.The airstair lights on/off push-button switch controls the stair lights; the step light on/off push-button switch controls the step light; and the area light on/off push-button switch controls the door area light. The airstair door close push-button switch controls the main door to close and the door blocked push-button switch commands the main door to block. 1 - AIRSTAIR DOOR CLOSE Controls the main door to close. 2 - DOOR BLOCKED Controls the main door to block. 3 - AIRSTAIR LIGHTS ON/OFF Controls the stair lights on/off. 4 - STEP LIGHT ON/OFF Controls the step light on/off. 5 - AREA LIGHT ON/OFF Controls the door area light on/off.

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL MASTER ENTERTAINMENT CONTROL PANEL 6 - DISPLAY Monitors source selection 7 - SPEAKER SELECTION INDICATION Indicates if the speaker is selected. 8 - FORWARD VIDEO SELECTION INDICATION Indicates if the forward video is selected. 9 - AFT VIDEO SELECTION INDICATION Indicates if the aft video is selected. 10 - TEMPERATURE Displayed in degrees Fahrenheit.

EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

11 - MAP DISPLAY MODE; (MAP, AUTO, LOGO, INFO) Selects the map modes of the Airshow. 12 - AFT LCD ON/OFF SWITCH When alternately pressed, turns ON or OFF the aft LCD. 13 - FORWARD LCD ON/OFF SWITCH When alternately pressed, turns ON or OFF the forward LCD. 14 - SPEAKER ON/OFF SWITCH When alternately pressed, turns ON or OFF the speaker. 15 - VOLUME UP KEY Increases the volume on the audio speakers. 16 - VOLUME DOWN KEY Decreases the volume on the audio speakers.

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ENTRANCE/MASTER ENTERTAINMENT CONTROL PANEL (AIRPLANES FROM S/N 686 (INCLUSIVE) AND SUBSEQUENT AIRFRAMES)
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PARTITIONS
The partitions are used to separate the cockpit from the passenger cabin area, the forward galley area from forward passenger compartment, the forward passenger compartment from the aft passenger compartment, the lavatory from the passenger cabin area, and the lavatory from the baggage compartment. The EMB-135BJ is equipped with the following partitions: Cockpit/passenger cabin partition, which separates the cockpit from the passenger cabin area with controllable access door between the two areas; the pocket door partition, which separates the forward galley area from forward passenger compartment and contains a sliding pocket door; the cabin partitions, which separates the forward passenger compartment from the aft passenger compartment; the toilet partition, which separates the lavatory from the passenger cabin area and incorporates a swing door; and the lavatory/baggage compartment partition, which separates the lavatory from the baggage compartment, and is also provided with a swing door that permits passage from one area to another. The following figure shows the location of the partitions.

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

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PARTITIONS LOCATION

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2-02-35

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COMPONENTS
COCKPIT/PASSENGER CABIN PARTITION The cockpit/passenger cabin partition possesses a cockpit door, LH and RH partitions. The cockpit door assembly is composed of a blowout panel assembly and a door assembly. The door assembly contains a locking latch assembly and a viewer. Two strap assemblies keep the blowout panel assembly attached to the door in the event of a significant pressure increase or decrease in the aircraft. The peephole allows the cockpit occupants to see through the door assembly. The locking latch assembly engages a striker on the LH partition to secure the door when it is closed. The cockpit/passenger cabin LH partition contains a striker and an electrical installation. The electrical installation possesses a harness assembly. The cockpit/passenger cabin RH partition is provided with an access panel assembly that gives access to the relay box. One blue light can be provided above the cockpit door to advise when the cockpit is to be shut out. This light is commanded through the STERILE light switch located at the overhead panel. The figure on the next page presents the location of the cockpit/passenger cabin partition components.

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COCKPIT/PASSENGER CABIN PARTITION COMPONENT LOCATIONS


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ORIGINAL

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POCKET DOOR PARTITION The pocket door partition is a decorative lightweight panel assembly installed with fasteners to the forward galley. The function of the pocket door is to reduct noise level and to provide privacy to the passenger cabin area. There are two types of pocket door partitions, which are the single and dual sliding pocket door. Both pocket doors open by a lateral sliding movement and have a locking mechanism to lock the door in the open position for takeoffs and landings. The figures on the next pages present the two types of pocket doors and their partition components.

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EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

SINGLE POCKET DOOR PARTITION - COMPONENT LOCATIONS


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REVISION 7

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2-02-35

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DUAL POCKET DOOR PARTITION - COMPONENT LOCATIONS


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REVISION 7

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CABIN PARTITION The cabin partition has a LH partition, a RH upper partition, and a RH lower partition made of decorative honeycomb panels. They are also lined with a gloss and veener coat that gives this partition a decorative finish. The panels are tapered at the top to provide an open appearance. The LH partition is provided with EMERGENCY EXIT, NO SMOKING, and FASTEN SEATS BELTS signs on both sides. The RH partition is removable. The figure on the next page presents the location of cabin partition components.

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CABIN PARTITION - COMPONENT LOCATIONS

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

TOILET PARTITION The toilet partition has a LH partition, a RH partition, and a swing door made of decorative honeycomb panels installed at the rear of the passenger cabin area. The toilet partition is lined with a gloss and veener coat. The doorknobs and latch are gold plated. The double swing door is a two-way operable door and contains a door pop-up header, and a doorknob with VACANT/OCCUPIED sign controlled by a slide bolt that can be overridden from the cabin side. The LH partition includes NO SMOKING and FASTEN SEAT BELTS signs. The figure on the next page presents the location of the toilet partition components.

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TOILET PARTITION - COMPONENT LOCATIONS

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LAVATORY/BAGGAGE COMPARTMENT PARTITION The lavatory/baggage compartment partition is composed of LH and RH partitions. The LH partition contains a baggage compartment door and a baggage lights control panel that is turned ON/OFF in the lavatory. The baggage lights control panel controls the two incandescent lights of the baggage compartment. The forward surface, including the door, lined with a gloss and veneer coat that gives this partition a decorative finish. The aft side of the lavatory/baggage compartment partition is lined with gross-point fabric. The baggage compartment door contains a latch mechanism, a blowout panel assembly, a guard assembly, and a peephole (one-way into the baggage area). The latch mechanism allows the door to be opened from the baggage compartment interior. The guard assembly is made of a metallic structure and is designed to catch the blowout panel assembly should this panel be blown-out. Within the guard assembly, there are two lanyards that keep the blowout panel attached to the door if a remarkable pressure difference occurs between the lavatory and the baggage compartment. The lavatory/baggage compartment partition also contains a microswitch that provides an EICAS message indicating door open status. The figure on the next page presents the location of the lavatory/baggage compartment partition components.

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LAVATORY/BAGGAGE COMPARTMENT PARTITION COMPONENT LOCATIONS


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CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


1 - RELAY BOX ACCESS PANEL To operate the relay box panel on the LH partition located at the cockpit/passenger cabin partition, access through the life vest compartment is required. To operate the relay box panel on the RH partition located at the cockpit/passenger cabin partition, access through the forward galley is required. 2 - POCKET DOOR To open the pocket door, release the latch and smoothly slide it through the tracks without binding or hesitation to the RH side. To close the pocket door, smoothly slide it through the tracks without binding or hesitation to the LH side and fit the latch. The figure on the next page presents the operation of the pocket door.

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WATER AND WASTE


The water and waste system has three sub-systems: the water supply system, the water/waste drain system, and the toilet waste system. In the lavatory compartment there is a washbasin unit and a toilet assembly, while in the forward galley there is a washbasin unit installed. Some airplanes may be equipped with a forward lavatory, where there is a washbasin unit and a toilet assembly that are supplied by an independent water system. Each washbasin unit furnishes drinking water through pressurized water lines, and drains wastewater overboard by differential pressure. The water/waste drain system routes wastewater from the lavatory and galley washbasin units and other sources to the overboard water/waste drain ports. In the case of forward lavatory, the water/waste is drained to the forward lavatory waste tank. This waste tank is serviced by inside the forward lavatory. The waste tank unit contains a liquid disinfectant that cleans the bowl through cycling. The system also has an arrangement for odor exhausting from the toilet assembly. The toilet waste system provides sanitary means to collect toilet waste for proper disposal when the aircraft is on the ground.

WATER
FOR AIRPLANES UP TO S/N 685 (INCLUSIVE): The water system stores water for drinking and washing purposes in a pressurized and freeze-protected tank. It assures no contamination of the water by being made up of stainless-steel components and using two water filter units installed near the water tank. It supplies the washbasin with water at ambient cabin temperature and heated water through the supply lines, which connect the tank to the washbasin faucets, every time and while the faucets are in use. The water system control panel is installed in the forward galley to provide status indication and control for the water system. Water servicing is done through the external water service panel, on the lower rear right side of the wing-to-fuselage fairing, which allows the supply of water to the tank and drain, if necessary with heated nipples with caps (fill and overflow), switches, drain valve, and a control cable.
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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

The nipples mounted on the external service panel are directly connected to the tank through stainless-steel tube assemblies and hoses. There is a back drain valve that provides means to drain the water system during ground servicing. A drain switch located on the water service panel actuates the valve. Each washbasin, one in the galley and the other in the lavatory compartment, has a manual isolation shutoff valve, a water heater, and a hot/cold water faucet. In the event of a water leak, the washbasins can be shut-off by closing the isolation valves. The water heaters provide hot water for the faucets. In order to prevent freezing during high-altitude, long-duration flights, there is an external electric heater blanket on the water storage tank and two types of electric heaters for the water distribution lines, which are the inner-line heater and the heated hose. The inner-line electric heater requires 115 V AC - 400 Hz electrical power, which is supplied from a heater controller. The inner-line heater is inserted into the water distribution line through an interface fitting. The heated hose is flexible and has an integrated external electrical heating element. The heated hose requires 28 V DC power and a remotely located thermostat switch. Electric heaters are installed on the water tank drain valve. The heaters require 28 V DC power and are controlled by the two thermostat switches that control the heated hoses. Electric heaters are also installed on the fill and the vent-overflow ports on the water service panel. FOR AIRPLANES FROM S/N 686 (INCLUSIVE) AND SUBSEQUENT AIRFRAMES: Before any service is performed on the water system, the operator needs to ensure that the system is de-energized at the water control panel located in the upper aft Galley, upper right hand cabinet door. NOTE: It is recommended that the Water System be drained if the aircraft is expected to stay overnight in an environment below the freezing point of water.

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

The water system stores water for drinking and washing purposes in two pressurized and freeze-protected tanks, one located in the upper forward galley (with 15 liters - 3.9 US gallons of capacity), the other in the upper portion of the aft lavatory (with 35 liters - 9.2 US gallons of capacity). Both tanks employ stainless-steel components and water filter units, which inhibit water contamination. The galley and aft lavatory tanks supply the washbasin with water at the ambient cabin temperature and heated water through the supply lines, which connect the tank to the washbasin faucets, every time and while the faucets are in use. The water system control panel is installed in the forward galley to provide status indication and control for the water system. Water servicing is done through two external water service panels, one on the lower rear right side of the wing-to-fuselage fairing and the other on the lower front right side of the wing. Both allow the supply of water to the tanks and drain, if necessary with heated nipples with caps (fill and overflow), switches, drain valve, and a control cable. For the optional forward lavatory, the Water System is serviced from inside the forward lavatory compartment. Water is stored in a water tank (with 10 liters - 2.6 US gallons of capacity) that supplies the forward lavatory washbasin. The nipples mounted on each external service panel are directly connected to the associated tank through stainless-steel tube assemblies and hoses. There is a back drain valve that provides the means to drain the water system during ground servicing. The valve is actuated by a drain switch located on the water service panel. Each washbasin, one in the galley and the other in the lavatory compartment, has a manual isolation shutoff valve, a water heater, and a hot/cold water faucet. In the event of a water leak, the washbasins can be shut-off by closing the isolation valves. The water heaters provide hot water for the faucets. In order to prevent freezing during high-altitude, long-duration flights, there is an external electric heater blanket on each water storage tank and two types of electric heaters for the water distribution lines, which are the inner-line heater and the heated hose.

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REVISION 6

2-02-40

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EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

The inner-line electric heater requires 28 V DC electrical power, which is supplied from a heater controller. The inner-line heater is inserted into the water distribution line through an interface fitting. The heated hose is flexible and has an integrated external electrical heating element. The heated hose requires 28 V DC power and a remotely located thermostat switch. Electric heaters are installed on each water tank drain valve. The heaters require 28 V DC power and are controlled by the thermostat switches that control the heated hoses. Electric heaters are also installed on the fill and the vent-overflow ports on each water service panel.

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2-02-40

4 01

REVISION 6

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

WATER SYSTEM - CONTROL AND SERVICE PANELS

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REVISION 6

2-02-40

5 01

EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

WASTE DISPOSAL
The waste system consists of an electrically-operated self-contained recirculation toilet unit, which collects and stores human waste in an internal holding tank. Adequate chemical products are used to disinfect and deodorize the waste holding tank. A vent line connecting the waste holding tank to the exterior performs its ventilation (odors exhaust) by means of differential pressure. Toilet flushing is initiated by pressing and releasing the flush button adjacent to the toilet. This button actuates a motor-driven pump and filter, which delivers flushing fluid for a pre-timed interval. A restrictor at the bowl bottom prevents waste material return when it is carried directly to the tank. A waste service panel on the lower rear right side of the fuselage is equipped with a control cable, a waste drain valve and a rinse nipple with cap, and allows the waste system to be serviced.

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2-02-40

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

WASTE DISPOSAL - WASTE SERVICE PANEL LOCATION AND SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM

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REVISION 4

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EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

The optional forward lavatory has its own separated waste system, which consists of an electrically-operated self-contained recirculation toilet unit, which collects and stores human waste in an internal holding tank. Adequate chemical products are used to disinfect and deodorize the waste holding tank. The forward lavatory waste servicing is done by taking out the waste tank from inside the lavatory.

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2-02-40

8 01

REVISION 4

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

FORWARD LAVATORY - WASTE DISPOSAL

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REVISION 4

2-02-40

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2-02-40

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REVISION 4

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

AIRSTAIR MAIN DOOR


The aircraft is provided with one main entry door located at the left forward fuselage section. The main door, incorporating folding airstairs, is hinged at its lower edge. The door is raised under normal operation conditions by two hydraulic door actuators powered by hydraulic system 1 or by an accumulator with sufficient capacity for three complete door operation cycles. The door opening operation is manual. The hydraulic circuit damping function allows a smooth operation when the door is lowered. The system may be controlled from inside or outside the airplane, respectively through the internal main door control panel, which is part of the entrance control panel, or through the exterior main door control panel. The internal main door control push-button DOOR CLOSED is located in the internal main door control panel. The external main door control push-button PRESS CLOSE DOOR is located behind an access panel on the lower left-hand side of the doors lower edge. The door may also be closed and locked by raising it manually, by an outside ground attendant, actuating either the inner or the outer handle. An alternative main door opening valve is provided in the cockpit to allow the main door to be lowered if it is blocked by hydraulic system pressure (selector valve failure). NOTE: No more than three persons should simultaneously be standing on the doorsteps.

EICAS MESSAGE
TYPE WARNING MESSAGE MAIN DOOR OPN MEANING Main door is open or not properly locked either on the ground with engine 1 running or in flight.

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REVISION 5

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EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


1 - EXTERIOR MAIN DOOR CONTROL BUTTON When pressed, a solenoid valve is energized, allowing hydraulic power to raise the main door. 2 - INTERIOR MAIN DOOR CONTROL BUTTON - DOOR CLOSED When pressed, a solenoid valve is energized, allowing hydraulic power to raise the main door. The DOOR BLOCKED indication becomes amber on the internal main door control panel when the main door actuator hydraulic line remains pressurized after door closing. In this case the main door is hydraulically blocked. 3 - ALTERNATE MAIN DOOR OPENING VALVE (EMERGENCY DISCHARGE VALVE) Open the access panel of the emergency discharge valve. Turn the emergency discharge valve button clockwise to decrease the high pressure in the pressure/return line of the actuators. When actuated for 2 minutes, it depressurizes the door close line, allowing the main door to be lowered when blocked by hydraulic system pressure, provided Hydraulic System 1 is depressurized. The DOOR BLOCKED indication becomes green on the internal main door control panel, and the main door opens smoothly.

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2-02-45

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REVISION 4

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

AIRSTAIR MAIN DOOR CONTROLS AND INDICATORS

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NOVEMBER 30, 2001

2-02-45

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

AIRSTAIR DOOR OPERATION (INSIDE CABIN)

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

AIRSTAIR DOOR OPERATION (OUTSIDE CABIN)

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ORIGINAL

2-02-45

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EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

MAIN DOOR ACOUSTIC CURTAIN


The airplane is equipped with an acoustic curtain at the main door area. The acoustic curtain reduces noise level in the forward passenger cabin area when it is installed. NOTE: The acoustic curtain must be stowed for takeoff and landing. The acoustic curtain should be installed during flights for passenger comfort. The acoustic curtain should be rolled-up with the ultraleather facing outward. Thus, in case of rain, snow, wind or other weather conditions, the ultra-leather will be the exposed material.

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2-02-45

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

MAIN DOOR ACOUSTIC CURTAIN

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ACCESS DOORS AND HATCHES


There are some doors that provide access to several airplane systems in the pressurized and in the non-pressurized compartments. The lavatory/baggage compartment door provides ground or in-flight access to the baggage compartment from the lavatory. The control rigging door provides access to the airplanes systems located at the pressurized compartment below the cockpit floor. The rear electronic compartment door provides access to the electronic components located in this pressurized compartment. The forward electronic compartment door, the pressure-fueling control panel door and the landing gear doors provide access to the nonpressurized compartments. The baggage door, on the aft left-hand side of the fuselage provides external access to the baggage compartment. The aircraft is provided with three emergency exits for crew and passenger emergency evacuation, which are as follows 1) Two cockpit emergency exits, and 2) One passenger cabin emergency exit, located over the wing on the right side of the fuselage. This emergency exit is one of the two passenger cabin emergency escape hatches, located over the wings. The other escape hatch, located on the left side of the passenger cabin, is permanently locked and cannot be used as an emergency exit. This hatch, however, can be removed for maintenance purposes. The pilot and copilot direct-vision windows are used as the cockpit emergency exits by unlatching and removing them inward the cockpit. All doors have a warning system, except for the landing gear doors and the cockpit emergency exits. Access doors and hatches locations are presented in the figures on the following pages.

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REVISION 4

2-02-50

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

ACCESS DOORS AND HATCHES LOCATIONS

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

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ACCESS DOORS AND HATCHES LOCATIONS 2

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REVISION 4

2-02-50

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

BAGGAGE DOOR
The baggage door is located on the rear left side of the fuselage, below the pylon, and is manually operated from the outside. It is provided with a locking mechanism controlled by an external handle that is stowed in a recess in the mid-lower portion of the door. The door is provided with a depressurization vent that allows opening operations. EICAS MESSAGE TYPE CAUTION MEANING Baggage door open or not BAGGAGE DOOR OPN properly locked. MESSAGE

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

BAGGAGE DOOR OPERATION

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ORIGINAL

2-02-50

5 01

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

COMPARTMENT HATCHES
A number of access doors and hatches for different aircraft systems can be found along the fuselage. The compartment hatches provide access for servicing the airplanes systems and equipment. The ventral cockpit access hatch is located under the fuselage, providing access to the fuselage pressurized compartment. The forward electronic compartment access hatch is inside the nose landing gear wheel well. The rear electronic compartment access hatch is located on the rear right side of the fuselage. This hatch provides access to the airplanes pressurized area, which contains the rear electronic compartment, rudder autopilot servo, rudder control cables and electrical harness, stabilizer electrical harness and elevators control cables. An unlocked condition of any compartment hatch causes a single caution message on EICAS. In addition, the MFD indicates an open hatch (es) condition through a graphical representation. EICAS MESSAGE MEANING At least one compartment CAUTION ACCESS DOORS OPN access hatch is open or not properly locked. TYPE MESSAGE

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2-02-50

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REVISION 4

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

REFUELING PANEL ACCESS DOOR


The refueling panel access door is located on the forward right side of the wing-to-fuselage fairing (refer to Section 2-8 Fuel System). Opening the refueling panel access door causes an EICAS caution message. In addition, the MFD indicates an open-door condition through a graphical representation. EICAS MESSAGE TYPE MESSAGE MEANING Refueling panel access door open or not properly closed.

CAUTION FUELING DOOR OPN

LAVATORY/BAGGAGE DOOR

COMPARTMENT

ACCESS

The lavatory/baggage compartment access door is located in the lavatory/baggage compartment partition, and provides in-flight access to the baggage compartment. This access door must be closed for takeoffs and landings. Opening of the lavatory/baggage compartment access door causes an EICAS caution message. In addition, the MFD indicates the open-door condition through a graphical representation. EICAS MESSAGE TYPE CAUTION MESSAGE BAGG ACCESS OPN MEANING Lavatory/Baggage compartment access door open or not properly closed.

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REVISION 4

2-02-50

7 01

EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

EMERGENCY EXIT HATCHES


One passenger cabin emergency escape hatch is located over the lefthand wing. (Refer to Section 1-10 Emergency Information).

DOORS AND HATCHES INDICATION ON MFD


The DOORS section of the Takeoff System Page of the MFD consists of a graphical representation of the airplane (white) with squares located along the fuselage to denote the various doors and hatches that are monitored. If a door or hatch is ajar, the associated graphical square will change from green to red and a red DOOR OPEN inscription will be presented, boxed in red, in the lower left corner of the DOORS section. The following doors and hatches are monitored for status: Main door; Baggage door; Lavatory/Baggage compartment access door; Fueling panel access door; Rear electronic compartment access hatch; Forward electronic compartment access hatch; Under cockpit access hatch; Emergency exit hatch.

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

DOORS AND HATCHES INDICATION ON MFD


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ORIGINAL

2-02-50

9 01

EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

FORWARD LAVATORY DOORS


INTRODUCTION The forward lavatory compartment is located in the service area, which is mainly used by the crewmembers. The forward lavatory offers adequate conditions for the crews personal hygiene and amenities. FORWARD DUAL POCKET DOOR The forward dual pocket door partition is divided into the LH forward pocket door partition and the RH forward pocket door partition. Each side comprises a door hinge fitting, door latch, and an indicator latch. The forward dual pocket door partition structurally separates the forward lavatory/service area and the seating area of the passenger compartment. In case of the dual pocket door becomes jammed, push or kick at the center until door breaks free. To ensure a free pathway restow the door as follows: Swing back, slowly, each door leaf perpendicular to the aisle. Lift up each leaf until it locks. Stow each leaf in the pocket as in normal operation. BI-FOLD FOWARD LAVATORY DOOR The door on the fwd lavatory is a bi-fold door that when opened 90 locks onto the galley, across the aisle, closing off the forward part of the service area. The bi-fold door is provided with means to unlock the door from outside. When the bi-fold lavatory door separetes at the center, in order to ensure a free pathway, swing both RH and LH leaves back and secure them as follows: RH door: Locate lanyard underneth galley toe kick Attach the lanyard hook to the bracket located underneath the RH door leaf.

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2-02-50

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REVISION 4

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL LH door:

EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

1 - Engage door arm on T-rail. 2 - Remove bolt. 3 - Rotate locking arm and align with hole A. 4 - Install bolt and nut. OPERATION To use the fwd lavatory, the forward dual pocket door and the bi-fold forward lavatory door must be operated as follows. To enter: In the service area, slide the RH and LH side of the forward dual pocket door to close and latch them. The doors must close smoothly without binding or hesitation and the latch will secure the door in the closed position. Unlatch and open the bi-fold forward lavatory door by sliding it to the forward side until it reaches its path limit and release it from its upper track. Unfold the door toward the galley and lock it to the galley fittings using the pin locks installed in the doors upper and lower parts. Open the forward and aft close up panels using the knobs of the bi-fold door to close the gap between the upper part of the bifold door and the headliner.

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REVISION 4

2-02-50

11 01

EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

FORWARD LAVATORY BI-FOLD DOOR - OPERATION

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2-02-50

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REVISION 4

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL To exit:

EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

Close the forward and aft close up panels using the knobs of the bi-fold door. Unlock from the galley fittings the pin locks installed in the bifold doors upper and lower parts and fold the bi-fold door toward the forward lavatory until it fits the upper track. Slide the bi-fold door aft and lock it. Slide the RH and LH sides of the forward dual pocket door to open them. The doors must open smoothly, without binding or hesitation, and the latch will secure the door in the open position. Cabin depressurization: In the event of inadvertent cabin depressurization, the bi-fold door has two hinges installed with breakable pins that will segregate the door in to two halves. One half, fixed to the galley, will rotate 90 and the other half, fixed to the lavatory structure, will also rotate to permit airflow between the passenger cabin entrance area and the passenger cabin. At the same time, the entire forward RH and LH pocket door panels rotate, just one half panel being enough for the airflow to go through. After the equalization of the pressure cabin , the bi-fold door must be reinstalled in the lavatory structure with two center spring rollers and the door sliding fitted into position. This procedure permits keeping the bi-fold door stowed until it is repaired. The pins will need to be replaced before any the lavatory operation. In the case of accidental cabin depressurization, the lavatory has unobstructed and redundant lower air paths that allow airflow from the passenger cabin to the back of the lavatory (fuselage), thereby providing quick cabin air pressure equalization. These air paths, located in the toe kick panel, are screened to avoid the ingestion and trapping of unwanted objects falling into the area around the lavatory/galley. In the aft lavatory, the aft pocket door provides the same operation as that of the forward dual pocket door in case of depressurization between areas in the aft part of the aircraft.

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EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

AFT LAVATORY
The lavatory compartment is a modular unit that supplies the adequate conditions for the flight crews and passengers personal hygiene and amenities. The lavatory is located in the aft section of the passenger cabin. The rear wall of the lavatory is covered by the passenger cabin/baggage compartment partition. The following figure presents the location of the lavatorys main components.

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

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LOCATION OF THE LAVATORYS MAIN COMPONENTS

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REVISION 4

2-02-55

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

VANITY ASSEMBLY
The vanity assembly is a bonded structure which houses the lavatory closet assembly, the waste container and its automatic fire extinguisher, miscellaneous storage, vanity light shroud and passenger signs NO SMOKING/RETURN TO SEAT. Other accessories for the vanity assembly include a soap dispenser assembly, a mirror, a toilet paper roll housing and potable water supply emergency shutoff valve, electric hot water heater, 110 V GFI outlet, vanity switch panel and a baggage lights control panel. The baggage lights control panel is turned ON/OFF in the lavatory and is installed on the lavatory/baggage compartment partition. The lavatory closet is composed of a storage compartment, coat rod and drawer.

TOILET SECTION COMPONENTS


The toilet components of the toilet assembly are the drip pan assembly, the floor section assembly, the toilet floor lining bracket assembly, an electric flush toilet, a padded hinged toilet cover, the potable water system shroud, lid assembly, a toilet tissue dispenser, and a valance panel. The valance panel is composed of an escutcheon, in which there are two reading lights over the toilet assembly that can be turned ON/OFF by the reading lights switch on the lavatory control panel. The figure on the next page presents the location of the vanity assembly and the toilet section components.

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EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

LOCATION OF THE VANITY ASSEMBLY AND TOILET SECTION COMPONENTS

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

LAVATORY ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION


There is a smoke detector installed on the ceiling section assembly. The upwash and downwash lights, two ballasts, an oxygen container, and one dimmer are on the valance. The upwash and downwash lights turn to the lit condition when the lavatory door is closed, and they are controlled by a microswitch in the door. An OCCUPIED, EXIT, and NO SMOKING/RETURN TO SEAT signs are installed on the forward face of the lavatorys forward wall. The NO SMOKING/RETURN TO SEAT sign is operated from the cockpit. The LAV CALL, reading lights and flush switches are installed on the lavatory control panel in the right-hand lavatory closet assembly. When the LAV CALL switch is pressed, a tone will sound and the galley control panel will illuminate the LAV indicator to call the flight attendant. A flush switch assembly for toilet actuation is located next to the toilet paper roll housing. When the toilet flush switch is pressed, the toilet flush cycle is initiated. The reading light is installed on the valance panel over the toilet. It is illuminated with a LED module and the beam is adjustable. Pressing the READ LIGHT labeled switch will turn the reading light ON or OFF. The vanity assembly comprises the vanity light switch, the passenger sign NO SMOKING/RETURN TO SEAT and the 110 V GFI outlet. The vanity light is a fluorescent tube over the vanity mirror, which is controlled by the VANITY LIGHT ON/OFF labeled switch. The figure on the next page presents the lavatory electrical installation component locations.

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EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

LAVATORY ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION COMPONENTS LOCATION


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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


LAVATORY CONTROL PANEL The lavatory control panel has the ability to control the following items: 1 - FLIGHT ATTENDANT CALL BUTTON Press this button to send a signal to call the flight attendant. 2 - LAVATORY READING LIGHTS When alternately pressed, turns the lavatory reading light ON or OFF. 3 - TOILET FLUSH BUTTON Press this button to flush the toilet after use. VANITY CONTROL PANEL The vanity control panel has the ability to control the following item: 1 - VANITY LIGHTS When alternately pressed, turns the lavatory vanity lights ON or OFF. BAGGAGE LIGHTS CONTROL PANEL 1 - BAGGAGE COMPARTMENT LIGHTS When alternately pressed, turns the baggage compartment lights ON or OFF.

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EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

LAVATORY, VANITY AND BAGGAGE COMPARTMENT LIGHTS CONTROL PANELS


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2-02-55

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EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

FORWARD LAVATORY
The forward lavatory is optional for airplanes from S/N 686 (inclusive) and subsequent airframes. The lavatory compartment is a modular unit that supplies adequate conditions for the flight crews and passengers personal hygiene and amenities. This lavatory is located at the left forward section of the passenger cabin.

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FORWARD LAVATORY

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REVISION 4

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

TOILET SECTION COMPONENTS


The Forward Lavatory is installed in a cabinet that includes: Vanity/toilet assembly with a bi-fold door. LH forward-pocket door. Forward lavatory electrical installation. The rear wall of the lavatory is covered by the LH forward pocket door cover partition and the front wall is attached to the entertainment cabinet. The lavatory door is a bi-fold type. When swung open 90 degrees, it locks into the galley, across the aisle, closing off the forward part of the service area. The aft area of the lavatory is also closed when the lavatory is in use. The lavatory bi-fold door and the RH/LH forward pocket door function as a blow-out panel in case of cabin decompression. The forward lavatory closet houses: Self-contained trash receptacle. Lavatory light/accent light. RTS/NS signs panel (RETURN TO SEAT/NO SMOKING). Sink. Faucet assembly. Soap dispenser assembly. Vanity mirror. Toilet paper roll housing. Potable water tank. Water tank shut-off valve. Electric hot water heater. 110 V GFCI (GROUND FAULT CONTROL ISOLATION) outlet. Lavatory indicator panel. Miscellaneous storage compartment. Self contained toilet. Toilet seat. Padded hinged toilet cover. Lid assembly.

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EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

VANITY ASSEMBLY AND TOILET SECTION COMPONENT LOCATIONS

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LAVATORY ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION


The RTS/NS signs panel (RETURN TO SEAT/NO SMOKING) is installed on the vanity assembly and is operated from the cockpit. The flush switch is installed on the vanity assembly. When the toilet flush switch is pressed, the toilet flush cycle is initiated. The electrical installation also has a 110 V GFCI outlet installed on the vanity assembly. The lavatory light is installed at the top of the lavatory and an accent light is installed on the vanity assembly. The lights are controlled by a microswitch installed in the lavatory closet. Both lights are turned on when the lavatory bi-fold door is in the open position and they are turned off when the lavatory bi-fold door is in the closed position.

CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


The lavatory has an indicator panel and a flush switch with the following functions: RTS/NS signs panel (RETURN TO SEAT/NO SMOKING) These signs are installed on the vanity assembly and are operated from the cockpit. FLUSH SWITCH This push-button controls the toilet flush. When the toilet flush switch is pressed, the toilet flush cycle is initiated. 110V OUTLET Detailed in the next figure.

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EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

LAVATORY CONTROL PANEL - CONTROLS/INDICATORS

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PILOT ITEMS

AND

PASSENGER

CONVENIENCE

The Pilot and Passenger Convenience Items describe the systems installed on the airplane to provide comfort, facilities and entertainment for passengers and crew members. The systems described in this section are optional and some of them may not be contained in your manual. The Pilot and Passenger Convenience Items are: - PC Power System. - IFE - In-Flight Entertainment System. - SATCOM - Satellite Communication System. - Telephone System.

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NOVEMBER 30, 2001

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EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

PC POWER SYSTEM
The PC Power system is designed to supply passenger cabin AC electric outlets with 115 V AC/60Hz power for Personal Electronic Devices (PED), such as laptop computers. A control switch in the In-flight Entertainment Panel (IFE), installed in the Cockpit Overhead Panel, controls the single-phase AC static inverter, located in the entertainment cabinet, which converts 28 V DC from Shed DC Bus 1 into 115 V AC/60 Hz. This control switch is the PC POWER push-button, which sends a ground signal to start the AC inverter operation. The PC Power system starts to operate when the PC POWER pushbutton is set to the ON position (released). If the PC POWER pushbutton is set to the OFF position (pressed), the AC static inverter output is disabled and the striped bar in the push-button comes on. If Shed DC Bus 1 is deenergized, the AC static inverter is also deenergized. Thus, the AC static inverter does not operate when the aircraft has only two or less generators providing power to the electrical system. The output voltage and frequency are electronically controlled. The AC static inverter is provided with protection against input under/over voltage, output under/over voltage, overcurrent, under/over frequency, input reverse polarity, and short-circuit. The entertainment cabinet fuse box is installed behind the entertainment cabinet and is connected to the Shed DC Bus 1 through a fuse. An another fuse protects the AC static inverter generation.

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GROUND FAULT CIRCUIT INTERRUPTER


The Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI) receptacle is a device which provides personnel protection by interrupting a circuit where a fault current to ground exceeds a predetermined value, and supplies power to the AC electric outlets. It also permits localizing power interruption, provides convenient testing and resetting at the receptacle itself and minimizes nuisance tripping from extraneous causes. There are two GFCI installed in the aircraft that can be used as an outlet itself. One is installed in the forward galley, which supplies power to the outlets on the left side of the aircraft; and the other in the lavatory, which supplies power to the outlets on the right side of the aircraft. NOTE: The use of the AC electric outlets is restricted during takeoff and landing. On ground, when the aircraft is energized with external power source (GPU), the AC static inverter output is available, and when the aircraft is energized with only two or less generators, the AC static inverter output is available only if the Shed Bus switch, on the electrical panel, is set to the OVRD position.

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CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


IN-FLIGHT ENTERTAINMENT PANEL The PC Power System is only activated or deactivated by releasing or pressing the PC Power Button on the IFE Panel. 1 - PC POWER BUTTON Enables (released) or disables (pressed) the power supply to the AC-outlet units. A striped bar illuminates in the button to indicate that it is pressed.

PC POWER SYSTEM BUTTON ON THE IFE PANEL

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IN-FLIGHT ENTERTAINMENT SYSTEM


The In-Flight Entertainment (IFE) system provides the passengers with real-time flight information through the Airshow system, and video/audio entertainment through two DVD players, a VHS video cassette player and a CD changer. The IFE control switch on the IFE Panel, installed in the Cockpit Overhead Panel, controls the IFE system by activating the IFE master relay, which supplies power to the entertainment cabinet circuit breaker through Shed DC Bus 1. The IFE system is supported by the Magic Happy (MH) Data Bus, which, aside the IFE, controls other airborne systems, such as the lighting system and the environmental control system. The MH digital units, such as the control units, are micro-processed and programmable by the MH Programming Interface that enables the use of a laptop with a proper configuration software. The video generation on the IFE system is obtained through a video cassette player, two DVD players and the Airshow digital interface unit. The video signal is distributed to the eight 6.5 monitors and the 15 monitor via the MHE Entertainment Controller, which is commanded by units such as the Master Entertainment control panel, the Forward VIP seat control panel, the Aft VIP seat control panel, the Passenger seat control panels and a remote control unit. These controls enable video selection at passenger monitors and audio volume adjustment at each headset, as well as enable video selection and audio volume adjustment on the 15 monitor and the audio speakers, respectively. Each control unit display indicates which video or audio is selected. Audio is supplied by the DVD players, which can function as CD players, the video cassette player, and the Airshow digital interface unit. The IFE system provides selectable audio and volume control at each passenger seat location, and with the system offering priority interruption capability that enables passenger address to simultaneously override all audio channels. The Airshow digital interface unit generates text and graphic output information obtained from the airplanes long-range navigation system, air data system, and a CD-ROM. This information, selected through the Flight Deck Controller (FDC) in the cockpit, includes appropriate maps and points of interest for the passengers and flight crewmembers.

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MAIN COMPONENTS
AIRSHOW DIGITAL INTERFACE UNIT The Airshow digital interface unit, powered by the entertainment cabinet CB panel, is a computer that receives digital and analog signals from the on-board aircraft avionics systems (FMS and ADC), and data from the magnastar connection. The Airshow digital interface unit is controlled through the MH Interface (MHI), which connects the Airshow with the MH data bus. The Airshow supplies the following outputs: Geographic Maps of flight routes that show real-time airplane position, previous flight path and planned route; Multi-language location names and points of interest on the map; Multi-language text pages of real-time flight information (e.g., ground speed, altitude, temperature, distance and times); Customized graphics, including customized logos and announcements; Audio briefings for safety and/or personal announcements. There is a dedicated 6.5 LCD Airshow video output monitor that enables the selection of any information before it is presented in the passenger cabin. FLIGHT DECK CONTROLLER The flight deck controller, mounted in the cockpit, is responsible for selecting customer-request features in the Airshow digital interface unit, such as time to destination, Greenwich mean time, destination airport, mode display, graphic display, languages and audio announcements. MH ENTERTAINMENT CONTROLLER The MH entertainment (MHE) controller switches and distributes entertainment audio and video, and also provides chime to the passenger cabin. It has eight video inputs switchable to the 24 headphone outputs and four speaker outputs. The MHE is controlled through the MH data bus and supplied by the entertainment cabinet CB panel. CONTROL PANELS There are several digital control panels connected to the MH data bus, which enable the audio and video selection at each seat location, and/or audio and video selection in the passenger cabin. The control panels are the Master Entertainment Control Panel, the Forward and Aft VIP Control Panels, and the eight Passenger Control Panels.
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IN-FLIGHT ENTERTAINMENT PANEL The In-Flight Entertainment (IFE) system should be activated or deactivated if the IFE button is released on the IFE Panel. 1 - IN-FLIGHT ENTERTAINMENT BUTTON Enables (released) or disables (pressed) the power supply to the In-Flight Entertainment System. A striped bar illuminates in the button to indicate that it is pressed.

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IN-FLIGHT ENTERTAINMENT BUTTON ON THE IFE PANEL

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MASTER ENTERTAINMENT CONTROL PANEL FOR AIRPLANES UP TO S/N 685 (INCLUSIVE). The master entertainment control panel is located on the entertainment cabinet and it has switches to control audio and video functions of inflight entertainment systems. It also brings a display that presents entertainment-related information. The figure on the next page presents the functions of each control button of the master entertainment control panel. 1 - DISPLAY Shows the video and audio channels to be selected. 2 - MAP MODE SELECT Selects the map modes of the Airshow. 3 - FWD AUDIO SELECT Selects the audio for the forward passenger cabin. 4 - VOLUME UP KEY Increases the volume on the audio speakers. 5 - VOLUME DOWN KEY Decreases the volume on the audio speakers. 6 - AFT AUDIO SELECT Selects the audio for the aft passenger cabin. 7 - AFT SPEAKER ON/OFF When alternately pressed, turns ON or OFF the aft speakers. 8 - FWD SPEAKER ON/OFF When alternately pressed, turns ON or OFF the forward speakers. 9 - FWD MONITOR ON/OFF When alternately pressed, turns ON or OFF the forward monitor. 10 - FWD VIDEO SELECT Selects the video source to be displayed on the forward monitor.

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MASTER ENTERTAINMENT CONTROL PANEL (FOR AIRPLANES UP TO S/N 685 (INCLUSIVE))

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FOR AIRPLANES FROM S/N 686 (INCLUSIVE) AND SUBSEQUENT AIRFRAMES. The master entertainment control panel is located on the entertainment cabinet and it has switches to control audio and video functions of inflight entertainment systems. It also brings a display that presents entertainment-related information. The figure on the next page presents the functions of each control button of the master entertainment control panel. 1 - AIRSTAIR DOOR CLOSE Controls the main door to close. 2 - DOOR BLOCKED Controls the main door to block. 3 - AIRSTAIR LIGHTS ON/OFF Controls the stair lights on/off. 4 - STEP LIGHT ON/OFF Controls the step light on/off. 5 - AREA LIGHT ON/OFF Controls the door area light on/off. 6 - DISPLAY Monitors source selection 7 - SPEAKER SELECTION INDICATION Indicates if the speaker is selected. 8 - FORWARD VIDEO SELECTION INDICATION Indicates if the forward video is selected. 9 - AFT VIDEO SELECTION INDICATION Indicates if the aft video is selected. 10 - TEMPERATURE Displayed in degrees Fahrenheit.

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MASTER ENTERTAINMENT CONTROL PANEL (FOR AIRPLANES S/N 686 (INCLUSIVE) AND SUBSEQUENT AIRFRAMES)
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11 - MAP DISPLAY MODE; (MAP, AUTO, LOGO, INFO) Selects the map modes of the Airshow. 12 - AFT LCD ON/OFF SWITCH When alternately pressed, turns ON or OFF the aft LCD. 13 - FORWARD LCD ON/OFF SWITCH When alternately pressed, turns ON or OFF the forward LCD. 14 - SPEAKER ON/OFF SWITCH When alternately pressed, turns ON or OFF the speaker. 15 - VOLUME UP KEY Increases the volume on the audio speakers. 16 - VOLUME DOWN KEY Decreases the volume on the audio speakers.

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SATCOM SYSTEM
The SATCOM system is a compact aeronautical system which provides one-channel data/voice/fax for direct satellite communication in the INMARSAT satellite network. The SATCOM is a single-channel AERO-M INMARSAT standard device, utilizing the spot beams of 3rd generation of INMARSAT satellite to provide a global continental communication. Through its single channel, the SATCOM supplies digital voice service at 4800 bps and data service at 2400 bps. The SATCOM system includes the following components: - Satellite Data Unit (SDU). - High-power/low noise amplifier. - SATCOM handset #1 and cradle. - SATCOM handset #2 and cradle (optional). - SATCOM antenna and NRS system. - SATCOM pots telephone adapter (optional). The figure on the next page presents SATCOM system component locations. For further information about the SATCOM system, refer to Section 2-18 in this volume.

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TELEPHONE SYSTEM
The MagnaStar C-2000 digital airborne telephone system transmits and receives both voice and fax/modem type data to and from the aircraft, using an exclusive cellular-linked technology. The telephone system has two air-ground voice/fax/data communications channels that can be used simultaneously. The digital airborne telephone system operates over the GenStar satellite system, which offers continuous coverage throughout the United States of America, southern section of Canada and most section of Mexico. The frequency range of operation to transmit is 894 to 896 MHz and to receive is 849 to 851 MHz. The telephone handsets contain noise-canceling microphones to overcome the aircraft noise environment, and the audio is digitized at the handset to further ensure clear communication. Special function keys and a liquid crystal display (LCD) allow easy use of all options. The handset has an adjustable audio volume, telephone call styles, and selects various options. The LCD display presents useful information and menu style selections. There is a fax machine with fax/scanner/printer and copier functions installed in the credenza. The operation of the telephone system is similar to a cellular phone. When in normal operation, the handset works as a normal telephone. To place a call, it is necessary to pick up the handset and dial the desired phone number with all prefix and country codes. The figure on the next page presents the telephone handset and fax locations.

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FIRE PROTECTION

SECTION 2-07 FIRE PROTECTION


TABLE OF CONTENTS Block Page General .............................................................................. 2-07-05 ..01 Engine and APU Fire Protection System ........................... 2-07-10 ..01 Fire/Overheat Detection ................................................. 2-07-10 ..01 Fire Extinguishing ........................................................... 2-07-10 ..04 Controls and Indicators................................................... 2-07-10 ..06 EICAS Messages ........................................................... 2-07-10 ..08 Lavatory and Galley Fire Protection System ...................... 2-07-15 ..01 Lavatory and Galley Fire Extinguishing .......................... 2-07-15 ..01 Baggage Compartment Fire Protection System ................ 2-07-20 ..01 Baggage Compartment Smoke Detection System......... 2-07-20 ..01 Baggage Compartment Fire Extinguishing System........ 2-07-20 ..01 EICAS Messages ........................................................... 2-07-20 ..02 Controls and Indicators................................................... 2-07-20 ..04

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GENERAL
The engine and APU fire protection system consists of fire/overheat detection and a fire extinguishing system. The fire protection for the lavatory compartment is equipped with a dedicated smoke detection system and the lavatory waste container as well as the forward galley are equipped with a fire extinguishing system. In addition, The baggage compartment is also provided with a smoke detection system and with a fire extinguishing system. The detection system provides visual and aural(except in the baggage compartment) means of detecting a localized fire, smoke or general overheating. Also, a Monitoring circuitry is provided to continuously check the fire and smoke detection systems and the fire extinguishing system and In case of failure, to signal the EICAS display. Extinguisher bottles are installed to extinguish the fire in the airplanes engines, APU, lavatory waste container, forward galley and baggage compartment. Portable halon fire extinguishers installed at the front and rear of the airplane can be used to extinguish small fires in the cockpit or main cabin area. A single water extinguisher is an additional option.

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ENGINE AND APU FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM


FIRE/OVERHEAT DETECTION
The engines and the APU are protected against the occurrence of fire by means of fire detection and fire extinguishing systems. Essential DC bus 1 powers the engine 1 fire detection system and essential DC bus 2 powers the engine 2 and the APU fire detection system. Hot battery bus 1 and 2 power the engine fire extinguishing system, whereas the APU fire extinguishing system is powered by essential DC bus 2. The fire/overheat detection system is provided with independent sensor tubes installed in the engines and APU. The sensor tube contains a fixed volume of inert gas (Helium) and a gas-impregnated (Hydrogen) core material. The inert gas provides sensing of overheating. The core element provides sensing of localized fire or high-intensity heating. Overheating causes the sensor tubes internal gas pressure to increase. This closes a switch on the fire/overheating detection systems electrical circuit and activates the warning system. Localized fire or high-intensity heating increases the central cores gas volume, raising the sensor tubes internal pressure, thus activating the alarm switch in the same manner as described above. Manual resetting of the fire detection system is not available. Upon removal of the fire or overheat condition, a reversible process takes place, and the system automatically returns to the normal standby operation mode. An integrity switch continuously monitors the sensor tubes integrity. The integrity switch is held closed by the sensors internal pressure. Should this pressure be lost the integrity switch opens, generating a signal to indicate that the system is inoperative. Upon detection of a fire/overheat signal in the engine or APU, the associated handle (for the engines) illuminates, an aural warning is generated and a warning message is presented on the EICAS. The visual warning remains activated as long as the fire signal exists. The aural warning may be canceled by pressing the master warning light. In the case of failure of any fire detector, a caution message is presented on the EICAS. The APU fire detection system provides a signal to shut down the APU automatically in case of fire warning during ground operation.

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FIRE EXTINGUISHING
Two fire extinguishing bottles for the engines and one for the APU are installed in the airplanes tail cone. The extinguishing agent discharge is accomplished by braking the extinguisher bottles seal through an electrically actuated cartridge in the discharge valve. Each engine fire extinguisher bottle contains two discharge valves, a pressure gauge with a pressure switch and a fill/safety relief valve. The engine bottles are cross-connected by two double check tees to provide dual shot capability, thus one or both bottles can be discharged into one or the other engine. The double-check tee prevents the extinguishing agent of the remaining bottle from filling the emptied bottle in case of a second shot of the system. The engine extinguisher bottles are discharged by pulling and rotating the Fire Extinguishing Handle, which is located on the overhead panel. CAUTION: DO NOT DISCHARGE THE SAME EXTINGUISHER BOTTLE TWICE. ACTUATING THE FIRE HANDLE INTO AN EMPTY BOTTLE MAY CAUSE STRUCTURAL DAMAGE TO THE BOTTLE. The APU bottle contains only one discharge valve, a pressure gauge with a pressure switch, and a fill/safety relief valve. It provides single shot capability for the APU. The APU extinguisher bottle is discharged by pressing the APU Fire Extinguishing Button, located on the overhead panel. A caution message is presented on the EICAS should any bottle be discharged or be inoperative for any reason (failed cartridge, loss of pressure, or loss of power).

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ENGINE AND APU FIRE DETECTION/EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM PANEL 1 - ENGINE FIRE EXTINGUISHING HANDLE During normal flight conditions, the handle remains flush with the panel. A red light illuminates inside the handle upon detection of fire or overheating. When pulled, it closes the fuel, hydraulic, bleed air, and lip antiicing shutoff valves of the associated engine. When rotated counterclockwise or clockwise, it respectively discharges extinguisher bottles A or B into the associated engine. 2 - APU FIRE EXTINGUISHING BUTTON (guarded) When pressed, it closes the APU fuel shutoff valve and discharges the APU fire extinguisher bottle. 3 - FIRE DETECTION SYSTEM TEST BUTTON When pressed and held for at least two seconds, it permits the fire detection system to be checked. The EMB-135BJ is equipped with class C baggage compartment, and the fire test is successfully completed if the conditions below occur simultaneously: The following EICAS fire detection messages are displayed: Warning: APU FIRE, ENG 1 (2) FIRE, BAGG SMOKE Caution: APU FIREDET FAIL, E1 (2) FIREDET FAIL Fire handles illuminate. Baggage fire extinguishing button illuminates. Baggage compartment fan deactivates. WARNING/CAUTION lights flash. Aural warning sounds. NOTE: - On the ground, when pressed approximately for more than 10 seconds, the APU is shut down, if it is running. - If it is necessary to repeat the test, wait at least 6 seconds to press the test button again. - If Fire Detection Test button is held for less than 2 seconds the BAGG EXTG button may remain illuminated. In this case, repeat the test.
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ENGINE AND APU FIRE DETECTION/EXTINGUISHING PANEL


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EICAS MESSAGES
TYPE WARNING MESSAGE APU FIRE ENG1 (2) FIRE E1 (2) FIREDET FAIL APU FIREDET FAIL E1 (2) EXTBTLA INOP E1 (2) EXTBTLB INOP APU EXTBTL INOP MEANING Fire in the APU. Fire in associated engine. Associated engine fire detection system failed. APU fire detection system failed. Associated bottle has been discharged or is inoperative.

CAUTION

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LAVATORY AND GALLEY FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM


LAVATORY AND GALLEY FIRE EXTINGUISHING
The lavatory and forward galley fire extinguishing system consists of two autodischargeable fire extinguisher bottles. Each bottle is attached to a waster container, one in the lavatory vanity assembly and the other one in the forward galley. The bottle is mounted with the discharging tubes extended into the waste container. The end of each discharge tube has a tip which has a melting temperature of approximately 77C (170F). The tips will melt to discharge the agent totally into the waste container when a fire overheat condition occurs.

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FIRE PROTECTION

BAGGAGE COMPARTMENT FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM


BAGGAGE SYSTEM COMPARTMENT SMOKE DETECTION

A smoke detection system is provided in the baggage compartment. The system consists of two smoke detection modules, one installed in the compartment ceiling and the other one in the baggage compartment aft bulkhead. A warning message is presented on the EICAS to indicate smoke detection inside the baggage compartment. The smoke sensor resumes the normal operation when the fire is extinguished, the smoke has been cleared and the smoke sensor is reset through the power reset button, located on each smoke detection module. NOTE: The Smoke Detector Modules are normally handled by the maintenance personnel. In order to avoid inadvertent occurrences of smoke detection messages due to humidity in the smoke sensors, an integral heater raises the temperature of the optical components of the smoke detector. In addition, a fan with brushless DC motor provides air perturbation in the vicinity of the detector. An alarm condition may also be triggered by high temperature conditions in the absence of high smoke levels.

BAGGAGE COMPARTMENT FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM


Two fire extinguishing bottles (High-rate Discharge Bottle and Metering Discharge Bottle) are installed in the rear electronic compartment for fire baggage compartment protection. The High-rate Discharge Bottle is intended to fill the baggage compartment instantaneously while the Metering Discharge Bottle provides the concentration fire level extinguishing agent for at least 60 minutes. Upon smoke detection inside the baggage, the smoke detectors send a signal to deactivate the baggage compartment fan (refer to Section 2-2 - Equipment and Furnishings). Also, they illuminate the baggage fire extinguishing button on the Fire Detection/Extinguishing Panel and the DO NOT OPEN DOOR warning on the lavatory aft bulkhead.
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EICAS MESSAGES
TYPE WARNING MESSAGE BAGG SMOKE MEANING Smoke has been detected inside the baggage compartment. Any of the bottles have been discharged or are inoperative.

CAUTION

BAGG EXTBTL INOP

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BAGGAGE DETECTION/EXTINGUISHING PANEL 1 - BAGGAGE FIRE EXTINGUISHING BUTTON (guarded) When lit, button indicates that smoke was detected inside the baggage compartment or that the fan has been deactivated. Button remains lit as long as there is smoke inside baggage compartment. If the airplane is parked, the pilot must check the baggage compartment, through the peephole, before pushing the BAGG EXTG SW. When pressed: Discharges the baggage fire extinguishing bottles. Deactivates the baggage compartment fan NOTE: Fire extinguishing agent may activate the smoke detector. 2 - FIRE DETECTION SYSTEM TEST BUTTON Refer to ENGINE AND APU FIRE DETECTION/EXTINGUISHING PANEL.

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SMOKE INDICATION ON THE LAVATORY AFT BULKHEAD

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FUEL

SECTION 2-08 FUEL


TABLE OF CONTENTS Block Page General .............................................................................. 2-08-05 ..01 Fuel Tanks ......................................................................... 2-08-05 ..02 Wing Fuel Tanks ............................................................ 2-08-05 ..02 Auxiliary Fuel Tanks ....................................................... 2-08-05 ..02 Fuel Tanks Capacities.................................................... 2-08-05 ..03 Fuel Tanks Vent System ................................................ 2-08-05 ..04 Engine and APU Fuel Distribution and Control .............. 2-08-05 ..05 Auxiliary to Wing Tanks Fuel Transfer ........................... 2-08-05 ..08 EICAS Messages ............................................................... 2-08-05 ..11 Controls and Indicators ...................................................... 2-08-05 ..14 Fuel System Panel ......................................................... 2-08-05 ..14 MFD Bezel...................................................................... 2-08-05 ..16 Fuel Page on MFD ......................................................... 2-08-05 ..17 EICAS Indications........................................................... 2-08-05 ..20 Refueling and Defueling..................................................... 2-08-10 ..01 Pressurized Refueling .................................................... 2-08-10 ..01 Defueling ........................................................................ 2-08-10 ..03 Refueling Panel .............................................................. 2-08-10 ..05 Fuel Measuring Stick.......................................................... 2-08-15 ..01 Measuring Stick Tables .................................................. 2-08-15 ..03

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FUEL

GENERAL
The EMB-135BJs fuel system consists of two independent systems, one for each engine, interconnected by a crossfeed line. The fuel system ensures proper fuel supply to the engines and APU under all operating conditions. The system allows refueling and defueling operations to be performed either by pressure or by gravity. NOTE: The fuel weight values presented in this section of the manual are based on a fuel density of 0.809 kg/liter (6.751 lb/US Gal).

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

FUEL TANKS
The airplanes fuel storage system comprises two wing fuel tanks and two auxiliary fuel tank systems, that are composed of four auxiliary fuel tanks.

WING FUEL TANKS


The wing fuel tanks are located at each wing and extend to the wing stub. The fuel flows from the wing tip to the wing root by gravity. A collector box inside the wing stub keeps the electrical pump inlets submerged. To prevent pump cavitation, an ejector pump and flap valves ensure that there is enough fuel in the collector box during wing-down and uncoordinated maneuvers.

AUXILIARY FUEL TANKS


The auxiliary fuel tank systems are composed of two forward fuel tanks and two aft fuel tanks. Each auxiliary fuel tank system has received a designation, the left-hand system being designated as auxiliary fuel tank system 1 while the right-hand system has been designated as auxiliary fuel tank system 2. FORWARD AUXILIARY FUEL TANKS The forward auxiliary fuel tanks are installed in the front section of the wing-to-fuselage fairing, divided in two totally separated compartments. Each one operates as an independent tank, the left-hand forward fuel cell being designated as forward auxiliary fuel tank 1 (FWD 1) while the right-hand fuel cell has been designated as forward auxiliary fuel tank 2 (FWD 2). The fuel flows from the forward section to the rear of both tanks by gravity. A collector box in the rearmost region of the tanks keeps the electrical pumps inlets submerged. To prevent pump cavitation, flap valves ensure that there is enough fuel in the collector box during nose-down and uncoordinated maneuvers. AFT AUXILIARY FUEL TANKS The aft auxiliary fuel tanks are installed inside the rear area of the airplane fuselage, aft of the baggage compartment, in a pressurized area. Each one operates as an independent tank, designated as aft auxiliary fuel tank 1 (AFT 1) for the left-hand cell, and aft auxiliary fuel tank 2 (AFT 2) for the right-hand cell.
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2-08-05

2 01

REVISION 4

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

FUEL

FUEL TANKS CAPACITIES


Fuel tank capacities are listed in the table below. The values refer to usable fuel: FUEL TANKS CAPACITIES Liters Wing Tank 1 Wing Tank 2 Wing Tanks Sub Total AUX FUS 1 FWD 1 AFT 1 3198 3198 6396 1056 (2) 1112 822 1878 (2) 1934 (1) 1056 (2) 1112 822 1878 (2) 1934 (1) 10152 (2) 10264 or or or
(1) (1) (1)

US Gal 845 845 1690 279 (2) 294 217 496 (2) 511 (1) 279 (2) 294 217 496 (2) 511 (1) 2682 (2) 2712
(1) (1) (1)

Kg 2587 2587 5174 800 (2) 900 (1) 660 (2) 670 (1) 1460 (2) 1570 (1) 800 (2) 900 (1) 660 (2) 670 (1) 1460 (2) 1570 (1) 8094 (2) 8314
(1)

lb 5703 5703 11406 1764 (2) 1984 (1) 1455 (2) 1477 (1) 3219 (2) 3461 (1) 1764 (2) 1984 (1) 1455 (2) 1477 (1) 3219 (2) 3461 (1) 17844 (2) 18328
(1)

AUX FUS 1 Sub Total AUX FUS 2 FWD 2 AFT 2

AUX FUS 2 Sub Total TOTAL

Conversion factors: 3.785412 liter/US gallon 1.245 liter/kg 0.4536 kg/lb

0.264172 US gallon/liter 0.809 kg/liter 2.2046 lb/kg

NOTE: 1) Max fuel capacity/weight allowed. Applicable to airplanes S/N up to 591 and Pre-Mod. SB 145LEG-28-0010. 2) Max fuel capacity/weight allowed. Applicable to airplanes S/N 625 and on or Post-Mod. SB 145LEG-28-0010.

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Code

REVISION 4

2-08-05

3 01

FUEL

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

FUEL TANKS VENT SYSTEM


The wing, forward and aft auxiliary tanks are vented to the atmosphere. The purpose of the vent system is to prevent damage to the fuel tanks due to excessive buildup of positive or negative internal pressures and to provide ram air pressure within the tanks. This system also prevents fuel spillage during flight maneuvers and hard braking. WING FUEL TANKS VENT SYSTEM Each wing fuel tank is vented by a system that consists of a vent tank and a NACA air intake. The vent tank is located in the wing tip and is connected to the fuel tank through two float valves. These valves allow at least one venting point to remain open between the vent tank and the fuel tank under any flight condition. The vent tanks are connected to outside air through a NACA air intake installed under the wing. FORWARD AUXILIARY FUEL TANKS VENT SYSTEM Each forward auxiliary fuel tank is vented by a system that consists of two float valves connected to a dedicated NACA air intake, installed on the wing-to-fuselage fairing. These valves allow at least one venting point, at each forward tank, to remain open between the NACA air intake and the fuel tank under any flight condition. AFT AUXILIARY FUEL TANKS VENT SYSTEM Each aft auxiliary fuel tank is vented by a system that consists of one float valve and one relief valve connected to a vent line that receives pressure from the cabin and is also connected to a port installed on the bottom of the fuselage. Each aft auxiliary fuel tank is pressurized with air from the cabin by a dedicated pressurization line. The float valve is installed at the end of this pressurization line to avoid the entry of fuel into it during uncoordinated maneuvers. The relief valve assures a maximum differential pressure between the interior of the tank and the cabin, discharging the excess of pressure to the atmosphere, through the port on the bottom of the fuselage. An electrical shutoff vent valve, installed in the vent line, allows tank ventilation when the airplane is on the ground and during pressure refueling. This valve is also open when the air conditioning packs are

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Code

2-08-05

4 01

REVISION 4

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

FUEL

turned off or the aircraft is not energized. During unpressurized flights, limited to 10000 ft ceiling, the shutoff vent valve is open and aft tank ventilation is provided by the float valve and the vent port.

ENGINE AND APU FUEL DISTRIBUTION AND CONTROL


There are three electric pumps for each wing tank, which provide pressurized fuel to the engines and APU. One pump is capable of supplying fuel for both engines, plus the APU, under all flight phases except take-off and go-around. During take-off and go-around, at least two electric pumps are required to supply fuel for both engines and the APU. Engine-driven fuel pumps will provide suction feed should the electric fuel pumps operation not be available. Six knobs and one push-button located on the overhead fuel panel control the electric pumps, crossfeed and fuel transfer operations. Two PUMP PWR knobs energize/de-energize the electric pumps and two PUMP SEL knobs select which wing fuel tanks pumps will be operating to feed both engines and the APU. The remaining pumps will remain on standby. If fuel pressure drops below 6.5 psi, the remaining pumps are automatically switched on and start cycling, until the pilot selects one of them. The XFEED and the FUS TK XFER knobs control the crossfeed and the fuel transfer operations, respectively. One FWD PUMP SEL push-button selects which forward auxiliary fuel tank pump will be operating during the fuel transfer operation. Crossfeed operations should be performed in case of fuel imbalance between tanks or during low fuel level operations. The crossfeed knob acts over the crossfeed valve and over the electric pumps. Selecting the knob to LOW1 or LOW2 will deenergize the pump associated to the side with low level. The crossfeed valve will open connecting engine 1 and engine 2 fuel feed lines. The fully opened crossfeed valve position is indicated on the EICAS by an advisory message. In case of valve failure, the EICAS displays a caution message. NOTE: - Crossfeed selector knob must be OFF during takeoff and landing. - Crossfeed operation does not allow fuel transfer between wing tanks.

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Code

REVISION 4

2-08-05

5 01

FUEL

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

Fuel for APU operation is normally supplied from the right side fuel system. Fuel from the left-hand system may be used by selecting the crossfeed knob to LOW2. The APU fuel shutoff valve will close in the following conditions: APU master knob positioned to OFF. By pressing the APU fuel shutoff button. By pressing the APU fire extinguisher button. Automatically, through the APU fire detection system in case of APU fire on ground. Sensors installed in the tanks and along the fuel lines provide signals to indicate system failures and status. Such indications and messages are shown on the MFD Fuel page as well as on the EICAS.

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Code

2-08-05

6 01

REVISION 4

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

FUEL

FUEL SYSTEM SCHEMATIC


Page Code

REVISION 4

2-08-05

7 01

FUEL

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

AUXILIARY TO WING TANKS FUEL TRANSFER


The EMB-135 BJ is equipped with two independent fuel transfer systems that operate automatically to transfer fuel from the auxiliary to the wing tanks. System 1, designated FUS 1, is used to simultaneously transfer fuel from the FWD and AFT auxiliary fuel tanks 1 to the WING tanks. System 2, designated FUS 2, is used to simultaneously transfer fuel from the FWD and AFT auxiliary fuel tanks 2 to the WING tanks. Both fuel transfer systems are optimized to be used under cruising conditions, at altitudes of 10000 ft and higher. The transfer systems are designed to perform the fuel transfer from the FWD tanks to the right WING tank 2 and from the AFT tanks to the left WING tank 1. For airplanes S/N up to 591 and Pre-Mod. SB 145LEG-28-0010: a cross transfer line allows, when the AFT auxiliary fuel tank become empty, the remaining fuel in the FWD auxiliary fuel tank to be simultaneously transferred to the left and right WING tanks, thus avoiding a wing imbalance. For airplanes S/N 625 and on or Post-Mod. SB 145LEG-28-0010: a cross transfer line allows the initial fuel quantity difference of the FWD tank to be transferred simultaneously to the left and right WING tanks, thus avoiding a wing imbalance. This difference is transferred at the beginning of the fuel transfer operation, before the respective AFT tank transfer starting. NOTE: Fuel transfer operations during takeoff and landing is prohibited. There are two electric pumps for each forward auxiliary fuel tank. One pump transfers fuel to WING tank 2, while the other remains on standby. On the AFT auxiliary fuel tanks, there is one electric pump per tank to transfer fuel to WING tank 1. When operating at altitudes of 20000 ft and above, cabin pressurization can be used as a backup in case of pump failure. Switching the FUS TK XFER knob to FUS 1 or FUS 2 allows selection of the fuel transfer system that will be placed into operation. Fuel transfer starts automatically when the fuel quantity in at least one WING tank achieves the starting level 1900 kg (4189 lb). The selected FWD auxiliary fuel tank transfer shutoff valve is commanded to open if WING tank 2 achieves the starting level and, on the selected AFT auxiliary fuel tank, the transfer shutoff valve is commanded to open if WING tank 1 achieves the starting level.
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2-08-05

8 01

REVISION 4

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

FUEL

For airplanes S/N 625 and on or Post-Mod. SB 145LEG-28-0010, the cross transfer valve is opened at the beginning of the transfer, whenever the FWD tank has more fuel than the AFT tank due to the previous refueling operation. This logic allows transfer from the FWD tank until its quantity is equal to the respective AFT tank. After fuel quantities in the FWD and AFT tanks are equal, the cross transfer valve is commanded to close and the transfer from both AFT and FWD tanks occurs normally to the left and right WING tanks, respectively. There is an indication on the MFD to show which valve is open and that the fuel transfer system is operating. The respective transfer shutoff valve of the FWD or AFT auxiliary fuel tanks is automatically commanded to close when fuel quantity in the corresponding WING tank achieves the full condition. When the starting level is reached again, on any WING tank, the fuel transfer operation restarts. For airplanes S/N up to 591 and Pre-Mod. SB 145LEG-28-0010 this sequence is automatically repeated until the selected AFT auxiliary fuel tank is empty, closing the transfer shutoff valve, turning off the pump and opening the cross transfer shutoff valve. With the cross transfer shutoff valve open, the selected FWD auxiliary fuel tank transfer shutoff valve is commanded to open when at least one WING tank reaches the starting level and the other WING tank is not in the full condition. The transfer shutoff valve is commanded to close when the fuel quantity on at least one WING tank corresponds to the full condition. This sequence is automatically repeated until the FWD auxiliary fuel tank is empty, closing the transference shutoff valves, the cross transfer shutoff valve and turning off the pump. For airplanes S/N 625 and on or Post-Mod. SB 145LEG-28-0010 this sequence is automatically repeated until the selected auxiliary fuel tank is empty, closing the transfer shutoff valve, turning off the pump. When the selected FWD and AFT auxiliary fuel tanks are empty, the fuel transfer system is automatically turned off. Fuel transfer from the other set of auxiliary fuel tanks will only be initiated when the pilot commands such action by switching the FUS TK XFER knob to the applicable system. In this case, fuel transfer will initiate even if the wing tanks have fuel quantity higher than 1900 kg (4189 lb). In case of FWD auxiliary fuel tank pump failure, the pilot must select the remaining pump through the FWD PUMP SEL push buttons. If the failed pump belongs to the AFT auxiliary fuel tank, and the flight is being conducted above 20000 ft, the system will automatically start transferring fuel using the cabin air pressurization.
Page Code

REVISION 7

2-08-05

9 01

FUEL

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

AUXILIARY TO WING TANKS FUEL TRANSFERENCE SYSTEM SCHEMATIC


Page Code

2-08-05

10 01

REVISION 4

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

FUEL

EICAS MESSAGES
TYPE MESSAGE FUEL 1(2) LO LEVEL MEANING The remaining fuel quantity in the associated wing tank ranges from 210 kg (463 lb) to 265 kg (584 lb), for leveled flight condition. Total fuel quantity in all auxiliary fuel tanks contains at least 800 kg (1764 lb) and at least one wing tank fuel quantity contains 1000 kg (2205 lb) or less. Fuel transfer system is switched on to the takeoff configuration setting. Message associated to aural warning TAKEOFF FUEL. Fuel pressure, in the associate engine, is below 6.5 psig (disabled whem pressure reaches 9.5 psig). Fuel temperature inside wing tank 1 is equal or below 40C. Disagreement between crossfeed valve and knob position. Crossfeed valve remains open after fuel imbalance correction difference between wing tanks fuel quantities lower than 45 kg (100 lb) - or crew activated the wing fuel imbalance correction to the wing tank with low level. Refueling panel access door is open (inhibited during take-off and approach).
Page Code

FUEL XFER CRITICAL or WARNING CHECK ACFT LOAD

NO TAKEOFF CONFIG

E1 (2) FUEL LO PRESS

FUEL TANK LO TEMP

FUEL XFEED FAIL CAUTION FUEL XFEED MISCMD (Continued)

FUELING DOOR OPN

REVISION 4

2-08-05

11 01

FUEL

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

MESSAGE MEANING WING FUEL IMBALANCE Fuel quantity in one wing tank differs by 363 kg (800 lb) from the other wing tank. Message is removed when the difference between wing tanks decreases to below 45 kg (100 lb). APU FUEL LO PRESS Fuel pressure is below 6.5 psi with APU operating (disabled whem pressure reaches 9.5 psig). E1 (2) FUEL SOV INOP Associated shutoff valve is not in the commanded position. APU FUEL SOV INOP Associated shutoff valve is not in the commanded position. CAUTION FUEL XFER 1(2) INOP Selected auxiliary fuel transfer system has failed. (Continued) FUEL XFER CHECK Fuel transfer system is not activated and fuel level has reached 1850 kg (4079 lb) in at least one wing tank. FUEL XFER OVFLOW Fuel transfer system was not interrupted 30 seconds after at least one wing tank has reached 2450 kg. FUSELAGE FUEL IMB Difference between fuel quantity in the forward auxiliary fuel tank and fuel quantity in the aft auxiliary fuel tanks of each auxiliary fuel transfer system is outside the approved limits (refer to AOM vol. 01 chapter 01-36).

TYPE

Page

Code

2-08-05

12 01

REVISION 4

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL TYPE MESSAGE FUEL TK VENT OPEN

FUEL

CAUTION

E1 (2) FUEL SOV CLSD APU FUEL SOV CLSD

ADVISORY

FUEL XFEED OPEN

MEANING Vent valve is commanded to close but it is not in the fully closed position. For airplanes with differential pressure switch installed, the message is also activated when the aft relief valve failures causing an aft tank overpressure. Associated shutoff valve is closed. APU fuel shutoff valve is closed. Message remains on for 10 seconds after APU Master Knob is set to off. If valve has been commanded to close through APU Fuel Shutoff Button or APU Fire Extinguishing Button the message will remain on. Crossfeed valve is open.

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Code

REVISION 4

2-08-05

13 01

FUEL

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


FUEL SYSTEM PANEL
1 - CROSSFEED SELECTOR KNOB LOW1 - Opens the crossfeed valve and turns off wing tank 1's electric fuel pump. OFF - Closes the crossfeed valve. LOW2 - Opens the crossfeed valve and turns off wing tank 2's electric fuel pump. 2 - WING TANK PUMP SELECTOR KNOB Selects which electric wing tank pump will be placed into operation. The non-selected pumps will remain on standby. 3 - WING TANK PUMP POWER KNOB ON - Energizes the associated fuel pump's circuit. OFF - Deenergizes the associated fuel pump's circuit. 4 - TRANSFER SYSTEM SELECTOR KNOB FUS 1 - Energizes fuel transfer system 1. FUS 2 - Energizes fuel transfer system 2. OFF - Deenergizes the fuel transfer system. 5 - FORWARD AUXILIARY TANK PUMP SELECTOR PUSHBUTTON Selects which electric forward auxiliary tank pump will be placed into operation. The non-selected pump will remain on standby.

Page

Code

2-08-05

14 01

REVISION 4

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

FUEL

FUEL SYSTEM PANEL


Page Code

REVISION 4

2-08-05

15 01

FUEL

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

MFD BEZEL
1 - FUEL SYSTEM AND RESET BUTTON Pressing the FUEL button selects the fuel system page on MFD. Pressing the button a second time resets the fuel used to zero. Fuel used must be reset individually on each MFD.

MFD BEZEL

Page

Code

2-08-05

16 01

REVISION 4

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

FUEL

FUEL PAGE ON MFD


1 - DIGITAL WING TANK QUANTITY INDICATION (WINGTANK 1 AND WING TANK 2) The digital wing fuel tank quantity indicator ranges from 0 to 7500 kg (0 to 15000 lb), with a digital resolution of 10 units, regardless of the unit being used (kg or lb), for WING TANK 1 and WING TANK 2. Colors: Green above 400 kg (880 lb). Amber and boxed from 210 to 400 kg (450 to 880 lb). Red and boxed below 210 kg (450 lb). 2 - DIGITAL FORWARD AUXILIARY TANK QUANTITY INDICATION (FWD 1 AND FWD 2) The digital forward auxiliary fuel tank quantity indicator ranges from 0 to 1000 kg (0 to 2200 lb), with a digital resolution of 10 units, regardless of the unit being used (kg or lb), for FWD 1 and FWD 2. Color: green. 3 - DIGITAL TOTAL FUEL QUANTITY INDICATION Indicates the total fuel quantity in all the tanks. 4 - ANALOGICAL FUEL QUANTITY INDICATION Quantity is indicated by a vertical bar and a pointer. The colors used are the same as for digital fuel quantity indication. 5 - WING TANK OPERATING PUMP INDICATION This indicator displays A, B, C or OFF, depending on which electric wing tank fuel pump is selected and whether it is on or off. Color: green. The indication blinks when the pump is cycling until the pilot selects another pump.

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Code

REVISION 4

2-08-05

17 01

FUEL

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

6 - DIGITAL TOTAL FUEL USED INDICATION Indicates the total fuel used. Color: Green under normal operation. Replaced by Amber dashes (in flight) or amber zero (on ground) if any problem is verified. 7 - DIGITAL WING TANK FUEL TEMPERATURE INDICATION Ranges from 60C to +60C with a resolution of 1C. Colors: Green above 40C. Amber and boxed below 40C. 8 - DIGITAL AFT AUXILIARY TANK QUANTITY INDICATION (AFT 1 AND AFT 2) The digital aft auxiliary fuel tank quantity indicator ranges from 0 to 1000 kg (0 to 2200 lb), with a digital resolution of 10 units, regardless of the unit being used (kg or lb), for FWD 1 and FWD 2. Color: green. 9 - AFT AUXILIARY TANK FUEL TRANSFER INDICATION This indicator displays A, P, T or OFF. A indicates that electric fuel pump is operating. P indicates that cabin air pressurization is being used to accomplish fuel transfer. T indicates that fuel transfer operation is in progress. Color: green. 10 - FORWARD AUXILIARY TANK FUEL TRANSFER INDICATION This indicator displays A, B, T or OFF. A or B indicates which pump is in operation. T indicates that fuel transfer is in progress. Color: green. The indication blinks when the pump is cycling until the pilot selects another pump.

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Code

2-08-05

18 01

REVISION 4

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

FUEL

MFD FUEL PAGE


Page Code

REVISION 4

2-08-05

19 01

FUEL

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

EICAS INDICATIONS
1 - FORWARD AUXILIARY TANK FUEL QUANTITY (FWD 1 AND FWD 2) The digital forward auxiliary fuel tank quantity indicator ranges from 0 to 1000 kg (0 to 2200 lb), with a digital resolution of 10 units, regardless of the unit being used (kg or lb), for FWD 1 and FWD 2. Color: green. 2 - AFT AUXILIARY TANK FUEL QUANTITY (AFT 1 AND ATF 2) The digital forward auxiliary fuel tank quantity indicator ranges from 0 to 1000 kg (0 to 2200 lb), with a digital resolution of 10 units, regardless of the unit being used (kg or lb), for FWD 1 and FWD 2. Color: green. 3 - WING TANK FUEL QUANTITY (WING TANK 1 AND WING TANK 2) The digital wing fuel tank quantity indicator ranges from 0 to 7500 kg (0 to 15000 lb), with a digital resolution of 10 units, regardless of the unit being used (kg or lb), for WING TANK 1 and WING TANK 2. Colors: Green above 400 kg (880 lb). Amber and boxed from 210 to 400 kg (450 to 880 lb). Red and boxed below 210 kg (450 lb).

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2-08-05

20 01

REVISION 4

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

FUEL

EICAS INDICATIONS
Page Code

REVISION 4

2-08-05

21 01

FUEL

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

THIS PAGE IS LEFT BLANK INTENTIONALLY

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Code

2-08-05

22 01

REVISION 4

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

FUEL

REFUELING AND DEFUELING


Refueling and defueling operations may be performed either by pressure or by gravity. The refueling panel on the right side of the wing-to-fuselage fairing allows pressurized refueling/defueling operations. A gravity filler cap on the upper side of each wing allows gravity filling. Dump valves and drain valves are used for gravity defueling.

PRESSURIZED REFUELING
Pressurized refueling operations require an energized system. This can be accomplished by either selecting the power selection switch to NORMAL or BATTERY. The system allows pressure refueling operation for the wing tanks only or for the wing tanks followed by the auxiliaries, in a totally automatic sequence. Refueling is performed at a pressure range from 35 to 50 psi. NOTE: For airplanes with High Level Exceeding Indication incorporated, a refueling automatic shutoff failure will be identified by the HLEIS (High Level Exceeding Indication System), that will sense, via one HLS (High Level Switch) in each wing and auxiliary tanks, that the fuel level in the failed tank reached over the maximum quantity approved for that tank and will advise the operator by illuminating, on the refueling panel, the STOP RFL red indicating light. The operator shall interrupt immediately the refueling operation, relieving the pressure of the fueling source, avoiding an overfilling and consequently a fuel spillage, and shall follow the procedure to remove the extra fuel of the associated tank.

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Code

REVISION 4

2-08-10

1 01

FUEL

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

PRESSURIZED REFUELING OF WING AND AUXILIARY TANKS With the refueling system energized, WING + FUS position should be selected in the TANKS SELECTION switch. As fuel pressure is applied on the adapter, the CLSD 1, CLSD 2, CLSD AFT and CLSD FWD lights pertaining to the WING, FUS 1 and FUS 2 refueling shutoff valves will illuminate to indicate that these valves are closed. Selecting the REFUELING switch to OPEN will open the wing tank refueling shutoff valves, turning off CLSD 1 and CLSD 2 lights and starting refueling operations. After wing tanks fuel level reaches 30 liters (7.9 US gallons) below the tank full capacity, the respective shutoff valves will close, turning the lights on again. The FUS 1 and FUS 2 refueling shutoff valves will open, turning off the CLSD AFT and CLSD FWD lights, thus starting auxiliary tanks refueling. After the auxiliary fuel tanks attain their selected quantities, FUS 1 and FUS 2 shutoff valves will close, turning the lights on again. The refueling operation can be stopped at any time by commanding the REFUELING switch to the CLOSED position. NOTE: FUS 1 and FUS 2 auxiliary fuel tanks systems cannot be filled with more than: - 1460 kg each (2920 kg total for both systems) for airplanes S/N up to 591 and Pre-Mod. SB 145LEG-28-0010. - 1570 kg each (3140 kg total for both systems) for airplanes S/N 625 and on or Post-Mod. SB 145LEG-28-0010. PRESSURIZED REFUELING OF WING TANKS ONLY With the refueling system energized, WING position should be selected to the TANKS SELECTION switch. As fuel pressure is applied on the adapter, the CLSD 1 and CLSD 2 lights pertaining to the WING refueling shutoff valves will illuminate to indicate that these valves are closed. Selecting the REFUELING switch to the OPEN position will open the wing tank refueling shutoff valves, turning off CLSD 1 and CLSD 2 lights and starting refueling operations. After wing tanks attain a fuel level of either 30 liters (7.9 US gallons) below the tank full capacity or the selected quantity, the respective shutoff valves will close, turning the lights on again. The refueling operation can be stopped at any time by commanding the REFUELING switch to the CLOSED position.

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Code

2-08-10

2 01

REVISION 4

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

FUEL

DEFUELING
The system is designed to allow pressurized defueling of the wing tanks, using the same adapter as pressure refueling. This operation can be performed using the electric fuel pumps installed in the wing tanks or by suction (4 psi max.) provided by an external source. Selecting the DEFUELING switch to OPEN will open the defueling shutoff valve, thus allowing defueling operation. To defuel wing tank 1, the XFEED knob must be positioned to LOW2. The auxiliary tanks defueling can be accomplished by transferring fuel to the wing tanks and then performing pressurized wing tanks defueling. Gravity defueling of the wing tanks may be achieved by using the dump valves and opening the associated gravity refueling cap. The remaining fuel can be totally drained through the drain valves. Defuling the auxiliary tanks can be accomplished by transferring fuel to the wing tanks and then performing wing tank gravity defueling or by using the auxiliary tanks drain valves.

CAUTION:

DO NOT RUN ELECTRIC PUMPS WITH FUEL QUANTITY IN EACH TANK BELOW 30 LITERS (8 US GAL) OR 37 KG (54 LB).

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Code

REVISION 4

2-08-10

3 01

FUEL

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

PRESSURE REFUELING/DEFUELING SYSTEM SCHEMATIC


Page Code

2-08-10

4 01

REVISION 4

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

FUEL

REFUELING PANEL
1 - POWER SELECTION SWITCH (guarded) NORMAL - Refueling system is energized by DC Bus 1. BATTERY - Refueling system is connected to Hot Bus 1. 2 - DEFUELING OPEN LIGHT (white) Illuminates when the defueling shutoff valve is open. 3 - DEFUELING SWITCH (guarded) Actuates the defueling shutoff valve to open or close. 4 - FUEL QUANTITY REMAINING INDICATOR Displays fuel remaining as selected by the TK SEL/TEST Switch. The tank selected is identified by the letters L, R and T (L for the left tank, R for the right tank and T for both sides). The unit of measurement (kg or lb) is also displayed. In case of failure, a FAIL inscription is displayed and the refueling/defueling operation is interrupted. The established accuracy of the EMB-135BJ airplane Fuel Quantity Gauging System is: For the wing tanks: 2% of the provided indication plus 0.75% of the total usable fuel, considering the approved fuels and normal flight attitudes; For the auxiliary tanks: 4% of the provided indication plus 2% of the total usable fuel, considering the approved fuels and normal flight attitudes. 5 - TK SEL/TEST SWITCH (spring loaded to center position) TEST - Initiates indicator built-in and probes conditions test. All light segments illuminate and a failure code is presented, if a failure is detected. TK SEL - Selects which fuel quantity is going to be displayed in the upper display. When the indicator is energized, the total wings fuel quantity is shown. Sequentially actuating the switch will select wing tank 1, wing tank 2, FUS 1 tanks and FUS 2 tanks fuel quantity. 6 - INCR/DECRT SWITCH (spring loaded to center position) Increases or decreases fuel quantity selected value. If moved from the neutral position during refueling, it interrupts the operation. The refueling operation will be restored 4 seconds after switch release.
Page Code

REVISION 4

2-08-10

5 01

FUEL

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

7 - FUEL QUANTITY SELECTED INDICATOR Displays total fuel quantity set through the Quantity Select Switch. If a FAIL inscription is displayed in the FUEL QTY REMAINING, this indicator shows the failure code. The indicator displays zero as the refueling compartment door is opened. 8 - REFUELING SWITCH (guarded) Acts over the pilot valves to open or close the refueling shutoff valves. 9 - REFUELING CLOSED LIGHTS (white) Illuminate when the associated refueling line is pressurized and the associated shutoff valve is closed. 10- AUXILIARY TANKS ISOLATION VALVES LIGHTS (white) Illuminate when the associated isolation valve is closed. 11- WING + FUS/WING ONLY SWITCH WING + FUS - Selects the wing tanks followed by the auxiliary tanks to be refueled. WING ONLY - Selects only the wing tanks to be refueled. 12- TANK INDICATION LIGHT (white) Illuminates when the associated tank is selected. 13- STOP REFUELING LIGHTS (red) Illuminate when fuel level in the failed tank reached over the maximum quantity approved for that tank (For airplanes with High Level Exceeding Indication incorporated). 14- FUS 1/FUS 2/WING SWITCH FUS 1 - Selects FUS 1 tanks, showing its data in the refueling panel. FUS 2 - Selects FUS 2 tanks, showing its data in the refueling panel. WING - Selects the wing tanks, showing its data in the refueling panel. NOTE: When the refueling panel door is closed, all the switches are pushed to the NORMAL or CLOSED position by their guards.

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Code

2-08-10

6 01

REVISION 4

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

FUEL

13

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FUEL MEASURING STICK


Two direct quantity measuring sticks under each wing and one in the wing stub permit to separately check the fuel quantity in each wing tank. Each measuring stick provides visual indication of the total fuel quantity of the associated side.

The table below provides minimum and maximum stick values:

STICK POSITION Wing Stub Tank Internal Point External Point Min Max Min Max Min Max

FUEL QUANTITY
LITERS US GAL

7 783 781 2168 2163 2791

2 207 206 573 571 737

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FUEL

MEASURING STICK TABLES


To determine the fuel quantity using the direct quantity measuring sticks, the airplane must be laterally leveled with roll and pitch angles between 0 to -2. After refueling the airplane, start with the external measuring stick, closest to the wing tip. On EMB-135 BJ airplanes, between 2163 and 2791 liters (571 and 737 US gal), the external measuring stick provides a correct fuel quantity indication. Above 2791 liters (737 US gal), it is not possible to measure the fuel quantity through the sticks. If the external measuring stick provides a zero indication, use the internal measuring stick to obtain the fuel quantity. Between 781 and 2168 liters (206 and 573 US gal) the internal measuring stick provides a correct fuel quantity indication. If the internal measuring stick provides a zero indication, use the wing stub stick to obtain the fuel quantity. It is not possible to measure the fuel level through the measuring sticks if it is below 7 liters (2 US gal) either. Enter the following measuring stick tables with the value read on the stick to obtain the fuel quantity (liters or US gallons). To find the fuel mass in kg (lb) multiply the volume in liters (US gal) by the actual fuel density in kg/l (lb/US gal). NOTE: Do not add measuring sticks values.

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FUEL QUANTITY

STICK IND 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7

INTERNAL STICK LITERS US GAL

EXTERNAL STICK LITERS US GAL

WING STUB STICK LITERS US GAL

781 794 805 817 827 838 848 858 868 878 888 898 907 917 927 937 947 957 968 978 989 1000 1011 1022 1034 1045 1057

206 210 213 216 219 221 224 227 229 232 235 237 240 242 245 248 250 253 256 258 261 264 267 270 273 276 279

2163 2184 2203 2220 2235 2249 2263 2276 2288 2301 2314 2327 2340 2354 2368 2383 2398 2413 2429 2445 2461 2477 2493 2508 2524 2539 2553

571 577 582 586 590 594 598 601 605 608 611 615 618 622 626 630 633 638 642 646 650 654 659 663 667 671 674

7 14 22 29 36 43 50 56 63 69 74 80 85 90 95 100 104 109 113 116 120 123 129 136 140 144 148

2 4 6 8 10 11 13 15 17 18 20 21 23 24 25 26 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 36 37 38 39

MEASURING STICK TABLES (SHEET 1 OF 4)

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FUEL

STICK IND 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8

INTERNAL STICK LITERS US GAL

EXTERNAL STICK LITERS US GAL

WING STUB STICK LITERS US GAL

1069 1081 1093 1105 1118 1130 1143 1156 1169 1182 1194 1208 1221 1234 1247 1260 1273 1286 1300 1313 1326

282 286 289 292 295 299 302 305 309 312 316 319 322 326 329 333 336 340 343 347 350

2567 2580 2593 2604 2615 2625 2634 2643 2651 2658 2666 2673 2680 2687 2696 2706 2717 2731 2747 2767 2791

678 682 685 688 691 693 696 698 700 702 704 706 708 710 712 715 718 721 726 731 737

155 164 173 181 188 195 201 207 213 218 224 229 234 239 244 249 254 259 265 270 276

41 43 46 48 50 51 53 55 56 58 59 60 62 63 64 66 67 68 70 71 73

MEASURING STICK TABLES (SHEET 2 OF 4)

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STICK INDICATION 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6

INTERNAL STICK
LITERS US GAL

WING STUB STICK


LITERS US GAL

1339 1352 1365 1378 1391 1404 1418 1431 1444 1457 1470 1483 1496 1509 1522 1535 1548 1561 1574 1588 1601 1615 1629 1642 1656 1670 1685 1699

354 357 361 364 368 371 374 378 381 385 388 392 395 399 402 405 409 412 416 419 423 427 430 434 438 441 445 449

281 287 293 300 306 313 320 327 334 342 350 357 365 374 382 390 399 408 416 425 434 443 452 461 470 479 488 497

74 76 78 79 81 83 85 86 88 90 92 94 97 99 101 103 105 108 110 112 115 117 119 122 124 126 129 131

MEASURING STICK TABLES (SHEET 3 OF 4)

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL FUEL QUANTITY STICK INDICATION 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 INTERNAL STICK
LITERS US GAL

FUEL

WING STUB STICK


LITERS US GAL

1714 1729 1744 1759 1774 1790 1806 1822 1838 1855 1872 1889 1906 1923 1941 1958 1976 1994 2012 2030 2048 2065 2083 2101 2118 2135 2152 2168

453 457 461 465 469 473 477 481 486 490 494 499 503 508 513 517 522 527 531 536 541 546 550 555 560 564 568 573

505 514 523 532 541 550 558 567 576 585 593 602 611 620 629 639 648 658 668 679 689 701 713 725 738 752 767 783

134 136 138 141 143 145 147 150 152 154 157 159 161 164 166 169 171 174 176 179 182 185 188 192 195 199 203 207

MEASURING STICK TABLES (SHEET 4 OF 4)

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HYDRAULIC

SECTION 2-11 HYDRAULIC


TABLE OF CONTENTS Block Page General .............................................................................. 2-11-05 ..01 System Description ............................................................ 2-11-05 ..02 EICAS Messages ............................................................... 2-11-05 ..05 Controls and Indicators ...................................................... 2-11-05 ..06

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HYDRAULIC

GENERAL
The airplane is equipped with two independent hydraulic systems, each powered by one engine driven-pump and one electric motor-driven pump. Both hydraulic systems are identical, except for the services each system provides and a priority valve installed in the hydraulic system 1. There are ground connections for refilling and ground tests purposes. Indications of hydraulic system parameters are provided on the MFD and EICAS displays. The services provided by each hydraulic system are presented below: SYSTEM Ailerons Rudder Landing Gear Main door Steering Brakes (Outboard Wheels) Brakes (Inboard Wheels) Emergency/Parking Brake Thrust Reverser 1 Thrust Reverser 2 Outboard Spoilers Inboard Spoilers HYDRAULIC POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM 1 and 2 SYSTEM 1 and 2 SYSTEM 1 SYSTEM 1 SYSTEM 1 SYSTEM 1 SYSTEM 2 SYSTEM 2 SYSTEM 1 SYSTEM 2 SYSTEM 2 SYSTEM 1

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SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
Each hydraulic system consists of a hydraulic fluid reservoir, a manifold, one engine-driven pump, one electric motor-driven pump, one shutoff valve, one accumulator and a priority valve installed in the hydraulic system 1. RESERVOIR The hydraulic fluid stored in the reservoir is pressurized, to avoid pump cavitation. This pressurization function is performed by fluid drained from the pressure line. The reservoir is equipped with a quantity indicator which transmits information to the MFD and EICAS displays for indication and warning purposes. A thermal switch is responsible for the high temperature message, if the fluid temperature increases above 90C. SHUTOFF VALVE A shutoff valve is installed between the reservoir and the engine-driven pump. It cuts the hydraulic fluid supply to the engine-driven pump, if there is a fire on the related engine or in case of hydraulic fluid overheat. This valve may be closed either through the engine fire extinguishing handle or through a dedicated button on the overhead panel. ENGINE-DRIVEN PUMP The engine-driven pump provides continuous fluid flow at 3000 psi for operation of the various airplane hydraulically-powered systems. The pump is connected to the engine accessory gearbox and, as long as engine is running, it generates hydraulic pressure. During engine start, the fluid remaining in the suction line is sufficient to avoid pump cavitation and provide reservoir pressurization. ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN PUMP The electric motor-driven pump has the same connections as the engine-driven pump, but has a lower flow capacity. The pump normally operates in the automatic setting mode, turning on when the associated hydraulic pressure drops below 1600 psi or the associated engine N2 drops below 56.4%. If the pump starts operating in the automatic mode, it will be turned off after the pressure or N2 are reestablished to normal values. The electric pump may be turned on at pilot command, through the selector knob on the overhead panel, furnishing continuous fluid flow at 2900 psi.

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HYDRAULIC SYSTEM SCHEMATIC


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MANIFOLD The manifold provides the following functions: - Fluid filtering (pressure and return lines). - Overpressure relief (main and electrical pumps). - Pressure indications (main and electrical pumps). Fluid leaving the pump flows to the manifold, where it is filtered and then routed to the airplane systems. Inside the manifold, a check valve prevents the fluid from returning to the pump, while a relief valve diverts the excess fluid to the return line. The return line is supplied by the fluid coming from the airplane systems, fluid drained from the pump, fluid from the relief valve, and fluid refilled by the maintenance personnel. Under any situation the fluid is filtered and returned to the reservoir. The manifold incorporates two pressure switches to detect low hydraulic pressure, and a pressure transducer to indicate system pressure. Signals from the pressure switches and pressure transducer are sent to the MFD and EICAS displays. PRIORITY VALVE The hydraulic system 1 incorporates a priority valve. If the system is powered by the electric motor-driven pump and the landing gear is commanded to retract, the valve will provide minimum flow to the landing gear system and give priority to the flight control services. In this case, the landing gear will operate through the accumulator pressure. ACCUMULATOR Each hydraulic system has one accumulator. The function of the accumulator is to keep the surges of the hydraulic pumps at a minimum, and to keep a 3000 psi pressure available for operation of the landing gear and main door (system 1) or operation of the emergency parking brake (system 2).

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HYDRAULIC

EICAS MESSAGES
TYPE MESSAGE HYD SYS 1 (2) FAIL MEANING Associated hydraulic system is not pressurized (inhibited when the airplane is on the ground, engine is shut down and parking brake is applied). Associated hydraulic system fluid temperature is above 90C. Engine-driven pump is not generating pressure with associated engine running. Associated hydraulic shutoff valve is closed. Fluid level in the associated reservoir is below one liter. Report to the maintenance personnel if the hydraulic reservoir operates empty. Associated electric pump selected OFF with the parking brake released.

CAUTION HYD SYS 1 (2) OVHT

E1 (2) HYD PUMP FAIL

E1 (2) HYDSOV CLSD HYD1 (2) LO QTY ADVISORY

HYD PUMP SELEC OF

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CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


HYDRAULIC SYSTEM PANEL
1- ENGINE PUMP SHUTOFF BUTTON (guarded) Closes (pressed) or opens (released) the associated engine pump shutoff valve. A striped bar illuminates in the button to indicate that it is pressed. 2- ELECTRIC HYDRAULIC PUMP CONTROL KNOB OFF - Associated pump is turned off. AUTO - Associated pump is kept in standby mode, ready to operate if the engine-driven pump outlet pressure drops below 1600 psi or the associated engine N2 drops below 56.4%. ON - Associated pump is turned on.

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HYDRAULIC SYSTEM PANEL

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HYDRAULIC PAGE ON MFD


1- FLUID QUANTITY INDICATION Ranges from zero to maximum hydraulic fluid quantity. Scale (horizontal line) and pointer: green when greater than 1 liter. amber when equal to or less than 1 liter. Pointer disappears if data is invalid. 2- PRESSURE INDICATION Ranges from 0 to 4000 psi, with a resolution of 100 psi. Digits: green from 1300 to 3300 psi. amber and boxed below 1300 and above 3300 psi. Digits are replaced by amber dashes if data is invalid. 3- ELECTRIC PUMP STATUS Indicated by the green label ON or OFF.

HYDRAULIC PAGE ON MFD


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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

LANDING GEAR AND BRAKES

SECTION 2-12 LANDING GEAR AND BRAKES


TABLE OF CONTENTS Block Page General .............................................................................. 2-12-05 ..01 Air/Ground Indication System ............................................ 2-12-05 ..03 Landing Gear Operation..................................................... 2-12-05 ..04 Landing Gear Retraction ................................................ 2-12-05 ..04 Landing Gear Extension ................................................. 2-12-05 ..06 Landing Gear Warning ................................................... 2-12-05 ..08 EICAS Messages ........................................................... 2-12-05 ..09 Controls and Indicators................................................... 2-12-05 ..09 Brake System..................................................................... 2-12-10 ..01 Normal Brake System .................................................... 2-12-10 ..02 Emergency/Parking Brake System................................. 2-12-10 ..08 EICAS Messages ........................................................... 2-12-10 . 10 Controls and Indicators................................................... 2-12-10 . 10 Nose Wheel Steering System ............................................ 2-12-15 ..01 EICAS Messages ........................................................... 2-12-15 ..02 Controls and Indicators................................................... 2-12-15 ..04 EMB-135 BJ Minimum Turning Radii ............................. 2-12-15 ..07

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GENERAL
The EMB-135 BJ landing gear incorporates braking and steering capabilities. The extension/retraction, steering and braking functions are hydraulically assisted, electronically controlled and electronically monitored. EICAS indications and messages alert crew to system status and failures. Each landing gear is equipped with alternate means of actuation in case of normal actuation system failure.

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AIR/GROUND INDICATION SYSTEM


Air/ground indication is determined by a system that detects landing gear shock absorber compression and relays information to the landing gear electronic unit for gear control. The system consists of five weight-on-wheel proximity switches. Two of them are installed on each main landing gear leg and one on the nose landing gear leg. The Landing Gear Electronic Unit (LGEU) processes the main landing gear proximity switches signals information in four independent channels and controls various equipment operations. Logic processing includes the position signal and its validity. If all proximity switch signals are valid, four signals are processed to assure that at least three signals indicate identical status for releasing the air/ground signal output. Should one proximity switch signal be invalid, the logic will process the remaining three signals so that at least two indicate the same status. If a second proximity switch is invalid, the two remaining signals are processed only if both send the same signal. Disagreement between these two remaining proximity switches causes the Landing Gear Electronic Unit to de-energize the channels and provide a default output signal. The nose landing gear proximity switch signal is sent only to the thrust reverser logic (if installed) and steering control.

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LANDING GEAR OPERATION


Landing gear retraction and extension are powered by the hydraulic system 1. An accumulator prevents pressure fluctuations and assists gear retraction after takeoff. The main landing gear legs retract inboard, while the nose landing gear retracts forward. Each main gear leg is mechanically linked to its respective door, which remains open when the gear is down. The doors close automatically when the main landing gear is retracted. The nose landing gear doors are hydraulically actuated and operate in sequence with the nose gear. Gear retraction and extension are electrically commanded. If normal extension fails, the landing gear can be extended through an electrical override system. If the electrical override is not available, a free-fall system allows gear extension. Gear position is indicated on the EICAS display.

LANDING GEAR RETRACTION


Landing gear retraction is commanded through the Landing Gear Lever, installed on the main panel. Positioning the lever to the UP position signals the LGEU to command the Nose Gear Door Solenoid Valve and the Landing Gear Electrovalve. This allows pressure from the hydraulic system 1 to simultaneously reach landing gear and down unlock actuators. All gear legs are then retracted into their respective wheel wells. The LGEU logic only allows the nose gear doors to close after the nose landing gear is locked in the UP position. When the uplock boxes are actuated, the proximity switches signal the LGEU that the gear is up and locked and that the Landing Gear Electrovalve may be deenergized. Nose landing gear door actuators are kept pressurized, but the gear actuator lines are connected to the return.

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LANDING GEAR SCHEMATIC


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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

To preclude an inadvertent retraction command while on the ground, the air/ground system provides a signal to a solenoid inside the Landing Gear Lever. This locks the lever and prevents movement towards the UP position. For emergency purposes only, a lock release button is provided beside the lever, allowing this protection to be overriden.

LANDING GEAR EXTENSION


NORMAL EXTENSION Positioning the Landing Gear Lever to the DOWN position signals the LGEU to command the Landing Gear Electrovalve and the Nose Gear Doors Solenoid Valve. This allow pressure from the hydraulic system 1 to simultaneously reach the landing gear and door actuators, and also the up unlock actuators. When the gear legs reach the down position, the down lock boxes are actuated. The proximity switches signal the LGEU that the gear is down and locked and that the Landing Gear Electrovalve may be de-energized. ELECTRICAL OVERRIDE EXTENSION The Electrical Override system is used to extend the landing should there occur a normal landing gear extension failure. This system bypasses the LGEU and actuates directly the Landing Gear Electrovalve and the Nose Gear Doors Solenoid Valve. The control switch is installed inside the free-fall lever compartment, on the floor, beside the copilots seat. Extension through override is made in steps, first opening the doors and then extending the gear. When extension is completed, selecting the override switch to normal position deenergizes the Landing Gear Electrovalve and depressurizes all lines. The switch is safeguarded, being in the non-actuated position whenever the compartment door is closed.

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL FREE-FALL EXTENSION

LANDING GEAR AND BRAKES

Free-Fall extension is available in case of failure of both normal extension and electrical override extension. Actuation of free-fall landing gear extension is performed by pulling up the lever installed inside the free-fall lever compartment, on the floor, beside the copilots seat. This mechanically actuates the Free-Fall Selector Valve and unlocks the three landing gear legs uplocks. The Free-Fall Selector Valve isolates the hydraulic system pressure and connects the landing gear system hydraulic lines to the return. With the system unpressurized and the uplocks deactivated, all gear legs fall by gravity until they reach their downlock devices. If one main gear does not lock down, increase the aerodynamic drag by side slipping the aircraft to help lock the affected leg. Once actuated, the free-fall lever remains locked in the vertical position until mechanically released.

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

LANDING GEAR WARNING


A LANDING GEAR voice message is provided to alert pilots any time the airplane is in a landing configuration and the gear legs are not locked down. The warning may be activated under one of three conditions: 1. Radio Altitude below 1200 ft, Flap Selector Lever set below 22, one thrust lever set below 59 and the other thrust lever set below 45 (or the associated engine inoperative). NOTE: In case of Radio Altimeter loss, the message may be activated at any altitude, but may be canceled through the Landing Gear Warning Cutout Button. 2. Radio Altitude below 1200 ft, Flap Selector Lever between 22 and 45, one thrust lever set below 59 and the other thrust lever set below 45 (or the associated engine inoperative). NOTE: - The Voice message cannot be canceled. - In case of Radio Altimeter loss, the message may be activated at any altitude. 3. Flap Selector Lever set at 45. NOTE: The Voice message cannot be canceled.

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EICAS MESSAGES
TYPE WARNING LG AIR/GND FAIL CAUTION NLG UP/DOOR OPN (if applicable) MESSAGE LG/LEVER DISAGREE MEANING After 20 seconds of gear command, at least one landing gear is not in the selected position. LGEU failure or failure of two weight-on-wheel proximity switches. Nose LG is locked up and nose LG door is open.

CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


LANDING GEAR CONTROL BOX 1 - LANDING GEAR LEVER UP - Selects landing gear retraction. DOWN - Selects landing gear extension. 2 - DOWNLOCK RELEASE BUTTON Mechanically releases the lever lock, allowing the landing gear lever to be moved to the UP position when on the ground or in case it cannot be moved to the UP position after takeoff.

LANDING GEAR CONTROL BOX


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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

FREE-FALL LEVER COMPARTMENT 1 - FREE-FALL LEVER When pulled up, depressurizes the landing gear hydraulic line and releases all gear uplocks. The lever is kept at the actuated position by a mechanical lock. 2 - FREE-FALL LEVER UNLOCK BUTTON When pressed, unlocks the free-fall lever, allowing it to be returned to the normal position, thus restoring the hydraulic operation of the landing gear. 3 - ELECTRICAL OVERRIDE SWITCH (guarded) NORMAL - Landing gear retraction and extension are automatically performed and controlled by the Landing Gear Electronic Unit. DOORS - Opens the nose landing gear doors. GEAR/DOORS - Extends the landing gear.

FREE-FALL LEVER COMPARTMENT


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LANDING GEAR AND BRAKES

LANDING GEAR WARNING CUTOUT BUTTON (guarded) When pressed, this button cancels the landing gear warning voice message if the Radio Altimeter is inoperative. An amber indication bar illuminates inside the button and remains illuminated to indicate that a cancel action was performed. The amber indication bar extinguishes if the Thrust Levers are advanced or Flap Selector Lever is set above 22 or landing gear is down and locked.

LANDING GEAR WARNING CUTOUT BUTTON

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

GLARESHIELD PANEL 1 - NOSE LANDING GEAR DOORS INDICATION LIGHT (if installed) Illuminates to indicate that the nose landing gear is locked in the retracted position and at least one door is not closed.

GLARESHIELD PANEL

EICAS INDICATIONS 1 - LANDING GEAR POSITION Position is indicated by three boxes, one for each gear. Landing gear down and locked is indicated by a green DN label inside a green box. Landing gear in transit is indicated when the box is crosshatched in amber and black. Landing gear up and locked is indicated by a white UP label inside a white box. Landing gear lever disagreement (landing gear is not in the selected position after 20 seconds) is indicated by a box crosshatched in red and back or by a red label (UP or DN) inside a red box. Indication of landing gear downlocked is also presented on the RMU through the green LG DOWN LOCKED legend.
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LANDING GEAR POSITION INDICATION ON EICAS


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LANDING GEAR INDICATIONS

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LANDING GEAR AND BRAKES

BRAKE SYSTEM
The braking system consists of the normal brake system, emergency/parking brake system, and gear-retracting-in-flight braking. The normal brake system is supplied by hydraulic systems 1 and 2. It is electronically commanded and monitored. The emergency/parking brake system is supplied only by hydraulic system 2 and is mechanically actuated. Normal braking is controlled by the pedals. Emergency braking is controlled by the emergency/parking brake handle. Gear-retracting-in-flight braking is controlled by both hydraulic systems and by a mechanical stop within the nose gear wheel well. This braking is electronically commanded and monitored. Braking through the pedals incorporates some protections not available when using the emergency brake handle. Brake temperature is shown on the MFD Hydraulic Page.

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

NORMAL BRAKE SYSTEM


Normal brake system is operated by rudder pedal inputs. The brakes are powered by two independent hydraulic systems. It is controlled and monitored by the Brake Control Unit (BCU). The BCU receives signals from the pedal position transducers and commands the four Brake Control Valves (BCV) to modulate required pressure to the wheel brakes. BCVs 1 and 4 control the hydraulic pressure from system 1 to the outboard wheels. BCVs 2 and 3 control the hydraulic pressure from system 2 to the inboard wheels. Pressure and wheel speed transducers send signals to the BCU so that it can monitor brake performance and send the appropriate signals to the crew alerting system and other systems. The BCU also receives signals from the landing gear position and condition, air/ground situation, and hydraulic system status. The system displays messages on the EICAS to indicate a failure in one pair of brakes or a failure in a single wheel brake (brake degraded performance). In the event of brake system failure, the BCU will shut down the affected hydraulic system through the shutoff valves. The shutoff valves are energized whenever the landing gear is extended and de-energized after landing gear retraction. Protective functions controlled by the normal braking system include anti-skid protection, locked wheel protection, and touch-down protection.

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BRAKE SYSTEM SCHEMATIC

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LANDING GEAR AND BRAKES

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

ANTI-SKID PROTECTION The anti-skid protection controls the amount of hydraulic pressure applied by the pilots on the brakes. The anti-skid provides the maximum allowable braking effort for the runaway surface in use. It minimizes tire wear, optimizes braking distance, and prevents skidding. To perform this function, the BCU computes the wheel speed signals from the four speed transducers. If one signals falls below the wheel speed average, a skid is probably occurring, and braking pressure is relieved on that side. After that wheel speed has returned to the average speed, normal braking operation is restored. The anti-skid does not apply pressure on the brakes, but only relieves it. So, to perform a differential braking technique, the pilot should reduce pressure on the side opposite to the turn, instead of applying pressure to the desired side. The anti-skid system incorporates the locked wheel protection and touchdown protection features. LOCKED WHEEL PROTECTION Locked wheel protection is activated for wheel speeds above 30 kt. It compares wheel speeds signals. If one wheel speed is 30% lower than that of another, a full brake pressure relief is commanded to the associated wheel, allowing wheel speed recovery. The 30% tolerance between the wheel speeds is provided to permit an amount of differential braking, for steering purposes. For wheel speeds below 30 kt, the locked wheel protection is deactivated and the brake system actuates without the wheel speed comparator. For wheel speeds below 10 kt, the anti-skid protection is deactivated, allowing the pilot to lock and pivot on a wheel.

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2-12-10

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NOVEMBER 30, 2001

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

LANDING GEAR AND BRAKES

DIFFERENTIAL BRAKING TECHNIQUE

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NOVEMBER 30, 2001

2-12-10

5 01

LANDING GEAR AND BRAKES

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

TOUCHDOWN PROTECTION The touchdown protection system inhibits brake actuation before the main wheels spin up during landing. Brake actuation will be allowed only after 3 seconds from the latest touchdown or after the wheels have spun-up to 50 kt. In bouncing landings, the countdown is reset after each runway contact. Touchdown protection is provided by the brake system receiving signals from main landing gear weight-on-wheel proximity switches. If one landing gear proximity switch fails at the air position, the brake system will operate normally. However, if both proximity switches fail at the air position, braking capacity will be available only for wheel speeds above 10 kt. Below 10 kt, a loss of the main brake capacity will occur, but emergency braking is still available. GEAR-RETRACTING-IN-FLIGHT BRAKING Gear-retracting-in-flight braking prevents the landing gear from being retracted when the wheels are turning. This system computes signals from the air/ground indicating system and from the landing gear lever position. As soon as the airplane is airborne and the gears are commanded to retract, it applies braking pressure to the main wheels. The nose wheels are braked by a stop within the nose landing gear wheel well.

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

LANDING GEAR AND BRAKES

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7 01

LANDING GEAR AND BRAKES

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

EMERGENCY/PARKING BRAKE SYSTEM


The emergency/parking brake system is used when parking airplane or when the normal braking system has failed. emergency/parking brake system is mechanically commanded hydraulically actuated. It is totally independent of the BCU, so it none of the normal braking system protections. the The and has

The emergency/parking brake is controlled through a handle located on the left side of the control pedestal. This modulates the Emergency/Parking Brake Valve. When the Emergency/Parking Brake Valve is actuated, hydraulic pressure coming from a dedicated accumulator is equally applied to the four main landing gear brakes. Braking capacity is proportional to the handle displacement. A BRAKE ON indicating light illuminates to indicate that pressure is being applied to the wheel brakes. A locking device allows the handle to be held in the actuated position, for parking purposes. The accumulator is supplied by hydraulic system 2. A caution message is displayed on the EICAS in case of accumulator hydraulic low pressure. After the message is displayed, if no leakage exists, at least one full emergency/parking brake application is available. If overpressure occurs due to overheating, a thermal relief valve allows hydraulic system communication with the return. A refilling connection is provided to allow pressurization of the accumulator. The accumulator allows 6 complete emergency actuation or at least 24 hours of parking brake actuation. NOTE: To prevent transfer of hydraulic fluid from one system to the other, normal braking should be applied and held while the parking brake is fully applied or released.

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2-12-10

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

LANDING GEAR AND BRAKES

EMERGENCY/PARKING BRAKE SYSTEM SCHEMATIC

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ORIGINAL

2-12-10

9 01

LANDING GEAR AND BRAKES

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

EICAS MESSAGES
TYPE MESSAGE EMRG BRK LO PRES MEANING Emergency/parking brake accumulator presents a low pressure condition. BRK OUTBD (INBD) INOP Outboard and/or inboard pair of brakes is inoperative. BRAKE OVERHEAT Any brake temperature has exceeded 420C.(*) BRAKE DEGRADED Total or partial loss of braking capability of one outboard wheel (1 or 4) and/or one inboard wheel (2 or 3), or internal BCU failure.

CAUTION

NOTE: (*) For EMB-135BJ airplanes equipped with LR brakes, the brake overheat set point is 450C.

CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


MAIN PANEL/RAMP PANEL 1 - BRAKE ON LIGHT Illuminates when emergency/parking brake is applied.

BRAKE ON LIGHT
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2-12-10

10 01

REVISION 7

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL CONTROL PEDESTAL

LANDING GEAR AND BRAKES

1 - EMERGENCY/PARKING BRAKE HANDLE Actuates the emergency/parking brake valve. Pull the handle and rotate to lock in the fully-actuated position.

EMERGENCY/PARKING BRAKE HANDLE

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ORIGINAL

2-12-10

11 01

LANDING GEAR AND BRAKES

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

MFD INDICATIONS 1 - BRAKE TEMPERATURE INDICATION Temperature is indicated by two vertical bars (one for each main landing gear) and four pointers (one for each brake). The scale ranges from 0 to 500C. The scale and pointer are green when temperature is below 200C, and amber when equal or greater than 200C. The temperature indication pointer is removed from the display in case of loss of temperature sensor signal. NOTE: For EMB-135BJ airplanes equipped with LR brakes, the scale and pointer are green when temperature is below 250C, and amber when equal or greater than 250C.

BRAKE TEMPERATURE INDICATION

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2-12-10

12 01

REVISION 7

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

LANDING GEAR AND BRAKES

NOSE WHEEL STEERING SYSTEM


The nose wheel steering system is electronically controlled and hydraulically operated. It is powered by the hydraulic system 1. The Electronic Control Module is energized when the landing gear is down and locked, with the airplane on ground. In this condition, steering can be controlled by either the pedals or the steering handle. In either case, the commanded displacement is measured by a potentiometer box, which transmits the signal to the Electronic Control Module. The Electronic Control Module signals the hydraulic manifold to pressurize the steering actuator in the commanded direction. For monitoring purpose, a feedback potentiometer in the nose landing gear leg transmits nose wheel displacement information to the Electronic Control Module. Maximum nose wheel displacement values due to actuation of the steering handle and pedals are presented in the table below in degrees:
PEDALS ONLY STEERING HANDLE ONLY HANDLE AND PEDALS

CERTIFICATION

CTA/JAA/FAA

71

76

NOTE: Steering handle actuation with nose wheels beyond their operational limits may cause damage to the nose wheel steering system. Check if the nose wheel position indication mark is within the nose wheel position indication scale limits. A position sensor set to 7 disengages the system if the nose wheel is rotated above this limit by using the rudder pedals. To reengage the system, resume command through the handle.

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REVISION 1

2-12-15

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LANDING GEAR AND BRAKES

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

The steering system may be manually disengaged through switches located on the pilots' control wheels. Automatic system disablement occurs as soon as the airplane is airborne. Nose wheel centering with the nose gear shock absorber extension is provided by a cam. The nose wheel is also centered by caster effect whenever the system is disengaged. If the Electronic Control Module detects a failure, the EICAS is signaled to present a caution message. In these cases, for airplanes Post-Mod. SB 145LEG-32-0020 or with an equivalent modification factory incorporated, the tiller commands will be inhibited if ground speed is above 25 kt. Optionally, some airplanes are equipped with an external Steering Disengagement Switch which allows ground personnel to disengage steering prior to towing operations. The switch actuates directly on the steering system, shutting its power down. The disengagement switch inhibits the steering actuation commanded by the steering handle and the rudder pedals. A caution message is displayed on the EICAS whenever the steering system is disengaged by the external switch. Steering Disengagement Switch is installed in an compartment on the left front fuselage.

EICAS MESSAGES
TYPE CAUTION MESSAGE STEER INOP MEANING Steering system is inoperative. Message is presented only on ground.

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2-12-15

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REVISION 7

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

LANDING GEAR AND BRAKES

NOSE WHEEL STEERING SCHEMATIC

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NOVEMBER 30, 2001

2-12-15

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LANDING GEAR AND BRAKES

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


STEERING DISENGAGEMENT SWITH (guarded) ENGAGED - Allows normal steering system operation. DISENGAGED - Disables steering system operation.

145AOM2120017.MCE

STEERING DISENGAGEMENT SWITCH COMPARTMENT

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2-12-15

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NOVEMBER 30, 2001

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL PILOT'S CONSOLE

LANDING GEAR AND BRAKES

1 - STEERING HANDLE Commands nose wheel steering, allowing 71 deflection to either side. Push the handle down (step 1) to enable the command or to reset the steering system after disconnection. Then rotate left or right (step 2) to command steering.

STEERING HANDLE

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LANDING GEAR AND BRAKES

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

CONTROL WHEEL 1 - STEERING DISENGAGE BUTTON When pressed disengages the nose wheel steering system.

STEERING DISENGAGE BUTTON

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2-12-15

6 01

NOVEMBER 30, 2001

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

LANDING GEAR AND BRAKES

EMB-135 BJ MINIMUM TURNING RADII

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NOVEMBER 30, 2001

2-12-15

7 01

LANDING GEAR AND BRAKES

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

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2-12-15

8 01

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AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

LIGHTING

SECTION 2-06 LIGHTING


TABLE OF CONTENTS Block Page General .............................................................................. 2-06-05 ..01 Cockpit Lighting.................................................................. 2-06-05 ..02 Controls and Indicators................................................... 2-06-05 ..04 Passenger Cabin Lighting .................................................. 2-06-10 ..01 Sterile Light (Optional).................................................... 2-06-10 ..03 Courtesy and Stairs Lighting .......................................... 2-06-10 ..03 Controls and Indicators................................................... 2-06-10 ..04 External Lighting ................................................................ 2-06-15 ..01 Service Compartments Lighting ..................................... 2-06-15 ..05 Baggage Compartment Lighting..................................... 2-06-15 ..05 Controls and Indicators................................................... 2-06-15 ..06 Emergency Lighting ........................................................... 2-06-20 ..01 EICAS Messages ........................................................... 2-06-20 ..04 Controls and Indicators................................................... 2-06-20 ..04 Galley Emergency Lights Control Panel ......................... 2-06-20 ..06

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JUNE 20, 2002

2-06-00

1 01

LIGHTING

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

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JUNE 20, 2002

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

LIGHTING

GENERAL
This airplane is equipped with a lighting system in order to illuminate all essential parts located inside and outside of the fuselage and to assure a proper and safe operation of the airplane. The cockpit is illuminated by dome, chart, fluorescent/flood and reading lights. The passenger cabin lighting is provided by the upward and downward fluorescent lights installed in the left and right valance panels, passenger reading lights, lavatory lights and galley lights. External lighting consists of navigation, anticollision (strobe and red beacon), landing, taxi, inspection and logotype lights. Emergency lights are provided inside and outside the airplane to assure, for the crewmembers and passengers, a safe night evacuation, under emergency condition. The system also provides lighting for baggage and service compartments.

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JUNE 20, 2002

2-06-05

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LIGHTING

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

COCKPIT LIGHTING
The lighting system inside the cockpit is composed of five different types of lights, which are as follows: - Dome lights. - Reading lights. - Chart lights. - Fluorescent flood/storm light. - Instruments and panels lights. DOME LIGHTS Cockpit illumination is provided by two dome lights of fixed intensity, commanded by a switch on the overhead panel. One light is located above the pilots seat and the other is located above the copilots seat. READING LIGHTS In order to provide adequate light distribution for the reading of maps, check lists and manuals there are three reading lights inside the cockpit, one for the pilot, a second for the copilot and a third for the observer. By rotating the inner bezel of each of these three light installations, lighting intensity can be adjusted from off to full bright according to crew preference. The aperture or size of the light pattern is independently adjustable from a small to a large square pattern by rotating the outer bezel. CHART LIGHTS Chart lights are provided to illuminate the chart holders located at the pilots and copilots control wheel. The chart light is turned on when the chart holder assembly is lifted. Light intensity is controlled by potentiometer knobs located on each side of the glareshield panel and may be selected from dim to full bright. FLUORESCENT FLOOD/STORM LIGHT (OPTIONAL) Three flood/storm lights provide a proper lighting level in the cockpit and assures instrument readability when the ambient lighting is too intense with lightning flashes. The lights are located under the glareshield panel, two for the pilots and central side and the other for the copilots side. Light intensity is controlled by potentiometer knobs located on each side of the glareshield panel and may be selected from off to full bright.

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2-06-05

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JUNE 20, 2002

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

LIGHTING

INSTRUMENTS AND PANELS LIGHTS The instrument and control panel lights system provides lighting for instruments, control panels, and pushbuttons. Light intensity is controlled by potentiometer knobs located on each side of the glareshield panel and on the overhead panel.

COCKPIT LIGHTING
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JUNE 20, 2002

2-06-05

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LIGHTING

AIRPLANE OPERATIONS MANUAL

CONTROLS AND INDICATORS


GLARESHIELD PANEL 1 - FLOODLIGHT CONTROL KNOBS Turn on/off and regulate the brightness of flood lighting. Pilots knob controls pilots panel, center panel and control pedestal. Copilots Knob controls copilots panel. 2 - CHART HOLDER LIGHTING CONTROL KNOBS Regulate the brightness of associated chart holder lighting. NOTE: Chart light is turned on when the chart holder assembly is lifted. 3 - DISPLAYS LIGHTING CONTROL KNOBS Regulate the brightness of Electronic Display. Pilots knobs control pilots PFD and MFD. Copilots knobs control EICAS and copilots PFD and MFD. 4 - PANEL LIGHTING CONTROL KNOBS Turn on/off and regulate the brightness of panels lighting. Pilots knobs control pilots pane